WorldWideScience

Sample records for understood field sites

  1. The Table Mountain Field Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Table Mountain Field Site, located north of Boulder, Colorado, is designated as an area where the magnitude of strong, external signals is restricted (by State...

  2. A description of LUSTRA's common field sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berggren, Dan; Bergkvist, Bo; Johansson, Maj-Britt; Melkerud, Per-Arne; Nilsson, Aake; Olsson, Mats; Langvall, Ola; Majdi, Hooshang; Weslien, Per

    2004-01-01

    arena, and thus LUSTRA has gradually put more focus on the Kyoto process. LUSTRA was evaluated during spring 2002 and the general overall statement was that 'The ambitious goals of the LUSTRA program are very good and seem to be well understood by the participating researchers. However, for a second phase a focus on synthesis and synergy is recommended'. In LUSTRA we are performing integrated research on C fluxes at three common field sites (CFS) situated in a south-north transect in Sweden: Asa, Knottaasen and Flakaliden. Measurements started summer 2000. The intention was to establish a climate gradient through Sweden but keep other environmental parameters rather similar. Also within each site the ambition was to get a hydrological gradient going from dry, over mesic to moist conditions, i.e. from deep lying ground water level to shallow groundwater. According to the advises by the reviewers of LUSTRA phase 1, more focus will be on syntheses during LUSTRA phase 2 (2003-2006). However, measurements at the CFS will be continued during 2003 and 2004. The objectives of this paper are (i) to give a general description of the sites, (ii) to describe the abiotic measurements made at the different sites, including the data base, (iii) to describe the methods used to obtain background information about soils and vegetation (C pools and fluxes) and (iv) to present the background information about soils and vegetation

  3. RF fields at broadcast transmitting sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatfold, G.E.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of broadcasting is to radiate information over large areas to randomly located receivers which may be mobile and use inefficient antennas. Quite high powers must therefore be radiated to provide reliable services, giving rise to RF fields which can exceed the Maximum Exposure Limits (MEL) given in AS 2772-1985 when close to the transmitting antennas. Measurements commenced in the early 60's have been expanded over the past 2 years and moved towards measuring all national broadcasting sites (over 400) and services (over 700). Field levels measured are summarised below

  4. WIPP site and vicinity geological field trip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaturvedi, L.

    1980-10-01

    The Environmental Evaluation Group is conducting an assessment of the radiological health risks to people from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. As a part of this work, EEG is making an effort to improve the understanding of those geological issues concerning the WIPP site which may affect the radiological consequences of the proposed repository. One of the important geological issues to be resolved is the timing and the nature of the dissolution processes which may have affected the WIPP site. EEG organized a two-day conference of geological scientists, on January 17-18, 1980. On the basis of the January conference and the June field trip, EEG has formed the following conclusions: (1) it has not been clearly established that the site or the surrounding area has been attacked by deep dissolution to render it unsuitable for the nuclear waste pilot repository; (2) the existence of an isolated breccia pipe at the site unaccompanied by a deep dissolution wedge, is a very remote possibility; (3) more specific information about the origin and the nature of the brine reservoirs is needed. An important question that should be resolved is whether each encounter with artesian brine represents a separate pocket or whether these occurrences are interconnected; (4) Anderson has postulated a major tectonic fault or a fracture system at the Basin margin along the San Simon Swale; (5) the area in the northern part of the WIPP site, identified from geophysical and bore hole data as the disturbed zone, should be further investigated to cleary understand the nature and significance of this structural anomaly; and (6) a major drawback encountered during the discussions of geological issues related to the WIPP site is the absence of published material that brings together all the known information related to a particular issue

  5. Need for more TB vaccine field sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McShane, Helen

    2009-06-01

    Efforts to control the tuberculosis (TB) epidemic have been challenged by both the geographical overlap with the HIV pandemic, and the emergence of multi - and extensively - drug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. There is, therefore, an urgent global need for an improved vaccine. However, the development of an improved vaccine is scientifically and logistically challenging. Immunological correlates or biomarkers of protection are not known and there is no perfect preclinical animal model with which to predict success in humans. Indeed, vaccine development in general is time-consuming and costly. One of the many road-blocks to the development of new TB vaccines is the availability of field sites that are suitable for large scale Phase IIb/III efficacy testing. Because disease incidence is low, even though prevalence is high, Phase IIb efficacy trials involve several thousand subjects, and require lengthy follow-up. Phase III licensure trials will need to be even larger, and are likely to require the involvement of multiple field sites. There is currently inadequate capacity within high-burden TB countries to conduct these essential trials. We need to invest now to expand current capacity if we are to reduce the time taken to develop new vaccines.

  6. Poorly Understood Aspects of Striated Muscle Contraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alf Månsson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Muscle contraction results from cyclic interactions between the contractile proteins myosin and actin, driven by the turnover of adenosine triphosphate (ATP. Despite intense studies, several molecular events in the contraction process are poorly understood, including the relationship between force-generation and phosphate-release in the ATP-turnover. Different aspects of the force-generating transition are reflected in the changes in tension development by muscle cells, myofibrils and single molecules upon changes in temperature, altered phosphate concentration, or length perturbations. It has been notoriously difficult to explain all these events within a given theoretical framework and to unequivocally correlate observed events with the atomic structures of the myosin motor. Other incompletely understood issues include the role of the two heads of myosin II and structural changes in the actin filaments as well as the importance of the three-dimensional order. We here review these issues in relation to controversies regarding basic physiological properties of striated muscle. We also briefly consider actomyosin mutation effects in cardiac and skeletal muscle function and the possibility to treat these defects by drugs.

  7. BIOREMEDIATION FIELD INITIATIVE SITE PROFILE: ESCAMBIA WOOD PRESERVING SITE - BROOKHAVEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Escambia Wood Preserving Site—Brookhaven in Brookhaven, Mississippi, is a former wood preserving facility that used pentachlo- rophenol (PCP) and creosote to treat wooden poles. The site contains two pressure treatment cylinders, a wastewater treatment system, five bulk pr...

  8. the agincourt field site - evolution and current status

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To describe the evolution and current status of the. Agincourt field site ... system. S AfrMed J1999; 89: 853-858. Field sites have been an important part of public health teaching, research and practice since C C Chen's impressive efforts at the Beijing ..... registration has produced a vacuum in monitoring demographic and ...

  9. On-site cell field test support program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staniunas, J. W.; Merten, G. P.

    1982-09-01

    Utility sites for data monitoring were reviewed and selected. Each of these sites will be instrumented and its energy requirements monitored and analyzed for one year prior to the selection of 40 Kilowatt fuel cell field test sites. Analyses in support of the selection of sites for instrumentation shows that many building sectors offered considerable market potential. These sectors include nursing home, health club, restaurant, industrial, hotel/motel and apartment.

  10. EIS Field Investigation in an Archaeological Site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel

    2000-01-01

    and metal objects. The area has been anaerobic and the corrosion rate has been very low for the metal objects to be preserved for so long, but it is now a major concern, whether the artefacts will further on be preserved in the area or will now corrode away. The National Museum is now monitoring...... measurements, electrical resistance corrosion rate measurements and weight loss data from the initial 15 months exposure will be presented and discussed as well as some practical aspects of field monitoring....

  11. Global and site specific multimedia (field) studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cutshall, N.H.; Guerin, M.R.

    1987-01-01

    Experience with radioactive fallout, with organic contaminants and with heavy metals has amply demonstrated that cross-media transfers are common and that understanding the transport, cycling, and fate of these contaminants requires a multimedia approach. Nonetheless, pollutants with similar physical and chemical attributes may follow markedly different pathways. The frequency of exceptions to predictions based on simplistic models is also sufficient to show that direct investigation of environmental contamination is essential to confirm validity of models used for conceptualizing a problem or for control. Modeling based on multimedia premises and regulatory controls that encompass multimedia considerations are challenged by a dilemma, however. First, the development of multimedia models or regulatory frameworks represents simplification and generalization. This is true for several reasons: (1) inadequate understanding of physical and environmental factors which control specific cross-media transfer; (2) the absence of specific data on certain multimedia pollutant concentrations; (3) even the most powerful computers do not have sufficient speed and capacity to deal with the known complexities of natural systems. On the other hand, for contaminants such as mercury, it may be necessary to include great detail; the overall distribution in the environment may be less important than the rate of some minor process. With sufficient experience and good judgment of what can be ignored, the simplifications and generalizations can be made. For the present, and for the foreseeable future, however, they absolutely must be accompanied by thorough field validation and monitoring.

  12. Global and site specific multimedia (field) studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutshall, N.H.; Guerin, M.R.

    1987-01-01

    Experience with radioactive fallout, with organic contaminants and with heavy metals has amply demonstrated that cross-media transfers are common and that understanding the transport, cycling, and fate of these contaminants requires a multimedia approach. Nonetheless, pollutants with similar physical and chemical attributes may follow markedly different pathways. The frequency of exceptions to predictions based on simplistic models is also sufficient to show that direct investigation of environmental contamination is essential to confirm validity of models used for conceptualizing a problem or for control. Modeling based on multimedia premises and regulatory controls that encompass multimedia considerations are challenged by a dilemma, however. First, the development of multimedia models or regulatory frameworks represents simplification and generalization. This is true for several reasons: (1) inadequate understanding of physical and environmental factors which control specific cross-media transfer; (2) the absence of specific data on certain multimedia pollutant concentrations; (3) even the most powerful computers do not have sufficient speed and capacity to deal with the known complexities of natural systems. On the other hand, for contaminants such as mercury, it may be necessary to include great detail; the overall distribution in the environment may be less important than the rate of some minor process. With sufficient experience and good judgment of what can be ignored, the simplifications and generalizations can be made. For the present, and for the foreseeable future, however, they absolutely must be accompanied by thorough field validation and monitoring

  13. Field site selection: getting it right first time around

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malcolm, Colin A.; El Sayed, Badria; Babiker, Ahmed; Girod, Romain; Fontenille, Didier; Knols, Bart G. J.; Nugud, Abdel Hameed; Benedict, Mark Q.

    2009-01-01

    The selection of suitable field sites for integrated control of Anopheles mosquitoes using the sterile insect technique (SIT) requires consideration of the full gamut of factors facing most proposed control strategies, but four criteria identify an ideal site: 1) a single malaria vector, 2) an

  14. A field guide for well site geologists: Cable tool drilling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Last, G.V.; Liikala, T.L.

    1987-12-01

    This field is intended for use by Pacific Northwest Laboratory well site geologists who are responsible for data collection during the drilling and construction of monitoring wells on the Hanford Site. This guide presents standardized methods for geologic sample collection and description, and well construction documentation. 5 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  15. Designing a Marketing Course with Field Site Visits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Doren, Doris; Corrigan, Hope Bober

    2008-01-01

    A key goal of including field site visits in marketing courses is to give business students increased interaction with industry professionals and community leaders. Site visits give students a concrete idea of how different marketing disciplines work in the business world. Business students gain greater insight into a career in marketing from this…

  16. Field site selection: getting it right first time around

    OpenAIRE

    Knols Bart GJ; Fontenille Didier; Girod Romain; Babiker Ahmed; Malcolm Colin A; El Sayed Badria; Nugud Abdel; Benedict Mark Q

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The selection of suitable field sites for integrated control of Anopheles mosquitoes using the sterile insect technique (SIT) requires consideration of the full gamut of factors facing most proposed control strategies, but four criteria identify an ideal site: 1) a single malaria vector, 2) an unstructured, relatively low density target population, 3) isolation of the target population and 4) actual or potential malaria incidence. Such a site can exist in a diverse range of situation...

  17. Site study plan for cultural resources, Deaf Smith County site, Texas: Environmental Field Program: Preliminary draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-06-01

    The Cultural Resources Site Study Plan describes a field program to identify and evaluate the archaeological, historical, and Native American Indian resources of the site on local and regional perspectives; monitor and manage discovered cultural resources; and establish a worker education program. The archaeological field program consists of three pedestrian surveys: Survey 1 includes two EDBH seismic survey lines and the area within the exploratory shaft facility (ESF); Survey 2 includes the remainder of the site plus a 1/4 to 3/4-mi border area; and Survey 3 includes an assortment of offsite areas. The historical studies will identify and evaluate known and discovered historical sites and structures and the Native American Indian will identify and evaluate cultural and religious concerns expressed by Indian tribal groups. Prehistoric and historic sites will be evaluated to determine if they meet eligibility criteria for listing on the National Register of Historic Places. This site study plan describes the need for each study; its design and design rationale; analysis, management, and use of data; schedule of field activities; organization of field personnel and sample management; and quality assurance requirements. The cultural resource studies will provide data for satisfying the Programmatic Agreement, engineering design needs, and SRP requirements for permits and approvals, and for minimizing effects to any cultural properties discovered during site characterization. 75 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs

  18. Use of Field Research Sites to Teach Field Techniques in Graduate Level Soil Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassel, D. K.

    1986-01-01

    Describes how a field research site provides grauduate soil physics students with practical field-oriented experiences. Explains the structure of the course and the nature of the course's investigations. Assesses the advantages and obstacles associated with the field research technique. (ML)

  19. Reflections on Museums as Effective Field Sites for Teacher Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Megan; Ensminger, David; Incandela, Colleen; Moisan, Heidi

    2016-01-01

    A unique partnership among six museums and Loyola University Chicago's "Teaching Learning and Leading with Schools and Communities" teacher preparation program provided cross-disciplinary field sites for understanding and witnessing developmental and learning theories. Pre-service teacher candidates were able to identify constructs and…

  20. Multi-Sited Ethnography and the Field of Educational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierides, Dean

    2010-01-01

    This paper responds to the challenge of how educational research might be practised in a contemporary world that is no longer necessarily organised by nearness and unity. Focusing on ethnography, it argues for what a multi-sited imaginary contributes to research in the field of education. By giving prominence to the notion of multi-sited…

  1. Field site selection: getting it right first time around

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knols Bart GJ

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The selection of suitable field sites for integrated control of Anopheles mosquitoes using the sterile insect technique (SIT requires consideration of the full gamut of factors facing most proposed control strategies, but four criteria identify an ideal site: 1 a single malaria vector, 2 an unstructured, relatively low density target population, 3 isolation of the target population and 4 actual or potential malaria incidence. Such a site can exist in a diverse range of situations or can be created. Two contrasting SIT field sites are examined here: the desert-flanked Dongola Reach of the Nile River in Northern State, Sudan, where malaria is endemic, and the island of La Reunion, where autochthonous malaria is rare but risk is persistent. The single malaria-transmitting vector at both sites is Anopheles arabiensis. In Sudan, the target area is a narrow 500 km corridor stretching from the rocky terrain at the Fourth Cataract - just above the new Merowe Dam, to the northernmost edge of the species range, close to Egypt. Vector distribution and temporal changes in density depend on the Nile level, ambient temperature and human activities. On La Reunion, the An. arabiensis population is coastal, limited and divided into three areas by altitude and exposure to the trade winds on the east coast. Mosquito vectors for other diseases are an issue at both sites, but of primary importance on La Reunion due to the recent chikungunya epidemic. The similarities and differences between these two sites in terms of suitability are discussed in the context of area-wide integrated vector management incorporating the SIT.

  2. Field site selection: getting it right first time around.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcolm, Colin A; El Sayed, Badria; Babiker, Ahmed; Girod, Romain; Fontenille, Didier; Knols, Bart G J; Nugud, Abdel Hameed; Benedict, Mark Q

    2009-11-16

    The selection of suitable field sites for integrated control of Anopheles mosquitoes using the sterile insect technique (SIT) requires consideration of the full gamut of factors facing most proposed control strategies, but four criteria identify an ideal site: 1) a single malaria vector, 2) an unstructured, relatively low density target population, 3) isolation of the target population and 4) actual or potential malaria incidence. Such a site can exist in a diverse range of situations or can be created. Two contrasting SIT field sites are examined here: the desert-flanked Dongola Reach of the Nile River in Northern State, Sudan, where malaria is endemic, and the island of La Reunion, where autochthonous malaria is rare but risk is persistent. The single malaria-transmitting vector at both sites is Anopheles arabiensis. In Sudan, the target area is a narrow 500 km corridor stretching from the rocky terrain at the Fourth Cataract--just above the new Merowe Dam, to the northernmost edge of the species range, close to Egypt. Vector distribution and temporal changes in density depend on the Nile level, ambient temperature and human activities. On La Reunion, the An. arabiensis population is coastal, limited and divided into three areas by altitude and exposure to the trade winds on the east coast. Mosquito vectors for other diseases are an issue at both sites, but of primary importance on La Reunion due to the recent chikungunya epidemic. The similarities and differences between these two sites in terms of suitability are discussed in the context of area-wide integrated vector management incorporating the SIT.

  3. Rocketdyne division annual site environmental report, Santa Susana Field Laboratory and De Soto Sites, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1993-12-14

    This annual report discusses environmental monitoring at two manufacturing and test operations sites operated in the Los Angeles area by the Rocketdyne Division of Rockwell International Corporation. These are identified as the Santa Susana Field Laboratory (SSFL) and the De Soto site. These sites have been used for manufacturing, R&D, engineering, and testing in a broad range of technical fields, primarily rocket engine propulsion and nuclear reactor technology. The De Soto site is essentially light industry with some laboratory-scale R&D and has little potential impact on the environment. The SSFL site, because of its large size (2,668 acres), warranted comprehensive monitoring to assure protection of the environment. The purpose of this report is to present information on environmental and effluent monitoring primarily for the regulatory agencies involved in controlling environmental remediation, i.e., the U.S. DOE, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and the California State Department of Health Services (DHS) Radiologic Health Branch (RHB). For that reason, information concentrates on Area IV at SSFL as this is the site of the former nuclear operations. While the major area of interest is radiological, this report also includes a discussion of nonradiological monitoring at SSFL.

  4. Rocketdyne division annual site environmental report, Santa Susana Field Laboratory and De Soto Site, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1992-12-03

    This annual report discusses environmental monitoring at two manufacturing and test operations sites operated in the Los Angeles area by the Rocketdyne Division of Rockwell International Corporation. These are identified as the Santa Susana Field Laboratory (SSFL) and the De Soto site. These sites have been used for manufacturing, R&D, engineering, and testing in a broad range of technical fields, primarily rocket engine propulsion and nuclear reactor technology. The De Soto site is essentially light industry with some laboratory-scale R&D and has little potential impact on the environment. The SSFL site, because of its large size (2.668 acres), warranted comprehensive monitoring to assure protection of the environment. The purpose of this report is to present information on environmental and effluent monitoring primarily for the regulatory agencies involved in controlling operations with nuclear fuel or nuclear reactors. i.e., the U.S. DOE and the California State Department of Health Services (DHS). Radiologic Health Branch (RHB). For that reason. information concentrates on Area IV at SSFL as this is the site of the former nuclear operations. While the major area of interest is radiological, this report also includes a discussion of nonradiological monitoring at SSFL.

  5. Rocketdyne division annual site environmental report, Santa Susana Field Laboratory and De Soto Sites, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    1994-10-21

    This annual report discusses environmental monitoring at two manufacturing and test operations sites operated in the Los Angeles area by the Rocketdyne Division of Rockwell International Corporation. These are identified as the Santa Susana Field Laboratory (SSFL) and the De Soto site. These sites have been used for manufacturing, R&D, engineering, and testing in a broad range of technical fields, primarily rocket engine propulsion and nuclear reactor technology. The De Soto site is essentially light industry with some laboratory-scale R&D and has little potential impact on the environment. The SSFL site, because of its large size (2,668 acres), warranted comprehensive monitoring to assure protection of the environment. The purpose of this report is to present information on environmental and effluent monitoring primarily for the regulatory agencies involved in controlling environmental remediation, i.e., the U.S. DOE, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and the California State Department of Health Services (DHS) Radiologic Health Branch (RHB). For that reason, information concentrates on Area IV at SSFL as this is the site of the former nuclear operations. While the major area of interest is radiological, this report also includes a discussion of nonoradiological monitoring at SSFL.

  6. Site Study Plan for land use, Deaf Smith County site, Texas: Environmental Field Program: Preliminary draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-06-01

    The Land Use Site Study Plan describes a field program consisting of characterization of the site; seismic survey rights-of-way and transportation and utility corridors, the vicinity, the region, future land use, and monitoring land-use change. Aerial photography will be used to characterize the site, seismic rows and transportation and utility corridors, and the vicinity. The resulting land-use maps and overlays will then be verified in the field. Interviews with farm managers and local experts will provide additional information. A Geographic Information System (GIS) and satellite imagery will be used to characterize the region, monitor land-use change, and provide information to assist with the future land use study. The site study plan describes the study design and rationale, the filed data collection procedures and equipment, the data analysis methods and application of results, the data management strategy, the schedule of field activities, the personnel requirements and management of the study, and the study's quality assurance program. The directives and requirements that drive these studies are derived from the Salt Repository Project Requirements Document. 51 refs; 6 figs; 3 tabs

  7. Rocketdyne Division annual site environmental report Santa Susana Field Laboratory and Desoto sites 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-30

    This annual report discusses environmental monitoring at two manufacturing and test operations sites operated in the Los Angeles area by the Rocketdyne Division of Rockwell International Corporation (Rocketdyne). These are identified as the Santa Susana Field Laboratory (SSFL) and the DeSoto site. The sites have been used for manufacturing, R&D, engineering, and testing in a broad range of technical fields, primarily rocket engine propulsion and nuclear reactor technology. The DeSoto site essentially comprises office space and light industry with no remaining radiological operations, and has little potential impact on the environment. The SSFL site, because of its large size (2,668 acres), warrants comprehensive monitoring to assure protection of the environment. SSFL consists of four administrative areas used for research, development, and test operations as well as a buffer zone. A portion of Area I and all of Area II are owned by the U.S. Government and assigned to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). A portion of Area IV is under option for purchase by the Department of Energy (DOE).

  8. Rocketdyne division annual site environmental report, Santa Susana Field Laboratory and De Soto Sites, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1995-09-30

    This annual report discusses environmental monitoring at two manufacturing and test operations sites operated in the Los Angeles area by the Rocketdyne Division of Rockwell International Corporation (Rocketdyne). These are identified as the Santa Susana Field Laboratory (SSFL) and the De Soto site. These sites have been used for manufacturing, R&D, engineering, and testing in a broad range of technical fields, primarily rocket engine propulsion and nuclear reactor technology. The De Soto site is essentially light industry with some laboratory-scale R&D and has little potential impact on the environment. The SSFL site, because of its large size (2.668 acres), warrants comprehensive monitoring to assure protection of the environment. The purpose of this report is to present information on environmental and effluent monitoring of DOE-sponsored activities to the regulatory agencies. i.e., the U.S. DOE, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and the California State Department of Health Services (DHS) Radiologic Health Branch (RHB). For that reason, information concentrates on Area IV at SSFL. which is the only area where DOE activities have been performed. While the major focus of attention is radiological, this report also includes a discussion of nonradiological monitoring at SSFL.

  9. Site Study Plan for Aesthetics, Deaf Smith County Site, Texas: Environmental Field Program: Preliminary draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-06-01

    The Aesthetic Site Study Plan describes a field program consisting of identification of the visually affected area; determination of scenic quality, visual sensitivity, and visual management classes of the site and vicinity; and analysis of the level of visual contrast that would be created by the project. Field ratings of scenic quality, visual sensitivity, and visual contrast will be supplemented by a public perception survey designed to incorporate the views of the public. This plan describes the need for the study, the study design, data management and use, schedule for proposed activities, and quality assurance program. This study will provide data needed to satisfy requirements contained in, or derived from, SRPO Requirement Document (SRP-RD). 35 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  10. Site Study Plan for Acoustics, Deaf Smith County Site, Texas: Environmental Field Program: Preliminary draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-06-01

    The Acoustics site study plan describes a field program which characterizes existing sound levels, determines the area's sound propagation characteristics, and monitors the project-related sound emissions. The plan describes for each study: the need for the study, study design, data management and use, schedule, and quality assurance requirements. These studies will provide data needed to satisfy requirements contained in, or derived from, the Salt Repository Requirements Document. 37 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs

  11. Applied field test procedures on petroleum release sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, G.; Nichols, L.

    1995-01-01

    The effective remediation of petroleum contaminated soils and ground water is a significant issue for Williams Pipe Line Co. (Williams): costing $6.8 million in 1994. It is in the best interest, then, for Williams to adopt approaches and apply technologies that will be both cost-effective and comply with regulations. Williams has found the use of soil vapor extraction (SVE) and air sparging (AS) field test procedures at the onset of a petroleum release investigation/remediation accomplish these goals. This paper focuses on the application of AS/SVE as the preferred technology to a specific type of remediation: refined petroleum products. In situ field tests are used prior to designing a full-scale remedial system to first validate or disprove initial assumptions on applicability of the technology. During the field test, remedial system design parameters are also collected to tailor the design and operation of a full-scale system to site specific conditions: minimizing cost and optimizing effectiveness. In situ field tests should be designed and operated to simulate as close as possible the operation of a full-scale remedial system. The procedures of an in situ field test will be presented. The results of numerous field tests and the associated costs will also be evaluated and compared to full-scale remedial systems and total project costs to demonstrate overall effectiveness. There are many advantages of As/SVE technologies over conventional fluid extraction or SVE systems alone. However, the primary advantage is the ability to simultaneously reduce volatile and biodegradable compound concentrations in the phreatic, capillary fringe, and unsaturated zones

  12. Site Guidelines for a Deep Borehole Field Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassani, D.; Kuhlman, K. L.; Freeze, G. A.; MacKinnon, R. J.; Perry, F.

    2015-12-01

    The US DOE Office of Nuclear Energy Used Nuclear Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC) is initiating a Deep Borehole Field Test (DBFT), without use of any radioactive waste, to evaluate the geoscience of the approach and technical capabilities for implementation. DOE has identified Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) as the Technical Lead for the UFDC DBFT Project, with the role of supporting DOE in (i) developing the overall DBFT Project Plan, (ii) management and integration of all DBFT Project activities, and (iii) providing Project technical guidance to DOE, other DOE National Laboratories, and university partners. The DBFT includes drilling one Characterization Borehole (CB-8.5" diameter), followed by an optional Field Test Borehole (FTB), to a depth of about 5,000 m (16,400 feet) into crystalline basement rock in a geologically stable continental location. The DBFT CB will be drilled and completed to facilitate downhole scientific testing and analyses. If site conditions are found to be favorable, DOE may drill the larger-diameter (17") FTB to facilitate proof-of-concept of handling, emplacement, and retrieval activities using surrogate waste containers. Guidelines for favorable DBFT site geohydrochemical and geomechanical conditions will be discussed and status of the DBFT Project will be provided. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. SAND2015-6426A.

  13. Geological Characterization of Remote Field Sites Using Visible and Infrared Spectroscopy: Results from the 1999 Marsokhod Field Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J. R.; Ruff, S. W.; Moersch, J.; Roush, T.; Horton, K.; Bishop, J.; Cabrol, N. A.; Cockell, C.; Gazis, P.; Newsom, H. E.

    2000-01-01

    The 1999 Marsokhod Field Experiment (MFE) provided an opportunity to test the suitability of rover-borne visible/near-infrared and thermal infrared field spectrometers to contribute to the remote geological exploration of a Mars analog field site.

  14. SITE-94. Modelling of near-field chemistry for SITE-94

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthur, R.; Apted, M.

    1996-12-01

    This report evaluates methods for the incorporation of site data into models simulating the long-term chemical evolution of the near field. The models are based on limiting conditions at equilibrium, or steady state, in three closed systems representing fully saturated bentonite, Fe o corrosion products of the canister and spent fuel. A l kg reference mass of site groundwater is assumed to equilibrate first with bentonite and then with the canister's corrosion products. A third closed system representing spent fuel is modeled in terms of spent-fuel dissolution in 1 kg of water evolved from the canister, coupled with steady-state constraints on the rate of oxidant production by α radiolysis of H 2 O(l). Precipitation of secondary minerals controlling the solubilities of radioelements dissolved from spent fuel is also simulated in this model. Version 7.2 of the EQ3/6 geochemical software package and its supporting composite thermodynamic database, dataO.com.R22, are used to carry out these calculations. It is concluded that chemical models of near-field evolution combined with thermodynamic models of radionuclide speciation-solubility behavior can assist efforts to assimilate site characterization data into the performance assessment process, and to deal with uncertainties that are inherent in both site properties and in concepts of near field chemistry. It is essential, however, that expert judgement and prudence should be exercised such that model results are conservative with respect to acknowledged and documented uncertainties. Most importantly, it must be recognized that it is probably not possible to model with a high-level of accuracy the complex chemical environments and long timescales involved in disposal technologies for nuclear wastes. For performance assessment, however, only bounding values are needed, and modeling approaches such as described in this report are useful for this purpose. Technical peer review and cross-comparisons of near-field modeling

  15. How Self-Reliance Is Understood: Viewpoints from One Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DrNneka

    Tanzania's 1967 policy of self-reliance (Hultin 1985, p.8). Before looking at the way self-reliance is understood in rural Malawi during a process of development, it may be beneficial to look at some of the tensions between micro and macro forms of development. Leading to Self-Reliance. Development Aid is a term that has ...

  16. How self-reliance is understood: viewpoints from one local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    How self-reliance is understood: viewpoints from one local community in Malawi. ... model that resists dependence on external aid, empowers community development, and provides opportunities to sustain development activity through local initiative, can be employed to increase social capital leading to sustainable growth.

  17. Field site investigation: Effect of mine seismicity on groundwater hydrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ofoegbu, G.I.; Hsiung, S.; Chowdhury, A.H.

    1995-04-01

    The results of a field investigation on the groundwater-hydrologic effect of mining-induced earthquakes are presented in this report. The investigation was conducted at the Lucky Friday Mine, a silver-lead-zinc mine in the Coeur d'Alene Mining District of Idaho. The groundwater pressure in sections of three fracture zones beneath the water table was monitored over a 24-mo period. The fracture zones were accessed through a 360-m-long inclined borehole, drilled from the 5,700 level station of the mine. The magnitude, source location, and associated ground motions of mining-induced seismic events were also monitored during the same period, using an existing seismic instrumentation network for the mine, augmented with additional instruments installed specifically for the project by the center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses (CNWRA). More than 50 seismic events of Richter magnitude 1.0 or larger occurred during the monitoring period. Several of these events caused the groundwater pressure to increase, whereas a few caused it to decrease. Generally, the groundwater pressure increased as the magnitude of seismic event increased; for an event of a given magnitude, the groundwater pressure increased by a smaller amount as the distance of the observation point from the source of the event increased. The data was examined using regression analysis. Based on these results, it is suggested that the effect of earthquakes on groundwater flow may be better understood through mechanistic modeling. The mechanical processes and material behavior that would need to be incorporated in such a model are examined. They include a description of the effect of stress change on the permeability and water storage capacity of a fracture rock mass; transient fluid flow; and the generation and transmission of seismic waves through the rock mass

  18. Site study plan for ecology, Deaf Smith County Site, Texas: Environmental Field Program: Preliminary Draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-06-01

    The Ecology Site Study Plan describes a field program consisting of studies which include surveys for endangered, threatened, and candidate species; vegetation characterization, including mapping and cover typing, plant succession, wetlands description, and preexisting stresses; and wildlife community characterization, including availability and quality of habitats and descriptions of mammal, bird, reptile, amphibian, and invertebrate populations. The plan for each study describes the need for the study, study design, data management and use, schedule and personnel requirements, and quality assurance. These studies will provide data needed to satisfy requirements contained in, or derived from, the Salt Repository Project Requirements Document (SRP-RD). 83 refs., 3 tabs

  19. Numerical modelling of GPR electromagnetic fields for locating burial sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carcione, José M.; Karczewski, Jerzy; Mazurkiewicz, Ewelina; Tadeusiewicz, Ryszard; Tomecka-Suchoń, Sylwia

    2017-11-01

    Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) is commonly used for locating burial sites. In this article, we acquired radargrams at a site where a domestic pig cadaver was buried. The measurements were conducted with the ProEx System GPR manufactured by the Swedish company Mala Geoscience with an antenna of 500MHz. The event corresponding to the pig can be clearly seen in the measurements. In order to improve the interpretation, the electromagnetic field is compared to numerical simulations computed with the pseudo-spectral Fourier method. A geological model has been defined on the basis of assumed electromagnetic properties (permittivity, conductivity and magnetic permeability). The results, when compared with the GPR measurements, show a dissimilar amplitude behaviour, with a stronger reflection event from the bottom of the pit. We have therefore performed another simulation by decreasing the electrical conductivity of the body very close to that of air. The comparison improved, showing more reflections, which could be an indication that the body contains air or has been degraded to a certain extent that the electrical resistivity has greatly increased.

  20. 300 Area Integrated Field-Scale Subsurface Research Challenge (IFRC) Field Site Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freshley, Mark D.

    2008-12-31

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has established the 300 Area Integrated Field-Scale Subsurface Research Challenge (300 Area IFRC) on the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State for the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Office of Biological and Environmental Research (BER) within the Office of Science. The project is funded by the Environmental Remediation Sciences Division (ERSD). The purpose of the project is to conduct research at the 300 IFRC to investigate multi-scale mass transfer processes associated with a subsurface uranium plume impacting both the vadose zone and groundwater. The management approach for the 300 Area IFRC requires that a Field Site Management Plan be developed. This is an update of the plan to reflect the installation of the well network and other changes.

  1. Urachal tumour: case report of a poorly understood carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vallarino Luigi

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Urachal carcinoma is an uncommon neoplasm associated with poor prognosis. Case presentation A 45-year-old man was admitted with complaints of abdominal pain and pollakisuria. A soft mass was palpable under his navel. TC-scan revealed a 11 × 6 cm tumor, which was composed of a cystic lesion arising from the urachus and a solid mass component at the urinary bladder dome. The tumor was removed surgically. Histological examination detected poor-differentiated adenocarcinoma, which had invaded the urinary bladder. The patient has been followed up without recurrence for 6 months. Conclusion The urachus is the embryological remnant of urogenital sinus and allantois. Involution usually happens before birth and urachus is present as a median umbilical ligament. The pathogenesis of urachal tumours is not fully understood. Surgery is the treatment of choice and role of adjuvant treatment is not clearly understood.

  2. Site Study Plan for soils, Deaf Smith County site, Texas: Environmental Field Program: Preliminary draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-06-01

    The Soils Site Study Plan describes a field program consisting of a soil characterization survey, impact monitoring of soils, predisturbance soil salinity survey, and a reclamation suitability study. This information will be used to plan for soil stripping, stockpiling, and replacement; reclamation of soils; determining predisturbance chemical and physical characteristics of the soils; including salinity levels; and monitoring for changes in chemical and physical characteristics of the soil. The SSP describes for each study the need for the study, the study design, data management and use, schedule of proposed activities, and the quality assurance program. These studies will provide data needed to satisfy requirements contained in, or derived from, the Salt Repository Project Requirements Document. 75 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs

  3. Technical procedures for implementation of aesthetics site studies, Deaf Smith County site, Texas: Environmental Field Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-06-01

    This chapter introduces the purpose and scope of the visually affected areas determination, as well as definitions, interfaces, and concurrent data needs. This procedure provides a method for determining the extent of visibility of the project. This area is identified as the visually affected area, and becomes the area within which all visual analysis is conducted. The visually affected area analysis of the Deaf Smith County site will involve identifying and mapping the visibility of all major proposed project features. Baseline analysis will be conducted within the overall visually affected area; impact assessment will be conducted within the visually affected area of each major project feature. This procedure presents the guidelines for determining the visually affected area will be in computer data base construction; viewshed modeling, and site visit and verification of results. Computer data base construction will involve digitizing topographic and project facility data from available data source. The extent of the visible area from each major project feature will then be plotted. Finally, these computer-generated visibility plots will be verified in the field

  4. Spatial and temporal variation in N transfer in grass-white clover mixtures at three Northern European field sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jim; Gylfadóttir, Thórey; Roges, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    The N flow dynamics in grass–clover mixtures are not well understood. Spatial distributions and temporal differences in inter- and intra-species N transfer were investigated at field sites in Iceland, Germany, and Denmark, with three different managements at the Danish site. Both grass and white...... to compare spatial and temporal N transfer patterns to soil inorganic N uptake. The short-term N transfer from white clover to the closest companion grass reached levels of more than 50% of N from labeled white clover late in the growing season, thus questioning whether longer-term root turnover processes...... are dominating N transfer. The horizontal N transfer to grass exceeded 50 cm from the labeled plant at one site. The study showed that the competitive ability of white clover is as important for N dynamics in grass–white clover mixtures as that of the companion grass. Intra-species N transfer showed that both...

  5. Donors in Semiconductors - are they Understood in Electronic Era?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dmochowski, Janusz E

    2007-01-01

    The physics of semiconductors and contemporary electronics cannot be understood without impurities. The hydrogen-like shallow donor (and acceptor) state of electron (hole) bound by Coulomb electrostatic force of excess charge of impurity is used to control conductivity of semiconductors and construct semiconductor diodes, transistors and numerous types of semiconductor electronic and optoelectronic devices, including lasers. Recently, surprisingly, the physics of impurity donors appeared to be much reacher. Experimental evidence has been provided for universal existence of other types of electronic states of the same donor impurity: i) mysterious, deep, DX-type state resulting in metastability - slow hysteresis phenomena - understood as two-electron, acceptor-like state of donor impurity, formed upon large lattice distortion or rearrangement around impurity and accompanying capture of second electron, resulting in negative electron correlation energy U; ii) deep, localized, fully symmetric, A1, one-electron donor state of substitutional impurity. The latter state can be formed from the 'ordinary' shallow hydrogen-like state in the process of strong localization of electron by short range, local potential of impurity core, preserving full (A 1 ) symmetry of the substitutional impurity in the host lattice. The 'anticrossing' of the two A 1 (shallow hydrogenic and deep localized) energy levels upon transformation is observed. All types of electronic states of impurity can be universally observed for the same donor impurity and mutual transformation between different states occur upon changing experimental conditions. The knowledge about existence and properties of these n ew , molecular type, donor states in semiconductors seems still await general recognition and positive application in contemporary material and device science and engineering

  6. Near-field modeling in Frenchman Flat, Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohlmann, K.; Shirley, C.; Andricevic, R.

    1996-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is investigating the effects of nuclear testing in underground test areas (the UGTA program) at the Nevada Test Site. The principal focus of the UGTA program is to better understand and define subsurface radionuclide migration. The study described in this report focuses on the development of tools for generating maps of hydrogeologic characteristics of subsurface Tertiary volcanic units at the Frenchman Flat corrective Action Unit (CAU). The process includes three steps. The first step involves generation of three-dimensional maps of the geologic structure of subsurface volcanic units using geophysical logs to distinguish between two classes: densely welded tuff and nonwelded tuff. The second step generates three-dimensional maps of hydraulic conductivity utilizing the spatial distribution of the two geologic classes obtained in the first step. Each class is described by a correlation structure based on existing data on hydraulic conductivity, and conditioned on the generated spatial location of each class. The final step demonstrates the use of the maps of hydraulic conductivity for modeling groundwater flow and radionuclide transport in volcanic tuffs from an underground nuclear test at the Frenchman Flat CAU. The results indicate that the majority of groundwater flow through the volcanic section occurs through zones of densely welded tuff where connected fractures provide the transport pathway. Migration rates range between near zero to approximately four m/yr, with a mean rate of 0.68 m/yr. This report presents the results of work under the FY96 Near-Field Modeling task of the UGTA program

  7. SAR Subsets for Selected Field Sites, 2007-2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set provides Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images for 42 selected sites from various terrestrial ecology and meteorological monitoring networks...

  8. SAR Subsets for Selected Field Sites, 2007-2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images for 42 selected sites from various terrestrial ecology and meteorological monitoring networks including...

  9. Field Summary Report for Remedial Investigation of Hanford Site Releases to the Coumbia River, Hanford Site, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L.C. Hulstrom

    2010-11-10

    This report summarizes field sampling activities conducted in support of WCH’s Remedial Investigation of Hanford Site Releases to the Columbia River. This work was conducted form 2008 through 2010. The work included preliminary mapping and measurement of Hanford Site contaminants in sediment, pore water, and surface water located in areas where groundwater upwelling were found.

  10. Field Summary Report for Remedial Investigation of Hanford Site Releases to the Columbia River, Hanford Site, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L.C. Hulstrom

    2010-08-11

    This report summarizes field sampling activities conducted in support of WCH’s Remedial Investigation of Hanford Site Releases to the Columbia River. This work was conducted form 2008 through 2010. The work included preliminary mapping and measurement of Hanford Site contaminants in sediment, pore water, and surface water located in areas where groundwater upwelling were found.

  11. The bare parameters of Gribov's Langrangian are understood and determined

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishari, M.

    1977-01-01

    In the context of the ''1/N Dual Unitarization'' scheme, an explicit dynamical study of the triple bare pomeron mechanism which governs the interaction term in Gribov's Lagrangian is presented. Together with the previously established bare pomeron slope and intercept, controlling respectively, the kinetic and mass terms in Gribov's Lagrangian, this work demonstrates the viability of the ''1/N Dual Unitarization'' approach for a field theory of interaction bare pomerons. (author)

  12. Status report on geochemical field results from Atlantic study sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, T.R.S.; Thomson, J.; Hydes, D.J.; Colley, S.

    1983-01-01

    This report summarises the results of preliminary geochemical investigations at three North Atlantic study areas. The two eastern sites, on the Cape Verde abyssal plain (CV2) and east of Great Meteor Seamount (GME) were visited during 1982. The results presented are preliminary. Studies in the western Atlantic, close to the Nares Abyssal Plain study site are more detailed and are presented in a separate paper. The report shows for the first time the relative redox status of the three sites. The differences are unexpectedly large, the most reduced cores being recovered at GME and the most oxidised at CV2. The sporadic nature of Recent sediment accumulation at these sites is also emphasised. In order to place these preliminary results in context their relevance to the production of mathematical system models is discussed in a closing section. The necessity for such models to rest on sound foundations of geochemical understanding is noted. Suggestions on future research priorities are offered for discussion. (author)

  13. Default options in the ICU: widely used but insufficiently understood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Joanna; Halpern, Scott D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review Default options dramatically influence the behavior of decision makers and may serve as effective decision support tools in the ICU. Their use in medicine has increased in an effort to improve efficiency, reduce errors, and harness the potential of healthcare technology. Recent findings Defaults often fall short of their predicted influence when employed in critical care settings as quality improvement interventions. Investigations reporting the use of defaults are often limited by variations in the relative effect across sites. Preimplementation experiments and long-term monitoring studies are lacking. Summary Defaults in the ICU may help or harm patients and clinical efficiency depending on their format and use. When constructing and encountering defaults, providers should be aware of their powerful and complex influences on decision making. Additional evaluations of the appropriate creation of healthcare defaults and their resulting intended and unintended consequences are needed. PMID:25203352

  14. Biological field stations: research legacies and sites for serendipity

    Science.gov (United States)

    William K. Michener; Keith L. Bildstein; Arthur McKee; Robert R. Parmenter; William W. Hargrove; Deedra McClearn; Mark Stromberg

    2009-01-01

    Biological field stations are distributed throughout North America, capturing much of the ecological variability present at the continental scale and encompassing many unique habitats. In addition to their role in supporting research and education, field stations offer legacies of data, specimens, and accumulated knowledge. Such legacies often provide the only...

  15. Field evaluation of hazardous waste site bioassessment protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, J.M.; Cline, J.F.; Cushing, C.E.; McShane, M.C.; Rogers, J.E.; Rogers, L.E.; Simpson, J.C.; Skalski, J.R.

    1983-04-01

    The goals were: (1) determine the variability (both within and between laboratories) for the various bioassay procedures using contaminated soil samples from the Rocky Mountain Arsenal (RMA); (2) assess variability within and between plots for several assessment techniques (for sampling small mammals, plants, insects including honeybees and microarthropods) so that field studies could be designed to detect a defined biotic change; (3) establish three field plant transects which are apparently (a) contaminated, (b) appear contaminated and (c) could serve as a control; (4) assess the feasibility (in the laboratory) of using Basin F water to contaminate RMA soil artificially, and to supply information for the design of a field plot study in 1983; (5) attempt to obtain preliminary data on any promising field or laboratory bioassessment techniques not currently mentioned in the statement of work; and (6) obtain field data to assess the ecological status of RMA lakes and compare these observations to results from bioassessment testing.

  16. Field evaluation of hazardous waste site bioassessment protocols. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, J.M.; Cline, J.F.; Gano, K.A.; McShane, M.C.; Rogers, J.E.; Rogers, L.E.; Simpson, J.C.; Skalski, J.R.

    1984-04-01

    The overall goal of the plan was to demonstrate that honeybees could be used in detecting likely areas of chemical pollution, to demonstrate the usefulness of microbial and plant phytoassays, and to demonstrate a relationship between laboratory derived phytotoxicity results and field observations of plant community structure and diversity. Field studies were conducted through a cooperative arrangement with the US Army arsenal in Commerce City, Colorado.

  17. Incorporating Sustainability into Site Closure - A Field Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austrins, L. M.; West, J.

    2013-12-01

    Long term management of former chemical production facilities can be a costly and time consuming element of site closure, however, implementation of creative measures to introduce sustainability and reduce the need for onsite presence can be successfully incorporated into the site closure process. A case study demonstrating this involves a facility located in Sarnia, Ontario, which was an active multi chemical production facility from the 1940s, until it was decommissioned and sold between 2005 and 2010. The facility consisted of 322 acres of production areas. Several elements which allowed for reduced onsite presence and lower management costs were incorporated into the site decommissioning plan, including; phased remediation planning, and selection of sustainable components as part of remediation, surface water management, and groundwater management. The sustainability and management modifications were successfully negotiated and approved by the local regulatory agency. Due to the size and complexity of the site, a holistic approach for the facility was needed and included the development of a comprehensive decision matrix. Each remediation alternative incorporated sustainable practices. Ex-situ remediation consisted of excavation of contaminated subsurface medium and consolidation at a 4.7 acre onsite soil treatment area designed specifically for the site closure process. In-situ remediation consisted of injection of amendment into the native soils using hydraulic fracture and injection. When the plant was an active operating facility, groundwater management required active pumping and groundwater treatment through a series of carbon treatment units. Active pumping has been replaced by passive hydraulic control through the use of tree plantations.

  18. Inter operability of smart field devices on an open field-bus: from laboratory tests to on-site applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piguet, M.; Favennec, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    The paper presents a field trial held in EDF's R and D laboratories concerning smart field instruments (sensors, I/O modules, transmitters) operating on the WorldFIP field-bus. The trial put into operation a supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system on the field-bus with available industrial field devices and software tools. The field trial enables EDF's teams to address the inter-operability issue regarding smart field devices and to prepare the forthcoming step from analog to fully digital measurement technology by evaluating new services and higher performances provided. Possible architectures for process control and on-site testing purposes have been identified. A first application for a flow-measuring rig is under way. It implements a WorldFIP field-bus based DCS with FIP/HART multiplexers, FIP and HART smart devices (sensors and actuators) and a field management system. (authors)

  19. Virtual-site correlation mean field approach to criticality in spin systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, Aditi; Sen, Ujjwal

    2013-01-01

    We propose a virtual-site correlation mean field theory for dealing with interacting many-body systems. It involves a coarse-graining technique that terminates a step before the mean field theory: While mean field theory deals with only single-body physical parameters, the virtual-site correlation mean field theory deals with single- as well as two-body ones, and involves a virtual site for every interaction term in the Hamiltonian. We generalize the theory to a cluster virtual-site correlation mean field, that works with a fundamental unit of the lattice of the many-body system. We apply these methods to interacting Ising spin systems in several lattice geometries and dimensions, and show that the predictions of the onset of criticality of these models are generally much better in the proposed theories as compared to the corresponding ones in mean field theories

  20. Curiosity's field site in Gale Crater, Mars, in context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgett, K. S.; Malin, M. C.

    2011-12-01

    NASA's Mars rover, Curiosity, is anticipated to land in Gale Crater in August 2012. Gale is a 155 km-diameter impact crater adjacent to the ancient crustal "north-south dichotomy boundary." It contains a mound of layered rock (of yet-unknown proportions of clastic sediment, tephra, and chemical precipitates) ˜5 km-high that was eroded by fluvial, eolian, and mass-movement processes. The stratigraphy includes erosional unconformities representing periods when new impact craters formed and streams cut canyons into layered rock. The majority of known impact sites on Earth are craters that were filled and buried in sediment; examples occur under the Chesapeake Bay and beneath the Chicago O'Hare Airport. The upper crust of Mars, with its relative lack of tectonism, is almost entirely a layered, cratered volume of filled, buried, and complexly-interbedded craters and fluvial systems. Some of these have been exhumed or partly exhumed; some, like Gale, were once filled with extensive rock layers that were eroded to form mounds or mesas. Landforms all across Arabia Terra show that similar materials were also deposited between craters. Gale is of the family of Mars craters that were filled and buried (or nearly so). The highest elevation on the Gale mound exceeds the crater's north rim by ˜2 km and is within 500 m of the highest point on the south rim. Many similar craters occur in Arabia Terra; these are instructive as some contain mounds, others have mesas or buttes or other erosional expressions. Craters within 10s to a few 100s of km of each other typically contain very different materials, as exhibited by varied erosional expression, bedding style, and layer thickness. This suggests that the depositional environments, sources, and physical properties of the deposited material differed from place to place and time to time, even in neighboring settings. The Curiosity site in Gale has the potential to illuminate processes that acted locally and globally on early Mars. In

  1. Oil field rejuvenation work starts at 14 project sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petzet, G.A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the U.S. Department of Energy and oil and gas companies have released more information about a joint effort to rejuvenate aging U.S. oil fields in danger of abandonment. Work is starting on 14 demonstration projects that could recover 21 million bbl of oil from the fluvial dominated deltaic (FDD) reservoirs in which they are conducted. Wider application of the same techniques, if they are successful, could results in addition of 6.3 billion bbl of reserves, nearly 25% of U.S. crude oil reserves. A multidisciplinary team approach is to be used, with as many as 11 operators, service companies, universities, or state agencies participating in each project. All of the projects will culminate in extensive technology transfer activities. Here are descriptions of the projects gleaned from public abstracts provided by the DOE contractors

  2. Hyperfine field calculations: search for muon stopping sites in Fe3O4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boekema, C.; Denison, A.B.; Cooke, D.W.; Heffner, R.H.; Hutson, R.L.; Leon, M.; Schillaci, M.E.

    1983-01-01

    Muon Spin Rotation (μSR) results for magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ) are analyzed and discussed. At room temperature, a μSR signal is observed due to the presence of an internal magnetic field (Bsub(int)) at the muon site. External transverse field measurements show that Bsub(int) is parallel to the magnetic spin direction, the direction in zero applied field. Calculations of the hyperfine field to pinpoint muon stopping sites in magnetite show that the local field contains supertransfer (covalent) and dipolar field contributions. The implanted muons appear to stop at sites structurally similar to those reported for hematite (α-Fe 2 O 3 ), where muon-oxygen bond formation was strongly indicated. (Auth.)

  3. Geological characterization of remote field sites using visible and infrared spectroscopy: Results from the 1999 Marsokhod field test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J. R.; Ruff, S.W.; Moersch, J.; Roush, T.; Horton, K.; Bishop, J.; Cabrol, N.A.; Cockell, C.; Gazis, P.; Newsom, Horton E.; Stoker, C.

    2001-01-01

    Upcoming Mars Surveyor lander missions will include extensive spectroscopic capabilities designed to improve interpretations of the mineralogy and geology of landing sites on Mars. The 1999 Marsokhod Field Experiment (MFE) was a Mars rover simulation designed in part to investigate the utility of visible/near-infrared and thermal infrared field spectrometers to contribute to the remote geological exploration of a Mars analog field site in the California Mojave Desert. The experiment simultaneously investigated the abilities of an off-site science team to effectively analyze and acquire useful imaging and spectroscopic data and to communicate efficiently with rover engineers and an on-site field team to provide meaningful input to rover operations and traverse planning. Experiences gained during the MFE regarding effective communication between different mission operation teams will be useful to upcoming Mars mission teams. Field spectra acquired during the MFE mission exhibited features interpreted at the time as indicative of carbonates (both dolomitic and calcitic), mafic rocks and associated weathering products, and silicic rocks with desert varnish-like coatings. The visible/near-infrared spectra also suggested the presence of organic compounds, including chlorophyll in one rock. Postmission laboratory petrologic and spectral analyses of returned samples confirmed that all rocks identified as carbonates using field measurements alone were calc-silicates and that chlorophyll associated with endolithic organisms was present in the one rock for which it was predicted. Rocks classified from field spectra as silicics and weathered mafics were recognized in the laboratory as metamorphosed monzonites and diorite schists. This discrepancy was likely due to rock coatings sampled by the field spectrometers compared to fresh rock interiors analyzed petrographically, in addition to somewhat different surfaces analyzed by laboratory thermal spectroscopy compared to field

  4. Savannah River Site Experiences in In Situ Field Measurements of Radioactive Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, F.S.

    1999-01-01

    This paper discusses some of the field gamma-ray measurements made at the Savannah River Site, the equipment used for the measurements, and lessons learned during in situ identification and characterization of radioactive materials

  5. BigFoot Field Data for North American Sites, 1999-2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The BigFoot project gathered field data for selected EOS Land Validation Sites in North America from 1999 to 2003. Data collected and derived for varying intervals...

  6. BigFoot Field Data for North American Sites, 1999-2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: The BigFoot project gathered field data for selected EOS Land Validation Sites in North America from 1999 to 2003. Data collected and derived for varying...

  7. Site characterization field manual for near surface geologic disposal of low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCray, J.G.; Nowatzki, E.A.

    1985-01-01

    This field manual has been developed to aid states and regions to do a detailed characterization of a proposed near-surface low-level waste disposal site. The field manual is directed at planners, staff personnel and experts in one discipline to acquaint them with the requirements of other disciplines involved in site characterization. While it can provide a good review, it is not designed to tell experts how to do their job within their own discipline

  8. Opportune Landing Site Program: Opportune Landing Site Southeastern Indiana Field Data Collection and Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-01

    that were as- sessed. This field is actively farmed with the primary crops of either corn or soybeans . At the time of the initial visit in early...been on the OLS. 5 Large cluster Y Y Y Previous crop appeared to be soybeans , leaving less vegetation surface debris. OLSs oriented east-west...Outline RAS Outline North Vernon Airport Surface Features Drainage ditch with mounding on either side Mo un din gMo un din g 4-13 a. RAS Outline OLS

  9. Extensive management of field margins enhances their potential for off-site soil erosion mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Hamada E; Reineking, Björn

    2016-03-15

    Soil erosion is a widespread problem in agricultural landscapes, particularly in regions with strong rainfall events. Vegetated field margins can mitigate negative impacts of soil erosion off-site by trapping eroded material. Here we analyse how local management affects the trapping capacity of field margins in a monsoon region of South Korea, contrasting intensively and extensively managed field margins on both steep and shallow slopes. Prior to the beginning of monsoon season, we equipped a total of 12 sites representing three replicates for each of four different types of field margins ("intensive managed flat", "intensive managed steep", "extensive managed flat" and "extensive managed steep") with Astroturf mats. The mats (n = 15/site) were placed before, within and after the field margin. Sediment was collected after each rain event until the end of the monsoon season. The effect of management and slope on sediment trapping was analysed using linear mixed effects models, using as response variable either the sediment collected within the field margin or the difference in sediment collected after and before the field margin. There was no difference in the amount of sediment reaching the different field margin types. In contrast, extensively managed field margins showed a large reduction in collected sediment before and after the field margins. This effect was pronounced in steep field margins, and increased with the size of rainfall events. We conclude that a field margin management promoting a dense vegetation cover is a key to mitigating negative off-site effects of soil erosion in monsoon regions, particularly in field margins with steep slopes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Field sampling and selecting on-site analytical methods for explosives in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crockett, A.B.; Craig, H.D.; Jenkins, T.F.; Sisk, W.E.

    1996-12-01

    A large number of defense-related sites are contaminated with elevated levels of secondary explosives. Levels of contamination range from barely detectable to levels above 10% that need special handling because of the detonation potential. Characterization of explosives-contaminated sites is particularly difficult because of the very heterogeneous distribution of contamination in the environment and within samples. To improve site characterization, several options exist including collecting more samples, providing on-site analytical data to help direct the investigation, compositing samples, improving homogenization of the samples, and extracting larger samples. This publication is intended to provide guidance to Remedial Project Managers regarding field sampling and on-site analytical methods for detecting and quantifying secondary explosive compounds in soils, and is not intended to include discussions of the safety issues associated with sites contaminated with explosive residues.

  11. Analysis of Malpractice Claims Associated with Surgical Site Infection in the Field of Plastic Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Bo Young; Kwon, Jung Woo; Kang, So Ra; Hong, Seung Eun

    2016-01-01

    Postoperative infections are rare after plastic surgery; however, when present, they can affect the aesthetic outcome. Currently, many malpractice lawsuits are associated with surgical site infection. The present study aimed to analyze malpractice claims associated with surgical site infection in the field of plastic surgery through a review of Korean precedents. We analyzed the type of procedure, associated complications, and legal judgment in these cases. Most claimants were women, and clai...

  12. Traffic Management Advisor: Iterative Field Development and Assessment at Multiple Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, Beverly D.; Lee, Katharine K.; Harwood, Kelly; Denery, Dallas G. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the necessity of involving users in the development of automation aids, especially for complex domains such as air traffic control (ATC). Traditional development only demanded a single field test to validate a completed system, but a more iterative combination of development and assessment ensures that the technology meets the requirements of its application domain. Exposure across an adequate spectrum of field users is also required during development, and the use of multiple development sites provides an opportunity to consider individual facility cultures as they relate to implementation strategies. The development of the Center/TRACON Automation System (CTAS) Traffic Management Advisor (TMA) at the Denver and Dallas ATC facilities demonstrates successful iterative development and assessment at multiple field sites. The use of field development changes the nature of assessment. As development progresses, periodic assessments are required to validate that system development is progressing along an appropriate track. In the development of the TMA, assessments were performed based on software in the field, and input from traffic managers was analyzed and incorporated into subsequent releases of the TMA, to be reassessed in the field. This has led to a tool with operational suitability and broad user acceptance. Assessment at multiple sites provides a more generalizable perspective that allows the production of a system that is both generic enough to be used at different sites and tailored enough to be of use at any site. In addition to providing a better understanding of specific facility requirements, the use of multiple assessment sites in the development of TMA has provided an opportunity to consider individual facility operations, procedures and cultures as they relate to development and implementation strategies.

  13. Woodlouse locomotor behavior in the assessment of clean and contaminated field sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayley, M.; Baatrup, E. [Aarhus Univ. (Denmark). Inst. of Biological Sciences; Bjerregaard, P. [Odense Univ. (Denmark). Inst. of Biology

    1997-11-01

    Specimens of the woodlouse Oniscus asellus were collected at four clean field sites and from a recently closed iron foundry heavily contaminated with zinc, lead, chromium, and nickel. Each of the 30 woodlice per group was housed individually and acclimatized to laboratory conditions for 2 d on a humid plaster of paris substrate. Thereafter, the locomotor behavior of each animal was measured for 4 h employing automated computer-aided video tracking. Linear discriminant analysis of five locomotor parameters revealed average velocity and path length as the principle components separating the polluted site and control animals. Post hoc analysis of the discriminant variable for animals from all five sites showed that the animals from the polluted site where significantly hyperactive when compared to all controls. Further, control animals collected from sites separated by several hundred kilometers were remarkably similar in their locomotor behavior. This preliminary study highlights the potential utility of quantitative analysis of animal locomotor behavior in environmental monitoring.

  14. Rocketdyne division environmental monitoring annual report, Santa Susana Field Laboratory, De Soto, and Canoga Sites, 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1991-06-20

    This annual report discuses environmental monitoring at three manufacturing and test operations sites operated in the Southern California area by the Rocketdyne Division of Rockwell International Corporation. These are identified as the Santa Susana Field Laboratory (SSFL.), the De Soto site, and the Canoga site. These sites have been used for manufacturing, R&D, engineering, and testing in a broad range of technical fields, primarily rocket engine propulsion and nuclear reactor technology. The De Soto and Canoga sites are essentially light industry with some laboratory-scale R&D and have little potential impact on the environment. The SSFL site, because of its large size (2,668 acres), warranted comprehensive monitoring to assure protection of the environment. The purpose of this report is to present information on environmental and effluent monitoring primarily for the regulatory agencies involved in controlling operations with nuclear and radioactive materials, i.e., the U.S. DOE, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and the California State Department of Health Services (DHS), Radiologic Health Branch (RHB). For that reason, information concentrates on Area IV at SSFL as this is the site of the former nuclear operations. While the major realm of interest is radiological, this report also includes some discussion of nonradiological monitoring at SSFL

  15. Field fracturing multi-sites project. Annual report, August 1, 1995--July 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    The objective of the Field Fracturing Multi-Sites Project (M-Site) is to conduct experiments to definitively determine hydraulic fracture dimensions using remote well and treatment well diagnostic techniques. In addition, experiments are to be conducted to provide data that will resolve significant unknowns with regard to hydraulic fracture modeling, fracture fluid rheology and fracture treatment design. These experiments will be supported by a well-characterized subsurface environment, as well as surface facilities and equipment conducive to acquiring high-quality data. The primary Project goal is to develop a fully characterized, tight reservoir-typical, field-scale hydraulic fracturing test site to diagnose, characterize, and test hydraulic fracturing technology and performance. It is anticipated that the research work being conducted by the multi-disciplinary team of GRI and DOE contractors will lead to the development of a commercial fracture mapping tool/service.

  16. Crystal-fields at rare-earth sites in R2Fe14B compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, S.; Adam, G.; Burzo, E.

    1985-12-01

    Crystal-field effects are expected to be important in R 2 Fe 14 B compounds. Within a model-independent approach, it is proved that four distinct rare-earth sites exist with respect to the crystalline electric fields, namely, R(4f; z=0), R(4f; z=0.5 c), R(4g; z=0), and R(4g; z=0.5 c), and relationships are established between the corresponding crystal-fields coefficients. Further, generalized Stevens parametrizations of the crystal field coefficients are derived at three levels of approximation for the interatomic forces inside the crystal. A crystal lattice dressing effect upon the radial electronic integrals is found to occur, the magnitude of which depends on the deviation of the interatomic forces from Coulombian. Finally, computation of crystal-field coefficients in Nd 2 Fe 14 B leads to results which raise questions about the validity of the simple Coulomb point-charge model. (author)

  17. Site characterization techniques used at a low-level waste shallow land burial field demonstration facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, E.C.; Boegly, W.J. Jr.; Rothschild, E.R.; Spalding, B.P.; Vaughan, N.D.; Haase, C.S.; Huff, D.D.; Lee, S.Y.; Walls, E.C.; Newbold, J.D.

    1984-07-01

    The Environmental Sciences Division of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been investigating improved shallow land burial technology for application in the humd eastern United States. As part of this effort, a field demonstration facility (Engineered Test Facility, or ETF) has been established in Solid Waste Storage Area 6 for purposes of investigatig the ability of two trench treatments (waste grouting prior to cover emplacement and waste isolation with trench liners) to prevent water-waste contact and thus minimize waste leaching. As part of the experimental plan, the ETF site has been characterized for purposes of constructing a hydrologic model. Site characterization is an extremely important component of the waste disposal site selection process; during these activities, potential problems, which might obviate the site from further consideration, may be found. This report describes the ETF site characterization program and identifies and, where appropriate, evaluates those tests that are of most value in model development. Specific areas covered include site geology, soils, and hydrology. Each of these areas is further divided into numerous subsections, making it easy for the reader to examine a single area of interest. Site characterization is a multidiscipliary endeavor with voluminous data, only portions of which are presented and analyzed here. The information in this report is similar to that which will be required of a low-level waste site developer in preparing a license application for a potential site in the humid East, (a discussion of licensing requirements is beyond its scope). Only data relevant to hydrologic model development are included, anticipating that many of these same characterization methods will be used at future disposal sites with similar water-related problems.

  18. Evaluation of measurement reproducibility using the standard-sites data, 1994 Fernald field characterization demonstration project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rautman, C.A.

    1996-02-01

    The US Department of Energy conducted the 1994 Fernald (Ohio) field characterization demonstration project to evaluate the performance of a group of both industry-standard and proposed alternative technologies in describing the nature and extent of uranium contamination in surficial soils. Detector stability and measurement reproducibility under actual operating conditions encountered in the field is critical to establishing the credibility of the proposed alternative characterization methods. Comparability of measured uranium activities to those reported by conventional, US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-certified laboratory methods is also required. The eleven (11) technologies demonstrated included (1) EPA-standard soil sampling and laboratory mass-spectroscopy analyses, and currently-accepted field-screening techniques using (2) sodium-iodide scintillometers, (3) FIDLER low-energy scintillometers, and (4) a field-portable x-ray fluorescence spectrometer. Proposed advanced characterization techniques included (5) alpha-track detectors, (6) a high-energy beta scintillometer, (7) electret ionization chambers, (8) and (9) a high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometer in two different configurations, (10) a field-adapted laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) technique, and (11) a long-range alpha detector. Measurement reproducibility and the accuracy of each method were tested by acquiring numerous replicate measurements of total uranium activity at each of two ''standard sites'' located within the main field demonstration area. Meteorological variables including temperature, relative humidity. and 24-hour rainfall quantities were also recorded in conjunction with the standard-sites measurements

  19. Controlling activation site density by low-energy far-field stimulation in cardiac tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hörning, Marcel; Takagi, Seiji; Yoshikawa, Kenichi

    2012-06-01

    Tachycardia and fibrillation are potentially fatal arrhythmias associated with the formation of rotating spiral waves in the heart. Presently, the termination of these types of arrhythmia is achieved by use of antitachycardia pacing or cardioversion. However, these techniques have serious drawbacks, in that they either have limited application or produce undesirable side effects. Low-energy far-field stimulation has recently been proposed as a superior therapy. This proposed therapeutic method would exploit the phenomenon in which the application of low-energy far-field shocks induces a large number of activation sites (“virtual electrodes”) in tissue. It has been found that the formation of such sites can lead to the termination of undesired states in the heart and the restoration of normal beating. In this study we investigate a particular aspect of this method. Here we seek to determine how the activation site density depends on the applied electric field through in vitro experiments carried out on neonatal rat cardiac tissue cultures. The results indicate that the activation site density increases exponentially as a function of the intracellular conductivity and the level of cell isotropy. Additionally, we report numerical results obtained from bidomain simulations of the Beeler-Reuter model that are quantitatively consistent with our experimental results. Also, we derive an intuitive analytical framework that describes the activation site density and provides useful information for determining the ratio of longitudinal to transverse conductivity in a cardiac tissue culture. The results obtained here should be useful in the development of an actual therapeutic method based on low-energy far-field pacing. In addition, they provide a deeper understanding of the intrinsic properties of cardiac cells.

  20. The Western Arabian intracontinental volcanic fields as a potential UNESCO World Heritage site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Németh, Károly; Moufti, Mohammed R.

    2017-04-01

    UNESCO promotes conservation of the geological and geomoprhological heritage through promotion of protection of these sites and development of educational programs under the umbrella of geoparks among the most globally significant ones labelled as UNESCO Global Geoparks. UNESCO also maintains a call to list those natural sites that provide universal outstanding values to demonstrate geological features or their relevance to our understanding the evolution of Earth. Volcanoes currently got a surge in nomination to be UNESCO World Heritage sites. Volcanic fields in the contrary fell in a grey area of nominations as they represents the most common manifestation of volcanism on Earth hence they are difficult to view as having outstanding universal values. A nearly 2500-km long 300-km wide region of dispersed volcanoes located in the Western Arabian Penninsula mostly in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia form a near-continuous location that carries universal outstanding value as one of the most representative manifestation of dispersed intracontinental volcanism on Earth to be nominated as an UNESCO World Heritage site. The volcanic fields formed in the last 20 Ma along the Red Sea as group of simple basaltic to more mature and long-lived basalt to trachyte-to-rhyolite volcanic fields each carries high geoheritage values. While these volcanic fields are dominated by scoria and spatter cones and transitional lava fields, there are phreatomagmatic volcanoes among them such as maars and tuff rings. Phreatomagmatism is more evident in association with small volcanic edifices that were fed by primitive magmas, while phreatomagmatic influences during the course of a larger volume eruption are also known in association with the silicic eruptive centres in the harrats of Rahat, Kishb and Khaybar. Three of the volcanic fields are clearly bimodal and host small-volume relatively short-lived lava domes and associated block-and-ash fans providing a unique volcanic landscape commonly not

  1. Analysis of Malpractice Claims Associated with Surgical Site Infection in the Field of Plastic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Bo Young; Kwon, Jung Woo; Kang, So Ra; Hong, Seung Eun

    2016-12-01

    Postoperative infections are rare after plastic surgery; however, when present, they can affect the aesthetic outcome. Currently, many malpractice lawsuits are associated with surgical site infection. The present study aimed to analyze malpractice claims associated with surgical site infection in the field of plastic surgery through a review of Korean precedents. We analyzed the type of procedure, associated complications, and legal judgment in these cases. Most claimants were women, and claims were most often related to breast surgery. The common complications related to surgical site infection were deformity, scar, and asymmetry. Among the 40 cases, 34 were won by the plaintiff, and the mean claim settlement was 2,832,654 KRW (USD 2,636.6). The reasons for these judgements were as follows: 1) immediate bacterial culture tests were not performed and appropriate antibiotics were not used; 2) patients were not transferred to a high-level hospital or the infection control department was not consulted; 3) surgical site infection control measures were not appropriate; and 4) surgical procedures were performed without preoperative explanation about surgical site infection. The number of claims owing to surgical site infection after surgery is increasing. Infection handling was one of the key factors that influenced the judgement, and preoperative explanation about the possibility of infection is important. The findings will help surgeons achieve high patient satisfaction and reduce liability concerns.

  2. Field Summary Report for Remedial Investigation of Hanford Site Releases to the Columbia River, Hanford Site, Washington, Collection of Surface Water, River Sediments, and Island Soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. C. Hulstrom

    2009-09-28

    This report has been prepared in support of the remedial investigation of Hanford Site Releases to the Columbia River and describes the 2008/2009 data collection efforts. This report documents field activities associated with collection of sediment, river water, and soil in and adjacent to the Columbia River near the Hanford Site and in nearby tributaries.

  3. Effects of Mechanical Site Preparation on Growth of Oaks Planted on Former Agricultural Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John D. Hodges

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical site preparation is frequently proposed to alleviate problematic soil conditions when afforesting retired agricultural fields. Without management of soil problems, any seedlings planted in these areas may exhibit poor growth and survival. While mechanical site preparation methods currently employed in hardwood afforestation are proven, there is a substantial void in research comparing subsoiling, bedding, and combination plowing treatments. A total of 4,320 bare-root Nuttall oak (Quercus texana Buckley, Shumard oak (Quercus shumardii Buckley, and swamp chestnut oak (Quercus michauxii Nutt. seedlings were planted in February 2008 on three Mississippi sites. All sites were of comparable soils and received above average precipitation throughout the three-year duration of the study. Four site preparation treatments were replicated at each site, with 480 seedlings planted in each of nine replications, and a total of 1,440 seedlings per species planted across all sites. Mechanical treatments were installed using 3.1 m row centers, with treatments as follows: control, subsoiling, bedding, and combination plowing. Treatment effects on seedling height, groundline diameter (GLD, and survival were analyzed. Seedlings exhibited greater height in bedded and combination plowed areas (79.7 cm to 102.7 cm and 82.6 cm to 100.1 cm, respectively compared to subsoiled or control areas (70.4 cm to 84.6 cm and 71.4 cm to 86.9 cm, respectively. Greater GLD was observed in bedded and combination plowed areas (11.9 mm to 18.4 mm and 12.2 mm to 18.3 mm, respectively compared to subsoiled or control areas (10.2 mm to 14.6 mm and 10.5 mm to 15.6 mm, respectively. Survival was high for this study (94.%, and no differences were detected among treatments.

  4. SUMMARY OF TECHNIQUES AND UNIQUE USES FOR DIRECT PUSH METHODS IN SITE CHARACTERIZATION ON CONTAMINATED FIELD SITES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Site characterization of subsurface contaminant transport is often hampered by a lack of knowledge of site heterogeneity and temporal variations in hydrogeochemistry. Two case studies are reviewed to illustrate the utility of macro-scale mapping information along with spatially-...

  5. Influence of the geomagnetic field on the IACT detection technique for possible sites of CTA observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szanecki, M.; Bernlöhr, K.; Sobczyńska, D.; Niedźwiecki, A.; Sitarek, J.; Bednarek, W.

    2013-05-01

    We investigate the influence of the geomagnetic field (GF) on the Imaging Air Cherenkov Telescope technique for two northern (Tenerife and San Pedro Martir) and three southern (Salta, Leoncito and Namibia (the H.E.S.S.-site)) site candidates for Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) observatories. We use the CORSIKA and sim_telarray programs for Monte Carlo simulations of gamma ray showers, hadronic background and the telescope response. We focus here on gamma ray measurements in the low energy, sub-100 GeV, range. Therefore, we only consider the performance of arrays of several large telescopes. Neglecting the GF effect, we find (in agreement with previous studies) that such arrays have lower energy thresholds, and larger collection areas below 30 GeV, when located at higher altitudes. We point out, however, that in the considered ranges of altitudes and magnetic field intensities, 1800-3600 m a.s.l. and 0-40 μT, respectively, the GF effect has a similar magnitude to this altitude effect. We provide the trigger-level performance parameters of the observatory affected by the GF effect, in particular the collection areas, detection rates and the energy thresholds for all five locations, which information may be useful in the selection of sites for CTA. We also find simple scaling of these parameters with the magnetic field strength, which can be used to assess the magnitude of the GF effect for other sites; in this work we use them to estimate the performance parameters for five sites: South Africa-Beaufort West, USA-Yavapai Ranch, Namibia-Calapanzi, Chile-La Silla and India-Hanle. We roughly investigate the impact of the geophysical conditions on gamma/hadron separation procedures involving image shape and direction cuts. We note that the change of altitude has an opposite effect at the trigger and analysis levels, i.e. gains in triggering efficiency at higher altitudes are partially balanced by losses in the separation efficiency. In turn, a stronger GF spoils both the

  6. Activities of the senspol and NICOLE network concerning field investigation at contaminated sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ree, C.C.D.F. von [GeoDelft, AB Delft (Netherlands); Alcock, S. [Cranfield Univ. of Silsoe, Bedfordshire (United Kingdom)

    2003-07-01

    At a European level several networks can be identified aimed at developments and exchange of knowledge relevant to sustainable management of the subsurface. Based on the common interests in the field of site characterisation and monitoring the SENSPOL and NICOLE networks have established links resulting in cooperation in several project-activities. In this presentation two projects will be addressed: - Seville technicalmeeting (Aznacollar mining site). - Bridging gaps between sensor developers and (end) users in a pragmatic approach (GAPS-project). The goal of the Seville technical meeting was to apply the latest sensing technologies at a site contaminated by metal mining activities, to properly evaluate the advances and limitations in the monitoring of contaminated sites for sustainable land management and to determine further steps to commercial exploitation. Some 17 different instruments have been brought including: - Electrochemical sensors using different forms of anodic stripping voltammetry and constant current chronopotentiometry combined with several types of screen printed electrodes. - An amperometric biosensor using screen printed electrodes, which measures toxicity by inhibition effects on urease and its sensitive to Hg(II), Ag(I), Cu(I) and to a lesser extent to Pb(II), Zn(II) and Cd(II) and a selectrochemical DNA biosensor measuring overall toxicity. - A luminescent bacterial sensors for measuring the bioavailable fraction of Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, As, and Hg, and a bioluminescent fiber optic sensor for Hg and As. - Toxicity testing instruments (Checklight 'ToxScreen Multi-Shot Test, ToxAlert {sup registered} 100 and ToxAlert {sup registered} 10) - A fieldprobe for pH, EC, TDS measurement - A lead automatic analyser AQUAMET using a ion-selective electrode. - Pulse-neutron borehole device in which interaction of neutrons with the surrounding medium can be used to monitor changes. In a two-day field session on the mining site participants were provided

  7. Criteria for identifying and evaluating candidate sites for open-field trials of genetically engineered mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, David M; Alphey, Luke S; McKemey, Andrew; Beech, Camilla; James, Anthony A

    2014-04-01

    Recent laboratory successes in the development of genetically engineered mosquitoes for controlling pathogen transmission have fostered the need for standardized procedures for advancing the technical achievements to practical tools. It is incumbent in many cases for the same scientists doing the in-laboratory discovery research to also take on the initial challenges of developing the pathway that will move the technologies to the field. One of these challenges is having a set of criteria for selecting collaborators and sites for efficacy and safety field trials that combine rigorous science with good ethical and legal practices. Specific site-selection criteria were developed in four categories-Scientific, Regulatory, Community Engagement, and Resources-in anticipation of open-field releases of a transgenic mosquito strain designed to suppress populations of the dengue vector mosquito, Aedes aegypti. The criteria are derived from previous published material, discussions, and personal experiences with the expectation of providing guidance to laboratory scientists for addressing the conceptual and operational considerations for identifying partner researchers and countries with whom to collaborate. These criteria are not intended to be prescriptive nor can they be applied to every circumstance where genetic approaches are proposed for deployment. However, we encourage those involved in the discovery phase of research to consider each criterion during project planning activities, and where appropriate, incorporate them into a "go/no-go" decision-making process for further development and testing of the technologies.

  8. The Field Lysimeter Test Facility (FLTF) at the Hanford Site: Installation and initial tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gee, G.W.; Kirkham, R.R.; Downs, J.L.; Campbell, M.D.

    1989-02-01

    The objectives of this program are to test barrier design concepts and to demonstrate a barrier design that meets established performance criteria for use in isolating wastes disposed of near-surface at the Hanford Site. Specifically, the program is designed to assess how well the barriers perform in controlling biointrusion, water infiltration, and erosion, as well as evaluating interactions between environmental variables and design factors of the barriers. To assess barrier performance and design with respect to infiltration control, field lysimeters and small- and large-scale field plots are planned to test the performance of specific barrier designs under actual and modified (enhanced precipitation) climatic conditions. The Field Lysimeter Test Facility (FLTF) is located in the 600 Area of the Hanford Site just east of the 200 West Area and adjacent to the Hanford Meteorological Station. The FLTF data will be used to assess the effectiveness of selected protective barrier configurations in controlling water infiltration. The facility consists of 14 drainage lysimeters (2 m dia x 3 m deep) and four precision weighing lysimeters (1.5 m x 1.5 m x 1.7 m deep). The lysimeters are buried at grade and aligned in a parallel configuration, with nine lysimeters on each side of an underground instrument chamber. The lysimeters were filled with materials to simulate a multilayer protective barrier system. Data gathered from the FLTF will be used to compare key barrier components and to calibrate and test models for predicting long-term barrier performance

  9. Metal availability in a highly contaminated, dredged-sediment disposal site: field measurements and geochemical modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lions, Julie; Guérin, Valérie; Bataillard, Philippe; van der Lee, Jan; Laboudigue, Agnès

    2010-09-01

    Two complementary approaches were used to characterize arsenic and metal mobilizations from a dredged-sediment disposal site: a detailed field study combined with hydrogeochemical modeling. Contaminants in sediments were found to be mainly present as sulfides subject to oxidation. Secondary phases (carbonates, sulfates, (hydr)oxides) were also observed. Oxidative processes occurred at different rates depending on physicochemical conditions and contaminant contents in the sediment. Two distinct areas were identified on the site, each corresponding to a specific contaminant mobility behavior. In a reducing area, Fe and As were highly soluble and illustrated anoxic behavior. In well-oxygenated material, groundwater was highly contaminated in Zn, Cd and Pb. A third zone in which sediments and groundwater were less contaminated was also characterized. This study enabled us to prioritize remediation work, which should aim to limit infiltration and long-term environmental impact. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Snore site discrimination using statistical moments of free field snoring sounds recorded during sleep nasendoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeton, R J; Wells, I; Ebden, P; Whittet, H B; Clarke, J

    2007-10-01

    The non-invasive measurement of free field snoring sounds to estimate the site of snoring is an important development in the diagnosis, treatment and management of sleep-related breathing disorders. We investigated characteristics of the probability density function by testing the sensitivity of the statistical moments to amplitude patterns in the snoring acoustic signal. Snoring sounds from 15 patients were recorded whilst performing sleep (under anaesthetic) nasendoscopy evaluation. We demonstrated, using a fuzzy 2-means clustering method, that a combination of the statistical dimensionless moment coefficients of skewness and kurtosis could discriminate between pure palatal and non-palatal snoring subject groups.

  11. Savannah River Site management response plan for chemical safety vulnerability field assessment. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahal, E.J.; Murphy, S.L.; Salaymeh, S.R.

    1994-09-01

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) initiative to identify potential chemical safety vulnerabilities in the DOE complex, the Chemical Safety Vulnerability Core Working Group issued a field verification assessment report. While the report concluded that Savannah River Site (SRS) is moving in a positive direction, the report also identified five chemical safety vulnerabilities with broad programmatic impact that are not easily nor quickly remedied. The May 1994 SRS Management Response Plan addressed the five SRS vulnerabilities identified in the field assessment report. The SRS response plan listed observations supporting the vulnerabilities and any actions taken or planned toward resolution. Many of the observations were resolved by simple explanations, such as the existence of implementation plans for Safety Analysis Report updates. Recognizing that correcting individual observations does not suffice in remedying the vulnerabilities, a task team was assembled to address the broader programmatic issues and to recommend corrective actions

  12. Field tests of 2- and 40-tube condensers at the East Mesa Geothermal Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, R.W.; Domingo, N.

    1982-05-01

    Two water-cooled isobutane condensers, one with 2 tubes and one with 40 tubes, were subjected to field tests at the East Mesa Geothermal Test Site to assess relative heat transfer performance in both surface evaporator and direct-contact evaporator modes. The five groups of tests established that field performance was below earlier laboratory-determined levels and that direct-contact evaporator mode performance was poorer than that for the surface evaporator mode. In all test situations, fluted condenser tubes performed better than smooth condenser tubes. Cooling water quality had no significant effect on performance, but brine preflash in the direct-contact mode did promote some relative performance improvement. Important implications of these results for binary geothermal power plants are that (1) working-fluid-side impurities can significantly degrade heat transfer performance of the power plant condensers and (2) provisions for minimizing such impurities may be required.

  13. Moving Field Guides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassie Meador; Mark Twery; Meagan. Leatherbury

    2011-01-01

    The Moving Field Guides (MFG) project is a creative take on site interpretation. Moving Field Guides provide an example of how scientific and artistic endeavors work in parallel. Both begin with keen observations that produce information that must be analyzed, understood, and interpreted. That interpretation then needs to be communicated to others to complete the...

  14. Highly parameterized inversion of groundwater reactive transport for a complex field site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carniato, Luca; Schoups, Gerrit; van de Giesen, Nick; Seuntjens, Piet; Bastiaens, Leen; Sapion, Hans

    2015-02-01

    In this study a numerical groundwater reactive transport model of a shallow groundwater aquifer contaminated with volatile organic compounds is developed. In addition to advective-dispersive transport, the model includes contaminant release from source areas, natural attenuation, abiotic degradation by a permeable reactive barrier at the site, and dilution by infiltrating rain. Aquifer heterogeneity is parameterized using pilot points for hydraulic conductivity, specific yield and groundwater recharge. A methodology is developed and applied to estimate the large number of parameters from the limited data at the field site (groundwater levels, groundwater concentrations of multiple chemical species, point-scale measurements of soil hydraulic conductivity, and lab-scale derived information on chemical and biochemical reactions). The proposed methodology relies on pilot point parameterization of hydraulic parameters and groundwater recharge, a regularization procedure to reconcile the large number of spatially distributed model parameters with the limited field data, a step-wise approach for integrating the different data sets into the model, and high performance computing. The methodology was proven to be effective in reproducing multiple contaminant plumes and in reducing the prior parameter uncertainty of hydraulic conductivity and groundwater recharge. Our results further indicate that contaminant transport predictions are strongly affected by the choice of the groundwater recharge model and flow parameters should be identified using both head and concentration measurements.

  15. Field application of innovative grouting agents for in situ stabilization of buried waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loomis, G.G.; Farnsworth, R.K.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents field applications for two innovative grouting agents that were used to in situ stabilize buried waste sites, via jet grouting. The two grouting agents include paraffin and a proprietary iron oxide based cement grout called TECT. These materials were tested in specially designed cold test pits that simulate buried transuranic waste at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The field demonstrations were performed at the INEL in an area referred to as the Cold Test Pit, which is adjacent to the INEL Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). At the RWMC, 56,000 m 3 of transuranic (TRU) waste is co-mingled with over 170,000 m 3 of soil in shallow land burial. Improving the confinement of this waste is one of the options for final disposition of this waste. Using jet-grouting technology to inject these materials into the pore spaces of buried waste sites results in the creation of buried monolithic waste forms that simultaneously protect the waste from subsidence, while eliminating the migratory potential of hazardous and radioactive contaminants in the waste

  16. Linking Publications to Instruments, Field Campaigns, Sites and Working Groups: The ARM Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troyan, D.; Cialella, A. T.; Gregory, L.; Lazar, K.; Liang, M.; Ma, L.; Tilp, A.; Wagener, R.

    2017-12-01

    For the past 25 years, the ARM Climate Research Facility - a US Department of Energy scientific user facility - has been collecting atmospheric data in different climatic regimes using both in situ and remote instrumentation. Configuration of the facility's components has been designed to improve the understanding and representation, in climate and earth system models, of clouds and aerosols. Placing a premium on long-term continuous data collection resulted in terabytes of data having been collected, stored, and made accessible to any interested person. All data is accessible via the ARM.gov website and the ARM Data Discovery Tool. A team of metadata professionals assign appropriate tags to help facilitate searching the databases for desired data. The knowledge organization tools and concepts are used to create connections between data, instruments, field campaigns, sites, and measurements are familiar to informatics professionals. Ontology, taxonomy, classification, and thesauri are among the customized concepts put into practice for ARM's purposes. In addition to the multitude of data available, there have been approximately 3,000 journal articles that utilize ARM data. These have been linked to specific ARM web pages. Searches of the complete ARM publication database can be done using a separate interface. This presentation describes how ARM data is linked to instruments, sites, field campaigns, and publications through the application of standard knowledge organization tools and concepts.

  17. The use of institutional controls at Department of Energy Oak Ridge Field Office environmental restoration sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, R.K.; Swindle, D.W.; Redfearn, A.; King, A.D.

    1992-01-01

    This report summarizes some of the major issues related to the use of institutional controls at hazardous waste sites under the auspices of the Department of Energy Field Office, Oak Ridge/Environmental Restoration (DOE-OR/ER) Division. In particular, the report addresses the impacts that assumptions regarding institutional controls have on the results and interpretation of the risk assessment, both in the Remedial Investigation (RI) and the Feasibility Study (FS). Environmental restoration activities at DOE-OR/ER sites are primarily driven by CERCLA. Therefore, the report focuses on the approaches and assumptions relating to institutional controls under CERCLA. Also the report briefly outlines approaches adopted under other authorities such as RCRA and radiation regulatory authorities (such as NRC regulations/guidance, DOE orders, and EPA standards) in order to contrast these approaches to those adopted under CERCLA. In order to demonstrate the implications of the use of institutional controls at DOE facilities, this report summarizes the approaches and results of the recent baseline risk assessment for Solid Waste Storage Area 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The report concludes with possible options on the use of institutional controls at DOE-OR/ER sites

  18. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 331 Life Sciences Laboratory Drain Field Septic System. Attachment to Waste Site Reclassification Form 2008-020

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capron, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    The 331 Life Sciences Laboratory Drain Field (LSLDF) septic system waste site consists of a diversion chamber, two septic tanks, a distribution box, and a drain field. This septic system was designed to receive sanitary waste water, from animal studies conducted in the 331-A and 331-B Buildings, for discharge into the soil column. However, field observations and testing suggest the 331 LSLDF septic system did not receive any discharges. In accordance with this evaluation, the confirmatory sampling results support a reclassification of the 331 LSLDF waste site to No Action. This site does not have a deep zone or other condition that would warrant an institutional control in accordance with the 300-FF-2 ROD under the industrial land use scenario

  19. Development of site class and site coefficient maps of Semarang, Indonesia using field shear wave velocity data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Partono Windu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The new Indonesian National Code for seismic resistance design (SNI-03-1726-2012 issued recently utilizes seismic response spectra for the whole area of the country. Site class and site coefficient are two parameters needed for designing response spectra. Site class can be estimated using average standard penetration test (N-SPT, average shear wave velocity (Vs and average un-drained shear strength (Su of top 30 meter soil deposit. Site coefficients can be predicted using probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA by implementing total probability theorem. To perform PSHA, Vs30 is a parameter needed for calculating ground motion at bedrock elevation. This paper presents the results of PSHA and site class analysis using Vs30 values estimated based on N-SPT results collected from 265 boring locations in Semarang. Seismic data in a radius of 500 km from Semarang were collected for PSHA. Site class and site coefficient maps are then developed for the whole study area.

  20. Physicochemical and mineralogical characterization of soil-saprolite cores from a field research site, Tennessee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Ji-Won; Roh, Yul; Phelps, Tommy J; Phillips, Debra H; Watson, David B; Kim, Young-Jin; Brooks, Scott C

    2006-01-01

    Site characterization is an essential initial step in determining the feasibility of remedial alternatives at hazardous waste sites. Physicochemical and mineralogical characterization of U-contaminated soils in deeply weathered saprolite at Area 2 of the DOE Field Research Center (FRC) site, Oak Ridge, TN, was accomplished to examine the feasibility of bioremediation. Concentrations of U in soil-saprolite (up to 291 mg kg(-1) in oxalate-extractable U(o)) were closely related to low pH (ca. 4-5), high effective cation exchange capacity without Ca (64.7-83.2 cmol(c) kg(-1)), amorphous Mn content (up to 9910 mg kg(-1)), and the decreased presence of relative clay mineral contents in the bulk samples (i.e., illite 2.5-12 wt. %, average 32 wt. %). The pH of the fill material ranged from 7.0 to 10.5, whereas the pH of the saprolite ranged from 4.5 to 8. Uranium concentration was highest (about 300 mg kg(-1)) at around 6 m below land surface near the saprolite-fill interface. The pH of ground water at Area 2 tended to be between 6 and 7 with U concentrations of about 0.9 to 1.7 mg L(-1). These site specific characteristics of Area 2, which has lower U and nitrate contamination levels and more neutral ground water pH compared with FRC Areas 1 and 3 (ca. 5.5 and microorganisms may be possible.

  1. Effect of Guide Field in Localization of Whistler Wave and Turbulent Spectrum in Magnetic Reconnection Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, N.; Sharma, R. P.; Uma, R.

    2017-12-01

    Whistler waves have ample of observations in the magnetosphere near the dayside magnetopause. Also, the role of whistler waves is well established in the context of magnetic reconnection as well as turbulence generation. In the present work, we examine the combined effect of guide field and nonlinearity in the development of turbulence in magnetic reconnection sites. We have derived the dynamical equation of 3D whistler wave propagating through Harris sheet assuming that background number density and background field are perturbed. The nonlinear dynamical equation is then solved numerically using pseudo spectral method and finite difference method. Simulation results represent the nonlinear evolution of X-O field line in the presence of nonlinearity, which causes the generation of turbulence. When the system reaches quasi steady state, we have evaluated power spectrum in magnetopause and it shows two different scaling having k-3/2 at larger saclesand k-3 at smaller scales. Energy distribution at smaller scales leads to the formation of thermal tail of energetic particles. The energy of these electrons is also calculated and comes out to be in the order of 100 keV.

  2. Estimating field-scale soil water dynamics at a heterogeneous site using multi-channel GPR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Pan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We explore the feasibility to quantify the field-scale soil water dynamics through time series of GPR (ground-penetrating radar measurements, which bridge the gap between point measurements and field measurements. Working on a 40 m × 50 m area in a heterogeneous agricultural field, we obtain a time series of radargrams after a heavy rainfall event. The data are analysed to simultaneously yield (i a three-dimensional representation of the subsurface architecture and (ii the total soil water volume between the surface and a reflection boundary associated with the presence of paleo sand dunes or clay inclusions in a rather uniform sand matrix. We assess the precision and the accuracy of these quantities and conclude that the method is sensitive enough to capture the spatial structure of the changing soil water content in a three-dimensional heterogeneous soil during a short-duration infiltration event. While the sensitivity of the method needs to be improved, it already produced useful information to understand the observed patterns in crop height and it yielded insight into the dynamics of soil water content at this site including the effect of evaporation.

  3. Technical procedures for implementation of background environmental radioactivity site studies, Deaf Smith County site, Texas: Environmental Field Program: Preliminary draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-09-01

    The purpose of this technical procedure is to describe the method for performing field maintenance on low-volume air samplers and the associated topics of personnel and organization, procedure preparation, documentation, and quality assurance. The scope of this procedure includes the maintenance of low-volume air samplers in the field and does not encompass maintenance performed by the manufacturer

  4. Corrective measures technology for shallow land burial at arid sites: field studies of biointrusion barriers and erosion control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyhan, J.W.; Hakonson, T.E.; Lopez, E.A.

    1986-03-01

    The field research program involving corrective measures technologies for arid shallow land burial (SLB) sites is described. Results of field testing of a biointrusion barrier installed at a close-out waste disposal site (Area B) at Los Alamos are presented. Soil erosion and infiltration of water into a simulated trench cap with various surface treatments were measured, and the interaction between erosion control and subsurface water dynamics is discussed relative to waste management.

  5. Implementation of a DOD ELAP Conforming Quality System at a FUSRAP Site Field Temporary Radiological Screening Laboratory - 13500

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winters, M.S.; McElheny, G.; Houston, L.M.; Masset, M.R.; Spector, H.L.

    2013-01-01

    A case study is presented on specific program elements that supported the transition of a temporary field radiological screening lab to an accredited operation capable of meeting client quality objectives for definitive results data. The temporary field lab is located at the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program Linde Site in Tonawanda, NY. The site is undergoing remediation under the direction of the United States Army Corps of Engineers - Buffalo District, with Cabrera Services Inc. as the remediation contractor and operator of the on-site lab. Analysis methods employed in the on-site lab include gross counting of alpha and beta particle activity on swipes and air filters and gamma spectroscopy of soils and other solid samples. A discussion of key program elements and lessons learned may help other organizations considering pursuit of accreditation for on-site screening laboratories. (authors)

  6. Effect of mechanical site preparation treatments on oak survival in a retired field afforestation effort -- first-year results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew B. Self; Andrew W. Ezell; Damon B. Hollis; Derek. Alkire

    2011-01-01

    Mechanical site preparation is frequently proposed to alleviate poor soil conditions when afforesting retired agricultural fields. Without management of soil problems, oak seedlings planted in these areas may exhibit poor survival. While mechanical site preparation methods currently employed in hardwood afforestation are proven, there is a substantial void in research...

  7. IAEA workshop and field trial at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hembree, D.M. Jr.; Ross, H.H.; Carter, J.A.

    1995-03-01

    In March 1994, members of the International Safeguards Department in the National Security Program Office (NSPO) hosted an environmental monitoring field trial workshop for International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspectors. The workshop was held at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site and its primary purpose was to train the inspectors in the techniques needed for effective environmental sample collection and handling. The workshop emphasized both sampling theory and practice. First, detailed techniques for swipe, vegetation, soil, biota, and water-associated sampling were covered in the classroom. Subsequently, the inspectors were divided into three groups for actual sample collection in and around the K-25 locale. The collected samples were processed by the Department of Energy (DOE) Network of Analytical Laboratories using established analytical techniques. This activity is part of the IAEA ''Programme 93+2 in. assessment of measures to enhance IAEA safeguards

  8. Transferred hyperfine fields at the Y sites in Y-Co compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figiel, H.; Oppelt, A.; Dormann, E.; Buschow, K.H.J.

    1976-01-01

    The Y hyperfine fields in YCo 3 , Y 2 Co 7 , YCo 5 , and Y 2 Co 17 are derived by means of NMR spin echo measurements. They are closely correlated to the different crystallographic sites of the Y atoms but seem not to be related to the magnitude of the magnetic moments of the surrounding Co neighbours. This may be indicative of a short range Co-Y hyperfine interaction. For Y 2 Co 17 the pure hexagonal stacking did not occur, stacking faults and/or disorder between Co dumb-bells and Y atoms being always present. Y 2 Co 17 could be stabilized almost completely, however, in the rhombohedral structure. (author)

  9. IAEA workshop and field trial at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hembree, D.M. Jr.; Ross, H.H.; Carter, J.A.

    1995-03-01

    In March 1994, members of the International Safeguards Department in the National Security Program Office (NSPO) hosted an environmental monitoring field trial workshop for International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspectors. The workshop was held at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site and its primary purpose was to train the inspectors in the techniques needed for effective environmental sample collection and handling. The workshop emphasized both sampling theory and practice. First, detailed techniques for swipe, vegetation, soil, biota, and water-associated sampling were covered in the classroom. Subsequently, the inspectors were divided into three groups for actual sample collection in and around the K-25 locale. The collected samples were processed by the Department of Energy (DOE) Network of Analytical Laboratories using established analytical techniques. This activity is part of the IAEA ``Programme 93+2 in. assessment of measures to enhance IAEA safeguards.

  10. Safety Assessment of a Hypothetical Near Surface Disposal at PPTN Serpong Site: Near-Field Modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubis, Erwansyah

    2000-01-01

    The near field modeling of a hypothetical surface disposal at Serpong site has been performed. Considering a realistic downward water flux of 10 -1 0 m/s through the conditioned waste zone and the concrete barriers, transport of radionuclide by advection and dispersion below the bottom of the repository was calculated using PORFLOW computer code. The result shows that the highest fluxes were observed H-3, Cs-135, Nb-94 and Ni-59, all about 10 4 Bq/a/m 2 . Intermediate fluxes were obtained for Cs-137, I-129 and Co-60. Lowest were due to Ni-63 and C-14. The effect on radionuclide fluxes by having an unsaturated soil of 1.0-m depth below the bottom of the repository also was investigated. The results indicate that the highest fluxes are due to Cs-135, Nb-94 and Ni- 59, approximately 10 4 Bq/a/m 2 . The fluxes owing to H-3 has decreased to 10 -9 Bq/a/m 2 owing to decay. Radionuclides that are not absorbed onto lateritic clay soil, C-14 and I-129 are not decreased in flux. All other radionuclides has significantly smaller fluxes compared to the ones calculated at the bottom of the repository. This indicates that the lateric clay soil at Serpong site plays an important role in retarding and dispersing the radionuclide migration towards the ground water. (author)

  11. Dynamic temperature fields under Mars landing sites and implications for supporting microbial life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Richard; Kral, Tim; Chevrier, Vincent; Pilgrim, Robert; Roe, Larry

    2010-01-01

    While average temperatures on Mars may be too low to support terrestrial life-forms or aqueous liquids, diurnal peak temperatures over most of the planet can be high enough to provide for both, down to a few centimeters beneath the surface for some fraction of the time. A thermal model was applied to the Viking 1, Viking 2, Pathfinder, Spirit, and Opportunity landing sites to demonstrate the dynamic temperature fields under the surface at these well-characterized locations. A benchmark temperature of 253 K was used as a lower limit for possible metabolic activity, which corresponds to the minimum found for specific terrestrial microorganisms. Aqueous solutions of salts known to exist on Mars can provide liquid solutions well below this temperature. Thermal modeling has shown that 253 K is reached beneath the surface at diurnal peak heating for at least some parts of the year at each of these landing sites. Within 40 degrees of the equator, 253 K beneath the surface should occur for at least some fraction of the year; and, within 20 degrees , it will be seen for most of the year. However, any life-form that requires this temperature to thrive must also endure daily excursions to far colder temperatures as well as periods of the year where 253 K is never reached at all.

  12. On-site laboratory support of Oak Ridge National Laboratory environmental restoration field activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burn, J.L.E.

    1995-07-01

    A remedial investigation/feasibility study has been undertaken at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Bechtel National, Inc. and partners CH2M Hill, Ogden Environmental and Energy Services, and PEER Consultants are contracted to Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, performing this work for ORNL's Environmental Restoration (ER) Program. An on-site Close Support Laboratory (CSL) established at the ER Field Operations Facility has evolved into a laboratory where quality analytical screening results can be provided rapidly (e.g., within 24 hours of sampling). CSL capabilities include three basic areas: radiochemistry, chromatography, and wet chemistry. Radiochemical analyses include gamma spectroscopy, tritium and carbon-14 screens using liquid scintillation analysis, and gross alpha and beta counting. Cerenkov counting and crown-ether-based separation are the two rapid methods used for radiostrontium determination in water samples. By extending count times where appropriate, method detection limits can match those achieved by off-site contract laboratories. Volatile organic compounds are detected by means of gas chromatography using either headspace or purge and trap sample introduction (based on EPA 601/602). Ionic content of water samples is determined using ion chromatography and alkalinity measurement. Ion chromatography is used to quantify both anions (based on EPA 300) and cations. Wet chemistry procedures performed at the CSL include alkalinity, pH (water and soil), soil resistivity, and dissolved/suspended solids. Besides environmental samples, the CSL routinely screens health and safety and waste management samples. The cost savings of the CSL are both direct and indirect

  13. Spatial distribution of an uranium-respiring betaproteobacterium at the Rifle, CO field research site.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole M Koribanics

    Full Text Available The Department of Energy's Integrated Field-Scale Subsurface Research Challenge Site (IFRC at Rifle, Colorado was created to address the gaps in knowledge on the mechanisms and rates of U(VI bioreduction in alluvial sediments. Previous studies at the Rifle IFRC have linked microbial processes to uranium immobilization during acetate amendment. Several key bacteria believed to be involved in radionuclide containment have been described; however, most of the evidence implicating uranium reduction with specific microbiota has been indirect. Here, we report on the cultivation of a microorganism from the Rifle IFRC that reduces uranium and appears to utilize it as a terminal electron acceptor for respiration with acetate as electron donor. Furthermore, this bacterium constitutes a significant proportion of the subsurface sediment community prior to biostimulation based on TRFLP profiling of 16S rRNA genes. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicates that the microorganism is a betaproteobacterium with a high similarity to Burkholderia fungorum. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of a betaproteobacterium capable of uranium respiration. Our results indicate that this microorganism occurs commonly in alluvial sediments located between 3-6 m below ground surface at Rifle and may play a role in the initial reduction of uranium at the site.

  14. Personal UV exposure on a ski-field at an alpine site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siani, A. M.; Casale, G. R.; Diémoz, H.; Agnesod, G.; Kimlin, M. G.; Lang, C. A.; Colosimo, A.

    2008-02-01

    Mountain sites experience enhanced ambient UV radiation levels due to the concurrent effects of shorter radiation path-length, low aerosol load and high reflectivity of the snow surfaces. This study was encouraged by the possibility to collect data of personal UV exposure in the mountainous areas of Italy, for the first time. Personal UV exposure (expressed in terms of Exposure Ratio, ER) of two groups of volunteers (ski instructors and skiers) at the Alpine site of La Thuile (Valle d'Aosta region, Italy) was assessed using polysulphone dosimetry which was tested in a mountainous snow-covered environment. In addition measurements of biological markers of individual response to UV exposure such as skin colorimetric parameters were carried out. It was found that snow and altitude of study site affect calibration curves of polysulphone dosimeters in comparison to a situation without snow. The median ER, taking into account the whole sample, is 0.60 in winter, with a range of 0.29 to 1.46, and 1.02 in spring, ranging from 0.46 to 1.72. There are no differences in exposures across skiers and instructors in spring while in winter skiers experience lower values. UV exposures are not sensitive to the use of sunscreen across instructor/skier group by day or by seasons or by photo-type. With regard to colorimetric parameters, the main result was that both skiers and instructors had on average significantly lower values of L* and b* after exposure i.e. becoming darker but the inappropriate sunscreen use did not reveal any changes in skin colorimetric parameters except in one spring day. In conclusions UV intensities on the ski-fields are often significantly higher than those on horizontal surfaces. Given the high levels of exposure observed in the present study, dedicated public heath messages on the correct sunscreen use should be adopted.

  15. A description of LUSTRA's common field sites[Forestry land use and greenhouse gas emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berggren, Dan [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Soil Sciences; Bergkvist, Bo [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Ecology; Johansson, Maj-Britt; Melkerud, Per-Arne; Nilsson, Aake; Olsson, Mats [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Soils; Langvall, Ola [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Lammhult (Sweden). Asa Experimental Forest; Majdi, Hooshang [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Research; Weslien, Per [Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden). Botanical Inst.

    2004-07-01

    participate on the global arena, and thus LUSTRA has gradually put more focus on the Kyoto process. LUSTRA was evaluated during spring 2002 and the general overall statement was that 'The ambitious goals of the LUSTRA program are very good and seem to be well understood by the participating researchers. However, for a second phase a focus on synthesis and synergy is recommended'. In LUSTRA we are performing integrated research on C fluxes at three common field sites (CFS) situated in a south-north transect in Sweden: Asa, Knottaasen and Flakaliden. Measurements started summer 2000. The intention was to establish a climate gradient through Sweden but keep other environmental parameters rather similar. Also within each site the ambition was to get a hydrological gradient going from dry, over mesic to moist conditions, i.e. from deep lying ground water level to shallow groundwater. According to the advises by the reviewers of LUSTRA phase 1, more focus will be on syntheses during LUSTRA phase 2 (2003-2006). However, measurements at the CFS will be continued during 2003 and 2004. The objectives of this paper are (i) to give a general description of the sites, (ii) to describe the abiotic measurements made at the different sites, including the data base, (iii) to describe the methods used to obtain background information about soils and vegetation (C pools and fluxes) and (iv) to present the background information about soils and vegetation.

  16. Controlled soil warming powered by alternative energy for remote field sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, Jill F; Henkelman, Jonathan; Allen, Kirsten; Helgason, Warren; Bedard-Haughn, Angela

    2013-01-01

    Experiments using controlled manipulation of climate variables in the field are critical for developing and testing mechanistic models of ecosystem responses to climate change. Despite rapid changes in climate observed in many high latitude and high altitude environments, controlled manipulations in these remote regions have largely been limited to passive experimental methods with variable effects on environmental factors. In this study, we tested a method of controlled soil warming suitable for remote field locations that can be powered using alternative energy sources. The design was tested in high latitude, alpine tundra of southern Yukon Territory, Canada, in 2010 and 2011. Electrical warming probes were inserted vertically in the near-surface soil and powered with photovoltaics attached to a monitoring and control system. The warming manipulation achieved a stable target warming of 1.3 to 2 °C in 1 m(2) plots while minimizing disturbance to soil and vegetation. Active control of power output in the warming plots allowed the treatment to closely match spatial and temporal variations in soil temperature while optimizing system performance during periods of low power supply. Active soil heating with vertical electric probes powered by alternative energy is a viable option for remote sites and presents a low-disturbance option for soil warming experiments. This active heating design provides a valuable tool for examining the impacts of soil warming on ecosystem processes.

  17. Identification of new IS711 insertion sites in Brucella abortus field isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moriyón Ignacio

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brucellosis is a zoonosis caused by Brucella spp., a group of highly homogeneous bacteria. The insertion sequence IS711 is characteristic of these bacteria, and occurs in variable numbers and positions, but always constant within a given species. This species-associated polymorphism is used in molecular typing and identification. Field isolates of B. abortus, the most common species infecting cattle, typically carry seven IS711 copies (one truncated. Thus far, IS711 transposition has only been shown in vitro and only for B. ovis and B. pinnipedialis, two species carrying a high number of IS711 copies, but never in other Brucella species, neither in vitro nor in field strains. Results We found several B. abortus strains isolated from milk and aborted fetuses that carried additional IS711 copies in two hitherto undescribed insertion sites: one in an intergenic region near to the 3' end of a putative lactate permease gene and the other interrupting the sequence of a marR transcriptional regulator gene. Interestingly, the second type of insertion was identified in isolates obtained repeatedly from the same herd after successive brucellosis outbreaks, an observation that proves the stability and virulence of the new genotype under natural conditions. Sequence analyses revealed that the new copies probably resulted from the transposition of a single IS711 copy common to all Brucella species sequenced so far. Conclusions Our results show that the replicative transposition of IS711 can occur under field conditions. Therefore, it represents an active mechanism for the emergence of genetic diversity in B. abortus thus contributing to intra-species genetic polymorphism.

  18. Identification of new IS711 insertion sites in Brucella abortus field isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancilla, Marcos; Ulloa, Marcos; López-Goñi, Ignacio; Moriyón, Ignacio; María Zárraga, Ana

    2011-08-03

    Brucellosis is a zoonosis caused by Brucella spp., a group of highly homogeneous bacteria. The insertion sequence IS711 is characteristic of these bacteria, and occurs in variable numbers and positions, but always constant within a given species. This species-associated polymorphism is used in molecular typing and identification. Field isolates of B. abortus, the most common species infecting cattle, typically carry seven IS711 copies (one truncated). Thus far, IS711 transposition has only been shown in vitro and only for B. ovis and B. pinnipedialis, two species carrying a high number of IS711 copies, but never in other Brucella species, neither in vitro nor in field strains. We found several B. abortus strains isolated from milk and aborted fetuses that carried additional IS711 copies in two hitherto undescribed insertion sites: one in an intergenic region near to the 3' end of a putative lactate permease gene and the other interrupting the sequence of a marR transcriptional regulator gene. Interestingly, the second type of insertion was identified in isolates obtained repeatedly from the same herd after successive brucellosis outbreaks, an observation that proves the stability and virulence of the new genotype under natural conditions. Sequence analyses revealed that the new copies probably resulted from the transposition of a single IS711 copy common to all Brucella species sequenced so far. Our results show that the replicative transposition of IS711 can occur under field conditions. Therefore, it represents an active mechanism for the emergence of genetic diversity in B. abortus thus contributing to intra-species genetic polymorphism.

  19. Hurricane Sandy's Fingerprint: Ripple Bedforms at an Inner Continental Shelf Sorted Bedform Field Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuVal, C.; Trembanis, A. C.; Beaudoin, J. D.; Schmidt, V. E.; Mayer, L. A.

    2013-12-01

    The hydrodynamics and seabed morphodynamics on the inner continental shelf and near shore environments have increasing relevance with continued development of near shore structures, offshore energy technologies and artificial reef construction. Characterizing the stresses on and response of the seabed near and around seabed objects will inform best practices for structural design, seabed mine and unexploded ordnance detection, and archaeological and benthic habitat studies. As part of an ONR funded project, Delaware's Redbird Reef is being studied for object scour and sorted bedform morphodynamics (Trembanis et al., in press). Central to this study are the effects of large storm events, such as Hurricane Sandy, which have had significant impact on the seafloor. Previous studies of inner shelf bedform dynamics have typically focused on near bed currents and bed stressors (e.g. Trembanis et al., 2004), sorted bedforms (e.g. Green et al., 2004) and object scour (e.g. Quinn, 2006; Trembanis et al., 2007; Mayer et al., 2007), but our understanding of the direct effects of objects and object scour on bedform morphodynamics is still incomplete. With prominent sorted bedform ripple fields, the Delaware Redbird artificial reef site, composed of 997 former New York City subway cars, as well as various military vehicles, tugboats, barges and ballasted tires, has made an ideal study location (Raineault et al., 2013 and 2011). Acoustic mapping of the Redbird reef three days prior to Sandy and two days after the following nor'easter, captured the extensive effects of the storms to the site, while acoustic Doppler current profilers characterized both the waves and bottom currents generated by the storm events. Results of the post-Sandy survey support the theory of sorted bedform evolution proposed by Murray and Thieler (2004). Acoustic imagery analysis indicates a highly energized and mobile bed during the storms, leading to self-organization of bedforms and creation of large

  20. Technical procedures for water resources: Volume 3, Environmental Field Program, Deaf Smith County Site, Texas: Final draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-08-01

    To ensure that the environmental field program comprehensively addresses the issues and requirements of the project, a site study plan (SSP) has been prepared for Water Resources (ONWI, 1987). This technical procedure (TP) has been developed to implement the field program described in the Water Resources Site Study Plan. This procedure provides the general method for the field collection of water and sediment samples from playa lakes using an Alpha horizontal type sampler or equivalent or a peristaltic pump for water and a KB-coring devise or ponar grab for sediments. The samples will be preserved and then shipped to a laboratory for analysis. The water quality and sediment samples will be collected as part of the surface-water quality field study described in the Site Plan for Water Resources. 15 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  1. Field Summary Report for Remedial Investigation of Hanford Site Releases to the Columbia River, Hanford Site, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L.C. Hulstrom

    2010-09-28

    This report documents field activity associated with the collection, preparation, and shipment of fish samples. The purpose of the report is to describe the sampling locations, identify samples collected, and describe any modifications and additions made to the sampling and analysis plan.

  2. How operating room efficiency is understood in a surgical team: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakelian, Erebouni; Gunningberg, Lena; Larsson, Jan

    2011-02-01

    Building surgical teams is one attempt to ensure the health-care system becomes more efficient, but how is 'efficiency' understood or interpreted? The aim was to study how organized surgical team members and their leaders understood operating room efficiency. Qualitative study. A 1100-bed Swedish university hospital. Eleven participants, nine team members from the same team and their two leaders were interviewed. The analysis was performed according to phenomenography, a research approach that aims to discover variations in peoples' understanding of a phenomenon. Seven ways of understanding operating room efficiency were identified: doing one's best from one's prerequisites, enjoying work and adjusting it to the situation, interacting group performing parallel tasks, working with minimal resources to produce desired results, fast work with preserved quality, long-term effects for patient care and a relative concept. When talking about the quality and benefits of delivered care, most team members invoked the patient as the central focus. Despite seven ways of understanding efficiency between the team members, they described their team as efficient. The nurses and assistant nurses were involved in the production and discussed working in a timely manner more than the leaders. The seven ways of understanding operating room efficiency appear to represent both organization-oriented and individual-oriented understanding of that concept in surgical teams. The patient is in focus and efficiency is understood as maintaining quality of care and measuring benefits of care for the patients.

  3. A multidisciplinary fractured rock characterization study at Raymond field site, Raymond, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karasaki, Kenzi; Freifeld, Barry; Cohen, Andrew; Cook, Paul; Vasco, Don; Grossenbacher, Ken

    2001-01-01

    A dedicated field site was developed and a suite of experiments were conducted in the Sierra Nevada foothills, near the town of Raymond, California to develop and test a multi-disciplinary approach to the characterization of groundwater flow and transport in fractured rocks. A wealth of geologic, hydrologic and geophysical data was collected at the site using a variety of unique tools. A cluster of nine approximately 90 m deep boreholes were drilled at the site in a V-shaped pattern with an angle of 60 degrees. The boreholes are spaced 7.5, 15, 30, and 60 meters from the central borehole. Various geophysical and hydrologic tests were conducted in and between these boreholes. Integration of cross-hole radar and seismic tomography, borehole flow surveys and images from a new digital borehole scanner indicated that groundwater flow is mainly confined to a few sub-horizontal fracture zones. A unique suite of hydraulic tests were conducted, in which three to four intervals in each of the nine boreholes were isolated using pneumatic packers. Some 130 injection tests were conducted, and more than 4,100 cross-hole transient pressure measurements were obtained. A computer algorithm was developed to analyze such massive interference data systematically. As a result of the analysis, an image of the fracture connections emerged, which is consistent with the geophysical data. High precision tiltmeters were effective in remotely characterizing the preferential flow path. Several radial convergent tracer tests were conducted by injecting a mixture of several conservative tracers and one sorbing tracer: deuterium, fluorescein, lithium bromide and polystyrene micro-spheres. Some differences between the breakthrough curves are observed, which may be due to possible differences among so-called 'conservative' tracers. Some characterization tools were found to be more effective than others in locating flowing fractures. However, no single tool was almighty. Characterization of

  4. Research plan and preliminary results - A field research site for emerging contaminants in Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnoebelen, Douglas J.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Barber, Larry B.; Furlong, Edward T.; Meyer, Michael; Skopec, M.

    2006-01-01

    Research has recently documented the prevalence of a wide variety of pharmaceuticals and other emerging contaminants (ECs) in streams across the United States. Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) have been found to be an important source and collection point of ECs to streams as many ECs are incompletely removed during treatment. To investigate the complex in-stream processes (e.g., dilution, sorption, degradation, dispersion, etc.) that can affect ECs following their input from a WWTP and determining if such input is having an effect on the aquatic ecosystem requires the integration of multi-disciplinary efforts at a carefully selected field site. Preliminary work has identified an 8-km reach of Fourmile Creek in central Iowa as an ideal research site to investigate such important research questions pertaining to ECs. Unique aspects of Fourmile Creek included: (1) it single source effluent-dominated stream, (2) background data document the input of a wide variety of ECs from WWTP discharge, (3) small basin size, (4) relatively simple flow system, (5) background data suggest that undefined processes are taking place decreasing the level of select ECs during stream transport, (6) the WWTP uses a treatment technology (activated sludge) typical of many towns in Iowa and the United States (7) a hydrogeologic setting of a low-gradient, small stream (average discharge less than 1.41 m³/s) in glacial drift is typical of many areas in Iowa and across the Midwest, and (8) the existence of a low-head clam approximately 2 km upstream of the WWTP outfall allowing more accurate "above WWTP" and "below WWTP" comparisons in aquatic ecosystems. Furthermore, the WWTP is scheduled to close by 2011 providing a unique opportunity to determine how stream hydrology, water chemistry and aquatic biota react to the removal of the primary source of flow and ECs in this system. This will allow a novel "before" and "after" assessment not previously available in EC research. Research to date

  5. Characteristics of plant concentration ratios assessed in a 64-site field survey of 23 elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheppard, S.C.; Evenden, W.G.

    1990-01-01

    Many of the statistical characteristics of plant concentration ratios (CRs) and translocation factors (TFs) have not been critically assessed, especially in field surveys. The statistical characteristics, particularly the measures of variation, are important for stochastic modelling of plant uptake. The CR and TF values for 23 naturally occurring elements throughout the geographic range of one plant species, blueberries (Vaccinium angustifolium), in Canada were surveyed. Although the ratios imply linear relationships, the numerator concentrations were not closely correlated with the denominator concentrations. The variation in the ratios was not clearly related to the means or to characteristics of the elements. The overall geometric standard deviation for CRs was 2.5 and for TFs was 1.6. The values of CR were intercorrelated for certain groups of elements and these groups reflected the periodic classification of elements. Thus, correlation between elements in stochastic models, which may reduce overall variability, is valid. Site variables such as soil pH, soil bulk density, soil fertility and plant growth condition were only slightly useful in statistically explaining some of the variation in CR values. (author)

  6. Field Measurements at River and Tidal Current Sites for Hydrokinetic Energy Development: Best Practices Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neary, Vincent S [ORNL; Gunawan, Budi [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)

    2011-09-01

    In this report, existing data collection techniques and protocols for characterizing open channel flows are reviewed and refined to further address the needs of the MHK industry. The report provides an overview of the hydrodynamics of river and tidal channels, and the working principles of modern acoustic instrumentation, including best practices in remote sensing methods that can be applied to hydrokinetic energy site characterization. Emphasis is placed upon acoustic Doppler velocimeter (ADV) and acoustic-Doppler current profiler (ADCP) instruments, as these represent the most practical and economical tools for use in the MHK industry. Incorporating the best practices as found in the literature, including the parameters to be measured, the instruments to be deployed, the instrument deployment strategy, and data post-processing techniques. The data collected from this procedure aims to inform the hydro-mechanical design of MHK systems with respect to energy generation and structural loading, as well as provide reference hydrodynamics for environmental impact studies. The standard metrics and protocols defined herein can be utilized to guide field experiments with MHK systems.

  7. Characteristics of plant concentration ratios assessed in a 64-site field survey of 23 elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheppard, S.C.; Evenden, W.G. (Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Pinawa, MB (Canada). Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment)

    1990-01-01

    Many of the statistical characteristics of plant concentration ratios (CRs) and translocation factors (TFs) have not been critically assessed, especially in field surveys. The statistical characteristics, particularly the measures of variation, are important for stochastic modelling of plant uptake. The CR and TF values for 23 naturally occurring elements throughout the geographic range of one plant species, blueberries (Vaccinium angustifolium), in Canada were surveyed. Although the ratios imply linear relationships, the numerator concentrations were not closely correlated with the denominator concentrations. The variation in the ratios was not clearly related to the means or to characteristics of the elements. The overall geometric standard deviation for CRs was 2.5 and for TFs was 1.6. The values of CR were intercorrelated for certain groups of elements and these groups reflected the periodic classification of elements. Thus, correlation between elements in stochastic models, which may reduce overall variability, is valid. Site variables such as soil pH, soil bulk density, soil fertility and plant growth condition were only slightly useful in statistically explaining some of the variation in CR values. (author).

  8. Nitrogen supply affects arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization of Artemisia vulgaris in a phosphate-polluted field site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanke, Verena; Renker, Carsten; Wagner, Markus; Füllner, Kerstin; Held, Matthias; Kuhn, Arnd J; Buscot, François

    2005-06-01

    Root colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) was investigated in industrially polluted grassland characterized by exceptionally high phosphorus levels (up to 120 g kg(-1) soil). Along a pollution-induced nitrogen gradient, soil and tissue element concentrations of Artemisia vulgaris plants and their mycorrhizal status were determined. Additionally, we compared mycorrhization rates and above-ground biomass of A. vulgaris at N-fertilized and control plots in the N-poor area. Despite high soil and tissue P concentrations, plants from N-deficient plots, which were characterized by low tissue N concentrations and N : P ratios, were strongly colonized by AMF, whereas at a plot with comparable P levels, but higher soil and plant N concentrations and N : P ratios, mycorrhization rates were significantly lower. Correlation analyses revealed a negative relationship between percentage root colonization of A. vulgaris by AMF and both tissue N concentration and N : P ratio. Accordingly, in the fertilization experiment, control plants had higher mycorrhization rates than N-fertilized plants, whereas the species attained higher biomass at N-fertilized plots. The results suggest that N deficiency stimulates root colonization by AMF in this extraordinarily P-rich field site.

  9. Choosing a Field: How Graduate Student Choices of Field Sites Reflect Different Ideas of "Real" Anthropology in Colombia and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macia, Laura

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the decisions and motivations of graduate students in cultural anthropology when defining the field sites and topics of their final projects. The decisions among students at the Universidad de los Andes in Colombia are contrasted with those at the University of Pittsburgh in the United States. A review of recent final projects…

  10. Predicted effectiveness of in-situ activated carbon amendment for field sediment sites with variable site- and compound-specific characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yongju, E-mail: ychoi81@snu.ac.kr [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Yeo-Myoung; Luthy, Richard G. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-4020 (United States); Werner, David [School of Civil Engineering and Geosciences, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU (United Kingdom)

    2016-01-15

    Highlights: • The model accounts for the heterogeneity of AC distribution in field applications. • AC amendment effectiveness is predicted for ten sediment sites. • An HOC mass transfer model and calibrated parameters provide reliable predictions. • AC amendment is predicted to be effective for most sites. • K{sub ow}, K{sub d}, and equilibrium-based calculations are useful indicators. - Abstract: A growing body of evidence shows that the effectiveness of in-situ activated carbon (AC) amendment to treat hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) in sediments can be reliably predicted using a mass transfer modeling approach. This study analyzes available field data for characterizing AC-sediment distribution after mechanical mixing of AC into sediment. Those distributions are used to develop an HOC mass transfer model that accounts for plausible heterogeneities resulting from mixing of AC into sediment. The model is applied to ten field sites in the U.S. and Europe with 2–3 representative HOCs from each site using site- and HOC-specific model parameters collected from the literature. The model predicts that the AC amendment reduces the pore-water HOC concentrations by more than 95% fifteen years after AC deployment for 18 of the 25 total simulated cases when the AC is applied at doses of 1.5 times sediment total organic carbon content with an upper limit of 5 dry wt%. The predicted effectiveness shows negative correlation with the HOC octanol–water partitioning coefficients and the sediment-water distribution coefficients, and positive correlation with the effectiveness calculated based on equilibrium coefficients of sediment and AC, suggesting the possibility for use of the values for screening-level assessments.

  11. The former Semipalatinsk Test Site survey by field γ-spectrometry method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pakhomov, S.A.; Dubasov, Yu.V.; Biryukov, E.I.; Gavrilin, S.S.; Ilyin, L.I.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Field γ-spectrometry method is the most productive method of getting an information on gamma-irradiating radionuclides contents in objects under survey. For many years the Radium Institute was the most active participant of works on radiation survey of the Semipalatinsk Test Site, field γ-spectrometry method including. In field γ-spectrometry method realization the existence of corresponding apparatus, and methodic software is supposed to be allowing to carry out both measurement, recording of γ-spectrometry energetic characteristics in field conditions and final treatment (using corresponding physical models) ensuring obtaining the information on radionuclides' contents. Different variants of such apparatus were developed and made at the Radium Institute. Under conditions of complex spectral structure and high intensity existence a portable variant of Ge(Li)-detector spectrometer fed by alkaline accumulators and allowing to record a spectrum at high load was elaborated. For walk γ-survey in common with the University two variants of portable spectrometers 'Skif-3' were elaborated: one of them with a standard scintillation detector on the base of Nal(Ti) crystal, having the size of 63x63 mm, and the other is an 'X-ray' detector of large dimension on the base of CsI crystal with a diameter of 165 mm, designated for soft gamma-irradiation registration, 241 Am including. During 8 hours of independent works 'Skif-3' is able to record into internal memory up to 100 spectra with an exposure up to 9999 s. At 10 min exposure in its sensitivity of 241 Am finding (10 Bq/kg) a spectrometer 'Skif-3' excels a portable spectrometer 'InSpector' (Canberra) working with the exposure of 1 hour. For automobile measurements a car spectrometer was elaborated fed. from car board supply and having four detectors based on NaI crystals with the dimensions 200x110 mm and total volume of about 121. For express treatment of a 'Skif-3' spectrometer scintillation spectra special

  12. Borehole Completion and Conceptual Hydrogeologic Model for the IFRC Well Field, 300 Area, Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Horner, Jacob A.; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Lanigan, David C.; Thorne, Paul D.

    2009-04-20

    A tight cluster of 35 new wells was installed over a former waste site, the South Process Pond (316-1 waste site), in the Hanford Site 300 Area in summer 2008. This report documents the details of the drilling, sampling, and well construction for the new array and presents a summary of the site hydrogeology based on the results of drilling and preliminary geophysical logging.

  13. Nest-site Selection of the Greater Painted Snipe (Rostratula benghalensis benghalensis in Fallow Fields of I-Lan, Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Hsun Hsu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Nest site quality often affects nest success and the fitness of avian breeders. Vegetation structure and water depth are possible factors evaluated in nest-site selection by ground nesting birds in wetlands. Vegetation structure may affect the predation risk, and water depth is linked to the possibility of being flooded. We examined these two factors in the nest site selection of a wetland bird, the Greater Painted Snipe (Rostratula benghalensis benghalensis, in I-Lan, Taiwan. We found 17 Greater Painted Snipe nests in wet fallow fields. By paired comparisons, we found the breeders tended to nest on sites with higher vegetation coverage and lower water depth than random sites. No significant difference was found in the vegetation height between the nest sites and the paired random sites. Five nests failed to hatch due to flooding or predation. The preference for nest sites with low water depth may be an effort to avoid being flooded and the preference for dense vegetation coverage at nest sites may be a response to predation risk.

  14. Use of single-well tracer dilution tests to evaluate LNAPL flux at seven field sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, Nicholas; Sale, Tom; Smith, Tim; Lyverse, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Petroleum liquids, referred to as light non-aqueous phase liquids (LNAPLs), are commonly found beneath petroleum facilities. Concerns with LNAPLs include migration into clean soils, migration beyond property boundaries, and discharges to surface water. Single-well tracer dilution techniques were used to measure LNAPL fluxes through 50 wells at 7 field sites. A hydrophobic tracer was mixed into LNAPL in a well. Intensities of fluorescence associated with the tracer were measured over time using a spectrometer and a fiber optic cable. LNAPL fluxes were estimated using observed changes in the tracer concentrations over time. Measured LNAPL fluxes range from 0.006 to 2.6 m/year with a mean and median of 0.15 and 0.064 m/year, respectively. Measured LNAPL fluxes are two to four orders of magnitude smaller than a common groundwater flux of 30 m/year. Relationships between LNAPL fluxes and possible governing parameters were evaluated. Observed LNAPL fluxes are largely independent of LNAPL thickness in wells. Natural losses of LNAPL through dissolution, evaporation, and subsequent biodegradation, were estimated using a simple mass balance, measured LNAPL fluxes in wells, and an assumed stable LNAPL extent. The mean and median of the calculated loss rates were found to be 24.0 and 5.0 m3/ha/year, respectively. Mean and median losses are similar to values reported by others. Coupling observed LNAPL fluxes to observed rates of natural LNAPL depletion suggests that natural losses of LNAPL may be an important parameter controlling the overall extent of LNAPL bodies.

  15. Field studies at the Apache Leap Research Site in support of alternative conceptual models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodhouse, E.G.; Davidson, G.R.; Theis, C.

    1997-08-01

    This is a final technical report for a project of the U.S Nuclear Regulatory Commission (sponsored contract NRC-04-090-51) with the University of Arizona. The contract was an optional extension that was initiated on July 21, 1994 and that expired on May 31, 1995. The project manager was Thomas J. Nicholson, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. The objectives of this contract were to examine hypotheses and conceptual models concerning unsaturated flow and transport through fractured rock, and to design and execute confirmatory field and laboratory experiments to test these hypotheses and conceptual models at the Apache Leap Research Site near Superior, Arizona. The results discussed here are products of specific tasks that address a broad spectrum of issues related to flow and transport through fractures. Each chapter in this final report summarizes research related to a specific set of objectives and can be read and interpreted as a separate entity. The tasks include detection and characterization of historical rapid fluid flow through fractured rock and the relationship to perched water systems using environmental isotopic tracers of 3 H and 14 C, fluid- and rock-derived 2343 U/ 238 U measurements, and geophysical data. The water balance in a small watershed at the ALRS demonstrates the methods of acounting for ET, and estimating the quantity of water available for infiltration through fracture networks. Grain density measurements were made for core-sized samples using a newly designed gas pycnometer. The distribution and magnitude of air permeability measurements have been measured in a three-dimensional setting; the subsequent geostatistical analysis is presented. Electronic versions of the data presented here are available from authors; more detailed discussions and analyses are available in technical publications referenced herein, or soon to appear in the professional literature

  16. Field studies at the Apache Leap Research Site in support of alternative conceptual models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodhouse, E.G.; Davidson, G.R.; Theis, C. [eds.] [and others

    1997-08-01

    This is a final technical report for a project of the U.S Nuclear Regulatory Commission (sponsored contract NRC-04-090-51) with the University of Arizona. The contract was an optional extension that was initiated on July 21, 1994 and that expired on May 31, 1995. The project manager was Thomas J. Nicholson, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. The objectives of this contract were to examine hypotheses and conceptual models concerning unsaturated flow and transport through fractured rock, and to design and execute confirmatory field and laboratory experiments to test these hypotheses and conceptual models at the Apache Leap Research Site near Superior, Arizona. The results discussed here are products of specific tasks that address a broad spectrum of issues related to flow and transport through fractures. Each chapter in this final report summarizes research related to a specific set of objectives and can be read and interpreted as a separate entity. The tasks include detection and characterization of historical rapid fluid flow through fractured rock and the relationship to perched water systems using environmental isotopic tracers of {sup 3}H and {sup 14}C, fluid- and rock-derived {sup 2343}U/{sup 238}U measurements, and geophysical data. The water balance in a small watershed at the ALRS demonstrates the methods of acounting for ET, and estimating the quantity of water available for infiltration through fracture networks. Grain density measurements were made for core-sized samples using a newly designed gas pycnometer. The distribution and magnitude of air permeability measurements have been measured in a three-dimensional setting; the subsequent geostatistical analysis is presented. Electronic versions of the data presented here are available from authors; more detailed discussions and analyses are available in technical publications referenced herein, or soon to appear in the professional literature.

  17. Congenital Vomer Agenesis: A Rare and Poorly Understood Condition Revealed by Cone Beam CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, David Jun; Lenoir, Vincent; Chatelain, Sibylle; Stefanelli, Salvatore; Becker, Minerva

    2018-02-10

    Isolated congenital vomer agenesis is a very rare and poorly understood condition. In the context of dental work-up by cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT), the explored volume of the facial bones occasionally reveals incidental abnormalities. We report the case of a 13-year old Caucasian female who underwent CBCT for the pre-treatment evaluation of primary failure of tooth eruption affecting the permanent right upper and inferior molars. CBCT depicted a large defect of the postero-inferior part of the nasal septum without associated soft tissue abnormality and without cranio-facial malformation or cleft palate. In the absence of a history of trauma, chronic inflammatory sinonasal disease, neoplasia and drug abuse, a posterior nasal septum defect warrants the diagnosis of vomer agenesis. A discussion of this condition and of salient CBCT features is provided.

  18. Poorly understood and often miscategorized congenital umbilical cord hernia: an alternative repair method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    İnce, E; Temiz, A; Ezer, S S; Gezer, H Ö; Hiçsönmez, A

    2017-06-01

    Umbilical cord hernia is poorly understood and often miscategorized as "omphalocele minor". Careless clamping of the cord leads to iatrogenic gut injury in the situation of umbilical cord hernia. This study aimed to determine the characteristics and outcomes of umbilical cord hernias. We also highlight an alternative repair method for umbilical cord hernias. We recorded 15 cases of umbilical cord hernias over 10 years. The patients' data were retrospectively reviewed, and preoperative preparation of the newborn, gestational age, birth weight, other associated malformations, surgical technique used, enteral nutrition, and length of hospitalization were recorded. This study included 15 neonates with umbilical cord hernias. The mean gestational age at the time of referral was 38.2 ± 2.1 umbilical cord hernia, the body folds develop normally and form the umbilical ring. The double purse-string technique is easy to apply and produces satisfactory cosmetic results in neonates with umbilical cord hernias.

  19. Sensitivity analysis of tracer transport in variably saturated soils at USDA-ARS OPE3 field site

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to assess the effects of uncertainties in hydrologic and geochemical parameters on the results of simulations of the tracer transport in variably saturated soils at the USDA-ARS OPE3 field site. A tracer experiment with a pulse of KCL solution applied to an irrigatio...

  20. Technology development for the design of waste repositories at arid sites: field studies of biointrusion and capillary barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyhan, J.W.; Abeele, W.; Hakonson, T.; Lopez, E.A.

    1986-03-01

    The field research program involving the development of technology for arid shallow land burial (SLB) sites is described. Results of field testing of biointrusion barriers installed at an active low-level radioactive waste disposal site (Area G) at Los Alamos are presented. A second experiment was designed to test the ability of a capillary barrier to effectively convey water infiltrating a SLB trench around and away from underlying buried wastes. The performance of the capillary barrier was tested in the field for a barrier of known thickness (2 m), slope (10%), and slope length (2 m), and for one combination of porous materials [a crushed tuff-clay (2% w/w) mixture overlying Ottawa sand] subjected to a known water addition rate. The waste management implications of both studies are also discussed

  1. CO2 Field Laboratory at Svelvik Ridge: Site characterization after the first injection experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buddensiek, M. L.; Lindeberg, E.; Mørk, A.; Jones, D.; Girard, J. F.; Kuras, O.; Barrio, M.; Royse, K.; Gal, F.; Meldrum, P.; Pezard, P.; Levannier, A.; Desroches, J.; Neyens, D.; Paris, J.; Henry, G.; Bakk, A.; Wertz, F.; Aker, E.; Børresen, M.

    2012-04-01

    The safety and acceptance of CO2 storage will depend on the ability to detect and quantify CO2 within and outside the storage complex. To determine sensitivity of CO2 monitoring systems with respect to CO2 distribution and leakage detection, the CO2 Field Lab project comprises two controlled CO2 injection tests in the shallow (100-300 m) and very shallow (20 m) subsurface of the glacial deposit that forms Svelvik ridge, 50 km south of Oslo. The CO2 displacement in the subsurface and at the surface has and will be monitored with an exhaustive set of techniques. Iteratively, observations and flow modeling will provide frequent updates of the CO2 distribution. The results will be upscaled to assess monitoring systems and requirements with the ultimate objective to provide guidelines to regulators, operators and technology providers for monitoring systems. The formation that comprises the laboratory is a glaciofluvial-glaciomarine terminal deposit formed during the Ski stage of the Holocene deglaciation. Nearby outcrops show that the formation is channeled and variably laminated with a significant variation in grain size and structure. Prior to the injection experiments, the site was characterized including 2D seismic and electric surveys, the drilling, logging and sampling of a 330 m deep appraisal well, core and flow line sample analyses, ground penetrating radar (GPR), a hydrodynamic appraisal, and geochemical and soil gas baseline surveys. These data were used to populate a geomodel. Flow modeling of the plume development included some variability in permeability and anisotropy, and various injection scenarios. Accordingly, the 20 m injection experiment was conducted in fall 2011 with a monitoring plan designed to spatially and temporally monitor the expected plume development. The monitoring equipment was thus distributed around the 20 m deep injection point of an inclined well. It included seven 6 m deep monitoring wells equipped with resistivity, sonic and

  2. An application of random field theory to analysis of electron trapping sites in disordered media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilczer, M.; Bartczak, W.M.

    1993-01-01

    The potential energy surface in a disordered medium is considered a random field and described using the concepts of the mathematical theory of random fields. The preexisting traps for excess electrons are identified with certain regions of excursion (extreme regions) of the potential field. The theory provides an analytical method of statistical analysis of these regions. Parameters of the cavity-averaged potential field, which are provided by computer simulation of a given medium, serve as input data for the analysis. The statistics of preexisting traps are obtained for liquid methanol as a numerical example of the random field method. 26 refs., 6 figs

  3. Peculiarities and opportunities of restoration of vegetation of experimental ground 'Experimental field' of Semipalatinsk Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plisak, R.P.; Plisak, S. V.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Geo-botanical researches at experimental ground 'Experimental field' of Semipalatinsk Test Site were conducted out in 1994-2000. 26 ground and 87 air nuclear tests were conducted out at the territory in 1949-1962. It is found that for deluvial-proluvial plain: High level of radiation pollution of soils in the epicentre of nuclear explosions is limiting factor for vegetation rehabilitation. Under level of PED of γ-irradiation 14,000-16,000 μR/h vegetation restoration has not begun until now. Only single individuals of Artemisia frigida appear under PED of γ-irradiation 10,000-13,000 μR/h. Rarefied plant aggregations constituted by annual-biennial weed species appear under PED of γ-irradiation 3,600-8,000 μR/h. Natural rehabilitation of vegetation occurs more intensively under PED of γ-irradiation of 60-200 μR/h. Vegetation aggregations close to initial zonal coenosis develop in these conditions. It is found that for tumulose: Vegetation restoration on the tops of hills starts with invasion of weed species. Plant aggregations with predominance of Caragana pumila, tyhedra distachya develop on accumulations of fine earth in cracks of mountain rocks. Lichens and mosses assimilate outcrops of mountain rocks. 2. Plant aggregations with predominance of Spiraea hypericifoia, Caragana pumila, Artemisia frigida develop on the upper parts of slopes of hills. Craters of nuclear explosions have not been assimilated by higher plants yet. Rarefied plant aggregations constituted by Psathyrostachys juncea, Artemisia frigida appear in the lower parts of slopes of hills. Single individuals of Medicago falcata, Galium ruthenicum, Melilotus dentatus are found on sides of explosion craters. Vegetation rehabilitates slowly trenches on gentle slopes of hills. Following measures are necessary for intensification of the process of restoration of vegetation destroyed and damaged by nuclear explosions: To clean slopes of hills from numerous fragment of metallic and plastic

  4. Testing biochemistry revisited: how in vivo metabolism can be understood from in vitro enzyme kinetics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen van Eunen

    Full Text Available A decade ago, a team of biochemists including two of us, modeled yeast glycolysis and showed that one of the most studied biochemical pathways could not be quite understood in terms of the kinetic properties of the constituent enzymes as measured in cell extract. Moreover, when the same model was later applied to different experimental steady-state conditions, it often exhibited unrestrained metabolite accumulation.Here we resolve this issue by showing that the results of such ab initio modeling are improved substantially by (i including appropriate allosteric regulation and (ii measuring the enzyme kinetic parameters under conditions that resemble the intracellular environment. The following modifications proved crucial: (i implementation of allosteric regulation of hexokinase and pyruvate kinase, (ii implementation of V(max values measured under conditions that resembled the yeast cytosol, and (iii redetermination of the kinetic parameters of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase under physiological conditions.Model predictions and experiments were compared under five different conditions of yeast growth and starvation. When either the original model was used (which lacked important allosteric regulation, or the enzyme parameters were measured under conditions that were, as usual, optimal for high enzyme activity, fructose 1,6-bisphosphate and some other glycolytic intermediates tended to accumulate to unrealistically high concentrations. Combining all adjustments yielded an accurate correspondence between model and experiments for all five steady-state and dynamic conditions. This enhances our understanding of in vivo metabolism in terms of in vitro biochemistry.

  5. The market of human organs: a window into a poorly understood global business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surman, O S; Saidi, R; Purtilo, R; Simmerling, M; Ko, D; Burke, T F

    2008-03-01

    The global demand for human organs has set the stage for an exploding and poorly understood global business in human organs. Whenever there is demand for a product, the opportunity for business arises. The form that a business takes is dependent on a complex network of inputs and outputs, each affecting the others. Historically, the details of any specific market are drastically underestimated. Nowhere is this truer than in the market of human organs. The drivers, which propel the "goods" of human organs, form a flourishing business. Critical analysis is essential to understanding of the supply and demand sides and to determine the role of government in regulating the industry. Governmental groups have dismissed formation of a regulated market for organ sales. The concept is nonetheless a topic of active discussion, motivated by the suffering of patients in need of organs and exploitation of the victims of human trafficking. Ethical principles have been invoked on each side of the ensuing debate. Theory in the absence of sufficient data is shaky ground for enactment of new policy. The Aristotelian concept of "practical wisdom" and the pragmatism of William James illuminate the importance of scientific investigation as guide to policy formation. How will stakeholders benefit or lose? What impact might be anticipated in regard to organized medicine's social contract? What can we learn about cross-cultural differences and their effect on the global landscape?

  6. How spirituality is understood and taught in New Zealand medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambie, D; Egan, R; Walker, S; MacLeod, R

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this research was to explore how spirituality is currently understood and taught in New Zealand Medical Schools. A mixed methods study was carried out involving interviews (n = 14) and a survey (n = 73). The first stage of the study involved recorded semi-structured interviews of people involved in curriculum development from the Dunedin School of Medicine (n = 14); which then informed a cross-sectional self-reported electronic survey (n = 73). The results indicate that spirituality is regarded by many involved in medical education in New Zealand as an important part of healthcare that may be taught in medical schools, but also that there is little consensus among this group as to what the topic is about. These findings provide a basis for further discussion about including spirituality in medical curricula, and in particular indicate a need to develop a shared understanding of what 'spirituality' means and how it can be taught appropriately. As a highly secular country, these New Zealand findings are significant for medical education in other secular Western countries. Addressing spirituality with patients has been shown to positively impact a range of health outcomes, but how spirituality is taught in medical schools is still developing across the globe.

  7. The physics of magnetic resonance imaging: how well understood is it?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, S.E.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: Part of my work involves tutoring trainee radiologists on the physics of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). I have observed that a full understanding of the physics involved with MRI, or nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to be more specific, seems to be beyond the hopes of many people working in the field. All diagnostic radiology textbooks that I have read touch very superficially on the physics of NMR and sometimes the explanations and models used are quite inaccurate and misleading. After further investigation, I found some very good coverage on the subject in chemistry texts. The physics of NMR is based on some very difficult quantum mechanical concepts. What I have managed to understand has been tremendously satisfying and has shed light on several conceptual difficulties which I initially struggled with. The physics of MRI is based on the motion of the hydrogen proton when subjected to an external magnetic field. Protons, which are positively charged particles, have an intrinsic spin and as a result, a magnetic field. A proton, when placed in an external magnetic field, undergoes several changes in its motion. The laws of quantum mechanics govern these changes. Diagnostic radiology textbook models describing the motion of a proton tend to be poor and inaccurate leading to confusion. For example, subatomic particles are subject to laws of quantum mechanics and are forbidden to align exactly with an applied magnetic field thus creating precession. Some textbooks make no attempt to explain this phenomenon whereas others attempt a superficial but inadequate quantum mechanical explanation. I am interested to canvas opinions from others involved in MRI as to difficulties they have encountered with the understanding of the physics of MRI and how they have been overcome. Copyright (2000) Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine

  8. The vulnerability of family caregivers in relation to vulnerability as understood by nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarvimäki, Anneli; Stenbock-Hult, Bettina; Sundell, Eija; Oesch-Börman, Christine

    2017-03-01

    In Finland, the care of older persons is shifting from institutional care to family care. Research shows that family caregivers experience their situation much in the same way as professional nurses. The nurses' experiences have been studied in terms of vulnerability, and the same perspective could deepen our understanding of family caregivers' experiences. The aim of this study was to gain knowledge of the vulnerability of older caregivers taking care of an ageing family member. The research questions were as follows: How do family caregivers experience vulnerability? How do their experiences relate to vulnerability as understood by nurses? The study was done as a secondary analysis of focus group interviews on the experiences and daily life of older family caregivers. Four caregivers had taken part in monthly interviews during a period of 10 months. The interviews were analysed by deductive and inductive content analysis. The results showed that the caregivers saw caregiving as part of being human. They experienced a variety of feelings and moral agony and were harmed physically, mentally and socially. They showed courage, protected themselves and recognised that being a caregiver also was a source of maturing and developing. These results corresponded with the nurses' understanding of vulnerability. Shame, the experience of duty as a burden, worry and loneliness were themes that were found only among the family caregivers. The use of a matrix may have restricted the analysis, but using it in an unconstrained way allowed for new themes to be created. The results indicate a common humanness and vulnerability in professional and family caregiving. They also show that family caregivers need more support both from society and professionals. © 2016 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  9. Clearing the waters: Evaluating the need for site-specific field fluorescence corrections based on turbidity measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraceno, John F.; Shanley, James B.; Downing, Bryan D.; Pellerin, Brian A.

    2017-01-01

    In situ fluorescent dissolved organic matter (fDOM) measurements have gained increasing popularity as a proxy for dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations in streams. One challenge to accurate fDOM measurements in many streams is light attenuation due to suspended particles. Downing et al. (2012) evaluated the need for corrections to compensate for particle interference on fDOM measurements using a single sediment standard in a laboratory study. The application of those results to a large river improved unfiltered field fDOM accuracy. We tested the same correction equation in a headwater tropical stream and found that it overcompensated fDOM when turbidity exceeded ∼300 formazin nephelometric units (FNU). Therefore, we developed a site-specific, field-based fDOM correction equation through paired in situ fDOM measurements of filtered and unfiltered streamwater. The site-specific correction increased fDOM accuracy up to a turbidity as high as 700 FNU, the maximum observed in this study. The difference in performance between the laboratory-based correction equation of Downing et al. (2012) and our site-specific, field-based correction equation likely arises from differences in particle size distribution between the sediment standard used in the lab (silt) and that observed in our study (fine to medium sand), particularly during high flows. Therefore, a particle interference correction equation based on a single sediment type may not be ideal when field sediment size is significantly different. Given that field fDOM corrections for particle interference under turbid conditions are a critical component in generating accurate DOC estimates, we describe a way to develop site-specific corrections.

  10. A multi-site recycled tire crumb rubber characterization study: recruitment strategy and field sampling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recently, concerns have been raised by the public about the safety of tire crumb rubber infill used in synthetic turf fields. In response, the 2016 Federal Research Action Plan on Recycled Tire Crumb Used on Playing Fields and Playgrounds (FRAP) was developed to examine key envir...

  11. Natural bioventing remediation from tidal wave action at a field site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kampbell, D.H.; Kittel, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    A remediation research study has been implemented at a jet fuel spill site on an island airport. A buried pipeline fracture several years ago resulted in a fuel spill exceeding 160,000 gallons. The site hydrogeology is a fragmented coral matrix with fresh water overlying more dense salt water. Water table fluctuations of about two feet occur once every twelve hours from tidal action. The research approach being pursued is to recover free-phase floating petroleum liquid using vacuum-mediated subsurface skimming wells. The vacuum will create an active vadose zone aeration to enhance aerobic biodegradation processes and vaporization of fuel. Once the floating fuel is removed, a natural bioventing action caused by tidal oscillations will complete remediation of the spill site

  12. Source of the Australasian tektite strewn field - A possible off-shore impact site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnetzler, C. C.; Walter, L. S.; Marsh, J. G.

    1988-01-01

    Although there is a preponderance of evidence that tektites were formed by asteroid impacts on the earth, no source crater has been found for the largest and youngest of the strewn fields - the Austalasian strewn field. A combined Seasat/Geos 3 altimeter data set of sea surface heights in the northern portion of the Australasian strewn field has been examined for negative gravity anomalies on the continental shelf and slope which might be related to the source crater for these tektites. A large negative anomaly called the Qui Nhon Slope Anomaly is a sea surface depression of approximately 1.5 meters over an area of 100 km diameter. It corresponds to a gravity anomaly of about -50 mgal. It is proposed that this anomaly may be due to the impact structure that produced the Australasian strewn field.

  13. Field evaluation of a tensiometer data acquisition system for hydrologic studies of waste disposal site design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyhan, J.W.; Drennon, B.J.; Gaylor, R.M.

    1987-01-01

    Commercially available differential pressure transducers, tensiometers and a data acquisition system were combined to study soil water tension changes with time within two trench cap designs used for the shallow land burial of waste materials. Apparent diurnal variations in soil water tension measured with this system are evaluated relative to field variations in temperature, atmospheric pressure and soil water content. Ongoing research is described which should improve the reliability of future soil water tension data collected in the field. 10 refs., 5 figs

  14. On-site residence time in a driven diffusive system: Violation and recovery of a mean-field description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messelink, J; Rens, R; Vahabi, M; MacKintosh, F C; Sharma, A

    2016-01-01

    We investigate simple one-dimensional driven diffusive systems with open boundaries. We are interested in the average on-site residence time defined as the time a particle spends on a given site before moving on to the next site. Using mean-field theory, we obtain an analytical expression for the on-site residence times. By comparing the analytic predictions with numerics, we demonstrate that the mean-field significantly underestimates the residence time due to the neglect of time correlations in the local density of particles. The temporal correlations are particularly long-lived near the average shock position, where the density changes abruptly from low to high. By using domain wall theory, we obtain highly accurate estimates of the residence time for different boundary conditions. We apply our analytical approach to residence times in a totally asymmetric exclusion process (TASEP), TASEP coupled to Langmuir kinetics (TASEP+LK), and TASEP coupled to mutually interactive LK (TASEP+MILK). The high accuracy of our predictions is verified by comparing these with detailed Monte Carlo simulations.

  15. US Department of Energy Nevada Field Office annual site environmental report, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, S.C.; Latham, A.R.; Townsend, Y.E.

    1992-09-01

    Monitoring and surveillance on and around the Nevada Test Site (NTS) by DOE contractors and Site user organizations during 1991 indicated that underground nuclear testing operations were conducted in compliance with regulations, i.e., the dose the maximally exposed offsite individual could have received was less than 0.09 percent of the guideline for air exposure. All discharges of radioactive liquids remained onsite in containment ponds, and there was no indication of potential migration of radioactivity to the offsite area through groundwater. Surveillance around the NTS Indicated that airborne radioactivity from test operations was not detectable off site, and no measurable net exposure to members of the offsite population was detected through the offsite dosimetry program. The calculated maximum effective dose equivalent off site would have been 8.6 x 10 -3 mrem. Any person receiving this dose was also exposed to 142 mrem from natural background radiation. There were no nonradiological releases to the offsite area. Hazardous wastes were shipped to EPA approved disposal facilities. Compliance with the various regulations stemming from the National Environmental Policy Act Is being achieved and, where mandated, permits for air and water discharges and waste management have been obtained from the appropriate agencies. Non-NTS support facilities complied with the requirements of air quality permits and state or local wastewater discharge and hazardous waste permits

  16. Geomorphic stability field reconnaissance site visit, Canonsburg, Pennsylvania, December 1992. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    To license the Canonsburg site, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has required that geomorphic stability be demonstrated for the stream banks and slopes around the perimeter of the site for 200 years. Based on a study of the stream channel and slopes, it has been determined that due to recent human intervention, the required geomorphic stability cannot now be achieved without installation of erosion protection works and continued monitoring of the site. The Pittsburgh District Corps of Engineers has plans to channelize Chartiers Creek and install erosion protection rock within the next 5 or 6 years, if local government agencies raise the necessary matching funds. Much of the stream bank and slope adjacent to the ''fenced in'' western area of the site is anticipated to remain geomorphically stable for more than 20 years, but less than 200 years without human intervention. Therefore in much of this area, the Corps of Engineers will have adequate time to perform its work without jeopardizing the integrity of the controlled area. In contrast, two approximately 200-foot (ft) (60-meter [m]) long portions of the stream channel located north-northwest of the encapsulation area are subject to active stream erosion that threatens the integrity of the controlled area. These areas should be fixed by installation of erosion protection rock within the next 2 years

  17. US Department of Energy Nevada Field Office annual site environmental report, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, S.C.; Latham, A.R.; Townsend, Y.E.

    1992-09-01

    These appendices contain 1991 Nevada Test Site (NTS) onsite and offsite milk environmental monitoring results. The onsite data presented are accompanied by summaries of statistical evaluation of the data. Other offsite data collected by the EPA are available from the US Environmental Protection Agency, Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory, Las Vegas, Nevada

  18. Technical procedures for land use, Deaf Smith County site, Texas: Environmental Field Program: Final draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-09-01

    This volume contains Technical Procedures pursuant to the Land Use Site Study Plan including land use data acquisition, land use/land cover map compilation, verification of land use/land cover map accuracy, and land use/land cover data analysis. 22 refs., 5 figs

  19. Field site leaching from recycled concrete aggregates applied as sub-base material in road construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelsen, Christian J; Wibetoe, Grethe; van der Sloot, Hans A; Lund, Walter; Petkovic, Gordana

    2012-06-15

    The release of major and trace elements from recycled concrete aggregates used in an asphalt covered road sub-base has been monitored for more than 4 years. A similar test field without an asphalt cover, directly exposed to air and rain, and an asphalt covered reference field with natural aggregates in the sub-base were also included in the study. It was found that the pH of the infiltration water from the road sub-base with asphalt covered concrete aggregates decreased from 12.6 to below pH 10 after 2.5 years of exposure, whereas this pH was reached within only one year for the uncovered field. Vertical temperature profiles established for the sub-base, could explain the measured infiltration during parts of the winter season. When the release of major and trace elements as function of field pH was compared with pH dependent release data measured in the laboratory, some similar pH trends were found. The field concentrations of Cd, Ni, Pb and Zn were found to be low throughout the monitoring period. During two of the winter seasons, a concentration increase of Cr and Mo was observed, possibly due to the use of de-icing salt. The concentrations of the trace constituents did not exceed Norwegian acceptance criteria for ground water and surface water Class II. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Screening and comparison of remedial alternatives for the South Field and flyash piles at the Fernald site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bumb, A.C.; Jones, G.N.

    1996-05-01

    The South Field, the Inactive Flyash Pile, and the Active Flyash Pile are in close proximity to each other and are part of Operable Unit 2 (OU2) at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP). The baseline risk assessment indicated that the exposure pathways which pose the most significant risk are external radiation from radionuclides in surface soils and use of uranium contaminated groundwater. This paper presents screening and comparison of various remedial alternatives considered to mitigate risks from the groundwater pathway. Eight remedial alternatives were developed which consisted of consolidation and capping, excavation and off-site disposal with or without treatment, excavation and on-site disposal with or without treatment and combinations of these. Risk-based source (soil) preliminary remediation levels (PRLs) and waste acceptance criteria (WACs) were developed for consolidation and capping, excavation, and on-site disposal cell. The PRLs and WACs were developed using an integrated modeling tool consisting of an infiltration model, a surface water model, a vadose zone model, and a three-dimensional contaminant migration model in saturated media. The PRLs and WACs were then used to determine need for soil treatment, determine excavation volumes, and screen remedial alternatives. The selected remedial alternative consisted of excavation and on-site disposal with off-site disposal of the fraction exceeding the WAC

  1. Field portable petroleum analysis for validation of the site characterization and analysis penetrometer system petroleum, oil and lubricant sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, W.M.; Jones, P.; Porter, B.

    1995-01-01

    A petroleum, oil and lubricant (POL) sensor for the Site Characterization and Analysis Penetrometer System (SCAPS) has been developed by the Tri-Services (e.g. Army, Navy and Air Force) to characterize the distribution of POL contaminants on military sites. The sensor is based on the detection of POL contaminants using a laser induced fluorescence (LIF) spectrometer. The SCAPS POL sensor has been shown to be a valuable tool for the rapid screening of POL contamination in the subsurface. However, many factors can affect the LIF response of a particular fuel at a particular site. These include fuel type, age of spill (e.g. weathering) and soil type. The LIF sensor also detects fluorescence from any naturally occurring fluorophores, including humic substances and fluorescent minerals. These factors lead to the development of an independent procedure for the verification of the POL sensor response. This paper describes a field portable total recoverable petroleum hydrocarbon (TRPH) method based on EPA Method 418.1 and its application to on site validation of the SCAPS POL sensor response at a number of contaminated sites

  2. BIOPHYSICS. Response to Comments on "Extreme electric fields power catalysis in the active site of ketosteroid isomerase".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fried, Stephen D; Boxer, Steven G

    2015-08-28

    Natarajan et al. and Chen and Savidge comment that comparing the electric field in ketosteroid isomerase's (KSI's) active site to zero overestimates the catalytic effect of KSI's electric field because the reference reaction occurs in water, which itself exerts a sizable electrostatic field. To compensate, Natarajan et al. argue that additional catalytic weight arises from positioning of the general base, whereas Chen and Savidge propose a separate contribution from desolvation of the general base. We note that the former claim is not well supported by published results, and the latter claim is intriguing but lacks experimental basis. We also take the opportunity to clarify some of the more conceptually subtle aspects of electrostatic catalysis. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  3. Virtual Field Reconnaissance to enable multi-site collaboration in geoscience fieldwork in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Leanne; Bateson, Luke; Ford, Jonathan; Napier, Bruce; Creixell, Christian; Contreras, Juan-Pablo; Vallette, Jane

    2017-04-01

    The unique challenges of geological mapping in remote terrains can make cross-organisation collaboration challenging. Cooperation between the British and Chilean Geological Surveys and the Chilean national mining company used the BGS digital Mapping Workflow and virtual field reconnaissance software (GeoVisionary) to undertake geological mapping in a complex area of Andean Geology. The international team undertook a pre-field evaluation using GeoVisionary to integrate massive volumes of data and interpret high resolution satellite imagery, terrain models and existing geological information to capture, manipulate and understand geological features and re-interpret existing maps. This digital interpretation was then taken into the field and verified using the BGS digital data capture system (SIGMA.mobile). This allowed the production of final geological interpretation and creation of a geological map. This presentation describes the digital mapping workflow used in Chile and highlights the key advantages of increased efficiency and communication to colleagues, stakeholders and funding bodies.

  4. Phase Preference by Active, Acetate-Utilizing Bacteria at the Rifle, CO Integrated Field Research Challenge Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerkhof, L.; Williams, K.H.; Long, P.E.; McGuinness, L.

    2011-02-21

    Previous experiments at the Rifle, Colorado Integrated Field Research Challenge (IFRC) site demonstrated that field-scale addition of acetate to groundwater reduced the ambient soluble uranium concentration. In this report, sediment samples collected before and after acetate field addition were used to assess the active microbes via {sup 13}C acetate stable isotope probing on 3 phases [coarse sand, fines (8-approximately 150 {micro}m), groundwater (0.2-8 {micro}m)] over a 24-day time frame. TRFLP results generally indicated a stronger signal in {sup 13}C-DNA in the 'fines' fraction compared to the sand and groundwater. Before the field-scale acetate addition, a Geobacter-like group primarily synthesized {sup 13}C-DNA in the groundwater phase, an alpha Proteobacterium primarily grew on the fines/sands, and an Acinetobacter sp. and Decholoromonas-like OTU utilized much of the {sup 13}C acetate in both groundwater and particle-associated phases. At the termination of the field-scale acetate addition, the Geobacter-like species was active on the solid phases rather than the groundwater, while the other bacterial groups had very reduced newly synthesized DNA signal. These findings will help to delineate the acetate utilization patterns of bacteria in the field and can lead to improved methods for stimulating distinct microbial populations in situ.

  5. Summary of field operations Technical Area I well PGS-1. Site-Wide Hydrogeologic Characterization Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritts, J.E.; McCord, J.P.

    1995-02-01

    The Environmental Restoration (ER) Project at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico is managing the project to assess and, when necessary, to remediate sites contaminated by the lab operations. Within the ER project, the site-wide hydrogeologic characterization task is responsible for the area-wide hydrogeologic investigation. The purpose of this task is to reduce the uncertainty about the rate and direction of groundwater flow beneath the area and across its boundaries. This specific report deals with the installation of PGS-1 monitoring well which provides information on the lithology and hydrology of the aquifer in the northern area of the Kirtland Air Force Base. The report provides information on the well design; surface geology; stratigraphy; structure; drilling, completion, and development techniques; and borehole geophysics information

  6. Technical procedures for ecology: Environmental field program, Deaf Smith County Site, Texas: Final draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-08-01

    This volume contains Technical Procedures pursuant to the Land Use Site Study Plan including walkover surveys for threatened, endangered, or candidate species; vegetation classification and mapping; reclamation planning; wetland and floodplain determination and characterization of playas; wildlife habitat mapping methods; mammal sampling; bird survey methods; reptile and amphibian survey methods; preexisting environmental; stress and disturbance studies methods; voucher specimens for plants; and voucher specimens to wildlife. 9 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  7. Silicon as Versatile Player in Plant and Human Biology: Overlooked and Poorly Understood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooq, Muhammad Ansar; Dietz, Karl-Josef

    2015-01-01

    Silicon (Si) serves as bioactive beneficial element. Si is highly abundant in soil, and occurs ubiquitously in all organisms including plants and humans. During the last three decades, nutritional significance of Si for plant and human health has received increasing attention. Plant Si plays a pivotal role in growth and development, and this beneficial effect depends usually on accumulation in plant tissues, which are then protected from various forms of biotic and abiotic stresses. Likewise, human exposure to Si imparts health benefits and essentially occurs through plant-derived food products. Si bioavailability in human diet, e.g., strengthens bones and improves immune response, as well as neuronal and connective tissue health. Despite this empiric knowledge, the essentiality of Si still remains enigmatic. Thus the link between Si availability for plant development and its profound implication for human welfare should receive attention. This review aims to provide a broad perspective on Si as important element for plant and human nutrition and to define research fields for interdisciplinary research.

  8. Silicon as versatile player in plant and human biology: Overlooked and poorly understood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ansar Farooq

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Silicon (Si serves as bioactive beneficial element. Si is highly abundant in soil, and occurs ubiquitously in all organisms including plants and humans. During the last three decades, nutritional significance of Si for plant and human health has received increasing attention. Plant Si plays a pivotal role in growth and development, and this beneficial effect depends usually on accumulation in plant tissues, which are then protected from various forms of biotic and abiotic stresses. Likewise, human exposure to Si imparts health benefits and essentially occurs through plant-derived food products. Si bioavailability in human diet e.g. strengthens bones and improves immune response, as well as neuronal and connective tissue health. Despite this empiric knowledge, the essentiality of Si still remains enigmatic. Thus the link between Si availability for plant development and its profound implication for human welfare should receive attention. This review aims to provide a broad perspective on Si as important element for plant and human nutrition and to define research fields for interdisciplinary research.

  9. Environmental Assessment for BRAC Facilities and Remote Field Training Site, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    of 1930’s Art Deco Printed Ont’ Recycled Paper •ti’ Appendix F Page 13 style architecture. The building housed the Wright Field Technical Data...stairway is consistent with Art Deco details throughout the building and, we believe, constitutes a character-defining feature of the property. Every

  10. Field astrobiology research instruments and methods in moon-mars analogue site.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foing, B.H.; Stoker, C.; Zavaleta, J.; Ehrenfreund, P.; Sarrazin, P.; Blake, D.; Page, J.; Pletser, V.; Hendrikse, J.; Oliveira Lebre Direito, M.S.; Kotler, M.; Martins, Z.; Orzechowska, G.; Thiel, C.S.; Clarke, J.; Gross, J.; Wendt, L.; Borst, A.; Peters, S.; Wilhelm, M.-B.; Davies, G.R.; EuroGeoMars 2009 Team, ILEWG

    2011-01-01

    We describe the field demonstration of astrobiology instruments and research methods conducted in and from the Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS) in Utah during the EuroGeoMars campaign 2009 coordinated by ILEWG, ESA/ESTEC and NASA Ames, with the contribution of academic partners. We discuss the

  11. Measurement of the magnetic hyperfine field at the 181 Ta site in nickel matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saxena, R.N.; Carbonari, A.W.; Pendl Junior, W.; Attili, R.N.; Kenchian, G.; Soares, J.C.A.C.R.; Moreno, M.S.

    1990-01-01

    The hyperfine magnetic field on the Ta 181 nucleus were determined using the gamma-gamma perturbed angular correlation method, on a nickel matrix, with a 133-482 KeV cascade from the Hf- 181 beta minus decay. (L.C.J.A.)

  12. How Global Education Is Understood and to What Extent It Is Implemented in One Educator Preparation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amewu-Sirleaf, Lydia Valentina

    2015-01-01

    This mixed method study investigated the overarching question "how global education is understood and implemented in an educator preparation program in a Colorado university". The sub-questions used to answer the research question are: (1) How is global education/perspective understood and implemented by the faculty; (2) How do students…

  13. Technical procedures for utilities and solid waste: Environmental Field Program, Deaf Smith County site, Texas: Final draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-08-01

    The evaluation of environmental issues and concerns and the addressing of statutory requirements are fundamental parts in the characterization of the site in Deaf Smith County, Texas for the US Department of Energy's Salt Repository Project (SRP). To ensure that the environmental field program comprehensively addresses the issues and requirements of the project, a site study plan (SSP) has been prepared for Utilities and Solid Waste considerations. This technical procedure (TP) has been developed to implement the field program described in the Utilities and Solid Waste Site Study Plan. The purpose and scope of the Utilities and Solid Waste Technical Procedure is to develop and implement a data collection procedure to fulfill the data base needs of the Utilities and Solid Waste SSP. The procedure describes a method of obtaining, assessing and verifying the capabilities of the regional service utilities and disposal contractors. This data base can be used to identify a preferred service source for the engineering contractor. The technical procedure was produced under the guidelines established in Technical Administrative Procedure No. 1.0, Preparation, Review and Approval of Technical Procedures

  14. Field tracer transport experiments at the site of Canada's underground research laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frost, L.H.; Davison, C.C.; Vandergraaf, T.T.; Scheier, N.W.; Kozak, E.T.

    1997-01-01

    To gain a better understanding of the processes affecting solute transport in fractured crystalline rock, groundwater tracer experiments are being performed within natural fracture domains and excavation damage zones at various scales at the site of AECL's Underground Research Laboratory (URL). The main objective of these experiments is to develop and demonstrate methods for characterizing the solute transport properties within fractured crystalline rock. Estimates of these properties are in turn being used in AECL's conceptual and numerical models of groundwater flow and solute transport through the geosphere surrounding a nuclear fuel waste disposal vault in plutonic rock of the Canadian Shield. (author)

  15. Concentrations of Chemical Elements in Willow Biomass Depend on Clone, Site and Management in the Field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Na; Jørgensen, Uffe; Lærke, Poul Erik

    2016-01-01

    Eight willow (Salix) clones (Inger, Klara, Linnea, Resolution, Stina, Terra Nova, Tora, Tordis) were planted on two soil types in Denmark. The biomass quality was evaluated after 3 years of growth by measuring differences in concentrations of 14 elements associated with ash behavior during...... plant densities (8000 and 12,000 trees ha−1) of the clones Inger and Tora after the first 3-year rotation when grown at the site with a coarse sandy soil. The study indicates considerable diversity in concentration of elements within commercially available willow cultivars and suggests breeders...

  16. Organic and Elemental Carbon Aerosol Particulates at the Southern Great Plains Site Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cary, Robert

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) fractions of PM2.5 particulate matter at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility Southern Great Plains (SGP) sampling site for a 6-month period during the summer of 2013. The site is in a rural location remote from any populated areas, so it would be expected to reflect carbon concentration over long-distance transport patterns. During the same period in 2012, a number of prairie fires in Oklahoma and Texas had produced large plumes of smoke particles, but OC and EC particles had not been quantified. In addition, during the summer months, other wild fires, such as forest fires in the Rocky Mountain states and other areas, can produce carbon aerosols that are transported over long distances. Both of these source types would be expected to contain mixtures of both OC and EC.

  17. Incorporating dynamic root growth enhances the performance of Noah-MP at two contrasting winter wheat field sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayler, Sebastian; Wöhling, Thomas; Ingwersen, Joachim; Wizemann, Hans-Dieter; Warrach-Sagi, Kirsten; Attinger, Sabine; Streck, Thilo; Wulmeyer, Volker

    2014-05-01

    Interactions between the soil, the vegetation, and the atmospheric boundary layer require close attention when predicting water fluxes in the hydrogeosystem, agricultural systems, weather and climate. However, land-surface schemes used in large scale models continue to show deficits in consistently simulating fluxes of water and energy from the subsurface through vegetation layers to the atmosphere. In this study, the multi-physics version of the Noah land-surface model (Noah-MP) was used to identify the processes, which are most crucial for a simultaneous simulation of water and heat fluxes between land-surface and the lower atmosphere. Comprehensive field data sets of latent and sensible heat fluxes, ground heat flux, soil moisture, and leaf area index from two contrasting field sites in South-West Germany are used to assess the accuracy of simulations. It is shown that an adequate representation of vegetation-related processes is the most important control for a consistent simulation of energy and water fluxes in the soil-plant-atmosphere system. In particular, using a newly implemented sub-module to simulate root growth dynamics has enhanced the performance of Noah-MP at both field sites. We conclude that further advances in the representation of leaf area dynamics and root/soil moisture interactions are the most promising starting points for improving the simulation of feedbacks between the sub-soil, land-surface and atmosphere in fully-coupled hydrological and atmospheric models.

  18. New Experiences With Steam Injection From The MÜhlacker Field Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theurer, T.; Koschitzky, H.-P.; Färber, A.

    A thermally enhanced remediation scheme employing steam injection has been used at a former hazardous waste disposal site near the City of Mühlacker, Germany, to remove chlorinated solvents. Finding SVE (soil vapour extraction) to be ineffective in the unsaturated soil zone, a pilot-scale project was initiated in 1999 to employ steam injection in the highly contaminated unsaturated low permeable zone 7-15 meters be- low ground surface, limited on top and bottom by very low permeable layers. After completion of the project in September 2001, approximately 2.8 tons of chlorinated hydrocarbons had been removed from the 2500 m3 target area. This project served as a pilot site in the State of Baden-Württemberg EPA (Landesanstalt für Umweltschutz, LfU) site cleanup program, which was funded through the State's "Kommunaler Alt- lastenfonds". Detailed evaluation of SVE technology had indicated that the low permeability in this soil served as a limiting factor for "cold" SVE. As a result, alternative technologies were considered and thermally enhanced SVE by steam injection was selected in 1998 to address the unsaturated zone contaminants. A 20-meter diameter, egg-shaped test- ing area was constructed at the site for pilot-scale demonstration of the steam injection process. The testing area comprised one central injection well surrounded by six ex- traction wells that could be used simultaneously for vapor and liquid extraction. Ten monitoring lances with a total of 100 temperature sensors measured subsurface tem- peratures through the soil horizon. Using a gas-fired 100 kW generator, steam was injected at a rate of up to 100 kg/hour and a pressure of up to 2.5 bars. After ten months of steam injection, nearly complete heating of the target zone had been achieved. of the 2800 kg of TCE removed, approximately 95% was extracted in the gaseous phase and the remaining part as solute in condensed water from the capillary barrier on bottom of the soil horizon. This condensed

  19. Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 2007. DOE Operations at The Boeing Company, Santa Susana Field Laboratory, Area IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ning [Santa Susana Field Laboratory, CA (United States). The Boeing Company; Rutherford, Phil [Santa Susana Field Laboratory, CA (United States). The Boeing Company; Lenox, Art [Santa Susana Field Laboratory, CA (United States). The Boeing Company; Blair, Lori [Santa Susana Field Laboratory, CA (United States). The Boeing Company; Amar, Ravnesh [Santa Susana Field Laboratory, CA (United States). The Boeing Company; Costa, Paul [Santa Susana Field Laboratory, CA (United States). The Boeing Company; Galvez, Lydia [Santa Susana Field Laboratory, CA (United States). The Boeing Company; Jameson, Blythe [Santa Susana Field Laboratory, CA (United States). The Boeing Company; Galvez, Lydia [Santa Susana Field Laboratory, CA (United States). The Boeing Company

    2008-09-30

    This Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) for 2007 describes the environmental conditions related to work performed for the Department of Energy (DOE) at Area IV of Boeing’s Santa Susana Field Laboratory (SSFL). The Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC), a government-owned, company-operated test facility, was located in Area IV. The operations in Area IV included development, fabrication, and disassembly of nuclear reactors, reactor fuel, and other radioactive materials. Other activities in the area involved the operation of large-scale liquid metal facilities that were used for testing non-nuclear liquid metal fast breeder components. All nuclear work was terminated in 1988; all subsequent radiological work has been directed toward decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of the former nuclear facilities and their associated sites. In May 2007, the D&D operations in Area IV were suspended until DOE completes the SSFL Area IV Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). The environmental monitoring programs were continued throughout the year. Results of the radiological monitoring program for the calendar year 2007 continue to indicate that there are no significant releases of radioactive material from Area IV of SSFL. All potential exposure pathways are sampled and/or monitored, including air, soil, surface water, groundwater, direct radiation, transfer of property (land, structures, waste), and recycling. All radioactive wastes are processed for disposal at DOE disposal sites and/or other licensed sites approved by DOE for radioactive waste disposal. No liquid radioactive wastes were released into the environment in 2007.

  20. Preliminary Information on the Vertebrate Fauna (Animalia: Vertebrata of the NATURA2000 Site “Rice Fields Tsalapitsa” (Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivayla L. Klimentova

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out by tree visits in different areas of the Natura 2000 site “Rice Fields Tsalapitsa” BG 0002086 (West of Plovdiv city, near village of Tsalapitsa. Our preliminary research showed that in the area vertebrates with high conservation status occurred included in the Bulgarian Bidiversity Act, Appendix II and III, Appendix II of the Bern convention, Natura 2000 species list, the Bonn convention, Appendix II, the Convention of the International Trade of Endangered Species, and the list of the International Union for Conservation of the Nature. This information will help in future preparation of the management plan of the Natura 2000 site and showed the need of studies focused on such areas which will help undertaking adequate measures for their proper way of conservation.

  1. Present status and future plans of web site ''NUCPAL'' for school education in the field of nuclear radiation and energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumita, Kenji

    2005-01-01

    ''NUCPAL'', a newly combined word of ''nuclear'' and ''pal'', means the fellows having common information for school education in the field of radiation and energy and is actively serving Japanese web-site for internet systems since 2002. The web-site offers basic knowledge information as IT materials for education about energy and environment in elementary, junior-high, and high schools. The kids corner opens since 2003, where people, for instance, call ''Trip to Seek where electricity comes from, '' the sequential game starts from the home electric tool to arrive the power line through terminal spots, and after several steps finally arrive the generator. Following activities are already on: Arrangement of lectures for school education on energy, radiation, and environment; Free charge releasing of video-tape and DVD for education; Issuing the text based on latest information; Introducing of typical example of practical cases for class rooms. (S. Ohno)

  2. Field testing at the Climax Stock on the Nevada Test Site: spent fuel test and radionuclide migration experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballou, L.B.; Isherwood, D.J.; Patrick, W.C.

    1982-01-01

    Two field tests in the Climax Stock are being conducted. The Climax Stock, a granitic instrusive, has been administratively excluded from consideration as a full-scale repository site. However, it provides a readily available facility for field testing with high-level radioactive materials at a depth (420 m) approaching that of a repository. The major test activity in the 1980 fiscal year has been initiation of the Spent Fuel Test-Climax (SFT-C). This test, which was authorized in June 1978, is designed to evaluate the generic feasibility of geologic storage and retrievability of commercial power reactor spent fuel assemblies in a granitic medium. In addition, the test is configured and instrumented to provide thermal and thermomechanical response data that will be relevant to the design of a repository in hard crystalline rock. The other field activity in the Climax Stock is a radionuclide migration test. It combines a series of field and laboratory migration experiments with the use of existing hydrologic models for pretest predictions and data interpretation. Goals of this project are to develop: (1) field measurement techniques for radionuclide migration studies in a hydrologic regime where the controlling mechanism is fracture permeability; (2) field test data on radionuclide migration; and (3) a comparison of laboratory- and field-measured retardation factors. This radionuclide migration test, which was authorized in the middle of the 1980 fiscal year, is in the preliminary design phase. The detailed program plan was prepared and subjected to formal peer review in August. In September/October researchers conducted preliminary flow tests with water in selected near-vertical fractures intersected by small horizontal boreholes. These tests were needed to establish the range of pressures, flow rates, and other operating parameters to be used in conducting the nuclide migration tests. 21 references, 14 figures, 1 table

  3. Field study of nitrous oxide production with in situ aeration in a closed landfill site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, Mitali; Shimaoka, Takayuki; Nakayama, Hirofumi; Komiya, Teppei; Xiaoli, Chai

    2016-03-01

    Nitrous oxide (N(2)O) has gained considerable attention as a contributor to global warming and depilation of stratospheric ozone layer. Landfill is one of the high emitters of greenhouse gas such as methane and N(2)O during the biodegradation of solid waste. Landfill aeration has been attracted increasing attention worldwide for fast, controlled and sustainable conversion of landfills into a biological stabilized condition, however landfill aeration impel N(2)O emission with ammonia removal. N(2)O originates from the biodegradation, or the combustion of nitrogen-containing solid waste during the microbial process of nitrification and denitrification. During these two processes, formation of N(2)O as a by-product from nitrification, or as an intermediate product of denitrification. In this study, air was injected into a closed landfill site and investigated the major N(2)O production factors and correlations established between them. The in-situ aeration experiment was carried out by three sets of gas collection pipes along with temperature probes were installed at three different distances of one, two and three meter away from the aeration point; named points A-C, respectively. Each set of pipes consisted of three different pipes at three different depths of 0.0, 0.75 and 1.5 m from the bottom of the cover soil. Landfill gases composition was monitored weekly and gas samples were collected for analysis of nitrous oxide concentrations. It was evaluated that temperatures within the range of 30-40°C with high oxygen content led to higher generation of nitrous oxide with high aeration rate. Lower O(2) content can infuse N(2)O production during nitrification and high O(2) inhibit denitrification which would affect N(2)O production. The findings provide insights concerning the production potentials of N(2)O in an aerated landfill that may help to minimize with appropriate control of the operational parameters and biological reactions of N turnover. Investigation of

  4. Laboratory and Field Studies Related to Radionuclide Migration at the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. A. Martinez; D. L. Finnegan; Joseph L. Thompson; K. S. Kung

    1999-03-01

    In this report, we describe the work done in FY 1998 at Los Alamos National Laboratory as part of the Hydrologic Resources Management Program (HRMA) funded by the Nevada Operations Office of the US Department of Energy (DOE/NV). The major part of our research effort was to measure radionuclides present in water or soil samples collected from near nuclear tests. We report our measurements for materials collected in both saturated and unsaturated horizons adjacent to nuclear test cavities or collapse chimneys and from within several cavities. Soil samples collected from above the cavities formed by the Halfbeak, Jerboa, and Bobac tests contained no radioactivity, although a test similar to Bobac in the same area had been contaminated with {sup 137}Cs. Water samples from near the Shoal test contained no measurable radionuclides, whereas those from near Faultless and Aleman had concentrations similar to previous measurements. Water from the Tybo-Benham site was similar to earlier collections at that site; this year, we added {sup 241}Am to the list of radionuclides measured at this location. Two Bennett pumps in tandem were used to extract water from the piezometer tube in the cavity of the Dalhart event. This extraction is a significant achievement in that it opens the possibility of purging similar tubes at other locations on the NTS. The Cheshire post shot hole was reconfigured and pumped from two horizons for the first time since mid-1980. We are especially interested in examining water from the level of the working point to determine the hydrologic source term in a cavity filled with groundwater for over 20 years. We devoted much time this year to examining the colloid content of NTS groundwater. After developing protocols for collecting, handling, and storing groundwater samples without altering their colloid content, we analyzed water from the Tybo-Benham and from the Cheshire sites. Whereas the colloid concentration did not vary much with depth at Tybo

  5. New archaeointensity results from archaeological sites and variation of the geomagnetic field intensity for the last 7 millennia in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marco, E.; Spatharas, V.; Gómez-Paccard, M.; Chauvin, A.; Kondopoulou, D.

    In this study six new intensity determinations are presented, obtained from five well dated archaeological sites, located in northern Greece and in Paros, Cyclades Islands. The fired structures consisted of ceramic and pottery kilns belonging to the Hellenistic, Roman and Byzantine periods. Between 8 and 21 samples of highly fired baked clays, tiles and bricks were taken, homogeneously distributed over the structures. The samples were analysed using the classical Thellier method, providing the past intensities and directions of the geomagnetic field recorded at each site. The intensity values have been corrected for anisotropy of thermal remanent magnetisation and cooling rate effects. Differences in the mean archaeointensities per site ranging from 1% to 11%, before and after TRM anisotropy and cooling rate corrections, were obtained. The new results indicate a decrease of 20% of the geomagnetic field strength in Greece, during the last four centuries BC. In order to compare our results with previously published data, a catalogue of archaeo- and palaeointensity results for the Aegean area has been established, covering the last 7 millennia. It consists of 336 data from Greece, western Turkey and Former Yugoslavia, collected from various authors. Weighting factors have been applied to these data, that then have been treated with a hierarchical Bayesian modelling, and a geomagnetic field intensity variation curve for Greece was constructed. A good agreement is observed when comparing the curve for Greece with the Bulgarian secular variation curve (SVC) for intensity. Satisfactory coincidence is also found with the archaeointensity data from Mesopotamia. Despite the presence of some time gaps, a more precise secular variation intensity curve has been constructed for Greece which, combined with a forthcoming directional SVC, will help for dating purposes.

  6. Aquifer recharge with reclaimed water in the Llobregat Delta. Laboratory batch experiments and field test site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobella, J.

    2010-05-01

    Summary Spain, as most other Mediterranean countries, faces near future water shortages, generalized pollution and loss of water dependent ecosystems. Aquifer recharge represents a promising option to become a source for indirect potable reuse purposes but presence of pathogens as well as organic and inorganic pollutants should be avoided. To this end, understanding the processes of biogeochemical degradation occurring within the aquifer during infiltration is capital. A set of laboratory batch experiments has been assembled in order to assess the behaviour of selected pesticides, drugs, estrogens, surfactant degradation products, biocides and phthalates under different redox conditions. Data collected during laboratory experiments and monitoring activities at the Sant Vicenç dels Horts test site will be used to build and calibrate a numerical model (i) of the physical-chemical-biochemical processes occurring in the batches and (ii) of multicomponent reactive transport in the unsaturated/saturated zone at the test site. Keywords Aquifer recharge, batch experiments, emerging micropollutants, infiltration, numerical model, reclaimed water, redox conditions, Soil Aquifer Treatment (SAT). 1. Introduction In Spain, the Llobregat River and aquifers, which supply water to Barcelona, have been overexploited for years and therefore, suffer from serious damages: the river dries up on summer, riparian vegetation has disappeared and seawater has intruded the aquifer. In a global context, solutions to water stress problems are urgently needed yet must be sustainable, economical and safe. Recent developments of analytical techniques detect the presence of the so-called "emerging" organic micropollutants in water and soils. Such compounds may affect living organisms when occurring in the environment at very low concentrations (microg/l or ng/l). In wastewater and drinking water treatment plants, a remarkable removal of these chemicals from water can be obtained only using

  7. Laboratory and Modeling Evaluations in Support of Field Testing for Desiccation at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truex, Michael J.; Oostrom, Martinus; Freedman, Vicky L.; Strickland, Christopher E.; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Tartakovsky, Guzel D.; Ward, Anderson L.

    2011-02-23

    The Deep Vadose Zone Treatability Test Plan for the Hanford Central Plateau includes testing of the desiccation technology as a potential technology to be used in conjunction with surface infiltration control to limit the flux of technetium and other contaminants in the vadose zone to the groundwater. Laboratory and modeling efforts were conducted to investigate technical uncertainties related to the desiccation process and its impact on contaminant transport. This information is intended to support planning, operation, and interpretation of a field test for desiccation in the Hanford Central Plateau.

  8. SIZE AND FIELD OF ACTIVITY INFLUENCE ON WEB SITES FUNCTIONALITY FOR ROMANIAN COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarca Ioan

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The internet became an important part of the company’s informational system. In order to take advantage on the Internet’s interactive nature, a lot of companies have created their own websites. Companies use the website for numerous applications: to promote themselves, online shopping, and communication with targeted clients. This study reveals the fact that the company’s size and field of activity have influence on website’s functionality and interactivity. Small companies use the website to successfully compete corporations which do not have yet necessary stimulants to fully exploit the internet capacities.

  9. Field Evaluation of the Restorative Capacity of the Aquifer Downgradient of a Uranium In-Situ Recovery Mining Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reimus, Paul William [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-05-22

    A two-part field study was conducted in Smith Ranch-Highland in-situ recovery (ISR) near Douglas, Wyoming, to evaluate the restorative capacity of the aquifer downgradient (i.e., hydrologically downstream) of a Uranium ISR mining site with respect to the transport of uranium and other potential contaminants in groundwater after mining has ceased. The study was partially conducted by checking the Uranium content and the alkalinity of separate wells, some wells had been restored and others had not. A map and in-depth procedures of the study are included.

  10. Field studies of erosion-control technologies for arid shallow land-burial sites at Los Alamos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyhan, J.W.; Abeele, W.V.; DePoorter, G.L.; Hakonson, T.E.; Perkins, B.A.; Foster, G.R.

    1983-01-01

    The field research program involving corrective measures technologies for arid shallow land-burial sites is described. Research performed for a portion of this task, the identification, evaluation, and modeling of erosion control technologies, is presented in detail. In a joint study with USDA-ARS, soil erosion and infiltration of water into a simulated trench cap with various surface treatments was measured and compared with data from undisturbed soil surfaces with natural plant cover. The distribution of soil particles in the runoff was measured for inclusion in CREAMS (a field scale model for Chemicals, Runoff and Erosion from Agricultural Management Systems). Neutron moisture gauge data collected beneath the erosion plots are presented to show the seasonal effects of the erosion control technologies on the subsurface component of water balance. 12 references, 4 figures, 4 tables

  11. Plant communities of stubble-fields in the Lublin Region, P. I. Plant communities of poor sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Jędruszczak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Floristic diversity is a specific characteristic of stubble-fields plant communities. They contain both the species which remained after harvesting cereal communities and the species developing root-plant communities. This diversity is favoured by the ecological conditions of stubble-fields (warmth, light, frequent rainfall but first of all lack of competition on the part of cultivated plants. The first part of the paper describes the plant communities of poor sites in the investigated region. It is based on 133 phytosociological records taken in August and September in 1975-1980 and on soil investigations. Three types of communities have been distingushed belonging to the Panico-Setarion association. They are: (1 Digitarietum ischaemi association, (2 Setaria glauca-Scleranthus annuus community and (3 Echinochloo-setarietum association. They all can be divided into smaller phytosociological units.

  12. Field Demonstration of Ground-Source Integrated Heat Pump Part I. Technology and Field Demo System/Site Descriptions, and Preliminary Summer/Fall Performance Analysis for One Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, Van D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Munk, Jeffrey D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gehl, Anthony C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-02-01

    The field study is planned to continue through the 2016 cooling season with the draft final project report due by September 30, 2016. This report provides a description of both installations and preliminary 2015 cooling and fall season performance results for the Knoxville site. For the August 18 through December 14 period, the Knoxville site GS-IHP provided 53.6% total source energy savings compared to a baseline electric RTU/heat pump and electric WH. Peak demand savings ranged from 33% to 59% per month. Energy cost savings of 53.1% have been achieved to date with more than half of that coming from reduced demand charges. Data on installation and maintenance costs are being collected and will be combined with total test period energy savings data for a payback analysis to be included in the project final report. The GS-IHP also saved a significant amount of carbon emissions. The total emission savings for the Knoxville site for the August-December 2015 period were ~0.8 metric tons. If trading for carbon credits ever becomes a reality, additional cost savings would be realized.

  13. Tracer Tests and Field Monitoring of In situ Bioreduction of Cr(VI) Bioreduction at the Hanford 100H Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, P. E.; Newcomer, D. R.; Resch, C. T.; Cantrell, K.; Faybishenko, B.; Hazen, T. C.; Brodie, E.; Joyner, D.; Borglin, S.; Conrad, M.; Tokunaga, T.; Wan, J.; Hubbard, S.; Williams, K. H.; Peterson, J. E.; Firestone, M.; Andersen, G.; Desantis, T.; Hanlon, J.; Willett, A.; Koenigsberg, S.

    2006-05-01

    Tracer tests and field monitoring before, during, and after bio-immobilization of Cr(VI) in groundwater at the Hanford 100H field site have provided key data constraining the geohydrology and biogeochemistry of field- scale bioreduction. A slow release polylactate, Hydrogen Release Compound (HRC), was used to stimulate the in situ bioreduction and removal of Cr(VI) from groundwater. Monitoring included an extensive suite of field and laboratory techniques, as well as five Br-tracer injection tests and four pumping tests. To minimize drilling costs, a three-well system (injection well and upgradient and downgradient monitoring wells) was used for conducting the in situ biostimulation and monitoring. Pre-biostimulation Br-tracer tests demonstrated that low-flow pumping (1.2 to 2.5 l/min) on the down-gradient well was required to ensure capture of groundwater flow lines passing through the injection well (5 m from the downgradient pumping well). Detailed Br breakthrough curves were obtained using field-deployed Br ion-selective electrodes (Instrumentation Northwest, Inc.). We also used a multi-parameter flow cell (Hydrolab H2O Multiprobe) to collect hourly data on temperature, pH, redox potential, electrical conductivity, and dissolved oxygen (DO). Field measurements were used to enable repeat groundwater sampling by pumping through specially designed borehole water samplers. Following the HRC injection, the data demonstrated the temporal relationship between the Br arrival and onset of reducing conditions induced by the injection. For example, redox potential decreased from +240 to -130 mV while conductivity changed from ~510 μS/cm to ~850 μS/cm along with a complete removal of DO and a drop in pH. These changes occurred concomitantly with more than a 2- order of magnitude increase in microbial cell numbers. The pore-water conductivity changes were used to constrain interpretation of the results of cross-borehole radar tomography conducted prior to and after the

  14. Integrated metagenomics and field measurements of polygon features at the NGEE-Arctic Barrow site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tas, N.; Wu, Y.; Smith, L. J.; Ulrich, C.; Kneafsey, T. J.; Torn, M. S.; Hubbard, S. S.; Wullschleger, S. D.; Jansson, J.

    2013-12-01

    Arctic soils contain an estimated 12-42% of terrestrial carbon, most of which is sequestered in permafrost. High latitudes have experienced the greatest regional warming in recent decades and observations suggest that permafrost degradation is now commonly observed in the region. With increasing global temperatures, permafrost soils are becoming a potential source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Because of widespread permafrost thaw much of the soil organic matter may be available for rapid mineralization by microorganisms in the soil. Yet little is known about the vulnerability of permafrost and the potential response of soil microorganisms to availability of new carbon sources. On the Alaskan North Slope the collapse and rise of soil due to formation of ice wedges and permafrost thaw create distinct features called polygons. As part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Next Generation Ecosystem Experiment (NGEE) in the Arctic, we aimed to determine the distribution of microbial populations across a range of polygon features and to correlate the microbial data to GHG flux data. To determine the microbial community distribution and metabolic potential, we collected seasonally thawed active layer soil samples along two polygon transects (Site 0 and AB), including high-centered, transitional and low-centered polygons. Illumina HiSeq technology was used to sequence 16SrRNA genes and metagenomes from these active layer soils. The sequence data was correlated to GHG flux measurements and to environmental data from the site, including geophysical and geochemical soil characteristics. Both the microbial communities and the flux measurements varied along the polygon transect. Each polygon had a distinct microbial community structure; however, these microbial communities shared many metabolic capabilities. For example, many genes involved in degradation of chitin could be found all three polygons. Functional genes involved in methanogenesis and CH4-flux measurements

  15. Evaluation of Human vs. Teleoperated Robotic Performance in Field Geology Tasks at a Mars Analog Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, B.; Briggs, G.

    2003-01-01

    Exploration mission designers and planners have costing models used to assess the affordability of given missions - but very little data exists on the relative science return produced by different ways of exploring a given region. Doing cost-benefit analyses for future missions requires a way to compare the relative field science productivity of spacesuited humans vs. virtual presence/teleoperation from a nearby habitat or orbital station, vs. traditional terrestrial-controlled rover operations. The goal of this study was to define science-return metrics for comparing human and robotic fieldwork, and then obtain quantifiable science-return performance comparisons between teleoperated rovers and spacesuited humans. Test runs with a simulated 2015-class rover and with spacesuited geologists were conducted at Haughton Crater in the Canadian Arctic in July 2002. Early results imply that humans will be 1-2 orders of magnitude more productive per unit time in exploration than future terrestrially-controlled robots.

  16. Hess Tower field study: sonic measurements at a former building-integrated wind farm site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araya, Daniel

    2017-11-01

    Built in 2010, Hess Tower is a 29-story office building located in the heart of downtown Houston, TX. Unique to the building is a roof structure that was specifically engineered to house ten vertical-axis wind turbines (VAWTs) to partially offset the energy demands of the building. Despite extensive atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) wind tunnel tests to predict the flow conditions on the roof before the building was constructed, the Hess VAWTs were eventually removed after allegedly one of the turbines failed and fell to the ground. This talk presents in-situ sonic anemometry measurements taken on the roof of Hess Tower at the former turbine locations. We compare this wind field characterization to the ABL wind tunnel data to draw conclusions about building-integrated wind farm performance and prediction capability.

  17. San Ignacio (La Tembladera) geothermal site, Departamento de Francisco Morazan, Honduras, Central America: Geological field report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldrich, M.J.; Eppler, D.; Heiken, G.; Flores, W.; Ramos, N.; Ritchie, A.

    1987-06-01

    The San Ignacio (La Tembladera) geothermal site is located on the north side of the Siria Valley, Departamento de Francisco Morazan, near the village of Barrosa. Hot springs are located along a northwest-trending fault scarp at the edge of the valley and along north-trending faults that cross the scarp. The rocks in the area are primarily Paleozoic metamorphic rocks, overlain by patches of Tertiary Padre Miguel Group tuffs and alluvial deposits. Movement probably occurred along several faults during latest Tertiary and possibly early Quaternary times. Four spring areas were mapped. Area 1, the largest, is associated with a sinter mound and consists of 40 spring groups. About half of the springs, aligned along a north-south trend, are boiling. Area 2 is a small sinter mound with several seeps. Area 3 consists of a group of hot and boiling springs aligned along a north-trending fault. The springs rise through fractured schists and a thin cover of alluvium. Area 4 is located at the intersection of several faults and includes one of the largest boiling springs in the area.

  18. Installation restoration program site investigation. Gulfport Field Training Site, Mississippi Air National Guard Gulfport-Biloxi Regional Airport Gulfport, Mississippi. Volume 2. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-12-01

    Site Investigation Report, Volume: 2. A Site Investigation was performed at 3 sites at the Combat Readiness Training Center, Gulfport-Bolixi. The 3 sites investigated are the: Former Fire Training Area (Site 1), the Former JP-4 Bulk Storage Area, Mill Road (Site 2), and the Motor Pool Above-Ground Diesel Fuel Storage Tank Area (Site 3). The findings of this investigation recommended further investigation at the Fire Training Area and the JP-4 Bulk Storage Tank. At Site 3 the levels of contamination did not represent a risk to human health or the environment; therefore, no further action was recommended. Volume two of this report consisted of the following Appendixes: Site Photographs (A), Well Inventory (B), Boring Logs (C), CSL Technical Memorandum (D), Data Review and Validation (E), GPS Memorandum (F), Level C Analytical Data Summary Tables (G), Slug Test (H), Special-Status Species (I), and Representative Species of Less Mobile Fish and Wildlife (J).

  19. Field-Integrated Studies of Long-Term Sustainability of Chromium Bioreduction at Hanford 100H Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Philip E.

    2006-06-01

    The objectives of the project are to investigate coupled hydraulic, geochemical, and microbial conditions, and to determine the critical biogeochemical parameters necessary to maximize the extent of Cr(VI) bioreduction and minimize Cr(III) reoxidation in groundwater. Specific goals of the project are as follows: (1) Field testing and monitoring of Cr(VI) bioreduction in ground water and its transformation into insoluble species of Cr(III) at the Hanford 100H site, to develop the optimal strategy of water sampling for chemical, microbial, stable isotope analyses, and noninvasive geophysical monitoring; (2) Bench-scale flow and transport investigations using columns of undisturbed sediments to obtain diffusion and kinetic parameters needed for the development of a numerical model, predictions of Cr(VI) bioreduction, and potential of Cr(III) reoxidation; and (3) Development of a multiphase, multi-component 3D reactive transport model and a code, TOUGHREACT-BIO, to predict coupled biogeochemical-hydrological processes associated with bioremediation, and to calibrate and validate the developed code based on the results of bench-scale and field-scale Cr(VI) biostimulation experiments in ground water at the Hanford Site.

  20. Geology of the platanares geothermal site, Departamento de Copan, Honduras, Central America. Field report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiken, G.; Eppler, D.; Wohletz, K.; Flores, W.; Ramos, N.; Ritchie, A.

    1986-05-01

    Platanares is located 16 km west of Santa Rosa de Copan, Honduras, along the Quebrada del Agua Caliente. The thermal manifestations are along faults in tuffs, tuffaceous sedimentary rocks, and lavas of the Padre Miguel Group. These tuffs are silicified near the faults, are fractured, and may provide the fracture permeability necessary for the hydrothermal system. Tuffs are overlain by a wedge of terrace gravels up to 60 m thick. Quaternary conglomerates of the Quebrada del Agua Caliente are cemented by silica sinter. The Platanares area contains numerous faults, all of which appear to be extensional. There are four groups of faults (N80/sup 0/E to N70/sup 0/W, N30/sup 0/ to 60/sup 0/W, N40/sup 0/ to 65/sup 0/E, and N00/sup 0/ to 05/sup 0/W). All hot springs at this site are located along faults that trend mostly northwest and north. Twenty-eight spring groups were described over an area of 0.2 km/sup 2/; half were boiling. Based on surface temperatures and flow rates, between 0.7 and 1.0 MW thermal energy is estimated for the area. The increased temperature of the stream flowing through the thermal area indicates that several megawatts of thermal energy are being added to the stream. We recommend that a dipole-dipole resistivity line be run along the Quebrada del Agua Caliente to identify zones of fracture permeability associated with buried faults and hot water reservoirs within those fault zones. A thermal gradient corehole should be drilled at Platanares to test temperatures, lithologies, and permeability of the hydrothermal system.

  1. Electric field gradients at 181Ta sites in HfOx

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darriba, G.N.; Rodriguez, A.M.; Saitovitch, H.; Silva, P.R.J.; Pasquevich, A.F.

    2007-01-01

    In the present work we report preliminary results about the possibility to study properties of the order-disorder transition in HfO x solid solutions via the determination of the electric field gradient (EFG) at 181 Ta radioactive probes. Oxygen solution into the metal was achieved by arc melting stoichiometric amounts of metallic Hf and HfO 2 under argon atmosphere. Samples of HfO x with x=0.1 and 0.2 were prepared. Two types of samples were used for the perturbed angular correlation (PAC) experiments by doping alternatively with 181 Ta, by neutron irradiation, the metallic Hf or the hafnium oxide. The PAC results on both samples were identical, with disappearing hyperfine signals of the metal and the oxide, showing a complete diffusion of the probes independent of the way of doping. The PAC signal of the HfO x solid solution consisted in a wide distribution of EFGs due to the oxygen disorder. This scheme held even after long thermal treatments at high temperature (several days at 1273K). Annealing treatments at moderate temperature (600K) were also made. In these cases the samples were cooling at a very low rate. These results, together with those obtained by measuring samples below and above the order temperature are reported

  2. Electric-field gradients at 181Ta impurity sites in Ho2O3 and Eu2O3 bixbyites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Errico, Leonardo A.; Renteria, Mario; Bibiloni, Anibal G.; Freitag, Kristian

    2007-01-01

    The time-differential γ-γ perturbed-angular-correlation (PAC) technique with ion-implanted 181 Hf tracers has been applied to study the hyperfine interactions of 181 Ta impurities in the cubic bixbyite structure of Ho 2 O 3 and Eu 2 O 3 . The PAC experiments were performed in air in the temperature range 300-1373 K (in the case of Ho 2 O 3 ) and 77-1273 K (in the case of Eu 2 O 3 ). For both oxides, two electric-quadrupole interactions were found and attributed to the electric-field gradients (EFGs) acting on 181 Ta probes substitutionally located at the two free-of-defects nonequivalent cation sites of the bixbyite structure. In the case of Ho 2 O 3 , two additional interactions were found in the temperature range 300-573 K. These results, as well as previous characterizations of the EFG at 181 Ta sites in bixbyites, were compared to those obtained in experiments using 111 Cd as probe, and to point-charge model calculations. Very recent ab initio predictions for the EFG tensor at impurities sites in binary oxides are also discussed. All these results enable us to discuss the validity of the widely used ionic model to describe the EFG in these highly ionic compounds

  3. Field study of the composition of greywater and comparison of microbiological indicators of water quality in on-site systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Margaret; Gilpin, Brent; Robson, Beth; Wall, Katrina

    2016-08-01

    Thirty on-site greywater systems were sampled to determine greywater characteristics and practices in the field. Kitchen greywater was present at eight sites and urine was included at seven sites. These non-traditional sources resulted in significantly higher concentrations of enterococci and 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) in greywater. Even with the removal of these sources, the concentrations of microbial indicators indicated high levels of contamination could occur across all greywater sources, including "light" greywater. Using multiple microbial indicators showed that all samples had the potential for faecal contamination. Bacteroidales markers were confirmed in treated greywater and in each greywater source, highlighting the potential for human faecal contamination. Although Escherichia coli was absent in treated greywater recycled to the house, other microbial indicators were present; hence, caution is required in using E. coli concentrations as the sole indicator of microbiological water quality. High BOD5 or total suspended solid concentrations exceeded the levels recommended for effective disinfection. Subsurface irrigation, which is assumed to provide a five-log reduction in exposure, is a suitable reuse option for non-disinfected greywater. Only half the occupants had a good understanding of their greywater systems and 25 % of systems were poorly maintained. Elevated microbial indicator contamination of greywater sludge is a potential hazard during maintenance.

  4. Multi-platform Inter-comparison of cloud fields during HI-SCALE campaign over the ARM-SGP site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chand, D.; Newsom, R. K.; Fast, J. D.; Feng, Z.; Berg, L. K.; Hagos, S. M.; Minnis, P.

    2017-12-01

    Clouds play important role in weather, the radiation budget, and earth's hydrological cycle. Estimates of the spatial and temporal distribution of clouds can vary depending on the instrument platform, instrument sensitivity, as well as how the data is processed. Since there are large spatial and temporal variations of clouds in atmospheric columns, multiplatform observations are needed for better coverage and reducing the uncertainty of quantifying the cloud field distributions. The Holistic Interactions of Shallow Clouds, Aerosols, and Land-Ecosystems (HI-SCALE) campaign was designed to provide a detailed set of multi-platform measurements in 2016 to obtain a more complete understanding of shallow clouds and their coupling to land surface properties over the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plain (SGP) surface site. Initial analysis of cloud properties from ground based Raman Lidar and geostationary satellite observations show a strong diurnal variation over SGP, as expected. The average shallow cloud fraction (cloud top altitude HI-SCALE , and (c) satellite observations from GOES, MODIS, and microwave satellite-based retrievals. Considering the large spatial variations in cloud properties as a result of surface coupling, the MODIS and GOES cloud properties at 1 or 5 km pixel resolutions will be used over 25, 50, 100 and 200 km domains around the SGP site. The spatial representativeness of shallow cloud properties measured at the ARM site will also be examined.

  5. Near-field evaluation of subsidence and geotechnical remedial actions at hazardous and radioactive materials disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, S.J.; Gilbert, T.W.

    1985-03-01

    Geomechanical subsidence and differential settlement are a concern of radioactive- and hazardous-waste disposal site operators. Subsidence at these sites may result in periodic maintenance requirements, and in specific instances, dispersal of the contaminants from their original zone of confinement. Amelioration of geomechanical subsidence within the working environment of disposal site requires development, modification, demonstration, and quantitative evaluation of select geotechnical engineering technologies. To this end, dynamic consolidation/compaction alternatives (accelerating mass ground surface impact, vibratory rod or cylinder injection/withdrawal, and diesel hammer rod or cylinder injection) were tested under field conditions using simulated waste forms disposed from 1.0 to 5.0 m below grade in axisymmetric backfilled depressions. Monitoring and technical assessment of the alternatives' performance demonstrated matrix geologic media and waste package orthogonal acceleration and displacement maxima of 1.0 g and 6.0 x 10μ -4 m, respectively, at distances of only a few meters from accelerated mass impact or rod/cylinder injection points. Net physical displacement was significant within approximately 1.5 m. The tested dynamic consolidation alternatives were effective in prompting substantial geomechanical subsidence under controlled conditions as evidenced by structural failure of simulated waste forms and by waste-form compaction below grade as determined by visual inspection. 11 refs., 7 figs

  6. Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 2013. DOE Operations at The Boeing Company, Santa Susana Field Laboratory, Area IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-06-30

    This Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) for 2013 describes the environmental conditions related to work performed for the Department of Energy (DOE) at Area IV of the Santa Susana Field Laboratory (SSFL). The Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC), a government-owned, company-operated test facility, was located in Area IV. The operations in Area IV included development, fabrication, operation and disassembly of nuclear reactors, reactor fuel, and other radioactive materials. Other activities in the area involved the operation of large-scale liquid metal facilities that were used for testing non-nuclear liquid metal fast breeder reactor components. All nuclear work was terminated in 1988, and all subsequent radiological work has been directed toward environmental restoration and decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of the former nuclear facilities and their associated sites. Liquid metal research and development ended in 2002. Since May 2007, the D&D operations in Area IV have been suspended by the DOE, but the environmental monitoring and characterization programs have continued. Results of the radiological monitoring program for the calendar year 2013 continue to indicate that there are no significant releases of radioactive material from Area IV of SSFL. All potential exposure pathways are sampled and/or monitored, including air, soil, surface water, groundwater, direct radiation, transfer of property (land, structures, waste), and recycling. Due to the suspension of D&D activities in Area IV, no effluents were released into the atmosphere during 2013. Therefore, the potential radiation dose to the general public through airborne release was zero. Similarly, the radiation dose to an offsite member of the public (maximally exposed individual) due to direct radiation from SSFL is indistinguishable from background. All radioactive wastes are processed for disposal at DOE disposal sites and/or other licensed sites approved by DOE for radioactive waste

  7. Mechanical site preparation and oust XP effects on stem biomass in three-year-old nuttall oak seedlings planted on a former agricultural field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew B. Self; Andrew W. Ezell; Dennis Rowe; Emily B. Schultz; John D. Hodges

    2015-01-01

    Mechanical site preparation is frequently proposed to alleviate problematic soil conditions when afforesting retired agricultural fields. Without management of soil problems, any seedlings planted in these areas may exhibit poor growth and survival. Seeding height and groundline diameter are often used to evaluate effects of site preparation methods, but stem biomass...

  8. Field and analytical data relating to the 1972 and 1978 surveys of residual contamination of the Monte Bello Islands and Emu atomic weapons test sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, M.B.; Duggleby, J.C.

    1980-12-01

    Radiation surveys of the Monte Bello Islands test site in Western Australia, and the Emu test site in South Australia, were carried out in 1972 and 1978. The results have been published in ARL reports ARL/TR--010 and ARL/TR--012. The detailed field and analytical data which formed the basis of those publications are given

  9. A Multi-Site Assessment of the ACSCOT Field Triage Decision Scheme for Identifying Seriously Injured Children and Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newgard, Craig D; Zive, Dana; Holmes, James F; Bulger, Eileen M; Staudenmayer, Kristan; Liao, Michael; Rea, Thomas; Hsia, Renee Y; Wang, N Ewen; Fleischman, Ross; Jui, Jonathan; Mann, N Clay; Haukoos, Jason S; Sporer, Karl A; Gubler, K Dean; Hedges, Jerris R

    2011-01-01

    Background ACSCOT has developed and updated field trauma triage protocols for decades, yet the ability to identify major trauma patients remains unclear. We estimate the diagnostic value of the Field Triage Decision Scheme for identifying major trauma patients (Injury Severity Score [ISS] ≥ 16) in a large and diverse multi-site cohort. Study Design This was a retrospective cohort study of injured children and adults transported by 94 EMS agencies to 122 hospitals in 7 regions of the Western U.S. from 2006 through 2008. Patients who met any of the field trauma triage criteria (per EMS personnel) were considered triage positive. Hospital outcome measures were probabilistically linked to EMS records through trauma registries, state discharge data and emergency department data. The primary outcome defining a “major trauma patient” was ISS ≥ 16. Results 122,345 injured patients were evaluated and transported by EMS over the 3-year period, of who 34.5% met at least one triage criterion and 5.8% had ISS ≥ 16. The overall sensitivity and specificity of the criteria for identifying major trauma patients were 85.8% (95% CI 85.0 – 86.6%) and 68.7% (95% CI 68.4 – 68.9%). Triage sensitivity and specificity differed by age: 84.1% and 66.4% (0 – 17 years); 89.5% and 64.3% (18 – 54 years); and 79.9% and 75.4% (≥ 55 years). Evaluating the diagnostic value of triage by hospital destination (transport to Level I/II trauma centers) did not substantially improve these findings. Conclusions The sensitivity of the Field Triage Decision Scheme for identifying major trauma patients is lower and specificity higher than previously described, particularly among elders. PMID:22107917

  10. Solving the Multi-site and Multi-orbital Dynamical Mean Field Theory Using Density Matrix Renormalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuriel Núñez Fernández

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available We implement an efficient numerical method to calculate response functions of complex impurities based on the Density Matrix Renormalization Group (DMRG and use it as the impurity-solver of the Dynamical Mean Field Theory (DMFT. This method uses the correction vector to obtain precise Green's functions on the real frequency axis at zero temperature. By using a self-consistent bath configuration with very low entanglement, we take full advantage of the DMRG to calculate dynamical response functions paving the way to treat large effective impurities such as those corresponding to multi-orbital interacting models and multi-site or multi-momenta clusters. This method leads to reliable calculations of non-local self energies at arbitrary dopings and interactions and at any energy scale.

  11. Cellular Telephones, Magnetic Field Exposure, Risk of Brain Tumours and Cancer at Other Sites: A Cohort Study (invited paper)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansen, C.; Olsen, J.H.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to investigate whether exposure to electromagnetic fields from cellular telephones is associated with brain tumours and cancer at other sites. Key information has been obtained on all cellular telephone subscribers in Denmark from 1 January 1982 to 31 December 1995. The overall subscriber cohort will include approximately 500,000 individuals. Collected information includes name of subscriber, address, telephone number, system used (analogue or digital), and annual use of the telephone. The name and address of the subscribers will be linked to the Central Population Register, and the personal identification number will be supplied in addition to information on vital status and migration. Finally, all members of the cohort will be linked to the Danish Cancer Registry, and the observed number of tumours will be compared with those expected on the basis of national cancer incidence rates stratified by sex, age, and calendar time. (author)

  12. Site-specific distribution and competitive ability of indigenous bean-nodulating rhizobia isolated from organic fields in Minnesota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongphatcharachai, Manoosak; Wang, Ping; Staley, Christopher; Chun, Chan Lan; Ferguson, John A; Moncada, Kristine M; Sheaffer, Craig C; Sadowsky, Michael J

    2015-11-20

    Organic dry bean production systems have received increasing interest in many regions of the US, including Minnesota. Thus, improving biological N2 fixation would be highly beneficial for organic crop production. To date, only limited work has been done to select efficient N2-fixing rhizobia for organic dry bean production. In this study, soil samples from 25 organic fields in Minnesota, with a previous cropping history of dry beans, soybeans or both, were collected during May to July 2012. Genetic diversity of indigenous dry bean-rhizobia (511 isolates) was determined by using horizontal, fluorophore-enhanced, repetitive, extragenic, and palindromic-PCR (HFERP) DNA fingerprinting and isolates were classified as belonging to 58 different genotypes. The more abundant rhizobia isolated from bean nodules comprised 35.6% of the population. None of the isolates were identical to commonly-used commercial strains used in the U.S., including Rhizobium tropici CIAT899. Seventeen predominant genotypes were shown to represent two main species, Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. phaseoli (67.1%) and Rhizobium etli (30.2%). One of the indigenous strains, orgK9, displayed efficient N2-fixation and competitive ability relative to the commercial strains tested. The lack of large numbers of indigenous dry bean-rhizobia at most study sites will be useful to avoid competition problems between inoculant strains and indigenous rhizobia. This will allow inoculation with highly effective N2-fixing rhizobia, thus resulting in improved crop productivity. Our results highlight the existence of site-specific rhizobial genotypes in different organic fields and identify strains that may prove useful as novel inoculants for organic dry bean production systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Verification Survey of the Building 4059 Site (Phase B); Post Historical Site Assessment Sites, Block 1; and Radioactive Materials Handling Facility Holdup Pond (Site 4614), Santa Susana Field Laboratory, The Boeing Company, Ventura County, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitkus, T.J.

    2008-01-01

    Confirm that the final radiological conditions were accurately and adequately described in the FSS documentation, relative to the established release criteria. The objective of the verification survey was to confirm that the final radiological conditions were accurately and adequately described in the FSS documentation, relative to the established release criteria. This objective was achieved via multiple verification components which included document reviews and independent measurements and sampling. Specifically, documentation of the planning, implementation, and results of the FSS are evaluated; a comparison is performed of the mean residual radionuclide concentrations; site areas are evaluated relative to appropriate FSS classification; and areas are assessed for residual, undocumented contamination

  14. Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 2008. DOE Operations at The Boeing Company Santa Susana Field Laboratory, Area IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ning [The Boeing Company, Canoga Park, CA (United States); Rutherford, Phil [The Boeing Company, Canoga Park, CA (United States); Amar, Ravnesh [The Boeing Company, Canoga Park, CA (United States)

    2009-09-01

    This Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) for 2008 describes the environmental conditions related to work performed for the Department of Energy (DOE) at Area IV of Boeing’s Santa Susana Field Laboratory (SSFL). The Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC), a government-owned, company-operated test facility, was located in Area IV. The operations in Area IV included development, fabrication, and disassembly of nuclear reactors, reactor fuel, and other radioactive materials. Other activities in the area involved the operation of large-scale liquid metal facilities that were used for testing non-nuclear liquid metal fast breeder reactor components. All nuclear work was terminated in 1988; all subsequent radiological work has been directed toward decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of the former nuclear facilities and their associated sites. In May 2007, the D&D operations in Area IV were suspended by the DOE. The environmental monitoring programs were continued throughout the year. Results of the radiological monitoring program for the calendar year 2008 continue to indicate that there are no significant releases of radioactive material from Area IV of SSFL. All potential exposure pathways are sampled and/or monitored, including air, soil, surface water, groundwater, direct radiation, transfer of property (land, structures, waste), and recycling.

  15. Field Investigation to Determine the Extent of Sediment Recontamination at the United Heckathorn Superfund Site, Richmond, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohn, Nancy P.; Gilmore, Tyler J.

    2001-11-16

    This field investigation was undertaken to determine the present condition of sediment in Lauritzen Channel and Parr Canal approximately 2 years after completion of sediment remedial actions at the United Heckathorn Superfund site. The study was designed to supplement the post-remediation monitoring program by determining the extent and identifying potential sources of observed pesticide contamination in marine sediments near the site. Core samples collected from Lauritzen Channel and Parr Canal in July 1999 were described geologically, and samples were prepared from different sediment types, such as younger bay mud or older bay mud. Sediment samples were analyzed for grain size, organic carbon, and DDT compounds. Only minor changes have occurred in Parr Canal since remedial actions were taken in 1996-1997, but in Lauritzen Channel, DDT concentrations exceed the remedial goal of 590 ug/kg dry weight in nearly all the unconsolidated sediment (younger bay mud, sand, and disturbed older bay mud). The source of contaminated sediment could not be confirmed by this study; there was no clear correlation between high DDT concentrations and sediment remaining between the pilings, as was originally suspected. There also was no correlation between high DDT concentrations in sediment and the locations of outfalls, although some of the contamination retained by the creosote-treated wood appeared to be highest close to the known outfalls.

  16. Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 2010. DOE Operations at The Boeing Company Santa Susana Field Laboratory, Area IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ning [The Boeing Company, Canoga Park, CA (United States); Rutherford, Phil [The Boeing Company, Canoga Park, CA (United States); Amar, Ravnesh [The Boeing Company, Canoga Park, CA (United States)

    2011-09-01

    This Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) for 2010 describes the environmental conditions related to work performed for the Department of Energy (DOE) at Area IV of Boeing’s Santa Susana Field Laboratory (SSFL). The Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC), a government-owned, company-operated test facility, was located in Area IV. The operations in Area IV included development, fabrication, and disassembly of nuclear reactors, reactor fuel, and other radioactive materials. Other activities in the area involved the operation of large-scale liquid metal facilities that were used for testing non-nuclear liquid metal fast breeder reactor components. All nuclear work was terminated in 1988, and all subsequent radiological work has been directed toward decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of the former nuclear facilities and their associated sites. Liquid metal research and development ended in 2002. Since May 2007, the D&D operations in Area IV have been suspended by the DOE, but the environmental monitoring and characterization programs have continued. Results of the radiological monitoring program for the calendar year 2010 continue to indicate that there are no significant releases of radioactive material from Area IV of SSFL. All potential exposure pathways are sampled and/or monitored, including air, soil, surface water, groundwater, direct radiation, transfer of property (land, structures, waste), and recycling.

  17. Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 2011. DOE Operations at The Boeing Company Santa Susana Field Laboratory, Area IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ning [The Boeing Company, Canoga Park, CA (United States); Rutherford, Phil [The Boeing Company, Canoga Park, CA (United States); Dassler, David [The Boeing Company, Canoga Park, CA (United States)

    2012-09-01

    This Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) for 2011 describes the environmental conditions related to work performed for the Department of Energy (DOE) at Area IV of Boeing’s Santa Susana Field Laboratory (SSFL). The Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC), a government-owned, company-operated test facility, was located in Area IV. The operations in Area IV included development, fabrication, operation and disassembly of nuclear reactors, reactor fuel, and other radioactive materials. Other activities in the area involved the operation of large-scale liquid metal facilities that were used for testing non-nuclear liquid metal fast breeder reactor components. All nuclear work was terminated in 1988, and all subsequent radiological work has been directed toward environmental restoration and decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of the former nuclear facilities and their associated sites. Liquid metal research and development ended in 2002. Since May 2007, the D&D operations in Area IV have been suspended by the DOE, but the environmental monitoring and characterization programs have continued. Results of the radiological monitoring program for the calendar year 2011 continue to indicate that there are no significant releases of radioactive material from Area IV of SSFL. All potential exposure pathways are sampled and/or monitored, including air, soil, surface water, groundwater, direct radiation, transfer of property (land, structures, waste), and recycling.

  18. Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 2006. DOE Operations at The Boeing Company Santa Susana Field Laboratory, Area IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ning [The Boeing Company, Canoga Park, CA (United States); Rutherford, Phil [The Boeing Company, Canoga Park, CA (United States)

    2007-09-01

    This Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) for 2006 describes the environmental conditions related to work performed for the Department of Energy (DOE) at Area IV of Boeing’s Santa Susana Field Laboratory (SSFL). In the past, the Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC), a government-owned, company-operated test facility, was located in Area IV. The operations in Area IV included development, fabrication, and disassembly of nuclear reactors, reactor fuel, and other radioactive materials. Other activities in the area involved the operation of large-scale liquid metal facilities that were used for testing non-nuclear liquid metal fast breeder components. All nuclear work was terminated in 1988; all subsequent radiological work has been directed toward decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of the former nuclear facilities and their associated sites. Closure of the liquid metal test facilities began in 1996. Results of the radiological monitoring program for the calendar year 2006 continue to indicate that there are no significant releases of radioactive material from Area IV of SSFL. All potential exposure pathways are sampled and/or monitored, including air, soil, surface water, groundwater, direct radiation, transfer of property (land, structures, waste), and recycling.

  19. Site Environmental Report For Calendar Year 2012. DOE Operations at The Boeing Company Santa Susana Field Laboratory, Area IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ning [The Boeing Company, Canoga Park, CA (United States); Rutherford, Phil [The Boeing Company, Canoga Park, CA (United States); Dassler, David [The Boeing Company, Canoga Park, CA (United States)

    2013-09-01

    This Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) for 2012 describes the environmental conditions related to work performed for the Department of Energy (DOE) at Area IV of Boeing’s Santa Susana Field Laboratory (SSFL). The Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC), a government-owned, company-operated test facility, was located in Area IV. The operations in Area IV included development, fabrication, operation and disassembly of nuclear reactors, reactor fuel, and other radioactive materials. Other activities in the area involved the operation of large-scale liquid metal facilities that were used for testing non-nuclear liquid metal fast breeder reactor components. All nuclear work was terminated in 1988, and all subsequent radiological work has been directed toward environmental restoration and decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of the former nuclear facilities and their associated sites. Liquid metal research and development ended in 2002. Since May 2007, the D&D operations in Area IV have been suspended by the DOE, but the environmental monitoring and characterization programs have continued. Results of the radiological monitoring program for the calendar year 2012 continue to indicate that there are no significant releases of radioactive material from Area IV of SSFL. All potential exposure pathways are sampled and/or monitored, including air, soil, surface water, groundwater, direct radiation, transfer of property (land, structures, waste), and recycling.

  20. Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 2009. DOE Operations at The Boeing Company Santa Susana Field Laboratory, Area IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ning [The Boeing Company, Canoga Park, CA (United States); Rutherford, Phil [The Boeing Company, Canoga Park, CA (United States); Amar, Ravnesh [The Boeing Company, Canoga Park, CA (United States)

    2010-09-01

    This Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) for 2009 describes the environmental conditions related to work performed for the Department of Energy (DOE) at Area IV of Boeing’s Santa Susana Field Laboratory (SSFL). The Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC), a government-owned, company-operated test facility, was located in Area IV. The operations in Area IV included development, fabrication, and disassembly of nuclear reactors, reactor fuel, and other radioactive materials. Other activities in the area involved the operation of large-scale liquid metal facilities that were used for testing non-nuclear liquid metal fast breeder reactor components. All nuclear work was terminated in 1988, and all subsequent radiological work has been directed toward decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of the former nuclear facilities and their associated sites. Liquid metal research and development ended in 2002. Since May 2007, the D&D operations in Area IV have been suspended by the DOE, but the environmental monitoring and characterization programs have continued. Results of the radiological monitoring program for the calendar year 2009 continue to indicate that there are no significant releases of radioactive material from Area IV of SSFL. All potential exposure pathways are sampled and/or monitored, including air, soil, surface water, groundwater, direct radiation, transfer of property (land, structures, waste), and recycling.

  1. Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 2004. DOE Operations at The Boeing Company Santa Susana Field Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ning [The Boeing Company, Canoga Park, CA (United States); Rutherford, Phil [The Boeing Company, Canoga Park, CA (United States); Lee, Majelle [The Boeing Company, Canoga Park, CA (United States)

    2005-09-01

    This Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) for 2004 describes the environmental conditions related to work performed for the Department of Energy (DOE) at Area IV of Boeing’s Santa Susana Field Laboratory (SSFL). In the past, the Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC), a government-owned, company-operated test facility, was located in Area IV. The operations in Area IV included development, fabrication, and disassembly of nuclear reactors, reactor fuel, and other radioactive materials. Other activities in the area involved the operation of large-scale liquid metal facilities that were used for testing non-nuclear liquid metal fast breeder components. All nuclear work was terminated in 1988; all subsequent radiological work has been directed toward decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of the former nuclear facilities and their associated sites. Closure of the liquid metal test facilities began in 1996. Results of the radiological monitoring program for the calendar year 2004 continue to indicate that there are no significant releases of radioactive material from Area IV of SSFL. All potential exposure pathways are sampled and/or monitored, including air, soil, surface water, groundwater, direct radiation, transfer of property (land, structures, waste), and recycling.

  2. Data collection and field experiments at the Apache Leap research site. Annual report, May 1995--1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodhouse, E.G. [ed.; Bassett, R.L.; Neuman, S.P.; Chen, G. [and others

    1997-08-01

    This report documents the research performed during the period May 1995-May 1996 for a project of the U.S. Regulatory Commission (sponsored contract NRC-04-090-051) by the University of Arizona. The project manager for this research in Thomas J. Nicholson, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. The objectives of this research were to examine hypotheses and test alternative conceptual models concerning unsaturated flow and transport through fractured rock, and to design and execute confirmatory field and laboratory experiments to test these hypotheses and conceptual models at the Apache Leap Research Site near Superior, Arizona. Each chapter in this report summarizes research related to a specific set of objectives and can be read and interpreted as a separate entity. Topics include: crosshole pneumatic and gaseous tracer field and modeling experiments designed to help validate the applicability of contiuum geostatistical and stochastic concepts, theories, models, and scaling relations relevant to unsaturated flow and transport in fractured porous tuffs; use of geochemistry and aquifer testing to evaluate fracture flow and perching mechanisms; investigations of {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U fractionation to evaluate leaching selectivity; and transport and modeling of both conservative and non-conservative tracers.

  3. Data collection and field experiments at the Apache Leap research site. Annual report, May 1995--1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodhouse, E.G.; Bassett, R.L.; Neuman, S.P.; Chen, G.

    1997-08-01

    This report documents the research performed during the period May 1995-May 1996 for a project of the U.S. Regulatory Commission (sponsored contract NRC-04-090-051) by the University of Arizona. The project manager for this research in Thomas J. Nicholson, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. The objectives of this research were to examine hypotheses and test alternative conceptual models concerning unsaturated flow and transport through fractured rock, and to design and execute confirmatory field and laboratory experiments to test these hypotheses and conceptual models at the Apache Leap Research Site near Superior, Arizona. Each chapter in this report summarizes research related to a specific set of objectives and can be read and interpreted as a separate entity. Topics include: crosshole pneumatic and gaseous tracer field and modeling experiments designed to help validate the applicability of contiuum geostatistical and stochastic concepts, theories, models, and scaling relations relevant to unsaturated flow and transport in fractured porous tuffs; use of geochemistry and aquifer testing to evaluate fracture flow and perching mechanisms; investigations of 234 U/ 238 U fractionation to evaluate leaching selectivity; and transport and modeling of both conservative and non-conservative tracers

  4. Costs for off-site disposal of nonhazardous oil field wastes: Salt caverns versus other disposal methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veil, J.A.

    1997-09-01

    According to an American Petroleum Institute production waste survey reported on by P.G. Wakim in 1987 and 1988, the exploration and production segment of the US oil and gas industry generated more than 360 million barrels (bbl) of drilling wastes, more than 20 billion bbl of produced water, and nearly 12 million bbl of associated wastes in 1985. Current exploration and production activities are believed to be generating comparable quantities of these oil field wastes. Wakim estimates that 28% of drilling wastes, less than 2% of produced water, and 52% of associated wastes are disposed of in off-site commercial facilities. In recent years, interest in disposing of oil field wastes in solution-mined salt caverns has been growing. This report provides information on the availability of commercial disposal companies in oil-and gas-producing states, the treatment and disposal methods they employ, and the amounts they charge. It also compares cavern disposal costs with the costs of other forms of waste disposal.

  5. Permanent magnetic field treatment of nonpenetrating corneal injuries at oil drilling site medical aid stations in Udmurt ASSR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaykova, M.V.; Gorkunov, E.S.; Liyaskin, M.I.; Osipov, N.A.; Koshevoy, V.P.; Vlasova, E.F.; Solovev, A.A.

    1985-01-01

    Therapeutic trials were conducted with permanent magnetic field magnetotherapy in the management of nonpenetrating corneal injuries. The low intensity fields (10 mTesla) were applied to closed eyelids of 100 workers, 20-30 years of age, injured at oil drilling sites in Udmurtia, with another 100 workers treated in the conventional manner without adjunct magnetotherapy to provide a control group. Treatment consisted of 3-20 half-hour sessions following foreign body removal. In the experimental group 98% of the patients showed recovery of 0.9-1.0 visual acuity, with superficial traumatic keratitis evident in only 2% of the subjects. Full recovery of visual acuity was obtained in only 89% of the control group, with 11% of the patients in that group presenting with traumatic keratitis. In addition, discharge time for the former group was 2.5 days on the average, and 4.5 days for the control group. The severity of complications in the magnetotherapy group was also less pronounced than in the control cohort.

  6. Rust infection and survival of 49 Pinus monticola families at a field site six years after planting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.E. Kolpak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This field trial evaluates white pine blister rust resistance of 49 families of Pinus monticola from Oregon and Washington. The Optical site had 93% of the trees infected six years after planting, but rust mortality is currently low. Families ranged between 31 to 100 percent infected and the number of stem symptoms ranged between three and eighteen. Families with R-gene resistance (HR from the Cr2 gene were highly susceptible at Optical due to the presence of a virulent race of rust (vcr2. Families without Cr2 and with moderate to high frequencies of canker-free or bark reaction ('Q' families in seedling screening at Dorena Genetic Resource Center (DGRC were the most resistant at Optical with higher bark reaction and lower percent infection, mortality, and number of stem symptoms. Another subset of the families were inoculated in a seedling trial at DGRC using rust strains not containing vcr2. The Cr2 families had predictable levels of resistance and Q families also showed moderate levels of resistance in the DGRC seedling trial. Percent stem symptom and bark reaction traits were positively correlated between screening and field trials. Also the number of needle lesions in artificial screening was positively correlated with the number of stem symptoms at Optical.

  7. Aircraft Field Exercise to Develop Multi-Spectral and Infrared Imaging for CTBT On-Site Inspections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, J R [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Smith, M O [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Zelinski, M E [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2010-08-23

    The Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) permits Multi-Spectral and InfraRed Imaging (MSIR) to be performed as part of an On-Site Inspection (OSI) for the purpose of reducing the search area for the location of a possible underground nuclear explosion (UNE). Dedicated airborne MSIR measurements have not been made in conjunction with historical or recent UNE’s. Satellite data has been used to show that MSIR observables can be used to reduce the search area, but the satellite data do not have the spatial resolution or spectral and thermal capabilities desired to fully characterize the MSIR observables. Consequently, there is insufficient information currently available to confidently specify an MSIR instrument to be used on an Additional Overflight as part of an OSI. The potential MSIR observables are known, but not well characterized. The possibility of using airborne MSIR measurements to characterize some of those observables has been assessed here for a variety of field exercise scenarios. The main challenge in making aircraft measurements is to have confidence that the field conditions will accurately reproduce the MSIR observable compared to a UNE. The four types of events expected to generate relevant MSIR observables are (1) underground coal fires, (2) road traffic measurements, (3) underground mining operations, and (4) certain carefully staged explosions, such as the Source Physics Experiment.

  8. Field evaluation of a horizontal well recirculation system for groundwater treatment: Pilot test at the Clean Test Site Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Piketon, Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muck, M.T.; Kearl, P.M.; Siegrist, R.L.

    1998-01-01

    This report presents the results of field testing a horizontal well recirculation system at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS). The recirculation system uses a pair of horizontal wells, one for groundwater extraction and treatment and the other for reinjection of treated groundwater, to set up a recirculation flow field. The induced flow field from the injection well to the extraction well establishes a sweeping action for the removal and treatment of groundwater contaminants. The overall purpose of this project is to study treatment of mixed groundwater contaminants that occur in a thin water-bearing zone not easily targeted by traditional vertical wells. The project involves several research elements, including treatment-process evaluation, hydrodynamic flow and transport modeling, pilot testing at an uncontaminated site, and pilot testing at a contaminated site. The results of the pilot test at an uncontaminated site, the Clean Test Site (CTS), are presented in this report

  9. Experimental and numerical study of atmospheric turbulence and dispersion in stable conditions and in near field at a complex site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Xiao

    2016-01-01

    An experimental program has been designed in order to study pollutants dispersion at a complex site with a focus on stable conditions, which are still challenging for numerical modelling. This experimental program is being conducted at the SIRTA site in a southern suburb of Paris and consists in measuring, in near field, the turbulence and the pollutants dispersion. The aim of this program is to characterize the fine structure of turbulence and associated dispersion through high temporal and spatial resolution measurements. Then, these measurements allow to validate and improve the performance of CFD simulation for turbulence and dispersion in a heterogeneous field. The instrumental set up includes 12 ultrasonic anemometers measuring continuously wind velocity and temperature at 10 Hz, and 6 photo-ionization detectors (PIDs) measuring gas concentration at 50 Hz during tracer tests. Intensive observations periods (IOPs) with gas releases have been performed since March 2012.First of all, a detailed study of flow on the site is made, because it must be characterised and properly simulated before attempting to simulate the pollutants dispersion. This study is based on two years of continuous measurements and on measurements performed during IOPs. Turbulence strong anisotropy in the surface layer is characterized by calculating variances, integral length scales and power spectra of the three wind velocity components. Propagation of turbulent structures between sensors has been characterized with velocity correlations. Energy spectra show several slopes in different frequency regions. Also, data analyses show impact of terrain heterogeneity on the measurements. The forest to the north of experimental field modifies wind velocity and direction for a large northerly sector. It induces a strong directional wind shear and a wind deceleration below the forest height. Numerical simulations are carried out using the CFD code Code-Saturne in RANS mode with a standard κ

  10. Experimental and numerical study of atmospheric turbulence and dispersion in stable conditions and in near field at a complex site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Xiao

    2016-01-01

    An experimental program has been designed in order to study pollutants dispersion at a complex site with a focus on stable conditions, which are still challenging for numerical modelling. This experimental program is being conducted at the SIRTA site in a southern suburb of Paris and consists in measuring, in near field, the turbulence and the pollutants dispersion. The aim of this program is to characterize the fine structure of turbulence and associated dispersion through high temporal and spatial resolution measurements. Then, these measurements allow to validate and improve the performance of CFD simulation for turbulence and dispersion in a heterogeneous field. The instrumental set up includes 12 ultrasonic anemometers measuring continuously wind velocity and temperature at 10 Hz, and 6 photo-ionization detectors (PIDs) measuring gas concentration at 50 Hz during tracer tests. Intensive observations periods (IOPs) with gas releases have been performed since March 2012. First of all, a detailed study of flow on the site is made, because it must be characterised and properly simulated before attempting to simulate the pollutants dispersion. This study is based on two years of continuous measurements and on measurements performed during IOPs. Turbulence strong anisotropy in the surface layer is characterized by calculating variances, integral length scales and power spectra of the three wind velocity components. Propagation of turbulent structures between sensors has been characterized with velocity correlations. Energy spectra show several slopes in different frequency regions. Also, data analyses show impact of terrain heterogeneity on the measurements. The forest to the north of the experimental field modifies wind velocity and direction for a large northerly sector. It induces a strong directional wind shear and a wind deceleration below the forest height. Numerical simulations are carried out using the CFD code, Code-Saturne, in RANS mode with a standard k

  11. A real scale phytoremediation of multi-metal contaminated e-waste recycling site with Eucalyptus globulus assisted by electrical fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jie; Wu, Jian; Huo, Siyuan; Qi, Shihua; Gu, Xiaowen Sophie

    2018-03-05

    The combined utilization of direct or alternating electric fields and phytoremediation was designed to decontaminate multi-metal polluted soil at a field scale e-waste recycling impacted site. Eucalyptus globulus was chosen for metal purification for its resilient and unpalatable nature. Biomass production, metal concentration and water use efficiency of the species under direct current (DC) and alternating current (AC) fields with various voltages were investigated. DC and AC fields stimulated the growth of the plant, except for DC field with high voltage (10 V). Metal concentrations increased in plant tissues under the influence of AC or DC fields irrespective of voltages. DC fields elevated the root and shoot metal contents of plants in equal proportions and AC fields tended to migrate metals from roots to the aboveground parts of the species. Compared to the control, soil moisture of various soil layers at the planted site was significantly lower and subsequently leading to the decrease of metal leaching. In soil profile metal distributes differently between DC and AC treatments. Compared to AC field, more metals tended to accumulate in soil surface under the influence of DC fields due to the stable converse gravitational pathway of metals. Considering decontamination efficiency, leaching interception and energy consumption, DC field with moderate voltage was a suitable candidate for real scale multi-metal polluted soil phytoremediation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Is restlessness best understood as a process? Reflecting on four boys’ restlessness during music therapy in kindergarten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helle-Valle, Anna; Binder, Per-Einar; Anderssen, Norman; Stige, Brynjulf

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT ADHD can be considered an internationally recognized framework for understanding children’s restlessness. In this context, children’s restlessness is understood as a symptom of neurodevelopmental disorder. However, there are other possible understandings of children’s restlessness. In this article, we explore four boys’ collaborative and creative process as it is described and understood by three adults. The process is framed by a community music therapy project in a Norwegian kindergarten, and we describe four interrelated phases of this process: Exploring musical vitality and cooperation, Consolidating positions, Performing together, and Discovering ripple effects. We discuss these results in relation to seven qualities central to a community music therapy approach: participation, resource orientation, ecology, performance, activism, reflexivity and ethics. We argue that in contrast to a diagnostic approach that entails a focus on individual problems, a community music therapy approach can shed light on adult and systemic contributions to children’s restlessness. PMID:28532331

  13. Effect of field site hydrogeochemical conditions on the corrosion of milled zerovalent iron particles and their dechlorination efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velimirovic, Milica; Auffan, Melanie; Carniato, Luca; Micić Batka, Vesna; Schmid, Doris; Wagner, Stephan; Borschneck, Daniel; Proux, Olivier; von der Kammer, Frank; Hofmann, Thilo

    2018-03-15

    Milled zerovalent iron (milled ZVI) particles have been recognized as a promising agent for groundwater remediation because of (1) their high reactivity with chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons, organochlorine pesticides, organic dyes, and a number of inorganic contaminants, and (2) a possible greater persistance than the more extensively investigated nanoscale zerovalent iron. We have used laboratory-scale batch degradation experiments to investigate the effect that hydrogeochemical conditions have on the corrosion of milled ZVI and on its ability to degrade trichloroethene (TCE). The observed pseudo first-order degradation rate constants indicated that the degradation of TCE by milled ZVI is affected by groundwater chemistry. The apparent corrosion rates of milled ZVI particles were of the same order of magnitude for hydrogeochemical conditions representative for two contaminated field sites (133-140mmolkg -1 day -1 , indicating a milled ZVI life-time of 128-135days). Sulfate enhances milled ZVI reactivity by removing passivating iron oxides and hydroxides from the Fe 0 surface, thus increasing the number of reactive sites available. The organic matter content of 1.69% in the aquifer material tends to suppress the formation of iron corrosion precipitates. Results from scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and iron K-edge X-ray adsorption spectroscopy suggest that the corrosion mechanisms involve the partial dissolution of particles followed by the formation and surface precipitation of magnetite and/or maghemite. Numerical corrosion modeling revealed that fitting iron corrosion rates and hydrogen inhibitory terms to hydrogen and pH measurements in batch reactors can reduce the life-time of milled ZVI particles by a factor of 1.2 to 1.7. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Responses of Mycorrhizal Symbioses to Deliberate Leaks from AN Experimental CO2 Sequestration Field: the Zert Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apple, M. E.; Rowe, J. O.; Zhou, X.; Jewell, S.; Dobeck, L.; Cunningham, A.; Spangler, L.

    2012-12-01

    Carbon sequestration is a means of reducing the concentration of atmospheric CO2 . It is important to monitor carbon sequestration fields for surface detection of possible leaks of CO2 . At The Zero Emissions Research Technology (ZERT) site, CO2 is injected at 0.15 tonnes/day increased to 0.3 tonnes/day into the soil through a shallow horizontal injection well with deliberate zones of leaking CO2 , which wells up through the soil and reaches concentrations of 16% w/v. The ZERT site is an experimental facility designed for developing means of surface detection of leaking CO2 and for determining the responses of plants to very high soil CO2 . Within 1 - 2 weeks of CO2 injections, dandelions and grasses begin to form circular zones of leaf dieback called hot spots. While the hotspots are visually apparent, the responses of the underground mycorrhizal symbioses to very high soil CO2 at the ZERT site are as yet undetermined. To examine the effects of leaking CO2 on mycorrhizae, we collected soil and root samples between and at the hotspots before CO2 was injected, then inoculated the rhizosphere with mycorrhizal inoculum containing spores of Glomus and Gigaspora sp., and resampled the soil and roots after three weeks of CO2 injection. We then evaluated the samples for percent mycorrhizal colonization via the line-intercept method in cleared roots in which fungal structures were stained with India-ink. Plants with mycorrhizal fungi benefit by improved P uptake, so we hypothesize that where plants have increased anthocyanin production, a symptom of P deficiency, mycorrhizal colonization would be reduced. In previous summers of the ZERT experiments, leaves have turned red/purple with CO2 exposure, and as of August, 2012, current year leaves appear to have increased anthocyanin above hotspots. Plant roots exude organic carbon into the soil, where it is used by mycorrhizal fungi. Mycorrhizal symbioses are key in the carbon dynamics of soil and in linking the above and below

  15. Efficacy of drinking-water treatment residual in controlling off-site phosphorus losses: a field study in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agyin-Birikorang, S; Oladeji, O O; O'Connor, G A; Obreza, T A; Capece, J C

    2009-01-01

    Land application of drinking-water treatment residuals (WTR) has been shown to control excess soil soluble P and can reduce off-site P losses to surface and ground water. To our knowledge, no field study has directly evaluated the impacts of land application of WTRs on ground water quality. We monitored the effects of three organic sources of P (poultry manure, Boca Raton biosolids, Pompano biosolids) or triple superphosphate co-applied with an aluminum-based WTR (Al-WTR) on soil and ground water P and Al concentrations under natural field conditions for 20 mo in a soil with limited P sorption capacity. The P sources were applied at two rates (based on P or nitrogen [N] requirement of bahiagrass) with or without Al-WTR amendment and replicated three times. Without WTR application, applied P sources increased surface soil soluble P concentrations regardless of the P source or application rate. Co-applying the P sources with Al-WTR prevented increases in surface soil soluble P concentrations and reduced P losses to shallow ground water. Total dissolved P and orthophosphate concentrations of shallow well ground water of the N-based treatments were greater (>0.9 and 0.3 mg L(-1), respectively) in the absence than in the presence ( approximately 0.6 and 0.2 mg L(-1), respectively) of Al-WTR. The P-based application rate did not increase ground water P concentrations relative to background concentrations. Notwithstanding, Al-WTR amendment decreased ground water P concentrations from soil receiving treatments with P-based application rates. Ground water total dissolved Al concentrations were unaffected by soil Al-WTR application. We conclude that, at least for the study period, Al-WTR can be safely used to reduce P leaching into ground water without increasing the Al concentration of ground water.

  16. Field Calibration of Wind Direction Sensor to the True North and Its Application to the Daegwanryung Wind Turbine Test Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong Wan Lee

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a field calibration technique for aligning a wind direction sensor to the true north. The proposed technique uses the synchronized measurements of captured images by a camera, and the output voltage of a wind direction sensor. The true wind direction was evaluated through image processing techniques using the captured picture of the sensor with the least square sense. Then, the evaluated true value was compared with the measured output voltage of the sensor. This technique solves the discordance problem of the wind direction sensor in the process of installing meteorological mast. For this proposed technique, some uncertainty analyses are presented and the calibration accuracy is discussed. Finally, the proposed technique was applied to the real meteorological mast at the Daegwanryung test site, and the statistical analysis of the experimental testing estimated the values of stable misalignment and uncertainty level. In a strict sense, it is confirmed that the error range of the misalignment from the exact north could be expected to decrease within the credibility level.

  17. Mauna Kea, Hawaii as an Analogue Site for Future Planetary Resource Exploration: Results from the 2010 ILSO-ISRU Field-Testing Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Kate, I. L.; Armstrong, R.; Bernhardt, B.; Blummers, M.; Boucher, D.; Caillibot, E.; Captain, J.; Deleuterio, G.; Farmer, J. D.; Glavin, D. P.; hide

    2010-01-01

    Within the framework of the International Lunar Surface Operation - In-Situ Resource Utilization Analogue Test held on January 27 - February 11, 2010 on the Mauna Kea volcano in Hawaii, a number of scientific instrument teams collaborated to characterize the field site and test instrument capabilities outside laboratory environments. In this paper, we provide a geological setting for this new field-test site, a description of the instruments that were tested during the 2010 ILSO-ISRU field campaign, and a short discussion for each instrument about the validity and use of the results obtained during the test. These results will form a catalogue that may serve as reference for future test campaigns. In this paper we provide a description and regional geological setting for a new field analogue test site for lunar resource exploration, and discuss results obtained from the 2010 ILSO-ISRU field campaign as a reference for future field-testing at this site. The following instruments were tested: a multispectral microscopic imager, MMI, a Mossbauer spectrometer, an evolved gas analyzer, VAPoR, and an oxygen and volatile extractor called RESOLVE. Preliminary results show that the sediments change from dry, organic-poor, poorly-sorted volcaniclastic sand on the surface, containing basalt, iron oxides and clays, to more water- and organic-rich, fine grained, well-sorted volcaniclastic sand, primarily consisting of iron oxides and depleted of basalt and clays. Furthermore, drilling experiments showed a very close correlation between drilling on the Moon and drilling at the test site. The ILSO-ISRU test site was an ideal location for testing strategies for in situ resource exploration at the lunar or martian surface.

  18. Traveling Exhibitions as Sites for Informal Learning: Assessing Different Strategies with Field Trips to Traveling Exhibitions at Non-Museum Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harker, Richard J. W.; Badger, James

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the use of different pedagogical techniques to create an intellectually engaging experience for middle school students who visited a traveling exhibition from the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum at a non-museum host site: the University of North Georgia Dahlonega's Library and Technology Center. The findings of this…

  19. Chemical Concentrations in Field Mice from Open-Detonation Firing Sites TA-36 Minie and TA-39 Point 6 at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fresquez, Philip R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-01

    Field mice (mostly Peromyscus spp.) were collected at two open-detonation (high explosive) firing sites - Minie at Technical Area (TA) 36 and Point 6 at TA-39 - at Los Alamos National Laboratory in August of 2010 and in February of 2011 for chemical analysis. Samples of whole body field mice from both sites were analyzed for target analyte list elements (mostly metals), dioxin/furans, polychlorinated biphenyl congeners, high explosives, and perchlorate. In addition, uranium isotopes were analyzed in a composite sample collected from TA-36 Minie. In general, all constituents, with the exception of lead at TA-39 Point 6, in whole body field mice samples collected from these two open-detonation firing sites were either not detected or they were detected below regional statistical reference levels (99% confidence level), biota dose screening levels, and/or soil ecological chemical screening levels. The amount of lead in field mice tissue collected from TA-39 Point 6 was higher than regional background, and some lead levels in the soil were higher than the ecological screening level for the field mouse; however, these levels are not expected to affect the viability of the populations over the site as a whole.

  20. Investigation of hydrologic and biogeochemical controls on arsenic mobilization using distributed sensing at a field site in Munshiganj, Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, N.; Estrin, D.; Harmon, T.; Harvey, C.; Jay, J.; Kohler, E.; Rothenberg, S.

    2006-12-01

    deployed in many habitat monitoring sensor networks. While using Sympathy at our Bangladesh field site we received 80% of the sensor data expected at the base station, upon returning, post-deployment analysis revealed that 42% of these sensor data were potentially faulty. Due to the remote location of the deployment, we were unable to go back and validate the questionable segments of the data set, forcing us to discard potentially interesting information. In addition to being undesirable, this response is often avoidable as well. Even simple actions such as checking sensor connections and quickly validating sensors in the field could have increased our confidence in the quality of the data, minimizing doubts that data observations were simply caused by badly behaving hardware. To improve data quality, we have designed a system called Confidence, which continuously monitors data collected at a base-station to identify faulty data and notify the user in the field of actions they can take to validate the data or remediate the sensor fault. Augmenting a sensor network deployment with Confidence and Sympathy enables users in the identification and remediation of faults impacting the quality and quantity of data respectively.

  1. Three-dimensional imaging of aquifer and aquitard heterogeneity via transient hydraulic tomography at a highly heterogeneous field site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhanfeng; Illman, Walter A.

    2018-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that geostatistics-based transient hydraulic tomography (THT) is robust for subsurface heterogeneity characterization through the joint inverse modeling of multiple pumping tests. However, the hydraulic conductivity (K) and specific storage (Ss) estimates can be smooth or even erroneous for areas where pumping/observation densities are low. This renders the imaging of interlayer and intralayer heterogeneity of highly contrasting materials including their unit boundaries difficult. In this study, we further test the performance of THT by utilizing existing and newly collected pumping test data of longer durations that showed drawdown responses in both aquifer and aquitard units at a field site underlain by a highly heterogeneous glaciofluvial deposit. The robust performance of the THT is highlighted through the comparison of different degrees of model parameterization including: (1) the effective parameter approach; (2) the geological zonation approach relying on borehole logs; and (3) the geostatistical inversion approach considering different prior information (with/without geological data). Results reveal that the simultaneous analysis of eight pumping tests with the geostatistical inverse model yields the best results in terms of model calibration and validation. We also find that the joint interpretation of long-term drawdown data from aquifer and aquitard units is necessary in mapping their full heterogeneous patterns including intralayer variabilities. Moreover, as geological data are included as prior information in the geostatistics-based THT analysis, the estimated K values increasingly reflect the vertical distribution patterns of permeameter-estimated K in both aquifer and aquitard units. Finally, the comparison of various THT approaches reveals that differences in the estimated K and Ss tomograms result in significantly different transient drawdown predictions at observation ports.

  2. Potential Geophysical Field Transformations and Combined 3D Modelling for Estimation the Seismic Site Effects on Example of Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppelbaum, Lev; Meirova, Tatiana

    2015-04-01

    It is well-known that the local seismic site effects may have a significant contribution to the intensity of damage and destruction (e.g., Hough et al., 1990; Regnier et al., 2000; Bonnefoy-Claudet et al., 2006; Haase et al., 2010). The thicknesses of sediments, which play a large role in amplification, usually are derived from seismic velocities. At the same time, thickness of sediments may be determined (or defined) on the basis of 3D combined gravity-magnetic modeling joined with available geological materials, seismic data and borehole section examination. Final result of such investigation is a 3D physical-geological model (PGM) reflecting main geological peculiarities of the area under study. Such a combined study needs in application of a reliable 3D mathematical algorithm of computation together with advanced methodology of 3D modeling. For this analysis the developed GSFC software was selected. The GSFC (Geological Space Field Calculation) program was developed for solving a direct 3-D gravity and magnetic prospecting problem under complex geological conditions (Khesin et al., 1996; Eppelbaum and Khesin, 2004). This program has been designed for computing the field of Δg (Bouguer, free-air or observed value anomalies), ΔZ, ΔX, ΔY , ΔT , as well as second derivatives of the gravitational potential under conditions of rugged relief and inclined magnetization. The geological space can be approximated by (1) three-dimensional, (2) semi-infinite bodies and (3) those infinite along the strike closed, L.H. non-closed, R.H. on-closed and open). Geological bodies are approximated by horizontal polygonal prisms. The program has the following main advantages (besides abovementioned ones): (1) Simultaneous computing of gravity and magnetic fields; (2) Description of the terrain relief by irregularly placed characteristic points; (3) Computation of the effect of the earth-air boundary by the method of selection directly in the process of interpretation; (4

  3. Radionuclide migration in groundwater at a low-level waste disposal site: a comparison of predictive performance modeling versus field observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, D.E.; Myers, D.A.; Bergeron, M.P.; Champ, D.R.; Killey, R.W.D.; Moltyaner, G.L.; Young, J.L.

    1985-08-01

    This paper describes a project which is structured to test the concept of modeling a shallow land low-level waste burial site. The project involves a comparison of the actual observed radionuclide migration in groundwaters at a 30-year-old well-monitored field site with the results of predictive transport modeling. The comparison is being conducted as a cooperative program with the Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. (AECL) at the low-level waste management area at the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories, Ontario, Canada. A joint PNL-AECL field inviestigation was conducted in 1983 and 1984 to complement the existing extensive data base on actual radionuclide migration. Predictive transport modeling is currently being conducted for this site; first, as if it were a new location being considered for a low-level waste shallow-land burial site and only minimal information about the site were available, and second, utilizing the extensive data base available for the site. The modeling results will then be compared with the empirical observations to provide insight into the level of effort needed to reasonably predict the spacial and temporal movement of radionuclides in the groundwater enviroment. 8 refs., 5 figs.,

  4. Determining Virtual Environment "Fit": The Relationship between Navigation Style in a Virtual Field Trip, Student Self-Reported Desire to Visit the Field Trip Site in the Real World, and the Purposes of Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutwiler, M. Shane; Lin, Ming-Chao; Chang, Chun-Yen

    2013-01-01

    In this study, a follow-up analysis of the data reported in Lin et al. ("Learn Media Technol." doi: 10.1080/17439884.2011.629660 , 2011), we investigated the relationship between student use of a virtual field trip (VFT) system and the probability of students reporting wanting to visit the national park site upon which the VFT was modeled,…

  5. In-field inspection support software: A status report on the Common Inspection On-site Software Package (CIOSP) project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novatchev, Dimitre; Titov, Pavel; Siradjov, Bakhtiiar; Vlad, Ioan; Xiao Jing

    2001-01-01

    Full text: IAEA has invested much thought and effort into developing software that can assist inspectors during their inspection work. Experience with such applications has been steadily growing and IAEA has recently commissioned a next-generation software package. This kind of software accommodates inspection tasks that can vary substantially in function depending on the type of installation being inspected as well as ensures that the resulting software package has a wide range of usability and can preclude excessive development of plant-specific applications. The Common Inspection On-site Software Package is being developed in the Department of Safeguards to address the limitations of the existing software and to expand its coverage of the inspection process. CIOSP is 'common' in that it is aimed at providing support for as many facilities as possible with the minimum re-configuration. At the same time it has to cater to varying needs of individual facilities, different instrumentation and verification methods used. A component-based approach was taken to successfully tackle the challenges that the development of this software presented. CIOSP consists of the following major components: A framework into which individual plug-ins supporting various inspection activities can integrate at run-time; A central data store containing all facility configuration data and all data collected during inspections; A local data store, which resides on the inspector's computer, where the current inspection's data is stored; A set of services used by all plug-ins (i.e. data transformation, authentication, replication services etc.). This architecture allows for incremental development and extension of the software with plug-ins that support individual inspection activities. The core set of components along with the framework, the Inventory Verification, Book Examination and Records and Reports Comparison plug-ins have been developed. The development of the Short Notice Random

  6. Laboratory and field studies related to radionuclide migration at the Nevada Test Site October 1, 1998-September 30, 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finnegan, D.L.; Kung, K.S.; Martinez, B.A.

    2000-01-01

    In this report the author describes his research in FY 1999 at the Nevada Test Site regarding the movement of radionuclides in groundwater. This work is funded by the US Department of Energy/Nevada Operations Office through their Defense Programs and Environmental Restorations divisions. Significant accomplishments include upgrading a spectrometer used to characterize groundwater colloids, acquisition of a probe to allow in situ measurement of groundwater parameters, and purchase of pumps for use in small-diameter access tubing. He collected water samples from a number of nuclear test sites during the past year. Samples from the chimney horizon at the Camembert site show that only volatile radionuclides are present there, as expected. Groundwater from the cavity region at the Cheshire site shows evidence of fission product leaching or desorption from melt glass or rock surfaces. Colloids present in this water were found to be remarkably stable during storage for many years. The colloid content of groundwater at the Cambric site and at UE-5n was found to be low relative to that in groundwater on Pahute Mesa. This, coupled with the apparent lack of groundwater flow in the alluvial rock at the Cambric site, suggests that radionuclide movement underground in this area is relatively minimal. He continued the yearly monitoring of the thermally hot cavity fluids at the Almendro site. He concludes this report by listing documents reviewed and presentations and publications generated by the program

  7. Surgeon-level reporting presented by funnel plot is understood by doctors but inaccurately interpreted by members of the public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalla, Ashish; Mehrotra, Prerna; Amawi, Falah; Lund, Jonathan N

    2015-01-01

    Risk-adjusted outcome data for general surgeons practicing in the United Kingdom were published for the first time in 2013 with the aim of increasing transparency, improving standards, and providing the public with information to aid decision making. Most specialties used funnel plots to present their data. We assess the ability of members of the public (MoP), medical students, nonsurgical doctors (NSD), and surgeons to understand risk-adjusted surgical outcome data. A fictitious outcome dataset was created and presented in the form of a funnel plot to 10 participants from each of the aforementioned group. Standard explanatory text was provided. Each participant was given 5 minutes to review the funnel plot and complete a questionnaire. For each question, there was only 1 correct answer. Completion rate was 100% (n = 40). No difference existed between NSD and surgeons. A significant difference for identification of the "worst performing surgeon" was noted between surgeons and MoP (p funnel plot significantly "more difficult" to interpret than surgeons did (p < 0.01) and NSD (p < 0.01). MoP found these data significantly more "difficult to understand" and were less likely to both spot "outliers" and use this data to inform decisions than doctors. Surgeons should be aware that outcome data may require an alternative method of presentation to be understood by MoP. Copyright © 2015 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Conflict Prevalence in Primary School and How It Is Understood to Affect Teaching and Learning in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nana Afia Amponsaa Opoku-Asare

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Verbal and non-verbal interactions that occur daily between teachers and headteachers, teachers and pupils, and among pupils can generate conflict that may adversely affect teaching, learning, and schooling effectiveness. Little attention is, however, paid to the quality of relationships that exists between teachers and pupils, among teachers, among pupils, between teachers and their school heads, and between schools and their local communities. This study sought to investigate conflict prevalence in Ghana’s primary schools, and how relationship conflict is understood to affect teaching and learning at the level of headteachers as administrators, teachers as classroom managers, and pupils as learners, and direct beneficiaries of primary education. Using data gathered via interview, questionnaire administration, and observation in 30 public primary schools in 10 circuits of one district of Ashanti Region, the findings revealed a high prevalence of fighting, heckling, bullying, and other forms of relationship conflict among pupils; strained teacher–pupil relations due to insolence, indiscipline, and use of offensive language; and teacher–parent arguments and quarrels due to harsh punishment and verbal assault of pupils. Teacher–pupil conflicts may extend to teachers excluding the affected pupils from teaching and learning activities, denying them the rights to ask and answer questions, and have their class exercises marked, leading to lowered pupil self-esteem, reduced concentration during lessons, and passive involvement in learning activities, which could result in truancy and school dropout. Strengthening guidance mechanisms and encouraging peer mediation could significantly curb conflict in school environments and thereby raise educational standards in the district.

  9. Energization and Transport in 3D Kinetic Simulations of MMS Magnetopause Reconnection Site Encounters with Varying Guide Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, A.; Daughton, W. S.; Ohia, O.; Chen, L. J.; Liu, Y. H.

    2017-12-01

    We present 3D fully kinetic simulations of asymmetric reconnection with plasma parameters matching MMS magnetopause diffusion region crossings with varying guide fields of 0.1 [Burch et al., Science (2016)], 0.4 [Chen et al. JGR (2017)], and 1 [Burch and Phan, GRL (2016] of the reconnecting sheath field. Strong diamagnetic drifts across the magnetopause current sheet drive lower-hybrid drift instabilities (LHDI) over a range of wavelengths [Daughton, PoP (2003); Roytershteyn et al., PRL (2012)] that develop into a turbulent state. Magnetic field tracing diagnostics are employed to characterize the turbulent magnetic geometry and to evaluate the global reconnection rate. The contributions to Ohm's law are evaluated field line by field line, including time-averaged diagnostics that allow the quantification of anomalous resistivity and viscosity. We examine how fluctuating electric fields and chaotic magnetic field lines contribute to particle mixing across the separatrix, and we characterize the accelerated electron distributions that form under varying magnetic shear or guide field. The LHDI turbulence is found to strongly enhance transport and parallel electron heating in 3D compared to 2D, particularly along the magnetospheric separatrix [Le et al., GRL (2017)]. The PIC simulation results are compared to MMS observations.

  10. Ecological risk assessment of on-site soil washing with iron(III) chloride in cadmium-contaminated paddy field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Takashi; Horio, Takeshi; Yokoyama, Atsushi; Kamiya, Takashi; Takano, Hiroyuki; Makino, Tomoyuki

    2012-06-01

    On-site soil washing with iron(III) chloride reduces Cd levels in soil, and thus the human health risks caused by Cd in food. However, it may threaten aquatic organisms when soil washing effluent is discharged to open aquatic systems. Therefore, we conducted trial-scale on-site soil washing and ecological risk assessment in Nagano and Niigata prefectures, Japan. The ecological effect of effluent water was investigated by two methods. The first was bioassay using standard aquatic test organisms. Twice-diluted effluent water from the Nagano site and the original effluent water from the Niigata site had no significant effects on green algae, water flea, caddisfly, and fish. The safe dilution rates were estimated as 20 times and 10 times for the Nagano and Niigata sites, respectively, considering an assessment factor of 10. The second method was probabilistic effect analysis using chemical analysis and the species sensitivity distribution concept. The mixture effects of CaCl(2), Al, Zn, and Mn were considered by applying a response additive model. The safe dilution rates, assessed for a potentially affected fraction of species of 5%, were 7.1 times and 23.6 times for the Nagano and Niigata sites, respectively. The actual dilution rates of effluent water by river water at the Nagano and Niigata sites were 2200-67,000 times and 1300-110,000 times, respectively. These are much larger than the safe dilution rates derived from the two approaches. Consequently, the ecological risk to aquatic organisms of soil washing is evaluated as being below the concern level. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The magnetic hyperfine field in the 181Ta site in the Co2HfAl and Co2HfGa Heusler alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, R. da.

    1979-01-01

    The hyperfine magnetic fields at 181 Ta nuclei in Heusler alloys Co 2 HfZ (Z=Al, Ga) have been measured using the time differential perturbed gamma-gamma angular correlation (TDPAC) method. The hyperfine fields obtained from these measurements at the liquid nitrogen temperature are -189 and +- 150 kOersted for Co 2 HfAl and Co 2 HfGa, respectively. The concept that the hyperfine field at the Y site is similar to the solute fields in Fe, Co, Ni and Gd matrices is corroborated. We have verified that ratios H sub(hf) sub(Ta)/T sub(c) and H sub(hf) sub(Ta)μ sub(Co) in Co 2 HfZ compounds (Z=Al, Ga, Sn) do not depend on the nature of Z element. However a dependence in the value of observed field with the s-p element in Z site was noticed. We feel that the samples are not completely ordered cubic as observed by the quadrupole interaction measurements. The results are interpreted in terms of the Campbell-Blandin formalism, and it is shown that the spin polarization of conduction electrons at Hf and Ta have opposite signs. (Author) [pt

  12. Site-specific nucleation and controlled growth of a vertical tellurium nanowire array for high performance field emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safdar, Muhammad; Zhan Xueying; Mirza, Misbah; Wang Zhenxing; Sun Lianfeng; He Jun; Niu Mutong; Zhang Jinping; Zhao Qing

    2013-01-01

    We report the controlled growth of highly ordered and well aligned one-dimensional tellurium nanostructure arrays via a one-step catalyst-free physical vapor deposition method. The density, size and fine structures of tellurium nanowires are systematically studied and optimized. Field emission measurement was performed to display notable dependence on nanostructure morphologies. The ordered nanowire array based field emitter has a turn-on field as low as 3.27 V μm −1 and a higher field enhancement factor of 3270. Our finding offers the possibility of controlling the growth of tellurium nanowire arrays and opens up new means for their potential applications in electronic devices and displays. (paper)

  13. Technical procedures for water resources: Volume 4, Deaf Smith County site, Texas: Environmental Field Program: Final draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-08-01

    This volume contains Technical Procedures pursuant to the water Resources Site Study Plan: including Collection, Preservation, and Shipment of Ground-Water Samples; Inventory Current Water Use and Estimating Projected Water Use; Estimation of Precipitation Depth, Duration, Frequence; Estimation of Probable Maximum Precipitation; Calculation of Floodplains

  14. Technical procedures for water resources, Deaf Smith County site, Texas: Volume 1: Environmental Field Program: Final draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-08-01

    This volume contains Technical Procedures pursuant to the Water Resources Site Study Plan including, determination of basin topographic characteristics, determination of channel and playa lake characteristics, operation of a stream gaging station, operation of a playa lake stage gaging system, and processing of data from a playa lake stage gaging system

  15. Plant species diversity as a driver of early succession in abandoned fields: a multi-site approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Putten, W H; Mortimer, S R; Hedlund, K; Van Dijk, C; Brown, V K; Lepä, J; Rodriguez-Barrueco, C; Roy, J; Diaz Len, T A; Gormsen, D; Korthals, G W; Lavorel, S; Regina, I Santa; Smilauer, P

    2000-07-01

    Succession is one of the most studied processes in ecology and succession theory provides strong predictability. However, few attempts have been made to influence the course of succession thereby testing the hypothesis that passing through one stage is essential before entering the next one. At each stage of succession ecosystem processes may be affected by the diversity of species present, but there is little empirical evidence showing that plant species diversity may affect succession. On ex-arable land, a major constraint of vegetation succession is the dominance of perennial early-successional (arable weed) species. Our aim was to change the initial vegetation succession by the direct sowing of later-successional plant species. The hypothesis was tested that a diverse plant species mixture would be more successful in weed suppression than species-poor mixtures. In order to provide a robust test including a wide range of environmental conditions and plant species, experiments were carried out at five sites across Europe. At each site, an identical experiment was set up, albeit that the plant species composition of the sown mixtures differed from site to site. Results of the 2-year study showed that diverse plant species mixtures were more effective at reducing the number of natural colonisers (mainly weeds from the seed bank) than the average low-diversity treatment. However, the effect of the low-diversity treatment depended on the composition of the species mixture. Thus, the effect of enhanced species diversity strongly depended on the species composition of the low-diversity treatments used for comparison. The effects of high-diversity plant species mixtures on weed suppression differed between sites. Low-productivity sites gave the weakest response to the diversity treatments. These differences among sites did not change the general pattern. The present results have implications for understanding biological invasions. It has been hypothesised that alien

  16. Comparison of three field screening techniques for delineating petroleum hydrocarbon plumes in groundwater at a site in the southern Carson Desert, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smuin, D.R.

    1993-01-01

    Three types of field screening techniques used in the characterization of potentially contaminated sites at Naval Air Station Fallon, Nevada, are compared. The methods and results for each technique are presented. The three techniques include soil-gas surveys, electromagnetic geophysical surveys, and groundwater test hole screening. Initial screening at the first study site included two soil-gas surveys and electromagnetic geophysical studies. These screening methods identified I areas of contamination; however, results were inconclusive. Therefore groundwater test hole screening was performed. Groundwater screening consisted of auger drilling down to the shallow alluvial aquifer. Groundwater samples were collected from the open drill hole with a bailer. On-site head-space analyses for volatile organic compounds (VOCS) were performed using a portable gas chromatograph (GC). Five areas of floating petroleum hydrocarbon product were identified along with the overall dissolved contaminant plume boundaries. Well placement was re-evaluated, and well sites were relocated based on the screening information. The most effective technique for identification of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminant plumes was groundwater test hole screening. Groundwater screening was subsequently performed at 19 other sites. A total of 450 test holes were analyzed resulting in the delineation of six plumes

  17. Off-site embankments to protect fields from the growth of peatlands in the Valli Grandi Veronesi Meridionali (Italy during Middle and Recent Bronze Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Balista

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the background of the late-Holocene landscape of the Southern Valli Grandi Veronesi (VGVM and nearby Bonifica Padana, an area that stretches between rivers Adige and Po and which is drained by the river Tartaro, was taken into consideration the position of a long embankment that ran through the territories of the two large moated sites of the middle and recent Bronze Age, Fondo Paviani (FP to east , and Castello del Tartaro (CdT to west. The location of this particular embankment called SAM (from italian southern embanked road, more than ten km long, and arranged parallel to the Tartaro old riparian belt, since long time attracted scholars as a witness of an old territorial organization, probably related to spatial distribution of cultivated or pasture by the communities who lived in the two large villages, bounded by massive ditch and bank systems. On the basis of recent acquisitions of new DEM and LIDAR sources and aimed field investigations, then merged into geo-chronological and chrono-typological analysis in the laboratory, was developed a research addressed the chrono-stratigraphic, cultural-evolutionary and functional scan of the SAM construct. For this purpose, the archaeological, stratigraphic and chronological record have been reviewed from a series of very significant off-sites, with stratigraphic columns documenting paleo-environmental and archaeological-functional reconstructions. They allowed to established the obvious links between the infrastructure of the ditches of the SAM embankment and the network of secondary rural ditches that seemed to drain and distribute waters in the parceled fields next to the large contemporary sites. In Ponte Moro off-site we captured the chrono-stratigraphic position of SAM embankment through the dating of two peat samples undertaken immediately before and after the stratigraphic position of the embankment. The datings have yielded an earliest date for the construction (MBA-RBA and a later date

  18. Field testing of behavioral barriers for cooling water intake structures -test site 1 - Pickering Nuclear Generating Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patrick, P.H.; McKinley, R.S.; Micheletti, W.C.

    1988-01-01

    A multi-year research program was developed by the Electric Power Research Institute to evaluate the effectiveness of selected behavioral systems for fish exclusion at sites representative of different aquatic environments. The first test site was the Pickering Nuclear Generating Station (NGS) located on Lake Ontario which represented the Great Lakes environment. A single pneumatic popper, a low frequency, high amplitude sound deterrent, was found to effectively exclude adult alewife, the principal species impinged at Pickering NGS. An air bubble curtain, used either alone or combined with strobe lights, was not a consistent deterrent. Effectiveness of air bubbles was only enhanced when used in association with a popper. Strobe lights were the least effective of the three devices tested. Operation of all three devices together did not surpass the effectiveness of the popper when used alone. Sound deterrents show promise for fish exclusion at generating stations located on the Great Lakes

  19. Installation Restoration Program. Preliminary Assessment: Gulfport Air National Guard Field Training Site Gulfport - Biloxi Regional Airport, Gulfport, Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-01

    Res of geologic deposits beneath the City of Gulfport. Sme well logs on and around the Training Site do not record the Citronelle , indicating that it...may have "Pinched out" beneath the airfield. kr’±her possibility is that drillers my have mistakenly Ir-rporated Citronelle deposits with the underlying...to m well log information. They my have been reworked, eroded, or redeposited as part of the Pamlico. Te lithology of the Citronelle turds to include

  20. Sites of local recurrence after surgery, with or without chemotherapy, for rectal cancer: implications for radiotherapy field design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hruby, George; Barton, Michael; Miles, Sharon; Carroll, Susan; Nasser, Elias; Stevens, Graham

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the sites of pelvic recurrence in patients with rectal cancer previously untreated with radiotherapy to determine the relative frequency and location of recurrence within the pelvis. Methods and Materials: The records of patients with locally recurrent rectal cancer referred to three radiation oncology departments between 1984 and 1997 were reviewed. The data collected included the date and type of the initial resection and the pathologic findings. The site of recurrence within the pelvis, presence of metastasis, and date of recurrence were documented. Results: A total of 269 patients were included. Tumor had invaded through the muscularis in 74% and involved other organs in 9%. Fifty-two percent of patients were node positive at initial surgery. The median time to local recurrence from surgery was 18 months (range 15-20) and from local recurrence to death was 14 months (range 12-17). Both the initial tumor stage and the resection type influenced the recurrence location within the pelvis (p<0.01). T4 tumors comprised only 9% of initial T stage tumors but accounted for 38% of anterior central pelvic recurrences (p<0.01). All perineal recurrences occurred after abdominoperineal resection. The sites of recurrence within the pelvis were the posterior central pelvis (47%) and anastomotic (21%). Conclusion: If those patients with T4 tumors at presentation were excluded, 89% had local recurrence at, or posterior to, the anastomosis. Furthermore, if we exclude both patients who underwent abdominoperineal resection and those with T4 tumors at presentation, the rate increases to 93%. The rate of recurrence anteriorly (7%) does not justify routine radiation of the anterior pelvis beyond that required to adequately cover the anastomotic site

  1. The impact of price discounts and calorie messaging on beverage consumption: a multi-site field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jue, J Jane S; Press, Matthew J; McDonald, Daniel; Volpp, Kevin G; Asch, David A; Mitra, Nandita; Stanowski, Anthony C; Loewenstein, George

    2012-12-01

    To examine the efficacy of alternative approaches for shifting consumers toward zero calorie beverages. We examined the effect of price discounts and novel presentations of calorie information on sales of beverages. This prospective interrupted time-series quasi-experiment included three sites in Philadelphia, PA, Evanston, IL, and Detroit, MI. Each site received five interventions: (1) a 10% price discount on zero-calorie beverages; (2) the 10% discount plus discount messaging; (3) messaging comparing calorie information of sugared beverages with zero-calorie beverages; (4) messaging comparing exercise equivalent information; and (5) messaging comparing both calorie and exercise equivalent information. The main outcome was daily sales of bottled zero-calorie and sugared beverages. Data was collected from October 2009 until May 2010 and analyzed from May 2010 until May 2011. The overall analysis failed to demonstrate a consistent effect across all interventions. Two treatments had statistically significant effects: the discount plus discount messaging, with an increase in purchases of zero calorie beverages; and the calorie messaging intervention, with an increase in purchases of sugar-sweetened beverages. Individual site analysis results were similar. The effects of price discounts and calorie messaging in different forms on beverage purchases were inconsistent and frequently small. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Technical procedures for water resources, Deaf Smith County site, Texas: Volume 2: Environmental Field Program: Final draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-08-01

    This volume contains the following Technical Procedures pursuant to the Water Resources Site Study Plan operation of a Playa Lake conductivity monitoring station and processing of data from a Playa Lake conductivity monitoring station. This procedure defines steps and methods for the installation, operation, and maintenance of the Playa Lake conductivity monitoring stations. Conductivity measurements will be taken at six playa lakes in the site study area to record changes in total dissolved solids as a function of stage. Playa lake conductivity and stage (volume) measurements will be used, in conjunction with other water quality data collected at the Playa Lake and precipitation stations, to determine the mass of dissolved solids entering and leaving the playas. This baseline information on the pollutant mass balance of the playas will be used to assess potential changes in playa lake water quality and the magnitude of those changes due to site development. The pollutant mass balances will also be used on determining the source of pollutants. 2 refs., 5 figs

  3. INTEGRAL FIELD SPECTROSCOPY OF SUPERNOVA EXPLOSION SITES: CONSTRAINING THE MASS AND METALLICITY OF THE PROGENITORS. I. TYPE Ib AND Ic SUPERNOVAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuncarayakti, Hanindyo; Maeda, Keiichi [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), Todai Institutes for Advanced Study, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Doi, Mamoru; Morokuma, Tomoki; Hashiba, Yasuhito [Institute of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-0015 (Japan); Aldering, Greg [Physics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Arimoto, Nobuo [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-0015 (Japan); Pereira, Rui [CNRS/IN2P3, Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon, 4 Rue Enrico Fermi, F-69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Usuda, Tomonori, E-mail: hanindyo.kuncarayakti@ipmu.jp [Subaru Telescope, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 650 North A' ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Integral field spectroscopy of 11 Type Ib/Ic supernova (SN Ib/Ic) explosion sites in nearby galaxies has been obtained using UH88/SNIFS and Gemini-N/GMOS. The use of integral field spectroscopy enables us to obtain both spatial and spectral information about the explosion site, enabling the identification of the parent stellar population of the SN progenitor star. The spectrum of the parent population provides metallicity determination via strong-line method and age estimation obtained via comparison with simple stellar population models. We adopt this information as the metallicity and age of the SN progenitor, under the assumption that it was coeval with the parent stellar population. The age of the star corresponds to its lifetime, which in turn gives the estimate of its initial mass. With this method we were able to determine both the metallicity and initial (zero-age main sequence) mass of the progenitor stars of SNe Ib and Ic. We found that on average SN Ic explosion sites are more metal-rich and younger than SN Ib sites. The initial mass of the progenitors derived from parent stellar population age suggests that SN Ic has more massive progenitors than SN Ib. In addition, we also found indication that some of our SN progenitors are less massive than {approx}25 M{sub Sun }, indicating that they may have been stars in a close binary system that have lost their outer envelope via binary interactions to produce SNe Ib/Ic, instead of single Wolf-Rayet stars. These findings support the current suggestions that both binary and single progenitor channels are in effect in producing SNe Ib/Ic. This work also demonstrates the power of integral field spectroscopy in investigating SN environments and active star-forming regions.

  4. Microbial Diversity and Metal Speciation Changes in Mine Tailings Following Compost-Assisted Direct Planting: A Four-Year Superfund Site Field Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, R. M.; Gil-Loaiza, J.; Honeker, L. K.; Hottenstein, J. D.; Valentin-Vargas, A.; Jennings, L. L.; Hammond, C.; Neilson, J. W.; Root, R. A.; Chorover, J.

    2015-12-01

    EPA estimates that future mine tailings remediation costs will exceed US $50 billion using present technologies based on constructing an inert or biological cap on the tailings. Both approaches require large amounts of capping materials that can be difficult and expensive to obtain especially for sites several thousand hectares in size. An alternative technology is direct planting into tailings. However, direct planting alone is not feasible for many legacy sites due to extreme acidity and high metal content which prevent plant germination and growth. Therefore the process must be "assisted" through the addition of amendments such as compost. Here we present results from the first four years of a field study at the Iron King Mine and Humboldt Smelter Superfund site demonstrating the feasibility of compost-assisted direct planting. Parameters measured during the field study included: canopy cover, pH, nutrient content, plant metal uptake, metal(loid) speciation, mineral analysis, microbiome analysis, and plant root-metal-microbe interactions. Integrated analysis of these parameters suggests that even in this "worst-case scenario" mine tailings site (pH 2.5; As and Pb each exceeding 2 g kg-1), we have created a sustainable system. In this system, phyto-catalyzed stabilization of inorganic contaminants in the root zone is driven by plant root exudates and the associated rhizosphere microbial community. The results of this research will be put into context of a larger topic- that of ecological engineering of mine tailings sites - a technique being proposed to prevent creation of acidic conditions and metal(loid) mobilization in the first place.

  5. Evaluation of the Radiochemistry of Near-Field Water Samples at the Nevada Test Site Applied to the Definition of a Hydrologic Source Term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D K

    2002-01-01

    Effective management of available groundwater resources and strategies for remediation of water impacted by past nuclear testing practices depend on knowledge about the migration of radionuclides in groundwater away from the sites of the explosions. A primary concern is to assess the relative mobilities of the different radionuclide species found near sites of underground nuclear tests and to determine the concentration, extent, and speed of this movement. Ultimately the long term transport behavior of radionuclides with half-lives long enough that they will persist for decades, their interaction with groundwater, and the resulting flux of these contaminants is of paramount importance. As part of a comprehensive approach to these assessments, more than three decades of site-specific sites studies have been undertaken at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) which have focused on the means responsible for the observed or suspected movement of radionuclides away from underground nuclear tests (RNM, 1983). More recently regional and local models of groundwater flow and radionuclide transport have been developed as part of a federal and state of Nevada program to assess the long-term effects of underground nuclear testing on human health and environment (e.g., U.S. DOE/NV, 1997a; Tompson et al., 1999; Pawloski et al., 2001). Necessary to these efforts is a reliable measure of the hydrologic source term which is defined as those radionuclides dissolved in or otherwise transported by groundwater (Smith et al., 1995). Measurement of radionuclides in waters sampled near the sites of underground nuclear test provides arguably the best opportunity to bound the hydrologic source term. This empirical approach was recognized early and concentration data has been collected annually since mid-1970's. Initially three sites were studied at the NTS; over the years the program has been expanded to include more than fifteen study locations. As part of various field programs, Lawrence Livermore

  6. Anomalous behavior of the magnetic hyperfine field at 140Ce impurities at La sites in LaMnSi2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domienikan, C.; Bosch-Santos, B.; Cabrera-Pasca, G. A.; Saxena, R. N.; Carbonari, A. W.

    2018-05-01

    Magnetic hyperfine field has been measured in the orthorhombic intermetallic compound LaMnSi2 with perturbed angular correlation (PAC) spectroscopy using radioactive 140La(140Ce) nuclear probes. Magnetization measurements were also carried out in this compound with MPSM-SQUID magnetometer. Samples of LaMnSi2 compound were prepared by arc melting the component metals with high purity under argon atmosphere followed by annealing at 1000°C for 60 h under helium atmosphere and quenching in water. X-ray analysis confirmed the samples to be in a single phase with correct crystal structure expected for LaMnSi2 compound. The radioactive 140La (T1/2 = 40 h) nuclei were produced by direct irradiation of the sample with neutrons in the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor at IPEN with a flux of ˜ 1013 n cm-2s-1 for about 3 - 4 min. The PAC measurements were carried out with a six BaF2 detector spectrometer at several temperatures between 10 K and 400 K. Temperature dependence of the hyperfine field, Bhf was found to be anomalous. A modified two-state model explained this anomalous behavior where the effective magnetic hyperfine field at 140Ce is believed to have two contributions, one from the unstable localized spins at Ce impurities and another from the magnetic Mn atoms of the host. The competition of these two contributions explains the anomalous behavior observed for the temperature dependence of the magnetic hyperfine field at 140Ce. The ferromagnetic transition temperature (TC) of LaMnSi2 was determined to be 400(1) K confirming the magnetic measurements.

  7. The synergistic use of models and observations: understanding the mechanisms behind observed biomass dynamics at 14 Amazonian field sites and the implications for future biomass change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, N. M.; Galbraith, D.; Christoffersen, B. J.; Imbuzeiro, H. A.; Restrepo-Coupe, N.; Malhi, Y.; Saleska, S. R.; Costa, M. H.; Phillips, O.; Andrade, A.; Moorcroft, P. R.

    2011-12-01

    The Amazonian rainforests play a vital role in global water, energy and carbon cycling. The sensitivity of this system to natural and anthropogenic disturbances therefore has important implications for the global climate. Some global models have predicted large-scale forest dieback and the savannization of Amazonia over the next century [Meehl et al., 2007]. While several studies have demonstrated the sensitivity of dynamic global vegetation models to changes in temperature, precipitation, and dry season length [e.g. Galbraith et al., 2010; Good et al., 2011], the ability of these models to accurately reproduce ecosystem dynamics of present-day transitional or low biomass tropical forests has not been demonstrated. A model-data intercomparison was conducted with four state-of-the-art terrestrial ecosystem models to evaluate the ability of these models to accurately represent structure, function, and long-term biomass dynamics over a range of Amazonian ecosystems. Each modeling group conducted a series of simulations for 14 sites including mature forest, transitional forest, savannah, and agricultural/pasture sites. All models were run using standard physical parameters and the same initialization procedure. Model results were compared against forest inventory and dendrometer data in addition to flux tower measurements. While the models compared well against field observations for the mature forest sites, significant differences were observed between predicted and measured ecosystem structure and dynamics for the transitional forest and savannah sites. The length of the dry season and soil sand content were good predictors of model performance. In addition, for the big leaf models, model performance was highest for sites dominated by late successional trees and lowest for sites with predominantly early and mid-successional trees. This study provides insight into tropical forest function and sensitivity to environmental conditions that will aid in predictions of the

  8. Spatial Variability of the Background Diurnal Cycle of Deep Convection around the GoAmazon2014/5 Field Campaign Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burleyson, Casey D.; Feng, Zhe; Hagos, Samson M.; Fast, Jerome; Machado, Luiz A. T.; Martin, Scot T.

    2016-07-01

    The Amazon rainforest is one of a few regions of the world where continental tropical deep convection occurs. The Amazon’s isolation makes it challenging to observe, but also creates a unique natural laboratory to study anthropogenic impacts on clouds and precipitation in an otherwise pristine environment. Extensive measurements were made upwind and downwind of the large city of Manaus, Brazil during the Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon 2014-2015 (GoAmazon2014/5) field campaign. In this study, 15 years of high-resolution satellite data are analyzed to examine the spatial and diurnal variability of convection occurring around the GoAmazon2014/5 sites. Interpretation of anthropogenic differences between the upwind (T0) and downwind (T1-T3) sites is complicated by naturally-occurring spatial variability between the sites. During the rainy season, the inland propagation of the previous day’s sea-breeze front happens to be in phase with the background diurnal cycle near Manaus, but is out of phase elsewhere. Enhanced convergence between the river-breezes and the easterly trade winds generates up to 10% more frequent deep convection at the GoAmazon2014/5 sites east of the river (T0a, T0t/k, and T1) compared to the T3 site which was located near the western bank. In general, the annual and diurnal cycles during 2014 were representative of the 2000-2013 distributions. The only exceptions were in March when the monthly mean rainrate was above the 95th percentile and September when both rain frequency and intensity were suppressed. The natural spatial variability must be accounted for before interpreting anthropogenically-induced differences among the GoAmazon2014/5 sites.

  9. Long-term behaviour of waste-forms in the near-field environment of a deep underground storage site, overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toulhoat, P.; Lassabatere, Th.; Galle, Ch.; Cranga, M.; Trotignon, L.; Maillard, S.; Iracane, D.

    1997-01-01

    CEA (French Atomic Energy Commission) is responsible for the achievement of high activity and/or long life waste conditioning processes. Various waste-forms are used (glass, bitumen, etc...). ANDRA (French National Agency for Nuclear Waste Management) has to integrate the long-term durability of such waste-forms in the conception of a deep disposal and the assessment of its long-term confinement performances. The influence of near-field and of the boundary conditions imposed by the far-field on the long-term evolution is being more and more documented. Transport properties and reactivity of silica in the near field is one of the best examples of such effects. A coherent framework with relevant successive events (site re-saturation, chemical evolution of the engineered barrier, overpack corrosion) and a thorough analysis of hierarchized couplings are necessary to evaluate the long term durability of waste-form, and finally, to deliver a near-field-integrated source-term of radionuclides versus lime. We present hereafter some preliminary results obtained in the framework of the CEA 'C3P' project - long-term behaviour of waste-forms in their near-field environment. (authors)

  10. Environmental assessment after decommissioning at the North Sea- Froey oil production site: a field study with biomarkers in fish and invertebrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinturier, Laurence; Beyer, Jonny; Moltu, Ulf; Plisson, Saune Stephan; Berland, Harald; Sundt, Rolf; Bjoernstad, Anne; Sanni, Steinar

    2006-03-15

    The Froey field is situated in the North Sea and was operated by Total Exploration and Production Norge. Oil production started in 1995 and ceased in 2001, when the wells were permanently plugged and abandoned. The jacket was removed in 2002, and in 2003 the first post-production sediment monitoring survey was carried out at the field as a part of the regional sediment environmental monitoring survey of Region II. In parallel to the sediment monitoring survey and cuttings survey, Total E and P Norge decided to conduct an environmental survey based on the use of biological effects parameters (or biomarkers) to document the environmental condition of the site after decommissioning. A series of pollutant responsive biomarkers was selected in order to answer the following questions: is the environmental condition in the bottom water at the Froey location significantly different to the background situation as measured in the reference station? And does the cutting deposit affect the nearby environment. Conclusion: This paper present a selection of the results obtained during an environmental survey carried out at a decommissioned field, the Froey field, by Total E and P Norge and RF-Akvamiljoe. Detailed results and discussion will be presented more extensively in a peer review publication by Beyer et al. (2005). The objective of the survey was to evaluate the environmental condition at the Froey site by comparing it to a background situation measured at a reference site. The environmental condition was assessed by measuring biological effects parameters in invertebrates and fish living in close connection with the sediments. The results of this survey indicate only a very local pollutant effect in the vicinity of the cuttings limited to the invertebrates living and feeding on the sediment. No signal effects were measured in the selected fish species known to swallow large quantity of sediment when feeding. These results corroborate well the ones obtained from the

  11. Field study of alpha characterization of a D ampersand D site using long-range alpha detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawool-Sullivan, M.W.; Allander, K.S.; Bounds, J.A.; Koster, J.E.; MacArthur, D.W.; Sprouse, L.L.; Stout, D.; Vaccarella, J.A.; Vu, T.Q.

    1994-01-01

    A successful and cost-effective D ampersand D effort relies upon an accurate, real-time, in situ, and non-destructive method of characterization of contamination both before and after the decontamination process. Detector systems based on long-range alpha detection (LRAD) technology meet these criteria. Currently, LANL is in the process of investigating, designing, or building various surface monitors, various pipe monitors, and glove-box monitors. This paper describes the field studies conducted using detectors based on LRAD technology

  12. WIPP site and vicinity geological field trip. A report of a field trip to the proposed Waste Isolation Pilot Plant project in Southeastern New Mexico, June 16 to 18, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaturvedi, L

    1980-10-01

    The Environmental Evaluation Group is conducting an assessment of the radiological health risks to people from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. As a part of this work, EEG is making an effort to improve the understanding of those geological issues concerning the WIPP site which may affect the radiological consequences of the proposed repository. One of the important geological issues to be resolved is the timing and the nature of the dissolution processes which may have affected the WIPP site. EEG organized a two-day conference of geological scientists, on January 17-18, 1980. On the basis of the January conference and the June field trip, EEG has formed the following conclusions: (1) it has not been clearly established that the site or the surrounding area has been attacked by deep dissolution to render it unsuitable for the nuclear waste pilot repository; (2) the existence of an isolated breccia pipe at the site unaccompanied by a deep dissolution wedge, is a very remote possibility; (3) more specific information about the origin and the nature of the brine reservoirs is needed. An important question that should be resolved is whether each encounter with artesian brine represents a separate pocket or whether these occurrences are interconnected; (4) Anderson has postulated a major tectonic fault or a fracture system at the Basin margin along the San Simon Swale; (5) the area in the northern part of the WIPP site, identified from geophysical and bore hole data as the disturbed zone, should be further investigated to cleary understand the nature and significance of this structural anomaly; and (6) a major drawback encountered during the discussions of geological issues related to the WIPP site is the absence of published material that brings together all the known information related to a particular issue.

  13. Binding site alteration is responsible for field-isolated resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis Cry2A insecticidal proteins in two Helicoverpa species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Caccia

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Evolution of resistance by target pests is the main threat to the long-term efficacy of crops expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt insecticidal proteins. Cry2 proteins play a pivotal role in current Bt spray formulations and transgenic crops and they complement Cry1A proteins because of their different mode of action. Their presence is critical in the control of those lepidopteran species, such as Helicoverpa spp., which are not highly susceptible to Cry1A proteins. In Australia, a transgenic variety of cotton expressing Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab (Bollgard II comprises at least 80% of the total cotton area. Prior to the widespread adoption of Bollgard II, the frequency of alleles conferring resistance to Cry2Ab in field populations of Helicoverpa armigera and Helicoverpa punctigera was significantly higher than anticipated. Colonies established from survivors of F(2 screens against Cry2Ab are highly resistant to this toxin, but susceptible to Cry1Ac. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Bioassays performed with surface-treated artificial diet on neonates of H. armigera and H. punctigera showed that Cry2Ab resistant insects were cross-resistant to Cry2Ae while susceptible to Cry1Ab. Binding analyses with (125I-labeled Cry2Ab were performed with brush border membrane vesicles from midguts of Cry2Ab susceptible and resistant insects. The results of the binding analyses correlated with bioassay data and demonstrated that resistant insects exhibited greatly reduced binding of Cry2Ab toxin to midgut receptors, whereas no change in (125I-labeled-Cry1Ac binding was detected. As previously demonstrated for H. armigera, Cry2Ab binding sites in H. punctigera were shown to be shared by Cry2Ae, which explains why an alteration of the shared binding site would lead to cross-resistance between the two Cry2A toxins. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first time that a mechanism of resistance to the Cry2 class of insecticidal proteins has been reported

  14. Predicting Scenarios for Successful Autodissemination of Pyriproxyfen by Malaria Vectors from Their Resting Sites to Aquatic Habitats; Description and Simulation Analysis of a Field-Parameterizable Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samson S Kiware

    Full Text Available Large-cage experiments indicate pyriproxifen (PPF can be transferred from resting sites to aquatic habitats by Anopheles arabiensis--malaria vector mosquitoes to inhibit emergence of their own offspring. PPF coverage is amplified twice: (1 partial coverage of resting sites with PPF contamination results in far higher contamination coverage of adult mosquitoes because they are mobile and use numerous resting sites per gonotrophic cycle, and (2 even greater contamination coverage of aquatic habitats results from accumulation of PPF from multiple oviposition events.Deterministic mathematical models are described that use only field-measurable input parameters and capture the biological processes that mediate PPF autodissemination. Recent successes in large cages can be rationalized, and the plausibility of success under full field conditions can be evaluated a priori. The model also defines measurable properties of PPF delivery prototypes that may be optimized under controlled experimental conditions to maximize chances of success in full field trials. The most obvious flaw in this model is the endogenous relationship that inevitably occurs between the larval habitat coverage and the measured rate of oviposition into those habitats if the target mosquito species is used to mediate PPF transfer. However, this inconsistency also illustrates the potential advantages of using a different, non-target mosquito species for contamination at selected resting sites that shares the same aquatic habitats as the primary target. For autodissemination interventions to eliminate malaria transmission or vector populations during the dry season window of opportunity will require comprehensive contamination of the most challenging subset of aquatic habitats [Formula: see text] that persist or retain PPF activity (Ux for only one week [Formula: see text], where Ux = 7 days. To achieve >99% contamination coverage of these habitats will necessitate values for the

  15. Rocketdyne division, environmental monitoring and facility effluent. Annual report, De Soto and Santa Susana Field Laboratories Sites, 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, J. D. [Rockwell International, Canoga Park, CA (United States)

    1990-05-01

    Work in nuclear energy research and development in what has become the Rocketdyne Division of Rockwell International Corporation began in 1946. During the evolution of these operations, small test and demonstration reactors and critical assemblies were operated, reactor fuel elements were fabricated and used reactor fuel elements were disassembled and declad. These projects have been completed and terminated over the past 30 years. Most of this work was performed at the Santa Susana Field Laboratories (SSFL) and is described in detail in Reference 18. No work with nuclear materials has been conducted since 1987, and the only ongoing work during 1989 was the cleanup of the Rockwell International Hot Laboratory (RIHL) and continuing decontamination of the remaining nuclear facilities. In October 1989, the NRC Special Nuclear Materials License was amended to permit only a minor amount of nuclear material for research purposes. Since then, the license has been further amended to permit only decommissioning operations. These operations have been conducted under State and Federal licenses and under contract to DOE and its predecessors at three main locations. identified as the Santa Susana Field Laboratories (SSFL). De Soto (DS), and Canoga (CA).

  16. Carrier redistribution between different potential sites in semipolar (202¯1) InGaN quantum wells studied by near-field photoluminescence

    KAUST Repository

    Marcinkevičius, S.

    2014-09-15

    © 2014 AIP Publishing LLC. Scanning near-field photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy at different excitation powers was applied to study nanoscale properties of carrier localization and recombination in semipolar (202¯1) InGaN quantum wells (QWs) emitting in violet, blue, and green-yellow spectral regions. With increased excitation power, an untypical PL peak energy shift to lower energies was observed. The shift was attributed to carrier density dependent carrier redistribution between nm-scale sites of different potentials. Near-field PL scans showed that in (202¯1) QWs the in-plane carrier diffusion is modest, and the recombination properties are uniform, which is advantageous for photonic applications.

  17. Modifications to the Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere Continuum by Hedgerows - Observations from a field site in Northern England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Victoria; Pattison, Ian

    2016-04-01

    UK farming practices have changed significantly over the past 100 years. This is evident in arable fields, where the use of larger machinery has led to the removal of hedgerows. In the River Skell catchment, in Yorkshire, UK this has led to a doubling in field size since 1892. The national-wide change is responsible for longer slope lengths, increased runoff velocities and greater potential for connectivity, which may be responsible for an increase in flood risk at the catchment scale. However there is a lack of physical evidence to support this theory. Hedgerows are a widespread, man-made boundary feature in the rural UK landscape. They play an important ecological role in providing shelter, changing the local climate, reducing erosion and have a strong influence on local soil properties. Their impact on hydrology has not been widely studied but it is hypothesised that their presence could alter soil moisture levels and the soil structure, therefore affecting runoff. This paper presents observations of a hedgerow on the Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere Continuum, through 15 months field monitoring conducted in the River Skell catchment. Firstly, to assess soil moisture levels TDR probes were installed at different depths and distances from the hedgerow. To assess the soil quality and therefore its infiltration capacity, soil cores were collected to determine soil horizons and root density. Also, laboratory tests were undertaken to determine the soil type and the porosity. Secondly, to assess the physical impact of the hedgerow plant on the partitioning of rainfall, gauges were installed to capture the spatial distribution of rainfall, along a transect perpendicular to the hedgerow, as well as stemflow. Throughfall gauges were also installed within the hedgerow and leaf area index calculated. Thirdly, to assess the impact of the hedgerow on the micro-climate, temperature sensors and four leaf wetness sensors were installed to determine evapotranspiration and interception

  18. Natural Attenuation and Anaerobic Benzene Detoxification Processes at a Chlorobenzene-Contaminated Industrial Site Inferred from Field Investigations and Microcosm Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Wenjing; Luo, Fei; Lomheim, Line; Mack, Elizabeth Erin; Ye, Shujun; Wu, Jichun; Edwards, Elizabeth A

    2018-01-02

    A five-year site investigation was conducted at a former chemical plant in Nanjing, China. The main contaminants were 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene (TCB) reaching concentrations up to 7300 μg/L, dichlorobenzene (DCB) isomers, monochlorobenzene (MCB), and benzene. Over time, these contaminants naturally attenuated to below regulatory levels under anaerobic conditions. To confirm the transformation processes and to explore the mechanisms, a corresponding laboratory microcosm study was completed demonstrating that 1,2,4-TCB was dechlorinated to 1,2-DCB, 1,3-DCB, and 1,4-DCB in approximately 2%/10%/88% molar proportions. The DCB isomers were dechlorinated via MCB to benzene, and, finally, benzene was degraded under prevailing sulfate-reducing conditions. Dechlorination could not be attributed to known dechlorinators Dehalobacter or Dehalococcoides, while anaerobic benzene degradation was mediated by microbes affiliated to a Deltaproteobacterium ORM2, previously associated with this activity. Unidentified organic compounds, possibly aromatic compounds related to past on-site production processes, were fueling the dechlorination reactions in situ. The microcosm study confirmed transformation processes inferred from field data and provided needed assurance for natural attenuation. Activity-based microcosm studies are often omitted from site characterization in favor of rapid and less expensive molecular surveys. However, the value of microcosm studies for confirming transformation processes, establishing electron balances, assessing cocontaminant inhibition, and validating appropriate monitoring tools is clear. At complex sites impacted by multiple compounds with poorly characterized transformation mechanisms, activity assays provide valuable data to incorporate into the conceptual site model to most effectively inform remediation alternatives.

  19. The Earth's magnetic field in Italy during the Neolithic period: New data from the Early Neolithic site of Portonovo (Marche, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tema, Evdokia; Ferrara, Enzo; Camps, Pierre; Conati Barbaro, Cecilia; Spatafora, Simone; Carvallo, Claire; Poidras, Thierry

    2016-08-01

    We present new, full geomagnetic field vector results from three Neolithic ovens discovered at the archaeological site of Portonovo (Marche, Italy). The discovered structures are a rare example of very well preserved underground ovens from the Early Neolithic period. Standard thermal demagnetization procedures were used to isolate the direction of the Characteristic Remanent Magnetization acquired by the baked clay during the ovens' last firing. The corresponding archaeointensities were determined by the multi-specimen procedure (MSP-DSC) and show a clear intensity low during the Neolithic period. Both directional and intensity results are of high quality, offering the first contribution of full geomagnetic field vector data for this period in Italy. The new data are compared with other contemporaneous data from Europe and with global geomagnetic field models. Independent archaeomagnetic dating of the three ovens was also performed by means of the SCHA.DIF.14k model. The obtained results are in excellent agreement with available radiocarbon dates and confirm that all ovens belong to the Neolithic. These new data importantly enrich our knowledge of the geomagnetic field during the Neolithic period that is poorly documented by data, not only in Italy but also in the whole of Europe and show that archaeomagnetic dating can provide precise results even for prehistoric periods.

  20. Multifunctional landscapes: Site characterization and field-scale design to incorporate biomass production into an agricultural system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ssegane, Herbert; Negri, M. Cristina; Quinn, John; Urgun-Demirtas, Meltem

    2015-09-01

    Current and future demand for food, feed, fiber, and energy require novel approaches to land management, which demands that multifunctional landscapes are created to integrate various ecosystem functions into a sustainable land use. We developed an approach to design such landscapes at a field scale to minimize concerns of land use change, water quality, and greenhouse gas emissions associated with production of food and bioenergy. This study leverages concepts of nutrient recovery and phytoremediation to place bioenergy crops on the landscape to recover nutrients released to watersheds by commodity crops. Crop placement is determined by evaluating spatial variability of: 1) soils, 2) surface flow pathways, 3) shallow groundwater flow gradients, 4) subsurface nitrate concentrations, and 5) primary crop yield. A 0.8 ha bioenergy buffer was designed within a 6.5 ha field to intercept concentrated surface flow, capture and use nitrate leachate, and minimize use of productive areas. Denitrification-Decomposition (DNDC) simulations show that on average, a switchgrass (Panicum Virgatum L.) or willow (Salix spp.) buffer within this catchment according to this design could reduce annual leached NO3 by 61 or 59% and N2O emission by 5.5 or 10.8%, respectively, produce 8.7 or 9.7 Mg ha-1 of biomass respectively, and displace 6.7 Mg ha-1 of corn (Zea mays L.) grain. Therefore, placement of bioenergy crops has the potential to increase environmental sustainability when the pairing of location and crop type result in minimal disruption of current food production systems and provides additional environmental benefits.

  1. Fate of excavated polluted soils, treated off site. Regulations and field enforcement status in various European countries. Synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leroy, P.

    2003-11-01

    Most industrialized countries have to cope with problems of polluted soils that have their roots in past or present anthropic activities. The treatment and the management of contaminated soils is a fast-moving domain, both from a technological point of view and at the level of regulations. In this respect the future European 'soil directive' should reinforce legislations within the Members States, while harmonizing practices. The fate of excavated soils depends on multiple parameters. In some cases, materials are disposed of at landfills. In other cases, they are recovered and re-used according to specific modes. RE.CO.R.D. wishes to learn more about situations in various European countries, concerning the disposal as well as the re-use/recycling of excavated polluted soils treated off site. This study is in the continuation of the former study number 99-0506/1A performed by Adit in 1999 and 2000. This work reports on the state of legislations as well as their respective implementations in five European States (France, Belgium, The Netherlands, Italy and Germany). The aim of this analysis is to establish a comparative study of the regulations in force through selected countries

  2. Expectations in the field of the Internet and health: an analysis of claims about social networking sites in clinical literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koteyko, Nelya; Hunt, Daniel; Gunter, Barrie

    2015-01-01

    This article adopts a critical sociological perspective to examine the expectations surrounding the uses of social networking sites (SNSs) articulated in the domain of clinical literature. This emerging body of articles and commentaries responds to the recent significant growth in SNS use, and constitutes a venue in which the meanings of SNSs and their relation to health are negotiated. Our analysis indicates how clinical writing configures the role of SNSs in health care through a range of metaphorical constructions that frame SNSs as a tool, a conduit for information and a traversable space. The use of such metaphors serves not only to describe the new affordances offered by SNSs but also posits distinct lay and professional practices, while reviving a range of celebratory claims about the Internet and health critiqued in sociological literature. These metaphorical descriptions characterise SNS content as essentially controllable by autonomous users while reiterating existing arguments that e-health is both inherently empowering and risky. Our analysis calls for a close attention to these understandings of SNSs as they have the potential to shape future online initiatives, most notably by anticipating successful professional interventions while marginalising the factors that influence users’ online and offline practices and contexts. PMID:25847533

  3. The Importance of Field Demonstration Sites: The View from the Unconventional Resource Region of the Appalachian Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, T.

    2017-12-01

    The Appalachian basin with the Marcellus and Utica shale units is one of the most active unconventional resource plays in North America. Unconventional resource plays are critical and rapidly-growing areas of energy, where research lags behind exploration and production activity. There remains a poor overall understanding of physical, chemical and biological factors that control shale gas production efficiency and possible environmental impacts associated with shale gas development. We have developed an approach that works with local industrial partners and communities and across research organizations. The Marcellus Shale Energy and Environment Laboratory (MSEEL) consists of a multidisciplinary and multi-institutional team undertaking integrated geoscience, engineering and environmental studies in cooperation with the Department of Energy. This approach is being expanded to other sites and to the international arena. MSEEL consists of four horizontal production wells, which are instrumented, a cored and logged vertical pilot bore-hole, and a microseismic observation well. MSEEL has integrated geophysical observations (microseismic and surface), fiber-optic monitoring for distributed acoustic (DAS) and temperature sensing (DTS), well logs, core data and production logging and continued monitoring, to characterize subsurface rock properties, and the propagation pattern of induced fractures in the stimulated reservoir volume. Significant geologic heterogeneity along the lateral affects fracture stimulation efficiency - both completion efficiency (clusters that receive effective stimulation), and production efficiency (clusters effectively contributing to production). MSEEL works to develop new knowledge of subsurface geology and engineering, and surface environmental impact to identify best practices that can optimize hydraulic fracture stimulation to increase flow rates, estimated ultimate recovery in order to reduce the number of wells and environmental impact.

  4. Initial field testing definition of subsurface sealing and backfilling tests in unsaturated tuff; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, J.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Case, J.B.; Tyburski, J.R. [I. T. Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1993-05-01

    This report contains an initial definition of the field tests proposed for the Yucca Mountain Project repository sealing program. The tests are intended to resolve various performance and emplacement concerns. Examples of concerns to be addressed include achieving selected hydrologic and structural requirements for seals, removing portions of the shaft liner, excavating keyways, emplacing cementitious and earthen seals, reducing the impact of fines on the hydraulic conductivity of fractures, efficient grouting of fracture zones, sealing of exploratory boreholes, and controlling the flow of water by using engineered designs. Ten discrete tests are proposed to address these and other concerns. These tests are divided into two groups: Seal component tests and performance confirmation tests. The seal component tests are thorough small-scale in situ tests, the intermediate-scale borehole seal tests, the fracture grouting tests, the surface backfill tests, and the grouted rock mass tests. The seal system tests are the seepage control tests, the backfill tests, the bulkhead test in the Calico Hills unit, the large-scale shaft seal and shaft fill tests, and the remote borehole sealing tests. The tests are proposed to be performed in six discrete areas, including welded and non-welded environments, primarily located outside the potential repository area. The final selection of sealing tests will depend on the nature of the geologic and hydrologic conditions encountered during the development of the Exploratory Studies Facility and detailed numerical analyses. Tests are likely to be performed both before and after License Application.

  5. Home is to be understood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Mie; Werner Hansen, Siv

    2018-01-01

    situation in Denmark is, as in many other countries at the moment, complex. On the one hand laws and regulations are concurrently tightened concerning residency permits, boarder control, and possession of belongings. On the other hand a nationwide humanitarian (non-political) network of citizens who have...... engages with the current societal issue of migration by instigating a co-creation experiment, which aims to convert the museum’s vision (defined by values such as ‘community’, ‘participation’, ‘responsibility’ and ‘change’) into practice. In particular, we address how the museum creates a space...... and visual ethnography (Pink, 2013; Rose, 2012) from the process of initiating and planning of the project and including visual material from the launch of the exhibition. References: Bishop, C. (2006). The Social turn: Collaboration and Its Discontents, Artforum http...

  6. How flares can be understood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severny, A.B.

    1977-01-01

    Specific features of the flare phenomenon which are important for understanding of flares are the following: (1) Fine structure of visible emission of flares, especially at the very beginning and in the pre-flare active region. This structure can be seen also in later stages of development as bright points, some of which exist from the flare beginning (Babin's observations at Crimea, 1972-1976). (2) Turbulent motion with velocities up to 250-300 km s -1 as can be estimated from broadening of emission lines. (3) Predominantly red asymmetry of emission lines in the explosive phase and during further development of flares. (4) 'Supersonic' velocities and supergravitational accelerations of separate moving masses of the flare plasma. (5) The appearance of flares in areas with high grad H, exceeding 0.1 G km -1 which is equivalent to regions of electric currents > approximately 10 11 A. (6) Strong variations of net magnetic flux through the active region, as it follows from Meudon, Crimean, and Sacramento Peak (Rust's) observations. (Auth.)

  7. Can delusions be understood linguistically?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinzen, Wolfram; Rosselló, Joana; McKenna, Peter

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Delusions are widely believed to reflect disturbed cognitive function, but the nature of this remains elusive. The “un-Cartesian” cognitive-linguistic hypothesis maintains (a) that there is no thought separate from language, that is, there is no distinct mental space removed from language where “thinking” takes place; and (b) that a somewhat broadened concept of grammar is responsible for bestowing meaning on propositions, and this among other things gives them their quality of being true or false. It is argued that a loss of propositional meaning explains why delusions are false, impossible and sometimes fantastic. A closely related abnormality, failure of linguistic embedding, can additionally account for why delusions are held with fixed conviction and are not adequately justified by the patient. The un-Cartesian linguistic approach to delusions has points of contact with Frith’s theory that inability to form meta-representations underlies a range of schizophrenic symptoms. It may also be relevant to the nature of the “second factor” in monothematic delusions in neurological disease. Finally, it can inform the current debate about whether or not delusions really are beliefs. PMID:27322493

  8. We Have Not Understood Descartes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallias, Andras

    1996-01-01

    Describes a personal involvement with digital media and the origins of the conception of the "diagrammatic" poem. Reflects on what is considered to be a poem in tune with today's computerized society. (PA)

  9. Bioremediation of Petroleum and Radiological Contaminated Soils at the Savannah River Site: Laboratory to Field Scale Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BRIGMON, ROBINL.

    2004-06-07

    In the process of Savannah River Site (SRS) operations limited amounts of waste are generated containing petroleum, and radiological contaminated soils. Currently, this combination of radiological and petroleum contaminated waste does not have an immediate disposal route and is being stored in low activity vaults. SRS developed and implemented a successful plan for clean up of the petroleum portion of the soils in situ using simple, inexpensive, bioreactor technology. Treatment in a bioreactor removes the petroleum contamination from the soil without spreading radiological contamination to the environment. This bioreactor uses the bioventing process and bioaugmentation or the addition of the select hydrocarbon degrading bacteria. Oxygen is usually the initial rate-limiting factor in the biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons. Using the bioventing process allowed control of the supply of nutrients and moisture based on petroleum contamination concentrations and soil type. The results of this work have proven to be a safe and cost-effective means of cleaning up low level radiological and petroleum-contaminated soil. Many of the other elements of the bioreactor design were developed or enhanced during the demonstration of a ''biopile'' to treat the soils beneath a Polish oil refinery's waste disposal lagoons. Aerobic microorganisms were isolated from the aged refinery's acidic sludge contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Twelve hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria were isolated from the sludge. The predominant PAH degraders were tentatively identified as Achromobacter, Pseudomonas Burkholderia, and Sphingomonas spp. Several Ralstonia spp were also isolated that produce biosurfactants. Biosurfactants can enhance bioremediation by increasing the bioavailability of hydrophobic contaminants including hydrocarbons. The results indicated that the diversity of acid-tolerant PAH-degrading microorganisms in acidic oil wastes may

  10. Geomechanics of the Climax mine-by, Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuze, F.E.

    1981-03-01

    A generic test of retrievable geologic storage of spent fuel assemblies in an underground chamber is being conducted at the Nevada Test Site. The horizontal shrinkage of the pillars is not explainable, but the vertical pillar stresses are easily understood. A two-phase project was initiated to estimate the in-situ deformability of the Climax granite and to refine the in-situ stress field data, and to model the mine-by

  11. Lateral flow immunoassay for on-site detection of Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni in symptomatic field samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Soriano, Pablo; Noguera, Patricia; Gorris, María Teresa; Puchades, Rosa; Maquieira, Ángel; Marco-Noales, Ester; López, María M.

    2017-01-01

    Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni is a quarantine pathogen and the causal agent of the bacterial spot disease of stone fruits and almond, a major threat to Prunus species. Rapid and specific detection methods are essential to improve disease management, and therefore a prototype of a lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) was designed for the detection of X. arboricola pv. pruni in symptomatic field samples. It was developed by producing polyclonal antibodies which were then combined with carbon nanoparticles and assembled on nitrocellulose strips. The specificity of the LFIA was tested against 87 X. arboricola pv. pruni strains from different countries worldwide, 47 strains of other Xanthomonas species and 14 strains representing other bacterial genera. All X. arboricola pv. pruni strains were detected and cross-reactions were observed only with four strains of X. arboricola pv. corylina, a hazelnut pathogen that does not share habitat with X. arboricola pv. pruni. The sensitivity of the LFIA was assessed with suspensions from pure cultures of three X. arboricola pv. pruni strains and with spiked leaf extracts prepared from four hosts inoculated with this pathogen (almond, apricot, Japanese plum and peach). The limit of detection observed with both pure cultures and spiked samples was 104 CFU ml-1. To demonstrate the accuracy of the test, 205 samples naturally infected with X. arboricola pv. pruni and 113 samples collected from healthy plants of several different Prunus species were analyzed with the LFIA. Results were compared with those obtained by plate isolation and real time PCR and a high correlation was found among techniques. Therefore, we propose this LFIA as a screening tool that allows a rapid and reliable diagnosis of X. arboricola pv. pruni in symptomatic plants. PMID:28448536

  12. Lateral flow immunoassay for on-site detection of Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni in symptomatic field samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Soriano, Pablo; Noguera, Patricia; Gorris, María Teresa; Puchades, Rosa; Maquieira, Ángel; Marco-Noales, Ester; López, María M

    2017-01-01

    Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni is a quarantine pathogen and the causal agent of the bacterial spot disease of stone fruits and almond, a major threat to Prunus species. Rapid and specific detection methods are essential to improve disease management, and therefore a prototype of a lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) was designed for the detection of X. arboricola pv. pruni in symptomatic field samples. It was developed by producing polyclonal antibodies which were then combined with carbon nanoparticles and assembled on nitrocellulose strips. The specificity of the LFIA was tested against 87 X. arboricola pv. pruni strains from different countries worldwide, 47 strains of other Xanthomonas species and 14 strains representing other bacterial genera. All X. arboricola pv. pruni strains were detected and cross-reactions were observed only with four strains of X. arboricola pv. corylina, a hazelnut pathogen that does not share habitat with X. arboricola pv. pruni. The sensitivity of the LFIA was assessed with suspensions from pure cultures of three X. arboricola pv. pruni strains and with spiked leaf extracts prepared from four hosts inoculated with this pathogen (almond, apricot, Japanese plum and peach). The limit of detection observed with both pure cultures and spiked samples was 104 CFU ml-1. To demonstrate the accuracy of the test, 205 samples naturally infected with X. arboricola pv. pruni and 113 samples collected from healthy plants of several different Prunus species were analyzed with the LFIA. Results were compared with those obtained by plate isolation and real time PCR and a high correlation was found among techniques. Therefore, we propose this LFIA as a screening tool that allows a rapid and reliable diagnosis of X. arboricola pv. pruni in symptomatic plants.

  13. Lateral flow immunoassay for on-site detection of Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni in symptomatic field samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo López-Soriano

    Full Text Available Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni is a quarantine pathogen and the causal agent of the bacterial spot disease of stone fruits and almond, a major threat to Prunus species. Rapid and specific detection methods are essential to improve disease management, and therefore a prototype of a lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA was designed for the detection of X. arboricola pv. pruni in symptomatic field samples. It was developed by producing polyclonal antibodies which were then combined with carbon nanoparticles and assembled on nitrocellulose strips. The specificity of the LFIA was tested against 87 X. arboricola pv. pruni strains from different countries worldwide, 47 strains of other Xanthomonas species and 14 strains representing other bacterial genera. All X. arboricola pv. pruni strains were detected and cross-reactions were observed only with four strains of X. arboricola pv. corylina, a hazelnut pathogen that does not share habitat with X. arboricola pv. pruni. The sensitivity of the LFIA was assessed with suspensions from pure cultures of three X. arboricola pv. pruni strains and with spiked leaf extracts prepared from four hosts inoculated with this pathogen (almond, apricot, Japanese plum and peach. The limit of detection observed with both pure cultures and spiked samples was 104 CFU ml-1. To demonstrate the accuracy of the test, 205 samples naturally infected with X. arboricola pv. pruni and 113 samples collected from healthy plants of several different Prunus species were analyzed with the LFIA. Results were compared with those obtained by plate isolation and real time PCR and a high correlation was found among techniques. Therefore, we propose this LFIA as a screening tool that allows a rapid and reliable diagnosis of X. arboricola pv. pruni in symptomatic plants.

  14. Field study for disposal of solid wastes from Advanced Coal Processes: Ohio LIMB Site Assessment. Final report, April 1986--November 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinberg, A.; Coel, B.J.; Butler, R.D.

    1994-10-01

    New air pollution regulations will require cleaner, more efficient processes for converting coal to electricity, producing solid byproducts or wastes that differ from conventional pulverized-coal combustion ash. Large scale landfill test cells containing byproducts were built at 3 sites and are to be monitored over at least 3 years. This report presents results of a 3-y field test at an ash disposal site in northern Ohio; the field test used ash from a combined lime injection-multistage burner (LIMB) retrofit at the Ohio Edison Edgewater plant. The landfill test cells used LIMB ash wetted only to control dusting in one cell, and LIMB ash wetted to optimize compaction density in the other cell. Both test cells had adequate load-bearing strength for landfill stability but had continuing dimensional instability. Heaving and expansion did not affect the landfill stability but probably contributed to greater permeability to infiltrating water. Leachate migration occurred from the base, but effects on downgradient groundwater were limited to increased chloride concentration in one well. Compressive strength of landfilled ash was adequate to support equipment, although permeability was higher and strength was lower than anticipated. Average moisture content has increased to about 90% (dry weight basis). Significant water infiltration has occurred; the model suggests that as much as 20% of the incident rainfall will pass through and exit as leachate. However, impacts on shallow ground water is minimal. Results of this field study suggest that LIMB ash from combustion of moderate to high sulfur coals will perform acceptably if engineering controls are used to condition and compact the materials, reduce water influx to the landfill, and minimize leachate production. Handling of the ash did not pose serious problems during cell construction; steaming and heat buildup were moderate.

  15. Historic American engineering record. Nevada national security site, Bren Tower Complex. Written historical and descriptive data and field records

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, Susan R. [Desert Research Institute, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Goldenberg, Nancy [Carey & Co Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2013-08-01

    The BREN (Bare Reactor Experiment, Nevada) Tower Complex is significant for its role in the history of nuclear testing, radiation dosimetry studies, and early field testing of the Strategic Missile Defense System designs. At the time it was built in 1962, the 1,527 ft (465 m) BREN Tower was the tallest structure west of the Mississippi River and exceeded the height of the Empire State Building by 55 ft (17 m). It remains the tallest ever erected specifically for scientific purposes and was designed and built to facilitate the experimental dosimetry studies necessary for the development of accurate radiation dose rates for the survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The tower was a key component of the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission’s (ABCC) mission to predict the health effects of radiation exposure. Moved to its current location in 1966, the crucial dosimetry studies continued with Operation HENRE (High Energy Neutron Reactions Experiment). These experiments and the data they generated became the basis for a dosimetry system called the Tentative 1965 Dose or more commonly the T65D model. Used to estimate radiation doses received by individuals, the T65D model was applied until the mid-1980s when it was replaced by a new dosimetry system known as DS86 based on the Monte Carlo method of dose rate calculation. However, the BREN Tower data are still used for verification of the validity of the DS86 model. In addition to its importance in radiation heath effects research, the BREN Tower Complex is also significant for its role in the Brilliant Pebbles research project, a major component of the Strategic Defense Initiative popularly known as the “Star Wars” Initiative. Instigated under the Reagan Administration, the program’s purpose was to develop a system to shield the United States and allies from a ballistic missile attack. The centerpiece of the Strategic Defense System was space-based, kinetic-kill vehicles. In 1991, BREN Tower was used for the tether tests

  16. Predicting Multicomponent Adsorption Isotherms in Open-Metal Site Materials Using Force Field Calculations Based on Energy Decomposed Density Functional Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinen, Jurn; Burtch, Nicholas C; Walton, Krista S; Fonseca Guerra, Célia; Dubbeldam, David

    2016-12-12

    For the design of adsorptive-separation units, knowledge is required of the multicomponent adsorption behavior. Ideal adsorbed solution theory (IAST) breaks down for olefin adsorption in open-metal site (OMS) materials due to non-ideal donor-acceptor interactions. Using a density-function-theory-based energy decomposition scheme, we develop a physically justifiable classical force field that incorporates the missing orbital interactions using an appropriate functional form. Our first-principles derived force field shows greatly improved quantitative agreement with the inflection points, initial uptake, saturation capacity, and enthalpies of adsorption obtained from our in-house adsorption experiments. While IAST fails to make accurate predictions, our improved force field model is able to correctly predict the multicomponent behavior. Our approach is also transferable to other OMS structures, allowing the accurate study of their separation performances for olefins/paraffins and further mixtures involving complex donor-acceptor interactions. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Virus fate and transport during recharge using recycled water at a research field site in the Montebello Forebay, Los Angeles County, California, 1997-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, Robert; Yanko, William A.; Schroeder, Roy A.; Jackson, James L.

    2004-01-01

    Total and fecal coliform bacteria distributions in subsurface water samples collected at a research field site in Los Angeles County were found to increase from nondetectable levels immediately before artificial recharge using tertiary-treated municipal wastewater (recycled water). This rapid increase indicates that bacteria can move through the soil with the percolating recycled water over intervals of a few days and vertical and horizontal distances of about 3 meters. This conclusion formed the basis for three field-scale experiments using bacterial viruses (bacteriophage) MS2 and PRD1 as surrogates for human enteric viruses and bromide as a conservative tracer to determine the fate and transport of viruses in recycled water during subsurface transport under actual recharge conditions. The research field site consists of a test basin constructed adjacent to a large recharge facility (spreading grounds) located in the Montebello Forebay of Los Angeles County, California. The soil beneath the test basin is predominantly medium to coarse, moderately sorted, grayish-brown sand. The three tracer experiments were conducted during August 1997, August-September 1998, and August 2000. For each experiment, prepared solutions of bacteriophage and bromide were sprayed on the surface of the water in the test basin and injected, using peristaltic pumps, directly into the feed pipe delivering the recycled water to the test basin. Extensive data were obtained for water samples collected from the test basin itself and from depths of 0.3, 0.6, 1.0, 1.5, 3.0, and 7.6 meters below the bottom of the test basin. The rate of bacteriophage inactivation in the recycled water, independent of any processes occurring in the subsurface, was determined from measurements on water samples from the test basin. Regression analysis of the ratios of bacteriophage to bromide was used to determine the attenuation rates for MS2 and PRD1, defined as the logarithmic reduction in the ratio during each

  18. Measurements of nitric oxide and ammonia soil fluxes from a wet savanna ecosystem site in West Africa during the DACCIWA field campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacifico, Federica; Delon, Claire; Jambert, Corinne; Durand, Pierre; Morris, Eleanor; Evans, Mat J.; Lohou, Fabienne; Derrien, Solène; Donnou, Venance H. E.; Houeto, Arnaud V.; Reinares Martinez, Irene; Brilouet, Pierre-Etienne

    2018-03-01

    It is important to correctly simulate biogenic fluxes from soil in atmospheric chemistry models at a local and regional scale to study air pollution and climate in an area of the world, West Africa, that has been subject to a strong increase in anthropogenic emissions due to a massive growth in population and urbanization. Anthropogenic pollutants are transported inland and northward from the mega cities located on the coast, where the reaction with biogenic emissions may lead to enhanced ozone production outside urban areas, as well as secondary organic aerosols formation, with detrimental effects on humans, animals, natural vegetation and crops. Here we present field measurements of soil fluxes of nitric oxide (NO) and ammonia (NH3) observed over four different land cover types, i.e. bare soil, grassland, maize field and forest, at an inland rural site in Benin, West Africa, during the DACCIWA field campaign in June and July 2016. We observe NO fluxes up to 48.05 ngN m-2 s-1. NO fluxes averaged over all land cover types are 4.79 ± 5.59 ngN m-2 s-1, maximum soil emissions of NO are recorded over bare soil. NH3 is dominated by deposition for all land cover types. NH3 fluxes range between -6.59 and 4.96 ngN m-2 s-1. NH3 fluxes averaged over all land cover types are -0.91 ± 1.27 ngN m-2 s-1 and maximum NH3 deposition is measured over bare soil. The observations show high spatial variability even for the same soil type, same day and same meteorological conditions. We compare point daily average measurements of NO emissions recorded during the field campaign with those simulated by GEOS-Chem (Goddard Earth Observing System Chemistry Model) for the same site and find good agreement. In an attempt to quantify NO emissions at the regional and national scale, we also provide a tentative estimate of total NO emissions for the entire country of Benin for the month of July using two distinct methods: upscaling point measurements and using the

  19. Treatability Study of In Situ Technologies for Remediation of Hexavalent Chromium in Groundwater at the Puchack Well Field Superfund Site, New Jersey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vermeul, Vince R.; Szecsody, Jim E.; Truex, Michael J.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Girvin, Donald C.; Phillips, Jerry L.; Devary, Brooks J.; Fischer, Ashley E.; Li, Shu-Mei W.

    2006-11-13

    This treatability study was conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), at the request of the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 2, to evaluate the feasibility of using in situ treatment technologies for chromate reduction and immobilization at the Puchack Well Field Superfund Site in Pennsauken Township, New Jersey. In addition to in situ reductive treatments, which included the evaluation of both abiotic and biotic reduction of Puchack aquifer sediments, natural attenuation mechanisms were evaluated (i.e., chromate adsorption and reduction). Chromate exhibited typical anionic adsorption behavior, with greater adsorption at lower pH, at lower chromate concentration, and at lower concentrations of other competing anions. In particular, sulfate (at 50 mg/L) suppressed chromate adsorption by up to 50%. Chromate adsorption was not influenced by inorganic colloids.

  20. Suitability of PCR fingerprinting, infrequent-restriction-site PCR, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, combined with computerized gel analysis, in library typing of Salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garaizar, J.; Lopez-Molina, N.; Laconcha, I.

    2000-01-01

    Strains of Salmonella enterica (n = 212) of different serovars and phage types were used to establish a library typing computerized system for serovar Enteritidis on the basis of PCR fingerprinting, infrequent-restriction-site PCR (IRS-PCR), or pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The rate...... showed an intercenter reproducibility value of 93.3%. The high reproducibility of PFGE combined with the previously determined high discrimination directed its use for library typing. The use of PFGE with enzymes XbaI, BlnI, and SpeI for library typing of serovar Enteritidis was assessed with GelCompar 4.......0 software, Three computer libraries of PFGE DNA profiles were constructed, and their ability to recognize new DNA profiles was analyzed. The results obtained pointed out that the combination of PFGE with computerized analysis could be suitable in long-term epidemiological comparison and surveillance...

  1. ''In situ'' migration tests at the Berrocal site with conservative isotopic tracers: laboratory and field results from phase I of the project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Alessandro, M.; Mousty, F.; Guimera, J.; Yllera de Llano, A.

    1996-01-01

    Cross-hole migration tests were performed between two boreholes connected by a fracture in the granite aquifer of the El Berrocal site. The suitability of a natural isotopic tracer (''79BR) as hydrological marker of groundwater movement, was evaluated on the basis of laboratory and field tests. Small scale infiltration experiments with granite cored columns and repacked columns of crushed granite showed that the change of the natural isotopic ratio ''79Br/''81Br with time can be used to monitor the tracer breakthrough. Comparison was made with other non-sorbing tracers, such as tritiated water, chloride and iodide. The difference in travel time of halides was ascribed to anion exclusion and ion size effects. The in-situ migration test demonstrated the feasibility of the described technique for monitoring the groundwater movement without altering the geochemistry of the site. The following approach has been chosen: 1) a first preliminary test demonstrating the feasibility of using the enriched isotopic tracer technique for ''in-situ''tests. 2) Preliminary assessment of the parameters necessary to plan a radial-flow migration test directed to characterize the permeable system through the definition of the hydrodynamic parameters of the fracture. (Author)

  2. Numerical studies on spatial variation of the in situ stress field at Forsmark - a further step. Site descriptive modelling Forsmark - stage 2.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakami, Hossein [Itasca Geomekanik AB, Solna (Sweden)

    2006-12-15

    The present work is an investigation into the depiction of a spatial distribution of the in situ stresses at the Forsmark candidate site. The methodology is based on numerical simulations of the pre-occurrences of perturbation of the stress field, produced by the deformations/displacements that rock mass/major fracture zones undergo. The distinct element program DEC, was used for the purpose. Forsmark area is dominated mainly by the Forsmark and the Singoe faults but also by a number of major fracture zones. Almost all these structures, not only that they are reported to dip vertically, but they more or less run sub-parallel with the inferred overall orientation of the major principal stress, s1. These zones, as a result, cause a fairly limited perturbation in the state of in situ stress at the site. At a diminished scale, however, fracture zones of a lesser extent - which dip obliquely and run at an angle in relation to the s1 orientation - produce a significant perturbation of the state of stress. This work also included two preliminary investigations on: - Assessing the remote orientation of the major principal stress. This was done by looking at the crustal shortening, which characterizes in part the past tectonic activities of the Fennoscandian shield. - Looking for the mechanically viable explanations for the formation of joints sub-parallel with ground surface within the uppermost section of the rock mass.

  3. Annual Site Environmental Report, Department of Energy Operations at the Energy Technology Engineering Center – Area IV, Santa Susana Field Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frazee, Brad [North Wind, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hay, Scott [North Wind, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Wondolleck, John [North Wind, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Sorrels, Earl [North Wind, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Rutherford, Phil [North Wind, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Dassler, David [North Wind, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Jones, John [North Wind, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-05-01

    This Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) for 2014 describes the environmental conditions related to work performed for the DOE at Area IV of the Santa Susana Field Laboratory (SSFL). The ETEC, a government-owned, company-operated test facility, was located in Area IV. The operations in Area IV included development, fabrication, operation and disassembly of nuclear reactors, reactor fuel, and other radioactive materials. Other activities in the area involved the operation of large-scale liquid metal facilities that were used for testing non-nuclear liquid metal fast breeder reactor components. All nuclear work was terminated in 1988, and all subsequent radiological work has been directed toward environmental restoration and decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of the former nuclear facilities and their associated sites. Liquid metal research and development ended in 2002. Since May 2007, the D&D operations in Area IV have been suspended by the DOE, but the environmental monitoring and characterization programs have continued. Results of the radiological monitoring program continue to indicate that there are no significant releases of radioactive material from Area IV of SSFL. All potential exposure pathways are sampled and/or monitored, including air, soil, surface water, groundwater, direct radiation, transfer of property (land, structures, waste), and recycling.

  4. Cosmic-ray neutron transport at a forest field site: the sensitivity to various environmental conditions with focus on biomass and canopy interception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreasen, Mie; Jensen, Karsten H.; Desilets, Darin; Zreda, Marek; Bogena, Heye R.; Looms, Majken C.

    2017-04-01

    Cosmic-ray neutron intensity is inversely correlated to all hydrogen present in the upper decimeters of the subsurface and the first few hectometers of the atmosphere above the ground surface. This correlation forms the base of the cosmic-ray neutron soil moisture estimation method. The method is, however, complicated by the fact that several hydrogen pools other than soil moisture affect the neutron intensity. In order to improve the cosmic-ray neutron soil moisture estimation method and explore the potential for additional applications, knowledge about the environmental effect on cosmic-ray neutron intensity is essential (e.g., the effect of vegetation, litter layer and soil type). In this study the environmental effect is examined by performing a sensitivity analysis using neutron transport modeling. We use a neutron transport model with various representations of the forest and different parameters describing the subsurface to match measured height profiles and time series of thermal and epithermal neutron intensities at a field site in Denmark. Overall, modeled thermal and epithermal neutron intensities are in satisfactory agreement with measurements; however, the choice of forest canopy conceptualization is found to be significant. Modeling results show that the effect of canopy interception, soil chemistry and dry bulk density of litter and mineral soil on neutron intensity is small. On the other hand, the neutron intensity decreases significantly with added litter-layer thickness, especially for epithermal neutron energies. Forest biomass also has a significant influence on the neutron intensity height profiles at the examined field site, altering both the shape of the profiles and the ground-level thermal-to-epithermal neutron ratio. This ratio increases with increasing amounts of biomass, and was confirmed by measurements from three sites representing agricultural, heathland and forest land cover. A much smaller effect of canopy interception on the ground

  5. Tolerance of transgenic canola plants (Brassica napus) amended with plant growth-promoting bacteria to flooding stress at a metal-contaminated field site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farwell, Andrea J.; Vesely, Susanne; Nero, Vincent; Rodriguez, Hilda; McCormack, Kimberley; Shah, Saleh; Dixon, D. George; Glick, Bernard R.

    2007-01-01

    The growth of transgenic canola (Brassica napus) expressing a gene for the enzyme 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase was compared to non-transformed canola exposed to flooding and elevated soil Ni concentration, in situ. In addition, the ability of the plant growth-promoting bacterium Pseudomonas putida UW4, which also expresses ACC deaminase, to facilitate the growth of non-transformed and transgenic canola under the above mentioned conditions was examined. Transgenic canola and/or canola treated with P. putida UW4 had greater shoot biomass compared to non-transformed canola under low flood-stress conditions. Under high flood-stress conditions, shoot biomass was reduced and Ni accumulation was increased in all instances relative to low flood-stress conditions. This is the first field study to document the increase in plant tolerance utilizing transgenic plants and plant growth-promoting bacteria exposed to multiple stressors. - Using transgenic plants and plant growth-promoting bacteria as phytoremediation methods increased plant tolerance at a metal-contaminated field site under low flood conditions

  6. On-Site Field Services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Aycart, M.; Bobo, E.; Pascual, L.; Merino, A.; Martinez Gozalo, I.; Ruiz, J. T.; Soto, M.; Vilanova, S.

    2013-10-01

    The Spanish nuclear industry has extensive experience in the development of services for nuclear power plants. The moratorium on new projects in the decade of the 1980s led these nuclear industry companies to find and enter new markets. The quality of their services, along with the long experience gained in the support of the Spanish plants, has enabled a significant number of companies to win relevant contracts in competition with leading corporation around the world. European countries are an important market. The first experiments to support the operation in Central and Eastern Europe are being extended with work in neighboring countries. Meanwhile, Latin America is a nearby market for reasons of language and historical proximity, which is also present in the industry. It emphasizes the participation of Spanish companies in projects in countries of the Asia-Pacific region. This article describes the experiences of four Spanish-owned companies and of the services division of Westinghouse in spain. (Author)

  7. A field study on phytoremediation of a lead-contaminated soil by Eucalyptus globulus in an abandoned mine site - Alagoa, Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerardo, R.; Kikuchi, R.

    2009-04-01

    Current engineering-based technologies used to clean up soils are very costly and need lots of work. Phytoremediation is the use of plants to remove pollutants (i.e. heavy metals) from the environment or render them harmless. In the phytoremediation process several plant species can be used to reduce the concentrations of heavy metals in contaminated soils to environmentally acceptable levels. The idea of using rare plants which hyperaccumulate metals to selectively remove and recycle excessive soil metals has increasingly been examined as a potential practical and more cost effective technology than soil replacement, solidification, or washing strategies presently used. However, most hyperaccumulator species are not suitable for phytoremediation application in the field due to their small biomass and slow growth. Cultivation of woody plants in contaminated soils has showed potential for use in phytoremediation but also it provides aesthetic improvement in the field. In this study we studied the possibility of using the approach of phytoremediation of lead by Eucalyptus globulus in a lead-contaminated soil from an abandoned mine. Although Eucalytpus globulus prefer good ecological conditions in humid temperate climates, there are few studies that have showed their great potential in contaminated areas and important biomonitors of environmental quality. A test field was set up in an abandoned mine site (Alagoa, Portugal) in order to investigate the feasibility of phytoremediation of lead by Eucalyptus globulus. The field soil was characterized as follows: humus - 2.56-7.08%, pH in the soil water - 4.50-5.10, silte - 18-15% and total Pb - 67-239 mg/kg. The soils in some areas exceed the critical value (150 mg/kg) according with Portuguese law. Eucalytus globulus growing on the abandoned mine, contaminated with lead was studied. The results of shoots sample analysis (n = 15) show the total Pb levels of 0.170-0.093 mg/kg in the stem and 2.94-5.14 mg/kg in the leaves

  8. Fiscal 1996 research report on the PV power generation field test project for public facilities. Evaluation and analysis of collected data for every site (1/2); 1996 nendo kokyo shisetsu nadoyo taiyoko hatsuden field test jigyo ni okeru shushu data hyoka kaiseki. Kaku site betsu (1/2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    As a part of the PV power generation field test project, this report summarizes the monthly collected data for every site in fiscal 1996. The test sites include various public facilities such as park, school, university, museum, Shinkansen platform, laboratory, technical center, training building, local governmental hotel, health athletic center, community center, joint purchase center, consumers' cooperative (CO-OP), school meals provision center, prefectural office building, police station garage, water purification plant, general disaster prevention center, and health center. Collected data items are as follows: total solar irradiation (kWh/m{sup 2}), average air temperature, array power, system power, load power, power system supply load, reverse power flow, self supply load (kWh for every item), system disinterconnection time (min), system operation time (min), equivalent array/system operation time, array/system performance ratio, system use factor, system generation efficiency, effective inverter efficiency, and inverter load factor. (NEDO)

  9. Sites and Enactments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Steffen; Neergaard, Helle

    2010-01-01

    This paper develops a framework for researching entrepreneurial opportunities. We argue that these can best be understood as dynamic and fluid effects of entrepreneurial processes that are enacted differently across different sites. On this basis we develop a framework for studying entrepreneuria...

  10. Hillslope threshold response to rainfall: (1) a field based forensic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris B. Graham; Ross A. Woods; Jeffrey J. McDonnell

    2010-01-01

    Hillslope threshold response to storm rainfall is poorly understood. Basic questions regarding the type, location, and flow dynamics of lateral, subsurface flow remain unanswered, even at our most intensively studied field sites. Here we apply a forensic approach where we combined irrigation and excavation experiments at the well studied Maimai hillslope to determine...

  11. An Integrated Experimental-Modelling Procedure Applied to the Design of a Field Scale Goethite Nanoparticle Injection for the Remediation of Contaminated Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, C.; Tosco, T.; Sethi, R.

    2017-12-01

    Nanoremediation is a promising in-situ technology for the reclamation of contaminated aquifers. It consists in the subsurface injection of a reactive colloidal suspension for the in-situ treatment of pollutants. The overall success of this technology at the field scale is strictly related to the achievement of an effective and efficient emplacement of the nanoparticles (NP) inside the contaminated area. Mathematical models can be used to support the design of nanotechnology-based remediation by effectively assessing the expected NP mobility at the field scale. Several analytical and numerical tools have been developed in recent years to model the transport of NPs in simplified geometry and boundary conditions. The numerical tool MNMs was developed by the authors of this work to simulate colloidal transport in 1D Cartesian and radial coordinates. A new modelling tool, MNM3D (Micro and Nanoparticle transport Model in 3D geometries), was also proposed for the simulation of injection and transport of NP suspensions in generic complex scenarios. MNM3D accounts for the simultaneous dependency of NP transport on water ionic strength and velocity. The software was developed to predict the NP mobility at different stages of a nanoremediation application, from the design stage to the prediction of the long-term fate after injection. In this work an integrated experimental-modelling procedure is applied to support the design of a field scale injection of goethite NPs carried out in the framework of the H2020 European project Reground. Column tests are performed at different injection flowrates using natural sand collected at the contaminated site as porous medium. The tests are interpreted using MNMs to characterize the NP mobility and derive the constitutive equations describing the suspension behavior in the natural porous medium. MNM3D is then used to predict NP behavior during the field scale injection and to assess the long-term mobility of the injected slurry. Finally

  12. Measurements of NO and NH3 soil fluxes at the Savé super site in Benin, West Africa, during the DACCIWA field campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacifico, Federica; Delon, Claire; Jambert, Corinne; Durand, Pierre; Lohou, Fabienne; Reinares Martinez, Irene; Brilouet, Pierre-Etienne; Brosse, Fabien; Pedruzo Bagazgoitia, Xabier; Dione, Cheikh; Gabella, Omar

    2017-04-01

    In the next decades South West Africa will be subject to a strong increase in anthropogenic emissions due to a massive growth in population and urbanization. The impact of global climate change, local or regional land use changes, and the strong sensitivity to the West African monsoon lead to complex interactions between surface emissions and atmospheric dynamics and chemistry. Anthropogenic pollutants are transported northward from the mega cities located on the coast, and react with biogenic emissions, leading to enhanced ozone (O3) production outside urban areas, as well as secondary organic aerosols formation, with detrimental effects on humans, animals, natural vegetation and crops. Nitrogen oxide (NO) emissions from soils, among other sources, directly influence NOx concentrations. Changes in NO sources will consequently modify the rate of O3 production. The largest source of ammonia (NH3) emissions is agriculture, via the application of synthetic fertilizer. When released into the atmosphere, NH3 increases the level of air pollution. Once deposited in water and soils, it can potentially cause two major types of environmental damage, acidification and eutrophication, both of which can harm sensitive vegetation systems, biodiversity and water quality. We investigate the role of soil fluxes of NO and NH3 on atmospheric chemistry in West Africa, making use of the observations taken in June and July 2016 at the Savé super-site, Benin (8°02'03" N, 2°29'11″ E), during the Dynamics-Aerosol-Chemistry-Cloud Interactions in West Africa (DACCIWA) field campaign, which took place in June-July 2016. These observations also include meteorological and soil parameters such as air temperature and humidity (at 2 m height), radiation, soil temperature and moisture at different depths (5 cm and 10 cm). The climate in Savé is typical of a wet Guinea savanna, and the wet season takes place from June to October. Soil fluxes of NO and NH3 were measured on: bare soil, grassland

  13. Pre-injection Comparison of Methods for Sampling Formation Water and Associated Gas from a Monitoring Well at a Carbon Dioxide Injection Site, Citronelle Oil Field, Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conaway, C.; Thordsen, J. J.; Manning, M. A.; Cook, P. J.; Abedini, A. A.; Trautz, R. C.; Thomas, B.; Kharaka, Y. K.

    2012-12-01

    The chemical composition of formation water and associated gases from the lower Cretaceous Paluxy Formation was determined using four different sampling methods at a well in the Citronelle Oil Field, Alabama, a site that will be used for a carbon dioxide injection experiment. Prior to each of the two sampling periods, the well was cleaned from the drilling fluids and KCl solutions by producing at least three pore volumes of formation water. Accurate measurements of the chemical composition of groundwater or formation water, including dissolved gasses, and gas samples is essential in understanding subsurface geochemical processes occurring as a result of geologic carbon dioxide injection, which is used for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and has been proposed as a means of carbon sequestration. In this study, formation water and gas samples for geochemical analyses were obtained from well D-9-8 #2 at Citronelle using nitrogen lift, submersible pump, U-Tube, and a downhole (Kuster) sampler. Field chemical analyses included electrical conductivity, hydrogen sulfide, alkalinity, and pH, and laboratory analyses included major, minor and trace elements by mass spectrometry and ion chromatography, dissolved carbon, organic acid anions, free and dissolved gas species. The formation water obtained from this well is a Na-Ca-Cl brine with a salinity of 160,000 and 200,000 mg/L total dissolved solids (TDS). Differences were evident between sampling methodologies, particularly in pH, Fe and alkalinity measurements. The results of the comparison demonstrate the difficulty and importance of preserving volatile analytes in samples, with the downhole sampler and U-Tube system performing most favorably in this aspect.

  14. Biogeochemical Modeling of In Situ U(VI) Reduction and Immobilization with Emulsified Vegetable Oil as the Electron Donor at a Field Site in Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, G.; Parker, J.; Wu, W.; Schadt, C. W.; Watson, D. B.; Brooks, S. C.; Orifrc Team

    2011-12-01

    A comprehensive biogeochemical model was developed to quantitatively describe the coupled hydrologic, geochemical and microbiological processes that occurred following injection of emulsified vegetable oil (EVO) as the electron donor to immobilize U(VI) at the Oak Ridge Integrated Field Research Challenge site (ORIFRC) in Tennessee. The model couples the degradation of EVO, production and oxidation of long-chain fatty acids (LCFA), glycerol, hydrogen and acetate, reduction of nitrate, manganese, ferrous iron, sulfate and uranium, and methanoganesis with growth of multiple microbial groups. The model describes the evolution of geochemistry and microbial populations not only in the aqueous phase as typically observed, but also in the mineral phase and therefore enables us to evaluate the applicability of rates from the literature for field scale assessment, estimate the retention and degradation rates of EVO and LCFA, and assess the influence of the coupled processes on fate and transport of U(VI). Our results suggested that syntrophic bacteria or metal reducers might catalyze LCFA oxidation in the downstream locations when sulfate was consumed, and competition between methanogens and others for electron donors and slow growth of methanogen might contribute to the sustained reducing condition. Among the large amount of hydrologic, geochemical and microbiological parameter values, the initial biomass, and the interactions (e.g., inhibition) of the microbial functional groups, and the rate and extent of Mn and Fe oxide reduction appear as the major sources of uncertainty. Our model provides a platform to conduct numerical experiments to study these interactions, and could be useful for further iterative experimental and modeling investigations into the bioreductive immobiliztion of radionuclide and metal contaminants in the subsurface.

  15. Particle Tracking-Based Strategies For Simulating Transport in a Transient Groundwater Flow Field at Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, E. H.; Srinivasan, G.; Kang, Q.; Li, C.; Dash, Z.; Kwicklis, E. M.

    2009-12-01

    Developing probabilistic-based calculations of contaminant concentrations over the next 1000 years at Yucca Flat, Nevada Test site, require tremendous computational effort in this highly complex hydrogeologic surface environment. The sources of contamination, underground nuclear tests conducted between 1951 and 1992, not only released radionuclides to the subsurface but also created abrupt, significant changes in rock properties and caused large transients in the measured hydraulic gradients. To efficiently model contaminant migration from these sources we use a particle-based approach within a transient flow field. Here, we present results using two methods; first, an explicit representation of time-varying sources using large numbers of particles introduced at source-specific rates over time, each representing a unique mass of solute. This method provides good results, but is computationally expensive since sensitivity to uncertainty in source term and transport parameters can only be explored with discrete process-model runs. The second method employs a convolution method (PLUMECALC) which can efficiently consider a large number of variations in the source terms and in certain transport parameters with a single process-model run. Implementation of this second approach required extension of the existing methodology to conditions of transient flow. We find very good comparison between the two methods on small test problems and excellent computational advantages when applying the convolution method in the NTS application

  16. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 9): North Hollywood/Burbank Well Field Area 1, San Fernando Valley Site, California (first remedial action), September 1987. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-09-24

    The North Hollywood - Burbank Well Field (NHBWF) is located within the San Fernando Valley Ground Water basin, which can provide drinking water for approximately 500,000 people residing in the San Fernando Valley and Los Angeles. In 1980 TCE and PCE were discovered in 25% of DWP's wells. In July 1981, DWP and the Southern California Association of Governments began a two-year study funded by EPA. The study revealed the occurrence of ground-water contamination plume patterns that are spreading toward the southeast. The primary contaminant of concern to the ground-water is TCE with PCE and other VOCs present. The selected remedial action for the site is ground-water pump and treatment using aeration and granular-activated-carbon - air-filtering units, with discharge to the DWP Pumping Station for chlorination and distribution. Spent carbon will be removed and replaced with fresh carbon, with the spent carbon scheduled either for disposal or regeneration. The estimated capital cost for this remedial action is $2,192,895 with present worth OandM of $2,284,105.

  17. A quantum cascade laser infrared spectrometer for CO2 stable isotope analysis: Field implementation at a hydrocarbon contaminated site under bio-remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimbaud, Christophe; Noel, Cécile; Chartier, Michel; Catoire, Valéry; Blessing, Michaela; Gourry, Jean Christophe; Robert, Claude

    2016-02-01

    Real-time methods to monitor stable isotope ratios of CO2 are needed to identify biogeochemical origins of CO2 emissions from the soil-air interface. An isotope ratio infra-red spectrometer (IRIS) has been developed to measure CO2 mixing ratio with δ(13)C isotopic signature, in addition to mixing ratios of other greenhouse gases (CH4, N2O). The original aspects of the instrument as well as its precision and accuracy for the determination of the isotopic signature δ(13)C of CO2 are discussed. A first application to biodegradation of hydrocarbons is presented, tested on a hydrocarbon contaminated site under aerobic bio-treatment. CO2 flux measurements using closed chamber method is combined with the determination of the isotopic signature δ(13)C of the CO2 emission to propose a non-intrusive method to monitor in situ biodegradation of hydrocarbons. In the contaminated area, high CO2 emissions have been measured with an isotopic signature δ(13)C suggesting that CO2 comes from petroleum hydrocarbon biodegradation. This first field implementation shows that rapid and accurate measurement of isotopic signature of CO2 emissions is particularly useful in assessing the contribution of contaminant degradation to the measured CO2 efflux and is promising as a monitoring tool for aerobic bio-treatment. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Gene transcription patterns in response to low level petroleum contaminants in Mytilus trossulus from field sites and harbors in southcentral Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Lizabeth; Miles, A. Keith; Ballachey, Brenda; Waters, Shannon; Bodkin, James; Lindeberg, Mandy; Esler, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    The 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill damaged a wide range of natural resources, including intertidal communities, and post-spill studies demonstrated acute and chronic exposure and injury to an array of species. Standard toxicological methods to evaluate petroleum contaminants have assessed tissue burdens, with fewer assays providing indicators of health or physiology, particularly when contaminant levels are low and chronic. Marine mussels are a ubiquitous and crucial component of the nearshore environment, and new genomic technologies exist to quantify molecular responses of individual mussels to stimuli, including exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). We used gene-based assays of exposure and physiological function to assess chronic oil contamination using the Pacific blue mussel, Mytilus trossulus. We developed a diagnostic gene transcription panel to investigate exposure to PAHs and other contaminants and its effects on mussel physiology and health. During 2012-2015, we analyzed mussels from five field sites in western Prince William Sound, Alaska, with varying oil histories from the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill, and from three boat harbors in the area. Gene transcription patterns of mussels from harbors were consistent with elevated exposure to PAHs or other contaminants, whereas transcription patterns of mussels sampled from shorelines in areas affected by the oil spill indicated no PAH exposure.

  19. Mapping the binding site of a large set of quinazoline type EGF-R inhibitors using molecular field analyses and molecular docking studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Tingjun; Zhu, Lili; Chen, Lirong; Xu, Xiaojie

    2003-01-01

    In the current work, three-dimensional QSAR studies for one large set of quinazoline type epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF-R) inhibitors were conducted using two types of molecular field analysis techniques: comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) and comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA). These compounds belonging to six different structural classes were randomly divided into a training set of 122 compounds and a test set of 13 compounds. The statistical results showed that the 3D-QSAR models derived from CoMFA were superior to those generated from CoMSIA. The most optimal CoMFA model after region focusing bears significant cross-validated r(2)(cv) of 0.60 and conventional r(2) of 0.92. The predictive power of the best CoMFA model was further validated by the accurate estimation to these compounds in the external test set, and the mean agreement of experimental and predicted log(IC(50)) values of the inhibitors is 0.6 log unit. Separate CoMFA models were conducted to evaluate the influence of different partial charges (Gasteiger-Marsili, Gasteiger-Hückel, MMFF94, ESP-AM1, and MPA-AM1) on the statistical quality of the models. The resulting CoMFA field map provides information on the geometry of the binding site cavity and the relative weights of various properties in different site pockets for each of the substrates considered. Moreover, in the current work, we applied MD simulations combined with MM/PBSA (Molecular mechanics/Possion-Boltzmann Surface Area) to determine the correct binding mode of the best inhibitor for which no ligand-protein crystal structure was present. To proceed, we define the following procedure: three hundred picosecond molecular dynamics simulations were first performed for the four binding modes suggested by DOCK 4.0 and manual docking, and then MM/PBSA was carried out for the collected snapshots. The most favorable binding mode identified by MM/PBSA has a binding free energy about 10 kcal/mol more

  20. Field tests of polyethylene-membrane diffusion samplers for characterizing volatile organic compounds in stream-bottom sediments, Nyanza Chemical Waste Dump Superfund site, Ashland, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyford, Forest P.; Willey, Richard E.; Clifford, Scott

    2000-01-01

    A plume of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in ground water extends from the Nyanza Chemical Waste Dump Superfund site in Ashland, Massachusetts, northward toward a mill pond on the Sudbury River and eastward toward the Sudbury River and former mill raceway downstream from the mill pond. Polyethylene-membrane water-to-vapor (vapor) and water-to-water (water) diffusion samplers were installed January 1999 in bottom sediments along the Sudbury River and former mill raceway in a pilot study to determine if vapor samplers would be useful in this setting for delineating a plume of contaminants in ground water near the river and raceway, to evaluate equilibration time for vapor-diffusion samplers, and to determine if diffusion samplers might be an alternative to seepage meters (inverted steel drums) and sediment sampling for evaluating concentrations of VOCs in bottom sediments. Of five tested compounds (benzene, trichloroethene, toluene, tetrachloroethene, and chlorobenzene), chlorobenzene and trichloroethene were most frequently detected in vapor from vapor-diffusion samplers. The distribution of VOCs was generally consistent with a previously mapped plume of contaminants in ground water. The field evaluation of equilibration times for vapor-diffusion samplers was inconclusive because of changing hydrologic conditions that may have affected concentrations of VOCs, possible variations in concentrations ofVOCs over short distances, and imprecise sampling and analytical methods. The limited data, however, indicated that equilibration may require 3 weeks or more in some settings. VOCs detected in samples from water-diffusion samplers and their concentrations were comparable to results from seepage meters, and VOCs detected in vapor-diffusion samplers correlated with VOCs detected in water-diffusion samplers. These results indicate that either vapor-or water-diffusion samplers would serve as an economical alternative to seepage meters for sampling of VOCs in pore water

  1. Observations of biogenic isoprene emissions and atmospheric chemistry components at the Savé super site in Benin, West Africa, during the DACCIWA field campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jambert, Corinne; Pacifico, Federica; Delon, Claire; Lohou, Fabienne; Reinares Martinez, Irene; Brilouet, Pierre-Etienne; Derrien, Solene; Dione, Cheikh; Brosse, Fabien; Gabella, Omar; Pedruzzo Bagazgoitia, Xavier; Durand, Pierre

    2017-04-01

    Tropospheric oxidation of VOCs (Volatile Organic Compounds), including isoprene, in the presence of NOx and sunlight leads to the formation of O3 and Secondary Organic Aerosols (SOA). Changes in NO or VOCs sources will consequently modify their atmospheric concentrations and thus, the rate of O3 production and SOA formation. NOx have also an impact on the abundance of the hydroxyl radical (OH) which determines the lifetime of some pollutants and greenhouse gases. Anthropogenic emissions of pollutants from mega cities located on the Guinean coast in South West Africa are likely to increase in the next decades due to a strong anthropogenic pressure and to land use changes at the regional or continental scale. The consequences on regional air quality and on pollutant deposition onto surfaces may have some harmful effects on human and ecosystem health. Furthermore, the regional climate and water cycle are affected by changes in atmospheric chemistry. When transported northward on the African continent, polluted air masses meet biogenic emissions from rural areas which contributes to increase ozone and SOA production, in high temperature and solar radiation conditions, highly favourable to enhanced photochemistry. During the Dynamics-aerosol-chemistry-cloud interactions in West Africa (DACCIWA) field campaign, we measured the atmospheric chemical composition and the exchanges of trace components in a hinterland area of Benin, at the Savé super-site (8°02'03" N, 2°29'11″ E). The observations, monitored in June and July 2016, in a rural mixed agricultural area, include near surface concentrations of ozone (O3), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and isoprene, isoprene fluxes and meteorological parameters. We observed hourly average concentrations of O3 up to 50 ppb, low NOx concentrations (ca. 1 ppb and CO concentrations between 75 and 300 ppb. An 8 m tower was equipped with a Fast Isoprene Sensor and sonic anemometer to measure isoprene concentrations and

  2. DFN-M field characterization of sandstone for a process-based site conceptual model and numerical simulations of TCE transport with degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Amanda A; Chapman, Steven W; Zimmerman, Laura K; Hurley, Jennifer C; Aravena, Ramon; Cherry, John A; Parker, Beth L

    2018-03-03

    Plumes of trichloroethene (TCE) with degradation products occur at a large industrial site in California where TCE as a dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) entered the fractured sandstone bedrock at many locations beginning in the late 1940s. Groundwater flows rapidly in closely spaced fractures but plume fronts are strongly retarded relative to groundwater flow velocities owing largely to matrix diffusion in early decades and degradation processes in later decades and going forward. Multiple data types show field evidence for both biotic and abiotic dechlorination of TCE and its degradation products, resulting in non-chlorinated compounds. Analyses were conducted on groundwater samples from hundreds of monitoring wells and on thousands of rock samples from continuous core over depths ranging from 6 to 426 metres below ground surface. Nearly all of the present-day mass of TCE and degradation products resides in the water-saturated, low-permeability rock matrix blocks. Although groundwater and DNAPL flow primarily occur in the fractures, DNAPL dissolution followed by diffusion and sorption readily transfers contaminant mass into the rock matrix. The presence of non-chlorinated degradation products (ethene, ethane, acetylene) and compound specific isotope analysis (CSIA) of TCE and cis-1,2-dichloroethene (cDCE) indicate at least some complete dechlorination by both biotic and abiotic pathways, consistent with the observed mineralogy and hydrogeochemistry and with published results from crushed rock microcosms. The rock matrix contains abundant iron-bearing minerals and solid-phase organic carbon with large surface areas and long contact times, suggesting degradation processes are occurring in the rock matrix. Multiple, high-resolution datasets provide strong evidence for spatially heterogeneous distributions of TCE and degradation products with varying degrees of degradation observed only when using new methods that achieve better detection of dissolved gases (i

  3. Nutrient and pesticide contamination bias estimated from field blanks collected at surface-water sites in U.S. Geological Survey Water-Quality Networks, 2002–12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medalie, Laura; Martin, Jeffrey D.

    2017-08-14

    Potential contamination bias was estimated for 8 nutrient analytes and 40 pesticides in stream water collected by the U.S. Geological Survey at 147 stream sites from across the United States, and representing a variety of hydrologic conditions and site types, for water years 2002–12. This study updates previous U.S. Geological Survey evaluations of potential contamination bias for nutrients and pesticides. Contamination is potentially introduced to water samples by exposure to airborne gases and particulates, from inadequate cleaning of sampling or analytic equipment, and from inadvertent sources during sample collection, field processing, shipment, and laboratory analysis. Potential contamination bias, based on frequency and magnitude of detections in field blanks, is used to determine whether or under what conditions environmental data might need to be qualified for the interpretation of results in the context of comparisons with background levels, drinking-water standards, aquatic-life criteria or benchmarks, or human-health benchmarks. Environmental samples for which contamination bias as determined in this report applies are those from historical U.S. Geological Survey water-quality networks or programs that were collected during the same time frame and according to the same protocols and that were analyzed in the same laboratory as field blanks described in this report.Results from field blanks for ammonia, nitrite, nitrite plus nitrate, orthophosphate, and total phosphorus were partitioned by analytical method; results from the most commonly used analytical method for total phosphorus were further partitioned by date. Depending on the analytical method, 3.8, 9.2, or 26.9 percent of environmental samples, the last of these percentages pertaining to all results from 2007 through 2012, were potentially affected by ammonia contamination. Nitrite contamination potentially affected up to 2.6 percent of environmental samples collected between 2002 and 2006 and

  4. Genomic and microarray analysis of aromatics degradation in Geobacter metallireducens and comparison to a Geobacter isolate from a contaminated field site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Jizhong

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Groundwater and subsurface environments contaminated with aromatic compounds can be remediated in situ by Geobacter species that couple oxidation of these compounds to reduction of Fe(III-oxides. Geobacter metallireducens metabolizes many aromatic compounds, but the enzymes involved are not well known. Results The complete G. metallireducens genome contained a 300 kb island predicted to encode enzymes for the degradation of phenol, p-cresol, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, 4-hydroxybenzoate, benzyl alcohol, benzaldehyde, and benzoate. Toluene degradation genes were encoded in a separate region. None of these genes was found in closely related species that cannot degrade aromatic compounds. Abundant transposons and phage-like genes in the island suggest mobility, but nucleotide composition and lack of synteny with other species do not suggest a recent transfer. The inferred degradation pathways are similar to those in species that anaerobically oxidize aromatic compounds with nitrate as an electron acceptor. In these pathways the aromatic compounds are converted to benzoyl-CoA and then to 3-hydroxypimelyl-CoA. However, in G. metallireducens there were no genes for the energetically-expensive dearomatizing enzyme. Whole-genome changes in transcript levels were identified in cells oxidizing benzoate. These supported the predicted pathway, identified induced fatty-acid oxidation genes, and identified an apparent shift in the TCA cycle to a putative ATP-yielding succinyl-CoA synthase. Paralogs to several genes in the pathway were also induced, as were several putative molybdo-proteins. Comparison of the aromatics degradation pathway genes to the genome of an isolate from a contaminated field site showed very similar content, and suggested this strain degrades many of the same compounds. This strain also lacked a classical dearomatizing enzyme, but contained two copies of an eight-gene cluster encoding redox proteins that was 30-fold

  5. Multi-EM27/SUN Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) Comparison at the Southern Great Plains Site Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hedelius, J. [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States)

    2016-04-01

    During the summer of 2015, a field campaign took place to help characterize off-the-shelf portable solar-viewing Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) instruments (EM27/SUN). These instruments retrieve greenhouse gas (GHG) abundances from direct solar spectra. A focus of this campaign was to test possible dependence on different atmospheric conditions. Along with the U.S. Department of Energy’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility Southern Great Plains (SGP) site in Oklahoma, experiments were conducted in Pasadena, California; Park Falls, Wisconsin; and the Armstrong Flight Research Center (AFRC), California. These locations are home to instruments in the Total Column Carbon Observing Network (TCCON). TCCON measurements were used as standards for the portable (EM27/SUN) measurements. Comparisons between the two types of instruments are crucial in the attempt to use the portable instruments to broaden the capabilities of GHG measurements for monitoring, reporting, and verification of carbon in the atmosphere. This campaign was aimed at testing the response of the portable FTS to different atmospheric conditions both local and regional. Measurements made at ARM SGP provided data in an agricultural environment with a relatively clean atmosphere with respect to pollution. Due to the homogeneity of the region surrounding Lamont, Oklahoma, portable FTS measurements were less effected by large changes in column GHG abundances from air mass movement between regions. These conditions aided in characterizing potential artificial solar zenith angle dependence of the retrievals. Data collected under atmospheric conditions at ARM SGP also provide for the analysis of cloud interference on solar spectra. In situ measurements were also made using a Picarro isotopic methane analyzer to determine surface-level in situ GHG concentrations and possible influences due to local agriculture and nearby towns. Data collected in this campaign have been presented

  6. Hydrochemical field investigations at a potential CO2 storage site - analysis of natural salinisation processes as an indicator for deep reaching flow processes in Eastern Brandenburg (Germany)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endler, Ricarda; Jahnke, Christoph; Ludwig, Oliver

    2013-04-01

    The storage of CO2 in deep saline aquifers may cause an upward brine migration as a result of the pressure increase and brine displacement in the reservoir. With regard to a possible endangerment for regional freshwater resources the understanding of natural and induced migration processes of brines is therefore of great importance for the evaluation of potential storage sites. Within the framework of the BMBF project 'brine - CO2 storage in Eastern Brandenburg' (Germany), hydrochemical investigations were carried out to get an idea of the sources of salinisation, the migration pathways and the current processes and interactions between salt- and freshwater aquifers above a potential CO2 storage reservoir. This reservoir is located at a salt anticline structure in a Lower Triassic sandstone formation at a depth of about 1000 m. Since the 19th century freshwater salinisation and salinised soils in part with populations of halophytes were observed in Brandenburg. Both, fault zones in the Mesozoic/Tertiary and Pleistocene erosion processes led locally to a leakage of the Oligocene Rupelian clay formation, the most important confining layer between Mesozoic saltwater and Cenozoic freshwater aquifers, and thus potential migration pathways for brines. Possible sources for the salinisation are the leaching of deep Permian salt structures as well as in situ brackish or marine waters from Tertiary and Mesozoic sediments. Still unclear is especially the timescale of the salinisation processes in the shallow aquifers. To answer these questions, extensive groundwater samples from Pleistocene, Tertiary and Mesozoic aquifers down to depths of 450 m were taken in an investigation area of 50 x 50 km2 surrounding the potential storage site. In addition, deep thermal waters in Brandenburg in depths down to 1700 m were sampled to have comparable data for the storage reservoir and the deep caprock formations. Field parameters and a wide range of hydrochemical indicators (anions

  7. Nonintrusive field experiments show different plant responses to warming and drought among sites, seasons, and species in a north-south European gradient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penuelas, J.; Gordon, C.; Llorens, L.

    2004-01-01

    We used a novel, nonintrusive experimental system to examine plant responses to warming and drought across a climatic and geographical latitudinal gradient of shrubland ecosystems in four sites from northern to southern Europe (UK, Denmark, The Netherlands, and Spain). In the first two years......-limited. In the water-stressed southern site, there was no increase in total aboveground plant biomass growth as expected since warming increases water loss, and temperatures in those ecosystems are already close to the optimum for photosynthesis. The southern site presented instead the most negative response...... (up to 24% in the UK and 40% in Spain). Warming and drought decreased litterfall in The Netherlands site (33% and 37%, respectively) but did not affect it in the Spanish site. The tissue P concentrations generally decreased and the N/P ratio increased with warming and drought except in the UK site...

  8. Field demonstration of an active reservoir pressure management through fluid injection and displaced fluid extractions at the Rock Springs Uplift, a priority geologic CO2 storage site for Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiao, Zunsheng [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States)

    2017-04-05

    This report provides the results from the project entitled Field Demonstration of Reservoir Pressure Management through Fluid Injection and Displaced Fluid Extraction at the Rock Springs Uplift, a Priority Geologic CO2 Storage Site for Wyoming (DE-FE0026159 for both original performance period (September 1, 2015 to August 31, 2016) and no-cost extension (September 1, 2016 to January 6, 2017)).

  9. FY 1998 evaluation/analysis by site of the data collected in the field test project for photovoltaic power generation for public facilities. 2/4; 1998 nendo kokyo shisetsu nadoyo taiyoko hatsuden field test jigyo ni okeru shushu data hyoka kaiseki kaku site betsu 2/4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    The data collected monthly in the FY 1998 photovoltaic power generation field test project for public facilities were evaluated/analyzed by site. The data items are the flux of global solar radiation/global radiation on an inclined surface/effective global radiation on an inclined surface (each: kWh/m{sup 2}), mean temperature, and array electric energy/system consumption power/load electric energy/system supply load/back flow electric energy (each: kWh). Others are times of linkage protection movement, linkage disconnection time (min), system operation time (min), independent supply load (kWh), equivalent array/equivalent system operation time, array/system output coefficient, system utilization rate/power generation efficiency, INV effective efficiency, and INV load factor. The sites for survey are school (junior and senior high school/elementary school/kindergarten/nursery), lifelong education facilities (technical training center/forestry study center), government office (government office building), environmental public facilities (water purification plant/disaster-prevention center/park), welfare facilities (special nursing care center for the elderly), public facilities (community center/martial arts center), cultural facilities, factory in area, etc. (NEDO)

  10. FY 1998 evaluation/analysis by site of the data collected in the field test project for photovoltaic power generation for public facilities. 1/4; 1998 nendo kokyo shisetsu nadoyo taiyoko hatsuden field test jigyo ni okeru shushu data hyoka kaiseki kaku site betsu. 1/4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    The data collected monthly in the FY 1998 photovoltaic power generation field test project for public facilities were evaluated/analyzed by site. The data items are the global radiation on an inclined surface (kWh/m{sup 2}), mean temperature, array electric energy/system electric energy/load electric energy/system supply load/back flow electric energy (each: kWh), times of linkage protection movement, linkage disconnection time (min), system operation time (min), independent supply load (kWh), equivalent array/system operation time, array/system output coefficient, system output coefficient/utilization rate/power generation efficiency, and INV effective efficiency/load factor. The sites for survey are school (university/junior and senior high school/elementary school/kindergarten/nursery/training center), social welfare facilities (nursing care center for the elderly/spa/swimming pool/welfare health center), health facilities, government office relation (police office/disaster-prevention center/government office building), environmental public facilities (water purification plant/environmental test center/park), art relation facilities (museum, etc.), hospital, newspaper publishing company, factory in area, etc. (NEDO)

  11. Comparative field study on precipitation, throughfall, stemflow, fog water, and atmospheric aerosol and gases at urban and rural sites in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikawa, Masahide; Hiraki, Takatoshi; Tamaki, Motonori

    2006-07-31

    Precipitation collected by a wet-only sampler (WP), precipitation collected by a filtering-type bulk sampler (BP), throughfall (TF), stemflow (SF), fog water (FW), and atmospheric aerosol and gases were collected at two sites with different site classifications: an urban site (Mt. Rokko) and a rural site (Mt. Awaga) to investigate canopy-atmosphere interactions and to study the chemistry of precipitation in forested areas located in different atmospheric conditions. Compared to those at the rural site, the monthly volume-weighted pH values at the urban site were not significantly (p>0.05) different for WP, higher (p 0.05) different for TF, lower (p<0.01) for SF, and lower (p<0.01) for FW. The order of mean pH values at the urban site was FWsite was FWsite were higher than those at the rural site in all samples and all chemical species. In particular, higher NO(3)(-) concentrations at the urban site were observed in all samples. The amount of dry deposition on leaves at the urban site was approximately 1.17 times larger than that at the rural site. The monthly net TF (=TF-BP) in autumn seemed to be larger than that in summer; this trend was remarkable in K(+). The monthly NO(3)(-) deposition in the net TF was larger at the urban site than at other parameters and at the rural site. The concentrations of chemical species in aerosol and gases that were measured near the central part of Kobe City were ca. 3.4 times higher than those in the rural area. Mt. Rokko borders the central part of the city, which caused the concentrations at Mt. Rokko to be higher than those at Mt. Awaga. The deposition amounts at Mt. Rokko were larger than those at Mt. Awaga, which probably can be attributed to the higher concentrations of chemical species in atmospheric aerosol and gases.

  12. Long-Term Monitoring of Field Trial Sites with Genetically Modified Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus L.) in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany. Fifteen Years Persistence to Date but No Spatial Dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belter, Anke

    2016-01-01

    Oilseed rape is known to persist in arable fields because of its ability to develop secondary seed dormancy in certain agronomic and environmental conditions. If conditions change, rapeseeds are able to germinate up to 10 years later to build volunteers in ensuing crops. Extrapolations of experimental data acted on the assumption of persistence periods for more than 20 years after last harvest of rapeseed. Genetically-modified oilseed rape—cultivated widely in Northern America since 1996—is assumed not to differ from its conventional form in this property. Here, experimental data are reported from official monitoring activities that verify these assumptions. At two former field trial sites in Saxony-Anhalt genetically-modified herbicide-resistant oilseed rape volunteers are found up to fifteen years after harvest. Nevertheless, spatial dispersion or establishment of GM plants outside of the field sites was not observed within this period. PMID:26784233

  13. Long-Term Monitoring of Field Trial Sites with Genetically Modified Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus L.) in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany. Fifteen Years Persistence to Date but No Spatial Dispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belter, Anke

    2016-01-16

    Oilseed rape is known to persist in arable fields because of its ability to develop secondary seed dormancy in certain agronomic and environmental conditions. If conditions change, rapeseeds are able to germinate up to 10 years later to build volunteers in ensuing crops. Extrapolations of experimental data acted on the assumption of persistence periods for more than 20 years after last harvest of rapeseed. Genetically-modified oilseed rape-cultivated widely in Northern America since 1996-is assumed not to differ from its conventional form in this property. Here, experimental data are reported from official monitoring activities that verify these assumptions. At two former field trial sites in Saxony-Anhalt genetically-modified herbicide-resistant oilseed rape volunteers are found up to fifteen years after harvest. Nevertheless, spatial dispersion or establishment of GM plants outside of the field sites was not observed within this period.

  14. Rapid geomagnetic field intensity variations in the Near East during the 6th millennium BC: New archeointensity data from Halafian site Yarim Tepe II (Northern Iraq)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yutsis-Akimova, Stanislava; Gallet, Yves; Amirov, Shahmardan

    2018-01-01

    We present new archeointensity results from a series of groups of pottery fragments that were collected from the multi-layered archeological site Yarim Tepe II in Northern Iraq (Northern Mesopotamia) dated to the 6th millennium BC. This site comprises a 7-m-thick sequence of archeological deposits encompassing the Middle Halaf, Late Halaf and the Halaf-Ubaid Transitional (HUT), between ∼5750 and ∼5000 BC according to the chronology currently considered for the Halafian archeological period. Three new radiocarbon dates obtained from bone fragments confirm that Yarim Tepe II was likely not occupied before the Middle Halaf, as was independently established from archeological constraints. Archeointensity determinations were carried out using the protocol developed for the Triaxe magnetometer. This procedure takes into account thermoremanent magnetization anisotropy and cooling rate effects. 114 fragments fulfilled our set of archeointensity selection criteria, with intensity data obtained from at least two but most often three specimens per fragment. Mean archeointensity values were estimated for 23 groups of fragments well distributed across the entire stratigraphic sequence from the averaging of the data obtained from a minimum of three fragments per group. These values were dated using a bootstrap procedure relying on the stratigraphic position of the different groups of fragments and on the different age constraints available inside the Yarim Tepe II sequence. The new data show a significant decrease in geomagnetic field intensity by ∼12 μT between the Middle Halaf and the Late Halaf-HUT time interval. This decrease was accompanied by a short intensity peak, which may have lasted only a few decades, around the Middle Halaf-Late Halaf boundary, at ∼5500 BC. This evolution is quite similar to that observed from Syrian and Bulgarian archeointensity data, even though the precise duration of the intensity peak is presently questionable. The Bulgarian data set

  15. Intrinsically incompatible crystal (ligand) field parameter sets for transition ions at orthorhombic and lower symmetry sites in crystals and their implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudowicz, C.; Gnutek, P.

    2010-01-01

    Central quantities in spectroscopy and magnetism of transition ions in crystals are crystal (ligand) field parameters (CFPs). For orthorhombic, monoclinic, and triclinic site symmetry CF analysis is prone to misinterpretations due to large number of CFPs and existence of correlated sets of alternative CFPs. In this review, we elucidate the intrinsic features of orthorhombic and lower symmetry CFPs and their implications. The alternative CFP sets, which yield identical energy levels, belong to different regions of CF parameter space and hence are intrinsically incompatible. Only their ‘images’ representing CFP sets expressed in the same region of CF parameter space may be directly compared. Implications of these features for fitting procedures and meaning of fitted CFPs are categorized into negative: pitfalls and positive: blessings. As a case study, the CFP sets for Tm 3+ ions in KLu(WO 4) 2 are analysed and shown to be intrinsically incompatible. Inadvertent, so meaningless, comparisons of incompatible CFP sets result in various pitfalls, e.g., controversial claims about the values of CFPs obtained by other researchers as well as incorrect structural conclusions or faulty systematics of CF parameters across rare-earth ion series based on relative magnitudes of incompatible CFPs. Such pitfalls bear on interpretation of, e.g., optical spectroscopy, inelastic neutron scattering, and magnetic susceptibility data. An extensive survey of pertinent literature was carried out to assess recognition of compatibility problems. Great portion of available orthorhombic and lower symmetry CFP sets are found intrinsically incompatible, yet these problems and their implications appear barely recognized. The considerable extent and consequences of pitfalls revealed by our survey call for concerted remedial actions of researchers. A general approach based on the rhombicity ratio standardization may solve compatibility problems. Wider utilization of alternative CFP sets in the

  16. Intrinsically incompatible crystal (ligand) field parameter sets for transition ions at orthorhombic and lower symmetry sites in crystals and their implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudowicz, C.; Gnutek, P.

    2010-01-01

    Central quantities in spectroscopy and magnetism of transition ions in crystals are crystal (ligand) field parameters (CFPs). For orthorhombic, monoclinic, and triclinic site symmetry CF analysis is prone to misinterpretations due to large number of CFPs and existence of correlated sets of alternative CFPs. In this review, we elucidate the intrinsic features of orthorhombic and lower symmetry CFPs and their implications. The alternative CFP sets, which yield identical energy levels, belong to different regions of CF parameter space and hence are intrinsically incompatible. Only their 'images' representing CFP sets expressed in the same region of CF parameter space may be directly compared. Implications of these features for fitting procedures and meaning of fitted CFPs are categorized into negative: pitfalls and positive: blessings. As a case study, the CFP sets for Tm 3+ ions in KLu(WO 4 ) 2 are analysed and shown to be intrinsically incompatible. Inadvertent, so meaningless, comparisons of incompatible CFP sets result in various pitfalls, e.g., controversial claims about the values of CFPs obtained by other researchers as well as incorrect structural conclusions or faulty systematics of CF parameters across rare-earth ion series based on relative magnitudes of incompatible CFPs. Such pitfalls bear on interpretation of, e.g., optical spectroscopy, inelastic neutron scattering, and magnetic susceptibility data. An extensive survey of pertinent literature was carried out to assess recognition of compatibility problems. Great portion of available orthorhombic and lower symmetry CFP sets are found intrinsically incompatible, yet these problems and their implications appear barely recognized. The considerable extent and consequences of pitfalls revealed by our survey call for concerted remedial actions of researchers. A general approach based on the rhombicity ratio standardization may solve compatibility problems. Wider utilization of alternative CFP sets in the

  17. Organic carbon at a remote site of the western Mediterranean Basin: sources and chemistry during the ChArMEx SOP2 field experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Michoud

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The ChArMEx (Chemistry and Aerosols Mediterranean Experiments SOP2 (special observation period 2 field campaign took place from 15 July to 5 August 2013 in the western Mediterranean Basin at Ersa, a remote site in Cape Corse. During the campaign more than 80 volatile organic compounds (VOCs, including oxygenated species, were measured by different online and offline techniques. At the same time, an exhaustive description of the chemical composition of fine aerosols was performed with an aerosol chemical speciation monitor (ACSM. Low levels of anthropogenic VOCs (typically tens to hundreds of parts per trillion for individual species and black carbon (0.1–0.9 µg m−3 were observed, while significant levels of biogenic species (peaking at the ppb level were measured. Furthermore, secondary oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs largely dominated the VOC speciation during the campaign, while organic matter (OM dominated the aerosol chemical composition, representing 55 % of the total mass of non-refractory PM1 on average (average of 3.74 ± 1.80 µg m−3, followed by sulfate (27 %, 1.83 ± 1.06 µg m−3, ammonium (13 %, 0.90 ± 0.55 µg m−3 and nitrate (5 %, 0.31 ± 0.18 µg m−3. Positive matrix factorization (PMF and concentration field (CF analyses were performed on a database containing 42 VOCs (or grouped VOCs, including OVOCs, to identify the covariation factors of compounds that are representative of primary emissions or chemical transformation processes. A six-factor solution was found for the PMF analysis, including a primary and secondary biogenic factor correlated with temperature and exhibiting a clear diurnal profile. In addition, three anthropogenic factors characterized by compounds with various lifetimes and/or sources have been identified (long-lived, medium-lived and short-lived anthropogenic factors. The anthropogenic nature of these factors was confirmed by the CF analysis, which

  18. Field-scale electrical geophysics over an olive oil mill waste deposition site: Evaluating the information content of resistivity versus induced polarization (IP) images for delineating the spatial extent of organic contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntarlagiannis, Dimitrios; Robinson, Judith; Soupios, Pantelis; Slater, Lee

    2016-12-01

    We performed 2D resistivity and IP measurements over a known olive oil mill waste plume at a site in western Crete, Greece. The objectives of the survey were: (1) to determine whether IP is more diagnostic in delineating the spatial extent of the plume relative to resistivity measurements alone; (2) to evaluate whether the additional information content obtained from IP is worth the effort given longer data acquisition times and higher measurement errors that inevitably characterize field IP data acquisition. Complex conductivity inversion of the field IP dataset revealed that the organic plume is characterized as a region of high electrical conductivity (real part of complex conductivity) consistent with the conceptual model for the electrical structure of a biodegraded LNAPL contaminant plume. The plume is also characterized by a region of high polarizability (imaginary part of complex conductivity) that is more localized to the known plume location (based on conventional monitoring) relative to the high conductivity region in the electrical conductivity image. This observation is attributed to the fact that electrical conductivity is more strongly controlled by hydrogeological and geological characteristics of the site that mask the response from the biodegraded plume. This result encourages the use of field IP to improve the spatial delineation of organic contamination in the subsurface. However, more laborious field procedures are required to acquire reliable field IP data and the inversion of field IP data remains more challenging than resistivity data alone.

  19. ESTCP Cost and Performance Report: Field Demonstration of Rhizosphere-Enhanced Treatment of Organics-Contaminated Soils on Native American Lands with Application to Northern FUD Sites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reynolds, C. M

    2004-01-01

    ... can be used in other situations dealing with surface soil contamination. This project included field demonstrations of rhizosphere-enhanced bioremediation of petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POLs...

  20. Field evaluation of repellents and insecticidal aerosol compositions for repelling and control of Siphunculina funicola (Diptera: Chloropidae) on aggregation sites in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chansang, Uruyakorn; Mulla, Mir S

    2008-06-01

    The oriental eye fly Siphunculina funicola, a small member (1.5-1.6 mm) of the family Chloropidae, is extremely annoying to humans and domestic animals, feeding on mucous membranes, secretions, and other moist surfaces of their hosts. In central Thailand heavy populations were detected during 2006-2007 in some rural, agricultural, and periurban areas of the region. They were noted to exhibit strong synanthropy and aggregation behavior, congregating on thin (1-5 mm diam) substrates hanging in or near human habitations and animal shelters and other structures open on one or more sides. We initiated studies on the repelling and control of this eye fly at their aggregation sites, the most vulnerable targets near or in human habitations. Four formulations of repellents consisting of Everside, 3 fatty acids (with 8, 9, and 10 carbons), permethrin, and the acids C8910 plus permethrin in Everside were diluted 1:3 in tap water and sprayed on to the aggregation sites. Prior to treatment all sites including controls were disturbed to dislodge eye flies, and then the blank sites were sprayed with the aqueous suspension of the repellents. Additionally, we evaluated 3 commercially available household insecticidal aerosol formulations by treating eye flies and their resting sites (without dislodging the flies) with puffs of the aerosols. Two treatments with permethrin alone and permethrin plus acids in Nakhorn Ratchasima Province caused a complete absence of flies from the sites up to 23 h. After treatment with the repellents, the repelled flies and others were found to congregate on untreated favorable sites close to the treated ones. The repellents tested against eye flies in Chonburi Province at 2 locations caused almost complete absence of this insect on aggregation sites up to 120 h. Three household insecticide aerosols applied to aggregation sites with resting and hovering eye flies produced high to complete mortality and reduction of eye flies for 48 h or possibly longer

  1. Reductive Dechlorination of 1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene and Its Metabolites at a Contaminated Site in Nanjing, China: Concordance between Field and Microcosm Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, W.; Lomheim, L.; Luo, F.; Ye, S.; Wu, J.; Edwards, E.

    2016-12-01

    Chlorinated benzenes (CBs) are widespread contaminants at many industrial sites, posing a threat to human health and the environment. Bioremediation has the advantage of using natural biological processes to possibly completely destroy target pollutants. A three-year site investigation was conducted from 2012 to 2014 at a former chemical plant in Nanjing, China, which was contaminated by chlorobenzenes (CBs) and benzene. The aquifer was located within a silty clay and clayey silt with extremely low permeability. Soil and groundwater sample analyses revealed that the main contaminants were 1,2,4-tichlorobenzene (TCB) with highest concentration of 7300ug/L, dichlorobenzene (DCB) isomers, monochlorobenzene (MCB) and benzene. The contaminants were mainly located in the vicinity of a former wastewater basin and production facilities of chemical products. TCB was used as a solvent and leaked during the plant manufacturing processes. It is assumed that DCB isomers, MCB and benzene were derived from the anaerobic subsequent dehalogenation of 1,2,4-TCB. A corresponding lab microcosm study was conducted to prove the assumption of indigenous CBs biodegradation. The contaminated soil and groundwater from the site were used to conduct the lab microcosms study to keep the lab experimental conditions the same as the site and to be comparable with the site investigation results. The lab microcosms study results demonstrated that 1,4-DCB, 1,2-DCB and 1,3-DCB were the anaerobic dechlorination product of 1,2,4-TCB, and 1,2-DCB, 1,3-DCB can be transformed to MCB, and benzene can be degraded to CO2 under sulfate reducing condition. The lab microcosms study results were consistent with the site investigation results, which will provide a theoretical proposition on site remediation strategy making. This research method of combing the site investigation with the lab study can be applied and transferable to any other contaminated sites of concern. The site investigation and lab study can

  2. Prediction of 137Cs and 90Sr accumulation in milk of horses and sheep grazing the area adjacent to the 'Experimental Field' technical area of the Semipalatinsk test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gontarenko, I.A.; Spiridonov, S.I.; Mukusheva, M.K.

    2005-01-01

    The paper describes mathematical models for 137 Cs and 90 Sr behavior in body of horses and sheep grazing the area adjacent to the 'Experimental Field' Technical Area of the Semipalatinsk test site. The models were parametrized on the basis of experimental data for those breeds of animals that are currently encountered within the Semipalatinsk test area. The predictive conclusions using devised models have shown that 137 Cs and 90 Sr concentration in milk of horses and sheep grazing the Experimental field are can exceed the adopted standards during a long period of time. (author)

  3. Fiscal 1996 research report on the PV power generation field test project for public facilities. Evaluation and analysis of collected data for every site (2/2); 1996 nendo kokyo shisetsu nadoyo taiyoko hatsuden field test jigyo ni okeru shushu data hyoka kaiseki. Kaku site betsu (2/2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    As a part of the PV power generation field test project, this report summarizes the collected data. The project includes the following 37 test sites: Yagi-machi Yagi junior high school, Shizuoka-ken environmental radiation monitoring center, Tanabe-shi health center, Kochi-ken Inochi animal park, new University CO-OP hall, Tokyo-to leading technology education center, Suwano center house, Saga-ken environment center, Utsukushino kindergarten, Hikarigaoka park management/rest/training facility, Koiwai factory of Koiwai Milk Products Co., Kameoka Ayumi nursery school, Dr. Toda's office, Kyodo Newspaper Co., Player training facility of Japan Small Automobile Assoc., Meiyoen health facility for aged persons, Gunma-ken public corporation general building, Kamakura-si Tamanawa primary school, Yoshikawa-shi indoor hot water pool, Noukyukai Higashi-Yokohama hospital, Kagawa-machi office building, Fukui-ken CO-OP hall, Kiramesse Muroto, Shimada-shi Hatukura-Minami primary school, Akeno Furusato Taiyokan, Nagasaki-ken Shika-machi technical high school, Japan CO-OP Union product inspection center, Kyushu Kyoritsu University, Fukuroi Mitsukawa hospital, China-machi Shimo- Hirakawa primary school, and Kasasa-machi Toji-no-Sato. (NEDO)

  4. Simulation Of Enhanced Reductive Dechlorination For Remediation Of Tce In A Fractured Clay System: A New Model Approach And Application To Field Site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manoli, Gabriele; Chambon, Julie Claire Claudia; Christiansen, Camilla Maymann

    2010-01-01

    An innovative model is developed for Enhanced Reductive Dechlorination (ERD) of chlorinated solvents in a fractured glacial till. The model consists of three components: hydraulics, transport and degradation. The hydraulic component calculates the flow of water through a fractured clay till...... with interspersed sand lenses and stringers. The transport model couples diffusion dominated transport in the clay matrix, with advective‐dispersive transport in the fractures and higher permeability sand lenses. The reactive model calculates sequential reductive dechlorination of TCE (trichloroethylene) to its...... a contamination of trichloroethylene located in a fractured clay till. The site is simulated using the model developed. Fracture geometry, site parameters and degradation rates are based on observations from the site and lab studies. The risk for drinking water is assessed and cleanup times are simulated using...

  5. Task 23 - field studies of the occurrence, transport, and fate of mercury at natural gas industry sites. Topical report, May 1, 1992--December 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorensen, J.A.; Harju, J.A.; Kuehnel, V.; Charlton, D.S.

    1998-12-31

    The objective of this research project is to define the occurrence, transport, and fate of mercury in air, water, and soil at natural gas production sites that had been instrumented with mercury-based gas flowmeters in the past. The primary focus of this research was initially on determining the potential for mercury contamination in groundwater at these sites. The scope was later broadened to include determinations of the spatial distribution of mercury in soil. Air concentrations were determined solely as a health and safety routine.

  6. Local Site Characterization Using HVSR, ReMi, and SPAC, Study Case: Soccer Field At Autonomous University of Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upegui Botero, F. M.; Rojas Mercedes, N.; Huerta-Lopez, C.; Martinez-Cruzado, J. A.; Suárez, L.; Lopez, A. M.; Huerfano Moreno, V.

    2013-12-01

    Earthquake effects are frequently quantified by the energy liberated at the source, and the degree of damage produced in urban areas. The damage of historic events such as the Mw=8.3, September 19, 1985 Mexico City Earthquake was dominated by the amplification of seismic waves due to local site conditions. The assessment of local site effects can be carried out with site response analyses in order to determine the properties of the subsoil such as the dominant period, and the Vs30. The evaluation of the aforementioned properties is through the analysis of ground motion. However, in locations with low seismicity, the most convenient method to assess the site effect is the analysis of ambient vibration measurements. The Spatial Auto Correlation method (SPAC) can be used to determine a Vs30 model from ambient vibration measurements using a triangular array of sensors. Refraction Microtremor (ReMi) considers the phase velocity of the Rayleigh waves can be separated of apparent velocities; the aim of the ReMI method is to obtain the Vs30 model. The HVSR technique or Nakamura's method has been adopted to obtain the resonant frequency of the site from the calculation of ratio between the Fourier amplitude spectra or PSD spectrum of the horizontal and vertical components of ambient vibration. The aim of this work is to compare the results using different techniques to assess local site conditions in the urban area of Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic. The data used was collected during the Pan-American Advance Studies Institute (PASI), Workshop held in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic from July 14 to 25, 2013. The PASI was sponsored by IRIS Consortium, NSF and DOE. Results obtained using SPAC, and ReMi, show a comparable model of surface waves velocities. In addition to the above, the HVSR method is combined with the stiffness matrices method for layered soils to calculate a model of velocities and the predominant period on the site. As part of this work a comparison with

  7. Simulations of pressure and salinity fields at Aespoe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loefman, J. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1997-04-01

    The primary objective of this study was to examine whether the geochemical field data from Aespoe could be interpreted and understood by means of numerical simulations for flow and transport. A site-specific simulation model for groundwater flow and salt transport was developed on the basis of the field investigations. Both steady-state and transient simulations of flow and transport were performed. In the transient simulations, land uplift and the effect of diffusion into/from the matrix blocks with stagnant water were taken into account. The computational results were evaluated on the basis of the experimental values for the pressure and salt concentration.

  8. Assessment of Soil, Surface-Water, and Ground-Water Contamination at Selected Sites at J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Phelan, Daniel

    1998-01-01

    .... Only emergency disposal operations have been conducted at J-Field since the early 1980's. Soil, surface-water, and ground-water contamination has resulted from the migration of unburned chemicals and fuels from the disposal...

  9. Nonintrusive Field Experiments Show Different Plant Responses to Warming and Drought Among Sites, Seasons, and Species in a North-South European Gradient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peñuelas, J.; Gordon, C.; Llorens, L.; Nielsen, T.; Tietema, A.; Beier, J.C.; Bruna, P.; Emmett, B.; Estiarte, M.; Gorissen, A.

    2004-01-01

    We used a novel, nonintrusive experimental system to examine plant responses to warming and drought across a climatic and geographical latitudinal gradient of shrubland ecosystems in four sites from northern to southern Europe (UK, Denmark, The Netherlands, and Spain). In the first two years of

  10. 40 CFR Table C-5 to Subpart C of... - Summary of Comparability Field Testing Campaign Site and Seasonal Requirements for Class II and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Campaign Site and Seasonal Requirements for Class II and III FEMs for PM10â2.5 and PM2.5 C Table C-5 to Subpart C of Part 53 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... Between Candidate Methods and Reference Methods Pt. 53, Subpt. C, Table C-5 Table C-5 to Subpart C of Part...

  11. Predicting Multicomponent Adsorption Isotherms in Open-Metal Site Materials Using Force Field Calculations Based on Energy Decomposed Density Functional Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinen, J.; Burtch, N.; Walton, K.; Fonseca Guerra, C.; Dubbeldam, D.

    2016-01-01

    For the design of adsorptive-separation units, knowledge is required of the multicomponent adsorption behavior. Ideal adsorbed solution theory (IAST) breaks down for olefin adsorption in open-metal site (OMS) materials due to non-ideal donor–acceptor interactions. Using a

  12. Measurements of aerosol absorption and scattering in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area during the MILAGRO field campaign: a comparison of results from the T0 and T1 sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Marley

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In March 2006, a multiagency field campaign was undertaken in Mexico City called the Megacities Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO. Two of the five field components of the MILAGRO study focused a major part of their efforts on atmospheric particulate emissions from the Mexico City basin and their effects on radiative balance as a function of time, location and processing conditions. As part of these two MILAGRO components, measurements of aerosol optical properties were obtained at a site located in the northern part of Mexico City (T0 and also at a site located 29 km northwest (T1 to estimate the regional effects of aerosol emissions from the basin.

    Measurements of aerosol absorption and scattering for fine mode aerosols were obtained at both sites. Aerosol absorption at 550 nm was similar at both sites, ranging from 7–107 Mm−1 at T0 and from 3–147 Mm−1 at T1. Aerosol scattering measured at 550 nm at T0 ranged from 16–344 Mm−1 while the aerosol scattering values at T1 were much lower than at T0 ranging from 2–136 Mm−1. Aerosol single scattering albedos (SSAs were calculated at 550 nm for the fine mode aerosols at both sites using these data. The SSAs at T0 ranged from 0.47–0.92 while SSAs at T1 ranged from 0.35–0.86. The presence of these highly absorbing fine aerosols in the lower atmosphere of the Mexico City area will result in a positive climate forcing and a local warming of the boundary layer in the region.

    Broadband UVB intensity was found to be higher at site T0, with an average of 64 μW/cm2 at solar noon, than at site T1, which had an average of 54 μW/cm2 at solar noon. Comparisons of clear-sky modeled UVB intensities with the simultaneous UVB measurements obtained at sites T0 and T1 for cloudless days indicate a larger diffuse radiation field at site T0 than at site T1. The determination of aerosol

  13. Site response variation due to the existence of near-field cracks based on strong motion records in the Shi-Wen river valley, southern Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Chi-Shin; Yu, Teng-To; Peng, Wen-Fei; Yeh, Yeoin-Tein; Lin, Sih-Siao

    2014-01-01

    Site effect analysis has been applied to investigate soil classification, alluvium depth, and fracture detection, although the majority of previous studies have typically focused only on the response of large-scale single structures. In contrast, we investigated the site effect for small-scale cracks using a case study in southern Taiwan to provide a means of monitoring slope stability or foundation integrity in situ using only an accelerometer. We adopted both the reference site and horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio methods. We obtained seismographs associated with the typhoon-related development of a crack set (52 m long, 5 m deep) in a steep slope and compared the resonance frequency between two conditions (with and without cracks). Moreover, we divided the seismic waves into P, S, and coda waves and examined the seismic source effect. Our results demonstrate that frequencies of 14.5−17.5 Hz are most sensitive to these cracks, particularly for the E−W component of the P-waves, which coincides with the crack’s strike. Peak ground acceleration, which is controlled by seismic moment and attenuated distance, is another important factor determining the resonance results. Our results demonstrate that the ratio of temporal seismic waves can be used to detect the existence of nearby subsurface cracks. (paper)

  14. Microbiological, Geochemical and Hydrologic Processes Controlling Uranium Mobility: An Integrated Field Scale Subsurface Research Challenge Site at Rifle, Colorado, February 2011 to January 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Philip E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Banfield, Jill [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Chandler, Darrell P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Davis, James A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hettich, Bob [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); VerBerkmoes, Nathan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jaffe, Peter R. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Kerkhof, Lee J. [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Kukkadapu, Ravi K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lipton, Mary [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Peacock, Aaron [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Williams, Kenneth H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Yabusaki, Steven B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2012-02-15

    The Rifle IFRC continued to make excellent progress during the last 12 months. As noted above, a key field experiment (Best Western) was performed during 2011 as a logical follow-on to the Super 8 field experiment preformed in 2010. In the Super 8 experiment, we successfully combined desorption and bioreduction and deployed a number of novel tracer techniques to enhance our ability to interpret the biogeochemistry of the experiment. In the Best Western experiment, we used the same experimental plot (Plot C) as was used for Super 8. The overarching objective of the Best Western field experiment was to compared the impacts of abiotic vs. biotic increases in alkalinity and to assess the mass of the sorbed pool of U(VI) at Rifle at the field scale. Both of these objectives were met. Preliminary analysis of the data indicate that the underlying biogeochemical data sets were obtained that will support a mechanistic understanding of the underlying processes, including remarkable insight into previously unrecognized microbial processes taking place during acetate amendment of the subsurface for a second time.

  15. CO2 Storage and Enhanced Oil Recovery: Bald Unit Test Site, Mumford Hills Oil Field, Posey County, Indiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frailey, Scott M. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States); Krapac, Ivan G. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States); Damico, James R. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States); Okwen, Roland T. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States); McKaskle, Ray W. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States)

    2012-03-30

    The Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium (MGSC) carried out a small-scale carbon dioxide (CO2) injection test in a sandstone within the Clore Formation (Mississippian System, Chesterian Series) in order to gauge the large-scale CO2 storage that might be realized from enhanced oil recovery (EOR) of mature Illinois Basin oil fields via miscible liquid CO2 flooding.

  16. Installation Restoration Program. Remedial Investigation Report. Site 1. Fire Training Area. Volk Field Air National Guard Base, Camp Douglas, WI. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-07-01

    biodegradable detergent solution, " Rinse with high-pressure steam, " Rinse with pesticide grade isopropyl alcohol, BW181 3-6 TABLE 3.1 VOLK FIELD ANGB, CAMP...Dimethylphenethylamine Dipheny lamine 1,2-Diphenylhydrazine Ethyl methanesulfonate 2-Methylnaphthalene 1-Naphthylamine 2-Naphthylamine 2-Nitroaniline 3...sampling location by a detergent wash, a clean-water rinse, an isopropyl alcohol rinse, and a final deionized, organic-free water rinse. Bailers were

  17. Comparison of geochemical data obtained using four brine sampling methods at the SECARB Phase III Anthropogenic Test CO2 injection site, Citronelle Oil Field, Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conaway, C. H.; Thordsen, J. J.; Manning, M. A.; Cook, P. J.; Trautz, R. C.; Thomas, B.; Kharaka, Y. K.

    2016-12-01

    The chemical composition of formation water and associated gases from the lower Cretaceous Paluxy Formation was determined using four different sampling methods at a characterization well in the Citronelle Oil Field, Alabama, as part of the Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (SECARB) Phase III Anthropogenic Test, which is an integrated carbon capture and storage project. In this study, formation water and gas samples were obtained from well D-9-8 #2 at Citronelle using gas lift, electric submersible pump, U-tube, and a downhole vacuum sampler (VS) and subjected to both field and laboratory analyses. Field chemical analyses included electrical conductivity, dissolved sulfide concentration, alkalinity, and pH; laboratory analyses included major, minor and trace elements, dissolved carbon, volatile fatty acids, free and dissolved gas species. The formation water obtained from this well is a Na-Ca-Cl-type brine with a salinity of about 200,000 mg/L total dissolved solids. Differences were evident between sampling methodologies, particularly in pH, Fe and alkalinity. There was little gas in samples, and gas composition results were strongly influenced by sampling methods. The results of the comparison demonstrate the difficulty and importance of preserving volatile analytes in samples, with the VS and U-tube system performing most favorably in this aspect, and provide guidance on determing the best available geochemical monitoring approaches.

  18. Comparison of geochemical data obtained using four brine sampling methods at the SECARB Phase III Anthropogenic Test CO2 injection site, Citronelle Oil Field, Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conaway, Christopher; Thordsen, James J.; Manning, Michael A.; Cook, Paul J.; Trautz, Robert C.; Thomas, Burt; Kharaka, Yousif K.

    2016-01-01

    The chemical composition of formation water and associated gases from the lower Cretaceous Paluxy Formation was determined using four different sampling methods at a characterization well in the Citronelle Oil Field, Alabama, as part of the Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (SECARB) Phase III Anthropogenic Test, which is an integrated carbon capture and storage project. In this study, formation water and gas samples were obtained from well D-9-8 #2 at Citronelle using gas lift, electric submersible pump, U-tube, and a downhole vacuum sampler (VS) and subjected to both field and laboratory analyses. Field chemical analyses included electrical conductivity, dissolved sulfide concentration, alkalinity, and pH; laboratory analyses included major, minor and trace elements, dissolved carbon, volatile fatty acids, free and dissolved gas species. The formation water obtained from this well is a Na–Ca–Cl-type brine with a salinity of about 200,000 mg/L total dissolved solids. Differences were evident between sampling methodologies, particularly in pH, Fe and alkalinity. There was little gas in samples, and gas composition results were strongly influenced by sampling methods. The results of the comparison demonstrate the difficulty and importance of preserving volatile analytes in samples, with the VS and U-tube system performing most favorably in this aspect.

  19. Laboratory and field experiments on the microbiological restoration of polluted used oil refinery sites. Laboratory experiments and a review of literature. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filip, Z.; Hofmann, R.; Dippell, G.; Hollederer, G.

    1992-10-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the possibility of microbial degradation of organic pollutants in soil from an abandoned used oil refinery site. The following groups of key pollutants were involved: Aliphatic hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbons, volatile chlorinated hydrocarbons, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, chlorinated phenols, polychlorinated biphenyls. The experiments were carried out in liquid and agar media, and in soil columns. Simple aliphatic and aromatic compounds were degraded fast, and they were preferably degraded if applied in a mixture with some chemically more complex compounds. The degradation degree decreased with increasing complexity of the experimental conditions. In soil samples about 30% to 60% of pollutants were removed in nine months. In the same period of time, the concentration of polychlorinated biphenyls was not reduced. In soil extracts a temporarily increase in toxicity was observed using bacteriological tests. In bulk soil samples the content of humic substances was enhanced due either to a coupling of pollutants with soil organic substances or to a novel formation of humic substances as a side effect of the biorestoration process. In general the laboratory experiments indicated some real possibilities but also limits for the biorestoration of the polluted refinery site. A comprehensive literature review was elaborated in this project; it is a part of this report. (orig.)

  20. Site-specific responses to short-term environmental variation are reflected in leaf and phloem-sap carbon isotopic abundance of field grown Eucalyptus globulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, Andrew; Buckley, Thomas N; Pfautsch, Sebastian; Turnbull, Tarryn L; Samsa, Glen A; Adams, Mark A

    2012-12-01

    The carbon isotopic composition (δ(13) C) of plant material has been used extensively as an indirect measure of carbon fixation per volume of water used. More recently, the δ(13) C of phloem sap (δ(13) C(phl) ) has been used as a surrogate measure of short-term, canopy scale δ(13) C. Using a combination of δ(13) C physiological, structural and chemical indices from leaves and phloem sap of Eucalyptus globulus at sites of contrasting water availability, we sought to identify short-term, canopy scale resource limitations. Results illustrate that δ(13) C(phl) offers valid reflections of short-term, canopy scale values of leaf δ(13) C and tree water status. Under conditions limited by water, leaf and phloem sap photoassimilates differ in (13) C abundance of a magnitude large enough to significantly influence predictions of water use efficiency. This pattern was not detected among trees with adequate water supply indicating fractionation into heterotrophic tissues that may be sensitive to plant water status. Trees employed a range of physiological, biochemical and structural adaptations to acclimate to resource limitation that differed among sites providing a useful context upon which to interpret patterns in δ(13) C. Our results highlight that such easily characterized properties are ideal for use as minimally invasive tools to monitor growth and resilience of plants to variations in resource availability. Copyright © Physiologia Plantarum 2012.

  1. Elimination of the Reaction Rate "Scale Effect": Application of the Lagrangian Reactive Particle-Tracking Method to Simulate Mixing-Limited, Field-Scale Biodegradation at the Schoolcraft (MI, USA) Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Dong; Benson, David A.; Fernández-Garcia, Daniel; Henri, Christopher V.; Hyndman, David W.; Phanikumar, Mantha S.; Bolster, Diogo

    2017-12-01

    Measured (or empirically fitted) reaction rates at groundwater remediation sites are typically much lower than those found in the same material at the batch or laboratory scale. The reduced rates are commonly attributed to poorer mixing at the larger scales. A variety of methods have been proposed to account for this scaling effect in reactive transport. In this study, we use the Lagrangian particle-tracking and reaction (PTR) method to simulate a field bioremediation experiment at the Schoolcraft, MI site. A denitrifying bacterium, Pseudomonas Stutzeri strain KC (KC), was injected to the aquifer, along with sufficient substrate, to degrade the contaminant, carbon tetrachloride (CT), under anaerobic conditions. The PTR method simulates chemical reactions through probabilistic rules of particle collisions, interactions, and transformations to address the scale effect (lower apparent reaction rates for each level of upscaling, from batch to column to field scale). In contrast to a prior Eulerian reaction model, the PTR method is able to match the field-scale experiment using the rate coefficients obtained from batch experiments.

  2. Nature and structure of aluminum surface sites grafted on silica from a combination of high-field aluminum-27 solid-state NMR spectroscopy and first-principles calculations

    KAUST Repository

    Kerber, Rachel Nathaniel

    2012-04-18

    The determination of the nature and structure of surface sites after chemical modification of large surface area oxides such as silica is a key point for many applications and challenging from a spectroscopic point of view. This has been, for instance, a long-standing problem for silica reacted with alkylaluminum compounds, a system typically studied as a model for a supported methylaluminoxane and aluminum cocatalyst. While 27Al solid-state NMR spectroscopy would be a method of choice, it has been difficult to apply this technique because of large quadrupolar broadenings. Here, from a combined use of the highest stable field NMR instruments (17.6, 20.0, and 23.5 T) and ultrafast magic angle spinning (>60 kHz), high-quality spectra were obtained, allowing isotropic chemical shifts, quadrupolar couplings, and asymmetric parameters to be extracted. Combined with first-principles calculations, these NMR signatures were then assigned to actual structures of surface aluminum sites. For silica (here SBA-15) reacted with triethylaluminum, the surface sites are in fact mainly dinuclear Al species, grafted on the silica surface via either two terminal or two bridging siloxy ligands. Tetrahedral sites, resulting from the incorporation of Al inside the silica matrix, are also seen as minor species. No evidence for putative tri-coordinated Al atoms has been found. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  3. Thermal Desorption Capability Development for Enhanced On-site Health Risk Assessment: HAPSITE (registered trademark) ER Passive Sampling in the Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-07

    Restoration 420 Pest  Mgmt 420 Vivarium 420 Microbiology 420 Table 1. Passive Collection Times for Each Site (ISQ and HAPSITE) 11 Distribution A...6.108 0.315 0.433 0.500 Auto Hobby Isopropyl Alcohol 2.553 0.092 0.821 0.733 Auto Hobby m,p ‐xylene 22.189 0.728 0.618 0.535 Auto Hobby Methyl ...ND m,p ‐xylene 3 22.625 ± 13.558 0.504 ± 0.104 0.535 0.94 0.419 1.203722 Methyl  Isobutyl Ketone 1 0.777 ± ND 0.443 ± ND 0.573 0.77 0.417 1.063363 n

  4. Field-Derived Hydraulic Properties for Perched-Water Aquifer Wells 299-E33-350 and 299-E33-351, Hanford Site B-Complex Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newcomer, Darrell R.

    2014-07-01

    During February and March 2014, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conducted hydraulic (slug) tests at 200-DV-1 Operable Unit wells 299-E33-350 (C8914) and 299-E33-351 (C8915) as part of B-Complex Area Perched-Water characterization activities at the Hanford Site 200-East Area. During the construction/completion phase of each well, two overlapping depth intervals were tested within the unconfined perched-water aquifer contained in the silty-sand subunit of the Cold Creek Unit. The purpose of the slug-test characterization was to provide estimates of transmissivity and hydraulic conductivity for the perched-water aquifer at these selected well locations.

  5. Field Application of Modified In Situ Soil Flushing in Combination with Air Sparging at a Military Site Polluted by Diesel and Gasoline in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hwan; Lee, Yoonjin; Kim, Jaeyoung; Kim, Choltae

    2014-01-01

    In this study the full-scale operation of soil flushing with air sparging to improve the removal efficiency of petroleum at depths of less than 7 m at a military site in Korea was evaluated. The target area was polluted by multiple gasoline and diesel fuel sources. The soil was composed of heterogeneous layers of granules, sand, silt and clay. The operation factors were systemically assessed using a column test and a pilot study before running the full-scale process at the site. The discharged TPH and BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes) concentrations in the water were highest at 20 min and at a rate of 350 L/min, which was selected as the volume of air for the full-scale operation in the pilot air sparging test. The surfactant-aid condition was 1.4 times more efficient than the non-surfactant condition in the serial operations of modified soil flushing followed by air sparging. The hydraulic conductivity (3.13 × 10−3 cm/s) increased 4.7 times after the serial operation of both processes relative to the existing condition (6.61 × 10−4 cm/s). The removal efficiencies of TPH were 52.8%, 57.4%, and 61.8% for the soil layers at 6 to 7, 7 to 8 and 8 to 9 m, respectively. Therefore, the TPH removal was improved at depth of less than 7 m by using this modified remediation system. The removal efficiencies for the areas with TPH and BTEX concentrations of more than 500 and 80 mg/kg, were 55.5% and 92.9%, respectively, at a pore volume of 2.9. The total TPH and BTEX mass removed during the full-scale operation was 5109 and 752 kg, respectively. PMID:25166919

  6. Resuspension of polychlorinated biphenyl-contaminated field sediment: release to the water column and determination of site-specific K DOC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Carey L; Lohmann, Rainer; Burgess, Robert M; Perron, Monique M; Cantwell, Mark G

    2011-02-01

    Sediments from the New Bedford Harbor (NBH) U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) Superfund site (Massachusetts, USA), contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), were resuspended under different water column redox conditions: untreated, oxidative, and reductive. The partitioning of PCBs to the overlying water column was measured with polyethylene samplers and compared to partitioning without resuspension. Greater concentrations of total aqueous (freely dissolved + dissolved organic carbon (DOC)-associated) PCBs were found in all resuspended treatments for PCBs with mid-range K(OW)s, but no difference was observed in total aqueous concentrations among different redox conditions. The magnitude of increased concentrations depended on resuspension time and congener K(OW), but ranged from approximately one to eight times those found without resuspension. In a parallel study, DOC was flocculated and removed from smaller-scale NBH sediment resuspensions. In situ K(DOC)s were determined and used to calculate freely dissolved and DOC-associated fractions of the increase in total aqueous PCB concentrations due to resuspension. The importance of DOC-associated PCBs increased with increasing K(OW). In situ K(DOC)s were approximately one to two orders of magnitude greater than those calculated with a commonly used linear free energy relationship (LFER). The present study demonstrates that resuspension of contaminated sediments releases PCBs to the water column, of which a significant fraction are DOC-associated (e.g., 28, 65, and 90% for PCBs 28, 66, and 110, respectively). Results also imply that site-specific PCB K(DOC)s are superior to those calculated with generic LFERs. © 2010 SETAC.

  7. Time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) coupled with reference interaction site model self-consistent field explicitly including spatial electron density distribution (RISM-SCF-SEDD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokogawa, D.

    2016-09-01

    Theoretical approach to design bright bio-imaging molecules is one of the most progressing ones. However, because of the system size and computational accuracy, the number of theoretical studies is limited to our knowledge. To overcome the difficulties, we developed a new method based on reference interaction site model self-consistent field explicitly including spatial electron density distribution and time-dependent density functional theory. We applied it to the calculation of indole and 5-cyanoindole at ground and excited states in gas and solution phases. The changes in the optimized geometries were clearly explained with resonance structures and the Stokes shift was correctly reproduced.

  8. Identification and determination of trapping parameters as key site parameters for CO2 storage for the active CO2 storage site in Ketzin (Germany) - Comparison of different experimental approaches and analysis of field data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemke, Kornelia; Liebscher, Axel

    2015-04-01

    Petrophysical properties like porosity and permeability are key parameters for a safe long-term storage of CO2 but also for the injection operation itself. The accurate quantification of residual trapping is difficult, but very important for both storage containment security and storage capacity; it is also an important parameter for dynamic simulation. The German CO2 pilot storage in Ketzin is a Triassic saline aquifer with initial conditions of the target sandstone horizon of 33.5 ° C/6.1 MPa at 630 m. One injection and two observation wells were drilled in 2007 and nearly 200 m of core material was recovered for site characterization. From June 2008 to September 2013, slightly more than 67 kt food-grade CO2 has been injected and continuously monitored. A fourth observation well has been drilled after 61 kt injected CO2 in summer 2012 at only 25 m distance to the injection well and new core material was recovered that allow study CO2 induced changes in petrophysical properties. The observed only minor differences between pre-injection and post-injection petrophysical parameters of the heterogeneous formation have no severe consequences on reservoir and cap rock integrity or on the injection behavior. Residual brine saturation for the Ketzin reservoir core material was estimated by different methods. Brine-CO2 flooding experiments for two reservoir samples resulted in 36% and 55% residual brine saturation (Kiessling, 2011). Centrifuge capillary pressure measurements (pc = 0.22 MPa) yielded the smallest residual brine saturation values with ~20% for the lower part of the reservoir sandstone and ~28% for the upper part (Fleury, 2010). The method by Cerepi (2002), which calculates the residual mercury saturation after pressure release on the imbibition path as trapped porosity and the retracted mercury volume as free porosity, yielded unrealistic low free porosity values of only a few percent, because over 80% of the penetrated mercury remained in the samples after

  9. Pre-shot simulations of far-field ground motion for the Source Physics Experiment (SPE) Explosions at the Climax Stock, Nevada National Security Site: SPE2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mellors, R J; Rodgers, A; Walter, W; Ford, S; Xu, H; Matzel, E; Myers, S; Petersson, N A; Sjogreen, B; Hauk, T; Wagoner, J

    2011-10-18

    The Source Physics Experiment (SPE) is planning a 1000 kg (TNT equivalent) shot (SPE2) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) in a granite borehole at a depth (canister centroid) of 45 meters. This shot follows an earlier shot of 100 kg in the same borehole at a depth 60 m. Surrounding the shotpoint is an extensive array of seismic sensors arrayed in 5 radial lines extending out 2 km to the north and east and approximately 10-15 to the south and west. Prior to SPE1, simulations using a finite difference code and a 3D numerical model based on the geologic setting were conducted, which predicted higher amplitudes to the south and east in the alluvium of Yucca Flat along with significant energy on the transverse components caused by scattering within the 3D volume along with some contribution by topographic scattering. Observations from the SPE1 shot largely confirmed these predictions although the ratio of transverse energy relative to the vertical and radial components was in general larger than predicted. A new set of simulations has been conducted for the upcoming SPE2 shot. These include improvements to the velocity model based on SPE1 observations as well as new capabilities added to the simulation code. The most significant is the addition of a new source model within the finite difference code by using the predicted ground velocities from a hydrodynamic code (GEODYN) as driving condition on the boundaries of a cube embedded within WPP which provides a more sophisticated source modeling capability linked directly to source site materials (e.g. granite) and type and size of source. Two sets of SPE2 simulations are conducted, one with a GEODYN source and 3D complex media (no topography node spacing of 5 m) and one with a standard isotropic pre-defined time function (3D complex media with topography, node spacing of 5 m). Results were provided as time series at specific points corresponding to sensor locations for both translational (x,y,z) and rotational

  10. Analytical study of the effects of the Low-Level Jet on moisture convergence and vertical motion fields at the Southern Great Plains Cloud and Radiation Testbed site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bian, X.; Zhong, S.; Whiteman, C.D.; Stage, S.A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-04-01

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) is located in a region that is strongly affected by a prominent meteorological phenomenon--the Great Plains Low-Level Jet (LLJ). Observations have shown that the LLJ plays a vital role in spring and summertime cloud formation and precipitation over the Great Plains. An improved understanding of the LLJ characteristics and its impact on the environment is necessary for addressing the fundamental issue of development and testing of radiational transfer and cloud parameterization schemes for the general circulation models (GCMs) using data from the SGP CART site. A climatological analysis of the summertime LLJ over the SGP has been carried out using hourly observations from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Wind Profiler Demonstration Network and from the ARM June 1993 Intensive Observation Period (IOP). The hourly data provide an enhanced temporal and spatial resolution relative to earlier studies which used 6- and 12-hourly rawinsonde observations at fewer stations.

  11. Site Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset consists of various site features from multiple Superfund sites in U.S. EPA Region 8. These data were acquired from multiple sources at different times...

  12. Speciation, Mobility and Fate of Actinides in the Groundwater at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buesseler, K.O.; Dai, M.; Repeta, D.; Wacker, J.F.; Kelley, J.M.

    2003-01-01

    Plutonium and other actinides represent important contaminants in the groundwater and vadose zone at Hanford and other DOE sites. The distribution and migration of these actinides in groundwater must be understood so that these sites can be carefully monitored and effectively cleaned up, thereby minimizing risks to the public. The objective of this project was to obtain field data on the chemical and physical forms of plutonium in groundwater at the Hanford site. We focused on the 100-k and 100-n areas near the Columbia River, where prior reactor operations and waste storage was in close proximity to the river. In particular, a unique set of technical approaches were combined to look at the details of Pu speciation in groundwater, as thus its chemical affinity for soil surfaces and solubility in groundwater, as these impact directly the migration rates off site and possible mitigation possibilities one might undertake to control, or at least better monitor these releases

  13. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of site-dependent uptake and distribution of trace elements in the saltmarsh plant Aster tripolium from marsh fields in the Schelde estuary, Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossbach, M.

    1986-07-01

    As part of an environmental chemical investigation the uptake of heavy metals by a saltmarsh plant Aster tripolium from two differently polluted salt marsh sites of the North Sea between 20 to 30 trace elements were determined in soil and plant organs. A sensitive gamma ray counting system was installed and tested for instrumental activation analyses (INAA). Installations to improve sensitivity as well as conditions necessary for reliable trace element analysis with the aid of Anticompton spectrometers (ACS) are described. The accuracy and reproducibility of the method was determined by the analysis of reference- and control materials of the german environmental specimen bank. In order to characterise the state of pollution of the salt marsh soils pollution-factors for single elements as well as interelemental correlations were evaluated. In addition, uptake and translocation factors of the biological samples were calculated. The many highly significant correlations between elements within the plant organs indicated that uptake appears to be physiologicaly controlled and not dependent on soil concentration. In order to detect further consequences of differing pollution influences within these plants biochemical separation techniques were applied and trace element levels in selected extracts were determined. For the specification of heavy metals gelpermeation chromatography of ethanolic extracts proved to be the most promising method. Furthermore, propositions for the use of trace elements as a fingerprint for pollution status and characterisation of species for referenz- and specimenbank materials have been developed. Aster tripolium as a cadmium accumulating plant can probably be used as an indicator in the monitoring of cadmium polluted salt marsh areas. (orig.) [de

  14. Comparative evaluation of the US Environmental Protection Agency's and the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education's environmental survey and site assessment program field sampling procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitkus, T.J.; Bright, T.L.; Roberts, S.A.

    1997-10-01

    At the request of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) Headquarters Office, the Environmental Survey and Site Assessment Program (ESSAP) of the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) compared the documented procedures that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and ESSAP use for collecting environmental samples. The project objectives were to review both organizations' procedures applicable to collecting various sample matrices, compare the procedures for similarities and differences, and then to evaluate the reason for any identified procedural differences and their potential impact on ESSAP's sample data quality. The procedures reviewed included those for sampling surface and subsurface soil, surface and groundwater, vegetation, air, and removable surface contamination. ESSAP obtained copies of relevant EPA documents and reviewed and prepared a tabulated summary of each applicable procedure. The methods for collecting and handling each type of sample were evaluated for differences, and where these were identified, the significance and effect of the differences on analytical quality were determined. The results of the comparison showed that, overall, the procedures and methods that EPA and ESSAP use for sample collection are very similar. The number of minor differences noted were the result of restrictions or procedures necessary to ensure sample integrity and prevent the introduction of interfering compounds when samples are to be analyzed for chemical parameters. For most radio nuclide analyses, these additional procedures are not necessary. Another item noted was EPA's inclusion of steps that reduce the potential for sample cross-contamination by preparing (dressing) a location prior to collecting a sample or removing a portion of a sample prior to containerization

  15. Field evaluation of synthetic lure (3-methyl-1-butanol) when compared to non odor-baited control in capturing Anopheles mosquitoes in varying land-use sites in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohdy, Sarah; Derfus, Kristin; Andrianjafy, Mbolatiana Tovo; Wright, Patricia C; Gillespie, Thomas R

    2015-03-07

    Malaria is the 4(th) largest cause of mortality in Madagascar. To better understand malaria transmission dynamics, it is crucial to map the distribution of the malaria vectors, mosquitoes belonging to the genus Anopheles. To do so, it is important to have a strong Anopheles-specific lure to ensure the maximum number of captures. Previous studies have isolated volatiles from the human skin microbiota and found the compound 3-methyl-1-butanol to be the most attractive to the malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae, in a laboratory setting; and recommended 3-methyl-1-butanol as a compound to increase An. gambiae captures in the field. To date, this compound's ability to lure wild mosquitoes in differing land-use settings has not been tested. In this study, we evaluate the role of the synthetic compound, 3-methyl-1-butanol in combination with field produced CO(2) in attracting Anopheles mosquitoes in varying land-use sites in Madagascar. CDC miniature light traps in combination with field produced CO(2) were deployed in and around six villages near Ranomafana National Park, Madagascar. To test the role of 3-methyl-1-butanol in luring Anopheles mosquitoes, two traps were set in each land-use site (village, agricultural sites, and forested habitats affiliated with each village). One was baited with the synthetic odor and the other was kept as a non-baited control. While 3-methyl-1-butanol baited traps did capture An. gambiae s.l. in this study, we did not find traps baited with synthetic 3-methyl-1-butanol to be more successful in capturing Anopheles mosquitoes, (including Anopheles gambiae s.l.) than the non odor-baited control traps in any of the land-use sites examined; however, regardless of odor bait, trapping near livestock pens resulted in the capture of significantly more Anopheles specimens. A strong synthetic lure in combination with insecticide has great potential as a mosquito control. Our findings suggest that trapping mosquitoes near livestock in malaria

  16. Electric-field gradients at {sup 181}Ta impurity sites in Ho{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3} bixbyites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Errico, Leonardo A. [Departamento de Fisica-IFLP(CONICET), Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, C.C. 67, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Renteria, Mario [Departamento de Fisica-IFLP(CONICET), Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, C.C. 67, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)]. E-mail: renteria@fisica.unlp.edu.ar; Bibiloni, Anibal G. [Departamento de Fisica-CONICET, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, C.C. 67, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Freitag, Kristian [Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen-und Kernphysik (H-ISKP) der Universitaet Bonn, Nussallee 14-16, D 53115 Bonn (Germany)

    2007-02-01

    The time-differential {gamma}-{gamma} perturbed-angular-correlation (PAC) technique with ion-implanted {sup 181}Hf tracers has been applied to study the hyperfine interactions of {sup 181}Ta impurities in the cubic bixbyite structure of Ho{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The PAC experiments were performed in air in the temperature range 300-1373 K (in the case of Ho{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and 77-1273 K (in the case of Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3}). For both oxides, two electric-quadrupole interactions were found and attributed to the electric-field gradients (EFGs) acting on {sup 181}Ta probes substitutionally located at the two free-of-defects nonequivalent cation sites of the bixbyite structure. In the case of Ho{sub 2}O{sub 3}, two additional interactions were found in the temperature range 300-573 K. These results, as well as previous characterizations of the EFG at {sup 181}Ta sites in bixbyites, were compared to those obtained in experiments using {sup 111}Cd as probe, and to point-charge model calculations. Very recent ab initio predictions for the EFG tensor at impurities sites in binary oxides are also discussed. All these results enable us to discuss the validity of the widely used ionic model to describe the EFG in these highly ionic compounds.

  17. The effective crystal field potential

    CERN Document Server

    Mulak, J

    2000-01-01

    As it results from the very nature of things, the spherical symmetry of the surrounding of a site in a crystal lattice or an atom in a molecule can never occur. Therefore, the eigenfunctions and eigenvalues of any bound ion or atom have to differ from those of spherically symmetric respective free ions. In this way, the most simplified concept of the crystal field effect or ligand field effect in the case of individual molecules can be introduced. The conventional notion of the crystal field potential is narrowed to its non-spherical part only through ignoring the dominating spherical part which produces only a uniform energy shift of gravity centres of the free ion terms. It is well understood that the non-spherical part of the effective potential "seen" by open-shell electrons localized on a metal ion plays an essential role in most observed properties. Light adsorption, electron paramagnetic resonance, inelastic neutron scattering and basic characteristics derived from magnetic and thermal measurements, ar...

  18. Site decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bicker, A.E.

    1981-01-01

    Among the several DOE sites that have been radiologically decontaminated under the auspices of the Nevada Operations Office are three whose physical characteristics are unique. These are the Tatum Dome Test Site (TDTS) near Hattiesburg, Mississippi; a location of mountainous terrain (Pahute Mesa) on the Nevada Test Site; and the GNOME site near Carlsbad, New Mexico. In each case the contamination, the terrain, and the climate conditions were different. This presentation includes a brief description of each site, the methods used to perform radiological surveys, the logistics required to support the decontamination (including health physics and sample analysis), and the specific techniques used to reduce or remove the contamination

  19. Properties of the manganese(II) binding site in ternary complexes of Mnter dot ADP and Mnter dot ATP with chloroplast coupling factor 1: Magnetic field dependence of solvent sup 1 H and sup 2 H NMR relaxation rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddy, A.E.; Frasch, W.D.; Sharp, R.R. (Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor (USA))

    1989-05-02

    The influence of the binding of ADP and ATP on the high-affinity Mn(II) binding site of chloroplast coupling factor 1 (CF{sub 1}) was studied by analysis of field-dependent solvent proton and deuteron spin-lattice relaxation data. In order to characterize metal-nucleotide complexes of CF{sub 1} under conditions similar to those of the NMR experiments, the enzyme was analyzed for bound nucleotides and Mn(II) after incubation with AdN and MnCl{sub 2} and removal of labile ligands by extensive gel filtration chromatography. In the field-dependent NMR experiments, the Mn(II) binding site of CF{sub 1} was studied for three mole ratios of added Mn(II) to CF{sub 1}, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5, in the presence of an excess of either ADP or ATP. The results were extrapolated to zero Mn(II) concentration to characterize the environment of the first Mn(II) binding site of Cf{sub 1}. In the presence of both adenine nucleotides, pronounced changes in the Mn(II) environment relative to that in Mn(II)-CF{sub 1} were evident; the local relaxation rate maxima were more pronounced and shifted to higher field strengths, and the relaxation rate per bound Mn(II) increased at all field strengths. Analysis of the data revealed that the number of exchangeable water molecules liganded to bound Mn(II) increased from one in the binary Mn(II)-CF{sub 1} complex to three and two in the ternary Mn(II)-ADP-CF{sub 1} and Mn(II)-ATP-CF{sub 1} complexes, respectively; these results suggest that a water ligand to bound Mn(II) in the Mn(II)-ADP-CF{sub 1} complex is replaced by the {gamma}-phosphate of ATP in the Mn(II)-ATP-CF{sub 1} complex. A binding model is presented to account for these observations.

  20. Field-deployable, nano-sensing approach for real-time detection of free mercury, speciation and quantification in surface stream waters and groundwater samples at the U.S. Department of Energy contaminated sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campiglia, Andres D. [Univ. of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States); Hernandez, Florencio E. [Univ. of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States)

    2014-08-28

    The detrimental effects on human health caused by long-term exposure to trace contamination of toxic metals have been documented in numerous epidemiological and toxicological studies. The fact that metals are non-biodegradable and accumulate in the food chain poses a severe threat to the environment and human health. Their monitoring in drinking water, aquatic ecosystems, food and biological fluids samples is then essential for global sustainability. While research efforts employing established methodology continue to advance conceptual/computational models of contaminant behavior, the increasing awareness and public concern with environmental and occupational exposure to toxic metals calls for sensing devices capable to handle on-site elemental analysis in short analysis time. Field analysis with potable methodology prevents unnecessary scrutiny of un-contaminated samples via laboratory-bound methods, reduces analysis cost and expedites turnaround time for decision making and remediation purposes. Of particular toxicological interest are mercury and its species. Mercury is recognized as a major environmental pollution issue. The field-portable sensor developed in this project provides a unique and valuable tool for the on-site, real-time determination of inorganic mercury in surface waters. The ability to perform on-site analysis of mercury should prove useful in remote locations with difficult accessibility. It should facilitate data collection from statistically meaningful population sizes for a better understanding of the dose-effect role and the water-soil-plant-animal-human transfer mechanisms. The acquired knowledge should benefit the development of efficient environmental remediation processes, which is extremely relevant for a globally sustainable environment.

  1. What have we learned from deterministic geostatistics at highly resolved field sites, as relevant to mass transport processes in sedimentary aquifers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritzi, Robert W.; Soltanian, Mohamad Reza

    2015-12-01

    In the method of deterministic geostatistics (sensu Isaaks and Srivastava, 1988), highly-resolved data sets are used to compute sample spatial-bivariate statistics within a deterministic framework. The general goal is to observe what real, highly resolved, sample spatial-bivariate correlation looks like when it is well-quantified in naturally-occurring sedimentary aquifers. Furthermore, it is to understand how this correlation structure, (i.e. shape and correlation range) is related to independent and physically quantifiable attributes of the sedimentary architecture. The approach has evolved among work by Rubin (1995, 2003), Barrash and Clemo (2002), Ritzi et al. (2004, 2007, 2013), Dai et al. (2005), and Ramanathan et al. (2010). In this evolution, equations for sample statistics have been developed which allow tracking the facies types at the heads and tails of lag vectors. The goal is to observe and thereby understand how aspects of the sedimentary architecture affect the well-supported sample statistics. The approach has been used to study heterogeneity at a number of sites, representing a variety of depositional environments, with highly resolved data sets. What have we learned? We offer and support an opinion that the single most important insight derived from these studies is that the structure of spatial-bivariate correlation is essentially the cross-transition probability structure, determined by the sedimentary architecture. More than one scale of hierarchical sedimentary architecture has been represented in these studies, and a hierarchy of cross-transition probability structures was found to define the correlation structure in all cases. This insight allows decomposing contributions from different scales of the sedimentary architecture, and has led to a more fundamental understanding of mass transport processes including mechanical dispersion of solutes within aquifers, and the time-dependent retardation of reactive solutes. These processes can now be

  2. Thermal impact of a small alas-valley river in a continuous permafrost area - insights and issues raised from a field monitoring Site in Syrdakh (Central Yakutia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenier, Christophe; Nicolas, Roux; Fedorov, Alexander; Konstantinov, Pavel; Séjourné, Antoine; Costard, François; Marlin, Christelle; Khristoforov, Ivan; Saintenoy, Albane

    2017-04-01

    river, in the atmosphere and into boreholes in the permafrost, at different locations and various distances from the river and the upstream lake. Hydrological information was collected as well (e.g. water temperature, electrical conductivity, pH and isotopic profiles; river flow rates). Soil properties were studied in pits (e.g. thermal conductivity, soil humidity and temperature measurements). More recently GPR studies were conducted along river profiles complementing the dataset. This new study site is introduced and the major results are presented as well as the main issues raised and future perspectives.

  3. The hygroscopicity parameter (κ of ambient organic aerosol at a field site subject to biogenic and anthropogenic influences: relationship to degree of aerosol oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Y.-W. Chang

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Cloud condensation nuclei (CCN concentrations were measured at Egbert, a rural site in Ontario, Canada during the spring of 2007. The CCN concentrations were compared to values predicted from the aerosol chemical composition and size distribution using κ-Köhler theory, with the specific goal of this work being to determine the hygroscopic parameter (κ of the oxygenated organic component of the aerosol, assuming that oxygenation drives the hygroscopicity for the entire organic fraction of the aerosol. The hygroscopicity of the oxygenated fraction of the organic component, as determined by an Aerodyne aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS, was characterised by two methods. First, positive matrix factorization (PMF was used to separate oxygenated and unoxygenated organic aerosol factors. By assuming that the unoxygenated factor is completely non-hygroscopic and by varying κ of the oxygenated factor so that the predicted and measured CCN concentrations are internally consistent and in good agreement, κ of the oxygenated organic factor was found to be 0.22±0.04 for the suite of measurements made during this five-week campaign. In a second, equivalent approach, we continue to assume that the unoxygenated component of the aerosol, with a mole ratio of atomic oxygen to atomic carbon (O/C ≈ 0, is completely non-hygroscopic, and we postulate a simple linear relationship between κorg and O/C. Under these assumptions, the κ of the entire organic component for bulk aerosols measured by the AMS can be parameterised as κorg=(0.29±0.05·(O/C, for the range of O/C observed in this study (0.3 to 0.6. These results are averaged over our five-week study at one location using only the AMS for composition analysis. Empirically, our measurements are consistent with κorg generally increasing with increasing particle oxygenation, but high uncertainties preclude us from testing this hypothesis. Lastly, we examine select periods of

  4. Site organization and site arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boissonnet, B.; Macqueron, J.F.

    1976-01-01

    The present paper deals with criteria for the choice of a production unit or power plant site, the organization and development of a site in terms of its particular characteristics and takes into account personnel considerations in site organizations as well as the problem of integrating the architecture into the environment. (RW) [de

  5. Yes Virginia, quantum mechanics can be understood

    CERN Document Server

    Wallace, John P

    2017-01-01

    Virginia, B. W. Wooster, and Jeeves take up physics with the hope of understanding quantum mechanics. In the process they take a rather grand tour on an old sailing ship and aid a sow in distress. On their journey they discover that physics is not as difficult a subject as they imagined. When they dismantled physics and reassembled it in a form where gravity, strong, electromagnetic and the weak forces all stem from understanding the gaming strategy known as the fair-game. That great cultural divide first expounded by the novelist C.P.Snow was found to be a mere ditch that can be stepped over. The sins of the past were violations of energy conservation and strange notions about what mass actually represents. Now mass is defined without the assistance of the Standard Model. Things will not be the same. Singularities have been banished. The electron now has a scale and is no longer captive in a point. The gluon is no longer essential along with the single virtual photon.

  6. The Center of Gravity, Systemically Understood

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    Swain and Larry G. Heysteck (Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: CMH , Desert Storm Interviews, 1991), 33. 91Purvis, et al., 17. 40...Sullivan. "Interview: Centcom Planning Cell." In Unedited Transcript, edited by Richard Swain and Larry G. Heysteck. Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: CMH

  7. Evil Understood as the Absence of Freedom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rabjerg, Bjørn

    2017-01-01

    Self-development is closely related to the idea of formation (or what is referred to as Bildung in German). But when speaking of formation, we have to address the question, ‘what are we formed by?’ Is the human being formed by him- or herself, or by resources originating from outside the self? Fr...

  8. Performance and Acceptance of Novel Silver-Impregnated Ceramic Cubes for Drinking Water Treatment in Two Field Sites: Limpopo Province, South Africa and Dodoma Region, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Kahler

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Diarrheal disease and environmental enteropathy are serious public health concerns in low-income countries. In an effort to reduce enteric infection, researchers at the University of Virginia developed a new point-of-use (POU water treatment technology composed of silver-impregnated porous ceramic media. The ceramic is placed in a 15 L plastic container of water in the evening and the water is ready to drink in the morning. The purpose of this study was to assess field performance and local acceptance of technology in two communities in Limpopo Province, South Africa, and one community in Dodoma Region, Tanzania. Performance was determined by coliform testing of treated water. Acceptance was determined using data from 150 household surveys and a nine-day structured observational study at a local primary school. At the primary school, 100% of treated water samples had no detectable levels of total coliform bacteria (TCB in buckets filled by researchers. For all treated school buckets, 74% of samples achieved less than or equal to 1 CFU/100 mL and 3.2 average log reduction of TCB. Laboratory experiments with highly contaminated water diluted to lower turbidity achieved 4.2 average log reduction of TCB. Turbid water (approximately 10 NTU only achieved 1.1 average log reduction of TCB; turbidity and organic material may have interfered with disinfection. The Tanzania primary school (deep groundwater source had less turbid water and achieved 1.4 average log reduction of TCB; however, it did have high chloride levels that may have interfered with silver disinfection. The surveys revealed that the majority of people retrieve, store, and dispense water in ways that are compatible with the new technology. The willingness-to-pay study revealed potential customers would be willing to pay for the technology without subsidies. The results of this study indicate that this novel silver-impregnated ceramic POU water treatment technology is both effective and

  9. Guidance documents: Continued support to improve operations of fish hatcheries and field sites to reduce the impact or prevent establishment of New Zealand Mudsnails and other invasive mollusks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffitt, Christine M.

    2017-01-01

    Western New Zealand Mudsnail Conference in Seattle. Targeted hatchery workshops were conducted with staff at Dworshak National Fish Hatchery Complex (ID), Similkameen Pond, Oroville WA, and Ringold Springs State Hatchery (WA).As a result of communications with hatchery staff, invasive species managers, and on site assessments of hatchery facilities, the document was modified and enhanced. Additional resources were added to keep it up to date. The result is a more simplified tool that can lead hatchery or management personnel through the process of risk assessment and provide an introduction to the risk management and communication process.In addition to the typical HACCP processes, this tool adds steps to rate and consider uncertainty and the weight of evidence regarding options and monitoring results . Uncertainty of outcome exists in most tools that can be used to control or prevent NZMS or other invasive mollusks from infesting an area. In additional this document emphasizes that specific control tools and plans must be tailored to each specific setting to consider the economic, environmental and social influences. From the testing and evaluation process, there was a strong recognition that a number of control and prevention tools previously suggested and reported in the literature from laboratory and small scale trials may not be compatible with regional and national regulations, economic constraints, social or cultural constraints, engineering or water chemistry characteristics of each facility.The options for control are summarized in the second document, Review of Control Measures for Hatcheries Infested with NZMS (Appendix A) that provides sources for additional resources and specific tools, and guidance regarding the feasibility and success of each approach. This tool also emphasizes that management plans need to be adaptive and incorporate oversight from professionals familiar with measuring risks of fish diseases, and treatments (e.g. the fish health

  10. Site assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villanueva, Héctor; Gómez Arranz, Paula

    This report describes the site assessment of given position in a given site, for a wind turbine with a well-defined hub height and rotor diameter. The analysis is carried out in accordance to IEC 61400-12-1 [1], and both an obstacle assessment and a terrain assessment are performed.......This report describes the site assessment of given position in a given site, for a wind turbine with a well-defined hub height and rotor diameter. The analysis is carried out in accordance to IEC 61400-12-1 [1], and both an obstacle assessment and a terrain assessment are performed....

  11. Site assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villanueva, Héctor; Vesth, Allan

    This report describes the site assessment of given position in a given site, for a wind turbine with a well-defined hub height and rotor diameter. The analysis is carried out in accordance to IEC 61400-12-1 [1], and both an obstacle assessment and a terrain assessment are performed......This report describes the site assessment of given position in a given site, for a wind turbine with a well-defined hub height and rotor diameter. The analysis is carried out in accordance to IEC 61400-12-1 [1], and both an obstacle assessment and a terrain assessment are performed...

  12. Laboratory and Field Studies Related to Radionuclide Migration at the Nevada Test Site in Support of the Underground Test Area Project and the Hydrologic Resources Management Program, October 1, 2002 - September 30, 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D.L.Finnegan; J.L. Thompson; B.A. Martinez

    2004-01-01

    This report details the work of Chemistry Division personnel from Los Alamos National Laboratory in FY 2003 for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) under its Defense Programs and Environmental Restoration divisions. Los Alamos is one of a number of agencies collaborating in an effort to describe the present and future movement of radionuclides in the underground environment of the Nevada Test Site. This fiscal year we collected and analyzed water samples from a number of expended test locations at the Nevada Test Site. We give the results of these analyses and summarize the information gained over the quarter century that we have been studying several of these sites. We find that by far most of the radioactive residues from a nuclear test are contained in the melt glass in the cavity. Those radionuclides that are mobile in water can be transported if the groundwater is moving due to hydraulic or thermal gradients. The extent to which they move is a function of their chemical speciation, with neutral or anionic materials traveling freely relative to cationic materials that tend to sorb on rock surfaces. However, radionuclides sorbed on colloids may be transported if the colloids are moving. Local conditions strongly influence the distribution and movement of radionuclides, and we continue to study sites such as Cheshire, RNM-2s, Camembert and Almendro where radionuclides have been measured in the past. We collected samples from monitoring wells in Yucca Flat (ER-12-2, ER-6-1 No.2 and ER-7-1) and Frenchman Flat (ER-5-4 No.2) to obtain baseline radiochemistry data in those areas. We, in collaboration with LLNL, assembled all of the hot well data that have been collected over the past 30 years and submitted the data to Shaw for future inclusion in the geochemistry database. We have again used a field probe that allows us to measure important groundwater properties in situ. We begin the report with a

  13. Site Calibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kock, Carsten Weber; Vesth, Allan

    This Site Calibration report is describing the results of a measured site calibration for a site in Denmark. The calibration is carried out by DTU Wind Energy in accordance with Ref.[3] and Ref.[4]. The measurement period is given. The site calibration is carried out before a power performance...... measurement on a given turbine to clarify the influence from the terrain on the ratio between the wind speed at the center of the turbine hub and at the met mast. The wind speed at the turbine is measured by a temporary mast placed at the foundation for the turbine. The site and measurement equipment...... is detailed described in [1] and [2]. All parts of the sensors and the measurement system have been installed by DTU Wind Energy....

  14. The accuracy of linear measurements of maxillary and mandibular edentulous sites in cone-beam computed tomography images with different fields of view and voxel sizes under simulated clinical conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganguly, Rumpa; Ramesh, Aruna; Pagni, Sarah [Tufts University School of Dental Medicine, Boston (United States)

    2016-06-15

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of varying resolutions of cone-beam computed tomography images on the accuracy of linear measurements of edentulous areas in human cadaver heads. Intact cadaver heads were used to simulate a clinical situation. Fiduciary markers were placed in the edentulous areas of 4 intact embalmed cadaver heads. The heads were scanned with two different CBCT units using a large field of view (13 cm×16 cm) and small field of view (5 cm×8 cm) at varying voxel sizes (0.3 mm, 0.2 mm, and 0.16 mm). The ground truth was established with digital caliper measurements. The imaging measurements were then compared with caliper measurements to determine accuracy. The Wilcoxon signed rank test revealed no statistically significant difference between the medians of the physical measurements obtained with calipers and the medians of the CBCT measurements. A comparison of accuracy among the different imaging protocols revealed no significant differences as determined by the Friedman test. The intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.961, indicating excellent reproducibility. Inter-observer variability was determined graphically with a Bland-Altman plot and by calculating the intraclass correlation coefficient. The Bland-Altman plot indicated very good reproducibility for smaller measurements but larger discrepancies with larger measurements. The CBCT-based linear measurements in the edentulous sites using different voxel sizes and FOVs are accurate compared with the direct caliper measurements of these sites. Higher resolution CBCT images with smaller voxel size did not result in greater accuracy of the linear measurements.

  15. Site development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noack, J.

    1975-01-01

    The subject of this paper is a general view over all necessary considerations to develop the site after it has been chosen and before starting with the construction of a nuclear power plant. (orig./RW) [de

  16. Site selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, C.W.

    1983-07-01

    The conditions and criteria for selecting a site for a nuclear weapons test at the Nevada Test Site are summarized. Factors considered are: (1) scheduling of drill rigs, (2) scheduling of site preparation (dirt work, auger hole, surface casing, cementing), (3) schedule of event (when are drill hole data needed), (4) depth range of proposed W.P., (5) geologic structure (faults, Pz contact, etc.), (6) stratigraphy (alluvium, location of Grouse Canyon Tuff, etc.), (7) material properties (particularly montmorillonite and CO 2 content), (8) water table depth, (9) potential drilling problems (caving), (10) adjacent collapse craters and chimneys, (11) adjacent expended but uncollapsed sites, (12) adjacent post-shot or other small diameter holes, (13) adjacent stockpile emplacement holes, (14) adjacent planned events (including LANL), (15) projected needs of Test Program for various DOB's and operational separations, and (16) optimal use of NTS real estate

  17. Superfund Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This layer represents active Superfund Sites published by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). These data were extracted from the Superfund Enterprise...

  18. Visions of technology: : Big data lessons understood by EU policy makers in their review of the legal frameworks on intellectual property rights, access to and re-use of PSI and the protection of personal data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammerant, Hans; de Hert, Paul; Gutwirth, Serge; Leenes, Ronald; De Hert, Paul

    2016-01-01

    This article’s focus is on how the advent of big data technology and practices has been understood and addressed by policy makers in the EU. We start with a reflection on of how big data affects business processes and how it con- tributes to the creation of a data economy. Then we look at EU policy

  19. QuickSiteSM, the Argonne expedited site characterization methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burton, J.C.; Meyer, W.T.

    1997-09-01

    Expedited site characterization (ESC), developed by Argonne National Laboratory, is an interactive, integrated process emphasizing the use of existing data of sufficient quality, multiple complementary characterization methods, and on-site decision making to optimize site investigations. The Argonne ESC is the basis for the provisional ESC standard of the ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials). QuickSite SM is the implementation package developed by Argonne to facilitate ESC of sites contaminated with hazardous wastes. At various sites, Argonne has successfully implemented QuickSite SM and demonstrated the technical superiority of the ESC process over traditional methodologies guided by statistics and random-sampling approaches. For example, in a QuickSite SM characterization of a perched aquifer at the Pantex Plant in Texas, past data and geochemical analyses of existing wells were used to develop a model for recharge and contaminant movement. With the model as a guide, closure was achieved with minimal field work

  20. Ash addition after whole-tree harvesting on fertile sites in southern Sweden Establishment of two field trials; Askaaterfoering efter skogsbraensleuttag paa boerdig skogsmark i soedra Sverige Anlaeggning av tvaa faeltfoersoek

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikstroem, Ulf; Hoegbom, Lars; Jacobson, Staffan; Lundstroem, Hagos; Ring, Eva

    2012-02-15

    In Sweden, the Swedish Forest Agency recommend ash recycling after whole-tree harvest (WTH), i.e. the whole tree above the stump is harvested. If this recommendation is complied, ash recycling will become a quite extensive forestry practice. To gain more knowledge regarding effects of ash on tree growth, storage of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) in the upper soil, and soil-water chemistry, two field experiments were established. The experimental design was a randomized block design. Both experiments were installed on quite fertile sites in southern Sweden. On fertile sites (C/N less than 30), ash addition is hypothesized to increase tree growth, reduce the storage of C and N in the upper soil, and increase the concentrations of nitrate in soil water. One experiment (291 Guvarp) was established on a recently harvested clear cut. The sample plots were soil scarified by disc trenching and planted with Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.) seedlings. Seedling height was measured at planting, and, two months later, seedling survival and height growth in 2011 was recorded. The other experiment (290 Bala) was located to a Norway spruce stand that was thinned by WTH. The initial registration and sampling comprised stand data and sampling of the upper soil (FH-layer). In addition, suction cups were installed at 50 cm depth for sampling of soil water. The experiments were designed for long-term monitoring, comprising several decades. For most of the variables registered, data did not show any significant differences among means for the plots representing different treatments. Pre-treatment data for individual plots showed acceptable comparability among plots within the blocks, which is a good starting point for detecting future changes caused by the treatments

  1. FY 1998 evaluation/analysis by site of the data collected in the field test project for photovoltaic power generation for public facilities. 4/4; 1998 nendo kokyo shisetsu nadoyo taiyoko hatsuden field test jigyo ni okeru shushu data hyoka kaiseki kaku site betsu. 4/4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    The data items are horizontal insolation intensity, inclined insolation intensity, effective inclined insolation intensity (each unit: kWh/m{sup 2}), average temperature, array power energy, system power energy, system consumption power, load power energy, system supply load, and back flow power energy (each unit: kWh). Besides, the number of interconnected protective movement, disconnection hour (minute), system operating hour (minute), independent operating load, independent supply load (each unit: kWh), equivalent array operating hour, equivalent system operating hour, array/system output coefficient, system utilization rate/power generation rate, INV effective efficiency, and INV load factor. The objects of field tests are government office (joint office building, etc.), school (college, high school, elementary school, etc.), the Shinkansen Kyoto Station, health/welfare facilities (health facilities for the elderly, welfare center, etc.), hospital, industrial experimental station, training facilities (exhibition training facilities, etc.), broadcasting facilities, etc. (NEDO)

  2. FY 1998 evaluation/analysis by site of the data collected in the field test project for photovoltaic power generation for public facilities. 3/4; 1998 nendo kokyo shisetsunadoyo taiyoko hatsuden field test jigyo ni okeru shushu data hyoka kaiseki kaku site betsu. 3/4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    The data items are horizontal insolation intensity, inclined insolation intensity, effective inclined insolation intensity (each unit: kWh/m{sup 2}), average temperature, array electric energy, system electric energy, system consumption power, load electric energy, system supply load, and back flow electric energy (each unit: kWh). Besides, the number of the interconnected protective movement, the disconnection hour (minute), system operating hour (minute), independent operating load/independent supply load (each unit: kWh), equivalent array operating hour, equivalent system operating hour, output coefficient of array/system, system utilization rate/power generation efficiency, INV effective efficiency, and INV load factor. The objects of field tests are cultural facilities (library, science museum, children cultural center, etc.), school (college, high school, elementary school, kindergarten, etc.), health/welfare facilities (welfare center, health facilities, etc.), environment (water purification plant, agricultural park), commercial facilities, plant, hospital, government office (joint office building, etc.), etc. (NEDO)

  3. FY 1999 Evaluation and analysis of the data collected by the field test project for photovoltaic power generation in public facilities. By site (1/3); 1999 nendo kokyo shisetsu nadoyo taiyoko hatsuden field test jigyo ni okeru shushu data hyoka kaiseki. 1/3. Kaku site betsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    Described herein are the results of evaluation and analysis of the data (management nos.701 to 814) collected by the field test project for photovoltaic power generation in a total of 45 facilities, mainly public. Each system is operated for 30 to 31 days every month. A total of 23 items of the data described below are recorded every day, and totaled up, averaged and evaluated for effectiveness at the end of the month: solar radiation on a horizontal, sloped and effective sloped plane, average air temperature, array electric energy, system electric energy, system power consumption, load electric energy, load for supplying power to a network, electric energy of reversed flow, linkage protection actions, linkage parallel off time, system operation time, self-sustaining load, load of voluntary supply, equivalent array operation, equivalent system operation, array output coefficient, system output coefficient, system utilization, system power generation efficiency, INV effective efficiency, and INV load factor. (NEDO)

  4. SITE-94. Radionuclide solubilities for SITE-94

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur, R.; Apted, M. [QuantiSci, Denver, CO (United States)

    1996-12-01

    In this report, solubility constraints are evaluated on radioelement source-term concentrations supporting the SITE-94 performance assessment. Solubility models are based on heterogeneous-equilibrium, mass- and charge-balance constraints incorporated into the EQ3/6 geochemical software package, which is used to calculate the aqueous speciation behavior and solubilities of U, Th, Pu, Np, Am, Ni, Ra, Se, Sn, Sr, Tc and Zr in site groundwaters and near-field solutions. The chemical evolution of the near field is approximated using EQ3/6 in terms of limiting conditions at equilibrium, or steady state, in three closed systems representing fully saturated bentonite, Fe{sup o} corrosion products of the canister, and spent fuel. The calculations consider both low-temperature (15 deg C) and high-temperature (80 deg C) conditions in the near field, and the existence of either reducing or strongly oxidizing conditions in each of the bentonite, canister, and spent-fuel barriers. Heterogeneities in site characteristics are evaluated through consideration of a range of initial groundwaters and their interactions with engineered barriers. Aqueous speciation models for many radioelements are constrained by thermodynamic data that are estimated with varying degrees of accuracy. An important question, however, is how accurate do these models need to be for purposes of estimating source-term concentrations? For example, it is unrealistic to expect a high degree of accuracy in speciation models if such models predict solubilities that are below the analytical detection limit for a given radioelement. From a practical standpoint, such models are irrelevant if calculated solubilities cannot be tested by direct comparison to experimental data. In the absence of models that are both accurate and relevant for conditions of interest, the detection limit could define a pragmatic upper limit on radioelement solubility 56 refs, 25 tabs, 10 figs

  5. Site selection

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1968-01-01

    To help resolve the problem of site selection for the proposed 300 GeV machine, the Council selected "three wise men" (left to right, J H Bannier of the Netherlands, A Chavanne of Switzerland and L K Boggild of Denmark).

  6. Site Restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noynaert, L.; Bruggeman, A.; Cornelissen, R.; Massaut, V.; Rahier, A

    2001-04-01

    The objectives, the programme, and the achievements of the Site Restoration Department of SCK-CEN in 2000 are summarised. Main activities include the decommissioning of the BR3 PWR-reactor as well as other clean-up activities, projects on waste minimisation and activities related to the management of decommissioning projects. The department provides consultancy and services to external organisations.

  7. Site Restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noynaert, L.; Bruggeman, A.; Cornelissen, R.; Massaut, V.; Rahier, A.

    2001-01-01

    The objectives, the programme, and the achievements of the Site Restoration Department of SCK-CEN in 2000 are summarised. Main activities include the decommissioning of the BR3 PWR-reactor as well as other clean-up activities, projects on waste minimisation and activities related to the management of decommissioning projects. The department provides consultancy and services to external organisations

  8. Site calibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez Arranz, Paula; Georgieva Yankova, Ginka

    between the wind speed at the center of the turbine hub and at the met mast. The wind speed at the turbine is measured by a temporary mast placed at the foundation for the turbine. The site and measurement equipment is detailed described in [2]. The possible measurement sector for power performance...

  9. The 50 Constellation Priority Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, S.; Joosten, K.; Eppler, D.; Gruener, J.; Mendell, W.; French, R.; Plescia, J.; Spudis, P.; Wargo, M.; Robinson, M.; hide

    2009-01-01

    The Constellation program (CxP) has developed a list of 50 sites of interest on the Moon which will be targeted by the LRO narrow angle camera. The list has also been provided to the M team to supplement their targeting list. This list does not represent a "site selection" process; rather the goal was to find "representative" sites and terrains to understand the range of possible surface conditions for human lunar exploration to aid engineering design and operational planning. The list compilers leveraged heavily on past site selection work (e.g. Geoscience and a Lunar Base Workshop - 1988, Site Selection Strategy for a Lunar Outpost - 1990, Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS) - 2005). Considerations included scientific, resource utilization, and operational merits, and a desire to span lunar terrain types. The targets have been organized into two "tiers" of 25 sites each to provide a relative priority ranking in the event of mutual interference. A LEAG SAT (special action team) was established to validate and recommend modifications to the list. This SAT was chaired by Dr. Paul Lucey. They provided their final results to CxP in May. Dr. Wendell Mendell will organize an on-going analysis of the data as they come down to ensure data quality and determine if and when a site has sufficient data to be retired from the list. The list was compiled using the best available data, however, it is understood that with the flood of new lunar data, minor modifications or adjustments may be required.

  10. Site Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahedi, Haseebullah

    2016-01-01

    that the construction phase comprises several communities and practices, leading to various uses of the drawings. The results indicated that the craftsmen used drawings to position themselves in the correct location, and that the site managers and contract managers used them as management tools and legal documents...... different practices in the construction phase. The research is based on an ethnographic study of a case in Denmark. The empirical data were collected through direct observations and semi-structured interviews with site managers, contract managers, foremen and craftsmen. Findings revealed....... It is concluded that the drawings and the physical building play a vital role in relation to coordination within and across the various communities that are in play within the construction phas...

  11. SITE-94. Site specific base data for the performance assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geier, J. [ed.] [Clearwater Hardrock Consulting, Monmouth, OR (United States); Tiren, S. [Geosigma AB, Uppsala (Sweden); Dverstorp, B. [Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, Stockholm (Sweden); Glynn, P. [U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States)

    1996-06-01

    This report documents the site specific base data that were available, and the utilization of these data within SITE-94. A brief summary is given of SKB`s preliminary site investigations for the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL), which were the main source of site-specific data for SITE-94, and an overview is given of the field methods and instrumentation for the preliminary investigations. A compilation is given of comments concerning the availability and quality of the data for Aespoe, and specific recommendations are given for future site investigations. It was found that the HRL pre-investigations produced a large quantity of data which were, for the most part, of sufficient quality to be valuable for a performance assessment. However, some problems were encountered regarding documentation, procedural consistency, positional information, and storage of the data from the measurements. 77 refs, 4 tabs.

  12. On-site energy consumption at softwood sawmills in Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan Loeffler; Nathaniel Anderson; Todd A. Morgan; Colin B. Sorenson

    2016-01-01

    Total on-site energy requirements for wood product manufacturing are generally not well understood or publicly available, particularly at subregional scales, such as the state level. This article uses a mail survey of softwood sawmills in Montana to develop a profile of all on-site energy consumption. Energy use is delineated by fuel type on a production basis...

  13. Site Restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noynaert, L.; Bruggeman, A.; Cornelissen, R.; Massaut, V.; Rahier, A.

    2002-01-01

    The objectives, the programme, and the achievements of SCK-CEN's Site Restoration Department for 2001 are described. Main activities include the decommissioning of the BR3 PWR-reactor as well as other clean-up activities, projects on waste minimisation and the management of spent fuel and the flow of dismantled materials and the recycling of materials from decommissioning activities based on the smelting of metallic materials in specialised foundries. The department provides consultancy and services to external organisations and performs R and D on new techniques including processes for the treatment of various waste components including the reprocessing of spent fuel, the treatment of tritium, the treatment of liquid alkali metals into cabonates through oxidation, the treatment of radioactive organic waste and the reconditioning of bituminised waste products

  14. Site Restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noynaert, L.; Bruggeman, A.; Cornelissen, R.; Massaut, V.; Rahier, A

    2002-04-01

    The objectives, the programme, and the achievements of SCK-CEN's Site Restoration Department for 2001 are described. Main activities include the decommissioning of the BR3 PWR-reactor as well as other clean-up activities, projects on waste minimisation and the management of spent fuel and the flow of dismantled materials and the recycling of materials from decommissioning activities based on the smelting of metallic materials in specialised foundries. The department provides consultancy and services to external organisations and performs R and D on new techniques including processes for the treatment of various waste components including the reprocessing of spent fuel, the treatment of tritium, the treatment of liquid alkali metals into cabonates through oxidation, the treatment of radioactive organic waste and the reconditioning of bituminised waste products.

  15. Mochovce site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    In Mochovce site the construction of four units of WWER 440 NPP with V-213 type of reactor is being carried out. The financing of Mochovce units completion was resolved in April 1996. The completion work commenced at the construction site under leadership of SKODA Prague, the general supplier. The completion work on building part and tests of constructional electric distributions and lightning constructors started. The revisions in technological part were finished, and final protocols from revisions are the basis for starting of completion work. The assembly of transport container anchorage,ventilation system in hermetic areas and hermetic coverage of pools for stored spent nuclear fuel is being carried out. The pre-completion tests of instrumentation and control of ventilation systems, individual dosimetric control in medical station, and tests of nuclear programme according to commissioning and assembling work schedule at the equipment for physical protection of the NPP area started. Inspection activities at Mochovce were performed in accordance with inspection plan for 1996. Evaluation of routine inspections was performed by means of quarterly protocols. Main findings from the inspections performed in Mochovce were in the following areas: (a) deficiencies in the knowledge of the respective regulation and conditions from the Resolution of the state regulatory body, concerning selected employees; (b) training of the selected employees; (c) aim of the measures imposes by inspectors is to eliminate deficiencies in preparation of programmes for pre-completion and completion testing. NRA SR assessment activities at Mochovce NPP were focused mainly on approving and inspecting of design modification to approving programmes for pre-completion and completion testing of system s and equipment and on approving quality assurance programmes. The suggestions of international missions, which reviewed Mochovce safety in the years, were taken into consideration in the programme

  16. Dirac, Jordan and quantum fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darrigol, O.

    1985-01-01

    The case of two principal physicists of quantum mechanics is specially chose: Paul Dirac and Pascual Jordan. They gave a signification and an importance very different to the notion of quantum field, and in particular to the quantized matter wave one. Through their formation and motivation differences, such as they are expressed in their writings, this deep difference is tentatively understood [fr

  17. Effects of a Guide Field on the Larmor Electric Field and Upstream Electron Temperature Anisotropy in Collisionless Asymmetric Magnetic Reconnection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ek-In, Surapat; Ruffolo, David [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok (Thailand); Malakit, Kittipat [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Techonology, Thammasat University, Pathum Thani (Thailand); Shay, Michael A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States); Cassak, Paul A., E-mail: kmalakit@gmail.com [Department of Physics and Astronomy, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2017-08-20

    We perform the first study of the properties of the Larmor electric field (LEF) in collisionless asymmetric magnetic reconnection in the presence of an out-of-plane (guide) magnetic field for different sets of representative upstream parameters at Earth’s dayside magnetopause with an ion temperature greater than the electron temperature (the ion-to-electron temperature ratio fixed at 2) using two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. We show that the LEF does persist in the presence of a guide field. We study how the LEF thickness and strength change as a function of guide field and the magnetospheric temperature and reconnecting magnetic field strength. We find that the thickness of the LEF structure decreases, while its magnitude increases when a guide field is added to the reconnecting magnetic field. The added guide field makes the Larmor radius smaller, so the scaling with the magnetospheric ion Larmor radius is similar to that reported for the case without a guide field. Note, however, that the physics causing the LEF is not well understood, so future work in other parameter regimes is needed to fully predict the LEF for arbitrary conditions. We also find that a previously reported upstream electron temperature anisotropy arises in the vicinity of the LEF region both with and without a guide field. We argue that the generation of the anisotropy is linked to the existence of the LEF. The LEF can be used in combination with the electron temperature anisotropy as a signature to effectively identify dayside reconnection sites in observations.

  18. Park Facilities, Boundaries were determined from parcel mapping lines & site specific items, such as shelter locations, were obtained by field GPS observation, Published in 2010, Not Applicable scale, Chippewa County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Park Facilities dataset current as of 2010. Boundaries were determined from parcel mapping lines & site specific items, such as shelter locations, were obtained...

  19. Visual field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perimetry; Tangent screen exam; Automated perimetry exam; Goldmann visual field exam; Humphrey visual field exam ... Confrontation visual field exam. This is a quick and basic check of the visual field. The health care provider ...

  20. Contaminant transport modeling studies of Russian sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsang, Chin-Fu

    1993-01-01

    Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) established mechanisms that promoted cooperation between U.S. and Russian scientists in scientific research as well as environmental technology transfer. Using Russian experience and U.S technology, LBL developed approaches for field investigations, site evaluation, waste disposal, and remediation at Russian contaminated sites. LBL assessed a comprehensive database as well as an actual, large-scale contaminated site to evaluate existing knowledge of and test mathematical models used for the assessment of U.S. contaminated sites

  1. Computational lens for the near field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carney, P. Scott; Franzin, Richard A.; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    2004-01-01

    A method is presented to reconstruct the structure of a scattering object from data acquired with a photon scanning tunneling microscope . The data may be understood to form a Gabor type near-field hologram and are obtained at a distance from the sample where the field is defocused and normally...

  2. Contaminated Sites in Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Sites contaminated by hazardous materials or wastes. These sites are those administered by the Contaminated Sites Section of Iowa DNR. Many are sites which are...

  3. Site investigations: Strategy for rock mechanics site descriptive model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Johan [JA Streamflow AB, Aelvsjoe (Sweden); Christiansson, Rolf [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Hudson, John [Rock Engineering Consultants, Welwyn Garden City (United Kingdom)

    2002-05-01

    As a part of the planning work for the Site Investigations, SKB has developed a Rock Mechanics Site Descriptive Modelling Strategy. Similar strategies are being developed for other disciplines. The objective of the strategy is that it should guide the practical implementation of evaluating site specific data during the Site Investigations. It is also understood that further development may be needed. This methodology enables the crystalline rock mass to be characterised in terms of the quality at different sites, for considering rock engineering constructability, and for providing the input to numerical models and performance assessment calculations. The model describes the initial stresses and the distribution of deformation and strength properties of the intact rock, of fractures and fracture zones, and of the rock mass. The rock mass mechanical properties are estimated by empirical relations and by numerical simulations. The methodology is based on estimation of mechanical properties using both empirical and heroretical/numerical approaches; and estimation of in situ rock stress using judgement and numerical modelling, including the influence of fracture zones. These approaches are initially used separately, and then combined to produce the required characterisation estimates. The methodology was evaluated with a Test Case at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory in Sweden. The quality control aspects are an important feature of the methodology: these include Protocols to ensure the structure and coherence of the procedures used, regular meetings to enhance communication, feedback from internal and external reviewing, plus the recording of an audit trail of the development steps and decisions made. The strategy will be reviewed and, if required, updated as appropriate.

  4. Site investigations: Strategy for rock mechanics site descriptive model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Johan; Christiansson, Rolf; Hudson, John

    2002-05-01

    As a part of the planning work for the Site Investigations, SKB has developed a Rock Mechanics Site Descriptive Modelling Strategy. Similar strategies are being developed for other disciplines. The objective of the strategy is that it should guide the practical implementation of evaluating site specific data during the Site Investigations. It is also understood that further development may be needed. This methodology enables the crystalline rock mass to be characterised in terms of the quality at different sites, for considering rock engineering constructability, and for providing the input to numerical models and performance assessment calculations. The model describes the initial stresses and the distribution of deformation and strength properties of the intact rock, of fractures and fracture zones, and of the rock mass. The rock mass mechanical properties are estimated by empirical relations and by numerical simulations. The methodology is based on estimation of mechanical properties using both empirical and heroretical/numerical approaches; and estimation of in situ rock stress using judgement and numerical modelling, including the influence of fracture zones. These approaches are initially used separately, and then combined to produce the required characterisation estimates. The methodology was evaluated with a Test Case at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory in Sweden. The quality control aspects are an important feature of the methodology: these include Protocols to ensure the structure and coherence of the procedures used, regular meetings to enhance communication, feedback from internal and external reviewing, plus the recording of an audit trail of the development steps and decisions made. The strategy will be reviewed and, if required, updated as appropriate

  5. Report of JLC site study group

    CERN Document Server

    Hasegawa, T; Yamashita, S

    2003-01-01

    This study group selected some good sites for construction of JLC (Electron-Positron Linear Collider) on the basis of investigation of data and field survey. The aims, activity, use of underground of private land, conditions of site, selection of site at present and future, summary and proposal are reported. 9 sites (Hidaka, Kitakami, Murayama, Abukuma, Kitaibaraki, Aichi and Gifu, Takamatsu, Hiroshima and Seburi range) are selected for the construction on the basis of firm ground and 4 sites (Okinawa, Harima, Tsukuba and Mutsuogawara) for development and researches. 9 sites area consists of plutonic rock or old strata of Paleozoic era. Many problems in each site are reported. There are three following proposals; 1) the self-governing communities of the sites have to understand JLC and start to construct it by information, 2) a site evaluation committee consists of specialist of civil engineering, building, social and natural environment and disaster prevention and 3) the vibration test should be carried out ...

  6. Architecture and Development of DCMP Web Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bariakhtar, Irina

    2003-03-01

    The multi-tier implementation of DCMP Web site is discussed. It is based upon newly developed PHP technology. The technology allows for creating dynamic content and scalable solutions for Web site capabilities. There are several aspects as to what type of information is to be on the site. First, it should serve the immediate needs of the researchers in the field, namely, conferences, journals, news, funds, etc. This is currently available on the site, but can be extended and improved if needed. Second, the site will reflect the connection between Condensed matter physics and the technological breakthroughs that drive the economy. Third, the site will carry an educational mission helping educate the general public, and on the other hand, help young people to start their careers in the field. The content of the DCMP Web site is under active development. It depends upon wide involvement of DCMP members.

  7. Ecosystem services provided by a former gravel extraction site in the uk under two contrasting restoration states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip J Blaen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mineral extraction sites restored for nature conservation can provide areas of high quality habitat and enhance local biodiversity, yet the ecosystem services and associated socio-economic benefits delivered by such sites are not well understood. Here we use a combination of primary field data, benefit transfer, and visitor questionnaires to assess ecosystem services provided by a former gravel mining site restored for nature conservation. We quantify the marginal benefits accrued from the site by comparing ecosystem service delivery from the current nature conservation state to delivery under a highly plausible alternative restoration state; namely a public amenity park. Our results suggest restoration for nature conservation is associated with relatively high carbon storage, but that carbon sequestration is offset to some degree by greenhouse gas fluxes from saturated reed bed areas. We demonstrate through a zonal travel-cost method and individual interviews that restoration for nature conservation contributes to local amenity value by providing specialised wildlife viewing opportunities to visitors. Our results highlight the potential ecosystem services associated with mineral sites restored for nature conservation. Notably, this study strengthens the evidence base to support the case for biodiversity-focused restoration of these extraction sites, both to the minerals industry and governmental planners, by suggesting that such restoration strategies may play an important role in contributing to human well-being without impeding economic progress.

  8. Occurrence of select perfluoroalkyl substances at U.S. Air Force aqueous film-forming foam release sites other than fire-training areas: Field-validation of critical fate and transport properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, R Hunter; Long, G Cornell; Porter, Ronald C; Anderson, Janet K

    2016-05-01

    The use of aqueous film-forming foam (AFFF) to extinguish hydrocarbon-based fires is recognized as a significant source of environmental poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs). Although the occurrence of select PFASs in soil and groundwater at former fire-training areas (FTAs) at military installations operable since 1970 has been consistently confirmed, studies reporting the occurrence of PFASs at other AFFF-impacted sites (e.g. emergency response locations, AFFF lagoons, hangar-related AFFF storage tanks and pipelines, and fire station testing and maintenance areas) are largely missing from the literature. Further, studies have mostly focused on a single site (i.e., FTAs at military installations) and, thus, lack a comparison of sites with diverse AFFF release history. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to evaluate select PFAS occurrence at non-FTA sites on active U.S. Air Force installations with historic AFFF use of varying magnitude. Concentrations of fifteen perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA), an important PFOS precursor, were measured from several hundred samples among multiple media (i.e., surface soil, subsurface soil, sediment, surface water, and groundwater) collected from forty AFFF-impacted sites across ten installations between March and September 2014, representing one of the most comprehensive datasets on environmental PFAS occurrence to date. Differences in detection frequencies and observed concentrations due to AFFF release volume are presented along with rigorous data analyses that quantitatively demonstrate phase-dependent (i.e., solid-phase vs aqueous-phase) differences in the chemical signature as a function of carbon chain-length and in situ PFOS (and to a slightly lesser extent PFHxS) formation, presumably due to precursor biotransformation. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Field training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mumford, G.E.; Hadaway, E.H.

    1991-01-01

    Individualized, personal training can be used to increase an employee's awareness of the HSE program. Such training can stimulate personal commitment and provide personal skills that can be utilized for the benefit of the overall HSE effort. But, providing such training within our industry can be a difficult task due to the scheduling, travel arrangements, and cost associated with bringing employees from isolated, remote locations to centrally located training facilities. One method of overcoming these obstacles involves the use of field instructors to provide the training at the many, and varied number of individuals can be reached with minimal disruption to their work scheduling or to their time off. In fact, this type of on-site training is already used by some oil companies and drilling contractors with encouraging results. This paper describes one drilling contractor's experiences with such a training program. The results after eight years how that this program not only can provide and efficient, economical means of employee training, but also can have a direct application to employee motivation regarding a company's HSE effort

  10. Confidence assessment. Site-descriptive modelling SDM-Site Laxemar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-12-15

    The objective of this report is to assess the confidence that can be placed in the Laxemar site descriptive model, based on the information available at the conclusion of the surface-based investigations (SDM-Site Laxemar). In this exploration, an overriding question is whether remaining uncertainties are significant for repository engineering design or long-term safety assessment and could successfully be further reduced by more surface-based investigations or more usefully by explorations underground made during construction of the repository. Procedures for this assessment have been progressively refined during the course of the site descriptive modelling, and applied to all previous versions of the Forsmark and Laxemar site descriptive models. They include assessment of whether all relevant data have been considered and understood, identification of the main uncertainties and their causes, possible alternative models and their handling, and consistency between disciplines. The assessment then forms the basis for an overall confidence statement. The confidence in the Laxemar site descriptive model, based on the data available at the conclusion of the surface based site investigations, has been assessed by exploring: - Confidence in the site characterization data base, - remaining issues and their handling, - handling of alternatives, - consistency between disciplines and - main reasons for confidence and lack of confidence in the model. Generally, the site investigation database is of high quality, as assured by the quality procedures applied. It is judged that the Laxemar site descriptive model has an overall high level of confidence. Because of the relatively robust geological model that describes the site, the overall confidence in the Laxemar Site Descriptive model is judged to be high, even though details of the spatial variability remain unknown. The overall reason for this confidence is the wide spatial distribution of the data and the consistency between

  11. Remedial site evaluation report for the waste area grouping 10 wells associated with the new hydrofracture facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 2: Field activities and well summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    Four hydrofracture sites at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) were used for development, demonstration, and disposal from 1959 to 1984. More than 10 million gal of waste grout mix was disposed of via hydrofracture. Various types of wells were installed to monitor the hydrofracture operations. The primary goal of this remedial investigation was to gather information about the wells in order to recommend the type and best method of final disposition for the wells. Evaluations were performed to determine the integrity of well castings, confirm construction details for each well, evaluate the extent of contamination, assist in planning for future activities, and determine the suitability of the wells for future temporary site monitoring.

  12. Remedial site evaluation report for the waste area grouping 10 wells associated with the new hydrofracture facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 2: Field activities and well summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    Four hydrofracture sites at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) were used for development, demonstration, and disposal from 1959 to 1984. More than 10 million gal of waste grout mix was disposed of via hydrofracture. Various types of wells were installed to monitor the hydrofracture operations. The primary goal of this remedial investigation was to gather information about the wells in order to recommend the type and best method of final disposition for the wells. Evaluations were performed to determine the integrity of well castings, confirm construction details for each well, evaluate the extent of contamination, assist in planning for future activities, and determine the suitability of the wells for future temporary site monitoring

  13. Development of Phenomenological Models of Underground Nuclear Tests on Pahute Mesa, Nevada Test Site - BENHAM and TYBO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawloski, G.A.

    1999-09-21

    Although it is well accepted that underground nuclear explosions modify the in situ geologic media around the explosion point, the details of these changes are neither well understood nor well documented. As part of the engineering and containment process before a nuclear test, the physical environment is characterized to some extent to predict how the explosion will interact with the in situ media. However, a more detailed characterization of the physical environment surrounding an expended site is needed to successfully model radionuclide transport in the groundwater away from the detonation point. It is important to understand how the media have been altered and where the radionuclides are deposited. Once understood, this information on modified geologic media can be incorporated into a phenomenological model that is suitable for input to computer simulations of groundwater flow and radionuclide transport. The primary goals of this study are to (1) identify the modification of the media at a pertinent scale, and (2) provide this information to researchers modeling radionuclide transport in groundwater for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Nevada Operations Office Underground Test Area (UGTA) Project. Results from this study are most applicable at near-field scale (a model domain of about 500 m) and intermediate-field scale (a model domain of about 5 km) for which detailed information can be maximized as it is incorporated in the modeling grids. UGTA collected data on radionuclides in groundwater during recent drilling at the ER-20-5 site, which is near BENHAM and TYBO on Pahute Mesa at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Computer simulations are being performed to better understand radionuclide transport. The objectives of this modeling effort include: evaluating site-specific information from the BENHAM and TYBO tests on Pahute Mesa; augmenting the above data set with generalized containment data; and developing a phenomenological model suitable for input to

  14. Treatability study on the Bear Creek Valley characterization area at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Phase II work plan for S-3 site contaminated groundwater interception--in-field media evaluation and groundwater capture methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-12-01

    A treatability study is being conducted to support implementation:of early actions at the S-3 Site in the Bear Creek Valley (BCV) Characterization Area (CA). The objectives of the early actions Will be (1) to reduce concentrations of uranium and nitrate in Bear Creek and (2) to reduce contaminants of concern in North Tributary (NT)-1 and NT-2. The BCV CA is located within the US DOE's Oak Ridge Reservation in Tennessee. Hazardous and radioactive materials from the Y-12 Plant operations were, disposed of at various sites within BCV. Groundwater and surface water in the BCV CA have been contaminated. The remedial investigation (RI) for the BCV CA identified that the greatest mass flux of contaminants from the various sources migrates via groundwater at the source and discharges to surface water in Bear Creek and its tributaries. In the RI, the combined discharge from the S-3 Site and the Boneyard/Burnyard (BYBY) was identified as accounting for 75% of the cancer risk and more than 80% of the chemical toxicity to Potential downgradient human receptors. In addition, the S-3 Site has caused degradation of surface water quality in upper Bear Creek and two of its tributaries. The BCV CA treatability study focuses on capture and treatment of shallow groundwater before it discharges to tributary waters. The objectives Of treatment of this groundwater are (1) to reduce the concentrations of uranium and nitrate in NT-1 and Bear Creek such that the concentrations of these chemicals in surface water and groundwater are reduced to acceptable levels, (2) to reduce the concentrations of nitrate and metals, and reduce the overall concentration of total dissolved solids; and (3) to hydraulically contain the plume of contaminated, groundwater that is moving in bedrock in the Nolichucky Shale such that the rate of contaminant discharge will be reduced in the long term. The objective of Phase II is to produce conceptual designs for treatment system configurations

  15. Variable anelastic attenuation and site effect in estimating source parameters of various major earthquakes including M w 7.8 Nepal and M w 7.5 Hindu kush earthquake by using far-field strong-motion data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Naresh; Kumar, Parveen; Chauhan, Vishal; Hazarika, Devajit

    2017-10-01

    Strong-motion records of recent Gorkha Nepal earthquake ( M w 7.8), its strong aftershocks and seismic events of Hindu kush region have been analysed for estimation of source parameters. The M w 7.8 Gorkha Nepal earthquake of 25 April 2015 and its six aftershocks of magnitude range 5.3-7.3 are recorded at Multi-Parametric Geophysical Observatory, Ghuttu, Garhwal Himalaya (India) >600 km west from the epicentre of main shock of Gorkha earthquake. The acceleration data of eight earthquakes occurred in the Hindu kush region also recorded at this observatory which is located >1000 km east from the epicentre of M w 7.5 Hindu kush earthquake on 26 October 2015. The shear wave spectra of acceleration record are corrected for the possible effects of anelastic attenuation at both source and recording site as well as for site amplification. The strong-motion data of six local earthquakes are used to estimate the site amplification and the shear wave quality factor ( Q β) at recording site. The frequency-dependent Q β( f) = 124 f 0.98 is computed at Ghuttu station by using inversion technique. The corrected spectrum is compared with theoretical spectrum obtained from Brune's circular model for the horizontal components using grid search algorithm. Computed seismic moment, stress drop and source radius of the earthquakes used in this work range 8.20 × 1016-5.72 × 1020 Nm, 7.1-50.6 bars and 3.55-36.70 km, respectively. The results match with the available values obtained by other agencies.

  16. FIELD EXP EARTH PARABOLA CALIBRATED RDR SPECTRUM V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — PARABOLA data were obtained at three GRSFE modeling sites in the Lunar Crater Volcanic Field. The playa site, the cobble site, and the mantled flow site. Each site...

  17. Phase Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Toshiyuki

    The term phase field has recently become known across many fields of materials science. The meaning of phase field is the spatial and temporal order parameter field defined in a continuum-diffused interface model. By using the phase field order parameters, many types of complex microstructure changes observed in materials science are described effectively. This methodology has been referred to as the phase field method, phase field simulation, phase field modeling, phase field approach, etc. In this chapter, the basic concept and theoretical background for the phase field approach is explained in Sects. 21.1 and 21.2. The overview of recent applications of the phase field method is demonstrated in Sects. 21.3 to 21.6.

  18. The rice fields around the estuaries of the Tejo and Sado are a critical stopover area for the globally near-threatened Black-tailed Godwit Limosa l. limosa : Site description, international importance and conservation proposals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lourenço, Pedro M.; Groen, Niko; Hooijmeijer, Jos C.E.W.; Piersma, Theunis

    2010-01-01

    Rice fields are a globally important habitat for waterbirds. Portugal is one of the main rice producers in Europe, but little is known about how these rizicultures are used by the avifauna. The continental Black-tailed Godwit Limosa l. limosa is likely the most important avian population using

  19. Site 300 Bat Monitoring Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drennan, Joe [Garcia and Associates, San Francisco, CA (United States); Tortosa, Justin [Garcia and Associates, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2016-07-18

    From June 15 to 18, 2015, GANDA biologist Graham Neale assisted in programming and fieldtesting of the bat monitoring equipment. The equipment was deployed in the field on a meteorological (MET) tower within Site 300 on June 18, 2015.

  20. An Assessment of Current Concepts for Hydrogeological Site Characterization, and Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Y.; Barros, F.

    2007-05-01

    Characterization of the geological and hydrogeological conditions of contaminated sites is a critical element of risk management. Characterization includes data acquisition and interpretation that intends to provide the analytical tools needed for decision making related to transport of contaminants and for remediation. Despite many years of experience, site characterization is still not as well understood and regulated as it should be. The chasm between some of the newer concepts developed by researchers on the one hand, and the technology used in the field by service providers on the other, has never been wider than it is today. Consequently, questions that should be addressed using well-documented rational tools may continue to be addressed based on intuition and experience. Instead of coming up with defensible action plans and implementing them rapidly, such action plans are often a source of contention and end up in the courts. This paper evaluates concepts often used in the practice of hydrogeological site characterization, and tries to distinguish between myth and reality. It explores concepts such as: 1. Accurate descriptions of geological and hydrogeological conditions are attainable; 2. Sound planning and action plans in response to accidents require a large amount of data; 3. Investing in site characterization is a sound investment; 4. Experience gained in decontamination and decommissioning in the field is a sound basis for planning future efforts; 5. If you do not find the contaminants, they do not exist; 6. Numerical models for flow and transport processes in the subsurface are beneficial; 7. Current regulations in the area of hydrogeology are helpful. These concepts, while often invoked in applications, are often wrong and misleading or applied incorrectly, and reflect the many ambiguities prevailing in this area. This paper explores the issues raised above in detail. It also presents the elements of a consistent approach for site characterization

  1. Naturality in conformal field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, G.; Seiberg, N.

    1989-01-01

    We discuss constraints on the operator product coefficients in diagonal and nondiagonal rational conformal field theories. Nondiagonal modular invariants always arise from automorphisms of the fusion rule algebra or from extensions of the chiral algebra. Moreover, when the chiral algebra has been maximally extended a strong form of the naturality principle of field theory can be proven for rational conformal field theory: operator product coefficients vanish if and only if the corresponding fusion rules vanish; that is, if and only if the vanishing can be understood in terms of a symmetry. We illustrate these ideas with several examples. We also generalize our ideas about rational conformal field theories to a larger class of theories: 'quasi-rational conformal field theories' and we explore some of their properties. (orig.)

  2. Application of Near-Surface Remote Sensing and computer algorithms in evaluating impacts of agroecosystem management on Zea mays (corn) phenological development in the Platte River - High Plains Aquifer Long Term Agroecosystem Research Network field sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okalebo, J. A.; Das Choudhury, S.; Awada, T.; Suyker, A.; LeBauer, D.; Newcomb, M.; Ward, R.

    2017-12-01

    The Long-term Agroecosystem Research (LTAR) network is a USDA-ARS effort that focuses on conducting research that addresses current and emerging issues in agriculture related to sustainability and profitability of agroecosystems in the face of climate change and population growth. There are 18 sites across the USA covering key agricultural production regions. In Nebraska, a partnership between the University of Nebraska - Lincoln and ARD/USDA resulted in the establishment of the Platte River - High Plains Aquifer LTAR site in 2014. The site conducts research to sustain multiple ecosystem services focusing specifically on Nebraska's main agronomic production agroecosystems that comprise of abundant corn, soybeans, managed grasslands and beef production. As part of the national LTAR network, PR-HPA participates and contributes near-surface remotely sensed imagery of corn, soybean and grassland canopy phenology to the PhenoCam Network through high-resolution digital cameras. This poster highlights the application, advantages and usefulness of near-surface remotely sensed imagery in agroecosystem studies and management. It demonstrates how both Infrared and Red-Green-Blue imagery may be applied to monitor phenological events as well as crop abiotic stresses. Computer-based algorithms and analytic techniques proved very instrumental in revealing crop phenological changes such as green-up and tasseling in corn. This poster also reports the suitability and applicability of corn-derived computer based algorithms for evaluating phenological development of sorghum since both crops have similarities in their phenology; with sorghum panicles being similar to corn tassels. This later assessment was carried out using a sorghum dataset obtained from the Transportation Energy Resources from Renewable Agriculture Phenotyping Reference Platform project, Maricopa Agricultural Center, Arizona.

  3. SNL-NUMO collaborative : development of a deterministic site characterization tool using multi-model ranking and inference.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grace, Matthew; Lowry, Thomas Stephen; Arnold, Bill Walter; James, Scott Carlton; Gray, Genetha Anne; Ahlmann, Michael

    2008-08-01

    Uncertainty in site characterization arises from a lack of data and knowledge about a site and includes uncertainty in the boundary conditions, uncertainty in the characteristics, location, and behavior of major features within an investigation area (e.g., major faults as barriers or conduits), uncertainty in the geologic structure, as well as differences in numerical implementation (e.g., 2-D versus 3-D, finite difference versus finite element, grid resolution, deterministic versus stochastic, etc.). Since the true condition at a site can never be known, selection of the best conceptual model is very difficult. In addition, limiting the understanding to a single conceptualization too early in the process, or before data can support that conceptualization, may lead to confidence in a characterization that is unwarranted as well as to data collection efforts and field investigations that are misdirected and/or redundant. Using a series of numerical modeling experiments, this project examined the application and use of information criteria within the site characterization process. The numerical experiments are based on models of varying complexity that were developed to represent one of two synthetically developed groundwater sites; (1) a fully hypothetical site that represented a complex, multi-layer, multi-faulted site, and (2) a site that was based on the Horonobe site in northern Japan. Each of the synthetic sites were modeled in detail to provide increasingly informative 'field' data over successive iterations to the representing numerical models. The representing numerical models were calibrated to the synthetic site data and then ranked and compared using several different information criteria approaches. Results show, that for the early phases of site characterization, low-parameterized models ranked highest while more complex models generally ranked lowest. In addition, predictive capabilities were also better with the low-parameterized models. For

  4. Widespread Positive Selection in Synonymous Sites of Mammalian Genes

    OpenAIRE

    Resch, Alissa M.; Carmel, Liran; Mariño-Ramírez, Leonardo; Ogurtsov, Aleksey Y.; Shabalina, Svetlana A.; Rogozin, Igor B.; Koonin, Eugene V.

    2007-01-01

    Evolution of protein sequences is largely governed by purifying selection, with a small fraction of proteins evolving under positive selection. The evolution at synonymous positions in protein-coding genes is not nearly as well understood, with the extent and types of selection remaining, largely, unclear. A statistical test to identify purifying and positive selection at synonymous sites in protein-coding genes was developed. The method compares the rate of evolution at synonymous sites (Ks)...

  5. Cleanup Verification Package for the 300 VTS Waste Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. W. Clark and T. H. Mitchell

    2006-03-13

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 300 Area Vitrification Test Site, also known as the 300 VTS site. The site was used by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory as a field demonstration site for in situ vitrification of soils containing simulated waste.

  6. Raw data from orientation studies in crystalline rock areas of the southeastern United States. [Maps, tables of field data and analytical data for sections of North and South Carolina and Georgia, previously reported sites of uranium mineralization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, V.

    1976-03-01

    Raw data are presented on orientation studies conducted in crystalline rock areas of the Southeast which were chosen because of published references to uranium mineralization. Preliminary data for four orientation study areas are included. These areas are Lamar County, Georgia; Oconee County, South Carolina; Brush Creek, North Carolina; and North Harper, North Carolina. Sample locality maps, tables of field data, and tables of analytical data are included for each study area. (JGB)

  7. Quality assurance during site construction. Pt. 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, N.

    1980-01-01

    Scope of 'Site Construction concerning Electrical Equipment' (Installation, erection, commissioning, operation): tasks and organization of Siemens-Field Services Division; organization on site; receiving, incoming inspection and storage of material; installation, erection; (drawings, instructions, documents / execution of installation / personnel qualification). Non conformance and corrective actions; quality records; internal audits. (orig.)

  8. Ocean Disposal Site Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is responsible for managing all designated ocean disposal sites. Surveys are conducted to identify appropriate locations for ocean disposal sites and to monitor the impacts of regulated dumping at the disposal sites.

  9. Promoting Your Web Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raeder, Aggi

    1997-01-01

    Discussion of ways to promote sites on the World Wide Web focuses on how search engines work and how they retrieve and identify sites. Appropriate Web links for submitting new sites and for Internet marketing are included. (LRW)

  10. Sensitized charge carrier injection into organic crystals studied by isotope effects in weak magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bube, W.; Michel-Beyerle, M.E.; Haberkorn, R.; Steffens, E.

    1977-01-01

    The magnetic field (H approximately 50 Oe) dependence of the rhodamine sensitized triplet exciton density in anthracene crystals is influenced by isotopic substitution. This confirms the hyperfine interaction as mechanism explaining the change of the spin multiplicity in the initially formed singlet state of the radical pair. The isotope effect occurs in the sensitizing dye ( 14 N/ 15 N) rather than at the molecular site of the injected charge within the crystal. This can be understood in terms of the high hopping frequency of the charge carriers as compared to the time constant of the hyperfine induced singlet-triplet transition. Since the dye molecules adsorb in an oriented fashion, the angular dependence of the magnetic field modulation of the triplet exciton density can be interpreted without assuming any additional interactions. (Auth.)

  11. Hanford Site Development Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinne, C.A.; Curry, R.H.; Hagan, J.W.; Seiler, S.W.; Sommer, D.J. (Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (USA)); Yancey, E.F. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA))

    1990-01-01

    The Hanford Site Development Plan (Site Development Plan) is intended to guide the short- and long-range development and use of the Hanford Site. All acquisition, development, and permanent facility use at the Hanford Site will conform to the approved plan. The Site Development Plan also serves as the base document for all subsequent studies that involve use of facilities at the Site. This revision is an update of a previous plan. The executive summary presents the highlights of the five major topics covered in the Site Development Plan: general site information, existing conditions, planning analysis, Master Plan, and Five-Year Plan. 56 refs., 67 figs., 31 tabs.

  12. Hanford Site Development Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinne, C.A.; Curry, R.H.; Hagan, J.W.; Seiler, S.W.; Sommer, D.J.; Yancey, E.F.

    1990-01-01

    The Hanford Site Development Plan (Site Development Plan) is intended to guide the short- and long-range development and use of the Hanford Site. All acquisition, development, and permanent facility use at the Hanford Site will conform to the approved plan. The Site Development Plan also serves as the base document for all subsequent studies that involve use of facilities at the Site. This revision is an update of a previous plan. The executive summary presents the highlights of the five major topics covered in the Site Development Plan: general site information, existing conditions, planning analysis, Master Plan, and Five-Year Plan. 56 refs., 67 figs., 31 tabs

  13. Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site, Blind Grid Scoring Record No. 898

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Burch, William; Fling, Rick; McClung, Christina; Lombardo, Leonardo; McDonnell, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    ...) utilizing the APG Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Blind Grid Field. This Scoring Record was coordinated by William Burch and the Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Scoring Committee...

  14. Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site, Blind Grid Scoring Record No. 896

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Burch, William; Fling, Rick; McClung, Christina

    2008-01-01

    ...) utilizing the APG Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Blind Grid Field. This Scoring Record was coordinated by William Burch and the Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Scoring Committee...

  15. Report on surface geology and groundwater investigations of Mortons and Green Valley Well Fields. Final technical report, November 1980-May 1982. [Proposed WyCoalGas Project, Converse County, Wyoming; site evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-01-01

    The general region of investigation of this report is in the southern part of the Powder River Basin near the Town of Douglas, Wyoming. Two specific areas within this region were investigated to determine the groundwater potential with drilling and testing programs during the years 1973 to 1975. One area of investigation is located approximately 12 miles west of Douglas in T32 and 33N, R73 and 74W, and is known as the Green Valley Well Field. This area is situated in the foothills of the north end of the Laramie Range and encompasses approximately 25 square miles. In this area the Madison Formation limestone and the Flathead Formation sandstone are the aquifers of interest for groundwater production. The second area is located approximately 13 miles north of Douglas in T34 and 35N, R70 and 71W, and is known as the Mortons Well Field. This area encompasses about 30 square miles. In this area, the Lance Formation and Fox Hills Formation sandstones are the aquifers of interest. Contained within the body of this report are two geologic studies prepared by consulting geologists, Dr. Peter Huntoon and Henry Richter. These studies define the pertinent structural and groundwater geologic features in and in the vicinities of the Mortons and Green Valley Well Fields. A relatively complex structural geology was encountered in the Green Valley area. The study of the Mortons area suggests that the geology of this area is relatively uniform. Inventories of the water users in the vicinities of the two study areas are included at the back of this report in Appendix B. These inventories are comprised of water appropriations as recognized by the Wyoming State Engineer's Office. Both groundwater and surface water appropriations are inventoried within the Green Valley study area. Only groundwater appropriations are inventoried within the Mortons study area.

  16. Carbon Tetrachloride Flow and Transport in the Subsurface of the 216-Z-18 Crib and 216-Z-1A Tile Field at the Hanford Site: Multifluid Flow Simulations and Conceptual Model Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oostrom, Mart; Rockhold, Mark L.; Thorne, Paul D.; Last, George V.; Truex, Michael J.

    2006-10-31

    Carbon tetrachloride (CT) was discharged to the 216-Z-9, Z-1A, and Z-18 waste sites that are included in the 200-PW-1 Operable Unit in Hanford 200 West Area. Fluor Hanford, Inc. is conducting a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) for the 200-PW-1 Operable Unit. As part of this overall effort, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was contracted to improve the conceptual model of how CT is distributed in the Hanford 200 West Area subsurface through use of numerical flow and transport modeling. This work supports the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) efforts to characterize the nature and distribution of CT in the 200 West Area and subsequently select an appropriate final remedy.

  17. Superfund Site Information - Site Sampling Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This asset includes Superfund site-specific sampling information including location of samples, types of samples, and analytical chemistry characteristics of...

  18. SITE COMPREHENSIVE LISTING (CERCLIS) (Superfund) - NPL Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — National Priorities List (NPL) Sites - The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Information System (CERCLIS) (Superfund) Public Access...

  19. Thermal Site Descriptive Model. A strategy for the model development during site investigations. Version 1.0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundberg, Jan

    2003-04-01

    Site investigations are in progress for the siting of a deep repository for spent nuclear fuel. As part of the planning work, strategies are developed for site descriptive modelling regarding different disciplines, amongst them the thermal conditions. The objective of the strategy for a thermal site descriptive model is to guide the practical implementation of evaluating site specific data during the site investigations. It is understood that further development may be needed. The model describes the thermal properties and other thermal parameters of intact rock, fractures and fracture zones, and of the rock mass. The methodology is based on estimation of thermal properties of intact rock and discontinuities, using both empirical and theoretical/numerical approaches, and estimation of thermal processes using mathematical modelling. The methodology will be used and evaluated for the thermal site descriptive modelling at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory

  20. Site selection: Past and present

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tilford, N.R.

    1994-01-01

    Site selection has been going on since the earliest times. The process has evolved through the Industrial Revolution to the present period of exploding population and environmental awareness. Now the work must be done both with increasing sophistication and greater transparency. Modern techniques for site selection have been developed during the last two decades or so, utilizing a teachable body of knowledge and a growing literature. Many firms and individuals have contributed to this growing field. The driving force has been the need for such a process in siting and licensing of critical facilities such as nuclear power plants. A list of crucial, documented steps for identifying social impacts and acceptability are provided. A recent innovation is the self-selection method developed by government. The Superconducting Supercollider serves as an example of this approach. Geological or geologically dependent factors often dominate the process. The role as engineering and environmental geoscientists is to provide responsible leadership, consultation, and communication to the effort

  1. Siting of geological disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Radioactive waste is generated from the production of nuclear energy and from the use of radioactive materials in industrial applications, research and medicine. The importance of safe management of radioactive waste for the protection of human health and the environment has long been recognized and considerable experience has been gained in this field. The Radioactive Waste Safety Standards (RADWASS) programme is the IAEA's contribution to establishing and promoting the basic safety philosophy for radioactive waste management and the steps necessary to ensure its implementation. This Safety Guide defines the process to be used and guidelines to be considered in selecting sites for deep geological disposal of radioactive wastes. It reflects the collective experience of eleven Member States having programmes to dispose of spent fuel, high level and long lived radioactive waste. In addition to the technical factors important to site performance, the Safety Guide also addresses the social, economic and environmental factors to be considered in site selection. 3 refs

  2. Magnetic Fields

    OpenAIRE

    Schöller, Markus; Hubrig, Swetlana

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter, we give a brief introduction into the use of the Zeeman effect in astronomy and the general detection of magnetic fields in stars, concentrating on the use of FORS2 for longitudinal magnetic field measurements.

  3. Site development and demands on infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieke, K.F.

    1976-01-01

    All sub-fields are examined which form the infrastructure, the infrastructure being indispensable for the site development of a nuclear power plant. The main emphasis is put on the technical infrastructure, but the social infrastructure is dealt with, too. The most important sub-fields are: traffic connections, energy supply, external communications, foundation, building mearures. (UA) [de

  4. Sellafield Site (including Drigg) emergency scheme manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-02-01

    This Scheme defines the organisation and procedures available should there be an accident at the Sellafield Site which results in, or may result in, the release of radioactive material, or the generation of a high radiation field, which might present a hazard to employees and/or the general public. Several categories of emergencies on the Sellafield Site are mentioned; a building emergency which is confined to one building, a Site emergency standby when the effects of a building emergency go outside that building, a Site emergency alert (District Emergency Standby) when a release of activity affects Site operations and could have serious Site effects and a District Emergency Alert when a radioactivity release may interfere with the normal activity of the General Public. A Drigg Emergency Standby situation would operate similarly at the Drigg Site. The detailed arrangements and responsibilities of appointed personnel are set out in this manual. (UK)

  5. Site specific information in site selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aeikaes, T.; Hautojaervi, A.

    1998-01-01

    The programme for the siting of a deep repository for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel was started already in 1983 and is carried out today by Posiva Oy which continues the work started by Teollisuuden Voima Oy. The programme aims at site selection by the end of the year 2000. The programme has progressed in successive interim stages with defined goals. After an early phase for site identification, five sites were selected in 1987 for preliminary site characterisation. Three of these were selected and judged to be best suited for the more detailed characterisation in 1992. An additional new site was included into the programme based on a separate feasibility study in the beginning of 1997. Since the year 1983 several safety assessments together with technical plans of the facility have been completed. When approaching the site selection the needs for more detailed consideration of the site specific properties in the safety assessment have been increased. The Finnish regulator STUK has published a proposal for general safety requirements for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel in Finland. This set of requirements has been projected to be used in conjunction of the decision making by the end 2000. Based on the site evaluation all sites can provide a stable environment and there is evidence that the requirements for the longevity of the canister can be fulfilled at each site. In this manner the four candidate sites do not differ too much from each other. The main difference between the sites is in the salinity of the deep groundwater. The significance of differences in the salinity for the long-term safety cannot be defined yet. The differences may contribute to the discussion of the longevity of the bentonite buffer and also to the modelling of the groundwater flow and transport. The use of the geosphere as a transport barrier is basically culminated on the questions about sparse but fast flow routes and 'how bad channeling can be'. To answer these questions

  6. Double tracks test site characterization report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    This report presents the results of site characterization activities performed at the Double Tracks Test Site, located on Range 71 North, of the Nellis Air Force Range (NAFR) in southern Nevada. Site characterization activities included reviewing historical data from the Double Tracks experiment, previous site investigation efforts, and recent site characterization data. The most recent site characterization activities were conducted in support of an interim corrective action to remediate the Double Tracks Test Site to an acceptable risk to human health and the environment. Site characterization was performed using a phased approach. First, previously collected data and historical records sere compiled and reviewed. Generalized scopes of work were then prepared to fill known data gaps. Field activities were conducted and the collected data were then reviewed to determine whether data gaps were filled and whether other areas needed to be investigated. Additional field efforts were then conducted, as required, to adequately characterize the site. Characterization of the Double Tracks Test Site was conducted in accordance with the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER).

  7. CTBT on-site inspections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucca, J. J.

    2014-05-01

    On-site inspection (OSI) is a critical part of the verification regime for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). The OSI verification regime provides for international inspectors to make a suite of measurements and observations on site at the location of an event of interest. The other critical component of the verification regime is the International Monitoring System (IMS), which is a globally distributed network of monitoring stations. The IMS along with technical monitoring data from CTBT member countries, as appropriate, will be used to trigger an OSI. After the decision is made to carry out an OSI, it is important for the inspectors to deploy to the field site rapidly to be able to detect short-lived phenomena such as the aftershocks that may be observable after an underground nuclear explosion. The inspectors will be on site from weeks to months and will be working with many tens of tons of equipment. Parts of the OSI regime will be tested in a field exercise in the country of Jordan late in 2014. The build-up of the OSI regime has been proceeding steadily since the CTBT was signed in 1996 and is on track to becoming a deterrent to someone considering conducting a nuclear explosion in violation of the Treaty.

  8. CTBT on-site inspections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zucca, J. J.

    2014-01-01

    On-site inspection (OSI) is a critical part of the verification regime for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). The OSI verification regime provides for international inspectors to make a suite of measurements and observations on site at the location of an event of interest. The other critical component of the verification regime is the International Monitoring System (IMS), which is a globally distributed network of monitoring stations. The IMS along with technical monitoring data from CTBT member countries, as appropriate, will be used to trigger an OSI. After the decision is made to carry out an OSI, it is important for the inspectors to deploy to the field site rapidly to be able to detect short-lived phenomena such as the aftershocks that may be observable after an underground nuclear explosion. The inspectors will be on site from weeks to months and will be working with many tens of tons of equipment. Parts of the OSI regime will be tested in a field exercise in the country of Jordan late in 2014. The build-up of the OSI regime has been proceeding steadily since the CTBT was signed in 1996 and is on track to becoming a deterrent to someone considering conducting a nuclear explosion in violation of the Treaty

  9. Region 9 NPL Sites (Superfund Sites 2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    NPL site POINT locations for the US EPA Region 9. NPL (National Priorities List) sites are hazardous waste sites that are eligible for extensive long-term cleanup under the Superfund program. Eligibility is determined by a scoring method called Hazard Ranking System. Sites with high scores are listed on the NPL. The majority of the locations are derived from polygon centroids of digitized site boundaries. The remaining locations were generated from address geocoding and digitizing. Area covered by this data set include Arizona, California, Nevada, Hawaii, Guam, American Samoa, Northern Marianas and Trust Territories. Attributes include NPL status codes, NPL industry type codes and environmental indicators. Related table, NPL_Contaminants contains information about contaminated media types and chemicals. This is a one-to-many relate and can be related to the feature class using the relationship classes under the Feature Data Set ENVIRO_CONTAMINANT.

  10. Statistical and Economic Techniques for Site-specific Nematode Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zheng; Griffin, Terry; Kirkpatrick, Terrence L

    2014-03-01

    Recent advances in precision agriculture technologies and spatial statistics allow realistic, site-specific estimation of nematode damage to field crops and provide a platform for the site-specific delivery of nematicides within individual fields. This paper reviews the spatial statistical techniques that model correlations among neighboring observations and develop a spatial economic analysis to determine the potential of site-specific nematicide application. The spatial econometric methodology applied in the context of site-specific crop yield response contributes to closing the gap between data analysis and realistic site-specific nematicide recommendations and helps to provide a practical method of site-specifically controlling nematodes.

  11. Statistical and Economic Techniques for Site-specific Nematode Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zheng; Griffin, Terry; Kirkpatrick, Terrence L.

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in precision agriculture technologies and spatial statistics allow realistic, site-specific estimation of nematode damage to field crops and provide a platform for the site-specific delivery of nematicides within individual fields. This paper reviews the spatial statistical techniques that model correlations among neighboring observations and develop a spatial economic analysis to determine the potential of site-specific nematicide application. The spatial econometric methodology applied in the context of site-specific crop yield response contributes to closing the gap between data analysis and realistic site-specific nematicide recommendations and helps to provide a practical method of site-specifically controlling nematodes. PMID:24643451

  12. Field transplantation of the freshwater bivalve Corbicula fluminea along a polymetallic contamination gradient (River Lot, France): 1. Geochemical characteristics of the sampling sites and cadmium and zinc bioccumulation kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andres, S.; Baudrimont, M.; Lapaquellerie, Y.; Ribeyre, F.; Maillet, N.; Latouche, C.; Boudou, A.

    1999-11-01

    Specimens of the Asiatic clam Corbicula fluminea were transplanted from a clean lacustrine site to four stations along a polymetallic gradient in the river Lot (France), downstream from an old Zn ore treatment facility. The bivalves were held in benthic cages for a 5-month exposure period, April to September 1996; mollusk growth and metal bioaccumulation kinetics (Cd, Zn) were followed by subsampling the cages at t = 0, 21, 49, 85, 120, and 150 d. Rates of Cd bioaccumulation in the whole soft bodies and in individual organs were greater at the upstream stations located close to the pollution source, but there was no direct proportionality between Cd in the bivalves and in the unfiltered or filtered river water samples. Unlike the case for Cd, rates of Zn bioaccumulation did not reflect the contamination gradient. Marked growth differences were measured among the four stations, reflecting both nutritional differences and changes in the degree of metal contamination; these growth differences produced markedly different trends when metal bioaccumulation was expressed in terms of burdens rather than concentrations.

  13. Nevada National Security Site Environmental Report 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wills, C.

    2014-09-09

    This report was prepared to meet the information needs of the public and the requirements and guidelines of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for annual site environmental reports. It was prepared by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) (formerly designated as the Nevada Site Office [NNSA/NSO]). The new field office designation occurred in March 2013. Published reports cited in this 2013 report, therefore, may bear the name or authorship of NNSA/NSO. This and previous years’ reports, called Annual Site Environmental Reports (ASERs), Nevada Test Site Environmental Reports (NTSERs), and, beginning in 2010, Nevada National Security Site Environmental Reports (NNSSERs), are posted on the NNSA/NFO website at http://www.nv.energy.gov/library/publications/aser.aspx.

  14. lightsources.org: An Internet Site for Light SourceCommunication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, Art

    2004-10-04

    Research at the world's accelerator- (storage-ring and linac) based light sources is one of the most dynamic and rapidly growing fields of science. It frequently results in direct benefits to society, thereby demonstrating the value of the research with very concrete examples, but this is not widely understood or appreciated outside of the immediate user community. Our growing group of light source communicators from facilities in Europe, Asia, and the Americas, inspired by the Interactions.org Web site created by high-energy (elementary-particle)physics communicators, concluded that a light source community Web site (lightsources.org) would be the best tool for establishing effective collaboration between the communications offices of the world's light sources and to maximize the impact of our efforts. We envision lightsources.org to serve as a one-stop-shopping site for information about all aspects of light sources and the research they make possible. Audiences to be served include science communicators, the press, policymakers, the light source community, the wider scientific community, the science-interested public, and students and educators. Our proposal has been sent to the world's light source facility directors by J. Murray Gibson (APS) and William G. Stirling (ESRF). As a result,light sources.org is now being supported by a growing list of facilities from Europe, North America, and Asia. We hope to launch lightsources.org before the end of 2004.

  15. Methodology of site protection studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farges, L.

    1980-01-01

    Preliminary studies preceding building of a nuclear facility aim at assessing the choice of a site and establishing operating and control procedures. These studies are of two types. Studies on the impact of environment on the nuclear facility to be constructed form one type and studies on the impact of nuclear facilities on the environment form the second type. A methodology giving a framework to studies of second type is presented. These studies are undertaken to choose suitable sites for nuclear facilities. After a preliminary selection of a site based on the first estimate, a detailed site study is undertaken. The procedure for this consists of five successive phases, namely, (1) an inquiry assessing the initial state of the site, (2) an initial synthesis of accumulated information for assessing the health and safety consequences of releases, (3) laboratory and field studies simulating the movement of waste products for a quantitative assessment of effects, (4) final synthesis for laying down the release limits and radiological control methods, and (5) conclusions based on comparing the data of final synthesis to the limits prescribed by regulations. These five phases are outlined. Role of periodic reassessments after the facility is in operation for same time is explained. (M.G.B.)

  16. Charm production and the confining force field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, B.; Bengtsson, H.-U.; Gustafson, G.

    1983-03-01

    We show that charm production at SPS energies can be understood simply from O(α 2 sub (s)) QCD processes when combined with fragmentation of the colour fields stretched by the final state partons. The tension of the confining force field responsible for particle production is found to pull the charmed particles away from the reaction centre, giving rise to a harder x sub (F)-spectrum than would be expected from the bare QCD matrix elements. (Authors)

  17. Magnetic properties of lithium rare-earth fluorides: Ferromagnetism in LiErF4 and LiHoF4 and crystal-field parameters at the rare-earth and Li sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, P. E.; Johansson, Torben; Nevald, Rolf

    1975-01-01

    was observed, but extrapolation indicates that below 0.5 K it will be ferromagnetic with the magnetic moments in the crytalline ab plane. From the susceptibilities the crystal-field parameters Bnm with (n, m)=(2, 0), (4, 0), (4, 4), (6, 0), (6, 4) have been extracted giving for Er3+ in LiErF4: 430., -985......Single crystals of LiErF4 and LiHoF4 have been grown and their magnetic properties measured from 1.3 K to 300 K. LiHoF4 turned out to be a nearly ideal Ising ferromagnet with TC=1.30±0.05 K and a saturation magnetization along the crystalline c axis of (6.98±0.02)μB. In LiErF4 no ordering......., 1185., -5., 740.+i135. (cm-1) and for Ho3+ in LiHoF4: 470., -825., 1050., -10., 760.+i150 (cm-1). The exchange constants were found to be small compared to the dipole interactions. Furthermore the 7Li NMR spectra have been obtained in these materials as well as in LiTbF4 thereby determining the second...

  18. Renormalization group equation for composite fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigoryan, R.P.; Tyutin, L.V.

    1977-01-01

    The renormalization group equation for the generating functional of Green's functions is derived in the theory, includign composite fields of the type PHI 2 (PHI is the Bose field). The asymptotics of the effective potential is found in the asymptotically free theories. For the case of Yang-Mills theory of the field, interacting with the fermion field it is shown, that the stability requirements of the theory (understood as the potential confinement from below) leads to the restriction in the multiplet content of fermions. It is argued that some particles necessarily acquire dynamical mass in a stable, asymptotically free gauge theory with zero bare masses of all the particles

  19. Magnetic Field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nils

    2015-01-01

    of the fluid flow at the top of the core. However, what is measured at or near the surface of the Earth is the superposition of the core field and fields caused by magnetized rocks in the Earth’s crust, by electric currents flowing in the ionosphere, magnetosphere, and oceans, and by currents induced......he Earth has a large and complicated magnetic field, the major part of which is produced by a self-sustaining dynamo operating in the fluid outer core. Magnetic field observations provide one of the few tools for remote sensing the Earth’s deep interior, especially regarding the dynamics...... in the Earth by time-varying external fields. These sources have their specific characteristics in terms of spatial and temporal variations, and their proper separation, based on magnetic measurements, is a major challenge. Such a separation is a prerequisite for remote sensing by means of magnetic field...

  20. Pesticide Use Site Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Pesticide Use Site Index will help a company (or other applicant) identify which data requirements are needed to register a pesticide product. It provides information on pesticide use sites and pesticide major use patterns.

  1. NPL Site Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The National Priorities List (NPL) is a list published by EPA of Superfund sites. A site must be added to this list before remediation can begin under Superfund. The...

  2. Site Area Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset consists of site boundaries from multiple Superfund sites in U.S. EPA Region 8. These data were acquired from multiple sources at different times and...

  3. NPL Site Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The National Priorities List (NPL) is a list published by EPA of Superfund sites. A site must be added to this list before remediation can begin under Superfund. The...

  4. Use of a Field Portable X-Ray Fluorescence Analyzer for Environmental Exposure Assessment of a Neighborhood in Cairo, Egypt Adjacent to the Site of a Former Secondary Lead Smelter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menrath, William; Zakaria, Yehia; El-Safty, Amal; Clark, C Scott; Roda, Sandy M; Elsayed, Essam; Lind, Caroline; Pesce, John; Peng, Hongying

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study are to demonstrate for the first time the use of a field portable X-Ray Fluorescence Analyzer (XRF) in a multi-media environmental survey and to use the survey results to determine if residual lead from a once-active secondary lead smelter in Cairo, Egypt, still posed a health risk to the residents when comparing results with US EPA standards. Results were analyzed to determine if relationships among the variables indicated that there were residual impacts of the former smelter. Samples collected inside and near a total of 194 dwellings were analyzed. The mean floor dust lead loading was 7.48 μg lead/ft(2). Almost 10% of the dwellings had at least one floor dust wipe sample that exceeded the United States Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) interior settled dust lead level of 40 μg lead/ft(2). The median paint lead level was 0.04 mg lead/cm(2). 17% of the dwellings had at least one interior paint sample that exceeded the USEPA standard of 1.0 mg lead/cm(2). Mean soil lead concentration in the study area was 458 ppm and 91 ppm outside the study area. Four of nine composite soil samples exceeded the US EPA limit for bare soil in play areas. Lead concentrations in samples collected in locations outside the study area did not exceed the limit. The highest concentration was in the plot closest to the smelter and may represent residual impact from the former smelter. Statistically significant relationships were not detected between interior floor dust lead loading and either interior paint lead loading or exterior dust lead concentration. Thus, no significant exposure from the former smelter was indicated by these analyses. This may have resulted from the time elapsed since the closing of the smelter and/or the relatively low paint lead levels. Further study is needed in other areas of Egypt near former and active lead smelters. Elevated levels of mercury and arsenic detected in soil samples do not appear to be related to the smelter

  5. Drupal 7 Multilingual Sites

    CERN Document Server

    Pol, Kristen

    2012-01-01

    A practical book with plenty of screenshots to guide you through the many features of multilingual Drupal. A demo ecommerce site is provided if you want to practice on a sample site, although you can apply the techniques learnt in the book directly to your site too. Any Drupal users who know the basics of building a Drupal site and are familiar with the Drupal UI, will benefit from this book. No previous knowledge of localization or internationalization is required.

  6. The link between laboratory/field observations and models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, C.R.; Foley, M.G.

    1986-01-01

    The various linkages in system performance assessments that integrate disposal program elements must be understood. The linkage between model development and field/laboratory observations is described as the iterative program of site and system characterization for development of an observational-confirmatory data base. This data base is designed to develop, improve, and support conceptual models for site and system behavior. The program consists of data gathering and experiments to demonstrate understanding at various spatial and time scales and degrees of complexity. Understanding and accounting for the decreasing characterization certainty that arises with increasing space and time scales is an important aspect of the link between models and observations. The performance allocation process for setting performance goals and confidence levels, coupled with a performance assessment approach that provides these performance and confidence estimates, will determine when sufficient characterization has been achieved. At each iteration, performance allocation goals are reviewed and revised as necessary. The updated data base and appropriate performance assessment tools and approaches are utilized to identify and design additional tests and data needs necessary to meet current performance allocation goals

  7. Site Calibration report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yordanova, Ginka; Vesth, Allan

    The report describes site calibration measurements carried out on a site in Denmark. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. The site calibration is carried out before a power performance measurement on a given turbine to clarify the influence from the terrain on the ratio...

  8. Nuclear waste repository siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soloman, B.D.; Cameron, D.M.

    1987-01-01

    This paper discusses the geopolitics of nuclear waste disposal in the USA. Constitutional choice and social equity perspectives are used to argue for a more open and just repository siting program. The authors assert that every potential repository site inevitably contains geologic, environmental or other imperfections and that the political process is the correct one for determining sites selected

  9. Well Researched, Yet Little Understood: Young Adults and Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cothran, Donetta; Kulinna, Pamela Hodges

    2005-01-01

    The authors present two beginning studies. One investigated the teaching-style preferences of young adults, and the other looked at physical activity trends within this age group. One key to understanding young adults and physical activity is to recognize the importance of participant cognition on physical activity patterns. From this…

  10. Emotions are understood from biological motion across remote cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Carolyn; Walker, Trent T; Memmi, Sarah; Wheatley, Thalia

    2017-04-01

    Patterns of bodily movement can be used to signal a wide variety of information, including emotional states. Are these signals reliant on culturally learned cues or are they intelligible across individuals lacking exposure to a common culture? To find out, we traveled to a remote Kreung village in Ratanakiri, Cambodia. First, we recorded Kreung portrayals of 5 emotions through bodily movement. These videos were later shown to American participants, who matched the videos with appropriate emotional labels with above chance accuracy (Study 1). The Kreung also viewed Western point-light displays of emotions. After each display, they were asked to either freely describe what was being expressed (Study 2) or choose from 5 predetermined response options (Study 3). Across these studies, Kreung participants recognized Western point-light displays of anger, fear, happiness, sadness, and pride with above chance accuracy. Kreung raters were not above chance in deciphering an American point-light display depicting love, suggesting that recognizing love may rely, at least in part, on culturally specific cues or modalities other than bodily movement. In addition, multidimensional scaling of the patterns of nonverbal behavior associated with each emotion in each culture suggested that similar patterns of nonverbal behavior are used to convey the same emotions across cultures. The considerable cross-cultural intelligibility observed across these studies suggests that the communication of emotion through movement is largely shaped by aspects of physiology and the environment shared by all humans, irrespective of differences in cultural context. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Prevalence of Obesity: A Public Health Problem Poorly Understood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa A. Nicklas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This review article discusses the Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA in support of a total diet approach to achieving diet and health goals, especially as they relate to the obesity epidemic. However, some scientists and organizations have identified one food, food group, or nutrient as the cause of the obesity epidemic and recommend that simply reducing that food/food group/nutrient will solve the problem. This is simplistic and unlikely to be effective in long term management of the obesity problem. This article also acknowledges discrepancies in the literature and the lack of consensus opinions from systematic reviews. Failure to consider the evidence as a whole can lead to inaccurate reports which may, in turn, adversely influence clinical practice, public policy, and future research. This article also considers where the line should be drawn between individual choice and responsibility and public regulation. Using sugar sweetened beverages as an example, the article considers the lack of a consistent association between added sugars and weight in the literature and calls for policy recommendations that are based on science and emphasizes the need for evidence-based policies rather than policy-based evidence.

  12. Can morphogenesis be understood in terms of physical rules?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    In a similar way, 3D structures of bio- logical systems constructed by computer can serve as a data base which can be applied to research, education and practical purposes. 2.1 Construction of human lung airway. The lung airway is constructed within the amniotic fluid by branching of a duct. Since it does not touch other tis-.

  13. Happiness in Economics as Understood Across Ism and Religion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Ghafar Ismail

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of happiness has been discussed long time ago by economists. Recently, it became the most related and important thing to be studied because of its impact in societies. Discussion about happiness basically interprets within two separate views. First, happiness related with economic variable, for instance, how money can create happiness. Second happiness is discussed within the context of religion. However, the discussion did not combine both contexts, economic variable and religion, to interpret happiness. Therefore, it is important to highlight the concept of happiness in a different way such as in this article. Different cultures will have their own perspective on the determination of happiness. From just “individual perspective” of happiness, they then formed an ism through involvement of a big society from the same culture. Some isms such as hedonism and materialism are synonyms in characterizing the concept of happiness in this modern world. At the same time, the isms are actually working with the economic and non-economic indicators as elements to strengthen the ism itself. On the other hand, the concept of happiness from the perspective of religion will also be a part of discussion in this article. Therefore, this article will reveal that the meaning of happiness is different in terms of religion and ism. So, to carry out both ism and religion simultaneously in shaping a more intrinsic value of happiness is not an easy task. Furthermore, religion is always associated with spiritual value that makes it hard for some people to practice religion and their isms at the same time. Thus, this article will propose that the right interpretation of isms based on their faith in religion can contribute to the concept of genuine happiness.

  14. Mirror neurons and their function in cognitively understood empathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corradini, Antonella; Antonietti, Alessandro

    2013-09-01

    The current renewal of interest in empathy is closely connected to the recent neurobiological discovery of mirror neurons. Although the concept of empathy has been widely deployed, we shall focus upon one main psychological function it serves: enabling us to understand other peoples' intentions. In this essay we will draw on neuroscientific, psychological, and philosophical literature in order to investigate the relationships between mirror neurons and empathy as to intention understanding. Firstly, it will be explored whether mirror neurons are the neural basis of our empathic capacities: a vast array of empirical results appears to confirm this hypothesis. Secondly, the higher level capacity of reenactive empathy will be examined and the question will be addressed whether philosophical analysis alone is able to provide a foundation for this more abstract level of empathy. The conclusion will be drawn that both empirical evidence and philosophical analysis can jointly contribute to the clarification of the concept of empathy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Sharing their stories helps young people to feel more understood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Zoe

    2017-05-10

    My passion for improving mental health services started after a young woman I knew took her own life. She was part of a theatre group I volunteered for, and the distress experienced by fellow members prompted me to take action.

  16. Q Fever: An Old but Still a Poorly Understood Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Honarmand

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Q fever is a bacterial infection affecting mainly the lungs, liver, and heart. It is found around the world and is caused by the bacteria Coxiella burnetii. The bacteria affects sheep, goats, cattle, dogs, cats, birds, rodents, and ticks. Infected animals shed this bacteria in birth products, feces, milk, and urine. Humans usually get Q fever by breathing in contaminated droplets released by infected animals and drinking raw milk. People at highest risk for this infection are farmers, laboratory workers, sheep and dairy workers, and veterinarians. Chronic Q fever develops in people who have been infected for more than 6 months. It usually takes about 20 days after exposure to the bacteria for symptoms to occur. Most cases are mild, yet some severe cases have been reported. Symptoms of acute Q fever may include: chest pain with breathing, cough, fever, headache, jaundice, muscle pains, and shortness of breath. Symptoms of chronic Q fever may include chills, fatigue, night sweats, prolonged fever, and shortness of breath. Q fever is diagnosed with a blood antibody test. The main treatment for the disease is with antibiotics. For acute Q fever, doxycycline is recommended. For chronic Q fever, a combination of doxycycline and hydroxychloroquine is often used long term. Complications are cirrhosis, hepatitis, encephalitis, endocarditis, pericarditis, myocarditis, interstitial pulmonary fibrosis, meningitis, and pneumonia. People at risk should always: carefully dispose of animal products that may be infected, disinfect any contaminated areas, and thoroughly wash their hands. Pasteurizing milk can also help prevent Q fever.

  17. How is evidence to be understood in modern coaching psychology?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spaten, Ole Michael; Løkken, Lillith Olesen

    2015-01-01

    The hunt for evidence in modern coaching psychology could be counter-productive, and possibly lead to a simplified approach to research, practice, searching for “definitive truths”. The article discuss a critical approach to evidence hierarchies, and the prevalent (medical) understanding of evide......The hunt for evidence in modern coaching psychology could be counter-productive, and possibly lead to a simplified approach to research, practice, searching for “definitive truths”. The article discuss a critical approach to evidence hierarchies, and the prevalent (medical) understanding...

  18. Learning Outcomes of 'Understanding Research' as understood by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Simon Bhekumuzi

    criterion for DT use, Tapscott (1998) referred to current digital users as the Net Generation, and later Prensky. (2001) referred to them as Digital natives, implying that as they are born in the digital era, it predisposes them to learning via digital technologies. The normalisation of technology in the everyday life of learners ...

  19. How Inclusive Education Is Understood by Principals of Independent Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gous, Jennifer Glenda; Eloff, Irma; Moen, Melanie Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Inclusive education has become a practice that has been adopted by many schools across the globe and most usually in first-world countries. As a whole-school system, it occurs less frequently in developing countries including South Africa which unlike many developing countries has a sound infrastructure and many excellent schools in both the state…

  20. Clinical governance; How been understood, what is needed? Nurses' perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homayoun Sadeghi Bazargani

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Clinical Governance (CG is an overarching concept, using organizational capacity, safeguards high