Sample records for understanding revolutionary change

  1. In Absence of a Hero Figure and an Ideology: Understanding New Political Imaginaries and Practices among Revolutionary Youth in Egypt

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    Dina El-Sharnouby


    Full Text Available One of the challenges in analyzing youth who participated in the recent Arab uprisings relates to explaining and understanding their revolutionary practices. Adopting a leaderless and cross-ideological form of mobilization, youth during the eighteen days of the Egyptian uprising managed to practice inclusion by uniting a diverse group of Egyptians. After toppling Mubarak, the revolutionary youth, however, did not present themselves as aiming to seize power, a defining feature of revolutions at least until the 1970s. To understand the meaning of these new cross-ideological and leaderless forms of mobilization, I suggest understanding youth within their time and space. Drawing on Alain Badiou and his conception of the intervallic period and the rebirth of history through the Arab revolts, this article highlights important differences among this generation in their conception of doing politics. More specifically, this paper focuses on the changed meaning of the hero figure, highlighting the importance of inclusionary politics. It will suggest that since the 2011 revolutionary event, a shift away from traditional politics based on a leader and an ideology is being contested for a more inclusionary politics as desired by the younger generation in Egypt.

  2. Revolutionary land use change in the 21st century: Is (rangeland) science relevant? (United States)

    Herrick, J.E.; Brown, J.R.; Bestelmeyer, B.T.; Andrews, S.S.; Baldi, G.; Davies, J.; Duniway, M.; Havstad, K.M.; Karl, J.W.; Karlen, D.L.; Peters, Debra P.C.; Quinton, J.N.; Riginos, C.; Shaver, P.L.; Steinaker, D.; Twomlow, S.


    Rapidly increasing demand for food, fiber, and fuel together with new technologies and the mobility of global capital are driving revolutionary changes in land use throughout the world. Efforts to increase land productivity include conversion of millions of hectares of rangelands to crop production, including many marginal lands with low resistance and resilience to degradation. Sustaining the productivity of these lands requires careful land use planning and innovative management systems. Historically, this responsibility has been left to agronomists and others with expertise in crop production. In this article, we argue that the revolutionary land use changes necessary to support national and global food security potentially make rangeland science more relevant now than ever. Maintaining and increasing relevance will require a revolutionary change in range science from a discipline that focuses on a particular land use or land cover to one that addresses the challenge of managing all lands that, at one time, were considered to be marginal for crop production. We propose four strategies to increase the relevance of rangeland science to global land management: 1) expand our awareness and understanding of local to global economic, social, and technological trends in order to anticipate and identify drivers and patterns of conversion; 2) emphasize empirical studies and modeling that anticipate the biophysical (ecosystem services) and societal consequences of large-scale changes in land cover and use; 3) significantly increase communication and collaboration with the disciplines and sectors of society currently responsible for managing the new land uses; and 4) develop and adopt a dynamic and flexible resilience-based land classification system and data-supported conceptual models (e.g., state-and-transition models) that represent all lands, regardless of use and the consequences of land conversion to various uses instead of changes in state or condition that are

  3. Revolutionary Science

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    Arturo Casadevall


    Full Text Available On rare occasions in the history of science, remarkable discoveries transform human society and forever alter mankind’s view of the world. Examples of such discoveries include the heliocentric theory, Newtonian physics, the germ theory of disease, quantum theory, plate tectonics and the discovery that DNA carries genetic information. The science philosopher Thomas Kuhn famously described science as long periods of normality punctuated by times of crisis, when anomalous observations culminate in revolutionary changes that replace one paradigm with another. This essay examines several transformative discoveries in the light of Kuhn’s formulation. We find that each scientific revolution is unique, with disparate origins that may include puzzle solving, serendipity, inspiration, or a convergence of disparate observations. The causes of revolutionary science are varied and lack an obvious common structure. Moreover, it can be difficult to draw a clear distinction between so-called normal and revolutionary science. Revolutionary discoveries often emerge from basic science and are critically dependent on nonrevolutionary research. Revolutionary discoveries may be conceptual or technological in nature, lead to the creation of new fields, and have a lasting impact on many fields in addition to the field from which they emerge. In contrast to political revolutions, scientific revolutions do not necessarily require the destruction of the previous order. For humanity to continue to benefit from revolutionary discoveries, a broad palette of scientific inquiry with a particular emphasis on basic science should be supported.

  4. Revolutionary Science. (United States)

    Casadevall, Arturo; Fang, Ferric C


    On rare occasions in the history of science, remarkable discoveries transform human society and forever alter mankind's view of the world. Examples of such discoveries include the heliocentric theory, Newtonian physics, the germ theory of disease, quantum theory, plate tectonics and the discovery that DNA carries genetic information. The science philosopher Thomas Kuhn famously described science as long periods of normality punctuated by times of crisis, when anomalous observations culminate in revolutionary changes that replace one paradigm with another. This essay examines several transformative discoveries in the light of Kuhn's formulation. We find that each scientific revolution is unique, with disparate origins that may include puzzle solving, serendipity, inspiration, or a convergence of disparate observations. The causes of revolutionary science are varied and lack an obvious common structure. Moreover, it can be difficult to draw a clear distinction between so-called normal and revolutionary science. Revolutionary discoveries often emerge from basic science and are critically dependent on nonrevolutionary research. Revolutionary discoveries may be conceptual or technological in nature, lead to the creation of new fields, and have a lasting impact on many fields in addition to the field from which they emerge. In contrast to political revolutions, scientific revolutions do not necessarily require the destruction of the previous order. For humanity to continue to benefit from revolutionary discoveries, a broad palette of scientific inquiry with a particular emphasis on basic science should be supported. Copyright © 2016 Casadevall and Fang.

  5. Twenty Five Years of Cognitive Care Education Research: Time for a Revolutionary Change (United States)

    Porter, Russell; Berry, Jeremy; Cude, Kellie; Anderson, Stephen; Britt, Sanfrena


    This is the third study of Cognitive Care Education in New York State nursing homes using cross-sectional methods over a 25 year period. The data indicate that the Cognitive Care Education increased at statistically significant levels, albeit by evolutionary means. It is now time for "A Revolutionary Change," for Cognitive Care…

  6. Song hybridization events during revolutionary song change provide insights into cultural transmission in humpback whales. (United States)

    Garland, Ellen C; Rendell, Luke; Lamoni, Luca; Poole, M Michael; Noad, Michael J


    Cultural processes occur in a wide variety of animal taxa, from insects to cetaceans. The songs of humpback whales are one of the most striking examples of the transmission of a cultural trait and social learning in any nonhuman animal. To understand how songs are learned, we investigate rare cases of song hybridization, where parts of an existing song are spliced with a new one, likely before an individual totally adopts the new song. Song unit sequences were extracted from over 9,300 phrases recorded during two song revolutions across the South Pacific Ocean, allowing fine-scale analysis of composition and sequencing. In hybrid songs the current and new songs were spliced together in two specific ways: ( i ) singers placed a single hybrid phrase, in which content from both songs were combined, between the two song types when transitioning from one to the other, and/or ( ii ) singers spliced complete themes from the revolutionary song into the current song. Sequence analysis indicated that both processes were governed by structural similarity rules. Hybrid phrases or theme substitutions occurred at points in the songs where both songs contained "similar sounds arranged in a similar pattern." Songs appear to be learned as segments (themes/phrase types), akin to birdsong and human language acquisition, and these can be combined in predictable ways if the underlying structural pattern is similar. These snapshots of song change provide insights into the mechanisms underlying song learning in humpback whales, and comparative perspectives on the evolution of human language and culture.


    Eshel, Ofra


    This paper addresses the radical departure of late Bion's and Winnicott's clinical ideas and practices from traditional psychoanalytic work, introducing a revolutionary change in clinical psychoanalysis. The profound significance and implications of their thinking are explored, and in particular Bion's conception of transformation in O and Winnicott's clinical-technical revision of analytic work, with its emphasis on regression in the treatment of more disturbed patients. The author specifically connects the unknown and unknowable emotional reality-O with unthinkable breakdown (Winnicott) and catastrophe (Bion). The author suggests that the revolutionary approach introduced by the clinical thinking of late Bion and Winnicott be termed quantum psychoanalysis. She thinks that this approach can coexist with classical psychoanalysis in the same way that classical physics coexists with quantum physics. © 2017 The Psychoanalytic Quarterly, Inc.


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    Nadezhda Yuryevna Zagaynova


    Full Text Available The article considers approaches to the understanding of the concepts of «freedom of conscience» and «religious freedom» on the basis of the analysis of works of pre-revolutionary scientists. Allocated General and special traits defining these phenomena.The aim of this article is (based on the works of pre-revolutionary scientists to analyze ideas about the concept of freedom of conscience and religious liberty. Previously, scientists no attempt has been made to summarize the theoretical aspects of these categories, this is the novelty of the article.The research methodology consists dialectical view on the process of cognition of objective reality. They are implemented on the basis of a systematic approach. The article relies on the basic provisions of philosophy, theology and law.The research methods are universal, scientific and astronaute methods of cognition.In the study we can conclude that the pre-revolutionary scientists have not developed a unified approach with respect to such legal categories as «freedom of conscience and religious liberty».The results can be used in research work and in the educational process.

  9. Revolutionary Securitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbraad, Martin; Pedersen, Morten Axel


    this distinction, to bring about an alternative, non-liberal political ontology. We then go on to use the Cuban case to construct an alternative model of securitization, which we call revolutionary. On this model, the move of securitization pertains, not to a passage from ordinary politics into a realm...... is to use the contingency of empirical materials (namely the Cuban Revolution and the political forms it instantiates) as a means for transforming the basic coordinates of the model itself. The argument involves two main steps. First we relativize the Copenhagen School model, showing the contingency of its...

  10. The Revolutionary Movement in the Evaluation of F.M. Dostoevsky: To Understand Conservatism in the Political History of Russia

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    Konstantin A. Lotarev


    Full Text Available The article attempts to show the features of the conservative worldview of F. M. Dostoevsky through the prism of his assessments of the revolutionary movement and socialist ideas in Russia. The main focus is on the analysis of artistic creativity, and journalism, especially "Diary of a Writer". This allowed us to identify the political views of F. M. Dostoevsky and the possibility of their practical implementation. It is concluded that the main cause of the political turmoil in the 1860s – early 1880s, the spread of revolutionary ideas the writer felt a deep moral crisis afflicting Russian society. Therefore, the cause of the crisis he saw not in reforming state institutions, and in fundamental moral renewal of Russian life on the basis of Christian Orthodox values.

  11. Understanding climatic change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fellous, J.L.; Gautier, C.; Andre, J.C.; Balstad, R.; Boucher, O.; Brasseur, G.; Chahine, M.T.; Chanin, M.L.; Ciais, P.; Corell, W.; Duplessy, J.C.; Hourcade, J.C.; Jouzel, J.; Kaufman, Y.J.; Laval, K.; Le Treut, H.; Minster, J.F.; Moore, B. III; Morel, P.; Rasool, S.I.; Remy, F.; Smith, R.C.; Somerville, R.C.J.; Wood, E.F.; Wood, H.; Wunsch, C.


    Climatic change is gaining ground and with no doubt is stimulated by human activities. It is therefore urgent to better understand its nature, importance and potential impacts. The chapters of this book have been written by US and French experts of the global warming question. After a description of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, GIEC in French) consensus, they present the past and present researches on each of the main component of the climate system, on the question of climatic change impacts and on the possible answers. The conclusion summarizes the results of each chapter. Content: presentation of the IPCC; greenhouse effect, radiation balance and clouds; atmospheric aerosols and climatic change; global water cycle and climate; influence of climatic change on the continental hydrologic cycle; ocean and climate; ice and climate; global carbon cycle; about some impacts of climatic change on Europe and the Atlantic Ocean; interaction between atmospheric chemistry and climate; climate and society, the human dimension. (J.S.)

  12. Wiki management a revolutionary new model for a rapidly changing and collaborative world

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    Collins, Rod


    We now live in a "wiki" world where mass collaboration is not only possible-it's often the best solution. Conventional management thought assumes that command-and-control is the most effective way to organize the efforts of large numbers of people, but rapid change and increasing complexity have rendered that model obsolete. As a result, most managers today lack the skills and knowledge needed to succeed in an age when networks are proving smarter and faster than hierarchies. Designing organizations for mass collaboration demands a new and very different model-wiki management.


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    Stephen M. Griffin


    Full Text Available Amid much recent American work on the problem of informal constitutional change, this article stakes out a distinctive position. I argue that theories of constitutional change in the US must address the question of the relationship between the “small c” and “big C” Constitution and treat seriously the possibility of conflict between them. I stress the unavoidable role the text of the Constitution and structural doctrines of federalism and separation of powers play in this relationship and thus in constitutional change, both formal and informal. I therefore counsel against theories that rely solely on a practice-based approach or analogies between “small c” constitutional developments and British or Commonwealth traditions of the “unwritten” constitution and constitutional “conventions.” The alternative I advocate is to approach constitutional change from a historicist perspective that focuses attention on state building and the creation of new institutional capacities. This approach will allow us to make progress by highlighting that there can be multiple constitutional orders in a given historical era, thus accounting for the conflictual nature of contemporary constitutional development in the US.

  14. Far Away from the Revolution: Understanding the Cuban Revolutionary Armed Forces Mission Changes (United States)


    possibilities, restricted promotions linked to fewer activities abroad and cuts in strenght at home, much reduced potential for interesting postings…real...resorting to extra-economic coercion.”95 On the other hand , the main instrument of this economic and institutional restructuring has been the manu...and production of sugar derivatives is much higher than that for other current alternatives (such as tourism).118 Tourism, on the other hand , is

  15. Einstein's revolutionary paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigden, John S.


    Although Einstein wrote five fundamental papers in 1905, only one - the article showing that light consists of discrete quantum particles - was truly revolutionary, argues John S. Rigden. Einstein's annus mirabilis of 1905 is rightly a cause for celebration. In less than seven months, Einstein wrote five history-making papers. He proposed the particle theory of light, developed a method to measure molecular dimensions, explained the long-puzzling Brownian motion, developed the theory of special relativity, and he finished his intellectual sprint by producing the world's most famous equation, E = mc 2 . The creative outpouring that Einstein exhibited in 1905 stands alone in the history of physics. After 100 years of sweeping advances in the subject since then, the content of these papers remains at the bedrock of our discipline. But although all of Einstein's 1905 papers were fundamental, only one paper was truly revolutionary. What makes a physics paper revolutionary? Perhaps the most important requirement is that it contains a 'big idea'. Next, the big idea must contradict the accepted wisdom of its time. Third, physicists capable of judging the intrinsic merit of the big idea typically reject it until they are forced to accept it. Finally, the big idea must survive and eventually become part of the woodwork of physics. Only Einstein's March paper 'On a heuristic point of view concerning the production and transformation of light' (Ann. Phys., Lpz 17 132-148) meets these criteria. (U.K.)

  16. In the colonial past and in the revolutionary present: parish priests and parishes as support of political change

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    María Elena Barral


    Full Text Available The breakdown of the colonial order and the construction of a new one in a republican way, recognizes a set of practices that made these change posible. Certain institutions and agents supported this transition that supposed dismantling many of the former references and models of political action and orientated the emergency of new ways of conceiving and perceiving the power. In the persistence of some of these key figures, resided the viability of the new republics. In the new order, the agents and the ecclesiastics jurisdictions, the rites and religious celebrations, continued occupying a place that cannot be ignored.

  17. Moving to understanding and change. (United States)

    Washington, Deborah


    Creating an environment of inclusion for a culturally diverse nursing workforce is complex. The demographic shift in the country forecasted for over a decade has arrived. Today programs set up to recruit and retain multicultural and multilingual nursing staff are important organizational priorities. Employers want to build responsive and welcoming workplaces in which all feel engaged. This requires several things. Leaders must oversee system changes stimulated by a workforce similar to newly emerging cultural groups in their areas of service. The need exists for managers to possess non-ethnocentric management skills and are competent to take charge of teams motivated by a broad range of culture based values and beliefs. Diversity training, mentoring of staff and leadership development are benchmarks of an organization at the "tipping point" of change related to employing a diverse workforce.

  18. Understanding Culture and Influencing Change (United States)


    difference to significantly change the society from a collectivist to individualist culture.42 Pakistan scores fourteen which indicates a strongly...Pakistan which possess strong uncertainty avoidance scores (70) and low individualistic scores (14) - and are collectivists - rules and laws are...score lower than fifty indicating a more collectivist society. This helps the strategic leader to appreciate the importance class and culture play on

  19. Understanding Grammars through Diachronic Change (United States)

    Madariaga, Nerea


    In this paper, I will vindicate the importance of syntactic change for the study of synchronic stages of natural languages, according to the following outline. First, I will analyze the relationship between the diachrony and synchrony of grammars, introducing some basic concepts: the notions of I-language/E-language, the role of Chomsky's (2005) three factors in language change, and some assumptions about language acquisition. I will briefly describe the different approaches to syntactic change adopted in generative accounts, as well as their assumptions and implications (Lightfoot, 1999, 2006; van Gelderen, 2004; Biberauer et al., 2010; Roberts, 2012). Finally, I will illustrate the convenience of introducing the diachronic dimension into the study of at least certain synchronic phenomena with the help of a practical example: variation in object case marking of several verbs in Modern Russian, namely, the verbs denoting avoidance and the verbs slušat'sja “obey” and dožidat'sja “expect,” which show two object case-marking patterns, genitive case in standard varieties and accusative case in colloquial varieties. To do so, I will review previous descriptive and/or functionalist accounts on this or equivalent phenomena (Jakobson, 1984 [1936]; Clancy, 2006; Nesset and Kuznetsova, 2015a,b). Then, I will present a formal—but just synchronic—account, applying Sigurðsson (2011) hypothesis on the expression of morphological case to this phenomenon. Finally, I will show that a formal account including the diachronic dimension is superior (i.e., more explanative) than purely synchronic accounts. PMID:28824474

  20. Climate change 101 : understanding and responding to global climate change (United States)


    To inform the climate change dialogue, the Pew Center on Global Climate Change and the Pew Center on the States have developed a series of brief reports entitled Climate Change 101: Understanding and Responding to Global Climate Change. These reports...

  1. Revolutionary Black Culture: The Cultural Arm of Revolutionary Nationalism (United States)

    Mkalimoto, Ernie


    Emphasizes that armed might is not the only form, nor the only necessary form of struggle in Black revolutionary nationalism; that Black poets, actors, writers, and artists, as well as political and military cadres, must unite with the Black masses in one common effort. (RJ)

  2. The Revolutionary Poems of Tayo Olafioye

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    Clement Eloghosa Odia


    Full Text Available This paper examines the revolutionary poems of Tayo Olafioye in order to demonstrate how his radical thought is depicted in his poems. To achieve this purpose, a study of one of his collections of poems, entitled A carnival of looters,is undertaken. In the study, we discover that proverbs are the central technique used in depicting critical ideas in the poems. The paper concludes that proverbs are used for expressing reformative messages as means of mobilisation and conscientisation of the masses in order to achieve social change.

  3. From Revolutionaries to Muslims

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kublitz, Anja


    Exploring generational changes and continuities among Palestinian families in Denmark, this article investigates why the children of the fid¯aᵓ¯ın (fighters) and many of the fid¯aᵓ¯ın themselves have turned their backs on secular politics and embraced Islam. The Palestinians who arrived in Denmark...... from Lebanon in the wake of the Lebanese Civil War were members of the Palestinian Liberation Organization and were known as the generation of the revolution (j¯ıl al-thawra). Extending Karl Mannheim’s approach to generations, I argue that in order to explain the transition among Palestinians...

  4. The Revolutionary Chora in Seamus Heaney’s Kite Poetry

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    Hannah Spruce


    Full Text Available This paper examines the presence and impact of the Kristevan chora in the kite poetry of Seamus Heaney, demonstrating how the presence of the chora in his final kite poem “A Kite for Aibhín” is used to alter the discursive representation of fatherhood that was handed down to Heaney through symbolic language. The views of Heaney and Kristeva on the revolutionary potential of poetry is analysed alongside Heaney’s poetry to glean an understanding of how poetry has a profound impact on identity and representation. This paper proves that for Heaney poetry afforded weighty individual change, acting as a technological medium through which he could alter language.

  5. American Reading Instruction: Pre-Revolutionary Religious Influences. (United States)

    Reutzel, Douglas Ray

    To provide some understanding of current reading methodology, this paper traces the history of reading instruction from ancient times to pre-Revolutionary America and examines the influences exerted upon that instruction by religion. The major portion of the paper discusses the cultures, religions, and educational systems of ancient Egypt;…

  6. Marc Antrop - a revolutionary transdisciplinary scientist or a traditional geographer?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Jesper


    Marc Antrop - a revolutionary transdisciplinary scientist or a traditional geographer? Jesper Brandt, Department of Environmental, Social and Spatial. Change (ENSPAC), Roskilde University, Denmark Few peoples might consider Marc Antrop to be a radical revolutionary. Within his academic life he...... or methodological schools would mean an end to the flexible collaboration among the very different traditions existing in Europe.   Marc has also constantly been on the staff-list of the many international PhD-courses being arranged within Landscape Ecology since the mid 90ties, thus being inspiring new generations...

  7. Understanding Controversies in Urban Climate Change Adaptation

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    Baron, Nina; Petersen, Lars Kjerulf


    This article explores the controversies that exist in urban climate change adaptation and how these controversies influence the role of homeowners in urban adaptation planning. A concrete SUDS project in a housing cooperative in Copenhagen has been used as a case study thereby investigating...... the multiple understandings “Sustainable Urban Drainages System’s” (SUDS). Several different perspectives are identified with regard to what are and what will become the main climate problems in the urban environment as well as what are considered to be the best responses to these problems. Building...... on the actor-network inspired theory of “urban green assemblages” we argue that at least three different assemblages can be identified in urban climate change adaptation. Each assemblage frames problems and responses differently, and thereby assigns different types of roles to homeowners. As climate change...

  8. Understanding the DSM-5: stasis and change. (United States)

    Cooper, Rachel


    This paper aims to understand the DSM-5 through situating it within the context of the historical development of the DSM series. When one looks at the sets of diagnostic criteria, the DSM-5 is strikingly similar to the DSM-IV. I argue that at this level the DSM has become 'locked-in' and difficult to change. At the same time, at the structural, or conceptual, level there have been radical changes, for example in the definition of 'mental disorder', in the role of theory and of values, and in the abandonment of the multiaxial approach to diagnosis. The way that the DSM-5 was constructed means that the overall conceptual framework of the classification only barely constrains the sets of diagnostic criteria it contains.

  9. Understanding Resistance to Climate Change Resistance. (United States)

    Coyle, Maureen


    Fifty years after the emergence of warnings over the effects of the environmental impacts of industrialization and other conditions of a planet subjugated by humans, we are still entertaining discussions about the existence of the phenomena of climate change. Worse still, we have not checked the behaviors and conditions that exacerbate the rate of environmental destruction. Older people, particularly those who are economically vulnerable, are among those most at risk in disasters, including events resulting from climate change. By applying the "epistemologies of ignorance" outlined by Nancy Tuana, I attempt to understand the rooted ignorance that prevents acceptance of the environmental impact of human kind's unrepentant misuse of the world's natural resources and the refusal to curb the excesses that have lead to environmental damage that has had, and that will continue to have, dire consequences on the planet and for the most vulnerable denizens of Earth. Far from being a pessimistic project of abjection and despair, this article proposes that an examination of climate change denial can provide guidance for the development of a better counter-narrative. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. The Transformation of American Revolutionary Forces (United States)


    become the first and only official American regulations of the eighteenth century , Regulations for the Order and Discipline of the Troops of the United...The Transformation of American Revolutionary Forces A Monograph by MAJ Grant A. Brown British Army School of Advanced Military Studies United...DATES COVERED (From - To) JUN 2016 – MAY 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Transformation of American Revolutionary Forces 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b


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    Eric GILDER


    Full Text Available Over the time since he was a fresh graduate student in the early 1980s till now, this academic has seen the world being totally transformed from an analogue into a digital “format”. It all started innocently enough with large computers in rooms doing tedious counting and data-tabulating tasks on Hollerith cards while we humans carried on our analogue lives in relative peace. From 1985-1995, the world did change from an (largely unseen tsunami begun from the small waves made by these nascent digital technologies. By 1995, the CD, audio digital recorders and DVD player had replaced earlier technologies. Computers (of a second or third generation had replaced the typewriter; the Soviet bloc and its (long-decaying governance models were only a bad memory (its economic model undone by technologies and demands of the new “third wave” post-industrial knowledge society. Finally, the worldwide web Internet 2.0 was arriving, which would surely change the means and modes of the communicative acts, affecting the economic, political and social/cultural spheres in turn. Using Kenneth Boulding, Marshall McLuhan and Johan Galtung as sage guides, the paper will outline the transformations these technical inventions wrought in the economic, political and cultural spheres in rapid order over the noted decade, considering how the “developed” world has been affected by these changes, bot negatively and positively. Following this, it will briefly consider how the disruptive effects of the digital revolution experienced can be counter-balanced by looking at how “developing” communities and economies have been able to “leap-frog” barriers in how they use digital technologies for both individual and collective humanistic gain.

  12. Sectarianism, Revolutionary Subjectivity and War in Syria - the case of the peaceful movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønd, Thomas Vladimir


    Events unfolding in Syria since 2011 have all too often been depicted too simply as a “sectarian war”. Against the backdrop of such accounts, this article investigates the lived revolutionary experience of Syrians active in the peaceful revolutionary movement and the local coordination committees...... of the peaceful movement not only counteract the narratives of the regime. It also offers a window into revolutionary subjectivity and ideology in Syria’s peaceful movement as part of broader social changes occurring in Syria in the context of devastating war and destruction....

  13. Revolutionary business trends in supply chain management

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    Mijušković Veljko


    Full Text Available Contemporary turbulent business conditions in the era of high technology bring inherent rapid changes. In order to survive, the imperative set upon all market players is not the position of a follower but more of an anticipator and trend setter. These unexpected changes erase existing business models, traditional enterprise paradigms and customary philosophies. A business isolated in its way of seeing operations and unconnected with other strategic constituents within the supply chain is destined to fail. On the other hand, even those businesses that do get involved with contemporary trends are not automatically guaranteed with the market survival. The spirit of change must therefore be deeply integrated within the organization, so that the new 'mantra' could become strategic but also operative driver on all fronts of doing business, at all times. The goal of this paper is to try to illustrate and categorize comprehensive fundamental changes which are more and more present in the modern supply chains. The analysis shows that the spirit of business model changes is not a fiction but reality, thus their deepness truly revolutionizes the functioning of traditional supply chains. The first part of the paper shows actual market situation within the supply chains. 'Kaleidoscope of changes' in the chain shows that its operations have been altered compared to traditional way of doing business, having assimilated the fact that final customers identify multiple dimensions of value while choosing products or services. The market survival demands the perception and possession of all these dimensions. The second part explains the supply chain changes focusing on ten most important trends. Their implementation creates revolutionary effects compared to traditional business matrix. Finally, the third part, identifies key challenges and inhibitors that might emerge during the 'restructuring' of the traditional supply chains, as a real-life situation limitation

  14. Understanding Early Educators' Readiness to Change (United States)

    Peterson, Shira M.


    Researchers in the fields of humanistic psychology, counseling, organizational change, and implementation science have been asking a question that is at the heart of today's early care and education quality improvement efforts: When it comes to changing one's behavior, what makes a person ready to change? Although the concept of readiness to…

  15. Global Environmental change: Understanding the Human Dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrisette, P.M.


    This book is from the National Research Council's Committee on the Human dimensions of Global Change. The object is to examine what is known about human dimensions of global environmental change, identify the major immediate needs for knowledge, and recommend a strategy over the next 5-10 years. Case studies are used in human causes of global change. issues related to theory, methods, and data are covered, as well as institutional needs for interdicipinary approaches

  16. Understanding Transfer as Personal Change: Concerns, Intentions, and Resistance (United States)

    Young, Jeani C.


    Adult education is about change. Change in knowledge and understanding. Change in attitudes and beliefs. Change in skills and behaviors. The transfer that adult educators and learners often want to achieve is that change. In situations where transfer equals change, models of change can be useful to describe, support, and predict transfer. This…

  17. Muscle changes in aging: understanding sarcopenia. (United States)

    Siparsky, Patrick N; Kirkendall, Donald T; Garrett, William E


    Muscle physiology in the aging athlete is complex. Sarcopenia, the age-related decrease in lean muscle mass, can alter activity level and affect quality of life. This review addresses the microscopic and macroscopic changes in muscle with age, recognizes contributing factors including nutrition and changes in hormone levels, and identifies potential pharmacologic agents in clinical trial that may aid in the battle of this complex, costly, and disabling problem. Level 5.

  18. Paleoclimates: Understanding climate change past and present (United States)

    Cronin, Thomas M.


    The field of paleoclimatology relies on physical, chemical, and biological proxies of past climate changes that have been preserved in natural archives such as glacial ice, tree rings, sediments, corals, and speleothems. Paleoclimate archives obtained through field investigations, ocean sediment coring expeditions, ice sheet coring programs, and other projects allow scientists to reconstruct climate change over much of earth's history. When combined with computer model simulations, paleoclimatic reconstructions are used to test hypotheses about the causes of climatic change, such as greenhouse gases, solar variability, earth's orbital variations, and hydrological, oceanic, and tectonic processes. This book is a comprehensive, state-of-the art synthesis of paleoclimate research covering all geological timescales, emphasizing topics that shed light on modern trends in the earth's climate. Thomas M. Cronin discusses recent discoveries about past periods of global warmth, changes in atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations, abrupt climate and sea-level change, natural temperature variability, and other topics directly relevant to controversies over the causes and impacts of climate change. This text is geared toward advanced undergraduate and graduate students and researchers in geology, geography, biology, glaciology, oceanography, atmospheric sciences, and climate modeling, fields that contribute to paleoclimatology. This volume can also serve as a reference for those requiring a general background on natural climate variability.

  19. Global Environmental Change : Understanding the Human Dimensions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stern, Paul C; Druckman, Daniel; Young, Oran R; National Research Council; National Academy of Sciences; Stern, Paul C; Druckman, Daniel

    ... on the Human Dimensions of Global Change Commission on the Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1992 Copyrightthe cannot be not from book, paper however, version for formatting, original authoritative the typesetting-specific the as from created publication files ...

  20. Understanding change: Wildfire in Larimer County, Colorado (United States)

    Hannah Brenkert-Smith; Patricia A. Champ


    Wildfire activity continues to plague communities in the American West. Three causes are often identified as key contributors to the wildfire problem: accumulated fuels on public lands due to a history of suppressing wildfires; climate change; and an influx of residents into fire prone areas referred to as the wildland-urban interface (WUI). The latter of these...

  1. Understanding change: Wildfire in Boulder County, Colorado (United States)

    Hannah Brenkert-Smith; Patricia A. Champ; Amy L. Telligman


    Wildfire activity continues to plague communities in the American West. Three causes are often identified as key contributors to the wildfire problem: accumulated fuels on public lands due to a history of suppressing wildfires; climate change; and an influx of residents into fire prone areas referred to as the wildland-urban interface (WUI). The latter of these...

  2. Understanding milling induced changes: Some results

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    size refinement, milling has received wide acceptability due to its potential to drive the changes at ambient conditions which are either not possible or require vigorous condi- tions in conventional processing routes.1–3 For example, while unfavourable decom- position steps restrict the high temperature chemical reactions ...

  3. Understanding milling induced changes: Some results

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Milling is identified as one of the robust processing routes for synthesizing a variety of materials. Commonly applied to the materials in solid state, the most noticeable change with milling is the reduction in the particle size, generally to nanoscale. In addition to size refinement, milling has received wide acceptability due to its ...

  4. Global environmental change: understanding the human dimensions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stern, Paul C; Young, Oran R; Druckman, Daniel

    ... on the Human Dimensions of Global Change Commission on the Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1992 Copyrightthe cannot be not from book, paper however, version for formatting, original authoritative the typesetting-specific the as from created publication files ...

  5. Exploring elementary students’ understanding of energy and climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin BOYLAN


    Full Text Available As environmental changes become a significant societal issue, elementary science curriculaneed to develop students’ understanding about the key concepts of energy and climate change.For teachers, developing quality learning experiences involves establishing what theirstudents’ prior understanding about energy and climate change are. A survey was developed toexplore what elementary students know and understand about renewable and non-renewablesources of energy and their relationship to climate change issues. The findings from thissurvey are reported in this paper.

  6. Understanding a Resistance to Change: A Challenge for Universities (United States)

    Caruth, Gail D.; Caruth, Donald L.


    Change is inevitable. Today more than ever the pace of change is accelerating. Where there is organizational change there will be resistance to this change. To deal with the resistance effectively university administrators must understand the nature and causes of resistance to change. Only by dealing effectively with resistance to change can…

  7. Climate changes - To understand and to react

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The first part of this report recalls the definition of the greenhouse effect, comments the climate past variations, outlines that climate changes are already here and that greenhouse effect has a human origin, and discusses the expected impacts during the 21. century. The second part presents the basis of international action in the struggle against climate change, outlines the necessity to strengthen this international action, describes the role of Europe in international negotiations on climate, outlines the need of an international agreement on climate, proposes an overview of the French climate policy (national and local actions), and outlines that some political responses do not match with sustainable development (nuclear energy, agro-fuels, carbon capture and storage, shale gas and oil). The third part indicates how one can compute his own impact on climate, and presents some collective and citizen innovative initiatives in the fields of agriculture and food, of energy, of transports and mobility, and of wastes

  8. Economic Approaches to Understanding Change in Happiness


    Powdthavee, Nattavudh; Stutzer, Alois


    Are people condemned to an inherent level of experienced happiness? A review of the economic research on subjective well-being gives reason to the assessment that happiness can change. First, empirical findings clearly indicate that people are not indifferent to adverse living conditions when reporting their subjective well-being as observed for limited freedom of choice, low levels of democratization, unemployment, low income, etc. Second, considering people's adaptation to life events and (...

  9. The Race To Understand A Changing Planet (United States)

    Sellers, Piers J.


    The Earth's climate is changing rapidly. In some respects, the rate of change is outpacing the predictions of only a few years ago. The challenge to Earth Science is to put forward credible projections of possible future climates so that the public and policy makers can make science-based decisions about energy development strategies. Models, observations and experiments all play strong roles in improving knowledge and increasing confidence in our predictions. The models have progressed from simple, coarse-resolution descriptions of atmospheric dynamics and physics only twenty years ago, to full-up Earth System models (ESMs) that include complete descriptions of the oceans and cryosphere. It has been convincingly argued that such complexity - the construction of realistic "toy" Earth's - is necessary to address the complex processes involved in climate change, including not only the physical atmosphere, oceans and cryosphere, but also the carbon cycle - both its natural and anthropogenic components - and the biosphere. Observations, particularly satellite observations, have more or less kept pace with the demands of the modelers, being able to observe progressively more and different facets of the Earth system, but the global satellite fleet is in need of an overhaul very soon. Lastly, field experiments and process studies confront the models with facts and allow us to develop more sophisticated and accurate satellite data algorithms. The challenges facing our relatively small Earth and planetary science communities are considerable and the stakes are significant. The stakeholders, now numbering 7 billion but soon to be 10 billion, will be relying on our results and capabilitie's to guide them into the future.

  10. UNDERSTANDING RESISTANCE TO CHANGE: A Challenge for Universities


    Gail D. CARUTH; Donald L. CARUTH


    Change is inevitable. Today more than ever the pace of change is accelerating. Where there is organizational change there will be resistance to this change. To deal with the resistance effectively university administrators must understand the nature and causes of resistance to change. Only by dealing effectively with resistance to change can organizational change be implemented successfully. This paper explores organizational change and the challenge it poses for universities. Because univers...

  11. Exploring Elementary Students' Understanding of Energy and Climate Change (United States)

    Boylan, Colin


    As environmental changes become a significant societal issue, elementary science curricula need to develop students' understanding about the key concepts of energy and climate change. For teachers, developing quality learning experiences involves establishing what their students' prior understanding about energy and climate change are. A survey…

  12. Assessing Elementary Science Methods Students' Understanding about Global Climate Change (United States)

    Lambert, Julie L.; Lindgren, Joan; Bleicher, Robert


    Global climate change, referred to as climate change in this paper, has become an important planetary issue, and given that K-12 students have numerous alternative conceptions or lack of prior knowledge, it is critical that teachers have an understanding of the fundamental science underlying climate change. Teachers need to understand the natural…

  13. From Popular Justice to (Revolutionary) Humanism: Ideological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper is of the view that the insistence of the dramatist on the social function of art and the artist in society is responsible for his own ideological mutation from what the paper terms popular justice to revolutionary humanism. This is also a result of the dramatist‟s own artistic maturation over time as it is common to every ...

  14. Critical Revolutionary Pedagogy Spiced by Pedagogical Love (United States)

    FitzSimmons, Robert; Uusiautti, Satu


    The latest incidents demonstrating human beings' inhumanity to their fellow human beings have given impetus to dissect the connection between critical revolutionary pedagogy and the idea of pedagogical love. In this essay we attempt to answer the following questions: How do these two pedagogies complement each other? What can they offer for…

  15. Women in Post-Revolutionary Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette Toft; Hervik, Peter

    This book addresses how identity, structures, and agency affect women’s everyday lives in post-revolutionary Egypt. The authors analyse the topic both on a macro- as well as on a micro-level. Through interviews and workshops, women around Egypt express their own experiences in dialogue, in groups...

  16. The Revolutionary War. [Lesson Plan]. (United States)

    Buchberg, Wendy

    Based on James Lincoln Collier and Christopher Collier's novel "My Brother Sam Is Dead," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand that one way to learn about the past is to read historical novels; and that some people take one side or another in a war or other conflict, and some find themselves caught in the…

  17. Revolutionary Sentiment in Slave Narratives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Karen-Margrethe


    of genre and are written not by the victims but by ‘spectators’, political or human rights agents, historians or literary writers who are in a distanced position from the actual slavery. In order to understand the role of sentimentalism in slave narratives, I will discuss the sentimental novel by Gertrudis...

  18. Public understanding of climate change in the United States. (United States)

    Weber, Elke U; Stern, Paul C


    This article considers scientific and public understandings of climate change and addresses the following question: Why is it that while scientific evidence has accumulated to document global climate change and scientific opinion has solidified about its existence and causes, U.S. public opinion has not and has instead become more polarized? Our review supports a constructivist account of human judgment. Public understanding is affected by the inherent difficulty of understanding climate change, the mismatch between people's usual modes of understanding and the task, and, particularly in the United States, a continuing societal struggle to shape the frames and mental models people use to understand the phenomena. We conclude by discussing ways in which psychology can help to improve public understanding of climate change and link a better understanding to action. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. The revolutionary importance of coal


    Macfarlane, Alan


    Alan Macfarlane discusses the coal revolution, the change from energy harvested from the sun through plants and animals, to the stored carbon energy of millions of years of sunlight. Filmed on a coal heap in Coalbrookdale, where the industrial revolution in England began.

  20. Revolutionary non-migratory migrants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, M.R.


    In the migratory behaviour of the Barnacle Goose Branta leucopsis several changes have occurred over the past few decades. Barnacle geese breeding in Russia have delayed the commencement of spring migration with approximately one month since

  1. Secondary School Students' Conceptual Understanding of Physical and Chemical Changes (United States)

    Hanson, R.; Twumasi, A. K.; Aryeetey, C.; Sam, A.; Adukpo, G.


    In recent years, researchers have shown an interest in understanding students' own ideas about basic chemical principles and guiding them through innovative ways to gain conceptual understanding where necessary. This research was a case study designed to assess 50 first year high school students' conceptual understanding about changes in matter,…

  2. Understanding service-oriented software.


    Gold, N. E.; Knight, C.; Mohan, A.; Munro, M.


    Service-oriented software is being hailed as the next revolutionary approach to software development. Service orientation allows organizations to rapidly and dynamically form new software applications to meet changing business needs, thus alleviating the software evolution problems that occur with traditional applications. The largest of these problems is the need to understand existing software before changing it. This article looks ahead toward the automated construction of service-oriented...

  3. Revolutionary new way to train your brain! New thinking and creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jochumsen, Bente Würtz; Holm, Henrik Brøndum

    and for maintaining abilities and skills for new thinking - an important part of creativity, innovation and entrepreneurship. A continues training can change the cognitive ability and skills to think new both in the short term as well as for the rest of live as an occupational therapist. The most complex structure......As our understanding of the brain increases, it brings new insights. The Training Program for New Thinking and creativity is a revolutionary new way to development personal thinking/behavior and organizational culture among eg. OT students, OT practitioner and lecturers. It can be used for creating...... in the universe lies inside each and every one of us. It is the human brain with billions of neurons. It is still not fully understood by science. The cognitive Training in new thinking occurs relatively rarely for the vast majority of the world population. Therefore, even very little training in new thinking can...

  4. Health Behavior Change Challenge: Understanding Stages of Change (United States)

    Sullivan, Claire F.


    This semester-long activity requires students to reflect on their own strengths and weaknesses in attempting to take on a personally meaningful health behavior change challenge. This assignment affords them the opportunity to take a deeper look at theory and health concepts learned throughout the semester and to see how it has informed their own…

  5. Endogenous money: the evolutionary versus revolutionary views


    Louis-Philippe Rochon; Sergio Rossi


    The purpose of this paper is to shed light on the endogenous nature of money. Contrary to the established post-Keynesian, or evolutionary, view, this paper argues that money has always been endogenous, irrespective of the historical period. Instead of the evolutionary theory of money and banking that can be traced back to Chick (1986), this paper puts forward a revolutionary definition of endogenous money consistent with many aspects of post-Keynesian economics as well as with the monetary ci...

  6. UNDERSTANDING RESISTANCE TO CHANGE: A Challenge for Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gail D. CARUTH


    Full Text Available Change is inevitable. Today more than ever the pace of change is accelerating. Where there is organizational change there will be resistance to this change. To deal with the resistance effectively university administrators must understand the nature and causes of resistance to change. Only by dealing effectively with resistance to change can organizational change be implemented successfully. This paper explores organizational change and the challenge it poses for universities. Because universities are slow to change due to maintaining a balance of tradition and change successful implementation of change will continue to be a challenge both now and in the future. The challenge of change is real but the task is not impossible. Historically, universities have met the challenges that faced them; they must be prepared to confront this challenge too.

  7. Australian Secondary School Students' Understanding of Climate Change (United States)

    Dawson, Vaille; Carson, Katherine


    This study investigated 438 Year 10 students (15 and 16 years old) from Western Australian schools, on their understanding of the greenhouse effect and climate change, and the sources of their information. Results showed that most students have an understanding of how the greenhouse effect works, however, many students merge the processes of the…

  8. Public Understanding of Climate Change in the United States (United States)

    Weber, Elke U.; Stern, Paul C.


    This article considers scientific and public understandings of climate change and addresses the following question: Why is it that while scientific evidence has accumulated to document global climate change and scientific opinion has solidified about its existence and causes, U.S. public opinion has not and has instead become more polarized? Our…

  9. Understanding the Changing Planet: Strategic Directions for the Geographical Sciences (United States)

    National Academies Press, 2010


    From the oceans to continental heartlands, human activities have altered the physical characteristics of Earth's surface. With Earth's population projected to peak at 8 to 12 billion people by 2050 and the additional stress of climate change, it is more important than ever to understand how and where these changes are happening. Innovation in the…

  10. An empirical perspective for understanding climate change impacts in Switzerland (United States)

    Henne, Paul; Bigalke, Moritz; Büntgen, Ulf; Colombaroli, Daniele; Conedera, Marco; Feller, Urs; Frank, David; Fuhrer, Jürg; Grosjean, Martin; Heiri, Oliver; Luterbacher, Jürg; Mestrot, Adrien; Rigling, Andreas; Rössler, Ole; Rohr, Christian; Rutishauser, This; Schwikowski, Margit; Stampfli, Andreas; Szidat, Sönke; Theurillat, Jean-Paul; Weingartner, Rolf; Wilcke, Wolfgan; Tinner, Willy


    Planning for the future requires a detailed understanding of how climate change affects a wide range of systems at spatial scales that are relevant to humans. Understanding of climate change impacts can be gained from observational and reconstruction approaches and from numerical models that apply existing knowledge to climate change scenarios. Although modeling approaches are prominent in climate change assessments, observations and reconstructions provide insights that cannot be derived from simulations alone, especially at local to regional scales where climate adaptation policies are implemented. Here, we review the wealth of understanding that emerged from observations and reconstructions of ongoing and past climate change impacts in Switzerland, with wider applicability in Europe. We draw examples from hydrological, alpine, forest, and agricultural systems, which are of paramount societal importance, and are projected to undergo important changes by the end of this century. For each system, we review existing model-based projections, present what is known from observations, and discuss how empirical evidence may help improve future projections. A particular focus is given to better understanding thresholds, tipping points and feedbacks that may operate on different time scales. Observational approaches provide the grounding in evidence that is needed to develop local to regional climate adaptation strategies. Our review demonstrates that observational approaches should ideally have a synergistic relationship with modeling in identifying inconsistencies in projections as well as avenues for improvement. They are critical for uncovering unexpected relationships between climate and agricultural, natural, and hydrological systems that will be important to society in the future.

  11. Understanding and managing organizational change: implications for public health management. (United States)

    Thompson, Jon M


    Managing organizational change has become a significant responsibility of managers. Managing the change process within public health organizations is important because appropriately and systematically managing change is linked to improved organizational performance. However, change is difficult and the change process poses formidable challenges for managers. Managers themselves face increased pressure to respond to environmental influences and provide the necessary leadership to their organizations in the change process. In fact, managing organizational change has become a key competency for healthcare managers. This article addresses the important topic of organizational change in public health organizations. It provides a conceptual foundation for understanding organizational change and its relationship to healthcare organizational performance, and then discusses the types and nature of change, using some examples and evidence from those organizations that have successfully managed change. A framework for guiding public health managers in the change management process is provided. The article concludes with suggested management competencies to establish a change-oriented organization with the culture and capacity for change.

  12. Madrasahs as Vocational Educational Institutions in the Regions of Pre-Revolutionary Russia (United States)

    Khuziakhmetov, Anvar N.; Aminov, Takhir M.; Yesnazarova, Ulzhalgas A.


    The importance is determined by insufficient knowledge of the problem while undergoing serious changes in the system of Muslim education not only in Russia but all over the world. Hence, the purpose of this article is to identify the experience of madrasahs--professional Muslim educational institutions of pre-revolutionary Russia, as its…

  13. The Changes in Experienced Teachers' Understanding towards Classroom Management (United States)

    Ersozlu, Alpay; Cayci, Dilara


    The aim of this study is to examine the views of experienced teachers related to the changes in their understanding of classroom management in general terms until today. In this study according to the information given by teachers, it is expected to contribute to the discussions about the development of classroom management, which is a key to…

  14. Facilitating Conceptual Change in Students' Understanding of Electrochemistry. (United States)

    Niaz, Mansoor


    Constructs a teaching strategy to facilitate conceptual change in freshman students' understanding of electrochemistry. Provides students with the correct response along with alternative responses (teaching experiments), producing a conflicting situation that is conducive to an equilibration of their cognitive structures. Concludes that the…

  15. Understanding and Representing Changing Work Structures and Practices through Art (United States)

    Wieland, Stacey M. B.


    Courses: Organizational Communication, Advanced Organizational Communication, Organizing Work, Management/Organizational History. Objectives: This activity will help students to understand major shifts in the organization of work and creatively represent changing work structures and practices. An optional follow-up assignment is included. A…

  16. Promoting Conceptual Change in First Year Students' Understanding of Evaporation (United States)

    Costu, Bayram; Ayas, Alipasa; Niaz, Mansoor


    We constructed the PDEODE (Predict-Discuss-Explain-Observe-Discuss-Explain) teaching strategy, a variant of the classical POE (Predict-Observe-Explain) activity, to promote conceptual change, and investigated its effectiveness on student understanding of the evaporation concept. The sample consisted of 52 first year students in a primary science…

  17. Einstein's Revolutionary Light-Quantum Hypothesis (United States)

    Stuewer, Roger H.


    The paper in which Albert Einstein proposed his light-quantum hypothesis was the only one of his great papers of 1905 that he himself termed ``revolutionary.'' Contrary to widespread belief, Einstein did not propose his light-quantum hypothesis ``to explain the photoelectric effect.'' Instead, he based his argument for light quanta on the statistical interpretation of the second law of thermodynamics, with the photoelectric effect being only one of three phenomena that he offered as possible experimental support for it. I will discuss Einstein's light-quantum hypothesis of 1905 and his introduction of the wave-particle duality in 1909 and then turn to the reception of his work on light quanta by his contemporaries. We will examine the reasons that prominent physicists advanced to reject Einstein's light-quantum hypothesis in succeeding years. Those physicists included Robert A. Millikan, even though he provided convincing experimental proof of the validity of Einstein's equation of the photoelectric effect in 1915. The turning point came after Arthur Holly Compton discovered the Compton effect in late 1922, but even then Compton's discovery was contested both on experimental and on theoretical grounds. Niels Bohr, in particular, had never accepted the reality of light quanta and now, in 1924, proposed a theory, the Bohr-Kramers-Slater theory, which assumed that energy and momentum were conserved only statistically in microscopic interactions. Only after that theory was disproved experimentally in 1925 was Einstein's revolutionary light-quantum hypothesis generally accepted by physicists---a full two decades after Einstein had proposed it.

  18. Revolutionary Love at Work in an Arctic School with Conflicts (United States)

    Lanas, Maija; Zembylas, Michalinos


    This paper explores how "revolutionary love" may be a viable response in a teacher's pedagogical practices. To do so, we present an in-depth case study of one teacher in a reindeer herding village in Finnish rural north. The paper asks what does revolutionary love mean in teaching practice and what distinguishes loving from non-loving…

  19. A dance on contrasting platforms: African tradition and revolutionary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... (1963: 255) clarion call that “we must invent”, that “we must work out new concepts, and try to set afoot a new man”, while recognizing (and creatively appropriating) “the sometimes prodigious thesis which Europe has put forward.” Key words: Esiaba Irobi; Nigerian theatre; revolutionary aesthetics; revolutionary violence.

  20. Revolutionary in Counter-Revolutionary Times: Elaborating Fanonian National Consciousness into the Twenty-First Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Anna Gordon


    Full Text Available One of the unique challenges of reading Les damnés de la terre (The Wretched of the Earth today is that while it is an irredeemably revolutionary text, we live in a counter-revolutionary moment or in a global context that has tried very hard to discredit even the possibility of revolution. Fanon’s text does not only narrate the effective undertaking of an anti-colonial struggle—of what is required for people to identify the actual causes of their alienation and unfreedom and together to will their elimination—it also outlines the various, often dialectical challenges of restructuring a society from the bottom up. Guiding and evident in the latter is the flourishing of what Fanon suggestively called national consciousness. Elaborating its meaning and ongoing usefulness is the focus of this essay.

  1. Understanding Global Change: Frameworks and Models for Teaching Systems Thinking (United States)

    Bean, J. R.; Mitchell, K.; Zoehfeld, K.; Oshry, A.; Menicucci, A. J.; White, L. D.; Marshall, C. R.


    The scientific and education communities must impart to teachers, students, and the public an understanding of how the various factors that drive climate and global change operate, and why the rates and magnitudes of these changes related to human perturbation of Earth system processes today are cause for deep concern. Even though effective educational modules explaining components of the Earth and climate system exist, interdisciplinary learning tools are necessary to conceptually link the causes and consequences of global changes. To address this issue, the Understanding Global Change Project at the University of California Museum of Paleontology (UCMP) at UC Berkeley developed an interdisciplinary framework that organizes global change topics into three categories: (1) causes of climate change, both human and non-human (e.g., burning of fossil fuels, deforestation, Earth's tilt and orbit), (2) Earth system processes that shape the way the Earth works (e.g., Earth's energy budget, water cycle), and (3) the measurable changes in the Earth system (e.g., temperature, precipitation, ocean acidification). To facilitate student learning about the Earth as a dynamic, interacting system, a website will provide visualizations of Earth system models and written descriptions of how each framework topic is conceptually linked to other components of the framework. These visualizations and textual summarizations of relationships and feedbacks in the Earth system are a unique and crucial contribution to science communication and education, informed by a team of interdisciplinary scientists and educators. The system models are also mechanisms by which scientists can communicate how their own work informs our understanding of the Earth system. Educators can provide context and relevancy for authentic datasets and concurrently can assess student understanding of the interconnectedness of global change phenomena. The UGC resources will be available through a web-based platform and

  2. Conclusions, synthesis, and future directions: understanding sources of population change (United States)

    Esler, Daniel N.; Flint, Paul L.; Derksen, Dirk V.; Savard, Jean-Pierre L.; Eadie, John M.


    The material in this volume reflects the burgeoning interest in sea ducks, both as study species with compelling and unique ecological attributes and as taxa of conservation concern. In this review, we provide perspective on the current state of sea duck knowledge by highlighting key findings in the preceding chapters that are of particular value for understanding or influencing population change. We also introduce a conceptual model that characterizes links among topics covered by individual chapters and places them in the context of demographic responses. Finally, we offer recommendations for areas of future research that we suggest will have importance for understanding and managing sea duck population dynamics.

  3. Understanding global climate change scenarios through bioclimate stratification (United States)

    Soteriades, A. D.; Murray-Rust, D.; Trabucco, A.; Metzger, M. J.


    Despite progress in impact modelling, communicating and understanding the implications of climatic change projections is challenging due to inherent complexity and a cascade of uncertainty. In this letter, we present an alternative representation of global climate change projections based on shifts in 125 multivariate strata characterized by relatively homogeneous climate. These strata form climate analogues that help in the interpretation of climate change impacts. A Random Forests classifier was calculated and applied to 63 Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 climate scenarios at 5 arcmin resolution. Results demonstrate how shifting bioclimate strata can summarize future environmental changes and form a middle ground, conveniently integrating current knowledge of climate change impact with the interpretation advantages of categorical data but with a level of detail that resembles a continuous surface at global and regional scales. Both the agreement in major change and differences between climate change projections are visually combined, facilitating the interpretation of complex uncertainty. By making the data and the classifier available we provide a climate service that helps facilitate communication and provide new insight into the consequences of climate change.

  4. Computational simulation to understand vision changes during prolonged weightlessness. (United States)

    Rose, William C


    A mathematical model of whole body and cerebral hemodynamics is a useful tool for investigating visual impairment and intracranial pressure (VIIP), a recently described condition associated with space flight. VIIP involves loss of visual acuity, anatomical changes to the eye, and, usually, elevated cerebrospinal fluid pressure. Loss of visual acuity is a significant threat to astronaut health and performance. It is therefore important to understand the pathogenesis of VIIP. Some of the experimental measurements that could lead to better understanding of the pathophysiology are impossible or infeasible on orbit. A computational implementation of a mathematical model of hypothetical pathophysiological processes is therefore valuable. Such a model is developed, and is used to investigate how changes in vascular compliance or pressure can influence intraocular or intracranial pressure.

  5. Towards more eclectic understandings of energy demand and change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Charlotte Louise; Quitzau, Maj-Britt


    Progressive planning interventions can be characterized as actively seeking to reconfigure bundles of practices. This represents a different strategy for creating momentum for change (in energy demand) compared to prevailing interventions with emphasis on regulation and information. In this article......, we explore theoretical understandings of practices and translations as a means to illustrate how certain engagements with strategic work aimed at reconfiguring bundles of practices enable a different approach to establishing momentum for change through planning interventions. We illustrate how...... on the identification of hidden potentials in prevailing practice architectures. Presented through storytelling, we discuss why an eclectic theoretical interpretation of new forms of planning interventions is important in order to understand and bridge the gap between theoretical insight and planners’ or practitioners...

  6. Energy statistics of pre-revolutionary Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Simonov


    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of creation and development of the energy statistics of the Russian Empire of the initial stage of electrification and the formation of the energy economy, which is related to: 1 the economic upsurge of the 1890s; 2 the new economic recovery of 1907–1913 and 3 the militarization of industry in 1914–1916. The real technical and economic indicators and complex statistical data of the pre-revolutionary electric power industry were either hushed up or deliberately distorted during the Soviet era. Even in the encyclopaedic literature it was considered that pre-revolutionaryRussia“was on one of the last places in the world” for the production of electricity. The author analyzes statistical surveys (censuses of the manufacturing industry for 1900 and 1908 (the “varzar censuses”, which gave the first material on the state of its energy sector, namely: the composition, quantity and power of primary engines and electric motors. For the first time in historiography, the data of the “energy censuses” of the Ministry of Finance for 1905 and 1913 on the number and capacity of central public power stations and private power stations (block stations of industrial enterprises, organizations and institutions are cited. The data of the census were conducted with the participation of the apparatus of factory and factory inspections in 1906 and in1916 inall provinces of the Russian Empire, with the exception of six provinces of the frontline zone. A lot of work was done to record electricity production / consumption, which was conducted by the Russian electrotechnical community. According to incomplete data published in 1917 by the Secretariat of the Standing Committee of the VII All-Russia Electrotechnical Congress, from 1905 to 1913 (that is, for 8 years the total number of power stations in the Russian Empire increased by 1.7 times, and the amount of electricity produced by them Has grown in 3,8 times. The

  7. The essential interactions between understanding climate variability and climate change (United States)

    Neelin, J. D.


    Global change is sometimes perceived as a field separate from other aspects of atmospheric and oceanic sciences. Despite the long history of communication between the scientific communities studying global change and those studying interannual variability and weather, increasing specialization and conflicting societal demands on the fields can put these interactions at risk. At the same time, current trajectories for greenhouse gas emissions imply substantial adaptation to climate change will be necessary. Instead of simply projecting effects to be avoided, the field is increasingly being asked to provide regional-level information for specific adaptation strategies—with associated requirements for increased precision on projections. For extreme events, challenges include validating models for rare events, especially for events that are unprecedented in the historical record. These factors will be illustrated with examples of information transfer to climate change from work on fundamental climate processes aimed originally at timescales from hours to interannual. Work to understand the effects that control probability distributions of moisture, temperature and precipitation in historical weather can yield new factors to examine for the changes in the extremes of these distributions under climate change. Surprisingly simple process models can give insights into the behavior of vastly more complex climate models. Observation systems and model ensembles aimed at weather and interannual variations prove valuable for global change and vice versa. Work on teleconnections in the climate system, such as the remote impacts of El Niño, is informing analysis of projected regional rainfall change over California. Young scientists need to prepare to work across the full spectrum of climate variability and change, and to communicate their findings, as they and our society head for future that is more interesting than optimal.

  8. Middle School Students' Understandings About Anthropogenic Climate Change (United States)

    Golden, B. W.


    they discussed the validation of their beliefs. That is, we argue that the unit, and the emphases contained within the unit, resulted in the "epistemic scaffolding" of their ideas, to the extent that they shifted from arguing from anecdotes to arguing based on other types of data, especially from line graphs. Additionally, we found that students' understandings of climate change were tied to their ontological constructions of the subject matter, i.e., many perceived climate change as just another environmentally sensitive issue such as littering and pollution, and were therefore limited in their ability to understand anthropogenic climate change in the vast and robust sense meant by current scientific consensus. Given these known difficulties, it is critical to explore further research of this sort in order to better understand what students are actually thinking, and how that thinking is prone to change, modification, or not. Subsequently, K-12 strategies might be better designed, if that is indeed a priority of US/Western society.

  9. Designing Graphs that Promote Both Risk Understanding and Behavior Change. (United States)

    Okan, Yasmina; Stone, Eric R; Bruine de Bruin, Wändi


    Graphs show promise for improving communications about different types of risks, including health risks, financial risks, and climate risks. However, graph designs that are effective at meeting one important risk communication goal (promoting risk-avoidant behaviors) can at the same time compromise another key goal (improving risk understanding). We developed and tested simple bar graphs aimed at accomplishing these two goals simultaneously. We manipulated two design features in graphs, namely, whether graphs depicted the number of people affected by a risk and those at risk of harm ("foreground+background") versus only those affected ("foreground-only"), and the presence versus absence of simple numerical labels above bars. Foreground-only displays were associated with larger risk perceptions and risk-avoidant behavior (i.e., willingness to take a drug for heart attack prevention) than foreground+background displays, regardless of the presence of labels. Foreground-only graphs also hindered risk understanding when labels were not present. However, the presence of labels significantly improved understanding, eliminating the detrimental effect of foreground-only displays. Labels also led to more positive user evaluations of the graphs, but did not affect risk-avoidant behavior. Using process modeling we identified mediators (risk perceptions, understanding, user evaluations) that explained the effect of display type on risk-avoidant behavior. Our findings contribute new evidence to the graph design literature: unlike what was previously feared, we demonstrate that it is possible to design foreground-only graphs that promote intentions for behavior change without a detrimental effect on risk understanding. Implications for the design of graphical risk communications and decision support are discussed. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  10. Understanding Recent Mass Balance Changes of the Greenland Ice Sheet (United States)

    vanderVeen, Cornelius


    The ultimate goal of this project is to better understand the current transfer of mass between the Greenland Ice Sheet, the world's oceans and the atmosphere, and to identify processes controlling the rate of this transfer, to be able to predict with greater confidence future contributions to global sea level rise. During the first year of this project, we focused on establishing longer-term records of change of selected outlet glaciers, reevaluation of mass input to the ice sheet and analysis of climate records derived from ice cores, and modeling meltwater production and runoff from the margins of the ice sheet.

  11. Understanding the school 'climate': secondary school children and climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, Susan; Bernier, Sandrine; Blanchet, Aymeric; Derkenne, Chantal; Clement, Florence; Petitjean, Leslie


    This interdisciplinary study analyzes the production, circulation and reception of messages on climate change in secondary schools in France. The objective is to understand how political and educational policy initiatives influence the ways in which schools contribute to creating youngsters' perceptions and opinions about climate change. In order to study the conditions of production and reception of information about climate change, a survey was conducted in four French secondary schools, in the 'Bas Rhin' and 'Nord' departments, and local political actors in each department were interviewed. The cross disciplinary analytical and methodological approach uses the tools of sociological inquiry, information science, and political science: questionnaires and interviews were conducted with members of the educational and governmental communities of each school and department, semiotic and discursive analyses of corpuses of documents were carried out, in order to characterize documents used by students and teachers at school or in more informal contexts; the nature and extent of the relations between the political contexts and school directives and programs were also discussed. This interdisciplinary approach, combining sociological, communicational, and political methods, was chosen in response to the hypothesis that three types of variables (social, communicational and political) contribute to the structuring and production of messages about climate change in schools. This report offers a contextualized overview of activities developed within the four secondary schools to help sensitize children to the risks associated with climate change. A study of the networks of individuals (teachers, staff, members of associations, etc.) created in and around the school environment is presented. The degree of involvement of these actors in climate change programs is analyzed, as it is related to their motives and objectives, to the school discipline taught, and to the position

  12. Revolutionary Transformation in the Macro-Regional Modernities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrubec, Marek


    Roč. 11, č. 6 (2015), s. 79-91 ISSN 1841-0464 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : macro-regional * modernities * revolutionary transformations * intercultural * global Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  13. Revolutionary Performance For Ultra Low Reynolds Number Vehicles Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An important mission for NASA is the development of revolutionary flight concepts and technology. The development of Micro unmanned air vehicles (Micro-UAVs) and...

  14. The Revolutionary Vertical Lift Technology (RVLT) Project (United States)

    Yamauchi, Gloria K.


    The Revolutionary Vertical Lift Technology (RVLT) Project is one of six projects in the Advanced Air Vehicles Program (AAVP) of the NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate. The overarching goal of the RVLT Project is to develop and validate tools, technologies, and concepts to overcome key barriers for vertical lift vehicles. The project vision is to enable the next generation of vertical lift vehicles with aggressive goals for efficiency, noise, and emissions, to expand current capabilities and develop new commercial markets. The RVLT Project invests in technologies that support conventional, non-conventional, and emerging vertical-lift aircraft in the very light to heavy vehicle classes. Research areas include acoustic, aeromechanics, drive systems, engines, icing, hybrid-electric systems, impact dynamics, experimental techniques, computational methods, and conceptual design. The project research is executed at NASA Ames, Glenn, and Langley Research Centers; the research extensively leverages partnerships with the US Army, the Federal Aviation Administration, industry, and academia. The primary facilities used by the project for testing of vertical-lift technologies include the 14- by 22-Ft Wind Tunnel, Icing Research Tunnel, National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex, 7- by 10-Ft Wind Tunnel, Rotor Test Cell, Landing and Impact Research facility, Compressor Test Facility, Drive System Test Facilities, Transonic Turbine Blade Cascade Facility, Vertical Motion Simulator, Mobile Acoustic Facility, Exterior Effects Synthesis and Simulation Lab, and the NASA Advanced Supercomputing Complex. To learn more about the RVLT Project, please stop by booth #1004 or visit their website at

  15. General Chemistry Students' Understanding of Climate Change and the Chemistry Related to Climate Change (United States)

    Versprille, Ashley N.; Towns, Marcy H.


    While much is known about secondary students' perspectives of climate change, rather less is known about undergraduate students' perspectives. The purpose of this study is to investigate general chemistry students' understanding of the chemistry underlying climate change. Findings that emerged from the analysis of the 24 interviews indicate that…

  16. Global environmental change: local perceptions, understandings, and explanations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aili Pyhälä


    Full Text Available Global environmental change (GEC is an increasingly discussed phenomenon in the scientific literature as evidence of its presence and impacts continues to grow. Yet, while the documentation of GEC is becoming more readily available, local perceptions of GEC - particularly in small-scale societies - and preferences about how to deal with it, are still largely overlooked. Local knowledge and perceptions of GEC are important in that agents make decisions (including on natural resource management based on individual perceptions. We carried out a systematic literature review that aims to provide an exhaustive state-of-the-art of the degree to and manner in which the study of local perceptions of change are being addressed in GEC research. We reviewed 126 articles found in peer-reviewed journals (between 1998 and 2014 that address local perceptions of GEC. We used three particular lenses of analysis that are known to influence local perceptions, namely (i cognition, (ii culture and knowledge, and (iii possibilities for adaptation.We present our findings on the geographical distribution of the current research, the most common changes reported, perceived drivers and impacts of change, and local explanations and evaluations of change and impacts. Overall, we found the studies to be geographically biased, lacking methodological reporting, mostly theory based with little primary data, and lacking of indepth analysis of the psychological and ontological influences in perception and implications for adaptation. We provide recommendations for future GEC research and propose the development of a "meta-language" around adaptation, perception, and mediation to encourage a greater appreciation and understanding of the diversity around these phenomena across multiple scales, and improved codesign and facilitation of locally relevant adaptation and mitigation strategies.

  17. Can pictures speak a thousand words in understanding climate change? (United States)

    Walton, P.


    Pictures are able to engage, inspire and educate people in a way that the spoken or written word cannot, and with 21st Century technology we now have even more ways to present images. Researchers and campaigners working in climate change have used the power of images to great effect, bringing the issue of a warming planet into stark relief through iconic scenes such as the forlorn polar bear adrift on an iceberg. Whilst undeniably successful, this image has now become passé and invisible necessitating the scientific community to identify new ways to engage and educate the general public. This paper reports on a new high resolution visualisation app that has been developed by the European Space Agency to illustrate the change over time of a number of climate variables. Data, collected via satellite Earth observations, have been rendered into visually stunning animations that can be interrogated in a number of ways to allow the user to understand the spatial and temporal changes of that variable. But is it enough? Can it ever be that all that glisters really is gold?

  18. Papers of the CWRA climate change symposium : understanding climate change impacts on Manitoba's water resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This symposium provided an opportunity for discussions on climate change issues with particular reference to the impacts on Manitoba's water resources. The presentations addressed issues of importance to governments, scientists, academics, managers, consultants and the general public. Topics of discussion ranged from climate change impacts on water quality, wetlands, hydropower, fisheries and drought, to adaptation to climate change. Recent advances in global and regional climate modelling were highlighted along with paleo-environmental indicators of climate change. The objective was to provide a better understanding of the science of climate change. The conference featured 16 presentations of which 1 was indexed separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  19. The American Home Front. Revolutionary War, Civil War, World War 1, World War 2 (United States)


    mankind. and they used the war to test and purify American society in prepza.ation for that millennial task. As a consequence. political theorists...Revolution also lost many civil and economic rights. They could neither vote nor hold office. They could neither collect debts nor buy and sell land. They...little economic levelling-because only the Revolutionary elite had the funds to buy the seized property-but a lot of propeny did change hands. More


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Vujević


    Full Text Available Dow AgroSciences LLC, based in Indianapolis, Indiana, USA, is a top tier agricultural company providing innovative crop protection, pest and vegetation management, seed, and agricultural biotechnology solutions to serve the world's growing population. Global sales for Dow AgroSciences, a wholly owned subsidiary of The Dow Chemical Company, are $3.8 billion. The company's roots in the agricultural marketplace date back to 1950 as the agricultural unit of The Dow Chemical Company and as part of Eli Lilly and Company's agricultural business. In 1989, the DowElanco joint venture was formed, and the company continued to develop new products and acquire strategic businesses. DowElanco acquired majority ownership in Mycogen Seeds in 1996; in 1997, The Dow Chemical Company acquired 100 percent of DowElanco and the company was renamed Dow AgroSciences. Other significant acquisitions include acetochlor herbicide, Cargill Hybrid Seeds, several Brazilian seed companies and the agricultural chemicals business of Rohm and Haas. Dow AgroSciences is positioned for the future through focused implementation of its strategy which revolves around productivity, portfolio management and innovation. This focus allows the company to grow through an ambitious innovation program that maximizes the products being sold today and creates new, revolutionary solutions that will surprise customers in the future. D Dow AgroSciences is committed to sustainable chemistry and has a competitive advantage in our natural products discovery capability. We've won a prestigious award for technical innovation incorporating "green" chemistry principles into chemical design, manufacture and use. Dow AgroSciences offers a full range of seeds for corn, sunflowers, canola, cotton, soybeans and alfalfa. In addition, we have developed seeds specifically bred for nutritional quality. Dow AgroSciences uses conventional breeding techniques and tools of biotechnology to produce oils that are low in

  1. Critical discourse analysis: understanding change in maternity services. (United States)

    McIntyre, Meredith; Francis, Karen; Chapman, Ysanne


    This paper provides an example of the use of critical discourse analysis (CDA) in the area of maternity care policy and describes the process of CDA as an effective research method for understanding the influences of change in the context of Australian maternity services. CDA is a methodological approach that examines how discourse is formed and given power, as a result of how power is used, who uses it and the context within which this usage takes place. The application of CDA is described in this study for the purpose of examining key-stakeholder use of knowledge and power for the purpose of influencing the direction of the maternity services reform. The CDA theoretical framework guided discourse identification and analysis of the purpose behind the discourse through examination of power relationships between key stakeholders. The use of a theoretical lens in the form of neoliberalism to supplement the theoretical framework facilitated the exposure of forces intrinsic to the maternity care context driving change. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  2. Towards a Better Understanding of Climate Change Negotiations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryndís Arndal Woods


    Full Text Available The bulk of environmental economics literature applies non-cooperative game theory to examine the stability of International Environmental Agreements. Recently, a new trend has emerged in the literature whereby scholars use modified economic approaches to better account for ‘reality’ as such. This article builds upon the work of Hugh Ward, Frank Grundig and Ethan Zorick who conducted a mixed-method analysis to create a model of international climate change negotiations which could explain why policy change has been minimal in this issue area. The purpose of this article is to further develop the mixed-method approach in order to gain a better understanding of international climate change negotiations. Using the progression of the 2011 Durban negotiation session as our raw data, we demonstrate the usefulness of conducting qualitative and quantitative analyses simultaneously to best represent reality. Content and discourse analyses are applied to the Durban negotiations to identify the properties of the underlying game. The results are applied to the future of the negotiations in order to identify trends which need to be addressed to reach more progressive outcomes in the future. The main results of the qualitative analyses of the Durban negotiations included that players had modest expectations at the outset of the negotiations, which influenced the issues they addressed. The quantitative analysis demonstrated that players achieved a high degree of success at Durban; all players achieved their desired outcomes on at least half of the issues they addressed. Finally, the mixed-method approach identified important trends from the negotiations, most importantly the cracks exposed within the BASIC bloc and the role of the ‘middle ground’ alliance.

  3. Understanding dynamic changes in live cell adhesion with neutron reflectometry (United States)

    Junghans, Ann

    Understanding the structure and functionality of biological systems on a nanometer-resolution and short temporal scales is important for solving complex biological problems, developing innovative treatment, and advancing the design of highly functionalized biomimetic materials. For example, adhesion of cells to an underlying substrate plays a crucial role in physiology and disease development, and has been investigated with great interest for several decades. In the talk, we would like to highlight recent advances in utilizing neutron scattering to study bio-related structures in dynamic conditions (e . g . under the shear flow) including in-situ investigations of the interfacial properties of living cells. The strength of neutron reflectometry is its non-pertubative nature, the ability to probe buried interfaces with nanometer resolution and its sensitivity to light elements like hydrogen and carbon. That allows us to study details of cell - substrate interfaces that are not accessible with any other standard techniques. We studied the adhesion of human brain tumor cells (U251) to quartz substrates and their responses to the external mechanical forces. Such cells are isolated within the central nervous system which makes them difficult to reach with conventional therapies and therefore making them highly invasive. Our results reveal changes in the thickness and composition of the adhesion layer (a layer between the cell lipid membrane and the quartz substrate), largely composed of hyaluronic acid and associated proteoglycans, when the cells were subjected to shear stress. Further studies will allow us to determine more conditions triggering changes in the composition of the bio-material in the adhesion layer. This, in turn, can help to identify changes that correlate with tumor invasiveness, which can have significant medical impact for the development of targeted anti-invasive therapies.

  4. Understanding and Improving Ocean Mixing Parameterizations for modeling Climate Change (United States)

    Howard, A. M.; Fells, J.; Clarke, J.; Cheng, Y.; Canuto, V.; Dubovikov, M. S.


    Climate is vital. Earth is only habitable due to the atmosphere&oceans' distribution of energy. Our Greenhouse Gas emissions shift overall the balance between absorbed and emitted radiation causing Global Warming. How much of these emissions are stored in the ocean vs. entering the atmosphere to cause warming and how the extra heat is distributed depends on atmosphere&ocean dynamics, which we must understand to know risks of both progressive Climate Change and Climate Variability which affect us all in many ways including extreme weather, floods, droughts, sea-level rise and ecosystem disruption. Citizens must be informed to make decisions such as "business as usual" vs. mitigating emissions to avert catastrophe. Simulations of Climate Change provide needed knowledge but in turn need reliable parameterizations of key physical processes, including ocean mixing, which greatly impacts transport&storage of heat and dissolved CO2. The turbulence group at NASA-GISS seeks to use physical theory to improve parameterizations of ocean mixing, including smallscale convective, shear driven, double diffusive, internal wave and tidal driven vertical mixing, as well as mixing by submesoscale eddies, and lateral mixing along isopycnals by mesoscale eddies. Medgar Evers undergraduates aid NASA research while learning climate science and developing computer&math skills. We write our own programs in MATLAB and FORTRAN to visualize and process output of ocean simulations including producing statistics to help judge impacts of different parameterizations on fidelity in reproducing realistic temperatures&salinities, diffusivities and turbulent power. The results can help upgrade the parameterizations. Students are introduced to complex system modeling and gain deeper appreciation of climate science and programming skills, while furthering climate science. We are incorporating climate projects into the Medgar Evers college curriculum. The PI is both a member of the turbulence group at

  5. Interfering with Capitalism's Spell: Peter McLaren's Revolutionary Liminality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Day Fassbinder


    Full Text Available McLaren’s recent (post-2000 writings promote a form of agency called “revolutionary critical pedagogy,” and a type of agent, the “committed intellectual” (McLaren 2005b, p. 253-281. But one can find an earlier agent-type in McLaren’s (1986 Schooling as a Ritual Performance, the “liminal servant,” that explains how “critical pedagogy is secured by the most fecund of revolutionary talismans, critique” (2005a: 9. Borrowing from Theodor Adorno (1968, I suggest that McLaren’s recent writing uses aspects of the “liminal servant” for the purpose of interfering with the “spell” of capitalist social relations through “revolutionary critical pedagogy.” The beginning prologue examines “revolutionary liminality” in McLaren’s writing; the second part explains how his written discursive strategies (naming the culprit, suggesting icons, theorizing to unite the disaffected work to act out “revolutionary liminality.”

  6. Clouds and Climate Change. Understanding Global Change: Earth Science and Human Impacts. Global Change Instruction Program. (United States)

    Shaw, Glenn E.

    The Global Change Instruction Program was designed by college professors to fill a need for interdisciplinary materials on the emerging science of global change. This instructional module introduces the basic features and classifications of clouds and cloud cover, and explains how clouds form, what they are made of, what roles they play in…

  7. revolutionary trends in nigerian contemporary gospel music

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although human beings do not change, their cultures, practices, arts and technology do change from time to time. In this paper, an attempt is made to highlight and elucidate various radical changes that have occurred in Nigerian gospel music (a bona-fide Nigerian artistic genre) in recent years and the factors responsible ...

  8. Revolutionary Intelligence: The Expanding Intelligence Role of the Iranian Revolutionary Guard Corps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udit Banerjea


    Full Text Available The Iranian Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC is a military and paramilitary organization that is meant to defend the ideals of the Iranian Islamic Revolution in 1979. Since its formation, the IRGC has grown in influence and its intelligence role has expanded. This paper examines the role of the IRGC in Iran’s intelligence system through a comprehensive analysis of the organization of the IRGC’s intelligence arm, along with its operations and capabilities. In doing so, the scope, objectives, resources, customers, and sponsors of the IRGC’s intelligence activities are also analyzed. Additionally, this paper explores how the IRGC interacts with the government of Iran, the Ministry of Intelligence and Security (MOIS, other key internal stakeholders, and foreign client organizations. A key focus of this analysis is the evolution of the relationship between the IRGC and the MOIS and the growing influence of the IRGC in Iran’s intelligence community over the last decade. The paper concludes that the IRGC has now eclipsed the MOIS within Iran’s intelligence community and is one of the most powerful institutions in Iranian politics today, using its intelligence activities as its key means of maintaining power and influence within the country.

  9. Understanding Language Change: Phonetics, Phonology and Child Language Acquisition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Volk, Kevin


    Language change is a phenomenon that has fascinated scholars for centuries. As a science, linguistic theory has evolved considerably during the 20th century, but the overall puzzle of language change still remains unsolved...

  10. Societal Change and the Growing Divide between Knowing and Understanding (United States)

    Elkind, David


    Social and economic changes affect children indirectly, through the modifications they engender in parental behavior. No-fault divorce laws, for example, made divorce easier and led to a substantial increase in the number of separated families. In contrast to social and economic change, technological change can impact children directly without…

  11. Understanding Resistance to Change: The Jefferson Company Exercise. (United States)

    Reilly, Anne H.


    Describes a four-character role-play exercise designed to show how employee and management resistance to change can hinder the implementation of an organizational change effort. The Jefferson Company is an old-line printing firm with new partners that must change its technology, equipment, and operating procedures in the face of increased…

  12. Revolutionary Pressures and Social Movements in Nigeria: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    marginalization have formed the pivot on which revolutionary pressures and social movements revolve in the Niger Delta Region. Another dimension of this paper is a critique which adopts the political economy model in subjecting the variegated agitations in our study area to the crucibles of scholarly analysis. There is an ...

  13. From Liberation to Salvation: Revolutionary Critical Pedagogy Meets Liberation Theology (United States)

    McLaren, Peter; Jandric, Petar


    This conversation between Peter McLaren and Petar Jandric brings about some of the most recent and deepest of McLaren's insights into the relationship between revolutionary critical pedagogy and liberation theology, and outlines the main directions of development of McLaren's thought during and after "Pedagogy of Insurrection." In the…

  14. Pasdaran Incorporated: Evolving from Revolutionary to Praetorian Guard (United States)


    link are addressed in Chapter III. 69 Scott Peterson, “Iran’s Revolutionary Guards Tightens Grip,” Christian Science Monitor, December 9, 2009, http...RAND Corporation, 2009. Wehrey, Frederick, Green, Jerrold D., Nichiporuk, Brian, Nader, Alireza, Hansell , Lydia, Nafisi, Rasool et al. The Rise

  15. Twenty years of revolutionary democratic Ethiopia, 1991 to 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagmann, Tobias; Abbink, Jon


    This paper introduces a special issue of the Journal of Eastern African Studies devoted to a review of Ethiopia's 20 years of “revolutionary democracy”. The collection brings together 11 articles exploring differing aspects of Ethiopia's political experience since 1991. This introduction begins w...... of economic issues in defining government policies, and the significance of development and relations with donors....

  16. 449 Revolutionary Pressures and Social Movements in Nigeria: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    An International Multidisciplinary Journal, Ethiopia. Vol. 5 (4), Serial No. 21, July, 2011. ISSN 1994-9057 (Print). ISSN 2070--0083 (Online). Revolutionary Pressures and Social Movements in Nigeria: The Niger Delta Experience. (Pp. 449-461). Orji, Kingdom E. - Department of History & Diplomatic Studies, Faculty of.

  17. Social networks as anti-revolutionary forces: Facebook and political ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The much celebrated Arab Spring has championed social media as an organizing force. This led to the celebration of a new revolutionary force for people seeking more justice and accountability from their leaders. Maghreb became the example to follow for others across Africa especially given the central role youth played ...

  18. The revolutionary poems of Tayo Olafioye | Odia | Legon Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the revolutionary poems of Tayo Olafioye in order to demonstrate how his radical thought is depicted in his poems. To achieve this purpose, a study of one of his collections of poems, entitled A carnival of looters, is undertaken. In the study, we discover that proverbs are the central technique used in ...

  19. In the Age of Changes: Rebellion, Insurrection and Revolution in the 17th – Early 20th Centuries in the Russian Province: All-Russian Conference to the 100th Anniversary of 1917 Revolutionary Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis A. Lyapin


    Full Text Available The author points out the importance of studying social conflicts in the history of Russia. Over the past years, this problem has been in the core of scholars’ attention. The study of social conflicts and crisis periods allows revealing important features of development of the Russian state. In this regard, the conference “In the age of changes: rebellion, insurrection and revolution in the 17th – early 20th centuries in the Russian province” that took place on September 21–23, 2017 at the Elets State University named after I.A. Bunin was characterized by utmost relevance. The conference was held with the support of the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (Department of Humanities and Social Sciences and the Administration of the Lipetsk Region. The scholars from 14 regions of Russia took part in the conference, more than half of them were represented by doctors of sciences. The reports of the conference participants aroused debates and focused on the social conflicts taking place in the Russian province in the 17th – first quarter of the 20th century. The reports were published in a special issue of the journal History: Facts and Symbols. The conference served as the discussion platform for major Russian scholars, and allowed to put forward new ideas, which together can be embodied in new events of this kind. The author considers several problematic reports and notes that the conference showed the importance of such events that determine and guide the development of rebellion studies in historical science.

  20. Understanding the real risks of changing employee benefit plans. (United States)

    Kane, Jon; St Amour, Jeffrey


    In an environment of constant change, corporations are looking to alter employee benefits programs to make them more responsive to employee and business needs. A complete risk assessment process is the key to preparing for changes to employee benefits programs by providing employers with an analysis of cost savings against the potential negative ramifications of change. This article outlines the steps involved in a complete review of risk assessment. It then discusses how employers can develop successful change management communication strategies if, after conducting a risk assessment, employers decide to move forward with alterations to their employee benefits programs.

  1. Understanding Climate Change and Manifestation of its Driven ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article examines the nature and manifestation of climate change driven impacts on the agrarian districts of Kongwa and Bahi in the semi arid areas of Dodoma region in Tanzania. A Survey of 398 households in the study area was undertaken to elicit information on the nature and manifestation of climate change driven ...

  2. From theory to practice: Understanding transformational change in NAMAs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mersmann, Florian; Olsen, Karen Holm; Wehnert, Timon

    and transformational change, exploring their possible applicability to NAMAs. The theoretical approaches are the basis to propose hypotheses for the dynamics, indicators and success factors that foster transformational change, which is necessary to assess whether a NAMA intervention has been or can be transformational...

  3. Understanding the causes of architecture changes using OSS mailing lists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ding, Wei; Liang, Peng; Tang, Anthony; Van Vliet, Hans


    The causes of architecture changes can tell about why architecture changes, and this knowledge can be captured to prevent architecture knowledge vaporization and architecture degeneration. But the causes are not always known, especially in open source software (OSS) development. This makes it very

  4. Understanding How Participation in Education Changes Mothers' Parenting Practices (United States)

    Harding, Jessica F.; Morris, Pamela A.


    This research explores whether low-income mothers' participation in education influences a constellation of different parenting practices that are related to young children's academic outcomes. Importantly, understanding whether maternal participation in education influences mothers' parenting practices can illuminate a pathway by which increases…

  5. How Information Visualization Systems Change Users' Understandings of Complex Data (United States)

    Allendoerfer, Kenneth Robert


    User-centered evaluations of information systems often focus on the usability of the system rather its usefulness. This study examined how a using an interactive knowledge-domain visualization (KDV) system affected users' understanding of a domain. Interactive KDVs allow users to create graphical representations of domains that depict important…

  6. 78 FR 28274 - Culturally Significant Object Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “1763: A Revolutionary Peace” (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Object Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``1763: A Revolutionary Peace'' SUMMARY... object to be included in the exhibition ``1763: A Revolutionary Peace,'' imported from abroad for...

  7. Receptive Audiences for Climate Change Education: Understanding Attitudes and Barriers (United States)

    Kelly, L. D.; Luebke, J. F.; Clayton, S.; Saunders, C. D.; Matiasek, J.; Grajal, A.


    Much effort has been devoted to finding ways to explain climate change to uninterested audiences and encourage mitigation behaviors among dismissive audiences. Most approaches have focused on conveying information about climate change processes or threats. Here we report the results of a national survey designed to characterize the readiness of zoo and aquarium visitors to engage with the issue of climate change. Two survey forms, one focused primarily on attitudes (N=3,594) and another on behaviors (N=3,588), were administered concurrently in summer 2011 at 15 Association of Zoos and Aquariums accredited institutions. The attitudes survey used Global Warming's Six Americas segmentation protocols ( to compare climate change attitudes of zoo and aquarium visitors with the American public (Leiserowitz et al., 2011). Our results reveal that visitors are receptive audiences for climate change education and want to do more to address climate change. Even these favorable audiences, however, perceive barriers to engaging in the issue, signifying the importance of meeting the learning needs of those who acknowledge anthropogenic climate change, and not only of climate change 'deniers.' While 39% of the general public is 'concerned' or 'alarmed' about global warming, 64% of zoo and aquarium visitors fall into these two "Six Americas" segments. Visitors also differ from the national sample in key attitudinal characteristics related to global warming. For example, nearly two-thirds believe human actions are related to global warming, versus less than one-half of the general public; and approximately 60% think global warming will harm them personally, moderately or a great deal, versus less than 30% of the general public. Moreover, 69% of visitors would like to do more to address climate change. Despite zoo and aquarium visitors' awareness of climate change and motivation to address it, survey results indicate they experience barriers to

  8. The application and value of virtual animation in Jinzhai revolutionary site (United States)

    Liu, Gang; Zhou, Xiaocheng


    A virtual interactive technology in Jinzhai revolutionary site virtual interactive animation, with “Internet plus Jinzhai revolutionary site virtual animation” spread display, to achieve a variety of ways to carry forward the patriotic education, Jinzhai red culture, but also promote benign circulation of red tourism and economic development of Jinzhai revolutionary site protection investment group.

  9. Understanding Farmer Perspectives on Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation (United States)

    Morton, Lois Wright; Hobbs, Jon


    Agriculture is vulnerable to climate change and a source of greenhouse gases (GHGs). Farmers face pressures to adjust agricultural systems to make them more resilient in the face of increasingly variable weather (adaptation) and reduce GHG production (mitigation). This research examines relationships between Iowa farmers’ trust in environmental or agricultural interest groups as sources of climate information, climate change beliefs, perceived climate risks to agriculture, and support for adaptation and mitigation responses. Results indicate that beliefs varied with trust, and beliefs in turn had a significant direct effect on perceived risks from climate change. Support for adaptation varied with perceived risks, while attitudes toward GHG reduction (mitigation) were associated predominantly with variation in beliefs. Most farmers were supportive of adaptation responses, but few endorsed GHG reduction, suggesting that outreach should focus on interventions that have adaptive and mitigative properties (e.g., reduced tillage, improved fertilizer management). PMID:25983336

  10. Social Movements in Post-Revolutionary Iran (United States)


    and seek solutions for the IRI’s continued economic, social, and political problems. Iranian society has changed during these years and become...freely, its problems and look for solutions . The IRI’s founding ideology promotes the participation of the people in governance as long as this process...were in crisis since they were overgrown, overpopulated , polluted, unregulated, and mismanaged during the war years. Beginning in the early 1990s

  11. Urban Change: Understanding how expansion and densification relate to demographic change and their implications for climate change. (United States)

    Balk, D.; Jones, B.; Liu, Z.; Nghiem, S. V.; Pesaresi, M.


    Urbanization is the most demographic significant trend of the 21st century particularly in Asia. Characterizing it in a spatial context is difficult given the moderate resolution data provided by traditional sources of demographic data. Previous work on Saigon has shown by using these data together that much more about the correlates and potential consequences of change in the form and expansion of urban change can be learned than with a single data source alone. In this paper, we expand our analysis to two other much different urban and socioeconomic settings: Dhaka and Beijing. Particularly, where the demographic and socioeconomic indicators of change are too infrequent to capture annual change, use of satellites in combination with demographic data may be especially useful for capturing change in exurban and periurban areas, or in smaller cities within larger urban agglomerations. Using spatial regression techniques, we estimate statistical relationships between remotely sensed data sets to assess the ability demographic changes to predict urban changes as detected by two different satellite measures of change 2000-2010 in Dhaka, Saigon, and Beijing. We then predict socioeconomic outcomes associated with emissions and vulnerability proxies. We use two much different types of satellite data -- the Dense Sample Method (DSM) analysis of the NASA scatterometer data and new built-up area data from the Global Human Settlement Layer of the JRC - which respectively proxy for increases in building heights (vertical expansion) and impervious surface-type changes (horizontal expansion). These different data products help us to better understand the evolution of the built environment and urban form, while the underlying demographic data provide information regarding composition of urban population change, at different levels of economic development, built-upness, and population density. Combining these types of data yields important, high resolution spatial information that

  12. Mission to Planet Earth: A program to understand global environmental change (United States)


    A description of Mission to Planet Earth, a program to understand global environmental change, is presented. Topics discussed include: changes in the environment; global warming; ozone depletion; deforestation; and NASA's role in global change research.

  13. Local understanding of forest conservation in land use change dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaleh, Muhammad Adha; Guth, Miriam Karen; Rahman, Syed Ajijur


    Forest (SEPPSF), Malaysia. Nine in-depth interviews were conducted with Orang Asli Jakun living in SEPPSF using open-ended questions. Local communities have positive perspectives toward the forest conservation program, despite massive environmental changes in their living landscape. This study suggests...

  14. Understanding the dynamic changes in India's peri-urban regions ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    They are also regions where there are resource constraints, and where access to services such as water, energy, transport, and housing is becoming increasingly fragmented as a result of land use change (e.g. the development of gated communities and special economic zones). Such unplanned growth, along with ...

  15. An Accessible Approach to Understanding Entropy and Change (United States)

    Johnson, Philip


    This article challenges the notion that entropy is something to be avoided. A line of argument is presented that is accessible to those not having specialist knowledge and that offers a new perspective to those more familiar with the concept. It shows that temperature is better understood by addressing entropy. Entropy change diagrams are…

  16. Changing currents: a strategy for understanding and predicting the changing ocean circulation. (United States)

    Bryden, Harry L; Robinson, Carol; Griffiths, Gwyn


    Within the context of UK marine science, we project a strategy for ocean circulation research over the next 20 years. We recommend a focus on three types of research: (i) sustained observations of the varying and evolving ocean circulation, (ii) careful analysis and interpretation of the observed climate changes for comparison with climate model projections, and (iii) the design and execution of focused field experiments to understand ocean processes that are not resolved in coupled climate models so as to be able to embed these processes realistically in the models. Within UK-sustained observations, we emphasize smart, cost-effective design of the observational network to extract maximum information from limited field resources. We encourage the incorporation of new sensors and new energy sources within the operational environment of UK-sustained observational programmes to bridge the gap that normally separates laboratory prototype from operational instrument. For interpreting the climate-change records obtained through a variety of national and international sustained observational programmes, creative and dedicated UK scientists should lead efforts to extract the meaningful signals and patterns of climate change and to interpret them so as to project future changes. For the process studies, individual scientists will need to work together in team environments to combine observational and process modelling results into effective improvements in the coupled climate models that will lead to more accurate climate predictions.

  17. Understanding the Changes in Global Crop Yields Through Changes in Climate and Technology (United States)

    Najafi, Ehsan; Devineni, Naresh; Khanbilvardi, Reza M.; Kogan, Felix


    During the last few decades, the global agricultural production has risen and technology enhancement is still contributing to yield growth. However, population growth, water crisis, deforestation, and climate change threaten the global food security. An understanding of the variables that caused past changes in crop yields can help improve future crop prediction models. In this article, we present a comprehensive global analysis of the changes in the crop yields and how they relate to different large-scale and regional climate variables, climate change variables and technology in a unified framework. A new multilevel model for yield prediction at the country level is developed and demonstrated. The structural relationships between average yield and climate attributes as well as trends are estimated simultaneously. All countries are modeled in a single multilevel model with partial pooling to automatically group and reduce estimation uncertainties. El Niño-southern oscillation (ENSO), Palmer drought severity index (PDSI), geopotential height anomalies (GPH), historical carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration and country-based time series of GDP per capita as an approximation of technology measurement are used as predictors to estimate annual agricultural crop yields for each country from 1961 to 2013. Results indicate that these variables can explain the variability in historical crop yields for most of the countries and the model performs well under out-of-sample verifications. While some countries were not generally affected by climatic factors, PDSI and GPH acted both positively and negatively in different regions for crop yields in many countries.

  18. Revolutionaries and bandits: the Villista trajectory in the Mexican Revolution


    Lopes, MAD


    In the last decades of the 1901 century the Mexican society went through a period of political and economical stability, and relative social tranquility. on contrast, during the revolutionary context various armed movements promoted the disruption of this status quo. In this article, by the analysis of several testimonies, I intend to show some aspects regarding criminality and violence phenomena, during the 1910 and 1920 years on the Northern Mexico.

  19. Mapping Populations: An Objective Measurement of Revolutionary Dynamics (United States)


    opportunity exist. Nineteenth century theorists Karl Marx and Frederick Engels, best known for their Communist Manifesto (1848), highlighted that...Gurr, and Farrokh Moshiri (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1991), 10. 43 Karl Marx and Frederick Engels, The Communist Manifesto (London: The Electric...organization and classes interact to create a key element to revolutionary movements.42 Marx and Engels asserted that, “[the Communists are] the most

  20. NOTE FOR EDITOR: Understanding Resistance To Change: A Challenge For Universities


    CARUTH, Gail D.; CARUTH, Donald L.


    Change is inevitable. Today more than ever the pace of change is accelerating. Where there is organizational change there will be resistance to this change. To deal with the resistance effectively university administrators must understand the nature and causes of resistance to change. Only by dealing effectively with resistance to change can organizational change be implemented successfully. This paper explores organizational change and the challenge it poses for universities. Because univers...

  1. NOTE FOR EDITOR: Understanding Resistance To Change: A Challenge For Universities


    CARUTH, Gail D.; CARUTH, Donald L.


    Change is inevitable. Today more than ever the pace of change is accelerating. Where there is organizational change there will be resistance to this change. To deal with the resistance effectively university administrators must understand the nature and causes of resistance to change. Only by dealing effectively with resistance to change can organizational change be implemented successfully. This paper explores organizational change and the challenge it poses for universities. Because univers...

  2. Sixth-Grade Students' Progress in Understanding the Mechanisms of Global Climate Change (United States)

    Visintainer, Tammie; Linn, Marcia


    Developing solutions for complex issues such as global climate change requires an understanding of the mechanisms involved. This study reports on the impact of a technology-enhanced unit designed to improve understanding of global climate change, its mechanisms, and their relationship to everyday energy use. Global Climate Change, implemented in…

  3. Understanding change and continuity in residential energy consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten


    Practice theory has recently emerged within consumer studies as a promising approach that shifts focus from the individual consumer towards the collective aspects of consumption and from spectacular and conspicuous dimensions of consumption towards routine and mundane aspects of consumption...... of material consumer goods in practice theory. Case studies on household energy consumption are used as an empirical basis for these discussions. Looking at household energy consumption through the theoretical lens of practice theory necessitates discussion on whether energy consumption should be viewed....... Practice theory is, however, not a commonly agreed upon theory but more like an approach or a turn within contemporary social theory. When using practice theory in consumer studies, there are thus several conditions that need further clarification. The focus in this article is on how change and continuity...

  4. Teaching Climate Change Using System Models: An Understanding Global Change Project Pilot Study (United States)

    Bean, J. R.; Stuhlsatz, M.; Bracey, Z. B.; Marshall, C. R.


    Teaching and learning about historical and anthropogenic climate change in the classroom requires integrating instructional resources that address physical, chemical, and biological processes. The Understanding Global Change (UGC) framework and system models developed at the University of California Museum of Paleontology (UCMP) provide visualizations of the relationships and feedbacks between Earth system processes, and the consequences of anthropogenic activities on global climate. This schema provides a mechanism for developing pedagogic narratives that are known to support comprehension and retention of information and relationships. We designed a nine-day instructional unit for middle and high school students that includes a sequence of hands-on, inquiry-based, data rich activities combined with conceptual modeling exercises intended to foster students' development of systems thinking and their understanding of human influences on Earth system processes. The pilot unit, Sea Level Rise in the San Francisco Bay Area, addresses the human causes and consequences of sea level rise and related Earth system processes (i.e., the water cycle and greenhouse effect). Most of the content is not Bay Area specific, and could be used to explore sea level rise in any coastal region. Students completed pre and post assessments, which included questions about the connectedness of components of the Earth system and probed their attitudes towards participating in environmental stewardship activities. Students sequentially drew models representing the content explored in the activities and wrote short descriptions of their system diagrams that were collected by teachers for analysis. We also randomly assigned classes to engage in a very short additional intervention that asked students to think about the role that humans play in the Earth system and to draw themselves into the models. The study will determine if these students have higher stewardship scores and more frequently

  5. Sustainable urban water management: understanding and fostering champions of change. (United States)

    Taylor, A C


    This paper highlights and discusses ten characteristic attributes of emergent leaders (also known as 'champions') who worked as influential change agents within publicly managed, Australian water agencies to encourage more sustainable forms of urban water management. These attributes relate to: the 'openness to experience' personality characteristic; career mobility and work history demographics; personal and position power; strategic social networks; the culture of their organisations; and five distinguishing leadership behaviours (e.g. persisting under adversity). Guided by the findings of an international literature review, the author conducted a multiple case study involving six water agencies. This research identified attributes of these leaders that were typically strong and/or distinguishing compared to relevant control groups, as well as influential contextual factors. While it is widely acknowledged that these leaders play a critical role in the delivery of sustainable urban water management, there has been a paucity of context-sensitive research involving them. The research project highlighted in this paper is a response to this situation and has led to the development of a suite of 39 practical, evidence-based strategies to build leadership capacity throughout water agencies. Such capacity is one of the elements needed to drive the transition to more 'water sensitive cities'.

  6. Estimating geocenter motion and changes in the Earth’s dynamic oblateness from GRACE and geophysical models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, Y.


    Geocenter motion and changes in the Earth’s dynamic oblateness (J2) are of great importance in many applications. Among others, they are critical indicators of largescale mass redistributions, which is invaluable to understand ongoing global climate change. The revolutionary Gravity Recovery and

  7. Desire and the Other in Richard Yates's Revolutionary Road

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubica Matek


    Full Text Available Richard Yates’s novel Revolutionary Road did not receive much academic attention despite the fact that it is an exceptionally refined and capturing piece of fiction. It was critically acclaimed following its publication in 1961, nominated for the National Book Award in 1962 and then forgotten. Not surprisingly, the novel was “rediscovered” once a movie adaptation was made in 2008. Revolutionary Road is typically read – quite expectedly – as a story of suburban malaise and a critique of the American (suburban life in the 1950s. However, in an interview, published in Ploughshares in 1972, Yates stated that although he intended the novel to be an indictment of American life in the 1950s because of a general lust for conformity (DeWitt and Clark 66, he never planned the novel to be anti-suburban in any way. On the contrary, he hoped to make it implicit in the text that he is writing about a particular couple, the Wheelers, and what turns out to be specifically “their delusion, their problem” (DeWitt and Clark 66. In that sense, the novel should be read as a psychological exploration of the universal issues of human desire and the relationship of the individual to the pre-established (social system in which he or she lives. Consequently, it becomes clear that Yates’s novel hardly represents an indictment of a way of life, but quite the opposite: an indictment of the individual unable to adapt to the demands of the Other. In Lacanian terms, Revolutionary Road is a story about the unattainable desire to create one’s identity regardless or in spite of the socially constructed Symbolic order.

  8. What's in a name? Commonalities and differences in public understanding of "climate change" and "global warming"


    Whitmarsh, Lorraine E.


    This paper reports on findings from a survey of public understanding of climate change and global warming amongst residents in the south of England. Whereas much previous research has relied on survey checklists to measure public understanding of climate change, this study employed a more qualitative approach to reveal participants' unprompted conceptions of climate change and global warming. Overall, the findings show a tendency for the public to dissociate themselves from the causes, impact...

  9. Changing Arctic ecosystems--research to understand and project changes in marine and terrestrial ecosystems of the Arctic (United States)

    Geiselman, Joy; DeGange, Anthony R.; Oakley, Karen; Derksen, Dirk; Whalen, Mary


    Ecosystems and their wildlife communities are not static; they change and evolve over time due to numerous intrinsic and extrinsic factors. A period of rapid change is occurring in the Arctic for which our current understanding of potential ecosystem and wildlife responses is limited. Changes to the physical environment include warming temperatures, diminishing sea ice, increasing coastal erosion, deteriorating permafrost, and changing water regimes. These changes influence biological communities and the ways in which human communities interact with them. Through the new initiative Changing Arctic Ecosystems (CAE) the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) strives to (1) understand the potential suite of wildlife population responses to these physical changes to inform key resource management decisions such as those related to the Endangered Species Act, and (2) provide unique insights into how Arctic ecosystems are responding under new stressors. Our studies examine how and why changes in the ice-dominated ecosystems of the Arctic are affecting wildlife and will provide a better foundation for understanding the degree and manner in which wildlife species respond and adapt to rapid environmental change. Changes to Arctic ecosystems will be felt broadly because the Arctic is a production zone for hundreds of species that migrate south for the winter. The CAE initiative includes three major research themes that span Arctic ice-dominated ecosystems and that are structured to identify and understand the linkages between physical processes, ecosystems, and wildlife populations. The USGS is applying knowledge-based modeling structures such as Bayesian Networks to integrate the work.

  10. [Jean-Paul Marat: physician, scientist and revolutionary]. (United States)

    Cerda L, Jaime


    Physician, scientist and revolutionary are the biographical aspects that had better summarize the life of Jean-Paul Marat (1743-1793). Due to the role that he played during the French Revolution, his work as a physician and scientist, prior to the events of l789, was forgotten. Marat made important contributions in the area of optics and electricity reflected in numerous publications, as well as translating Newton's Opticks (1787). Well known for his radical and aggressive ideas, his political vocation led him to embrace the revolutionary cause after the events of the Bastille. His figure was not indifferent to his contemporaries; although considered a hero by the poorest citizens, aristocrats and bourgeois considered him a cruel extremist. During the last years of his life, he suffered a cutaneous disease, the diagnosis of which is still a matter of controversy. Proposed diagnoses include eczema, seborrheic dermatitis, scabies and dermatitis herpetica, among others. Marat was assassinated by Charlotte Corday in 1793, becoming a martyr for some segments of the society that worshiped his memory. He was a man with a complex and curious personality whose figure and legacy are still a matter of discussion.

  11. Western Australian High School Students' Understandings about the Socioscientific Issue of Climate Change (United States)

    Dawson, Vaille


    Climate change is one of the most significant science issues facing humanity; yet, teaching students about climate change is challenging: not only is it multidisciplinary, but also it is contentious and debated in political, social and media forums. Students need to be equipped with an understanding of climate change science to be able to…

  12. Understanding Change for Effective School Improvement Initiatives: Critical Elements of School Reform (United States)

    Schnautz, Dee Ann Piercy


    With the historical political and social changes, which ultimately affect education, it is easy to see why teachers sometimes balk at new initiatives and perceived new best practices. For change to occur it is important to understand how perception of critical elements of change impact student academic growth. It is also important to have a…

  13. The Man Who Tamed Mexico's Tiger: General Joaquin Amaro and the Professionalization of Mexico's Revolutionary Army

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carriedo, Robert


    .... While effective in overthrowing Diaz, Mexico's revolutionary armies neither disbanded nor submitted themselves to civilian rule, but instead retained their character as undisciplined and fiercely...

  14. Fedor Raskolnikov: The Tragedy Of The Revolutionary And The Tragicity Of Idea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. C. Kondratieva


    Full Text Available The article deals with the personal political evolution of F.F. Raskolnikov, a famous national revolutionary leader in the early USSR. Using the methodology of historical anthropology, the author intends to reach a holistic understanding of the phenomenon of the revolution in Russia, considering the development of Raskolnikov’s views as a reflection of the general evolutions of views in the Bolshevik party elites. Also, the author turns to the ideological origins of Raskolnikov’s work as a theatrical critic, publicist and a writer. His play «Robespierre» raises a key question in the study of the history of the Great Russian Revolution, namely, did the leaders of the Bolsheviks realize that there would be an inevitable rollback after revolution or a counterrevolutionary trend that could lead to a radical renewal of the elite by terror – so-called «Thermidor» . The author reviews the biography of F.F. Raskolnikov, charts his intellectual formation. The article covers Raskolnikov’s development as a military commander and a major functionary in the Bolshevik party. Then it describes the «theatrical period» in his life, including sources for his literary experiments and relations with literary and theatrical figures of the USSR. Finally, the author studies the revised and expanded version of the play «Robespierre» staged in Paris after Raskolnikov became a «defector» from USSR. If the original version of the play emphasizes the specifics of the French and Russian revolutions, the revised version stresses the similarities. The result of this intellectual work was Raskolnikov’s understanding of the failure of revolutionary ideas for which he fought reflected in his «Open letter to Stalin».

  15. Understanding the dynamics of change and the impact on psychiatric education. (United States)

    Feldmann, Theodore B


    Academic departments of psychiatry are experiencing unprecedented changes that are difficult and challenging for faculty and administrators. This article examines the factors that influence change and the barriers to effective change. The author reviewed the business literature on change in organizations and examined the psychodynamic factors that mediate individual and organizational response to change. Several business models for effective change management exist and can be utilized by psychiatric educators. The psychodynamic models of change are useful for understanding the psychological impact of change on organizations and individuals. Effective management of change requires careful attention to the goals of the organization, development of a detailed plan to implement change, adequate resources to carry out the change, effective leadership and communication, and contingency plans for unforeseen events. Individual and organizational needs must also be considered. A model for dealing with change in education is presented.

  16. Land use and land cover change in the Western Cape Province: quantification of changes & understanding of driving factors

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tizora, P


    Full Text Available analysis; and expert opinion in the form of semi-structured interviews with municipal town planners. An adapted Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response (DPSIR) Framework is used to analyse and understand LULC changes in the study area. LULC changes are driven...

  17. Seagrasses under threat: Understanding the resilience of temperate seagrass meadows in a changing environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soissons, L.M.


    Despite being highly valuable ecosystems, seagrass meadows are threatened worldwide, mostly by human activities. In order to preserve seagrass meadows from collapse, we need to better understand their resilience in a changing environment. By means of various

  18. Revolutionary Climatology: Rings of Saturn, Ringed by Red Lightning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah K. Stanley


    Full Text Available Walter Benjamin’s concept of historical materialism is considered as a practice of media archaeology invented through literary montage and photo philosophy. The Arcades Project that facilitated this new research methodology involving a mobile archive. The main case involving architectural theory considers how Benjamin redeployed Sigfried Giedion and Laszlo Moholy-Nagy’s Building in France as a media environment, drawing upon its layout design, photo illustrations and textual systems. In terms of his urban writing, a reading of ‘A Berlin Chronicle’ considers how the diagram contributes to Benjamin’s archaeological methods, as a theory to generate site writing. Benjamin’s mode of media archaeology is then employed to map the arcades architecture onto the train stations and libraries in Berlin and Paris, sites that informed The Arcades Project. The final section assembles a set of citations as ‘Revolutionary Climatology’, thought-images as flashes of red lightning.

  19. Mish mabsoota: on teaching with a camera in revolutionary Cairo†

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark R. Westmoreland


    Full Text Available Made in the wake of the 2011 Egyptian Revolution, Inti Mabsoota? is an experimental pedagogical video project that draws upon the emerging mobile esthetics of cell phone filmmaking and public encounters with revolutionary spontaneity. Inspired by the landmark cinéma-vérité film, Chronique d'un été (1960, in which participants ask people on the streets of Paris if they are happy, several of my students at the American University in Cairo became mobile film units, asking people the same innocuous question, “Inta mabsoot?/Inti mabsoota?”—Are you happy? Are you content? This seemingly benign exercise belies a variety of conceptual and methodological frictions, which offered productive pedagogical possibilities. Drawing upon the emergent revolutionary visual culture, this student project complicated both the reductive assessments of the “Arab Spring” as a manifestation of digital democracy and the heavy-handed way that western journalism has tended to address the “Arab Street” as a volatile mob. Using an embodied visual approach allowed students to apprehend modes of lived experience that might not register as political in more normative models, but which nonetheless form the basis of how people live and experience political life. Highlighting the non-representational aspects of the encounter also foregrounds the corporeal and visceral dimensions of the students’ experience. Accordingly, the critical video methods employed elucidate the kinds of affective knowledge produced for those on screen, behind the camera, and viewing from a distance.

  20. Globalization and Education within Two Revolutionary Organizations in the United States of America: A Gramscian Analysis (United States)

    Holst, John D.


    This article presents the history, strategy, structure, educational practices, and globalization perspectives of two revolutionary organizations in the United States of America: the Freedom Road Socialist Organization and the League of Revolutionaries for a New America. This article relates the work of these organizations to the theory and…

  1. Integrating population and genetic monitoring to understand changes in the abundance of a threatened seabird (United States)

    Catalina Vásquez-Carrillo; R. William Henry; Laird Henkel; M. Zachariah. Peery


    Population monitoring programs for threatened species are rarely designed to disentangle the effects of movements from changes in birth and death rates on estimated trends in abundance. Here, we illustrate how population and genetic monitoring can be integrated to understand the cause of large changes in the abundance of a threatened species of seabird, the Marbled...

  2. Freire's reading to understand important aspects in South African context of change


    Darlei de Paula; EST-PPG


    This article aims to demonstrate that Freire's pedagogy reading is useful way to help Brazilian theology students to understand better the South African change context. So we show common features that can be identified as in South African context as in Brazilian Freire's Pedagogy as tool to access the post-apartheid change.

  3. Effect of Technology Enhanced Conceptual Change Texts on Students' Understanding of Buoyant Force (United States)

    Ozkan, Gulbin; Selcuk, Gamze Sezgin


    In this study, the effect of technology enhanced conceptual change texts on elementary school students' understanding of buoyant force was investigated. The conceptual change texts (written forms) used in this study are proven for effectiveness and are enriched by using technology support in this study. These texts were tried out on two groups. A…

  4. Understanding the science of climate change: Talking points - Impacts to the Great Lakes (United States)

    Amanda Schramm; Rachel Loehman


    Climate change presents significant risks to our nation’s natural and cultural resources. Although climate change was once believed to be a future problem, there is now unequivocal scientific evidence that our planet’s climate system is warming (IPCC 2007a). While many people understand that human emissions of greenhouse gases have significantly contributed to recent...

  5. Understanding "Change" through Spatial Thinking Using Google Earth in Secondary Geography (United States)

    Xiang, X.; Liu, Y.


    Understanding geographic changes has become an indispensable element in geography education. Describing and analyzing changes in space require spatial thinking skills emphasized in geography curriculum but often pose challenges for secondary school students. This school-based research targets a specific strand of spatial thinking skills and…

  6. A Holistic Understanding of Conflicts during the Enterprise Resource Planning Change Process: A Dialectic Perspective




    This doctoral study investigates conflicts during ERP change process from a dialectic perspective. A major motivation of this study thus arises from the recognition that a high level of risk is generally associated with the ERP change process. This is due to three reasons: a) limited understanding and experience in supporting the ERP change process, b) highly complex and risky involvement of multiple ERP stakeholders who have contrasting expectations, and c) inherent ERP conflicts in the ERP ...

  7. Western Australian High School Students' Understandings about the Socioscientific Issue of Climate Change (United States)

    Dawson, Vaille


    Climate change is one of the most significant science issues facing humanity; yet, teaching students about climate change is challenging: not only is it multidisciplinary, but also it is contentious and debated in political, social and media forums. Students need to be equipped with an understanding of climate change science to be able to participate in this discourse. The purpose of this study was to examine Western Australian high school students' understanding of climate change and the greenhouse effect, in order to identify their alternative conceptions about climate change science and provide a baseline for more effective teaching. A questionnaire designed to elicit students' understanding and alternative conceptions was completed by 438 Year 10 students (14-15 years old). A further 20 students were interviewed. Results showed that students know different features of both climate change and the greenhouse effect, however not necessarily all of them and the relationships between. Five categories of alternative conceptions were identified. The categories were (1) the greenhouse effect and the ozone layer; (2) types of greenhouse gases; (3) types of radiation; (4) weather and climate and (5) air pollution. These findings provide science educators a basis upon which to develop strategies and curriculum resources to improve their students' understanding and decision-making skills about the socioscientific issue, climate change.

  8. Dilemmas in the Analysis of Technological Change. A Cognitive Approach to Understand Innovation and Change in the Water Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dino Borri


    Full Text Available In this paper we argue for the need to apply a cognitive approach to understand deep dynamics and determinants of technological evolutions. After examining main contributions from innovation studies to the conceptualization of innovation and change in complex socio-technical environments, we highlight the contribution coming from the application of the cognitive approach to evolutionary studies on technologies and we introduce the concept of technological memory as an interpretative tool to understand those changes. We discuss our hypothesis with reference to several observations carried out in different local contexts – Mexico, India and Italy – in relation to technological change in the water sector. In those cases deliberate attempts to substitute traditional technologies with modern ones led to interesting trajectories of change ranging from the collapse of old technologies to the development of multifaceted hybridization patterns.

  9. Linking hunter knowledge with forest change to understand changing deer harvest opportunities in intensively logged landscapes (United States)

    Tidd J. Brinkman; Terry Chapin; Gary Kofinas; David K. Person


    The effects of landscape changes caused by intensive logging on the availability of wild game are important when the harvest of wild game is a critical cultural practice, food source, and recreational activity. We assessed the influence of extensive industrial logging on the availability of wild game by drawing on local knowledge and ecological science to evaluate the...

  10. Missouri Agricultural Energy Saving Team-A Revolutionary Opportunity (MAESTRO)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McIntosh, Jane [MDA; Schumacher, Leon [University of Missouri


    The Missouri Agricultural Energy Saving Team-A Revolutionary Opportunity (MAESTRO) program brought together a team of representatives from government, academia, and private industry to enhance the availability of energy efficiency services for small livestock producers in the State of Missouri. The Missouri Department of Agriculture (MDA) managed the project via a subcontract with the University of Missouri (MU), College of Agriculture Food and Natural Resources, MU Extension, the MU College of Human Environmental Sciences, the MU College of Engineering, and the Missouri Agricultural and Small Business Development Authority (MASBDA). MU teamed with EnSave, Inc, a nationally-recognized expert in agricultural energy efficiency to assist with marketing, outreach, provision of farm energy audits and customer service. MU also teamed with independent home contractors to facilitate energy audits of the farm buildings and homes of these livestock producers. The goals of the project were to: (1) improve the environment by reducing fossil fuel emissions and reducing the total energy used on small animal farms; (2) stimulate the economy of local and regional communities by creating or retaining jobs; and (3) improve the profitability of Missouri livestock producers by reducing their energy expenditures. Historically, Missouri scientists/engineers conducted programs on energy use in agriculture, such as in equipment, grain handling and tillage practices. The MAESTRO program was the first to focus strictly on energy efficiency associated with livestock production systems in Missouri and to investigate the applicability and potential of addressing energy efficiency in animal production from a building efficiency perspective. A. Project Objectives The goal of the MAESTRO program was to strengthen the financial viability and environmental soundness of Missouri's small animal farms by helping them implement energy efficient technologies for the production facility, farm

  11. Sixth-Grade Students' Progress in Understanding the Mechanisms of Global Climate Change (United States)

    Visintainer, Tammie; Linn, Marcia


    Developing solutions for complex issues such as global climate change requires an understanding of the mechanisms involved. This study reports on the impact of a technology-enhanced unit designed to improve understanding of global climate change, its mechanisms, and their relationship to everyday energy use. Global Climate Change, implemented in the Web-based Inquiry Science Environment (WISE), engages sixth-grade students in conducting virtual investigations using NetLogo models to foster an understanding of core mechanisms including the greenhouse effect. Students then test how the greenhouse effect is enhanced by everyday energy use. This study draws on three data sources: (1) pre- and post-unit interviews, (2) analysis of embedded assessments following virtual investigations, and (3) contrasting cases of two students (normative vs. non-normative understanding of the greenhouse effect). Results show the value of using virtual investigations for teaching the mechanisms associated with global climate change. Interviews document that students hold a wide range of ideas about the mechanisms driving global climate change. Investigations with models help students use evidence-based reasoning to distinguish their ideas. Results show that understanding the greenhouse effect offers a foundation for building connections between everyday energy use and increases in global temperature. An impediment to establishing coherent understanding was the persistence of an alternative conception about ozone as an explanation for climate change. These findings illustrate the need for regular revision of curriculum based on classroom trials. We discuss key design features of models and instructional revisions that can transform the teaching and learning of global climate change.

  12. The added complications of climate change: understanding and managing biodiversity and ecosystems (United States)

    Amanda Staudt,; Allison K. Leidner,; Jennifer Howard,; Kate A. Brauman,; Jeffrey S. Dukes,; Hansen, Lara J.; Paukert, Craig; Sabo, John L.; Solorzano, Luis A.


    Ecosystems around the world are already threatened by land-use and land-cover change, extraction of natural resources, biological disturbances, and pollution. These environmental stressors have been the primary source of ecosystem degradation to date, and climate change is now exacerbating some of their effects. Ecosystems already under stress are likely to have more rapid and acute reactions to climate change; it is therefore useful to understand how multiple stresses will interact, especially as the magnitude of climate change increases. Understanding these interactions could be critically important in the design of climate adaptation strategies, especially because actions taken by other sectors (eg energy, agriculture, transportation) to address climate change may create new ecosystem stresses.

  13. Leveraging the Novel Climates of Arboreta to Understand Tree Responses to Climate Change (United States)

    Ettinger, A.; Wolkovich, E. M.; Joly, S.


    Rising global temperatures are expected to cause large-scale changes to forests, including altered mortality and recruitment rates, and dramatic changes in species composition, but exactly how tree growth will be affected by climate change is uncertain. Studies to date suggest that temperate and boreal tree responses to warming range from growing faster, slower, or at unchanged rates. Here we present an approach and preliminary findings that will improve predictions of tree responses to climate change by studying how tree traits, including phenology (e.g. the timing of leaf-out), wood density, leaf mass area, and height, relate to climate sensitivity (i.e. growth responses to annual changes in climate, Figure 1). We demonstrate how arboreta can be used to understand tree responses to climate change using 500 individuals across 65 tree species growing at the Arnold Arboretum, Boston, Massachusetts. Arboretum provide a unique opportunities for understanding temperate tree responses to climate change: they provide large collections of woody species growing together that enable traits to be studied across diverse species in a phylogenetic context. Furthermore, many species in arboreta are nonnative and have been exposed to "novel" climates that may resemble future conditions in their native distributions. We use a phylogenetic approach to understand how annual growth and climate sensitivity relate to focal traits, and asses what these findings may tell us about tree responses to climate change.

  14. Linking Hunter Knowledge with Forest Change to Understand Changing Deer Harvest Opportunities in Intensively Logged Landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd J. Brinkman


    Full Text Available The effects of landscape changes caused by intensive logging on the availability of wild game are important when the harvest of wild game is a critical cultural practice, food source, and recreational activity. We assessed the influence of extensive industrial logging on the availability of wild game by drawing on local knowledge and ecological science to evaluate the relationship between forest change and opportunities to harvest Sitka black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus sitkensis on Prince of Wales Island, Alaska. We used data collected through interviews with local deer hunters and GIS analysis of land cover to determine relationships among landscape change, hunter access, and habitat for deer hunting over the last 50 yr. We then used these relationships to predict how harvest opportunities may change in the future. Intensive logging from 1950 into the 1990s provided better access to deer and habitat that facilitated deer hunting. However, successional changes in intensively logged forests in combination with a decline in current logging activity have reduced access to deer and increased undesirable habitat for deer hunting. In this new landscape, harvest opportunities in previously logged landscapes have declined, and hunters identify second-growth forest as one of the least popular habitats for hunting. Given the current state of the logging industry in Alaska, it is unlikely that the logging of the remaining old-growth forests or intensive management of second-growth forests will cause hunter opportunities to rebound to historic levels. Instead, hunter opportunities may continue to decline for at least another human generation, even if the long-term impacts of logging activity and deer harvest on deer numbers are minimal. Adapting hunting strategies to focus on naturally open habitats such as alpine and muskeg that are less influenced by external market forces may require considerably more hunting effort but provide the best option for

  15. Using system dynamics modeling to understand the impact of social change initiatives. (United States)

    Hirsch, Gary B; Levine, Ralph; Miller, Robin Lin


    Community psychologists have a long history of interest in understanding social systems and how to bring about enduring positive change in these systems. However, the methods that community psychologists use to anticipate and evaluate the changes that result from system change efforts are less well developed. In the current paper, we introduce readers to system dynamics modeling, an action research approach to studying complex systems and the consequences of system change. We illustrate this approach by describing a system dynamics model of educational reform. We provide readers with an introduction to system dynamics modeling, as well as describe the strengths and limitations of the approach for application to community psychology.

  16. Population, Environment, and Climate in the Albertine Rift: Understanding Local Impacts of Regional Change (United States)

    Hartter, J.; Ryan, S. J.; Diem, J.; Palace, M. W.


    Climate change is of critical concern for conservation and to develop appropriate policies and responses, it is important not only to anticipate the nature of changes, but also how they are perceived, interpreted and adapted to by local people. The Albertine Rift in East Africa is one of the most threatened biodiversity hotspots due to dense settlement, extreme poverty, and land conversion. We synthesize ongoing NSF-CNH research, where Ugandan park landscapes are examined to understand the impacts of climate change on livelihoods. Kibale National Park, the main study site, exemplifies the challenges facing many parks because of its isolation within a densely populated agricultural landscape. Three separate household surveys (n=251, 130, 100) reveal that the most perceived benefits provided by Kibale were ecosystem services and farmers cite rainfall as one of the park's most important benefits, but are also concerned with variable precipitation. Analysis of 30+ years of daily rainfall station data shows total rainfall has not changed significantly, but timing and transitions of seasons and intra-seasonal distribution are highly variable, which may contribute to changes in farming schedules and threaten food security. Further, the contrast between land use/cover change over 25 years around the park and the stability of forest within the park underscores the need to understand this landscape for future sustainability planning and the inevitable population growth outside its boundaries. Understanding climate change impacts and feedbacks to and from socio-ecological systems are important to address the dual challenge of biodiversity conservation and poverty alleviation.

  17. Revolutionary Aeropropulsion Concept for Sustainable Aviation: Turboelectric Distributed Propulsion (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Dae; Felder, James L.; Tong, Michael. T.; Armstrong, Michael


    In response to growing aviation demands and concerns about the environment and energy usage, a team at NASA proposed and examined a revolutionary aeropropulsion concept, a turboelectric distributed propulsion system, which employs multiple electric motor-driven propulsors that are distributed on a large transport vehicle. The power to drive these electric propulsors is generated by separately located gas-turbine-driven electric generators on the airframe. This arrangement enables the use of many small-distributed propulsors, allowing a very high effective bypass ratio, while retaining the superior efficiency of large core engines, which are physically separated but connected to the propulsors through electric power lines. Because of the physical separation of propulsors from power generating devices, a new class of vehicles with unprecedented performance employing such revolutionary propulsion system is possible in vehicle design. One such vehicle currently being investigated by NASA is called the "N3-X" that uses a hybrid-wing-body for an airframe and superconducting generators, motors, and transmission lines for its propulsion system. On the N3-X these new degrees of design freedom are used (1) to place two large turboshaft engines driving generators in freestream conditions to minimize total pressure losses and (2) to embed a broad continuous array of 14 motor-driven fans on the upper surface of the aircraft near the trailing edge of the hybrid-wing-body airframe to maximize propulsive efficiency by ingesting thick airframe boundary layer flow. Through a system analysis in engine cycle and weight estimation, it was determined that the N3-X would be able to achieve a reduction of 70% or 72% (depending on the cooling system) in energy usage relative to the reference aircraft, a Boeing 777-200LR. Since the high-power electric system is used in its propulsion system, a study of the electric power distribution system was performed to identify critical dynamic and

  18. CFD Vision 2030 Study: A Path to Revolutionary Computational Aerosciences (United States)

    Slotnick, Jeffrey; Khodadoust, Abdollah; Alonso, Juan; Darmofal, David; Gropp, William; Lurie, Elizabeth; Mavriplis, Dimitri


    This report documents the results of a study to address the long range, strategic planning required by NASA's Revolutionary Computational Aerosciences (RCA) program in the area of computational fluid dynamics (CFD), including future software and hardware requirements for High Performance Computing (HPC). Specifically, the "Vision 2030" CFD study is to provide a knowledge-based forecast of the future computational capabilities required for turbulent, transitional, and reacting flow simulations across a broad Mach number regime, and to lay the foundation for the development of a future framework and/or environment where physics-based, accurate predictions of complex turbulent flows, including flow separation, can be accomplished routinely and efficiently in cooperation with other physics-based simulations to enable multi-physics analysis and design. Specific technical requirements from the aerospace industrial and scientific communities were obtained to determine critical capability gaps, anticipated technical challenges, and impediments to achieving the target CFD capability in 2030. A preliminary development plan and roadmap were created to help focus investments in technology development to help achieve the CFD vision in 2030.

  19. Understanding the divide between the theory and practice of organisational change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Pollack


    Full Text Available This paper reviews the different ways that academics and practitioners write about and discuss change management, to develop an understanding of whether there is a divide between the theory and practice of change management. This research used scientometric research techniques to compare three corpora: one based on the most cited research in the general management literature on change management; one based on the most cited research in specialist change management journals; and one based on interviews with practising change managers. It was found that the general management literature emphasised an abstract understanding of knowledge management and the learning organisation, while the change management literature focused more on issues associated with value, culture and social identity. The practitioners emphasised issues at the individual, project and team levels, the need for the effective use of targeted communication to achieve organisational change objectives, and the value of rapidly identifying key drivers in a new context. This research found significant differences between these three corpora, which lends support to other researchers’ claims of a divide between theory and practice in change management.

  20. Urban High School Students' Critical Science Agency: Conceptual Understandings and Environmental Actions around Climate Change (United States)

    McNeill, Katherine L.; Vaughn, Meredith Houle


    This study investigates how the enactment of a climate change curriculum supports students' development of critical science agency, which includes students developing deep understandings of science concepts and the ability to take action at the individual and community levels. We examined the impact of a four to six week urban ecology curriculum…

  1. Understanding sudden environmental and societal change through coupled geochronological and artefact shape analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoggard, Christian Steven; Sauer, Florian Rudolf; Zernack, Anke Verena

    Over the last twenty years, advances in geometric morphometric methodologies have revolutionised how archaeologists understand changes in artefact shape and form (size plus shape) throughout the Quaternary period. Such methodologies provide a high resolution of artefact coverage, and allow a crit...

  2. The Collaboration of Cooperative Learning and Conceptual Change: Enhancing the Students' Understanding of Chemical Bonding Concepts (United States)

    Eymur, Gülüzar; Geban, Ömer


    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of cooperative learning based on conceptual change approach instruction on ninth-grade students' understanding in chemical bonding concepts compared to traditional instruction. Seventy-two ninth-grade students from two intact chemistry classes taught by the same teacher in a public high…

  3. Effect of Conceptual Change Approach on Students' Understanding of Reaction Rate Concepts (United States)

    Kingir, Sevgi; Geban, Omer


    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of conceptual change text oriented instruction compared to traditional instruction on 10th grade students' understanding of reaction rate concepts. 45 students from two classes of the same teacher in a public high school participated in this study. Students in the experimental group…

  4. Root for rain : Towards understanding land-use change impacts on the water cycle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang-Erlandsson, L.


    We live today on a human-dominated planet under unprecedented pressure on both land and water. The water cycle is intrinsically linked to vegetation and land use, and anticipating the consequences of simultaneous changes in land and water systems requires a thorough understanding of their

  5. Shifting Preservice Teachers' Beliefs and Understandings to Support Pedagogical Change in Mathematics (United States)

    Letwinsky, Karim Medico; Cavender, Monica


    Many preservice teacher (PST) programs throughout the world are preparing students to implement the Core Standards, which require deeper conceptual understandings of mathematics and an informed approach for teaching. In this qualitative multi-case study, researchers explored the teaching methods for two university instructors and changes in PSTs…

  6. The Effect of a Conceptual Change Approach on Understanding of Students' Chemical Equilibrium Concepts (United States)

    Atasoy, Basri; Akkus, Huseyin; Kadayifci, Hakki


    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a conceptual change approach over traditional instruction on tenth-grade students' conceptual achievement in understanding chemical equilibrium. The study was conducted in two classes of the same teacher with participation of a total of 44 tenth-grade students. In this study, a…

  7. Understanding rapid theoretical change in particle physics: a month-by-month co-citation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, D.; Koester, D.; White, D.H.; Kern, R.


    While co-citation analysis has proved a powerful tool in the study of changes in intellectual foci in science, no one has ever used the technique to study very rapid changes in the theoretical structure of a scientific field. This paper presents month-by-month co-citation analyses of key phases in the weak-electromagnetic unification research program within particle physics, and shows that these analyses capture and illuminate very rapid intellectual changes. These data provide yet another illustration of the utility of co-citation analysis for understanding the history of science. 8 figures

  8. ROS signalling in a destabilised world: A molecular understanding of climate change. (United States)

    Carmody, Melanie; Waszczak, Cezary; Idänheimo, Niina; Saarinen, Timo; Kangasjärvi, Jaakko


    Climate change results in increased intensity and frequency of extreme abiotic and biotic stress events. In plants, reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulate in proportion to the level of stress and are major signalling and regulatory metabolites coordinating growth, defence, acclimation and cell death. Our knowledge of ROS homeostasis, sensing, and signalling is therefore key to understanding the impacts of climate change at the molecular level. Current research is uncovering new insights into temporal-spatial, cell-to-cell and systemic ROS signalling pathways, particularly how these affect plant growth, defence, and more recently acclimation mechanisms behind stress priming and long term stress memory. Understanding the stabilising and destabilising factors of ROS homeostasis and signalling in plants exposed to extreme and fluctuating stress will concomitantly reveal how to address future climate change challenges in global food security and biodiversity management. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Development of REvolutionary Adaptive Morphing UAV (DREAM-UAV), Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NextGen Aeronautics, Inc. proposes the development of the innovative use of morphing structures for maneuver and flight control as a project for NASA?s Revolutionary...

  10. The British Southern Campaign in the Revolutionary War: Implications for Contemporary Counter Insurgency

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Clover, Julian P


    The British effort in the Southern Campaign (1780-1782) of the Revolutionary War failed because of flawed national strategy and a failure to focus sufficient elements of national power against a background of competing global threats...

  11. Book Review: Revolutionary Keywords for A New Left by Ian Parker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyal Z Clyne


    Full Text Available Eyal Clyne reviews Ian Parker's "Revolutionary Keywords for A New Left" (Winchester and Washington: Zero books ISBN: 978-1-78535-642-1, a book that unlocks complex Left-struggle issues in short and accessible essays.

  12. Revolutionary Leadership and Pedagogical Praxis: Revisiting the Legacy of Che Guevara. (United States)

    McLaren, Peter


    Describes pedagogical foundations of Ernesto "Che" Guevara's revolutionary praxis, situating Guevara within a redemptive educational leadership model. Articulates Guevarian leadership within a historical materialist framework; presents a leadership model that addresses resistance to and transformation of global capitalist social…

  13. Contributions, Controversies, and Credibility: Citizen Science and Understandings of Climate Change (United States)

    Shirk, J.; Bonney, R.


    Studying the impacts of global climate change on earth systems requires data to be gathered at vast spatial and temporal scales. Numerous citizen science projects, including the National Audubon Society Christmas Bird Count and the Cooperative Observer Program of the National Weather Service, engage volunteers in collecting environmental information. Some projects span countries or even continents and have been operating for decades, meaning long-term and geographically distributed data are already available for analysis. Citizen science projects have made significant contributions to understanding the effects of climate change by revealing changing patterns in phenology, shifts in species' ranges and distributions, and trends in temperature and rainfall patterns. In addition, citizen science presents opportunities for developing public understanding of climate change and its consequences. According to the Yale Project on Climate Change Communication (YPCCC), public responses to this issue can be categorized into six groups - from alarmed to dismissive - with each group characterized as much by attitudes about climate change as by understandings of the topic. Participants in citizen science projects run by the Cornell Lab of Ornithology, who tend to be highly educated and hold positive views towards the environment, exhibit an unexpected degree of skepticism and misunderstandings regarding climate science. This parallels findings by YPCCC suggesting that, on the issue of climate change, the American public is more meaningfully segmented by ideology and cultural affiliation than by educational background and economic status. No matter how they are segmented, if the public perceives a controversy, individuals often decide what to believe based on who they trust to impart credible information. Citizen science has long endured - and in most fields, has largely overcome - questions of credibility. With refined and sophisticated measures to ensure data quality, the

  14. Challenges and Changes: Developing Teachers' and Initial Teacher Education Students' Understandings of the Nature of Science (United States)

    Ward, Gillian; Haigh, Mavis


    Teachers need an understanding of the nature of science (NOS) to enable them to incorporate NOS into their teaching of science. The current study examines the usefulness of a strategy for challenging or changing teachers' understandings of NOS. The teachers who participated in this study were 10 initial teacher education chemistry students and six experienced teachers from secondary and primary schools who were introduced to an explicit and reflective activity, a dramatic reading about a historical scientific development. Concept maps were used before and after the activity to assess teachers' knowledge of NOS. The participants also took part in a focus group interview to establish whether they perceived the activity as useful in developing their own understanding of NOS. Initial analysis led us to ask another group, comprising seven initial teacher education chemistry students, to take part in a modified study. These participants not only completed the same tasks as the previous participants but also completed a written reflection commenting on whether the activity and focus group discussion enhanced their understanding of NOS. Both Lederman et al.'s (Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 39(6), 497-521, 2002) concepts of NOS and notions of "naive" and "informed" understandings of NOS and Hay's (Studies in Higher Education, 32(1), 39-57, 2007) notions of "surface" and "deep" learning were used as frameworks to examine the participants' specific understandings of NOS and the depth of their learning. The ways in which participants' understandings of NOS were broadened or changed by taking part in the dramatic reading are presented. The impact of the data-gathering tools on the participants' professional learning is also discussed.

  15. Using Scientific Argumentation in a Science Methods Course to Improve Preservice Teachers' Understanding of Climate Change (United States)

    Lambert, J. L.; Bleicher, R. E.; Soden, B. J.


    Given that K-12 students have numerous alternative conceptions, it is critical that teachers have an understanding of the fundamental science underlying climate change (Feldman et al., 2010). Many teachers, however, do not demonstrate adequate understanding of these concepts (Daskolia et al., 2006). Argumentation has been identified as a mechanism for conceptual change (Mercer et al., 2004). Even with several educational initiatives promoting and supporting the use of argumentation as an instructional practice, teachers often struggle to implement argumentation in the classroom (Sampson & Blanchard, 2012). To remedy both issues above, we have designed an innovative methods course to provide background in climate change knowledge and argumentation instruction. In our methods course, we utilize Climate Science Investigations (CSI), an online, interactive series of modules and teaching resources funded by a NASA grant to support teachers learning about the basic science concepts underlying climate change. A key assignment is to develop and present an evidence-based scientific argument. The teachers were assigned a typical question and claim of climate skeptics and asked to conduct research on the scientific findings to prepare a counter-argument (rebuttal). This study examined changes in 60 preservice teachers' knowledge and perceptions about climate change after participation in the course. The teachers' understanding of fundamental concepts increased significantly. Their perceptions about climate change became more aligned to those of climate scientists. Findings suggest that scientific argumentation can play an effective role in the preparation of science educators. In addition to reporting findings in more detail, methods course activities, particularly in argumentation, will be shared in our presentation.

  16. Forests under climate change and air pollution: Gaps in understanding and future directions for research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matyssek, R.; Wieser, G.; Calfapietra, C.; Vries, W. de; Dizengremel, P.; Ernst, D.; Jolivet, Y.; Mikkelsen, T.N.; Mohren, G.M.J.; Le Thiec, D.; Tuovinen, J.-P.


    Forests in Europe face significant changes in climate, which in interaction with air quality changes, may significantly affect forest productivity, stand composition and carbon sequestration in both vegetation and soils. Identified knowledge gaps and research needs include: (i) interaction between changes in air quality (trace gas concentrations), climate and other site factors on forest ecosystem response, (ii) significance of biotic processes in system response, (iii) tools for mechanistic and diagnostic understanding and upscaling, and (iv) the need for unifying modelling and empirical research for synthesis. This position paper highlights the above focuses, including the global dimension of air pollution as part of climate change and the need for knowledge transfer to enable reliable risk assessment. A new type of research site in forest ecosystems (“supersites”) will be conducive to addressing these gaps by enabling integration of experimentation and modelling within the soil-plant-atmosphere interface, as well as further model development. - Highlights: ► Research needs are identified for forests under climate change and air pollution. ► Abiotic–biotic interactions in response impede tree-ecosystem upscaling. ► Integration of empirical and modelling research is advocated. ► The concept of multi-scale investigations at novel “Supersites” is propagated. ► “Supersites” warrant mechanistic understanding of soil-plant-atmosphere interface. - Forests under climate change and air pollution require empirical and modelling research needs to be integrated at novel “Supersites” through multi-scale investigations.

  17. Revolutionary Art – Nationalism – Anti-Semitism: The Case of Wagner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Gretić


    Full Text Available The article deals with the political aspects of revolutionary art of Richard Wagner. Through reading of Wagner’s artistic-philosophical project by his most influential interpreters – Friedrich Nietzsche, Thomas Mann and Theodor Adorno – author offers intellectual history of the reception of this project. Discourse on Wagner’s revolutionary art leads to the assessment of the influence Wagner’s cultural anti-Semitism and nationalism had on European politics in 20th century.

  18. "The impossible made possible": A method for measuring change in conceptual understanding in undergraduate science students (United States)

    Himangshu, Sumitra

    This study examined change in conceptual knowledge of scientific concepts at the undergraduate level by using concept mapping to assess student understanding. Recent reports from science educators and researchers indicate an acute need to enhance student conceptual understanding in science. This suggests that faculty need to investigate whether actual student learning matches their goals for enhancing conceptual understanding. The study design incorporated the use of both qualitative and quantitative methods to analyze change in student conceptual understanding. The sample population consisted of a total of 61 students, 47 science majors and 14 non-majors from ten different classrooms at seven separate institutions of higher education across the United States. Student concept maps were constructed, by the researcher, from the transcripts of structured interviews with the student participants. Analysis of the concept maps was correlated with other quantitative data, such as course grades and the Learning and Studying Questionnaire (LSQ). The LSQ is a well-established survey instrument that measures student learning based on the use of rote and/or conceptual learning techniques. Results indicate that concept maps provide more information than grades alone because they represented individual understanding, in terms of depth of understanding, relationships between concepts, quality of knowledge organization and identification of misconceptions. Thus, differences in student comprehension of course material, with respect to critical concepts, could be analyzed. The greatest determinant of increased conceptual understanding over the course of a semester was the student's self-report of approaches to learning and studying. The quality of the student maps, in turn, was reflective of differences in student approaches to learning. Concomitantly, the concept maps reflected student gains in content and depth over a semester with respect to an expert map. The results also

  19. Scenarios of Earth system change in western Canada: Conceptual understanding and process insights from the Changing Cold Regions Network (United States)

    DeBeer, C. M.; Wheater, H. S.; Pomeroy, J. W.; Stewart, R. E.; Turetsky, M. R.; Baltzer, J. L.; Pietroniro, A.; Marsh, P.; Carey, S.; Howard, A.; Barr, A.; Elshamy, M.


    The interior of western Canada has been experiencing rapid, widespread, and severe hydroclimatic change in recent decades, and this is projected to continue in the future. To better assess future hydrological, cryospheric and ecological states and fluxes under future climates, a regional hydroclimate project was formed under the auspices of the Global Energy and Water Exchanges (GEWEX) project of the World Climate Research Programme; the Changing Cold Regions Network (CCRN; aims to understand, diagnose, and predict interactions among the changing Earth system components at multiple spatial scales over the Mackenzie and Saskatchewan River basins of western Canada. A particular challenge is in applying land surface and hydrological models under future climates, as system changes and cold regions process interactions are not often straightforward, and model structures and parameterizations based on historical observations and understanding of contemporary system functioning may not adequately capture these complexities. To address this and provide guidance and direction to the modelling community, CCRN has drawn insights from a multi-disciplinary perspective on the process controls and system trajectories to develop a set of feasible scenarios of change for the 21st century across the region. This presentation will describe CCRN's efforts towards formalizing these insights and applying them in a large-scale modelling context. This will address what are seen as the most critical processes and key drivers affecting hydrological, cryospheric and ecological change, how these will most likely evolve in the coming decades, and how these are parameterized and incorporated as future scenarios for terrestrial ecology, hydrological functioning, permafrost state, glaciers, agriculture, and water management.

  20. Forests under climate change and air pollution: Gaps in understanding and future directions for research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matyssek, R.; Wieser, G.; Calfapietra, C.


    changes in air quality (trace gas concentrations), climate and other site factors on forest ecosystem response, (ii) significance of biotic processes in system response, (iii) tools for mechanistic and diagnostic understanding and upscaling, and (iv) the need for unifying modelling and empirical research......Forests in Europe face significant changes in climate, which in interaction with air quality changes, may significantly affect forest productivity, stand composition and carbon sequestration in both vegetation and soils. Identified knowledge gaps and research needs include: (i) interaction between...... for synthesis. This position paper highlights the above focuses, including the global dimension of air pollution as part of climate change and the need for knowledge transfer to enable reliable risk assessment. A new type of research site in forest ecosystems (“supersites”) will be conducive to addressing...

  1. Chronic disease and climate change: understanding co-benefits and their policy implications. (United States)

    Capon, Anthony G; Rissel, Chris E


    Chronic disease and climate change are major public policy challenges facing governments around the world. An improved understanding of the relationship between chronic disease and climate change should enable improved policy formulation to support both human health and the health of the planet. Chronic disease and climate change are both unintended consequences of our way of life, and are attributable in part to the ready availability of inexpensive fossil fuel energy. There are co-benefits for health from actions to address climate change. For example, substituting physical activity and a vegetable-rich diet for motor vehicle transport and a meat-rich diet is both good for health and good for the planet. We should encourage ways of living that use less carbon as these can be healthy ways of living, for both individuals and society. Quantitative modelling of co-benefits should inform policy responses.

  2. Understanding subtropical cloud feedbacks in anthropogenic climate change simulations of CMIP5 models (United States)

    Myers, T. A.; Norris, J. R.


    Subtropical marine boundary layer clouds over the eastern subtropics are poorly simulated by climate models and contribute substantially to inter-model differences in climate sensitivity. The aim of the present study is to better understand inter-model differences in projected cloud changes and to constrain the cloud feedback to warming. To do this, we compute independent relationships of cloud properties (cloud fraction, cloud-top height, and cloud radiative effect) to interannual variations in sea surface temperature, estimated inversion strength, horizontal surface temperature advection, free-tropospheric humidity, and subsidence using observations and as simulated by models participating in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5. Each relationship is considered to be independent because it represents the association between some cloud property and a meteorological parameter when the other parameters are held constant. We approximate modelled cloud trends in climate change simulations as the sum of the simulated cloud/meteorology relationships multiplied by the respective meteorological trends. We compare these estimated cloud trends to the sum of the observed cloud/meteorology relationships multiplied by the simulated meteorological trends. This method allows us to better understand the sources of inter-model differences in projected cloud changes, including whether cloud/meteorology relationships or meteorological trends dominate the spread of cloud changes. We approximate the true cloud trend due to climate change as the sum of the observed cloud/meteorology relationships multiplied by the multi-model mean meteorological trends. The results may provide an observational and model constraint on climate sensitivity.

  3. Understanding of Grassland Ecosystems under Climate Change and Economic Development Pressures in the Mongolia Plateau (United States)

    Qi, J.; Chen, J.; Shan, P.; Pan, X.; Wei, Y.; Wang, M.; Xin, X.


    The land use and land cover change, especially in the form of grassland degradation, in the Mongolian Plateau, exhibited a unique spatio-temporal pattern that is a characteristic of a mixed stress from economic development and climate change of the region. The social dimension of the region played a key role in shaping the landscape and land use change, including the cultural clashes with economic development, conflicts between indigenous people and business ventures, and exogenous international influences. Various research projects have been conducted in the region to focus on physical degradation of grasslands and/or on economic development but there is a lack of understanding how the social and economic dimensions interact with grassland ecosystems and changes. In this talk, a synthesis report was made based on the most recent workshop held in Hohhot, Inner Mongolia, of China, that specifically focused on climate change and grassland ecosystems. The report analyzed the degree of grassland degradation, its climate and social drivers, and coupling nature of economic development and conservation of traditional grassland values. The goal is to fully understand the socio-ecological-economic interactions that together shape the trajectory of the grassland ecosystems in the Mongolia Plateau.

  4. Commoning in the periphery – The role of the commons for understanding rural continuities and change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Sandström


    Full Text Available This paper explores how commons reproduce over time and introduces the concept of commoning to discuss rural continuities and change. The point of departure is that commons are essential for local community development in that they have an important role for mediating social change and for local identity production. Through an ethnographic and historical study of a number of commons systems from the village of Ängersjö in the Midwest of Sweden, the paper argues for a more historically and socially grounded understanding of how commons evolve. The paper examines Ängersjö’s commons within two broad historical time frames – the pre-industrial (4th to 20th century and the post-industrial time periods (20th century to the present – in order to understand commons, not just as arenas for resource extraction and resource struggles, but also as important contexts for identity formation, local mobilisation and for shaping rural change. The paper reveals how the commons have co-evolved with changes in society at large and how the meanings and functions of the commons have changed throughout history – from being important economic resources – to cultural and symbolic resources that have created new avenues for collective action.

  5. A Big Data Guide to Understanding Climate Change: The Case for Theory-Guided Data Science


    Faghmous, James H.; Kumar, Vipin


    Global climate change and its impact on human life has become one of our era's greatest challenges. Despite the urgency, data science has had little impact on furthering our understanding of our planet in spite of the abundance of climate data. This is a stark contrast from other fields such as advertising or electronic commerce where big data has been a great success story. This discrepancy stems from the complex nature of climate data as well as the scientific questions climate science brin...

  6. The Promise and Limitations of Using Analogies to Improve Decision-Relevant Understanding of Climate Change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaitlin T Raimi

    Full Text Available To make informed choices about how to address climate change, members of the public must develop ways to consider established facts of climate science and the uncertainties about its future trajectories, in addition to the risks attendant to various responses, including non-response, to climate change. One method suggested for educating the public about these issues is the use of simple mental models, or analogies comparing climate change to familiar domains such as medical decision making, disaster preparedness, or courtroom trials. Two studies were conducted using online participants in the U.S.A. to test the use of analogies to highlight seven key decision-relevant elements of climate change, including uncertainties about when and where serious damage may occur, its unprecedented and progressive nature, and tradeoffs in limiting climate change. An internal meta-analysis was then conducted to estimate overall effect sizes across the two studies. Analogies were not found to inform knowledge about climate literacy facts. However, results suggested that people found the medical analogy helpful and that it led people-especially political conservatives-to better recognize several decision-relevant attributes of climate change. These effects were weak, perhaps reflecting a well-documented and overwhelming effect of political ideology on climate change communication and education efforts in the U.S.A. The potential of analogies and similar education tools to improve understanding and communication in a polarized political environment are discussed.

  7. Change in higher education: understanding and responding to individual and organizational resistance. (United States)

    Lane, India F


    In many fields, the ability of educators and practitioners to cope with rapid change is essential to sustained success. In veterinary medical education, as in other scientific disciplines, meaningful change is challenging to achieve and subject to resistance from many individual and organizational norms. Individual concerns often relate to fears of instability or uncertainty, loss of current status, or effects on individual time and workload. Sources of organizational resistance may include a conservative culture, fierce protection of current practices, and prevalence of disciplinary or territorial viewpoints. In academia, especially in scientific or medical fields, individuals appear to be strongly independent and conservative in nature, and generally skeptical of educational change. In this environment, a highly participatory process, with regular communication strategies and demonstrations or evidence that supports proposed changes, can be useful in facilitating change. An understanding of the nature of complex change, as well as of the reasons underlying resistance to change, and some methods to overcome these barriers are highly valuable tools for educational leaders.

  8. The Promise and Limitations of Using Analogies to Improve Decision-Relevant Understanding of Climate Change. (United States)

    Raimi, Kaitlin T; Stern, Paul C; Maki, Alexander


    To make informed choices about how to address climate change, members of the public must develop ways to consider established facts of climate science and the uncertainties about its future trajectories, in addition to the risks attendant to various responses, including non-response, to climate change. One method suggested for educating the public about these issues is the use of simple mental models, or analogies comparing climate change to familiar domains such as medical decision making, disaster preparedness, or courtroom trials. Two studies were conducted using online participants in the U.S.A. to test the use of analogies to highlight seven key decision-relevant elements of climate change, including uncertainties about when and where serious damage may occur, its unprecedented and progressive nature, and tradeoffs in limiting climate change. An internal meta-analysis was then conducted to estimate overall effect sizes across the two studies. Analogies were not found to inform knowledge about climate literacy facts. However, results suggested that people found the medical analogy helpful and that it led people-especially political conservatives-to better recognize several decision-relevant attributes of climate change. These effects were weak, perhaps reflecting a well-documented and overwhelming effect of political ideology on climate change communication and education efforts in the U.S.A. The potential of analogies and similar education tools to improve understanding and communication in a polarized political environment are discussed.

  9. Changes in health perceptions after exposure to human suffering: using discrete emotions to understand underlying processes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia A Paschali

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to examine whether exposure to human suffering is associated with negative changes in perceptions about personal health. We further examined the relation of possible health perception changes, to changes in five discrete emotions (i.e., fear, guilt, hostility/anger, and joviality, as a guide to understand the processes underlying health perception changes, provided that each emotion conveys information regarding triggering conditions. METHODOLOGY/FINDINGS: An experimental group (N = 47 was exposed to images of human affliction, whereas a control group (N = 47 was exposed to relaxing images. Participants in the experimental group reported more health anxiety and health value, as well as lower health-related optimism and internal health locus of control, in comparison to participants exposed to relaxing images. They also reported more fear, guilt, hostility and sadness, as well as less joviality. Changes in each health perception were related to changes in particular emotions. CONCLUSION: These findings imply that health perceptions are shaped in a constant dialogue with the representations about the broader world. Furthermore, it seems that the core of health perception changes lies in the acceptance that personal well-being is subject to several potential threats, as well as that people cannot fully control many of the factors the determine their own well-being.

  10. Crucial knowledge gaps in current understanding of climate change impacts on coral reef fishes. (United States)

    Wilson, S K; Adjeroud, M; Bellwood, D R; Berumen, M L; Booth, D; Bozec, Y-Marie; Chabanet, P; Cheal, A; Cinner, J; Depczynski, M; Feary, D A; Gagliano, M; Graham, N A J; Halford, A R; Halpern, B S; Harborne, A R; Hoey, A S; Holbrook, S J; Jones, G P; Kulbiki, M; Letourneur, Y; De Loma, T L; McClanahan, T; McCormick, M I; Meekan, M G; Mumby, P J; Munday, P L; Ohman, M C; Pratchett, M S; Riegl, B; Sano, M; Schmitt, R J; Syms, C


    Expert opinion was canvassed to identify crucial knowledge gaps in current understanding of climate change impacts on coral reef fishes. Scientists that had published three or more papers on the effects of climate and environmental factors on reef fishes were invited to submit five questions that, if addressed, would improve our understanding of climate change effects on coral reef fishes. Thirty-three scientists provided 155 questions, and 32 scientists scored these questions in terms of: (i) identifying a knowledge gap, (ii) achievability, (iii) applicability to a broad spectrum of species and reef habitats, and (iv) priority. Forty-two per cent of the questions related to habitat associations and community dynamics of fish, reflecting the established effects and immediate concern relating to climate-induced coral loss and habitat degradation. However, there were also questions on fish demographics, physiology, behaviour and management, all of which could be potentially affected by climate change. Irrespective of their individual expertise and background, scientists scored questions from different topics similarly, suggesting limited bias and recognition of a need for greater interdisciplinary and collaborative research. Presented here are the 53 highest-scoring unique questions. These questions should act as a guide for future research, providing a basis for better assessment and management of climate change impacts on coral reefs and associated fish communities.

  11. Crucial knowledge gaps in current understanding of climate change impacts on coral reef fishes

    KAUST Repository

    Wilson, S. K.


    Expert opinion was canvassed to identify crucial knowledge gaps in current understanding of climate change impacts on coral reef fishes. Scientists that had published three or more papers on the effects of climate and environmental factors on reef fishes were invited to submit five questions that, if addressed, would improve our understanding of climate change effects on coral reef fishes. Thirty-three scientists provided 155 questions, and 32 scientists scored these questions in terms of: (i) identifying a knowledge gap, (ii) achievability, (iii) applicability to a broad spectrum of species and reef habitats, and (iv) priority. Forty-two per cent of the questions related to habitat associations and community dynamics of fish, reflecting the established effects and immediate concern relating to climate-induced coral loss and habitat degradation. However, there were also questions on fish demographics, physiology, behaviour and management, all of which could be potentially affected by climate change. Irrespective of their individual expertise and background, scientists scored questions from different topics similarly, suggesting limited bias and recognition of a need for greater interdisciplinary and collaborative research. Presented here are the 53 highest-scoring unique questions. These questions should act as a guide for future research, providing a basis for better assessment and management of climate change impacts on coral reefs and associated fish communities.

  12. Experts’ understandings of drinking water risk management in a climate change scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Åsa Boholm


    Full Text Available The challenges for society presented by climate change are complex and demanding. This paper focuses on one particular resource of utmost necessity and vulnerability to climate change: namely, the provisioning of safe drinking water. From a critical perspective on the role of expertise in risk debates, this paper looks at how Swedish experts understand risk to drinking water in a climate change scenario and how they reason about challenges to risk management and adaptation strategies. The empirical material derives from ten in-depth semi-structured interviews with experts, employed both at government agencies and at universities, and with disciplinary backgrounds in a variety of fields (water engineering, planning, geology and environmental chemistry. The experts understand risk factors affecting both drinking water quality and availability as complex and systemically interrelated. A lack of political saliency of drinking water as a public service is identified as an obstacle to the development of robust adaptation strategies. Another area of concern relates to the geographical, organizational and institutional boundaries (regulatory, political and epistemological between the plethora of public actors with partly overlapping and sometimes unclear responsibilities for the provisioning of safe drinking water. The study concludes that climate change adaptation regarding drinking water provisioning will require a new integration of the knowledge of systemic risk relations, in combination with more efficient agency collaboration based on a clear demarcation of responsibility between actors.

  13. Revisiting of Stommel's model for the understanding of the abrupt climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scatamacchia, R.; Purini, R.; Rafanelli, C.


    Despite the enormous number of papers devoted to modelling climate changes, the pionieristic Stommel paper (1961) remains a still valid tool for the understanding of the basic mechanism that governs the abrupt climate change, i.e. the existence of multipla equilibria in the governing non-linear equations. Using non-dimensional quantities, Stommel did not provide any explicit information about the temporal scale affecting the process under examination when the control parameters are varied. On the basis of this consideration, the present paper revisits the Stommel theory putting some emphasis on the quantitative estimate of how the variations of the control system parameters system modify the fundamental motor of the climate change, i.e. the thermohaline circulation.

  14. Understanding change in recycling and littering behavior across a school social network. (United States)

    Long, Jennifer; Harré, Niki; Atkinson, Quentin D


    Understanding how communities change requires examining how individuals' beliefs and behaviors are shaped by those around them. This paper investigates behavior change across a large social network following a recycling intervention in a New Zealand high school community. We used a mixed methods design, combining focus group data with social network analysis from two waves of a questionnaire that measured friendship networks; recycling and littering behaviors; perceived behavioral norms; and teacher, friend, and parent encouragement for these behaviors. Recycling behavior increased significantly over the course of our study. Supporting the importance of social networks in this context, both littering and recycling behavior showed clear social clustering. Further, the degree of change in an individuals' littering and recycling behavior across time was predicted by friends' prior behavior. Focus group data provided insight into students' perceptions of social interactions and how these contributed to littering and recycling behavior.

  15. Communicating bodily changes: physicians' ways of enabling patient understanding in gastrointestinal cancer consultations. (United States)

    Friberg, Febe; Lidén, Eva; Håkanson, Cecilia; Öhlén, Joakim


    To explore how physicians communicatively enable patients' understanding of bodily changes in gastrointestinal cancer care consultations. Two datasets were used. The first consisted of transcribed video-recorded palliative care consultations with three oncologists and six patients diagnosed with advanced gastrointestinal cancer, in the context of outpatient palliative care. The second dataset was audio-recorded transcriptions from diagnostic consultations with six surgeons and seven patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer, in the context of cancer surgery. An inductively driven and iterative analysis of interaction was performed, guided by Wetherell et al. (2001). Two overarching communicative strategies were identified: (1) "visualizing strategies," with the dimensions: visible strategies (visualizing with what you actually or potentially can see), sensory strategies (visualizing with what is possible to feel), and imaginative strategies; and (2) "contrasting strategies," with the dimensions: contrasting subjective experiences and contrasting between the patient and other people. The visualizing and contrasting communicative strategies form parts of physicians' tacit and experience-based knowledge. The strategies employed by physicians reveal clear potentials to enable patients' understanding and sense making of bodily changes. However, these strategies need to be explicated and problematized as parts of both consultation practice and basic medical education. By means of increased awareness, physicians can more easily identify turning points in patients' levels of understanding, thereby enriching ordinary medical consultations with reflected pedagogical strategies and skills in how to dialogue in a person-centered manner.

  16. Climate change and livestock system in mountain: Understanding from Gandaki River basin of Nepal Himalaya. (United States)

    Dahal, P.; Shrestha, N. S.; Krakauer, N.; Lakhankar, T.; Panthi, J., Sr.; Pradhanang, S.; Jha, A. K.; Shrestha, M.; Sharma, M.


    In recent years climate change has emerged as a source of vulnerability for agro-livestock smallholders in Nepal where people are mostly dependent on rain-fed agriculture and livestock farming for their livelihoods. There is a need to understand and predict the potential impacts of climate change on agro-livestock farmer to develop effective mitigation and adaptation strategies. To understand dynamics of this vulnerability, we assess the farmers' perceptions of climate change, analysis of historical and future projections of climatic parameters and try to understand impact of climate change on livestock system in Gandaki River Basin of Central Nepal. During the period of 1981-2012, as reported by the mountain communities, the most serious hazards for livestock system and agriculture are the increasing trend of temperature, erratic rainfall patterns and increase in drought. Poor households without irrigated land are facing greater risks and stresses than well-off people. Analysis of historical climate data also supports the farmer perception. Result shows that there is increasing trend of temperature but no consistent trend in precipitation but a notable finding is that wet areas are getting wetter and dry areas getting drier. Besides that, there is increase in percentage of warm days and nights with decrease in the cool nights and days. The magnitude of the trend is found to be higher in high altitude. Trend of wet days has found to be increasing with decreasing in rainy days. Most areas are characterized by increases in both severity and frequency of drought and are more evident in recent years. The summers of 2004/05/06/09 and winters of 2006/08/09 were the worst widespread droughts and have a serious impact on livestock since 1981. Future projected change in temperature and precipitation obtained from downscaling the data global model by regional climate model shows that precipitation in central Nepal will change by -8% to 12% and temperature will change by 1

  17. Solar System Escape Architecture for Revolutionary Science (SSEARS) Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Voyager Spacecraft have reached the Heliopause and greatly improved our understanding of the region. This journey took 35 years. A fuller understanding of the...

  18. Reifications of the intellectual: representations, organization and agency in revolutionary China. (United States)

    U, Eddy


    How did 'intellectuals' evolve from a class of subjects in Marxian thoughts to highly visible populations under communism? Such 'reifications of the intellectual' have deeply affected subjectivity, conflict and organization, but received little attention in the political sociology of communism. This essay draws on research on classifications and social boundaries to address the objective and subjective foundations of the reifications and their impact on communist rule. The intellectual is viewed as an identification formed and performed around multiple social axes (most notably family background, educational achievement, occupational history, institutional affiliation and revolutionary rank) that reflected broader patterns of communist political domination. I use the Chinese Communist movement to demonstrate that (1) interaction of political contests, ruling strategies and institutional developments turned a diversity of persons into 'intellectuals' who were allegedly imbued with reprehensible interests and habits linked to privileged economic classes; (2) constant competitions for power and organizational changes led to classificatory ambiguities and, in turn, allowed individuals some control over their identifications; and (3) the developments profoundly influenced identity, state and class formation. Focusing on the dynamics that produced a highly visible but fluid population of 'intellectuals' opens new pathways for comparative research on communism. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2013.

  19. CEOS Theory: A Comprehensive Approach to Understanding Hard to Maintain Behaviour Change. (United States)

    Borland, Ron


    This paper provides a brief introduction to CEOS theory, a comprehensive theory for understanding hard to maintain behaviour change. The name CEOS is an acronym for Context, Executive, and Operational Systems theory. Behaviour is theorised to be the result of the moment by moment interaction between internal needs (operational processes) in relation to environmental conditions, and for humans this is augmented by goal-directed, executive action which can transcend immediate contingencies. All behaviour is generated by operational processes. Goal-directed behaviours only triumph over contingency-generated competing behaviours when operational processes have been sufficiently activated to support them. Affective force can be generated around executive system (ES) goals from such things as memories of direct experience, vicarious experience, and emotionally charged communications mediated through stories the person generates. This paper makes some refinements and elaborations of the theory, particularly around the role of feelings, and of the importance of stories and scripts for facilitating executive action. It also sketches out how it reconceptualises a range of issues relevant to behaviour change. CEOS provides a framework for understanding the limitations of both informational and environmental approaches to behaviour change, the need for self-regulatory strategies and for taking into account more basic aspects of human functioning. © 2016 The Authors. Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of International Association of Applied Psychology.

  20. Understanding the systemic nature of cities to improve health and climate change mitigation. (United States)

    Chapman, Ralph; Howden-Chapman, Philippa; Capon, Anthony


    Understanding cities comprehensively as systems is a costly challenge and is typically not feasible for policy makers. Nevertheless, focusing on some key systemic characteristics of cities can give useful insights for policy to advance health and well-being outcomes. Moreover, if we take a coevolutionary systems view of cities, some conventional assumptions about the nature of urban development (e.g. the growth in private vehicle use with income) may not stand up. We illustrate this by examining the coevolution of urban transport and land use systems, and institutional change, giving examples of policy implications. At a high level, our concern derives from the need to better understand the dynamics of urban change, and its implications for health and well-being. At a practical level, we see opportunities to use stylised findings about urban systems to underpin policy experiments. While it is now not uncommon to view cities as systems, policy makers appear to have made little use so far of a systems approach to inform choice of policies with consequences for health and well-being. System insights can be applied to intelligently anticipate change - for example, as cities are subjected to increasing natural system reactions to climate change, they must find ways to mitigate and adapt to it. Secondly, systems insights around policy cobenefits are vital for better informing horizontal policy integration. Lastly, an implication of system complexity is that rather than seeking detailed, 'full' knowledge about urban issues and policies, cities would be well advised to engage in policy experimentation to address increasingly urgent health and climate change issues. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. High-resolution modeling approaches to understanding changes in extreme precipitation projections (United States)

    Mahoney, K. M.; Alexander, M. A.; Thompson, G.; Scott, J. D.; Barsugli, J. J.


    One of the challenges inherent to understanding the effect of global climate change on precipitation extremes is the mismatch of scale. Climate models simulate large-scale patterns of long-term change, while weather models generally diagnose small-scale weather phenomena such as extreme rainfall. Therefore, understanding the potential effects of global-scale changes on local-scale weather requires new research approaches to connect questions and processes across weather and climate scales. This study represents one such integrated approach by investigating projected changes in warm-season extreme precipitation events using a dynamical downscaling framework that sequentially interfaces climate- and weather-scale data. Focusing on the Colorado Front Range, global simulations are first downscaled to a medium/regional-scale resolution; the resulting simulations are then further downscaled using a high-resolution weather model. The high-resolution model is able to explicitly simulate intense thunderstorms using 1.3-km grid spacing, thus resolving the small-scale physical processes that generate extreme precipitation. Physical process explanations are sought for projected changes in rainfall amount, hail occurrence, and flood risk. Past and future extreme event simulations are compared with respect to environmental drivers such as low-level instability (e.g., CAPE), large-scale forcing, and vertical temperature and moisture profiles. The events are also examined for systematic differences in storm-scale processes such as updraft strength, hail production and hail melting, dry air entrainment, and downdraft formation. Qualitative and quantitative consistency (or the lack thereof) across global, regional, and local-scale simulations is also explored.

  2. Understanding Changes in Modeled Land Surface Characteristics Prior to Lightning-Initiated Holdover Fire Breakout (United States)

    Schultz, Christopher J.; Case, Jonathan L.; Hain, Christopher R.; White, Kristopher; Wachter, J. Brent; Nauslar, Nicholas; MacNamara, Brittany


    Lightning initiated wildfires are only 16% of the total number of wildfires within the United States, but account for 56% of the acreage burned. One of the challenges with lightning-initiated wildfires is their ability to "holdover" which means smolder for up to 2+ weeks before breaking out into a full fledged fire. This work helps characterize the percentage of holdover events due to lightning, and helps quantify changes in the land surface characteristics to help understand trends in soil moisture and vegetation stress that potentially contribute to the fire breaking out into a full wildfire.

  3. Revolutionary Aerospace Systems Concepts - Planning for the Future of Technology Investments (United States)

    Ferebee, Melvin J., Jr.; Breckenridge, Roger A.; Hall, John B., Jr.


    In January, 2000, the NASA Administrator gave the following directions to Langley: "We will create a new role for Langley as a leader for the assessment of revolutionary aerospace system concepts and architectures, and provide resources needed to assure technology breakthroughs will be there to support these advanced concepts. This is critical in determining how NASA can best invest its resources to enable future missions." The key objective of the RASC team is to look beyond current research and technology (R&T) programs and missions and evolutionary technology development approaches with a "top-down" perspective to explore possible new mission capabilities. The accomplishment of this objective will allow NASA to provide the ability to go anywhere, anytime - safely, and affordably- to meet its strategic goals for exploration, science, and commercialization. The RASC Team will seek to maximize the cross-Enterprise benefits of these revolutionary capabilities as it defines the revolutionary enabling technology areas and performance levels needed. The product of the RASC Team studies will be revolutionary systems concepts along with enabling technologies and payoffs in new mission capabilities, which these concepts can provide. These results will be delivered to the NASA Enterprises and the NASA Chief Technologist for use in planning revolutionary future NASA R&T program investments.

  4. Exploring "patient-centered" hospitals: a systematic review to understand change. (United States)

    Gabutti, Irene; Mascia, Daniele; Cicchetti, Americo


    The healthcare scenario in developed countries is changing deeply: patients, who are frequently affected by multi-pathological chronic conditions, have risen their expectations. Simultaneously, there exist dramatic financial pressures which require healthcare organizations to provide more and better services with equal (or decreasing) resources. In response to these challenges, hospitals are facing radical transformations by bridging, redesigning and engaging their organization and staff. This study has the ambitious aim to shed light and clearly label the trends of change hospitals are enhancing in developed economies, in order to fully understand the presence of common trends and which organizational models and features are inspiring the most innovative organizations. The purpose is to make stock of what is known in the field of hospital organization about how hospitals are changing, as well as of how such change may be implemented effectively through managerial tools. To do so the methodology adopted integrates a systematic literature review to a wider engaged research approach. Evidence suggests that the three main pillars of change of the system are given by the progressive patient care model, the patient-centered approach and the lean approach. However, there emerge a number of gaps in what is known about how to exploit drivers of change and their effects. This study confirms that efforts in literature are concentrated in analyzing circumscribed experiences in the implementation of new models and approaches, failing therefore to extend the analysis at the organizational and inter-organizational level in order to legitimately draw consequences to be generalized. There seem to be a number of "gaps" in what is known about how to exploit drivers of change and their effects, suggesting that the research approach privileged till now fails in providing a clear guidance to policy makers and to organizations' management on how to concretely and effectively implement

  5. Heating up Climate Literacy Education: Understanding Teachers' and Students' Motivational and Affective Response to Climate Change (United States)

    Sinatra, G. M.


    presentation, findings from a research program exploring the role of "hot constructs" such as motivation and emotion in teaching and learning about climate change will be shared. In these studies, we have explored constructs such as emotions, misconceptions, plausibility perceptions, understanding deep time, and dispositions towards uncertainty. Results from four studies will be highlighted. In the first study, we demonstrated that comfort with ambiguity and a willingness to think deeply about issues predicted both change in attitudes towards climate change and expressed willingness to take mitigative action in college students (Sinatra, et al. 2011). In another study with college students, we demonstrated that knowledge of deep time and plausibility perceptions of human-induced climate change were related to students' understanding of weather and climate distinctions (Lombardi & Sinatra, 2010). In a study with graduate education students, we found that misconceptions about climate change were associated with strong emotions (Broughton, et al., 2011). With practicing teachers we have found that emotions, specifically anger and hopelessness, were significant predictors of plausibility perceptions of human-induced climate change (Lombardi & Sinatra, in preparation). The implications for climate change education of the findings will be discussed.

  6. Integrating Observations and Models to Better Understand a Changing Arctic Sea Ice Cover (United States)

    Stroeve, J. C.


    TThe loss of the Arctic sea ice cover has captured the world's attention. While much attention has been paid to the summer ice loss, changes are not limited to summer. The last few winters have seen record low sea ice extents, with 2017 marking the 3rdyear in a row with a new record low for the winter maximum extent. More surprising is the number of consecutive months between January 2016 through April 2017 with ice extent anomalies more than 2 standard deviations below the 1981-2010 mean. Additionally, October 2016 through April 2017 saw 7 consecutive months with record low extents, something that had not happened before in the last 4 decades of satellite observations. As larger parts of the Arctic Ocean become ice-free in summer, regional seas gradually transition from a perennial to a seasonal ice cover. The Barents Sea is already only seasonally ice covered, whereas the Kara Sea has recently lost most of its summer ice and is thereby starting to become a seasonally ice covered region. These changes serve as harbinger for what's to come for other Arctic seas. Given the rapid pace of change, there is an urgent need to improve our understanding of the drivers behind Arctic sea ice loss, the implications of this ice loss and to predict future changes to better inform policy makers. Climate models play a fundamental role in helping us synthesize the complex elements of the Arctic sea ice system yet generally fail to simulate key features of the sea ice system and the pace of sea ice loss. Nevertheless, modeling advances continue to provide better means of diagnosing sea ice change, and new insights are likely to be gained with model output from the 6th phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP6). The CMIP6 Sea-Ice Model Intercomparison Project (SIMIP) aim is to better understand biases and errors in sea ice simulations so that we can improve our understanding of the likely future evolution of the sea ice cover and its impacts on global climate. To

  7. The Crucible simulation: Behavioral simulation improves clinical leadership skills and understanding of complex health policy change. (United States)

    Cohen, Daniel; Vlaev, Ivo; McMahon, Laurie; Harvey, Sarah; Mitchell, Andy; Borovoi, Leah; Darzi, Ara


    The Health and Social Care Act 2012 represents the most complex National Health Service reforms in history. High-quality clinical leadership is important for successful implementation of health service reform. However, little is known about the effectiveness of current leadership training. This study describes the use of a behavioral simulation to improve the knowledge and leadership of a cohort of medical doctors expected to take leadership roles in the National Health Service. A day-long behavioral simulation (The Crucible) was developed and run based on a fictitious but realistic health economy. Participants completed pre- and postsimulation questionnaires generating qualitative and quantitative data. Leadership skills, knowledge, and behavior change processes described by the "theory of planned behavior" were self-assessed pre- and postsimulation. Sixty-nine medical doctors attended. Participants deemed the simulation immersive and relevant. Significant improvements were shown in perceived knowledge, capability, attitudes, subjective norms, intentions, and leadership competency following the program. Nearly one third of participants reported that they had implemented knowledge and skills from the simulation into practice within 4 weeks. This study systematically demonstrates the effectiveness of behavioral simulation for clinical management training and understanding of health policy reform. Potential future uses and strategies for analysis are discussed. High-quality care requires understanding of health systems and strong leadership. Policymakers should consider the use of behavioral simulation to improve understanding of health service reform and development of leadership skills in clinicians, who readily adopt skills from simulation into everyday practice.

  8. Managing madness, murderers and paedophiles: Understanding change in the field of English forensic psychiatry. (United States)

    McDonald, Ruth; Furtado, Vivek; Vollm, Birgit


    This paper discusses changes occurring in the field of English forensic psychiatry which appear to be linked to feelings of discomfort amongst medical professionals who manage care in such settings. These changes are neither the result of a sudden 'shock' to the system, nor small improvisations at the margins, but instead appear to reflect a growing perception amongst psychiatrists of accepted field practice as inadequate for some types of patients. To understand how feelings and emotions are implicated in these changes we draw on and develop the work of Pierre Bourdieu to suggest that changes must be seen in the context of field tensions, which have implications for habitus. However, we do not view feelings of discomfort merely as a response to these tensions. Instead we suggest a more dynamic process. The habitus plays a key role in structuring what people pay attention to, how they perceive it and therefore, whether they experience particular feelings in the first place. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Workshops as a useful tool to better understand care professionals' views of a lean change program. (United States)

    Simons, Pascale A M; Benders, Jos; Marneffe, Wim; Pijls-Johannesma, Madelon; Vandijck, Dominique


    For change programs to succeed, it is vital to have a detailed understanding of employees' views regarding the program, especially when the proposed changes are potentially contested. Gaining insight into employee perceptions helps managers to decide how to proceed. The authors conducted two workshops in a radiotherapy institute to assess the benefits and drawbacks, as well as their underlying causes, of a proposed Lean change program. Managers' views on the workshops' usefulness were charted. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Two workshops were organized in which employees predicted positive and negative effects of a Lean program. The workshops combined a structured brainstorm (KJ-technique) and an evaluation of the expected effects. Eight top managers judged the workshops' value on supporting decision making. In total, 15 employees participated in the workshops. Participants from workshop 2 reported more expected effects (27 effects; 18 positive) than from workshop 1 (14 effects; six positive). However, when effects were categorized, similar results were shown. Three from eight managers scored the results relevant for decision making and four neutral. Seven managers recommended future use of the instrument. Increased employee involvement and bottom-up thinking combined with relatively low costs were appreciated most. The workshop could serve as a simple instrument to improve decision making and enhance successful implementation of change programs, as it was expected to enhance employees' involvement and was relatively easy to conduct and cheap. The workshop increased insight into employee views, facilitating adaptive actions by healthcare organization managers.

  10. Statistical Primer for Athletic Trainers: The Essentials of Understanding Measures of Reliability and Minimal Important Change. (United States)

    Riemann, Bryan L; Lininger, Monica R


      To describe the concepts of measurement reliability and minimal important change.   All measurements have some magnitude of error. Because clinical practice involves measurement, clinicians need to understand measurement reliability. The reliability of an instrument is integral in determining if a change in patient status is meaningful.   Measurement reliability is the extent to which a test result is consistent and free of error. Three perspectives of reliability-relative reliability, systematic bias, and absolute reliability-are often reported. However, absolute reliability statistics, such as the minimal detectable difference, are most relevant to clinicians because they provide an expected error estimate. The minimal important difference is the smallest change in a treatment outcome that the patient would identify as important.   Clinicians should use absolute reliability characteristics, preferably the minimal detectable difference, to determine the extent of error around a patient's measurement. The minimal detectable difference, coupled with an appropriately estimated minimal important difference, can assist the practitioner in identifying clinically meaningful changes in patients.

  11. Perfectly Reasonable in a Practical World: Understanding Chemistry Teacher Responses to a Change Proposal (United States)

    Westbroek, Hanna; Janssen, Fred; Doyle, Walter


    Curriculum ideals often get compromised as a curriculum moves through its various levels of representation. Across the different science reforms, this process of slippage is clearly present. Research shows that teacher subject matter knowledge, PCK, beliefs and context factors all influence implementation. Professional development arrangements focus on fixing deficiencies in teachers' knowledge, beliefs or work context. This approach has not solved the problem of slippage, as we still do not understand what mechanisms operate when teachers make decisions about change proposals. In this study, we unpacked the decision mechanisms of three highly qualified chemistry teachers who subsequently adapted an innovative context-based chemistry unit. In spite of a state of the art professional development arrangement and the teachers being highly qualified, slippage occurred. The teachers' goal systems were used to interpret their reasoning. A goal system is a context-dependent, within-person mental construct that consists of a hierarchy of a person's goals and means in pursuit of a task. We showed that all three teachers adopted or redesigned elements of the change proposals to meet their core goals, i.e., goals that had multiple connections with other goals. This indicated that the adaptations teachers made were perfectly reasonable ways to serve their professional goals. For change to happen, we contend that one should begin with ways to connect teachers' core goals with the lesson or unit goal demands of a proposed innovation. Change emerges from the adaptions teachers make in the service of their core goals.

  12. Smoking cessation: an application of theory of planned behavior to understanding progress through stages of change. (United States)

    Bledsoe, Linda K


    The purpose of this research was to investigate variables relevant to smoking cessation early in the process of change through an application of the Theory of Planned Behavior [Ajzen, I. (1985). From intentions to actions: A theory of planned behavior. In J. Kuhl and J. Beckman (Eds). Action-control: From cognition to behavior (pp.11-39). Heidelberg: Springer.] to the temporal structure provided by the Transtheoretical Model. Study 1 was a preliminary elicitation study (n=68) conducted to ground the concepts used in the model testing in Study 2 [Ajzen, I., Fishbein, M. (1980). Understanding attitudes and predicting social behavior, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.]. Study 2 tested the proposed model fit with data from a sample of 230 adult smokers. Structural equation modeling did not support the Theory of Planned Behavior as a model of motivation for progress through the stages of change and highlighted measurement issues with perceived behavioral control. A modified model using the Theory of Reasoned Action provided a good fit to the data, accounting for approximately 64% of the variance in intention to quit smoking and stage of change. This research addresses the need for a more complete theoretical rationale for progress through stages of change.

  13. Understanding Indian Institutional Networks and Participation in Water Management Adaptation to Climate Change (United States)

    Azhoni, A.; Holman, I.; Jude, S.


    Adaptation to climate change for water management involves complex interactions between different actors and sectors. The need to understand the relationships between key stakeholder institutions (KSIs) is increasingly recognized. The complexity of water management in India has meant that enhancing adaptive capacity through improved inter-institutional networks remains a challenge for both government and non-governmental institutions. To analyse such complex inter-actions this study has used Social Network and Stakeholder Analysis tools to quantify the participation of, and interactions between, each KSI in the climate change adaptation and water discourse based on keyword analysis of their online presence. Using NodeXL, a Social Network Analysis tool, network diagrams have been used to evaluate the inter-relationships between these KSIs. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with twenty-five KSIs to identify the main barriers to adaptation and to triangulate the findings of the e-documents analysis. The analysis found that there is an inverse relationship between institutions' reference to water and climate change in their web-documents. Most institutions emphasize mitigation rather than adaptation. Bureaucratic delays, poor coordination between the KSIs, unclear policies and systemic deficiencies are identified as key barriers to improving adaptive capacity within water management to climate change. However, the increasing attention being given to the perceived climate change impacts on the water sector and improving the inter-institutional networks are some of the opportunities for Indian water institutions. Although websites of Union Government Institutions seldom directly hyperlink to one another, they are linked through "bridging" websites which have the potential to act as brokers for enhancing adaptive capacity. The research has wider implications for analysis of complex inter-disciplinary and inter-institutional issues involving multi stakeholders.

  14. The changing Arctic carbon cycle: using the past to understand terrestrial-aquatic linkages (United States)

    Anderson, N. J.; van Hardenbroek, M.; Jones, V.; McGowan, S.; Langdon, P. G.; Whiteford, E.; Turner, S.; Edwards, M. E.


    Predicted shifts in terrestrial vegetation cover associated with Arctic warming are altering the delivery and processing of carbon to aquatic ecosystems. This process could determine whether lakes are net carbon sources or sinks and, because lake density is high in many Arctic areas, may alter regional carbon budgets. Lake sediment records integrate information from within the lake and its catchment and can be used quantify past vegetation shifts associated with known climatic episodes of warmer (Holocene Thermal Maximum) and cooler (Neoglacial) conditions. We analysed sediment cores located in different Arctic vegetation biomes (tundra, shrub, forested) in Greenland, Norway and Alaska and used biochemical (algal pigments, stable isotopes) remains to evaluate whether past vegetation shifts were associated with changes in ecosystem carbon processing and biodiversity. When lake catchments were sparsely vegetated and soil vegetation was limited ultra-violet radiation (UVR) screening pigments indicate clear lake waters, scarce dissolved organic carbon/ matter (DOC/M). Moderate vegetation development (birch scrub in Norway; herb tundra in Greenland) appears to enhance delivery of DOM to lakes, and to stimulate algal production which is apparently linked to heterotrophic carbon processing pathways (e.g. algal mixotrophy, nutrient release via the microbial loop). Mature forest cover (in Alaska and Norway) supressed lake autotrophic production, most likely because coloured DOM delivered from catchment vegetation limited light availability. During wetter periods when mires developed lake carbon processing also changed, indicating that hydrological delivery of terrestrial DOM is also important. Therefore, future changes in Arctic vegetation and precipitation patterns are highly likely to alter the way that arctic ecosystems process carbon. Our approach provides an understanding of how ecosystem diversity and carbon processing respond to past climate change and the difficulty

  15. Understanding organization and institutional changes for management of environmental affairs in the Brazilian petroleum sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, J.A.P. de


    This article analyzes how governments and an oil company adapted their institutional and organization frameworks to manage actual and potential environmental impacts of oil-related activities in Brazil. Two major factors are important for understanding these changes. First, the monopoly of the state to explore and produce oil is over. Foreign companies have entered Brazil and increased the competitiveness of the oil sector. Second, major oil spills into waterways in recent years resulted in severe fines and an increasing outcry from government and civil society representatives for greater control over oil activities. These two factors raised a debate about what are, or should be, the roles of various stakeholders involved in controlling oil activities and their impacts on the environment. Legislative changes assigned different roles to the state oil company, to a newly created regulatory agency, to the Navy and to federal and state environmental agencies. Because many of the legal changes were not well defined, accountability among institutional actors remained unclear and institutional conflicts about who is accountable for what were likely to occur. As well, government organizations, public prosecutors, media and civil society increasingly influenced the regulation of both government agencies and companies. As a result, these responded to regulatory change and market forces by changing their relations with external stakeholders and their organizational arrangements for environmental management. This article identifies some of the institutional conflicts in selected case studies from the oil industry, the difficulties in clarifying regulatory roles within the industry, and responses in terms of the environmental strategies of regulatory bodies and oil companies, specifically the Brazilian state company, Petrobas. (author)

  16. High School Students' Understanding of Change over Time and System Complexity: A Focus on the Cryosphere (United States)

    McNeal, K. S.; Libarkin, J.; Ledley, T. S.; Guthrie, C.


    Most students have difficulty articulating processes that are key for Earth’s changes and may have limited ability to understand Earth system science and think across spatial and temporal dimensions. The cryosphere, a complex and dynamic Earth system that exhibits change over time (e.g., seasonal, yearly, decadal, and millennial), can be difficult for students to reason about. The presented research assesses the effectiveness of the project developed on-line modules on high school students’ cryosphere content knowledge and skill development, including their: (1) conceptual understanding of ice, thermodynamics, climate, changes in ice cover over time, Earth system interactions, and complexity, and (2) use and interpretation of data and graphs about the cryosphere. Pre- and post- student assessments, classroom observations, and teacher interviews were collected from four high school classrooms in Texas to determine the effectiveness of the Earthlabs cryosphere modules in reaching the specified learning goals. Preliminary analysis of pre-and post-test data revealed a number of interesting changes where students displayed an increase in their awareness of the cryosphere, increase in confidence about cryosphere knowledge, and an increase in their ability to read and interpret graphs. Furthermore, classroom observations made for 25 minutes during a class period illustrated that for over 84% of the class period the students were engaged with the Earthlabs materials and spent the majority (>50%) of their time either discussing (31%) or working on the on-line Earthlabs cryosphere materials (29%). Finally, forty-five minute individual telephone interviews conducted with the four implementing cryosphere teachers revealed that teachers overwhelmingly reflected that the materials supported students’ ability to learn about the (i) nature and importance of the cryosphere, (ii) manipulation, analysis, interpretation of data, (iii) physical changes over multiple time scales

  17. Developing an Understanding of Vegetation Change and Fluvial Carbon Fluxes in Semi-Arid Environments (United States)

    Puttock, A.; Brazier, R. E.; Dungait, J. A. J.; Bol, R.; Macleod, C. J. A.


    Dryland environments are estimated to cover around 40% of the global land surface (Okin et al, 2009) and are home to approximately 2.5 billion people (Reynolds et al. 2007). Many of these areas have recently experienced extensive land degradation. One such area and the focus of this project is the semi-arid US Southwest, where degradation over the past 150 years has been characterised by the invasion of woody vegetation into grasslands. Transition from grass to woody vegetation results in a change in ecosystem structure and function (Turnbull et al, 2008). Structural change is typically characterised by an increased heterogeneity of soil and vegetation resources, associated with reduced vegetation coverage and an increased vulnerability to soil erosion and the potential loss of key nutrients to adjacent fluvial systems. Such loss of resources may impact heavily upon the amount of carbon that is sequestered by these environments and the amount of carbon that is lost as the land becomes more degraded. Therefore, understanding these vegetation transitions is significant for sustainable land use and global biogeochemical cycling. This project uses an ecohydrological approach, monitoring natural rainfall-runoff events over six bounded plots with different vegetation coverage. The experiment takes advantage of a natural abundance stable 13C isotope shift from C3 piñon-juniper (Pinus edulis-Juniperus monosperma) mixed stand through a C4 pure-grass (Bouteloua eriopoda) to C3 shrub (Larrea tridentata). Data collected quantify fluvial fluxes of sediment and associated soil organic matter and carbon that is lost from across the grass-to-shrub and grass-to-woodland transition (where change in space is taken to indicate a similar change through time). Results collected during the 2010 and 2011 monsoon seasons will be presented, illustrating that soil and carbon losses are greater as the ecosystem becomes more dominated by woody plants. Additionally this project utilises novel

  18. Understanding the regional pattern of projected future changes in extreme precipitation (United States)

    Pfahl, S.; O'Gorman, P. A.; Fischer, E. M.


    Changes in extreme precipitation are among the most impact-relevant consequences of climate warming, yet regional projections remain uncertain due to natural variability and model deficiencies in relevant physical processes. To better understand changes in extreme precipitation, they may be decomposed into contributions from atmospheric thermodynamics and dynamics, but these are typically diagnosed with spatially aggregated data or using a statistical approach that is not valid at all locations. Here we decompose the forced response of daily regional scale extreme precipitation in climate-model simulations into thermodynamic and dynamic contributions using a robust physical diagnostic. We show that thermodynamics alone would lead to a spatially homogeneous fractional increase, which is consistent across models and dominates the sign of the change in most regions. However, the dynamic contribution modifies regional responses, amplifying increases, for instance, in the Asian monsoon region, but weakening them across the Mediterranean, South Africa and Australia. Over subtropical oceans, the dynamic contribution is strong enough to cause robust regional decreases in extreme precipitation, which may partly result from a poleward circulation shift. The dynamic contribution is key to reducing uncertainties in future projections of regional extreme precipitation.

  19. A Kaleidoscope of Understanding: Pre-service Elementary Teachers' Knowledge of Climate Change Concepts and Impacts (United States)

    Hayhoe, D.; Bullock, S.; Hayhoe, K.


    Teachers are at the forefront of efforts to increase climate literacy; however, even teachers’ understanding can contain significant misconceptions. Probes aimed at capturing these misconceptions have been used with pre-service teachers in several countries. Here, we report on a unique 59-item questionnaire useful as a pre-post diagnostic for teacher training. Topics include Earth’s climate system, long-range climatic changes, recent changes, various gases and types of radiation involved in the greenhouse effect, future impacts of climate change, and mitigation options This questionnaire is unique in three ways: 1. the topics include climate change concepts not usually probed, 2. the questions have a binary-choice format that avoided both the “positive statement bias” of agree-disagree questions and the superfluous distractors of multiple-choice tests, and 3. the questionnaire was piloted with pre-service elementary teachers in Toronto, one of the most multicultural cities in the world. The questionnaire items were written for the Ontario curriculum (K-10); however, they also address almost all of the principles identified in Climate Literacy: The Essential Principles of Climate Science. The questionnaire was completed by 89 volunteers from a pool of 280. Most had a substantial knowledge of climate change concepts, with 34 of the 59 questions being answered correctly by more than 60% of the subjects. The item discrimination of most questions was relatively low, however, and only a very few item pairs showed a significant correlation. This suggests that subjects’ knowledge consisted of a “kaleidoscope of understanding,” rather than a coherent picture. Significant misconceptions were also identified, with 18 of the 59 items being answered incorrectly by more than 60% of the subjects. Of these, 11 correspond to misconceptions previously noted, while 7 suggest new misconceptions not yet identified in studies done with students or teachers, such as the

  20. Understanding the connection between conformational changes of peptides and equilibrium thermal fluctuations. (United States)

    Soler, Miguel A; Zúñiga, José; Requena, Alberto; Bastida, Adolfo


    Despite the increasing evidence that conformational transitions in peptides and proteins are driven by specific vibrational energy pathways along the molecule, the current experimental techniques of analysis do as yet not allow to study these biophysical processes in terms of anisotropic energy flows. Computational methods offer a complementary approach to obtain a more detailed understanding of the vibrational and conformational dynamics of these systems. Accordingly, in this work we investigate jointly the vibrational energy distribution and the conformational dynamics of trialanine peptide in water solution at room temperature by applying the Instantaneous Normal Mode analysis to the results derived from equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. It is shown that conformational changes in trialanine are triggered by the vibrational energy accumulated in the low-frequency modes of the molecule, and that excitation is caused exclusively by thermal fluctuations of the solute-solvent system, thus excluding the possibility of an intramolecular vibrational energy redistribution process.

  1. The contributions of cognitive neuroscience and neuroimaging to understanding mechanisms of behavior change in addiction. (United States)

    Morgenstern, Jon; Naqvi, Nasir H; Debellis, Robert; Breiter, Hans C


    In the last decade, there has been an upsurge of interest in understanding the mechanisms of behavior change (MOBC) and effective behavioral interventions as a strategy to improve addiction-treatment efficacy. However, there remains considerable uncertainty about how treatment research should proceed to address the MOBC issue. In this article, we argue that limitations in the underlying models of addiction that inform behavioral treatment pose an obstacle to elucidating MOBC. We consider how advances in the cognitive neuroscience of addiction offer an alternative conceptual and methodological approach to studying the psychological processes that characterize addiction, and how such advances could inform treatment process research. In addition, we review neuroimaging studies that have tested aspects of neurocognitive theories as a strategy to inform addiction therapies and discuss future directions for transdisciplinary collaborations across cognitive neuroscience and MOBC research. 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  2. Towards understanding hydroclimatic change in Victoria, Australia – preliminary insights into the "Big Dry"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Kiem


    Full Text Available Since the mid-1990s the majority of Victoria, Australia, has experienced severe drought conditions (i.e. the "Big Dry" characterized by streamflow that is the lowest in approximately 80 years of record. While decreases in annual and seasonal rainfall totals have also been observed, this alone does not seem to explain the observed reduction in flow. In this study, we investigate the large-scale climate drivers for Victoria and demonstrate how these modulate the regional scale synoptic patterns, which in turn alter the way seasonal rainfall totals are compiled and the amount of runoff per unit rainfall that is produced. The hydrological implications are significant and illustrate the need for robust hydrological modelling, that takes into account insights into physical mechanisms that drive regional hydroclimatology, in order to properly understand and quantify the impacts of climate change (natural and/or anthropogenic on water resources.

  3. Towards a Stochastic Predictive Understanding of Ecosystem Functioning and Resilience to Environmental Changes (United States)

    Pappas, C.


    Terrestrial ecosystem processes respond differently to hydrometeorological variability across timescales, and so does our scientific understanding of the underlying mechanisms. Process-based modeling of ecosystem functioning is therefore challenging, especially when long-term predictions are envisioned. Here we analyze the statistical properties of hydrometeorological and ecosystem variability, i.e., the variability of ecosystem process related to vegetation carbon dynamics, from hourly to decadal timescales. 23 extra-tropical forest sites, covering different climatic zones and vegetation characteristics, are examined. Micrometeorological and reanalysis data of precipitation, air temperature, shortwave radiation and vapor pressure deficit are used to describe hydrometeorological variability. Ecosystem variability is quantified using long-term eddy covariance flux data of hourly net ecosystem exchange of CO2 between land surface and atmosphere, monthly remote sensing vegetation indices, annual tree-ring widths and above-ground biomass increment estimates. We find that across sites and timescales ecosystem variability is confined within a hydrometeorological envelope that describes the range of variability of the available resources, i.e., water and energy. Furthermore, ecosystem variability demonstrates long-term persistence, highlighting ecological memory and slow ecosystem recovery rates after disturbances. We derive an analytical model, combining deterministic harmonics and stochastic processes, that represents major mechanisms and uncertainties and mimics the observed pattern of hydrometeorological and ecosystem variability. This stochastic framework offers a parsimonious and mathematically tractable approach for modelling ecosystem functioning and for understanding its response and resilience to environmental changes. Furthermore, this framework reflects well the observed ecological memory, an inherent property of ecosystem functioning that is currently not

  4. Understanding Student Cognition about Complex Earth System Processes Related to Climate Change (United States)

    McNeal, K. S.; Libarkin, J.; Ledley, T. S.; Dutta, S.; Templeton, M. C.; Geroux, J.; Blakeney, G. A.


    The Earth's climate system includes complex behavior and interconnections with other Earth spheres that present challenges to student learning. To better understand these unique challenges, we have conducted experiments with high-school and introductory level college students to determine how information pertaining to the connections between the Earth's atmospheric system and the other Earth spheres (e.g., hydrosphere and cryosphere) are processed. Specifically, we include psychomotor tests (e.g., eye-tracking) and open-ended questionnaires in this research study, where participants were provided scientific images of the Earth (e.g., global precipitation and ocean and atmospheric currents), eye-tracked, and asked to provide causal or relational explanations about the viewed images. In addition, the students engaged in on-line modules ( focused on Earth system science as training activities to address potential cognitive barriers. The developed modules included interactive media, hands-on lessons, links to outside resources, and formative assessment questions to promote a supportive and data-rich learning environment. Student eye movements were tracked during engagement with the materials to determine the role of perception and attention on understanding. Students also completed a conceptual questionnaire pre-post to determine if these on-line curriculum materials assisted in their development of connections between Earth's atmospheric system and the other Earth systems. The pre-post results of students' thinking about climate change concepts, as well as eye-tracking results, will be presented.

  5. Plastic debris and policy: Using current scientific understanding to invoke positive change. (United States)

    Rochman, Chelsea M; Cook, Anna-Marie; Koelmans, Albert A


    Captain Charles Moore introduced the world to the "Great Pacific Garbage Patch" in the mid-1990s, and images of plastic debris in the oceans began to sweep the media. Since then, there has been increasing interest from scientists, the public, and policy makers regarding plastic debris in the environment. Today, there remains no doubt that plastic debris contaminates aquatic (marine and freshwater) habitats and animals globally. The growing scientific evidence demonstrates widespread contamination from plastic debris, and researchers are beginning to understand the sources, fate, and effects of the material. As new scientific understanding breeds new questions, scientists are working to fill data gaps regarding the fate and effects of plastic debris and the mechanisms that drive these processes. In parallel, policy makers are working to mitigate this contamination. The authors focus on what is known about plastic debris that is relevant to policy by reviewing some of the weight of evidence regarding contamination, fate, and effects of the material. Moreover, they highlight some examples of how science has already been used to inform policy change and mitigation and discuss opportunities for future linkages between science and policy to continue the relationship and contribute to effective solutions for plastic debris. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1617-1626. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  6. Understanding the Impact of Anthropogenic and Environmental Changes on Dengue Fever Cases in Puerto Rico (United States)

    Akanda, A. S.; Serman, E. A.; Couret, J.; Puggioni, G.; Ginsberg, H. S.


    Worldwide, there are an estimated 50-100 million cases of dengue fever each year, roughly 30 times the number of cases as 50 years ago. Dengue was introduced to Puerto Rico (PR) in 1963 and it has experienced epidemic activity ever since. There have been 4 large epidemics since 1990, the most recent in 2010 where almost 27,000 cases were reported. Vaccine development remains in the testing stages, and years away from mass distribution. Effective control thus depends on our understanding of the complex relationships between environmental and anthropogenic factors, mosquito vector ecology, and disease epidemiology. Dengue virus is primarily transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, which also carry the Zika virus, and humans in urban environments are their preferred hosts. The purpose of our analysis is to identify trends between anthropogenic and environmental changes and dengue fever cases in PR over the past 15 years. Data on housing and population density, percent impervious surface, and percent tree canopy at the municipality level were procured from the U.S. Census Bureau and the Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics Consortium (MLRC) project, respectively. Land cover data from the National Land Cover Database, created by USGS and NOAA, as well as environmental data from the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC), were also used. Smaller land cover and green space analysis studies have been performed for PR, but this is the first study to consider the island as a whole, and in six distinct regions, with regards to increases in dengue fever cases. The results from this study can be used to understand the effects of urbanization and climate change on vector-borne disease transmission in PR and to project the impact of growing sub-urban and urban areas on dengue cases in coming years. Our results could also be used to assess Dengue and Zika transmission in growing megacites of the world, where urban slums provide a favorable habitat for Ae. aegypti and foster

  7. Studying the complexity of change: toward an analytical framework for understanding deliberate social-ecological transformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele-Lee Moore


    Full Text Available Faced with numerous seemingly intractable social and environmental challenges, many scholars and practitioners are increasingly interested in understanding how to actively engage and transform the existing systems holding such problems in place. Although a variety of analytical models have emerged in recent years, most emphasize either the social or ecological elements of such transformations rather than their coupled nature. To address this, first we have presented a definition of the core elements of a social-ecological system (SES that could potentially be altered in a transformation. Second, we drew on insights about transformation from three branches of literature focused on radical change, i.e., social movements, socio-technical transitions, and social innovation, and gave consideration to the similarities and differences with the current studies by resilience scholars. Drawing on these findings, we have proposed a framework that outlines the process and phases of transformative change in an SES. Future research will be able to utilize the framework as a tool for analyzing the alteration of social-ecological feedbacks, identifying critical barriers and leverage points and assessing the outcome of social-ecological transformations.

  8. Why understanding the impacts of the changing environment on river basin hydrology matters in Texas? (United States)

    Gao, H.; Zhao, G.; Lee, K.; Zhang, S.; Shen, X.; Shao, M.; Nickelson, C.


    The State of Texas is prone to floods and droughts—both of which are expected to become more frequent, and more intensified, under a changing climate. This has a direct negative effect on agricultural productivity, which is a major revenue source for the state. Meanwhile, with the rapid population growth and economic development, the burden to Texas water resources is exacerbated by the ever increasing demands from users. From a hydrological processes perspective, the direct consequence of the increased impervious area due to urbanization is greater surface runoff and higher flood peaks. Although many reservoirs have been built during the past several decades to regulate river flows and increase water supply, the role of these reservoirs in the context of different future climate change and urbanization scenarios needs to be explored. Furthermore, phytoplankton productivity—an important indicator of coastal ecosystem health— is significantly affected by river discharge. The objective of this presentation is to reveal the importance of understanding the impacts of climate change, urbanization, and flow regulation on Texas river flows, water resources, and coastal water quality. Using state-of-the-art modeling and remote sensing techniques, we will showcase our results over representative Texas river basins and bay areas. A few examples include modeling peak flows in the San Antonio River Basin, evaluating water supply resilience under future drought and urbanization over the Dallas metropolitan area, projecting future crop yields from Texas agricultural lands, and monitoring and forecasting Chlorophyll-a concentrations over Galveston Bay. Results from these studies are expected to provide information relevant to decision making, both with regard to water resources management and to ecosystem protection.

  9. Understanding consumer participation in mental health: Issues of power and change. (United States)

    Bennetts, Wanda; Cross, Wendy; Bloomer, Melissa


    Consumer participation occurs in all Victorian public mental health services. Area mental health services employ consumer consultants to enhance consumer participation across the network. Ongoing support of management is essential to the success of consumer participation. This project aimed to explore understandings of consumer participation from a manager's perspective. Semistructured interviews were conducted with seven participants in this qualitative, interpretive study. The thematic analysis revealed the complexities around defining consumer participation and demonstrated the difficulties and possible reasons as to why there is no real clarity between managers, service providers, and consumers as to what consumer participation should look like. Power and change were the primary themes. Power and the overwhelming consensus that the medical model and those working within it hold the most power was strongly represented in this study. Legislation and workplace settings were seen as considerable factors adding to the disempowerment of consumers within an already disempowering mental health system. Change was the other main theme that emerged, with culture and attitudes of the old 'institutionalized' thinking that still pervades some pockets of mental health services being seen as the major barriers to change. The role of the consumer consultant was a prominent subtheme, with their role in training and the education of workers seen as an essential and positive way to progress consumer participation. These findings demonstrate that managers consider there to be hope for consumers, brought about by collective action and lobbying, and through consumer participation in less-restrictive parts of the service (community settings). © 2011 The Authors. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing © 2011 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  10. Building on IPY Data, Collaborations and Infrastructure to Understand the Changing Poles (Invited) (United States)

    Bell, R. E.; Krupnik, I.; Hik, D.; Alverson, K. D.; Drinkwater, M. R.


    programs in the poles continue to necessitate shared resources, ideas and infrastructure. Goals for the post IPY 2007-9 polar science should include: (1) securing a robust, internationally-coordinated polar-observing infrastructure by sustaining existing IPY elements, complemented by critical new observations to fill identified gaps; (2) building complete ice, ocean, terrestrial and atmospheric data sets to facilitate accurate models of earth systems that will enable prediction and adaptation to future change; (3) recognition that fundamental exploratory science is necessary to ensure our ideas are not too narrow and entrenched; (4) interdisciplinary work must be encouraged to understand the complexity of coupled systems; (5) building on the IPY education and outreach efforts to ensure a vibrant new cohort of polar scientists ready to address polar change and its global ramifications.

  11. Women Teachers of Post-Revolutionary Mexico: Feminisation and Everyday Resistance (United States)

    Lopez, Oresta


    The reflections presented in this article include the process of incorporating women teachers into schools during the post-revolutionary period in Mexico. From one standpoint, women teachers lived in a state of ambiguity throughout this period because they were seen as symbols of national reconstruction following a war that left more than one…

  12. Apologies as Politeness Strategies Expressed by Characters in "Revolutionary Road" Movie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Abedi


    Full Text Available This research aimed to investigate kinds of offences that motivate the characters in the movie "Revolutionary Road" to deliver their apology and to describe the way the characters express their apologies. The study used Trosborg's apology strategies and Holmes' social dimensions of communication and kinds of offences finding, Hymes' ethnography of communication with SPEAKING formula. The data of the research were taken from apology expressions employed in the movie entitled "Revolutionary Road". The corpus included the sentences containing apology expressions following an offence, and other supporting expressions employed by the characters in the movie "Revolutionary Road". The dialogues containing apology expressions and the types of offenses from the apology expressions were transcribed. The result showed that the kinds of offenses were infringement on space, infringement on talk, infringement on time, infringement on possession and social behavior offence. The characters in the movie “Revolutionary Road” expressed their apologies with the simple and complex form of apology strategies both directly and indirectly. They also delivered their apologies in high tone and low tone. They also showed nonverbal expressions in apologizing. The apology strategies were influenced by the degree of severity of the offence and the response given by the addressee. The employing of apology strategy in apologizing was influenced by the social distance, the formality of the situation, and the social status of the participants. It is implied that the speech act of apology in different contexts including movies should be regarded and considered by sociolinguistics.

  13. Living the revolutionary melodrama: Robespierre's sensibility and the construction of political commitment in the French revolution


    Andress, David


    Discussions of the “sentimentalism” of the French revolutionaries have risked oversimplifying the historical moment of sensibilité. Study of the career of Robespierre shows how such ideas formed a major structuring component of self-conception for him, while also inserting that self in a lived and shared narrative with profound emotional and political consequences.

  14. Material Life in Revolutionary America: Artifacts and Issues in the Classroom. (United States)

    Sanford, Douglas W.


    Contends that artifacts found during archaeological research can open up alternative ways to explore, reexamine, and even rewrite history. Maintains that material culture explores three aspects of Revolutionary American life: (1) the nature of day-to-day life; (2) the fluctuating circumstances of enslaved African-Americans; and (3) how…

  15. Starting Anew: Exploring the Links between Radio and Journalism Education in Post-Revolutionary Romania. (United States)

    Hochheimer, John L.; Hochheimer, Joanne Dvorak

    This paper examines the evolution of Romanian radio, as well as some of the inherent problems of journalism education in Romania in the post-revolutionary era. The paper discusses the legacy of repression during the Ceausescu dictatorship, which limited radio services throughout the country and left only one journalism school, a school that…

  16. latin American literary testimony: historical foreshadowing of gender in the revolutionary discourse of the sixties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria García


    Full Text Available The foundation of testimonio in Latin American literary field, initiated at the end of the ‘60, makes part of the institutionalization of the Cuban revolution, process where its projection to the rest of Latin America constitued a central problem. This paper studies political preconditions of testimonio. In particular, it analizes certain aspects of Cuban revolutionary discourse that anticipate features eventually developed by the literary genre, in the ways the relation between literature and politics is represented, and in the subjects of discourse that are proposed as embodiments of such relation. The paper introduces the question of Cuban revolution, as regards the exemplary status it acquired in Latin America during the sixties. Then, it examines the literary positioning represented by testimonio, as the corollary of a reflexive reconsideration operated by some Latin American writers and critics, concerning their historical role. Finally, it considers three representative documents of Cuban revolution and its continental projection: History will absolve me, by Fidel Castro, and Reminiscences of the Cuban revolutionary war and Bolivian diary, by Ernesto Guevara. We show the textual configuration of a revolutionary subject whose legitimity emerges not only from a political experience which testimony enunciates, but also from particular ways of living and representing literature in the context of a revolutionary practice. In the end of the sixties, the continental literary field would reaffirm such features as its discourse legitimating criteria, during the institutionalization of testimonio as its privileged genre.

  17. Human Effects Upon Revolutionary Processes in the Biosphere


    Cairns, John


    Persuasive evidence indicates that the biosphere is experiencing a major biotic crisis and even if humankind ceases stress on natural systems, the crisis will most likely disrupt or alter the surviving ecosystems. The new altered biosphere will be difficult to understand and adapt to within the next five to ten generations. Extinction is a continual process; however, at great intervals, a mass extinction occurs and new species will replace most of the extinct species. The global problems caus...

  18. Time-Series Similarity Analysis of Satellite Derived Data to Understand Changes in Forest Biomass. (United States)

    Singh, N.; Fritz, B.


    One of the goals of promoting bioenergy is reducing green-house gas emissions by replacing fossil fuels. However, there are concerns that carbon emissions due to changes in land use resulting from crop production for ethanol will negate the impact of biofuels on the environment. So, the current focus is to use lignocellulose feedstocks also referred to as second generation biofuels as the new source of bioenergy. Wood based pellets derived from the forests of southeastern United States are one such source which is being exported to Europe as a carbon-neutral fuel. These wood-pellets meet the EU standard for carbon emissions and are being used to replace coal for energy generation and heating. As a result US exports of wood-based pellets have increased from nearly zero to over 6 million metric tons over the past 8 years. Wood-based pellets are traditionally produced from softwood trees which have a relatively shorter life-cycle and propagate easily, and thus are expected to provide a sustainable source of wood chips used for pellet production. However, there are concerns that as the demand and price of wood pellets increases, lumber mills will seek wood chips from other sources as well, particularly from hardwood trees resulting in higher carbon emissions as well as loss of biodiversity. In this study we use annual stacks of normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data at a 16-day temporal resolution to monitor biomass around pellet mills in southeastern United States. We use a combination of time series similarity technique and supervised learning to understand if there have been significant changes in biomass around pellet mills in the southeastern US. We also demonstrate how our method can be used to monitor biomass over large geographic regions using phenological properties of growing vegetation.

  19. Understanding social-ecological change and transformation through community perceptions of system identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Andrachuk


    Full Text Available We developed an empirical approach to consider social-ecological system change and transformation by drawing on resource users' knowledge and perceptions. We applied this approach in the Cau Hai lagoon, a coastal area dominated by small-scale fisheries in central Vietnam. Nine focus groups with more than 70 fishers were used to gather information about key social-ecological system elements and interactions, historical social-ecological dynamics, and possible thresholds between distinct social-ecological system identities. The patterns of change in livelihoods and resource exploitation in the Cau Hai lagoon are similar to those seen in other coastal lagoon and small-scale fishery contexts. Our findings show some promise for the use of local knowledge and the perceptions of resource user communities to understand and characterize social-ecological transformations. Importantly, however, we also demonstrate how social-ecological transformations are complicated processes driven by many factors beyond the control of any singular individual or group. We argue that (1 the occurrence of social-ecological transformations can result in either positive or negative outcomes and (2 that we need to direct our thinking away from drawing tidy conclusions about if and when social-ecological transformations take place. Our research also encourages scholars to carefully consider how we frame the benefits of participatory, community-based governance initiatives. Importantly, we need to examine the ways that governance initiatives will be beneficial for some people and detrimental for others, and we need to be fully aware of locally contested interests and acknowledge competing priorities for fisheries management and human well-being. Community-oriented assessments informed by resilience thinking can help to open up questions about economic, political, cultural, and environmental aspects of undesirable path dependencies and traps.

  20. Growing Canopy on a College Campus: Understanding Urban Forest Change through Archival Records and Aerial Photography. (United States)

    Roman, Lara A; Fristensky, Jason P; Eisenman, Theodore S; Greenfield, Eric J; Lundgren, Robert E; Cerwinka, Chloe E; Hewitt, David A; Welsh, Caitlin C


    Many municipalities are setting ambitious tree canopy cover goals to increase the extent of their urban forests. A historical perspective on urban forest development can help cities strategize how to establish and achieve appropriate tree cover targets. To understand how long-term urban forest change occurs, we examined the history of trees on an urban college campus: the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia, PA. Using a mixed methods approach, including qualitative assessments of archival records (1870-2017), complemented by quantitative analysis of tree cover from aerial imagery (1970-2012), our analysis revealed drastic canopy cover increase in the late 20th and early 21st centuries along with the principle mechanisms of that change. We organized the historical narrative into periods reflecting campus planting actions and management approaches; these periods are also connected to broader urban greening and city planning movements, such as City Beautiful and urban sustainability. University faculty in botany, landscape architecture, and urban design contributed to the design of campus green spaces, developed comprehensive landscape plans, and advocated for campus trees. A 1977 Landscape Development Plan was particularly influential, setting forth design principles and planting recommendations that enabled the dramatic canopy cover gains we observed, and continue to guide landscape management today. Our results indicate that increasing urban tree cover requires generational time scales and systematic management coupled with a clear urban design vision and long-term commitments. With the campus as a microcosm of broader trends in urban forest development, we conclude with a discussion of implications for municipal tree cover planning.

  1. Growing Canopy on a College Campus: Understanding Urban Forest Change through Archival Records and Aerial Photography (United States)

    Roman, Lara A.; Fristensky, Jason P.; Eisenman, Theodore S.; Greenfield, Eric J.; Lundgren, Robert E.; Cerwinka, Chloe E.; Hewitt, David A.; Welsh, Caitlin C.


    Many municipalities are setting ambitious tree canopy cover goals to increase the extent of their urban forests. A historical perspective on urban forest development can help cities strategize how to establish and achieve appropriate tree cover targets. To understand how long-term urban forest change occurs, we examined the history of trees on an urban college campus: the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia, PA. Using a mixed methods approach, including qualitative assessments of archival records (1870-2017), complemented by quantitative analysis of tree cover from aerial imagery (1970-2012), our analysis revealed drastic canopy cover increase in the late 20th and early 21st centuries along with the principle mechanisms of that change. We organized the historical narrative into periods reflecting campus planting actions and management approaches; these periods are also connected to broader urban greening and city planning movements, such as City Beautiful and urban sustainability. University faculty in botany, landscape architecture, and urban design contributed to the design of campus green spaces, developed comprehensive landscape plans, and advocated for campus trees. A 1977 Landscape Development Plan was particularly influential, setting forth design principles and planting recommendations that enabled the dramatic canopy cover gains we observed, and continue to guide landscape management today. Our results indicate that increasing urban tree cover requires generational time scales and systematic management coupled with a clear urban design vision and long-term commitments. With the campus as a microcosm of broader trends in urban forest development, we conclude with a discussion of implications for municipal tree cover planning.

  2. From Bearing Witness to Art Exhibitions to Inspiring the Understanding of Climate Change (United States)

    Burko, D.


    I intend to demonstrate how artists such as myself can influence the public discourse on climate change. I believe aesthetically compelling visualizations can transcend data and language. I will speak specifically to how I communicate scientific research to diverse populations. I have much to share since first speaking in 2012 on the Panel "Communication of Science through Art: Raison d'Etre for Interdisciplinary Communication". I then illustrated how I utilized visual cues such as archival evidence in the form of repeats, geological charts of recessional lines, graphs, symbols and Landsat maps in my large scale paintings and photographs and inspired learning. I continue to develop visual strategies delivering information on an emotional/non-verbal level. Now 4 years later, I've added the most dramatic layer to my creative process: bearing witness. I've been to the three largest ice fields in the world: Greenland, Antarctica and Argentina's Patagonia, observing the unprecedented pace of glacial melt. Those expeditions feed my practice, leading to exhibitions that begin a dialog with an audience not initially interested in science. In the past 5 years my work has appeared in 6 solo and 19 group exhibits all devoted to the environment. I make myself present in universities, museums and galleries to explain what the images are about. I require universities to include a public component: an all-college lecture or panel where the geography/environmental/sociology/geology departments participate with broad student involvement. I believe that such endeavors are worthwhile and can be models for further efforts to educate an unsuspecting audience. Artists can bridge the gap communicating to a public of art appreciators, nonscientists - how easy it is to understand geology and global warming. I believe we can even inspire attitudinal change. Aside from personal examples I will include other artists and exhibition venues contributing to this phenomenon.

  3. A Big Data Guide to Understanding Climate Change: The Case for Theory-Guided Data Science. (United States)

    Faghmous, James H; Kumar, Vipin


    Global climate change and its impact on human life has become one of our era's greatest challenges. Despite the urgency, data science has had little impact on furthering our understanding of our planet in spite of the abundance of climate data. This is a stark contrast from other fields such as advertising or electronic commerce where big data has been a great success story. This discrepancy stems from the complex nature of climate data as well as the scientific questions climate science brings forth. This article introduces a data science audience to the challenges and opportunities to mine large climate datasets, with an emphasis on the nuanced difference between mining climate data and traditional big data approaches. We focus on data, methods, and application challenges that must be addressed in order for big data to fulfill their promise with regard to climate science applications. More importantly, we highlight research showing that solely relying on traditional big data techniques results in dubious findings, and we instead propose a theory-guided data science paradigm that uses scientific theory to constrain both the big data techniques as well as the results-interpretation process to extract accurate insight from large climate data .

  4. Atmospheric Extremes in a Changing Climate: A Strategy for Improved Understanding Driven by International Security Concerns (United States)

    Davis, A. B.; Kao, C. J.


    critical threshold crossing. So extreme atmospheric phenomena are of the essence yet they are poorly understood, even in a steady climate, because they challenge both dynamical modelers and statisticians. The authors will describe a preliminary proposal to harness some of the unique human, computational and observational resources at LANL that could lead to a significant breakthrough in our understanding of extreme weather mechanisms and how they relate to climate and climate change. If implemented, this program could open new relationships between the laboratory and presently unsuspecting client-agencies such as FEMA, CDC, EPA, State Department, and so on.

  5. Understanding Pan-Arctic Tundra Vegetation Change Through Long-term Remotely Sensed Data (United States)

    Bhatt, U.; Walker, D. A.; Bieniek, P.; Raynolds, M. K.; Epstein, H. E.; Comiso, J. C.; Pinzon, J. E.; Tucker, C. J.


    The goal of this paper is to present an analysis of the seasonality of tundra vegetation variability and change using long-term remotely sensed data as well as ground based measurements and reanalyses. An increase of Pan-Arctic tundra vegetation greenness has been documented using the remotely sensed Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). Coherent variability between NDVI, springtime coastal sea ice (passive microwave) and land surface temperatures (AVHRR) has also been established. Satellite based snow and cloud cover data sets are being incorporated into this analysis. The Arctic tundra is divided into domains based on Treshnikov divisions that are modified based on floristic provinces. There is notable heterogeneity in Pan-Arctic vegetation and climate trends, which necessitates a regional analysis. This study uses remotely sensed weekly 25-km sea ice concentration, weekly surface temperature, and bi-weekly NDVI from 1982 to 2010. The GIMMS NDVI3g data has been corrected for biases during the spring and fall, with special focus on the Arctic. Trends of Maximum NDVI (MaxNDVI), Time Integrated NDVI (TI-NDVI), Summer Warmth Index (SWI, sum of degree months above freezing during May-August), and open water area are calculated for the Pan Arctic. Remotely sensed snow data trends suggest varying patterns throughout the Arctic and may in part explain the heterogeneous MaxNDVI trends. Standard climate data (station, reanalysis, and model data) and ground observations are used in the analysis to provide additional support for hypothesized mechanisms. Overall, we find that trends over the 30-year record are changing as evidenced by the following examples from recent years. The sea ice decline has increased in Eurasia and slowed in North America. The weekly AVHRR landsurface temperatures reveal that there has been summer cooling over Eurasia and that the warming over North America has slowed. The MaxNDVI rates of change have diverged between N. America and Eurasia

  6. Mexico: Pemex caught between revolutionary heritage and the market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rousseau, Isabelle


    Some constitutional modifications adopted in Mexico in 2013 marked an important watershed in the history and development of the Mexican oil industry: by opening this sector to private national or foreign investors, they make possible the emergence of an actual energy market. They also put an end to the monopoly of the Mexican public company, Pemex. In this article, the author proposes an historical perspective in order to better understand the influence of the Mexican Constitution of 1917 and of the oil industry nationalisation act of 1938 on the creation and development of the Mexican oil industry

  7. Revolutionary Pressures and Social Movements in Nigeria: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    More often than not, social movements by their very nature are predicated on a penchant for change from below which embodies a revolution. An x-ray of the peculiar experience of the Nigerian polity with specific reference to theNiger Delta reveals deep-seated discontent whether expressed or otherwise.Right from the pre ...

  8. The Revolutionary Poems of Tayo Olafioye Clement Eloghosa Odia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ANDCORPgh changing the world


    May 30, 2016 ... assuring the masses that the regime will definitely crumble no matter how hard the oppressors hang on to power. In effect, it foretells of the inevitable general change that will sweep through the country. This proverb demonstrates the poet's prophetic gift as well as expresses the fact that no matter how long ...

  9. Containing Revolutionary Islam: Reassessing the Problem and the Approach (United States)


    and Friedrich Engels, The German Ideology: Including Theses On Feuerbach and Introduction to the Critique of Political Economy , Great Books in... Vietnam with Ho Chi Minh. Notably, these cases represent variations of a Maoist approach to implement different interpretations of the Marxist this endeavor due changes in leadership, interpretations of ideology and extreme isolationism. China and Vietnam have succeeded in maintaining

  10. Forests and Phenology: Designing the Early Warning System to Understand Forest Change (United States)

    Pierce, T.; Phillips, M. B.; Hargrove, W. W.; Dobson, G.; Hicks, J.; Hutchins, M.; Lichtenstein, K.


    Vegetative phenology is the study of plant development and changes with the seasons, such as the greening-up and browning-down of forests, and how these events are influenced by variations in climate. A National Phenology Data Set, based on Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer satellite images covering 2002 through 2009, is now available from work by NASA, the US Forest Service, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This new data set provides an easily interpretable product useful for detecting changes to the landscape due to long-term factors such as climate change, as well as finding areas affected by short-term forest threats such as insects or disease. The Early Warning System (EWS) is a toolset being developed by the US Forest Service and the University of North Carolina-Asheville to support distribution and use of the National Phenology Data Set. The Early Warning System will help research scientists, US Forest Service personnel, forest and natural resources managers, decision makers, and the public in the use of phenology data to better understand unexpected change within our nation’s forests. These changes could have multiple natural sources such as insects, disease, or storm damage, or may be due to human-induced events, like thinning, harvest, forest conversion to agriculture, or residential and commercial use. The primary goal of the Early Warning System is to provide a seamless integration between monitoring, detection, early warning and prediction of these forest disturbances as observed through phenological data. The system consists of PC and web-based components that are structured to support four user stages of increasing knowledge and data sophistication. Building Literacy: This stage of the Early Warning System educates potential users about the system, why the system should be used, and the fundamentals about the data the system uses. The channels for this education include a website, interactive tutorials, pamphlets, and other technology

  11. Primary School Student Teachers' Understanding of Climate Change: Comparing the Results Given by Concept Maps and Communication Analysis (United States)

    Ratinen, Ilkka; Viiri, Jouni; Lehesvuori, Sami


    Climate change is a complex environmental problem that can be used to examine students' understanding, gained through classroom communication, of climate change and its interactions. The present study examines a series of four science sessions given to a group of primary school student teachers (n?=?20). This includes analysis of the…

  12. Naming as Strategic Communication: Understanding Corporate Name Change through an Integrative Framework Encompassing Branding, Identity and Institutional Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmeltz, Line; Kjeldsen, Anna Karina


    This article presents a framework for understanding corporate name change as strategic communication. From a corporate branding perspective, the choice of a new name can be seen as a wish to stand out from a group of similar organizations. Conversely, from an institutional perspective, name change...

  13. The Effectiveness of the Geospatial Curriculum Approach on Urban Middle-Level Students' Climate Change Understandings (United States)

    Bodzin, Alec M.; Fu, Qiong


    Climate change science is a challenging topic for student learning. This quantitative study examined the effectiveness of a geospatial curriculum approach to promote climate change science understandings in an urban school district with eighth-grade students and investigated whether teacher- and student-level factors accounted for students'…

  14. Beyond synergy: The revolutionary elements in horizontal technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatala, R.


    The petroleum industry is undergoing a fundamental restructuring that is changing the shape and texture of the business. Four principles are guiding this restructuring: proactivity, simplicity/focus, flexibility and synergy. These four elements are contained within horizontal technology applications in Canada and are impacting the upstream operating companies and the service and supply sectors. The evolving socio-economic and political environments of these changes within the petroleum industry are examined. The specific resource base potential, financial, regulatory and market forces that support the application of horizontal technology are addressed and their forecast impacts on industry relationships, production and economic trends over the next 5 years are discussed. The blurred distinctions between operating and service sectors will continue such that service entities will participate directly in oil and gas opportunities in consort with operating companies or countries. 4 refs., 3 figs

  15. Language Integration into Gastronomic Education: A Revolutionary Approach?


    Feeney, Angela; Murphy, Brian


    In an increasingly globalised world, hospitality and culinary arts educators seek to further internationalise the curriculum in an effort to better prepare graduates to work and live in a rapidly changing and intercultural workplace. Jane Knight’s commonly accepted working definition for internationalization is ‘the intentional process of integrating an international, intercultural or global dimension into the purpose, functions and delivery of post-secondary education, in order to enhance th...

  16. Understanding recovery: changes in the relationships of the International Classification of Functioning (ICF) components over time. (United States)

    Davis, A M; Perruccio, A V; Ibrahim, S; Hogg-Johnson, S; Wong, R; Badley, E M


    The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health framework describes human functioning through body structure and function, activity and participation in the context of a person's social and physical environment. This work tested the temporal relationships of these components. Our hypotheses were: 1) there would be associations among physical impairment, activity limitations and participation restrictions within time; 2) prior status of a component would be associated with future status; 3) prior status of one component would influence status of a second component (e.g. prior activity limitations would be associated with current participation restrictions); and, 4) the magnitude of the within time relationships of the components would vary over time. Participants from Canada with primary hip or knee joint replacement (n = 931), an intervention with predictable improvement in pain and disability, completed standardized outcome measures pre-surgery and five times in the first year post-surgery. These included physical impairment (pain), activity limitations and participation restrictions. ICF component relationships were evaluated cross-sectionally and longitudinally using path analysis adjusting for age, sex, BMI, hip vs. knee, low back pain and mood. All component scores improved significantly over time. The path coefficients supported the hypotheses in that both within and across time, physical impairment was associated with activity limitation and activity limitation was associated with participation restriction; prior status and change in a component were associated with current status in another component; and, the magnitude of the path coefficients varied over time with stronger associations among components to three months post surgery than later in recovery with the exception of the association between impairment and participation restrictions which was of similar magnitude at all times. This work enhances understanding of the

  17. Process Network Approach to Understanding How Forest Ecosystems Adapt to Changes (United States)

    Kim, J.; Yun, J.; Hong, J.; Kwon, H.; Chun, J.


    Sustainability challenges are transforming science and its role in society. Complex systems science has emerged as an inevitable field of education and research, which transcends disciplinary boundaries and focuses on understanding of the dynamics of complex social-ecological systems (SES). SES is a combined system of social and ecological components and drivers that interact and give rise to results, which could not be understood on the basis of sociological or ecological considerations alone. However, both systems may be viewed as a network of processes, and such a network hierarchy may serve as a hinge to bridge social and ecological systems. As a first step toward such effort, we attempted to delineate and interpret such process networks in forest ecosystems, which play a critical role in the cycles of carbon and water from local to global scales. These cycles and their variability, in turn, play an important role in the emergent and self-organizing interactions between forest ecosystems and their environment. Ruddell and Kumar (2009) define a process network as a network of feedback loops and the related time scales, which describe the magnitude and direction of the flow of energy, matter, and information between the different variables in a complex system. Observational evidence, based on micrometeorological eddy covariance measurements, suggests that heterogeneity and disturbances in forest ecosystems in monsoon East Asia may facilitate to build resilience for adaptation to change. Yet, the principles that characterize the role of variability in these interactions remain elusive. In this presentation, we report results from the analysis of multivariate ecohydrologic and biogeochemical time series data obtained from temperate forest ecosystems in East Asia based on information flow statistics.

  18. Understanding Driving Forces and Implications Associated with the Land Use and Land Cover Changes in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno M. Meneses


    Full Text Available Understanding the processes of land use and land cover changes (LUCC and the associated driving forces is important for achieving sustainable development. This paper presents the LUCC in Portugal at the regional level (NUTS II from 1995 to 2010 and discusses the main driving forces and implications associated with these LUCC. The main objectives of this work are: (a to quantify the land use and land cover (LUC types (level I of LUC cartography by NUT II in Portugal for the years 1995, 2007 and 2010; (b to assess the spatio-temporal LUCC; and (c to identify and discuss the main driving forces of LUCC and corresponding implications based on correlations and Principal Components Analysis. The results revealed large regional and temporal LUCC and further highlighted the different and sometimes opposite time trends between neighboring regions. By associating driving forces to LUCC, different influences at the regional level were observed, namely LUCC into agriculture land derived from the construction of dams (Alentejo region, or the conversion of coniferous forest into eucalypt forest (Centre region associated with increased gross value added (GVA and employment in industry and forestry. Temporal differentiation was also observed, particularly in the settlements that expanded between 1995 and 2007 due to the construction of large infrastructures (e.g., highways, industrial complexes, or buildings, which is reflected on employment in industry and construction and respective GVA. However, certain LUCC have implications, particularly in energy consumption, for which different behavior between regions can be highlighted in this analysis, but also on land-use sustainability.

  19. Argumentation as a Strategy for Increasing Preservice Teachers’ Understanding of Climate Change, a Key Global Socioscientific Issue


    Lambert, Julie L.; Bleicher, Robert E.


    Findings of this study suggest that scientific argumentation can play an effective role in addressing complex socioscientific issues (i.e. global climate change). This research examined changes in preservice teachers’ knowledge and perceptions about climate change in an innovative undergraduate-level elementary science methods course. The preservice teachers’ understanding of fundamental concepts (e.g., the difference between weather and climate, causes of recent global warming, etc.) increas...

  20. Predicting Plant Diversity Patterns in Madagascar: Understanding the Effects of Climate and Land Cover Change in a Biodiversity Hotspot


    Brown, Kerry A.; Parks, Katherine E.; Bethell, Colin A.; Johnson, Steig E.; Mulligan, Mark


    Climate and land cover change are driving a major reorganization of terrestrial biotic communities in tropical ecosystems. In an effort to understand how biodiversity patterns in the tropics will respond to individual and combined effects of these two drivers of environmental change, we use species distribution models (SDMs) calibrated for recent climate and land cover variables and projected to future scenarios to predict changes in diversity patterns in Madagascar. We collected occurrence r...

  1. Understanding Teacher Change: A National Survey of U.S. Physical Educators. (United States)

    Kern, Ben D; Graber, Kim C


    Physical education is critical to addressing childhood obesity, yet many school-based programs do not meet established quality standards and teachers are called upon to change. Little is known about how change is initiated and its associated internal and external factors. The purpose of this study was to investigate physical education teacher change that was self-initiated and externally initiated and to examine dispositions toward the change process relative to initiation. A random national sample of physical educators representing each SHAPE America - Society of Health and Physical Educators regional district participated in a survey measuring past programming changes, primary initiators of change, and teachers' dispositions toward change. In total, 2,423 teachers (46% response rate) completed electronic, paper, or telephone questionnaires. Teachers most often made minor curriculum changes, and they added/subtracted student assessments (primarily informal assessments) least often. Self-initiated (bottom-up) change was most frequently (83.1% of the time) reported. Externally initiated (top-down) changes were less frequent and were most often associated with professional development. Teachers reported principals' involvement in both top-down and bottom-up change processes was minimal. Teachers who were more disposed to making future changes reported making significantly (p teachers primarily self-initiated minor programming changes without involvement from administration. Externally initiated change was infrequent and mostly involved professional development. Dispositions toward change were individual and enduring such that teachers who had made more past changes were more likely to also make future changes.

  2. December ’89. The revolutionary transfer of power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian-Cosmin Canae


    Full Text Available Romanian Revolution of December 1989, represented a fierce struggle between the civilian population and the communist political class existing, as well as the Department of State Security at the time, having Nicolae Ceaușescu at the helm of state. After the bloody revolution of 1989, Romania’s history is also marked by the transition from communist regime with, repression of individual freedom, monopartidist system, planned economy, to democracy with free market economy, freedom and freedom of speech. Certainly, it is the only revolution in Central and Eastern Europe, which has been the most violent system change, resulting in many deaths and wounded people.

  3. Proceedings of the adapting to climate change in Canada 2005 conference : understanding risks and building capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This four-day conference provided a national forum for researchers and decision-makers from a variety of disciplines to share information and results on climate change. Sponsored by Natural Resources Canada's Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation Program, the conference explored ways to improve knowledge of Canada's vulnerability to climate change, to better assess the benefits and risks of climate change and to examine policies and options through which decisions on adaptation can be made. Conference topics included issues such as global warming; sustainable development; climate change and agriculture; adaptation strategies; water, coastline and marine management and climate change; municipal level management and climate change; climate change and health issues; and many other topics related to climate change. The conference featured paper and poster presentations, opening remarks, and panel discussions. A total of 118 conference papers and 46 conference posters were presented at the conference of which 17 have been catalogued separately in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  4. Radicalizing University Reform. The Revolutionary Faction of the Argentinean Student Movement, 1918-1922

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Bustelo


    Full Text Available The article reconstructs the intervention of a series of Argentinean student groups and magazines that attempted to link the burgeoning University Reform movement to the international revolutionary wave triggered by Russia and, therefore, to the local Bolshevik Left between 1918 and 1922. By highlighting the students’ revolutionary enthusiasm, the article seeks to show that the well-known Latin American and anti-imperialist identity of the Reform, as characterized by the historiography on the subject, only takes shape after 1923. The study also pursues the following objectives: on the one hand, to qualify the thesis according to which the Argentinean student movement held a moderate political position during the first decades of the 20th century, and, on the other, to contribute with new clarifications to studies on the reception of the Russian Revolution and the cartography of Argentinean leftist movements.

  5. Imagining the Impossible: Revolutionary Critical Pedagogy Against the 21st Century American Imperium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie Scatamburlo-D’Annibale


    Full Text Available This article examines some of the major Marxist-humanist themes that animate the revolutionary critical pedagogy delineated by Peter McLaren in recent years. Among these themes are radical universalism, an interrogation of the capitalization and commodification of human labor, and the interrelatedness of American imperialism and neoliberal globalized capitalism. It argues that McLaren’s scholarship provides progressive educationalists with an alternative to those “post-alized” and liberal humanist versions of critical pedagogy that have virtually abandoned all forms of class analysis. It contends that revolutionary critical pedagogy offers a much-needed narrative capable of challenging the most recent manifestations of empire, wars of aggression, and exploitative capitalist relations.

  6. What Is That Thing Called Climate Change? an Investigation into the Understanding of Climate Change by Seventh-Grade Students (United States)

    Özdem, Yasemin; Dal, Burçkin; Öztürk, Nilay; Sönmez, Duygu; Alper, Umut


    This paper presents findings from research on students' general environmental concerns, experiences, beliefs, attitudes, worldviews, values, and actions relating to climate change. Data was gathered from a sample of 646 seventh-grade students. The findings indicate that students identify climate change as a consequence of modern life. They…

  7. Campobello’s Cartuchos and Cisneros’s Molotovs: Transborder Revolutionary Feminist Narratives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geneva M. Gano


    Full Text Available Though “revolutionary” acts and attitudes were frequently claimed in various civil rights–era movements in the US, this article considers the specific meaning of the term in a Mexican-Chicano context through a simultaneous examination of Sandra Cisneros’s The House on Mango Street (1984 and Nellie Campobello’s Cartucho: relatos de la lucha en el norte de México (1931.  By way of a formal allusion to Campobello’s revolutionary text, Cisneros forces her readers to reconsider Mango Street from a hemispheric perspective, prompting new readings of her work. Most broadly, it resituates the text within a broader Latino tradition of the modern testimonio, which demands recognition of its sociopolitical significance. More specifically, the formal connection Cisneros forges insists on a similarity between the violent spaces of the post-WWII barrio and revolutionary Durango. Thus Cisneros collapses national and temporal distinctions that would assure US readers (Cisneros’s main audience that poverty, violence, and revolution cannot happen here. To Gano, this radical use of form threatens not just literary conventions (this is not simply an assertion of “revolutionary style” but also contains the suggestive threat that the barrio is a potential site of revolution, inseparable from violent acts. That this is a woman-centered story is significant: Cisneros’s kindling world is comprised largely of women and children who are inundated with daily episodes of violence. Often dismissed as political actors, these individuals are transformed in Cisneros’s work into potential revolutionaries.

  8. The American Home Front: Revolutionary War, Civil War, World War I, World War II (United States)


    millennial task. As a consequence. political theorists and statesmen re- placed clergymen as the leaders of American thought, and politics supplanted...nor buy and sell land. They %%ere barred from the practice of law and such other professions as teaching. For any act of opposition. they felt the pain...of 22 THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION Loyalist property probably produced little economic levelling-because only the Revolutionary elite had the funds to buy

  9. Revolutionary interdisciplinary cooperation. Effects of short- term regulation studied in a river environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saimakallio, H.; Virsu, R.


    A three-year study on how short-term regulation affects the river environment provides power plant builders with new capabilities to meet the needs of the riverside population, recreational users and power plants. The study also opens up new perspectives to researchers. Interdisciplinary cooperation between experts on the living environment, vegetation, fish, recreational use and energy has been revolutionary even on the international scale. (orig.)

  10. Bell and Banner: Armenian Revolutionaries at the End of the Ottoman Empire (United States)


    entirely new web of state-provincial relations. The result was a gradual centrifugal expansion of contracts. Especially when central elites showed...system gained more and more participants at various intermediate levels between the state and its peasants, and interest in the provinces was...liberate’.”298 As distress of further territorial loss stiffened the resolve of the state, so too did the smaller revolutionary movement gain strength

  11. Conceptualizing In-service Secondary School Science Teachers' Knowledge Base for Promoting Understanding about the Science of Global Climate Change (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Devarati

    Efforts to adapt and mitigate the effects of global climate change (GCC) have been ongoing for the past two decades and have become a major global concern. However, research and practice for promoting climate literacy and understanding about GCC have only recently become a national priority. The National Research Council (NRC), has recently emphasized upon the importance of developing learners' capacity of reasoning, their argumentation skills and understanding of GCC (Framework for K-12 Science Education, National Research Council, 2012). This framework focuses on fostering conceptual clarity about GCC to promote innovation, resilience, and readiness in students as a response towards the threat of a changing environment. Previous research about teacher understanding of GCC describes that in spite of the prevalent frameworks like the AAAS Science Literacy Atlas (AAAS, 2007) and the Essential Principles for Climate Literacy (United States Global Climate Research Program, 2009; Bardsley, 2007), most learners are challenged in understanding the science of GCC (Michail et al., 2007) and misinformed perceptions about basic climate science content and the role of human activities in changing climate remain persistent (Reibich and Gautier, 2006). Our teacher participants had a rather simplistic knowledge structure. While aware of climate change, teacher participants lacked in depth understanding of how change in climate can impact various ecosystems on the Earth. Furthermore, they felt overwhelmed with the extensive amount of information needed to comprehend the complexity in GCC. Hence, extensive efforts not only focused on assessing conceptual understanding of GCC but also for teaching complex science topics like GCC are essential. This dissertation explains concept mapping, and the photo elicitation method for assessing teachers' understanding of GCC and the use of metacognitive scaffolding in instruction of GCC for developing competence of learners in this complex

  12. Forests under climate change and air pollution: Gaps in understanding and future directions for research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matyssek, R.; Wieser, G.; Calfapietra, C.; Vries, de W.; Mohren, G.M.J.


    Forests in Europe face significant changes in climate, which in interaction with air quality changes, may significantly affect forest productivity, stand composition and carbon sequestration in both vegetation and soils. Identified knowledge gaps and research needs include: (i) interaction between

  13. Perspectives on the Land Use History of North America: A Context for Understanding Our Changing Environment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sisk, Thomas


    ... between land use and landcover change. The authors provide the historical context for interpreting recent landcover change in several regions of North America and articulate the value of a comprehensive, continental land use history...

  14. Bypassing Islamism and Feminism: Women’s Resistance and Rebellion in Post-revolutionary Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Sadeghi


    Full Text Available This paper explores the reason behind the crisis of representation in post-revolutionary competing Iranian gender discourses. These competing discourses include Islamic fundamentalism, religious revisionism, and secular feminism. The crisis of representation is related to at least three main presuppositions and attendant action programs: first, discrimination against women and possible accommodations should be examined in the context of religious and legal institutions. This approach resulted in the depoliticization of women’s issues, even though most Iranian women have persistently proclaimed equality and citizenship through political participation. This was the case for the 1979 Islamic Revolution, the reform movement and most recently, the Green Movement following the 2009 presidential election. The second presupposition is that individual identity is a fundamental condition for socio-political activism. The third presupposition is that discrimination against women in post-revolutionary Iran is essentially a legalist strategy and has resulted in campaigns that failed to address women’s daily challenges. On the contrary, women’s political participation in post-revolutionary Iran shows that gender issues are always political issues and need to be understood politically and politicized. Such a notion challenges attitudes which relegate gender discrimination and social solutions to the purview of religion or secularism.

  15. Towards a general, population-level understanding of eco-evolutionary change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smallegange, I.M.; Coulson, T.


    Most population-level studies of eco-evolutionary dynamics assume that evolutionary change occurs in response to ecological change and vice versa. However, a growing number of papers report simultaneous ecological and evolutionary change, suggesting that the eco-evolutionary consequences of

  16. Learned Behavior: The Key to Understanding and Preventing Employee Resistance to Change (United States)

    Mealiea, Laird W.


    Develops a conceptual model that describes how and why employees learn to resist planned change within an organizational setting. Planned change, when introduced by management, has the potential of blocking affected employees from satisfying their dominant need structures. Change strategies are developed for management to reduce employee…

  17. Understanding socio-technical change : A system-network-agent approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chiong Meza, C.M.


    Transitions are processes of change that have always occurred in society: for example, the production of goods changed from handcraft to machine-made. In recent years, these transitions attract more and more attention, mainly because societies now wish to actively bring about certain changes, such

  18. Tensor-based fusion of EEG and FMRI to understand neurological changes in Schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evrim, Acar Ataman; Levin-Schwartz, Yuri; Calhoun, Vince D.


    Neuroimaging modalities such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and electroencephalography (EEG) provide information about neurological functions in complementary spatiotemporal resolutions; therefore, fusion of these modalities is expected to provide better understanding of brain...

  19. Understanding changes of stomatal conductance under different atmospheric humidity levels for different tropical rainforest species in Biosphere 2 (United States)

    Tornito, A. J. G.


    Understanding the dynamics of climate change is one of the biggest questions that scientists across the globe ask today. With understanding climate change comes the need to understand the ecological systems and how their biological and chemical processes contribute to climate change. As ocean ecosystems, rainforests are very productive systems and are responsible for most of the world's carbon budget. To maintain cooler conditions, tropical forests mitigate warming through evapotranspiration. The purpose of this project was to measure short-term plasticity by looking at stomatal conductance levels of different tropical rainforest species of plants in the rainforest, savannah, and desert habitats in the Biosphere 2 facility in Oracle, Arizona. It is known that stomatal conductance is affected by CO2, H2O, and light availability. It has been observed that temperature levels may not affect stomatal conductance because of the variability associated with it. Results indicated that there is a potential trend amongst these rainforest species when placed in different humidity percentage areas. By understanding stomatal conductance in response to humidity, we can better understand how productive rainforest systems are when humidity levels decrease, which may potentially occur as Earth undergoes global climate change.

  20. Understanding the drivers affecting land use change in Ecuador: an application of the Land Change Modeler software


    Krishna Rajan, Dhruva


    Deforestation modelling is a relatively new field of study. The importance of this science has been advanced with the emergence of deforestation as one of the leading causes of global climate change. The advent of REDD (reduced emissions from deforestation and degradation) and related policy mechanisms has accelerated the need for modelling deforestation. This project looks at developing a methodology for modelling deforestation using the Land Change Modeler software. To generate the model of...

  1. Classical Marxism and the Education of the Workers: Exposition and Critique. Part II: The Concept of Revolutionary Praxis. (United States)

    Morgan, John


    The author discusses Marx's view of philosophy as a guide to practical activity, in particular its role in guiding the revolutionary overthrow by the proletariat of the capitalist system. Related ideas of Marx's followers are considered. (CH)

  2. Understanding resistance to change in different national context : a comparative study between China and Norway


    Yang, Yonglian


    Master's thesis in Change Management This thesis has objective of finding out how the phenomenon of resistance to change manifest differently in China and Norway. Research probes the national context of these two countries in terms of culture, political-economic framework and corporate governance mechanism. Taking the national paradigms as departure point, analysis focuses on their influence on ordinary people’s attitude and behavior towards change, to be specific, why emplo...

  3. A Discursive Institutionalist Approach to Understanding the Changes to the Irish Social Partnership Policy After 2008


    Hogan, John; Timoney, Nicola


    Read before the society, 14 January 2016 Employing the critical juncture theory (CJT), a discursive institutionalist approach, this paper examines the nature of the changes to social partnership policy at the end of the decade of the 2000s. Did these changes constitute a transformation in social partnership policy, or were they a continuation of a previously established policy pathway? The CJT consists of three elements – economic crisis, ideational change, and the nature of the policy cha...

  4. Landscape dynamics in Mediterranean oak forests under global change: understanding the role of anthropogenic and environmental drivers across forest types. (United States)

    Acácio, Vanda; Dias, Filipe S; Catry, Filipe X; Rocha, Marta; Moreira, Francisco


    The Mediterranean region is projected to be extremely vulnerable to global change, which will affect the distribution of typical forest types such as native oak forests. However, our understanding of Mediterranean oak forest responses to future conditions is still very limited by the lack of knowledge on oak forest dynamics and species-specific responses to multiple drivers. We compared the long-term (1966-2006) forest persistence and land cover change among evergreen (cork oak and holm oak) and deciduous oak forests and evaluated the importance of anthropogenic and environmental drivers on observed changes for Portugal. We used National Forest Inventories to quantify the changes in oak forests and explored the drivers of change using multinomial logistic regression analysis and an information theoretical approach. We found distinct trends among oak forest types, reflecting the differences in oak economic value, protection status and management schemes: cork oak forests were the most persistent (62%), changing mostly to pines and eucalypt; holm oak forests were less persistent (53.2%), changing mostly to agriculture; and deciduous oak forests were the least persistent (45.7%), changing mostly to shrublands. Drivers of change had distinct importance across oak forest types, but drivers from anthropogenic origin (wildfires, population density, and land accessibility) were always among the most important. Climatic extremes were also important predictors of oak forest changes, namely extreme temperatures for evergreen oak forests and deficit of precipitation for deciduous oak forests. Our results indicate that under increasing human pressure and forecasted climate change, evergreen oak forests will continue declining and deciduous oak forests will be replaced by forests dominated by more xeric species. In the long run, multiple disturbances may change competitive dominance from oak forests to pyrophytic shrublands. A better understanding of forest dynamics and the

  5. USGS global change science strategy: A framework for understanding and responding to climate and land-use change (United States)

    Burkett, Virginia R.; Taylor, Ione L.; Belnap, Jayne; Cronin, Thomas M.; Dettinger, Michael D.; Frazier, Eldrich L.; Haines, John W.; Kirtland, David A.; Loveland, Thomas R.; Milly, Paul C.D.; O'Malley, Robin; Thompson, Robert S.


    This U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Global Change Science Strategy expands on the Climate Variability and Change science component of the USGS 2007 Science Strategy, “Facing Tomorrow’s Challenges: USGS Science in the Coming Decade” (U.S. Geological Survey, 2007). Here we embrace the broad definition of global change provided in the U.S. Global Change Research Act of 1990 (Public Law 101–606,104 Stat. 3096–3104)—“Changes in the global environment (including alterations in climate, land productivity, oceans or other water resources, atmospheric chemistry, and ecological systems) that may alter the capacity of the Earth to sustain life”—with a focus on climate and land-use change.There are three major characteristics of this science strategy. First, it addresses the science required to broadly inform global change policy, while emphasizing the needs of natural-resource managers and reflecting the role of the USGS as the science provider for the Department of the Interior and other resource-management agencies. Second, the strategy identifies core competencies, noting 10 critical capabilities and strengths the USGS uses to overcome key problem areas. We highlight those areas in which the USGS is a science leader, recognizing the strong partnerships and effective collaboration that are essential to address complex global environmental challenges. Third, it uses a query-based approach listing key research questions that need to be addressed to create an agenda for hypothesis-driven global change science organized under six strategic goals. Overall, the strategy starts from where we are, provides a vision for where we want to go, and then describes high-priority strategic actions, including outcomes, products, and partnerships that can get us there. Global change science is a well-defined research field with strong linkages to the ecosystems, water, energy and minerals, natural hazards, and environmental health components of the USGS Science Strategy

  6. From judgment to understanding: mental health nurses' perceptions of changed professional behaviors following positively changed attitudes toward self-harm. (United States)

    Karman, Pieter; Kool, Nienke; Gamel, Claudia; van Meijel, Berno


    Nurses experience feelings of frustration, anger and fear when caring for patients who self-harm. Training programmes were developed that aimed to positively influence nurses' knowledge, attitudes and skills. The aim of this study was to investigate professional behavior of mental health nurses with positively changed attitudes after following a training program. Using grounded theory, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 11 mental health nurses. Participants reported using less restrictive interventions, being more patient oriented, and choosing a more empathic and exploratory approach after the training. A work environment conductive to making autonomous professional decisions with supportive colleagues enabled these changes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Crossing Scales and Disciplines to Understand Challenges for Climate Change Adaptation and Water Resources Management in Chile and Californi (United States)

    Vicuna, S.; Melo, O.; Meza, F. J.; Medellin-Azuara, J.; Herman, J. D.; Sandoval Solis, S.


    California and Chile share similarities in terms of climate, ecosystems, topography and water use. In both regions, the hydro-climatologic system is characterized by a typical Mediterranean climate, rainy winters and dry summers, highly variable annual precipitation, and snowmelt-dependent water supply systems. Water use in both regions has also key similarities, with the highest share devoted to high-value irrigated crops, followed by urban water use and a significant hydropower-driven power supply system. Snowmelt-driven basins in semiarid regions are highly sensitive to climate change for two reasons, temperature effects on snowmelt timing and water resources scarcity in these regions subject to ever-increasing demands. Research in both regions also coincide in terms of the potential climate change impacts. Expected impacts on California and Chile water resources have been well-documented in terms of changes in water supply and water demand, though significant uncertainties remain. Both regions have recently experienced prolonged droughts, providing an opportunity to understand the future challenges and potential adaptive responses under climate change. This study connects researchers from Chile and California with the goal of understanding the problem of how to adapt to climate change impacts on water resources and agriculture at the various spatial and temporal scales. The project takes advantage of the complementary contexts between Chile and California in terms of similar climate and hydrologic conditions, water management institutions, patterns of water consumption and, importantly, a similar challenge facing recent drought scenarios to understand the challenges faced by a changing climate.

  8. Understanding the science of climate change: Talking points - Impacts to the Atlantic Coast (United States)

    Rachel Loehman; Greer Anderson


    Observed 20th century climate changes in the Atlantic Coast bioregion include warmer air and sea surface temperatures, increased winter precipitation (especially rainfall), and an increased frequency of extreme precipitation events. Climate change impacts during the century include phenological shifts in plant and animals species, such as earlier occurrence of lilac...

  9. Understanding Teacher Change: A National Survey of U.S. Physical Educators (United States)

    Kern, Ben D.; Graber, Kim C.


    Physical education is critical to addressing childhood obesity, yet many school-based programs do not meet established quality standards and teachers are called upon to change. Little is known about how change is initiated and its associated internal and external factors. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate physical education…

  10. Understanding Climate Change Perceptions, Attitudes, and Needs of Forest Service Resource Managers (United States)

    Carlos Rodriguez-Franco; Tara J. Haan


    Surveys were collected to assess Forest Service (FS) resource managers' perceptions, attitudes, and informational needs related to climate change and its potential impacts on forests and grasslands. Resource managers with three background types were surveyed. All participants generally considered themselves to be well-informed on climate change issues, although...

  11. Exploiting temporal variability to understand tree recruitment response to climate change (United States)

    Ines Ibanez; James S. Clark; Shannon LaDeau; Janneke Hill Ris Lambers


    Predicting vegetation shifts under climate change is a challenging endeavor, given the complex interactions between biotic and abiotic variables that influence demographic rates. To determine how current trends and variation in climate change affect seedling establishment, we analyzed demographic responses to spatiotemporal variation to temperature and soil moisture in...

  12. Change? What change? An Exploration of the Use of Mixed-Methods Research to Understand Longitudinal Measurement Variance.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lugtig, P.J.; Boeije, H.R.; Lensvelt-Mulders, G.J.L.M.


    A primary objective of panel studies is to analyze change. The same questionnaire is used to compare data recorded at various times. Panel designs assume that the meaning of the questions and the concept of interest are stable over time. Analyses of measurement invariance often show the contrary. A

  13. Change? What change? An exploration of the use of mixed-methods research to understand longitudinal measurement variance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lugtig, P.J.; Boeije, H.R.; Lensvelt-Mulders, G.J.L.M.


    A primary objective of panel studies is to analyze change. The same questionnaire is used to compare data recorded at various times. Panel designs assume that the meaning of the questions and the concept of interest are stable over time. Analyses of measurement invariance often show the contrary. A

  14. Understanding climate change-induced variations in daily temperature distributions over Italy (United States)

    Simolo, C.; Brunetti, M.; Maugeri, M.; Nanni, T.; Speranza, A.


    We investigate changes in the probability density functions and the probability of moderate extremes for maximum and minimum daily temperature anomalies in Italy from 1951 up to 2008. Evaluation of trends in time-varying percentiles and higher-moment analysis of empirical density functions give no evidence of long-term changes in scale or shape of daily anomaly distributions, their temporal evolution being essentially driven by a forward, nonuniform shift in the mean. In this context, on the basis of an appropriate theoretical model for daily anomalies, we provide a realistic representation of the temporal evolution of moderate warm and cold extremes by explicitly considering the inherent nonlinearity between changes in the mean and those in exceedance probabilities. Consistency between expected and observed exceedance probabilities suggests that changes in moderate extremes can be well understood with a simple, rigid shift of the density functions alone, without invoking any change in shape.

  15. Longitudinal Conceptual Change in Students' Understanding of Thermal Equilibrium: An Examination of the Process of Conceptual Restructuring (United States)

    Clark, Douglas B.


    This research analyzes students' conceptual change across a semester in an 8th-grade thermodynamics curriculum. Fifty students were interviewed 5 times during their 8th-grade semester and then again preceding their 10th- and 12th-grade years to follow their subsequent progress. The interview questions probed students' understanding of…

  16. The Development and Validation of an Alternative Assessment to Measure Changes in Understanding of the Longleaf Pine Ecosystem (United States)

    Dentzau, Michael W.; Martínez, Alejandro José Gallard


    A drawing assessment to gauge changes in fourth grade students' understanding of the essential components of the longleaf pine ecosystem was developed to support an out-of-school environmental education program. Pre- and post-attendance drawings were scored with a rubric that was determined to have content validity and reliability among users. In…

  17. The Effect of Cooperative Learning Approach Based on Conceptual Change Condition on Students' Understanding of Chemical Equilibrium Concepts (United States)

    Bilgin, Ibrahim; Geban, Omer


    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of the cooperative learning approach based on conceptual change conditions over traditional instruction on 10th grade students' conceptual understanding and achievement of computational problems related to chemical equilibrium concepts. The subjects of this study consisted of 87 tenth grade…

  18. An Exploratory Mixed Method Assessment of Low Income, Pregnant Hispanic Women's Understanding of Gestational Diabetes and Dietary Change (United States)

    Rhoads-Baeza, Maria Elena; Reis, Janet


    Objective: To describe and assess low income, healthy, pregnant Hispanic women's understanding of gestational diabetes (GDM) and willingness to change aspects of their diet. Design: One-on-one, in-person interviews conducted in Spanish with 94 women (primarily Mexican). Setting: Federal Qualified Community Health Center's prenatal clinic. Method:…

  19. A Case Study of Liberal Arts Colleges in the 21st Century: Understanding Organizational Change and Evolution in Higher Education (United States)

    Baker, Vicki L.; Baldwin, Roger G.


    We draw upon the evolutionary model of change in order to examine the organizational transformation of three liberal arts colleges (Albion College, Allegheny College, Kenyon College). Relying on our prior research (Baker, Baldwin, & Makker, 2012), we seek to continue our exploration and understanding of the evolution occurring in the important…

  20. From Mainstream School to Pupil Referral Unit: A Change in Teachers' Self-Understanding (United States)

    Farouk, Shaalan


    As teachers are at the heart of education, a substantial number of studies have researched the perception that mainstream school teachers have of themselves in relation to their work. This investigation extends this field of inquiry by examining how teachers' self-understanding is altered when they transfer from mainstream to special school…

  1. Understanding Homosexuality, Changing Schools: A Text for Teachers, Counselors, and Administrators. (United States)

    Lipkin, Arthur

    This book is designed to help teachers, counselors, and administrators understand the significance of gay and lesbian issues in education and to facilitate the integration of gay and lesbian families into the school community. It offers models for equity, inclusion, and school reform. The chapters are: (1) "Overview of the Problem"; (2)…

  2. Enhancing Pre-Service Elementary Teachers' Conceptual Understanding of Solution Chemistry with Conceptual Change Text (United States)

    Calik, Muammer; Ayas, Alipasa; Coll, Richard Kevin


    This paper reports on the use of a constructivist-based pedagogy to enhance understanding of some features of solution chemistry. Pre-service science teacher trainees' prior knowledge about the dissolution of salts and sugar in water were elicited by the use of a simple diagnostic tool. The test revealed widespread alternative conceptions. These…

  3. Anatomical Mercury: Changing Understandings of Quicksilver, Blood, and the Lymphatic System, 1650-1800. (United States)

    Hendriksen, Marieke M A


    The use of mercury as an injection mass in anatomical experiments and preparations was common throughout Europe in the long eighteenth century, and refined mercury-injected preparations as well as plates of anatomical mercury remain today. The use and meaning of mercury in related disciplines such as medicine and chemistry in the same period have been studied, but our knowledge of anatomical mercury is sparse and tends to focus on technicalities. This article argues that mercury had a distinct meaning in anatomy, which was initially influenced by alchemical and classical understandings of mercury. Moreover, it demonstrates that the choice of mercury as an anatomical injection mass was deliberate and informed by an intricate cultural understanding of its materiality, and that its use in anatomical preparations and its perception as an anatomical material evolved with the understanding of the circulatory and lymphatic systems. By using the material culture of anatomical mercury as a starting point, I seek to provide a new, object-driven interpretation of complex and strongly interrelated historiographical categories such as mechanism, vitalism, chemistry, anatomy, and physiology, which are difficult to understand through a historiography that focuses exclusively on ideas. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  4. Technological and structural change : Understanding economic growth in countries and regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diodato, D.


    The research aims at improving our understanding of the link between economic structure and growth, by tackling a number of open questions. First, it asks whether economic structure – meaning the distribution of production factors among different industries – can significantly explain differences in

  5. Early Holocene hydroclimate of Baffin Bay: Understanding the interplay between abrupt climate change events and ice sheet fluctuations (United States)

    Corcoran, M. C.; Thomas, E. K.; Castañeda, I. S.; Briner, J. P.


    Understanding the causes of ice sheet fluctuations resulting in sea level rise is essential in today's warming climate. In high-latitude ice-sheet-proximal environments such as Baffin Bay, studying both the cause and the rate of ice sheet variability during past abrupt climate change events aids in predictions. Past climate reconstructions are used to understand ice sheet responses to changes in temperature and precipitation. The 9,300 and 8,200 yr BP events are examples of abrupt climate change events in the Baffin Bay region during which there were multiple re-advances of the Greenland and Laurentide ice sheets. High-resolution (decadal-scale) hydroclimate variability near the ice sheet margins during these abrupt climate change events is still unknown. We will generate a decadal-scale record of early Holocene temperature and precipitation using leaf wax hydrogen isotopes, δ2Hwax, from a lake sediment archive on Baffin Island, western Baffin Bay, to better understand abrupt climate change in this region. Shifts in temperature and moisture source result in changes in environmental water δ2H, which in turn is reflected in δ2Hwax, allowing for past hydroclimate to be determined from these compound-specific isotopes. The combination of terrestrial and aquatic δ2Hwax is used to determine soil evaporation and is ultimately used to reconstruct moisture variability. We will compare our results with a previous analysis of δ2Hwax and branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers, a temperature and pH proxy, in lake sediment from western Greenland, eastern Baffin Bay, which indicates that cool and dry climate occurred in response to freshwater forcing events in the Labrador Sea. Reconstructing and comparing records on both the western and eastern sides of Baffin Bay during the early Holocene will allow for a spatial understanding of temperature and moisture balance changes during abrupt climate events, aiding in ice sheet modeling and predictions of future sea level

  6. Perceptions and understanding of climate change in Sri Lanka : a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patabendi, P. [Team for Disaster Prevention and Sustainable Development, Kaduwela (Sri Lanka)


    A citizen's organization in Sri Lanka is conducting a study on current perceptions and attitudes of climate change in a small village in southern Sri Lanka just 100 km north of the capital city of Colombo. The study involves 500 villagers, of which the majority are farmers. While not yet completed, several interesting facts are emerging from this study. The 65,610 sq. km island of Sri Lanka is divided into two distinct climate regions, the wet and dry zones. The mean temperature of the island ranges from 26 to 28 degrees C. Rainfall occurs during the southwest and northeast monsoons. The three main factors for climatic change in Sri Lanka are depressions in the Bay of Bengal, intermonsoonal rain, and deforestation. A total of 500 households were given a questionnaire which was divided into the following 4 sections: (1) socio-economic situation of the household, (2) impacts of climate change, (3) behavioural intentions for actions to reduce the advance impacts of climate change, and (4) ideas about public policies to address climate change. Group discussions were also held to allow villagers to express their voices and raise questions. The study indicates that the villagers have a comprehensive perception about climate change issues in their community (experience gained by flash floods), but have less knowledge about climate change issues in the country. Many villagers believe that political intervention is necessary for any effective climate policy to emerge.

  7. Using physiology to understand climate-driven changes in disease and their implications for conservation. (United States)

    Rohr, Jason R; Raffel, Thomas R; Blaustein, Andrew R; Johnson, Pieter T J; Paull, Sara H; Young, Suzanne


    Controversy persists regarding the contributions of climate change to biodiversity losses, through its effects on the spread and emergence of infectious diseases. One of the reasons for this controversy is that there are few mechanistic studies that explore the links among climate change, infectious disease, and declines of host populations. Given that host-parasite interactions are generally mediated by physiological responses, we submit that physiological models could facilitate the prediction of how host-parasite interactions will respond to climate change, and might offer theoretical and terminological cohesion that has been lacking in the climate change-disease literature. We stress that much of the work on how climate influences host-parasite interactions has emphasized changes in climatic means, despite a hallmark of climate change being changes in climatic variability and extremes. Owing to this gap, we highlight how temporal variability in weather, coupled with non-linearities in responses to mean climate, can be used to predict the effects of climate on host-parasite interactions. We also discuss the climate variability hypothesis for disease-related declines, which posits that increased unpredictable temperature variability might provide a temporary advantage to pathogens because they are smaller and have faster metabolisms than their hosts, allowing more rapid acclimatization following a temperature shift. In support of these hypotheses, we provide case studies on the role of climatic variability in host population declines associated with the emergence of the infectious diseases chytridiomycosis, withering syndrome, and malaria. Finally, we present a mathematical model that provides the scaffolding to integrate metabolic theory, physiological mechanisms, and large-scale spatiotemporal processes to predict how simultaneous changes in climatic means, variances, and extremes will affect host-parasite interactions. However, several outstanding questions

  8. Understanding phase-change behaviors of carbon-doped Ge₂Sb₂Te₅ for phase-change memory application. (United States)

    Zhou, Xilin; Xia, Mengjiao; Rao, Feng; Wu, Liangcai; Li, Xianbin; Song, Zhitang; Feng, Songlin; Sun, Hongbo


    Phase-change materials are highly promising for next-generation nonvolatile data storage technology. The pronounced effects of C doping on structural and electrical phase-change behaviors of Ge2Sb2Te5 material are investigated at the atomic level by combining experiments and ab initio molecular dynamics. C dopants are found to fundamentally affect the amorphous structure of Ge2Sb2Te5 by altering the local environments of Ge-Te tetrahedral units with stable C-C chains. The incorporated C increases the amorphous stability due to the enhanced covalent nature of the material with larger tetrahedral Ge sites. The four-membered rings with alternating atoms are reduced greatly with carbon addition, leading to sluggish phase transition and confined crystal grains. The lower RESET power is presented in the PCM cells with carbon-doped material, benefiting from its high resistivity and low thermal conductivity.

  9. U.S. Geological Survey climate and land use change science strategy: a framework for understanding and responding to global change (United States)

    Burkett, Virginia R.; Kirtland, David A.; Taylor, Ione L.; Belnap, Jayne; Cronin, Thomas M.; Dettinger, Michael D.; Frazier, Eldrich L.; Haines, John W.; Loveland, Thomas R.; Milly, Paul C.D.; ,; ,; ,; Robert, S.; Maule, Alec G.; McMahon, Gerard; Striegl, Robert G.


    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), a nonregulatory Federal science agency with national scope and responsibilities, is uniquely positioned to serve the Nation’s needs in understanding and responding to global change, including changes in climate, water availability, sea level, land use and land cover, ecosystems, and global biogeochemical cycles. Global change is among the most challenging and formidable issues confronting our Nation and society. Scientists agree that global environmental changes during this century will have far-reaching societal implications (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 2007; U.S. Global Change Research Program, 2009). In the face of these challenges, the Nation can benefit greatly by using natural science information in decisionmaking.

  10. Environmental change and hydrological responses in the interior of western Canada: Towards improved understanding, diagnosis, and prediction by the Changing Cold Regions Network (United States)

    DeBeer, C. M.; Wheater, H. S.; Carey, S. K.; Pomeroy, J. W.; Stewart, R. E.


    The past several decades have been a period of rapid climatic and environmental change. In western Canada, as in other areas globally, warming and changes in precipitation have led to vast reductions in seasonal snowcover and freshwater ice cover, retreating glaciers, thawing permafrost, changing forest composition and structure, increasing northern shrub coverage, and earlier timing of river flows in spring. Yet streamflow volume has exhibited a variety of responses across the region and over different time scales, and patterns of change are not easily generalizable. Improved understanding, diagnosis, and prediction of the rapidly changing components of the Earth system are key to managing uncertain water futures, but this is challenging due to complex system behavior and sometimes compensatory responses. The Changing Cold Regions Network (CCRN) is a Canadian research network and GEWEX Regional Hydroclimate Project that is addressing these issues, with a geographic focus on the Saskatchewan and Mackenzie River basins. This paper will present examples of the changes that have been observed at a set of long-term and well-studied headwater research basins, and highlight how various processes confound hydrological responses here, pointing to the need for careful diagnosis. We will discuss some recent CCRN activities and progress toward improving conceptual understanding and developing scenarios of change for the 21st century, which can then be applied within process-based hydrological models for future prediction. Several priority research areas that will be a focus of continued work in CCRN will be recommended.

  11. Adaptation to climate change and climate variability:The importance of understanding agriculture as performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crane, T.A.; Roncoli, C.; Hoogenboom, G.


    Most climate change studies that address potential impacts and potential adaptation strategies are largely based on modelling technologies. While models are useful for visualizing potential future outcomes and evaluating options for potential adaptation, they do not adequately represent and

  12. Understanding smallholder farmers’ capacity to respond to climate change in a coastal community in Central Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phuong, Le Thi Hong; Biesbroek, G.R.; Sen, Le Thi Hoa; Wals, Arjen E.J.


    Climate change as expressed by erratic rainfall, increased flooding, extended droughts, frequency tropical cyclones or saline water intrusion, poses severe threats to smallholder farmers in Vietnam. Adaptation of the agricultural sector is vital to increase the resilience of smallholder farmers’

  13. An Australian Feeling for Snow: Towards Understanding Cultural and Emotional Dimensions of Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Gorman-Murray


    Full Text Available In Australia, snow is associated with alpine and subalpine regions in rural areas; snow is a component of ‘natural’ rather than urban environments. But the range, depth and duration of Australia’s regional snow cover is imperilled by climate change. While researchers have considered the impacts of snow retreat on the natural environment and responses from the mainland ski industry, this paper explores associated cultural and emotional dimensions of climate change. This responds to calls to account for local meanings of climate, and thus localised perceptions of and responses to climate change. Accordingly, this paper presents a case study of reactions to the affect of climate change on Tasmania’s snow country. Data is drawn from a nationwide survey of responses to the impact of climate change on Australia’s snow country, and a Tasmanian focus group. Survey respondents suggested the uneven distribution of Australia’s snow country means snow cover loss may matter more in certain areas: Tasmania was a key example cited by residents of both that state and others. Focus group respondents affirmed a connection between snow and Tasmanian cultural identity, displaying sensitivity to recent changing snow patterns. Moreover, they expressed concerns about the changes using emotive descriptions of local examples: the loss of snow cover mattered culturally and emotionally, compromising local cultural activities and meanings, and invoking affective responses. Simultaneously, respondents were ‘realistic’ about how important snow loss was, especially juxtaposed with sea level rise. Nevertheless, the impact of climate change on cultural and emotional attachments can contribute to urgent ethical, practical and political arguments about arresting global warming.

  14. Beyond demographics is destiny: understanding economic mitigation strategies for demographic change in China


    Judy, John B.


    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The favorable demographics that have contributed to China’s rapid economic growth are changing. China’s working-age population is currently peaking and within two decades its overall population will begin to shrink. In addition to a shrinking working-age population, China will see an increase in the elderly population and a rising dependency ratio. This demographic change may have an economically significant impact. If China’s enormous...

  15. An Australian feeling for snow : towards understanding cultural and emotional dimensions of climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorman-Murray, Andrew


    Full Text Available In Australia, snow is associated with alpine and subalpine regions in rural areas; snow is a component of ‘natural’ rather than urban environments. But the range, depth and duration of Australia’s regional snow cover is imperilled by climate change. While researchers have considered the impacts of snow retreat on the natural environment and responses from the mainland ski industry, this paper explores associated cultural and emotional dimensions of climate change. This responds to calls to account for local meanings of climate, and thus localised perceptions of and responses to climate change. Accordingly, this paper presents a case study of reactions to the affect of climate change on Tasmania’s snow country. Data is drawn from a nationwide survey of responses to the impact of climate change on Australia’s snow country, and a Tasmanian focus group. Survey respondents suggested the uneven distribution of Australia’s snow country means snow cover loss may matter more in certain areas: Tasmania was a key example cited by residents of both that state and others. Focus group respondents affirmed a connection between snow and Tasmanian cultural identity, displaying sensitivity to recent changing snow patterns. Moreover, they expressed concerns about the changes using emotive descriptions of local examples: the loss of snow cover mattered culturally and emotionally, compromising local cultural activities and meanings, and invoking affective responses. Simultaneously, respondents were ‘realistic’ about how important snow loss was, especially juxtaposed with sea level rise. Nevertheless, the impact of climate change on cultural and emotional attachments can contribute to urgent ethical, practical and political arguments about arresting global warming.

  16. Understanding the Effects of Climate Change on Urban Stormwater Infrastructures in the Las Vegas Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjeet Thakali


    Full Text Available The intensification of the hydrological cycle due to climate change entails more frequent and intense rainfall. As a result, urban water systems will be disproportionately affected by the climate change, especially in such urban areas as Las Vegas, which concentrates its population, infrastructure, and economic activity. Proper design and management of stormwater facilities are needed to attenuate the severe effects of extreme rainfall events. The North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program is developing multiple high-resolution projected-climate data from different combinations of regional climate models and global climate models. The objective of this study was to evaluate existing stormwater facilities of a watershed within the Las Vegas Valley in southern Nevada by using a robust design method for the projected climate. The projected climate change was incorporated into the model at the 100 year return period with 6 h duration depths, using a statistical regionalization analysis method. Projection from different sets of climate model combinations varied substantially. Gridded reanalysis data were used to assess the performance of the climate models. An existing Hydrologic Engineering Center’s Hydrological Modeling System (HEC-HMS model was implemented using the projected change in standard design storm. Hydrological simulation using HEC-HMS showed exceedances of existing stormwater facilities that were designed under the assumption of stationarity design depth. Recognizing climate change and taking an immediate approach in assessing the city’s vulnerability by using proper strategic planning would benefit the urban sector and improve the quality of life.

  17. Where Land Use Changes Occur: Using Soil Features to Understand the Economic Trends in Agricultural Lands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Rivieccio


    Full Text Available This study investigates the major land use change processes over the 1990–2008 period in Abruzzo region (Central Italy in relation to the characteristics of the soils and with particular regard to their capability for agricultural purposes, in order to highlight their implications on agricultural productivity. The relative changes in the agricultural incomes and land values were also estimated. To this end, we proposed an inventory approach as a flexible and feasible way for monitoring land use changes at multiple scales. As main outcomes, the shrinkage of agricultural lands and their internal changes (intensification vs. extensification processes were highlighted. The shrinkage of agricultural lands was strictly related to: (a reforestation process in mountain areas and less productive lands after land abandonment; and (b urbanization on plains and more productive lands. Although the intensification process was demonstrated to have a positive effect on the overall regional agricultural incomes, especially on high quality soils, this was not adequate to compensate the economic loss due to the other land use changes, especially in marginal areas and low-to-medium quality soils. Finally, the paper discusses the geographical pattern of land use change processes across the region, including their interrelations and combined effects, and ultimately offers recommendations to decision-makers addressing future sustainable development objectives from local to global scale.

  18. The authoritative metaphor and social change: Surgeon General C. Everett Koop's Direct Mailer, "Understanding AIDS". (United States)

    Jensen, Robin E; King, Abigail Selzer


    In 1988, Surgeon General C. Everett Koop published "Understanding AIDS," the nation's first and only direct mailing sent to every private home in the country. His appeals therein were driven by what we label authoritative metaphors. Communicated by and/or attributed to persons of authority, authoritative metaphors capitalize on the symbolic force of sanctioned power by appealing to the ethos of office. In "Understanding AIDS," we find that Koop drew from his positions as a surgeon and a general, respectively, to equate AIDS with an unprecedented plague and an unprecedented war. He created new authoritative metaphors out of the vestiges of familiar metaphors related to disease and public health and thereby portrayed AIDS as a recognizable but decisively unique dilemma requiring distinct preventative behaviors.

  19. Understanding and managing the water use of planted forests in a changing environment (United States)

    Jami Nettles


    Forest productivity will only become more important in the future, not just for carbon sequestration and renewable energy but for wood products and economic security for an increasing population. However, the threat of increasing drought and resource scarcity means a need for more explicit characterization of the water use of planted forests and the understanding of...

  20. Understanding land use change impacts on microclimate using Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model (United States)

    Li, Xia; Mitra, Chandana; Dong, Li; Yang, Qichun


    To explore potential climatic consequences of land cover change in the Kolkata Metropolitan Development area, we projected microclimate conditions in this area using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model driven by future land use scenarios. Specifically, we considered two land conversion scenarios including an urbanization scenario that all the wetlands and croplands would be converted to built-up areas, and an irrigation expansion scenario in which all wetlands and dry croplands would be replaced by irrigated croplands. Results indicated that land use and land cover (LULC) change would dramatically increase regional temperature in this area under the urbanization scenario, but expanded irrigation tended to have a cooling effect. In the urbanization scenario, precipitation center tended to move eastward and lead to increased rainfall in eastern parts of this region. Increased irrigation stimulated rainfall in central and eastern areas but reduced rainfall in southwestern and northwestern parts of the study area. This study also demonstrated that urbanization significantly reduced latent heat fluxes and albedo of land surface; while increased sensible heat flux changes following urbanization suggested that developed land surfaces mainly acted as heat sources. In this study, climate change projection not only predicts future spatiotemporal patterns of multiple climate factors, but also provides valuable insights into policy making related to land use management, water resource management, and agriculture management to adapt and mitigate future climate changes in this populous region.

  1. Using the resurrection approach to understand contemporary evolution in changing environments. (United States)

    Franks, Steven J; Hamann, Elena; Weis, Arthur E


    The resurrection approach of reviving ancestors from stored propagules and comparing them with descendants under common conditions has emerged as a powerful method of detecting and characterizing contemporary evolution. As climatic and other environmental conditions continue to change at a rapid pace, this approach is becoming particularly useful for predicting and monitoring evolutionary responses. We evaluate this approach, explain the advantages and limitations, suggest best practices for implementation, review studies in which this approach has been used, and explore how it can be incorporated into conservation and management efforts. We find that although the approach has thus far been used in a limited number of cases, these studies have provided strong evidence for rapid contemporary adaptive evolution in a variety of systems, particularly in response to anthropogenic environmental change, although it is far from clear that evolution will be able to rescue many populations from extinction given current rates of global changes. We also highlight one effort, known as Project Baseline, to create a collection of stored seeds that can take advantage of the resurrection approach to examine evolutionary responses to environmental change over the coming decades. We conclude that the resurrection approach is a useful tool that could be more widely employed to examine basic questions about evolution in natural populations and to assist in the conservation and management of these populations as they face continued environmental change.

  2. "I Feel Suffocated:" Understandings of Climate Change in an Inner City Heat Island. (United States)

    Singer, Merrill; Hasemann, Jose; Raynor, Abigail


    Global climate change is contributing to a range of adverse environmental and weather shifts, including more intense and more frequent heatwaves and an intensification of the urban heat island effect. These changes are known to produce a set of significant and differentially distributed health problems, with a particularly high burden among poor and marginalized populations. In this article, we report findings from a qualitative study of community knowledge, attitudes, health and other concerns, and behavioral responses regarding mounting urban temperatures and related environmental health issues among Latinos living in the city of Hartford, CT in northeast United States. Findings suggest the need for enhanced participation in knowledge dissemination and preparedness planning based on the coproduction of knowledge about climate change and community responses to it. The special role of anthropology in such efforts is highlighted.

  3. Understanding the role of emotion-oriented coping in women's motivation for change. (United States)

    Wu, Qiong; Slesnick, Natasha; Zhang, Jing


    This study tested a sequential mediation model that emotion-oriented coping and motivation for change mediate the relations between anxiety and depressive symptoms and the change in substance use. Data included 183 substance using women, randomly assigned to family therapy (N=123) or individual therapy (N=60). They reported their baseline anxiety and depressive symptoms, emotion-oriented coping, as well as motivation for change throughout treatment, and substance use over a time period of 1.5years. Latent growth curve modeling showed that increased baseline motivation was associated with a faster decline in alcohol and drug use. Moreover, higher baseline anxiety and depressive symptoms were associated with a faster decrease in drug use through higher emotion-oriented coping and higher baseline motivation. This study underscores the importance of emotion-oriented coping in increasing clients' motivation and reducing their drug use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The understanding of world climate change; Les connaissances sur le changement climatique mondial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petit, M.


    After having recalled that the problem of global warming in relationship with human activities has been studied since the end of the nineteenth century and since then by different scientific programs, the author describes how the IPCC's or Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's report is produced. He briefly comments how Earth's temperature is determined and the various natural parameters which influence the climate on Earth. He recalls how the IPCC showed the actual influence of human activities, and which changes have actually been observed

  5. Resistance and change: a multiple streams approach to understanding health policy making in Ghana. (United States)

    Kusi-Ampofo, Owuraku; Church, John; Conteh, Charles; Heinmiller, B Timothy


    Although much has been written on health policy making in developed countries, the same cannot be said of less developed countries, especially in Africa. Drawing largely on available historical and government records, newspaper publications, parliamentary Hansards, and published books and articles, this article uses John W. Kingdon's multiple streams framework to explain how the problem, politics, and policy streams converged for Ghana's National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) to be passed into law in 2003. The article contends that a change in government in the 2000 general election opened a "policy window" for eventual policy change from "cash-and-carry" to the NHIS. Copyright © 2015 by Duke University Press.

  6. Rethinking the patient: using Burden of Treatment Theory to understand the changing dynamics of illness. (United States)

    May, Carl R; Eton, David T; Boehmer, Kasey; Gallacher, Katie; Hunt, Katherine; MacDonald, Sara; Mair, Frances S; May, Christine M; Montori, Victor M; Richardson, Alison; Rogers, Anne E; Shippee, Nathan


    In this article we outline Burden of Treatment Theory, a new model of the relationship between sick people, their social networks, and healthcare services. Health services face the challenge of growing populations with long-term and life-limiting conditions, they have responded to this by delegating to sick people and their networks routine work aimed at managing symptoms, and at retarding - and sometimes preventing - disease progression. This is the new proactive work of patient-hood for which patients are increasingly accountable: founded on ideas about self-care, self-empowerment, and self-actualization, and on new technologies and treatment modalities which can be shifted from the clinic into the community. These place new demands on sick people, which they may experience as burdens of treatment. As the burdens accumulate some patients are overwhelmed, and the consequences are likely to be poor healthcare outcomes for individual patients, increasing strain on caregivers, and rising demand and costs of healthcare services. In the face of these challenges we need to better understand the resources that patients draw upon as they respond to the demands of both burdens of illness and burdens of treatment, and the ways that resources interact with healthcare utilization. Burden of Treatment Theory is oriented to understanding how capacity for action interacts with the work that stems from healthcare. Burden of Treatment Theory is a structural model that focuses on the work that patients and their networks do. It thus helps us understand variations in healthcare utilization and adherence in different healthcare settings and clinical contexts.

  7. Teaching for conceptual change: An intervention to promote deeper understanding of diffusion and osmosis (United States)

    Berg, Cheryl

    Emergent processes are distinguished from non-emergent processes on the basis of the qualitative relationships among the agents' interactions and the causal relationships between the agents' interactions and the pattern. Research suggests students often have robust misconceptions about emergent processes (such as diffusion) because they do not have the mental model to interpret these processes This study investigates the extent to which a domain-general understanding of emergent processes can help provide students with an enhanced understanding of diffusion and osmosis This is a quasi-experimental study using non-equivalent groups design to compare the treatment and control groups. Sixty-six community college students enrolled in an introductory biology course comprised the participants. Students' prior knowledge about emergent processes, diffusion, and osmosis were assessed by pre-tests. The treatment group received the intervention -- an instructional module about the differences between scientific processes that are emergent versus processes that are non-emergent. The control group did not receive the intervention but received the process assessment to determine incoming knowledge about scientific processes and any gains in knowledge about scientific processes. Both groups received the same specific content instruction about diffusion and osmosis, which was derived from the regular and established curriculum for the course. Both groups were given post-tests to assess whether they learned the concepts, and whether they were able to achieve a deep understanding that resulted in a comprehension of the transport of substances across cell membranes and how that might be applied in particular health-related situations. Data were analyzed using t-tests and analysis of variance. No statistically significant differences were found between the two groups based on the learning measures Limitations include sample restrictions and not taking into account individual ability

  8. A survey of doctors at a UK teaching hospital to assess understanding of recent changes to consent law. (United States)

    O'Brien, J W; Natarajan, M; Shaikh, I


    The UK Supreme Court recently ruled that when consenting patients for treatments or procedures, clinicians must also discuss any associated material risks. We surveyed medical staff at a large UK teaching hospital in order to ascertain knowledge of consent law and current understanding of this change. Email survey sent to medical staff in all specialities at Norfolk and Norwich University Hospital in February 2016. 245 responses (141 Consultants and 104 junior doctors, response rate 32%). 82% consent patients for procedures at least monthly and 23% daily. 31% were not familiar with the concept of material risk. 35% were familiar with the recent change in consent law, 41% were not. 18% were "very uncertain" and 64% "a little uncertain" that their consenting process meets current legal requirements. >92% think that landmark cases and changes in law should be discussed through professional bodies and circulated better locally. The majority were not familiar with the concept of material risk and recent legal changes. A majority were not confident that their practice meets current requirements, suggesting that recent changes in consent law may not be widely understood at this hospital. We suggest more guidance and education may be necessary than is currently available. Increased understanding of recent changes to consent law will reduce the risk taken by NHS trusts and offer patients a service compliant with Supreme Court guidance.

  9. Learning to Get It Right: Understanding Change Processes in Professional Development for Teachers of English Learners (United States)

    Choi, Daniel Sung-Yeol; Morrison, Peggy


    A professional development program for US teachers in the state of Oregon was the context in which this study took place. This five-year hybrid (online and face-to-face) program assisted experienced teachers to adapt their practice to meet the needs of language minority and immigrant students. The positive changes in teacher perceptions and…

  10. Evolutionary psychology: A fresh perspective for understanding and changing problematic behaviors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tybur, J.M.; Griskevicius, V.


    From rising obesity and soaring health care costs to escalating violence and environmental degradation, contemporary society faces many challenges. Are there policies that are naturally effective in changing the behaviors that produce these problems? In this article, the authors examine some of the

  11. Understanding the science of climate change: Talking points - impacts to the Pacific Coast (United States)

    Amanda Schramm; Rachel Loehman


    The Pacific Coast is an area of incredible biodiversity and diverse landscapes that are subject to a range of effects as regional climates shift. Changes that have already been observed within this bioregion include warmer average temperatures, earlier runoff season, rising sea levels, coastal erosion, species migration, and a longer growing season. In the next century...

  12. Understanding the science of climate change: Talking points - Impacts to the Gulf Coast (United States)

    Rachel Loehman; Greer Anderson


    Predicted climate changes in the Gulf Coast bioregion include increased air and sea surface temperatures, altered fire regimes and rainfall patterns, increased frequency of extreme weather events, rising sea levels, increased hurricane intensity, and potential destruction of coastal wetlands and the species that reside within them. Prolonged drought conditions, storm...

  13. Travel Behavior Change in Older Travelers: Understanding Critical Reactions to Incidents Encountered in Public Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Sundling


    Full Text Available Accessibility of travel may be better understood if psychological factors underlying change in travel behavior are known. This paper examines older (65+ travelers’ motives for changing their travel behavior. These changes are grounded in critical incidents earlier encountered in public-transport travel. A scientific framework is developed based on cognitive and behavioral theory. In 29 individual interviews, travelers’ critical reactions (i.e., cognitive, emotional, and/or behavioral to 77 critical incidents were examined. By applying critical incident technique (CIT, five reaction themes were identified that had generated travel-behavior change: firm restrictions, unpredictability, unfair treatment, complicated trips, and earlier adverse experiences. To improve older travelers’ access to public transport, key findings were: (a service must be designed so as to strengthen the feeling of being in control throughout the journey; (b extended personal service would increase predictability in the travel chain and decrease travel complexity; consequently, (c when designing new services and making effective accessibility interventions, policy makers should consider and utilize underlying psychological factors that could direct traveler behavior.

  14. Understanding and Changing Older Adults' Perceptions and Learning of Social Media (United States)

    Xie, Bo; Watkins, Ivan; Golbeck, Jen; Huang, Man


    An exploratory study was conducted to answer the following questions: What are older adults' perceptions of social media? What educational strategies can facilitate their learning of social media? A thematic map was developed to illustrate changing perceptions from the initial unanimous, strong negative to the more positive but cautious, and to…

  15. Back to the future? Understanding Change in Food Habits of Farmers' Market Customers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pascucci, S.; Cicatiello, C.; Franco, S.; Pancino, B.; Marinov, D.; Davide, M.


    This study analyses how attending farmers markets may affect consumers’ willingness to change food habits toward high-quality products. A discrete choice model was applied using data col-lected through an extensive field survey in 2009, which involved 400 consumers in 12 different farmers’ markets

  16. Pathways of understanding: The interactions of humanity and global environmental change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobson, H.K.; Katzenberger, J.; Lousma, J.; Mooney, H.A.; Moss, R.H.; Kuhn, W.; Luterbacher, U.; Wiegandt, E.


    How humans, interacting within social systems, affect and are affected by global change is explored. Recognizing the impact human activities have on the environment and responding to the need to document the interactions among human activities, the Consortium for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN) commissioned a group of 12 scientists to develop a framework illustrating the key human systems that contribute to global change. This framework, called the Social Process Diagram, will help natural and social scientists, educators, resource managers and policy makers envision and analyze how human systems interact among themselves and with the natural system. The Social Process Diagram consists of the following blocks that constitute the Diagram's structural framework: (1) fund of knowledge and experience; (2) preferences and expectations; (3) factors of production and technology; (4) population and social structure; (5) economic systems; (6) political systems and institutions; and (7) global scale environmental processes. To demonstrate potential ways the Diagram can be used, this document includes 3 hypothetical scenarios of global change issues: global warming and sea level rise; the environmental impact of human population migration; and energy and the environment. These scenarios demonstrate the Diagram's usefulness for visualizing specific processes that might be studied to evaluate a particular global change issues. The scenario also shows that interesting and unanticipated questions may emerge as links are explored between categories on the Diagram

  17. Travel Behavior Change in Older Travelers: Understanding Critical Reactions to Incidents Encountered in Public Transport. (United States)

    Sundling, Catherine


    Accessibility of travel may be better understood if psychological factors underlying change in travel behavior are known. This paper examines older (65+) travelers' motives for changing their travel behavior. These changes are grounded in critical incidents earlier encountered in public-transport travel. A scientific framework is developed based on cognitive and behavioral theory. In 29 individual interviews, travelers' critical reactions (i.e., cognitive, emotional, and/or behavioral) to 77 critical incidents were examined. By applying critical incident technique (CIT), five reaction themes were identified that had generated travel-behavior change: firm restrictions, unpredictability, unfair treatment, complicated trips, and earlier adverse experiences. To improve older travelers' access to public transport, key findings were: (a) service must be designed so as to strengthen the feeling of being in control throughout the journey; (b) extended personal service would increase predictability in the travel chain and decrease travel complexity; consequently, (c) when designing new services and making effective accessibility interventions, policy makers should consider and utilize underlying psychological factors that could direct traveler behavior.

  18. E-Learning and Higher Education: Understanding and Supporting Organisational Change in New Zealand (United States)

    Marshall, Stephen


    Over an 18-month period four New Zealand educational institutions--a university, a private tertiary enterprise, a wananga, and an institute of technology/polytechnic--have engaged in a process of change influenced by technology. Their e-learning capability was benchmarked using the E-Learning Maturity Model, and this information was used to…

  19. Understanding the Influence of Organizational Culture and Group Dynamics on Organizational Change and Learning (United States)

    Lucas, Colleen; Kline, Theresa


    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between organizational culture, group dynamics, and organizational learning in the context of organizational change. Design/methodology/approach: A case study was used to examine cultural and group level factors that potentially influence groups' learning in the context of…

  20. Understanding the implications of a changing environment on harvested bivalve populations using habitat suitability models (United States)

    Habitat suitability models are useful to forecast how environmental change may affect the abundance or distribution of species of interest. In the case of harvested bivalves, those models may be used to estimate the vulnerability of this valued ecosystem good to stressors. Using ...

  1. Displaying Now-Understanding: The Finnish Change-of-State Token "aa" (United States)

    Koivisto, Aino


    This article discusses the use of the Finnish change-of-state token "aa" that has previously not been identified. The central claim is that even though "aa" indicates a cognitive shift experienced by the speaker, it does not function as a receipt of new information. Instead, the token "aa" indicates that the speaker…

  2. Understanding Personal Change in a Women’s Faith-Based Transitional Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariana Mishay Stone


    Full Text Available An impressive research literature has emerged that identifies linkages between religion and a wide range of attitudes, behaviors, and life events. We contribute to this literature by exploring how women undergoing difficult life circumstances—such as incarceration, drug and alcohol addiction, domestic violence, unemployment, and homelessness—use faith to cope with and change these circumstances. To address this issue we analyze semi-structured interviews with 40 residents of a faith-based transitional center for women in the Southern United States. The residents outline a narrative of change in which they distinguish between the “old self” and “new self.” The narratives also specify the role of religiosity in facilitating change, the creation of a faith-based identity, and the strategies used for maintaining change. We conclude with implications for faith-based treatment programs, local pastors and religious congregants involved in social outreach ministry, sociology of religion scholars, and policy makers.

  3. Prospective Primary Teachers' Understanding of Climate Change, Greenhouse Effect, and Ozone Layer Depletion (United States)

    Papadimitriou, Vasiliki


    Climate change is one of the most serious global environmental problems and for that reason there has been lately a great interest in educating pupils, the future citizens, about it. Previous research has shown that pupils of all ages and teachers hold many misconceptions and misunderstandings concerning this issue. This paper reports on research…

  4. Understanding farm trajectories and development pathways: Two decades of change in southern Mali

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falconnier, G.N.; Descheemaeker, K.K.E.; Mourik, van T.A.; Sanogo, O.; Giller, K.E.


    Institutional support for smallholders has been the motor for the expanding cotton production sector in southern Mali since the 1970s. Smallholder farms exhibit diverse resource endowments and little is known on how they benefit from and cope with changes in this institutional support. In this paper

  5. Remembering and Understanding: The Effects of Changes in Underlying Knowledge on Children's Recollections. (United States)

    Greenhoot, Andrea Follmer


    Explored influence of changes in kindergartners' knowledge about a protagonist on earlier constructed memories of the story. Found that children's story recall was affected by their prior impressions. Following the second knowledge manipulation, children revised story reports consistent with newly acquired impressions, suggesting that they had…

  6. Understanding the Effectiveness of Carbon Dioxide Removal to Reduce the Impacts of Climate Change. (United States)

    Scott, V.; Tett, S. F.; Brander, M.


    The current Nationally Determined Contributions to the Paris Agreement suggest exceeding the emissions budgets corresponding to the below 2°C and 1.5°C temperature targets. To address this the future application of Carbon Dioxide Removal (CDR) is proposed to recapture excess emissions at a later time, so keeping the total net emissions within budget. This assumes that the climate change impact of CO2 emitted now can be fully compensated by a matched CO2 removal in the future. However, the impacts from this pathway of emissions budget overshoot and subsequent recapture may differ from those resulting from a pathway where emissions are held within budget with no temporary overshoot. These pathway dependent impacts could give rise to different climatic and societal futures despite the total net emissions being the same. Using a low resolution fully coupled Earth System Model with an interactive carbon cycle, we present an investigation into the pathway dependence of climate change impacts and how these relate to the scale and duration of the emissions budget overshoot and subsequent recapture. From this we discuss the effectiveness of CDR in avoiding climate change impacts relative to more immediate emissions reductions. We consider how this relative effectiveness might be reflected in GHG accounting methods and national GHG accounts, and explore the implications for Article 2 of the Paris Agreement, where holding temperatures to the targets is recognised to "significantly reduce the risks and impacts of climate change".

  7. Understanding and Managing the Effects of Climate Change on Ecosystem Services in the Rocky Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica E. Halofsky


    Full Text Available Public lands in the US Rocky Mountains provide critical ecosystem services, especially to rural communities that rely on these lands for fuel, food, water, and recreation. Climate change will likely affect the ability of these lands to provide ecosystem services. We describe 2 efforts to assess climate change vulnerabilities and develop adaptation options on federal lands in the Rocky Mountains. We specifically focus on aspects that affect community economic security and livelihood security, including water quality and quantity, timber, livestock grazing, and recreation. Headwaters of the Rocky Mountains serve as the primary source of water for large populations, and these headwaters are located primarily on public land. Thus, federal agencies will play a key role in helping to protect water quantity and quality by promoting watershed function and water conservation. Although increased temperatures and atmospheric concentration of CO2 have the potential to increase timber and forage production in the Rocky Mountains, those gains may be offset by wildfires, droughts, insect outbreaks, non-native species, and altered species composition. Our assessment identified ways in which federal land managers can help sustain forest and range productivity, primarily by increasing ecosystem resilience and minimizing current stressors, such as invasive species. Climate change will likely increase recreation participation. However, recreation managers will need more flexibility to adjust practices, provide recreation opportunities, and sustain economic benefits to communities. Federal agencies are now transitioning from the planning phase of climate change adaptation to implementation to ensure that ecosystem services will continue to be provided from federal lands in a changing climate.

  8. Has growth mixture modeling improved our understanding of how early change predicts psychotherapy outcome? (United States)

    Koffmann, Andrew


    Early change in psychotherapy predicts outcome. Seven studies have used growth mixture modeling [GMM; Muthén, B. (2001). Second-generation structural equation modeling with a combination of categorical and continuous latent variables: New opportunities for latent class-latent growth modeling. In L. M. Collins & A. G. Sawyers (Eds.), New methods for the analysis of change (pp. 291-322). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association] to identify patient classes based on early change but have yielded conflicting results. Here, we review the earlier studies and apply GMM to a new data set. In a university-based training clinic, 251 patients were administered the Outcome Questionnaire-45 [Lambert, M. J., Hansen, N. B., Umphress, V., Lunnen, K., Okiishi, J., Burlingame, G., … Reisinger, C. W. (1996). Administration and scoring manual for the Outcome Questionnaire (OQ 45.2). Wilmington, DE: American Professional Credentialing Services] at each psychotherapy session. We used GMM to identify class structure based on change in the first six sessions and examined trajectories as predictors of outcome. The sample was best described as a single class. There was no evidence of autoregressive trends in the data. We achieved better fit to the data by permitting latent variables some degree of kurtosis, rather than to assume multivariate normality. Treatment outcome was predicted by the amount of early improvement, regardless of initial level of distress. The presence of sudden early gains or losses did not further improve outcome prediction. Early improvement is an easily computed, powerful predictor of psychotherapy outcome. The use of GMM to investigate the relationship between change and outcome is technically complex and computationally intensive. To date, it has not been particularly informative.

  9. Innovation in Flight: Research of the NASA Langley Research Center on Revolutionary Advanced Concepts for Aeronautics (United States)

    Chambers, Joseph R.


    The goal of this publication is to provide an overview of the topic of revolutionary research in aeronautics at Langley, including many examples of research efforts that offer significant potential benefits, but have not yet been applied. The discussion also includes an overview of how innovation and creativity is stimulated within the Center, and a perspective on the future of innovation. The documentation of this topic, especially the scope and experiences of the example research activities covered, is intended to provide background information for future researchers.

  10. Revolutionary landscapes: the PCTP/MRPP mural paintings in the Lisbon Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Carmo


    Full Text Available This article investigates the mural paintings made by the PCTP/MRPP in the Lisbon Metropolitan Area, in the aftermath of the 1974 Portuguese revolution. Drawing on Erwin Panofsky’s iconographic method of interpretation, murals are explored from an integrated landscape approach that combines two perspectives: landscapes as representations and landscapes as material artifacts. Findings suggest that the PCTP/MRPP mural paintings translated the visual ideology of social transformation and revolution underlying its politics. Furthermore, they also crystallized performative revolutionary landscapes, in the sense that they materialized acts of collective artistic citizenship, in which the social space of mural production played a fundamental role.

  11. Commemorating and burying dead comrades: Revolutionary martyrs’ cemeteries in China and North Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwendolyn Leick


    Full Text Available The paper examines the state sponsored, often vast cemeteries built to bury or commemorate the fallen ‘martyrs’ during revolutionary or civil wars in two Communist countries, China and North Korea. The legitimization of governments has always been an important issue with such burial sites and recent renovations of existing, as well as new constructions, in both countries show the continuing relevance of the policy. Of interest is also the way in which architectural, sculptural and landscape symbolization were employed to construct imagery that sometimes defies intended ideological messages.

  12. Revolutionary and Christian Ecumenes and Desire for Modernity in the Vietnamese Highlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salemink, Oscar


    of Vietnam. I argue that, in pre-colonial times, lowland states and Highland regions have been mutually constitutive through trade, tribute and feasts. Economic, political and ritual exchanges and connections were far more important for both uplands and lowlands than is usually acknowledged, not only...... in scholarship but in such phrases as ‘remote and backward areas’. For postcolonial Vietnam, I show that Highlanders were often motivated by the desire to become modern, and enacted such desires by joining ecumenes that embody modern universals, in particular revolutionary and Christian ecumenes, exemplifying...

  13. Understanding Global Change: A New Conceptual Framework To Guide Teaching About Planetary Systems And Both The Causes And Effects Of Changes In Those Systems (United States)

    Levine, J.; Bean, J. R.


    Goals of the Next Generation Science Standards include understanding climate change and learning about ways to moderate the causes and mitigate the consequences of planetary-scale anthropogenic activities that interact synergistically to affect ecosystems and societies. The sheer number and scale of both causes and effects of global change can be daunting for teachers, and the lack of a clear conceptual framework for presenting this material usually leads educators (and textbooks) to present these phenomenon as a disjointed "laundry list." But an alternative approach is in the works. The Understanding Global Change web resource, currently under development at the UC Berkeley Museum of Paleontology, will provide educators with a conceptual framework, graphic models, lessons, and assessment templates for teaching NGSS-aligned, interdisciplinary, global change curricula. The core of this resource is an original informational graphic that presents and relates Earth's global systems, human and non-human factors that produce changes in those systems, and the effects of those changes that scientists can measure.

  14. Climate Odyssey: Resources for Understanding Coastal Change through Art, Science, and Sail (United States)

    Klos, P. Z.; Holtsnider, L.


    Climate Odyssey ( is a year-long sailing expedition and continuing collaboration aimed at using overlaps in science and visual art to communicate coastal climate change impacts and solutions. We, visual artist Lucy Holtsnider and climate scientist Zion Klos, are using our complimentary skills in art, science and communication to engage audiences both intuitively and cognitively regarding the urgency of climate change through story and visualization. Over the 2015 - 2016 academic year, we embarked on the sailing portion of Climate Odyssey, beginning in Lake Michigan, continuing along the Eastern Seaboard, and concluding in the tropics. Along the way we photographed climate change impacts and adaptation strategies, interviewed stakeholders, scientists, and artists. We are now sharing our photographs and documented encounters through a tangible artist's book, interactive digital map, blog, and series of K16 lesson plans. Each of our images added to the artist's book and digital map are linked to relevant blog entries and other external scientific resources, making the map both a piece of art and an engaging education tool for sharing the science of climate change impacts and solutions. After completing the sailing component of the project, we have now finalized our multi-media resources and are working to share these with the public via libraries, galleries, and K16 classrooms in coastal communities. At AGU, we will share with our peers the completed version of the series of K16 lesson plans that provide educators an easy-to-use way to introduce and utilize the material in the artist's book, digital map, and online blog. Through this, we hope to both discuss climate-focused education and engagement strategies, as well as showcase this example of art-science outreach with the broader science education and communication community that is focused on climate literacy in the U.S. and beyond.

  15. Ecosystem services and climate change: Understanding the differences and identifying opportunities for forest carbon (United States)

    Robert L. Deal; Crystal Raymond; David L. Peterson; Cindy. Glick


    There are a number of misunderstandings about “ecosystem services” and “climate change” and these terms are often used incorrectly to describe different concepts. These concepts address different issues and objectives but have some important integrating themes relating to carbon and carbon sequestration. In this paper, we provide definitions and distinctions between...

  16. Toward better understanding of postharvest deterioration: biochemical changes in stored cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) roots


    Uarrota, Virgílio Gavicho; Nunes, Eduardo da Costa; Peruch, Luiz Augusto Martins; Neubert, Enilto de Oliveira; Coelho, Bianca; Moresco, Rodolfo; Garcia Domínguez, Moralba; Sánchez, Teresa; Luna Meléndez, Jorge Luis; Dufour, Dominique; Ceballos, Hernan; Becerra Lopez-Lavalle, Luis Augusto; Hershey, Clair; Rocha, Miguel; Maraschin, Marcelo


    Abstract Food losses can occur during production, postharvest, and processing stages in the supply chain. With the onset of worldwide food shortages, interest in reducing postharvest losses in cassava has been increasing. In this research, the main goal was to evaluate biochemical changes and identify the metabolites involved in the deterioration of cassava roots. We found that high levels of ascorbic acid (AsA), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), dry matter, and proteins are correlated with overall l...

  17. Understanding Rates of Marijuana Use and Consequences Among Adolescents in a Changing Legal Landscape


    D’Amico, Elizabeth J.; Tucker, Joan S.; Pedersen, Eric R.; Shih, Regina A.


    Purpose of Review There is not one answer to address whether marijuana use has increased, decreased, or stayed the same given changes in state legalization of medical and non-medical marijuana in the USA. Recent Findings Evidence suggests some health benefits for medical marijuana; however, initiation of marijuana use is a risk factor for developing problem cannabis use. Though use rates have remained stable over recent years, about one in three 10th graders report marijuana use, most adolesc...

  18. Understanding patterns of land-cover change in the Brazilian Cerrado from 2000 to 2015 (United States)

    Leite, Marcos E.; Silva, Jhonathan O.; Barbosa, Rômulo S.; Rocha, André M.; Anaya, Felisa C.; Dupin, Mariana G. V.


    Clearing tropical vegetation impacts biodiversity, the provision of ecosystem services, and thus ultimately human welfare. We quantified changes in land cover from 2000 to 2015 across the Cerrado biome of northern Minas Gerais state, Brazil. We assessed the potential biophysical and socio-economic drivers of the loss of Cerrado, natural regeneration and net cover change at the municipality level. Further, we evaluated correlations between these land change variables and indicators of human welfare. We detected extensive land-cover changes in the study area, with the conversion of 23 446 km2 and the natural regeneration of 13 926 km2, resulting in a net loss of 9520 km2. The annual net loss (−1.2% per year) of the cover of Cerrado is higher than that reported for the whole biome in similar periods. We argue that environmental and economic variables interact to underpin rates of conversion of Cerrado, most severely affecting more humid Cerrado lowlands. While rates of Cerrado regeneration are important for conservation strategies of the remaining biome, their integrity must be investigated given the likelihood of encroachment. Given the high frequency of land abandonment in tropical regions, secondary vegetation is fundamental to maintain biodiversity and ecosystem services. Finally, the impacts of Cerrado conversion on human welfare likely vary from local to regional scales, making it difficult to elaborate land-use policies based solely on socio-economic indicators. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Tropical grassy biomes: linking ecology, human use and conservation’. PMID:27502383

  19. Understanding patterns of land-cover change in the Brazilian Cerrado from 2000 to 2015. (United States)

    Espírito-Santo, Mário M; Leite, Marcos E; Silva, Jhonathan O; Barbosa, Rômulo S; Rocha, André M; Anaya, Felisa C; Dupin, Mariana G V


    Clearing tropical vegetation impacts biodiversity, the provision of ecosystem services, and thus ultimately human welfare. We quantified changes in land cover from 2000 to 2015 across the Cerrado biome of northern Minas Gerais state, Brazil. We assessed the potential biophysical and socio-economic drivers of the loss of Cerrado, natural regeneration and net cover change at the municipality level. Further, we evaluated correlations between these land change variables and indicators of human welfare. We detected extensive land-cover changes in the study area, with the conversion of 23 446 km(2) and the natural regeneration of 13 926 km(2), resulting in a net loss of 9520 km(2) The annual net loss (-1.2% per year) of the cover of Cerrado is higher than that reported for the whole biome in similar periods. We argue that environmental and economic variables interact to underpin rates of conversion of Cerrado, most severely affecting more humid Cerrado lowlands. While rates of Cerrado regeneration are important for conservation strategies of the remaining biome, their integrity must be investigated given the likelihood of encroachment. Given the high frequency of land abandonment in tropical regions, secondary vegetation is fundamental to maintain biodiversity and ecosystem services. Finally, the impacts of Cerrado conversion on human welfare likely vary from local to regional scales, making it difficult to elaborate land-use policies based solely on socio-economic indicators.This article is part of the themed issue 'Tropical grassy biomes: linking ecology, human use and conservation'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  20. Toward an understanding of the Middle Pleistocene Transition as a structural change in climate stability (United States)

    Ditlevsen, Peter


    The Middle Pleistocene transition signifies a change approximately 1 Myr ago from a period with 40 kyr glacial cycles to a period of approximately 100 kyr cycles in response to the orbital forcing. This change from the "40 kyr world" to the "100 kyr world" is not reflected in noticeable changes in the forcing. To explain this we present a low order conceptual model for the oscillatory dynamics of the ice sheets in terms of a relaxation oscillator with multiple levels subject to the Milankovitch forcing. The model exhibits smooth transitions between three different climate states; an interglacial (i), a mild glacial (g) and a deep glacial (G) as proposed by Paillard (1998). The model suggests a dynamical explanation in terms of the structure of a slow manifold for the observed allowed and ``forbidden'' transitions between the three climate states. With the model, the pacing of the climate oscillations by the astronomical forcing is through the mechanism of phase-resetting of relaxation oscillations in which the internal phase of the oscillation is affected by the forcing.

  1. For a better understanding of adaptive capacity to climate change: a research framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnan, Alexandre


    It is generally accepted that there exists a systematic link between a low level of adaptive capacity and a low level of development, which thus implies that the poor inevitably have low adaptive capacities. We argue here that this viewpoint is biased because adaptation to climate change is not solely determined by economic and technological capacities. Many other characteristics of a community can play a major role in its ability to react to and anticipate climate changes (e.g. the territorial identity or the social relationships). From our point of view, this limited view of adaptive capacity is related to a relative immaturity of the science of adaptation, a discipline that analyses the processes and determinants of adaptive capacity. This can be explained by the fact that there are currently few existing frameworks for studying adaptive capacity. This paper consists in a proposal for a research framework which is based upon four main fields of investigation: (i) the influential factors of adaptive capacity and their interactions, (ii) the relevant spatial and temporal scales of adaptive capacity, (iii) the links between adaptive capacity, vulnerability and the level of development and (iv) the theoretical links between adaptation and sustainability. These four fields of research should bring new knowledge on adaptive capacity and feed a more general reflection on the adaptation pathways for dealing with climate change. (author)

  2. Understanding the Perception of Global Climate Change: Research into the Role of Media (United States)

    Kundargi, R.; Gopal, S.; Tsay-Vogel, M.


    Here we present preliminary results for a novel study investigating the perception of climate change media, in relation to two pre-selected dimensions. We administer a questionnaire varying in two dimensions (spatial proximity and scientific literacy) to 155 mostly students in order to evaluate their emotional and cognitive reactions towards a series of video clips depicting the impacts of global climate change (GCC) events or the science behind global climate change. 19 videos were selected and vetted by experts for content and relevance to the subject matter. Our preliminary analysis indicate that the further away an event is perceived to be (spatial proximity) results in a lower uncertainty about the risks of GCC, lower self-efficacy to effect GCC, and lower personal responsibility to influence GCC. Furthermore, our results show that videos with a higher perceived background scientific knowledge requirement (scientific literacy) results in greater viewer engagement with the video. A full analysis and results of this study will be presented within the poster presentation.

  3. Climate change impacts on tree ranges: model intercomparison facilitates understanding and quantification of uncertainty. (United States)

    Cheaib, Alissar; Badeau, Vincent; Boe, Julien; Chuine, Isabelle; Delire, Christine; Dufrêne, Eric; François, Christophe; Gritti, Emmanuel S; Legay, Myriam; Pagé, Christian; Thuiller, Wilfried; Viovy, Nicolas; Leadley, Paul


    Model-based projections of shifts in tree species range due to climate change are becoming an important decision support tool for forest management. However, poorly evaluated sources of uncertainty require more scrutiny before relying heavily on models for decision-making. We evaluated uncertainty arising from differences in model formulations of tree response to climate change based on a rigorous intercomparison of projections of tree distributions in France. We compared eight models ranging from niche-based to process-based models. On average, models project large range contractions of temperate tree species in lowlands due to climate change. There was substantial disagreement between models for temperate broadleaf deciduous tree species, but differences in the capacity of models to account for rising CO(2) impacts explained much of the disagreement. There was good quantitative agreement among models concerning the range contractions for Scots pine. For the dominant Mediterranean tree species, Holm oak, all models foresee substantial range expansion. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  4. Commonisation and decommonisation: Understanding the processes of change in the Chilika Lagoon, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prateep Kumar Nayak


    Full Text Available This article examines the processes of change in a large lagoon system, and its implications for how commons can be managed as commons in the long run. We use two related concepts in our analysis of change: commonisation and decommonisation; ′commonisation′ is understood as a process through which a resource gets converted into a jointly used resource under commons institutions that deal with excludability and subtractability, and ′decommonisation′ refers to a process through which a jointly used resource under commons institutions loses these essential characteristics. We analyse various contributing issues and dynamics associated with the processes of commonisation and decommonisation. We consider evidence collected through household and village level surveys, combined with a host of qualitative and quantitative research methods in the Chilika Lagoon, the largest lagoon in India, and one of the largest lagoons in Asia. We suggest that in order to keep the Chilika commons as commons will require, as a starting point, a policy environment in which legal rights and customary livelihoods are respected. With international prawn markets stabilised and the ′pink gold rush′ over, the timing may be good for a policy change in order to create a political space for negotiation and to reverse the processes causing decommonisation. Fishers need to be empowered to re-connect to their environment and re-invent traditions of stewardship, without which there will be no resources left to fight over.

  5. Understanding the gender gap: Social cognitive changes during an introductory stem course. (United States)

    Hardin, Erin E; Longhurst, Melanie O


    Despite robust support for the basic theoretical model of social cognitive career theory (Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994) and predictions that, for example, increases (or declines) in self-efficacy would lead to subsequent increases (or declines) in interest, there has been surprisingly little longitudinal research that has directly examined the extent to which members of different groups (e.g., women and men) actually do experience changes in critical social-cognitive variables over time early in their curricula in the fields of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). Knowing the extent to which such changes occur in typical introductory undergraduate courses is important for targeting interventions to increase persistence of underrepresented groups in STEM. We measured social-cognitive-career-theory-relevant variables near the middle and at the end of the 1st semester of a gateway introductory chemistry course and found that women had lower STEM self-efficacy, coping self-efficacy, and STEM interest than did men, even after controlling for actual course performance. Although there were no detrimental changes across the semester for women or men, men experienced a small but significant increase in their perceived support for pursuing a STEM degree, whereas women did not. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Understanding the causes of changing grassland use and productivity in Inner Mongolia, China (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Gao, L.; Qiao, G.; Chen, J.


    Some dramatic changes of grassland use and productivity have been taking place in Inner Mongolia in the past half century. While the changes are apparently driven by both socio-economic factors and climate, their contribution and interaction are largely unknown. We hypothesize that population growth is an important driving force behind the loss and degradation of the grassland, the market forces and institutional factors such as de-collectivization are become more important factors as the economy is moving from planned economy to market economy. This paper assesses the effects of socio-economic, demographic, institutional and climate factors on grassland use and productivity using a panel data set. The panel data compose the years from 1970s to 2000s and all prefectures in Inner Mongolia. A generalized least squares estimation method, allowing individual effects for prefecture level are applied to the examination. The effect of climate change is tested as well and the coupled socio-economic system and the natural system are investigated.

  7. Engineering Good: How Engineering Metaphors Help us to Understand the Moral Life and Change Society (United States)


    Engineering can learn from ethics, but ethics can also learn from engineering. In this paper, I discuss what engineering metaphors can teach us about practical philosophy. Using metaphors such as calculation, performance, and open source, I articulate two opposing views of morality and politics: one that relies on images related to engineering as science and one that draws on images of engineering practice. I argue that the latter view and its metaphors provide a more adequate way to understand and guide the moral life. Responding to two problems of alienation and taking into account developments such as Fab Lab I then further explore the implications of this view for engineering and society. PMID:19722107

  8. Seven experiments that could change the world a do-it-yourself guide to revolutionary science

    CERN Document Server

    Sheldrake, Rupert


    Seven experiments are proposed in this book that the author believes, if any are successful, will alter how the reader perceives the world. The purpose of the book is to draw attention to areas of research neglected as a result of conventional habits of thought. The descriptions of the experiments are intended to focus the topics under discussion. One of the experiments in the book aims to test the hypothesis that many dogs and cats know that their owners are coming home before they actually arrive. Rupert Sheldrake has also written "The Presence of the Past" and "The Rebirth of Nature".

  9. Software Defined Electronics: A Revolutionary Change in Design and Teaching Paradigm of RF Radio Communications Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Géza Kolumbán


    Full Text Available Band-pass signals are used everywhere in radio communications. The band-pass property makes the substitution of each RF/microwave/ optical analog signal processing possible with a low-frequency digital one in Software Defined Electronics (SDE. In SDE, the high frequency band-pass signals are transformed into the BaseBand (BB by a universal HW device and every application is implemented in BB, entirely in software. SDE concept uses (i the lowest sampling rate attainable theoretically and (ii the same universal HW device in every application. The huge level of flexibility offered by the SW implementation is essential in many applications from cognitive radio to adaptive reconfigurable systems. This tutorial, written for interested readers who have no solid background in software defined radio, virtual instrumentation and SoC technology, surveys the SDE theory, uses a step-by-step approach for the derivation of BB equivalents and demonstrates the application of SDE concept in scientific research, prototyping and education.

  10. Evaluation of carcinogenic hazard of diesel engine exhaust needs to consider revolutionary changes in diesel technology. (United States)

    McClellan, Roger O; Hesterberg, Thomas W; Wall, John C


    Diesel engines, a special type of internal combustion engine, use heat of compression, rather than electric spark, to ignite hydrocarbon fuels injected into the combustion chamber. Diesel engines have high thermal efficiency and thus, high fuel efficiency. They are widely used in commerce prompting continuous improvement in diesel engines and fuels. Concern for health effects from exposure to diesel exhaust arose in the mid-1900s and stimulated development of emissions regulations and research to improve the technology and characterize potential health hazards. This included epidemiological, controlled human exposure, laboratory animal and mechanistic studies to evaluate potential hazards of whole diesel exhaust. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (1989) classified whole diesel exhaust as - "probably carcinogenic to humans". This classification stimulated even more stringent regulations for particulate matter that required further technological developments. These included improved engine control, improved fuel injection system, enhanced exhaust cooling, use of ultra low sulfur fuel, wall-flow high-efficiency exhaust particulate filters, exhaust catalysts, and crankcase ventilation filtration. The composition of New Technology Diesel Exhaust (NTDE) is qualitatively different and the concentrations of particulate constituents are more than 90% lower than for Traditional Diesel Exhaust (TDE). We recommend that future reviews of carcinogenic hazards of diesel exhaust evaluate NTDE separately from TDE. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Transforming Department of Defense’s Core Business Processes for Revolutionary Change (United States)


    stability was achieved and the ensuing years of rapid and profitable growth enabled a successful IPO to a publicly traded company in 2002. On September...its successful IPO in 2002. From 1991 to 1995 Mr. Klepper served at CIGNA Health Care where he was responsible for establishing the practice of

  12. A Plan for Revolutionary Change in Gas Turbine Engine Control System Architecture (United States)

    Culley, Dennis E.


    The implementation of Distributed Engine Control technology on the gas turbine engine has been a vexing challenge for the controls community. A successful implementation requires the resolution of multiple technical issues in areas such as network communications, power distribution, and system integration, but especially in the area of high temperature electronics. Impeding the achievement has been the lack of a clearly articulated message about the importance of the distributed control technology to future turbine engine system goals and objectives. To resolve these issues and bring the technology to fruition has, and will continue to require, a broad coalition of resources from government, industry, and academia. This presentation will describe the broad challenges facing the next generation of advanced control systems and the plan which is being put into action to successfully implement the technology on the next generation of gas turbine engine systems.

  13. Restoflex--a revolutionary change in preclinical practice for restorative dentistry and endodontics. (United States)

    Jain, Shweta; Khaiser, Imran M; Thakur, Sophia; Jain, Shikha


    Preclinical exercises are very important for the dental students in order to master various dental techniques. The objective of this article is to introduce a new preclinical working model named Restoflex. It is especially designed for the students to carry out various restorative and endodontic procedures in an environment that closely simulate clinical situations. This will help them to provide a smooth transition from preclinical environment to the clinical one. It would also mean an increased confidence level and the efficiency with which the students would deal with their cases.

  14. Big Data - A Revolutionary "Space" that Changes the Way Business is Done

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicodim Liliana


    Since the collection of data expressed as a result of business activity is not a major issue, thechallenge arises when it comes to analyzing, storing, transferring, querying and securinginformation-bearing data. Companies continuously seek to find software products that allow themto analyze these data and help in obtaining relevant information in decision-making.

  15. How innovative ICT tools can enhance understanding of interactions between societal, hydrological and environmental changes (United States)

    Foglia, L.; Borsi, I.; Cannata, M.; De Filippis, G.; Criollo, R.; Mehl, S.; Rossetto, R.


    The interaction of environmental, physical, and socioeconomic processes alter and are altered by water and by how human can affect water use. For example, a warming climate increases the chance of warm temperatures and lack of precipitation, and when combined with growing population requires understanding of impact on water resources and on all the processes related to the water budget including evapotranspiration. On this foundation, humans add engineered and social systems to control, manage, utilize, and alter our water environment for a variety of uses and through a variety of organizational and individual decisions. Some engineered systems have mixed consequences, for example groundwater helped sustain agriculture during drought periods, but then groundwater levels critically decrease with no chances to recover in some parts of the world. Innovative ICT tools have been demonstrated as a helpful tool for enhancing human understanding of the effect that societal, economical, and policy-based decisions have on the water resources and on the environment in general. Here we apply the new FREEWAT platform to demonstrate the importance of developing ad-hoc database and hydrological models to simulate different scenarios using a participatory approach. Stakeholders have been involved in data collection, database design and model development during the entire project period and discussion between researcher and stakeholders have been fostered during Focus Groups and workshops organized in many countries in Europe and beyond (including case studies in Ukraine and Africa). FREEWAT is an open source and public domain GIS integrated modelling environment for simulation of water quantity and quality in surface water and groundwater with an integrated water management and planning module. FREEWAT aims at promoting water resource management by simplifying the application of the Water Framework Directive and related Directives. Fourteen case studies have been considered and

  16. Evaluating the effects of ideology on public understanding of climate change science: how to improve communication across ideological divides? (United States)

    Zia, Asim; Todd, Anne Marie


    While ideology can have a strong effect on citizen understanding of science, it is unclear how ideology interacts with other complicating factors, such as college education, which influence citizens' comprehension of information. We focus on public understanding of climate change science and test the hypotheses: [H1] as citizens' ideology shifts from liberal to conservative, concern for global warming decreases; [H2] citizens with college education and higher general science literacy tend to have higher concern for global warming; and [H3] college education does not increase global warming concern for conservative ideologues. We implemented a survey instrument in California's San Francisco Bay Area, and employed regression models to test the effects of ideology and other socio-demographic variables on citizen concern about global warming, terrorism, the economy, health care and poverty. We are able to confirm H1 and H3, but reject H2. Various strategies are discussed to improve the communication of climate change science across ideological divides.

  17. Toward an understanding of global change: Initial priorities for US contributions to the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program (United States)


    A limited number of high-priority research initiatives are recommended for early implementation as part of the U.S. contribution to the preparatory phase of the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program. The recommendations are based on the committee's analysis of the most critical gaps in the scientific knowledge needed to understand the changes that are occurring in the earth system not being addressed by existing programs. The report articulates a number of important key issues and interactions that characterize global change in the geosphere-biosphere system on time scales of decades to centuries; identifies the knowledge that is the most urgently needed to improve understanding of those issues and interactions; and formulates initial priorities for initial U.S. contributions to the IGBP, recognizing the contributions of other ongoing and proposed programs.

  18. The Changing Cold Regions Network: Improving the Understanding and Prediction of Changing Land, Water, and Climate in the Mackenzie and Saskatchewan River Basins, Canada (United States)

    DeBeer, C. M.; Wheater, H. S.; Chun, K. P.; Shook, K.; Whitfield, P. H.


    Within the cold interior of western and northern Canada, rapid and widespread environmental changes are taking place, which are of serious concern for society and have a range of implications from local to regional and global scales. From a scientific standpoint there is an urgent need to understand the changes and develop improved diagnostic and predictive modelling tools to deal with the uncertainty faced in the future. The Changing Cold Regions Network (CCRN) is a research consortium of over 50 Canadian university and government scientists and international researchers aimed at addressing these issues within the geographic domain of the Mackenzie and Saskatchewan River Basins. CCRN's primary focus is to integrate existing and new experimental data with modelling and remote sensing products to understand, diagnose and predict changing land, water and climate, and their interactions and feedbacks. To support these activities, the network utilizes a suite of 14 world-class water, ecosystem, cryosphere and climate (WECC) observatories across this region that provide exceptional opportunities to observe change, investigate processes and their dynamics, and develop and test environmental models. This talk will briefly describe the CCRN thematic components and WECC observatories, and will then describe some of the observed environmental changes and their linkages across the northern and mountainous parts of the network study domain. In particular, this will include changes in permafrost, terrestrial vegetation, snowcover, glaciers, and river discharge in relation to observed climatic changes across the region. The observations draw on a wide range of literature sources and statistical analyses of federal and provincial regional monitoring network data, while more detailed observations at some of the WECC observatories help to show how these regional changes are manifested at local scales and vice versa. A coordinated special observation and analysis period across all

  19. Changes in Pre-service Science Teachers' Understandings After Being Involved in Explicit Nature of Science and Socioscientific Argumentation Processes (United States)

    Kutluca, A. Y.; Aydın, A.


    The study explored the changes in pre-service science teachers' understanding of the nature of science and their opinions about the nature of science, science teaching and argumentation after their participation in explicit nature of science (NOS) and socioscientific argumentation processes. The participants were 56 third-grade pre-service science teachers studying in a state university in Turkey. The treatment group comprised 27 participants, and there were 29 participants in the comparison group. The comparison group participants were involved in a student-centred science-teaching process, and the participants of the treatment group were involved in explicit NOS and socioscientific argumentation processes. In the study, which lasted a total of 11 weeks, a NOS-as-argumentation questionnaire was administered to all the participants to determine their understanding of NOS at the beginning and end of the data collection process, and six random participants of the treatment group participated in semi-structured interview questions in order to further understand their views regarding NOS, science teaching and argumentation. Qualitative and quantitative data analysis revealed that the explicit NOS and socioscientific argumentation processes had a significant effect on pre-service science teachers' NOS understandings. Furthermore, NOS, argumentation and science teaching views of the participants in the treatment group showed a positive change. The results of this study are discussed in light of the related literature, and suggestions are made within the context of contribution to science-teaching literature, improvement of education quality and education of pre-service teachers.

  20. Adolescent understanding of DOHaD concepts: a school-based intervention to support knowledge translation and behaviour change. (United States)

    Bay, J L; Mora, H A; Sloboda, D M; Morton, S M; Vickers, M H; Gluckman, P D


    A life-course approach to reduction of risk of non-communicable diseases (NCD) suggests that early-life interventions may be more effective than lifestyle modifications in middle age. Knowledge translation to develop understanding of the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) within the community offers the potential to encourage informed diet and lifestyle choices supporting reduction of NCD risk in current and future generations. Many women do not make sustained dietary change before or during pregnancy, therefore appropriate nutritional behaviours need to be established prior to adulthood. This makes adolescence an appropriate stage for interventions to establish suitable dietary and lifestyle behaviours. Therefore, we engaged adolescents in a school-based educational intervention, and assessed the value of this in development of understanding of DOHaD concepts to support behaviour change that could lead to NCD risk reduction in the next generation. Modules of course work were written for 11-14 year olds and trialled in nine schools. Matched pre- and post-intervention questionnaire responses from 238 students and 99 parents, and post-intervention interviews evaluated the intervention. Understanding of a link between maternal diet during pregnancy and the health of the foetus in adulthood increased from 46% to 76% following intervention. Post-intervention evidence suggests the programme facilitated discussion of diet, lifestyle and DOHaD concepts in most families. The intervention was effective in improving understanding of DOHaD concepts and in some cases led to appropriate behaviour change. However, the sustainability of these changes remains to be determined through on-going evaluation of attitudes and behaviour within this cohort.

  1. Media work in change : Understanding the role of media professionals in times of digital transformation and convergence


    Malmelin, Nando; Villi, Mikko


    This article discusses media work and the changes that have swept the media industry from the vantage point of professionals working in media companies and organisations. The concept of media work guides towards new understanding about the media industry and media professions under digital transition. Media work indicates a move towards more diversified job tasks, closer cooperation among different media professions, increased commercial thinking, and interaction with audiences.

  2. Understanding three decades of land use changes and a cloudburst in Phewa Lake Watershed, Western Nepal (United States)

    Sudmeier-Rieux, Karen; Tonini, Marj; Vulliez, Cindy; Sanjaya, Devkota; Derron, Marc-Henri; Jaboyedoff, Michel


    This paper details an extreme rainfall event, or cloudburst (315 mm/ 24 hours) which occurred on July 29-30, 2015 in the Phewa Lake Watershed, Western Nepal, three months after the April 25, 2015 Gorkha Earthquake. The event triggered over 170 landslides and debris flows, caused 8 deaths and considerable damage to livelihoods. The fatal debris flow started from one of the numerous rural roads, which have proliferated exponentially over the past decades. In addition to mapping landslides due to this extreme rainfall event, our study sought to document and analyze underlying natural and human land use factors that may have impacted the occurrence of landsliding (Vulliez et al submitted). To do so, our study analyzed land cover/ land use changes for the period 1979-2016 based on an interpretation of aerial photos and satellite images, combined with ground truthing. We studied how land use / land cover changes have resulted in a shift of active erosion zones from overgrazing around streams and forests to an exponential number of small failures along unplanned earthen rural roads, or "bulldozer roads". With several hundred small failures documented along roadsides (Leibundgut et al., 2016) as compared to only 14 landslides prior to 2015 extreme rainfall event - and none triggered by the 2015 earthquake - roads are thus a major driver of active erosion zones and small failures in the watershed. More effective management of the current unsustainable mode of rural road construction is required to reduce further environmental and economic impacts on vulnerable populations in Nepal. Leibundgut, G., Sudmeier-Rieux, K. Devkota, S., Jaboyedoff, M., Derron, M-H., Penna, I. Nguyen, L. (2016). Rural earthen roads impact assessment in Phewa watershed, Western region, Nepal. Geoenvironmental Disasters (2016) 3:13. DOI 10.1186/s40677-016-0047-8 Vulliez, C, Tonini, M., Sudmeier-Rieux, K. Devkota, S., Derron, M-H, Jaboyedoff, M. (submitted) Land use changes, landslides and roads in the

  3. Understanding the role of cigarette promotion and youth smoking in a changing marketing environment. (United States)

    Krugman, Dean M; Quinn, William H; Sung, Yongjun; Morrison, Margaret


    In 2001, $11.21 billion was spent on domestic cigarette advertising and promotion, an increase of 16.9% over 2000. This article explains how cigarette industry efforts stimulate demand and encourage smoking within the context of recent changes, including the 1998 Master Settlement Agreement (MSA) and resulting litigation, and variations in tobacco marketing policies. Communication concepts are combined with adolescent development concepts to explain how youth are impacted. Industry documents and current syndicated research data are used to reveal and explain key concepts.

  4. Prediction/discussion-based learning cycle versus conceptual change text: comparative effects on students' understanding of genetics (United States)

    khawaldeh, Salem A. Al


    Background and purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the comparative effects of a prediction/discussion-based learning cycle (HPD-LC), conceptual change text (CCT) and traditional instruction on 10th grade students' understanding of genetics concepts. Sample: Participants were 112 10th basic grade male students in three classes of the same school located in an urban area. The three classes taught by the same biology teacher were randomly assigned as a prediction/discussion-based learning cycle class (n = 39), conceptual change text class (n = 37) and traditional class (n = 36). Design and method: A quasi-experimental research design of pre-test-post-test non-equivalent control group was adopted. Participants completed the Genetics Concept Test as pre-test-post-test, to examine the effects of instructional strategies on their genetics understanding. Pre-test scores and Test of Logical Thinking scores were used as covariates. Results: The analysis of covariance showed a statistically significant difference between the experimental and control groups in the favor of experimental groups after treatment. However, no statistically significant difference between the experimental groups (HPD-LC versus CCT instruction) was found. Conclusions: Overall, the findings of this study support the use of the prediction/discussion-based learning cycle and conceptual change text in both research and teaching. The findings may be useful for improving classroom practices in teaching science concepts and for the development of suitable materials promoting students' understanding of science.

  5. Development of animal welfare understanding drives change in minimum welfare standards. (United States)

    Mellor, D J; Webster, J R


    The process by which societies adapt to increasing knowledge about the mental and physical capacities of animals and the ways in which they are affected by human activities has been described as a journey. Different countries and regions are at various stages of this journey, and will take a unique path, depending on their specific social and cultural dynamics. However, all participants are unified by an increasing awareness of, and concern for, animal welfare. This journey has been characterised by a number of landmark events, one of which was the release of the Five Freedoms concept. Although aspirational and abstract, as it did not outline specific practical goals, nonetheless this concept became a catalyst for moving animal welfare thinking in a new direction, and set up a number of important targets for research. This eventually led to a key shift in thinking from a focus on biological functioning and resources, to ways of assessing welfare outcomes in terms of animals' experiences, i.e. their affective states. Behaviour science played an important role in the interpretation of animals' affective experiences, receiving compelling support from parallel studies in affective neuroscience. An important aspect of our understanding of animal welfare is that affective states can be negative or positive. Enabling animals to perform specific behaviours at key times when they are needed is central to the achievement of positive affective states. Another important event has been the development of practical ways to shift the spectrum of affective states towards a positive balance and their incorporation into welfare codes and regulations. The recent focus on positive affective states does not mean that negative experiences should be given less attention. In fact, in those countries that are at the early stages of the journey, improving function and productivity may be the most effective way to promote some important aspects of animal welfare. For example, alleviating

  6. The Effect of Conceptual Change Model in the Senior High School Students’ Understanding and Character in Learning Physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santyasa I Wayan


    Full Text Available Learning physics for senior high school (SMA students is often coloured by misconceptions that hinder students in achieving deep understanding. So a relevant learning model is needed. This study aims to examine the effect of conceptual change model (CCM compared with direct instruction model (DIM on the students’ conceptual understanding and character in the subject area of motion and force. This quasi-experimental research using a non-equivalence pre-test post-test control groups design. The population is 20 classes (738 students of grade X consisted of 8 classes (272 students of SMA 1 Amlapura, 8 classes (256 students of SMA 2 Amlapura, and 6 classes (210 students of SMA 1 Manggis in Karangasem regency in Bali. The random assignment technique is used to assign 6 classes (202 students, or 26.5% of the population. In each school there are set 2 classes each as a CCM group and DIM groups. The data of students’ conceptual understanding is collected by tests, while the characters by questionnaires. To analyse the data a one way MANCOVA statistics was used. The result of the analysis showed that there was a significant difference of effect between CCM group and DIM group on the students’ conceptual understanding and character. The effect of the CCM group is higher than the DIM group on the students’ conceptual understanding and character in learning subject area of motion and force.

  7. Understanding structural changes in NMC Li-ion cells by in situ neutron diffraction (United States)

    Dolotko, O.; Senyshyn, A.; Mühlbauer, M. J.; Nikolowski, K.; Ehrenberg, H.


    Commercial NMC cells of 18650-type based on a Lix(Ni0.5Mn0.3Co0.2)O2 cathode and a graphitic anode were studied in situ using a combination of high-resolution monochromatic neutron powder diffraction and electrochemical analysis. The structural changes of the electrode materials during cell charge/discharge have been determined using Rietveld refinement and single profile decomposition techniques. A transformation of the graphitic anode to LiC12 and LiC6 through the formation of higher ordered lithium intercalated carbons was observed. A different behavior of electrochemically-driven lattice distortion was observed for NMC material in comparison to LixCoO2 and its influence on the overall cell performance has been discussed in brief. Detailed analysis of the structural changes in the Lix(Ni0.5Mn0.3Co0.2)O2 cathode material revealed reversible Li/Ni cation mixing (5.6(8)%), which is state-of-charge independent below 1600 mAh and vanishing above 1800 mAh (∼0.8Qmax).

  8. Understanding the recent trend of haze pollution in eastern China: roles of climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.-J. Wang


    Full Text Available In this paper, the variation and trend of haze pollution in eastern China for winter of 1960–2012 were analyzed. With the overall increasing number of winter haze days in this period, the 5 decades were divided into three sub-periods based on the changes of winter haze days (WHD in central North China (30–40° N and eastern South China (south of 30° N for east of 109° E mainland China. Results show that WHD kept gradually increasing during 1960–1979, remained stable overall during 1980–1999, and increased fast during 2000–2012. The author identified the major climate forcing factors besides total energy consumption. Among all the possible climate factors, variability of the autumn Arctic sea ice extent, local precipitation and surface wind during winter is most influential to the haze pollution change. The joint effect of fast increase of total energy consumption, rapid decline of Arctic sea ice extent and reduced precipitation and surface winds intensified the haze pollution in central North China after 2000. There is a similar conclusion for haze pollution in eastern South China after 2000, with the precipitation effect being smaller and spatially inconsistent.

  9. Understanding changes over time in workers' compensation claim rates using time series analytical techniques. (United States)

    Moore, Ian C; Tompa, Emile


    The objective of this study is to better understand the inter-temporal variation in workers' compensation claim rates using time series analytical techniques not commonly used in the occupational health and safety literature. We focus specifically on the role of unemployment rates in explaining claim rate variations. The major components of workers' compensation claim rates are decomposed using data from a Canadian workers' compensation authority for the period 1991-2007. Several techniques are used to undertake the decomposition and assess key factors driving rates: (i) the multitaper spectral estimator, (ii) the harmonic F test, (iii) the Kalman smoother and (iv) ordinary least squares. The largest component of the periodic behaviour in workers' compensation claim rates is seasonal variation. Business cycle fluctuations in workers' compensation claim rates move inversely to unemployment rates. The analysis suggests that workers' compensation claim rates between 1991 and 2008 were driven by (in order of magnitude) a strong negative long term growth trend, periodic seasonal trends and business cycle fluctuations proxied by the Ontario unemployment rate.

  10. Advances in Understanding Energy Consumption Behavior and the Governance of Its Change – Outline of an Integrated Framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, Paul; Bezençon, Valéry; Bornemann, Basil; Brosch, Tobias; Carabias-Hütter, Vicente; Farsi, Mehdi; Hille, Stefanie Lena; Moser, Corinne; Ramseier, Céline; Samuel, Robin; Sander, David; Schmidt, Stephan; Sohre, Annika; Volland, Benjamin


    Transforming today’s energy systems in industrialized countries requires a substantial reduction of the total energy consumption at the individual level. Selected instruments have been found to be effective in changing people’s behavior in single domains. However, the so far weak success story on reducing overall energy consumption indicates that our understanding of the determining factors of individual energy consumption as well as of its change is far from being conclusive. Among others, the scientific state of the art is dominated by analyzing single domains of consumption and by neglecting embodied energy. It also displays strong disciplinary splits and the literature often fails to distinguish between explaining behavior and explaining change of behavior. Moreover, there are knowledge gaps regarding the legitimacy and effectiveness of the governance of individual consumption behavior and its change. Against this backdrop, the aim of this paper is to establish an integrated interdisciplinary framework that offers a systematic basis for linking the different aspects in research on energy related consumption behavior, thus paving the way for establishing a better evidence base to inform societal actions. The framework connects the three relevant analytical aspects of the topic in question: (1) it systematically and conceptually frames the objects, i.e., the energy consumption behavior and its change (explananda); (2) it structures the factors that potentially explain the energy consumption behavior and its change (explanantia); (3) it provides a differentiated understanding of change inducing interventions in terms of governance. Based on the existing states of the art approaches from different disciplines within the social sciences, the proposed framework is supposed to guide interdisciplinary empirical research.

  11. Understanding the Changing Landscape of Contemporary Spirituality...: A useful starting point for reviewing Catholic school religious education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Rossiter


    Full Text Available Pope John Paul II, following in the steps of his predecessors, strongly advocated the critical appraisal of the influence of culture on people’s spirituality. This article responds to his directive by seeking to develop an interpretation of how and why contemporary spirituality has changed that will better inform the work of religious educators in Catholic schools. A number of constructs like secularisation, privatisation of religion etc. have been used to describe the significant change in spirituality of many of the young people in Australian Catholic schools over the last 50 years from a more traditional religious spirituality to something that is more secular, eclectic and individualistic. To some extent, this change has been acknowledged; but the religion curricula in Catholic schools still give the impression that all of the students are, or should be, regular church goers – as if Sunday mass attendance was to be the end point of their education in spirituality. An interpretation of change in spirituality in terms of change in cultural meanings has been developed for the purpose of understanding contemporary spiritualities in other than a deficit model. Such an interpretation may be more persuasive in getting Catholic education authorities and religious educators firstly to accept, rather than condemn or ignore, the significant change in contemporary spiritualty; and then secondly, to take steps to address this change positively and constructively in the Catholic school religion curriculum. This article is concerned with the first step – understanding contemporary spirituality; it is intended that the second question will be considered in a follow up article.

  12. Advances in Understanding Energy Consumption Behavior and the Governance of Its Change – Outline of an Integrated Framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, Paul, E-mail: [Sustainability Research Group, University of Basel, Basel (Switzerland); Bezençon, Valéry [Enterprise Institute, University of Neuchâtel, Neuchâtel (Switzerland); Bornemann, Basil [Sustainability Research Group, University of Basel, Basel (Switzerland); Brosch, Tobias [Department of Psychology, Swiss Center for Affective Sciences, University of Geneva, Geneva (Switzerland); Carabias-Hütter, Vicente [Institute of Sustainable Development, Zurich University of Applied Sciences, Winterthur (Switzerland); Farsi, Mehdi [Institute of Economic Research, University of Neuchâtel, Neuchâtel (Switzerland); Hille, Stefanie Lena [Institute for Economy and the Environment, University of St. Gallen, St. Gallen (Switzerland); Moser, Corinne [Institute of Sustainable Development, Zurich University of Applied Sciences, Winterthur (Switzerland); Ramseier, Céline [Center for Energy Policy and Economics, ETH Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland); Samuel, Robin [Institute of Sociology, University of Bern, Bern (Switzerland); Social Research and Methodology Group, University of Basel, Basel (Switzerland); Sander, David [Department of Psychology, Swiss Center for Affective Sciences, University of Geneva, Geneva (Switzerland); Schmidt, Stephan; Sohre, Annika [Sustainability Research Group, University of Basel, Basel (Switzerland); Volland, Benjamin [Institute of Economic Research, University of Neuchâtel, Neuchâtel (Switzerland)


    Transforming today’s energy systems in industrialized countries requires a substantial reduction of the total energy consumption at the individual level. Selected instruments have been found to be effective in changing people’s behavior in single domains. However, the so far weak success story on reducing overall energy consumption indicates that our understanding of the determining factors of individual energy consumption as well as of its change is far from being conclusive. Among others, the scientific state of the art is dominated by analyzing single domains of consumption and by neglecting embodied energy. It also displays strong disciplinary splits and the literature often fails to distinguish between explaining behavior and explaining change of behavior. Moreover, there are knowledge gaps regarding the legitimacy and effectiveness of the governance of individual consumption behavior and its change. Against this backdrop, the aim of this paper is to establish an integrated interdisciplinary framework that offers a systematic basis for linking the different aspects in research on energy related consumption behavior, thus paving the way for establishing a better evidence base to inform societal actions. The framework connects the three relevant analytical aspects of the topic in question: (1) it systematically and conceptually frames the objects, i.e., the energy consumption behavior and its change (explananda); (2) it structures the factors that potentially explain the energy consumption behavior and its change (explanantia); (3) it provides a differentiated understanding of change inducing interventions in terms of governance. Based on the existing states of the art approaches from different disciplines within the social sciences, the proposed framework is supposed to guide interdisciplinary empirical research.

  13. Understanding future projected changes and trends in extreme precipitation and streamflow events in ten Polish catchments (United States)

    Meresa, Hadush; Romanowicz, Renata; Napiorkoski, Jaroslaw


    The aim of the study is to investigate methods of trend detection in hydro-climatic high and low indices using novel and conventional tools, for future climate projections in the periods 2021-2050 and 2071-2100. The climate meteorological projections are obtained from regional climate models or/and global circulation models forced with IPCC SRES A1B, RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 emission scenarios. The study area includes ten catchments in Poland. The catchments have diverse hydro-climatic conditions. They are covered mostly by forest and are semi-natural. The flood regime of all the catchments is driven either by rainfall and/or snow-melt. Streamflow projections are provided by running the HBV hydrological model, coupled with climate models for the catchments. The trends are analyzed using a conventional Modified Mann Kendall statistical approach, a time frequency approach based on wavelet discrete transform (DWT) and the Dynamic Harmonic Regression (DHR) method. We address the problems of auto-correlation, seasonality and inter-annual variability of the derived indices. A Modified Mann Kendall (MMK) method is applied to cope with the autocorrelation of the time series. The DHR method is based on the unobserved component approach. Together with estimates of the components, the uncertainty of the estimates is also calculated. The results of the DHR analysis (trend) are compared with the calculated MMK and DWT trends. Among other indices we study the temporal patterns of the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), Standardized Runoff Index (SRI) and Standardized Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI), as well as Maximum Annual Flows and Minimum Annual Flows. The results indicate that changes in the trends of the projected indices are more conservative when DHR methods are applied than conventional trend techniques. The wavelet-based approach is the most subjective and gives the least conservative trend estimates. Trends indicate an increase in the amount of precipitation, followed by

  14. Influence of a Revolutionary Substrate on Hysteresis Effect in Reactive Sputtering Deposition of Vanadium Oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He YU


    Full Text Available Reactive sputter processes frequently exhibit stability problems. The cause of this is that these processes normally exhibit hysteresis effects in the processing curves. Eliminating or decreasing the hysteresis would significantly simplify the use of reactive sputtering processes. In this work, we present reactive sputtering deposition modeling of vanadium oxide with a revolutionary substrate, aiming to study the influence of it on hysteresis effect. Based on this modeling, the fractions of V, V2O3, VO2, V2O5 at the target surface and target voltage have been investigated as a function of reactive gas flow during the reactive sputtering. The substrate area was replaced by a new parameter of effective area of substrate As which was calculated as a sum of contributions from the substrate area at each cell of time. From the modeling results, it is suggested that the effective area of the substrate was reduced for reactive sputtering with revolutionary substrate, thus the hysteresis width would be decreased. This has been experimentally verified by reactive sputtering deposition of VOx. Besides, the fundamental explanation to this behavior as well as the experimental verification is presented.DOI:

  15. Understanding Rates of Marijuana Use and Consequences Among Adolescents in a Changing Legal Landscape. (United States)

    D'Amico, Elizabeth J; Tucker, Joan S; Pedersen, Eric R; Shih, Regina A


    There is not one answer to address whether marijuana use has increased, decreased, or stayed the same given changes in state legalization of medical and non-medical marijuana in the USA. Evidence suggests some health benefits for medical marijuana; however, initiation of marijuana use is a risk factor for developing problem cannabis use. Though use rates have remained stable over recent years, about one in three 10th graders report marijuana use, most adolescents do not view the drug as harmful, and over 650,000 youth aged 12 to 17 struggle with cannabis use disorder. Although the health benefits of medical marijuana are becoming better understood, more research is needed. Intervention and prevention programs must better address effects of marijuana, acknowledging that while there may be some benefits medically, marijuana use can affect functioning during adolescence when the brain is still developing.

  16. Toward better understanding of postharvest deterioration: biochemical changes in stored cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) roots. (United States)

    Uarrota, Virgílio Gavicho; Nunes, Eduardo da Costa; Peruch, Luiz Augusto Martins; Neubert, Enilto de Oliveira; Coelho, Bianca; Moresco, Rodolfo; Domínguez, Moralba Garcia; Sánchez, Teresa; Meléndez, Jorge Luis Luna; Dufour, Dominique; Ceballos, Hernan; Becerra Lopez-Lavalle, Luis Augusto; Hershey, Clair; Rocha, Miguel; Maraschin, Marcelo


    Food losses can occur during production, postharvest, and processing stages in the supply chain. With the onset of worldwide food shortages, interest in reducing postharvest losses in cassava has been increasing. In this research, the main goal was to evaluate biochemical changes and identify the metabolites involved in the deterioration of cassava roots. We found that high levels of ascorbic acid (AsA), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), dry matter, and proteins are correlated with overall lower rates of deterioration. On the other hand, soluble sugars such as glucose and fructose, as well as organic acids, mainly, succinic acid, seem to be upregulated during storage and may play a role in the deterioration of cassava roots. Cultivar Branco (BRA) was most resilient to postharvest physiological deterioration (PPD), while Oriental (ORI) was the most susceptible. Our findings suggest that PPO, AsA, and proteins may play a distinct role in PPD delay.

  17. Applied behavior analysis: understanding and changing behavior in the community-a representative review. (United States)

    Luyben, Paul D


    Applied behavior analysis, a psychological discipline, has been characterized as the science of behavior change (Chance, 2006). Research in applied behavior analysis has been published for approximately 40 years since the initial publication of the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis in 1968. The field now encompasses a wide range of human behavior. Although much of the published research centers on problem behaviors that occur in schools and among people with disabilities, a substantial body of knowledge has emerged in community settings. This article provides a review of the behavioral community research published in the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis as representative of this work, including research in the areas of home and family, health, safety, community involvement and the environment, recreation and sports, crime and delinquency, and organizations. In the interest of space, research in schools and with people with disabilities has been excluded from this review.

  18. Fire in the mind: changing understandings of fire in Western civilization. (United States)

    Pyne, Stephen J


    For most of human history, fire has been a pervasive presence in human life, and so also in human thought. This essay examines the ways in which fire has functioned intellectually in Western civilization as mythology, as religion, as natural philosophy and as modern science. The great phase change occurred with the development of industrial combustion; fire faded from quotidian life, which also removed it from the world of informing ideas. Beginning with the discovery of oxygen, fire as an organizing concept fragmented into various subdisciplines of natural science and forestry. The Anthropocene, however, may revive the intellectual role of fire as an informing idea or at least a narrative conceit.This article is part of the themed issue 'The interaction of fire and mankind'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  19. The USA National Phenology Network: A national science and monitoring program for understanding climate change (United States)

    Weltzin, J.


    Patterns of phenology for plants and animals control ecosystem processes, determine land surface properties, control biosphere-atmosphere interactions, and affect food production, health, conservation, and recreation. Although phenological data and models have applications related to scientific research, education and outreach, agriculture, tourism and recreation, human health, and natural resource conservation and management, until recently there was no coordinated effort to understand phenology at the national scale in the United States. The USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN;, established in 2007, is an emerging and exciting partnership between federal agencies, the academic community, and the general public to establish a national science and monitoring initiative focused on phenology. The first year of operation of USA-NPN produced many new phenology products and venues for phenology research and citizen involvement. Products include a new web-site ( that went live in June 2008; the web-site includes a tool for on-line data entry, and serves as a clearinghouse for products and information to facilitate research and communication related to phenology. The new core Plant Phenology Program includes profiles for 200 vetted local, regional, and national plant species with descriptions and (BBCH-consistent) monitoring protocols, as well as templates for addition of new species. A partnership program describes how other monitoring networks can engage with USA-NPN to collect, manage or disseminate phenological information for science, health, education, management or predictive service applications. Project BudBurst, a USA-NPN field campaign for citizen scientists, went live in February 2008, and now includes over 3000 registered observers monitoring 4000 plants across the nation. For 2009 and beyond, we will initiate a new Wildlife Phenology Program, create an on-line clearing-house for phenology education and outreach, strengthen

  20. SANParks, people and adaptive management: Understanding a diverse field of practice during changing times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise K. Swemmer


    Full Text Available Biodiversity conservation is often measurable and achievable and has been reasonably successful within the boundaries of national parks. However, the concept of parks providing tangible benefits and hence being seen as ‘valuable’ to the majority of the nation has been more difficult to define, measure and, importantly, deliver on. This function has traditionally fallen under what is currently known as the People and Conservation Department, which has a rich history in South African National Parks (SANParks of change and adaptive learning in terms of defining core functions and associated management strategies, spanning from its original inception as the Information Services Department over 80 years ago. Learning from and in some cases, adapting to change, is evident throughout this broad scale national evolution of the department, from an initial focus on information sharing and education in the 1930s, to what we see today. This includes the primary focus areas of cultural resource management and indigenous knowledge, community relations, environmental education, awareness, youth outreach, interpretation and training. At a more local, park scale, there is a current drive to formalise the adaptive management and learning process for the people component of protected areas through the alignment of relevant project, programme and park objectives with those at a corporate or national level. Associated with this is an attempt to further align the associated monitoring, evaluation and reporting processes, thereby completing the formal adaptive management loops in order to facilitate and stimulate co-learning within and between relevant responsible departments within the organisation.Conservation implications: Benefit sharing through biodiversity conservation has been shown to be crucial for the long-term success of protected areas, but the practicalities of implementing this are thwart with challenges. Despite this, SANParks is attempting to

  1. Understanding global climate change: paleoclimate perspective from the world's highest mountains. (United States)

    Thompson, Lonnie G


    Glaciers are among the world's best recorders of, and first responders to, natural and anthropogenic climate change and provide a time perspective for current climatic and environmental variations. Over the last 50 years such records have been recovered from the polar regions as well as low-latitude, high-elevation ice fields. Analyses of these ice cores and of the glaciers from which they have been drilled have yielded three lines of evidence for past and present abrupt climate change: (1) the temperature and precipitation histories recorded in the glaciers as revealed by the climate records extracted from the ice cores; (2) the accelerating loss of the glaciers themselves; and (3) the uncovering of ancient fauna and flora from the margins of the glaciers as a result of their recent melting, thus illustrating the significance of the current ice loss. The current melting of high-altitude, low-latitude ice fields is consistent with model predictions for a vertical amplification of temperature in the tropics. The ongoing rapid retreat of the world's mountain glaciers, as well as the margins of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets, is not only contributing to global sea level rise, but also threatening fresh-water supplies in many of the most populous regions. More recently, strong evidence has appeared for the acceleration of the rate of ice loss in the tropics, which especially presents a clear and present danger to water supplies for at-risk populations in South America and Asia. The human response to this issue, however, is not so clear, for although the evidence from both data and models becomes more compelling, the rate of global CO2 emissions continues to accelerate. Climatologically, we are in unfamiliar territory, and the world's ice cover is responding dramatically. The loss of glaciers, which can be viewed as the world's water towers, threatens water resources that are essential for hydroelectric power, crop irrigation, municipal water supplies, and even

  2. Understanding of changes in river flow using recently collected field and observational data from Russian Arctic (United States)

    Shiklomanov, A. I.; Tokarev, I. V.; Davydov, S. P.; Davydova, A.; Streletskiy, D. A.


    There is substantial evidence supporting increasing river runoff in the Eurasian pan-Arctic, but the causes of these changes are not well understood. To determine the contributions of various water sources to river runoff generation in small streams and large rivers located in the continuous permafrost zone, an extensive field campaign was carried out near the town of Cherskii, Russia. Measurements of hydrometeorological characteristics, as well as stable isotope composition and hydrochemistry of precipitation, river flow and ground ice, were obtained during the 2013-2016 period. When combined with older data (2005-2009), the isotopic composition of atmospheric precipitation showed a general trend towards heavier winter precipitation, attributed mainly to observed increases in winter air temperature. Samples of water and ground ice from several boreholes showed that isotopic compositions of water from the active layer, transient layer and permafrost are significantly different. Thus, stable isotopes can be used to assess contributions of different soil layers to stream flow generation. Increases in streamflow of small test watersheds were observed during dry periods in August-September. These increases were associated with considerable stable isotope depletion in streamflow samples, which is likely caused by thawing of the transient- and possibly upper permafrost layers. The absence of correlation between water and air temperature during these periods (R2 = 0.22 in August-September and R2 = 0.8 in June-July) also suggests an increasing contribution of thawing ground ice to the streamflow. To quantitatively assess the contribution of various water sources to the river runoff of Kolyma River, we used stable isotope data along with a physically based hydrological model developed at the University of New Hampshire. Preliminary results suggest that thawing permafrost increased August-September discharge in Kolyma near Cherskii by 8% in 2013, 11% in 2014 and 4% in 2015

  3. Polar Microalgae: New Approaches towards Understanding Adaptations to an Extreme and Changing Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara R. Lyon


    Full Text Available Polar Regions are unique and highly prolific ecosystems characterized by extreme environmental gradients. Photosynthetic autotrophs, the base of the food web, have had to adapt physiological mechanisms to maintain growth, reproduction and metabolic activity despite environmental conditions that would shut-down cellular processes in most organisms. High latitudes are characterized by temperatures below the freezing point, complete darkness in winter and continuous light and high UV in the summer. Additionally, sea-ice, an ecological niche exploited by microbes during the long winter seasons when the ocean and land freezes over, is characterized by large salinity fluctuations, limited gas exchange, and highly oxic conditions. The last decade has been an exciting period of insights into the molecular mechanisms behind adaptation of microalgae to the cryosphere facilitated by the advancement of new scientific tools, particularly “omics” techniques. We review recent insights derived from genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics studies. Genes, proteins and pathways identified from these highly adaptable polar microbes have far-reaching biotechnological applications. Furthermore, they may provide insights into life outside this planet, as well as glimpses into the past. High latitude regions also have disproportionately large inputs into global biogeochemical cycles and are the region most sensitive to climate change.

  4. Understanding of electrochemical and structural changes of polypyrrole/polyethylene glycol composite films in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirvu, Cristian; Manole, Claudiu Constantin; Stoian, Andrei Bogdan; Demetrescu, Ioana


    Highlights: → Electrochemical monitoring of PPy and PPy-PEG films over immersion time. → Electrochemical and surface analysis showed that PEG improves the stability of PPy films. → Mott-Schottky analysis reveals p-type conductance for both films. → In situ AFM analysis sustains electrochemical behaviour. → A model of PPy and PPy-PEG films behaviour during immersion was elaborated. - Abstract: Electrochemical monitoring of electrical and structural changes of both PPy and PPy-PEG films electrochemical deposited, in order to highlight if the structural stability offered by PEG has an influence on electrical properties and stability in aqueous solution over immersion time was investigated. Electrochemical analysis suggests that PPy-PEG film inserts cations easier than PPy film for a short immersion time probably due to ability of PEG to form complexes with metal cations. The FTIR spectra showed that the PEG incorporation decreases the rate of PPy overoxidation probably by restraining the electron release and by rendering O 2 inaccessible to PPy. Mott-Schottky analysis based on capacitance measurement reveal p-type conductance for both films. The in situ AFM analysis sustains electrochemical behaviour and has permitted elaboration of a model of PPy and PPy-PEG films behaviour during immersion in testing solution.

  5. Understanding the new US climate change strategy - The Waxman-Markey bill at a glance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchal, V.; Galharret, S.


    The climate change agenda is one of the two top priorities of Obama's administration, along with the reform of the health system. On June 26, 2009, the House of Representatives passed, by a margin of 219 to 212, the American Clean Energy and Security Act of 2009 (ACES), authored by Henry Waxman (from California) and Edward Markey (from Massachusetts). The bill is a comprehensive energy legislation that presents a cap and trade scheme regulating US Green House Gas (GHG) emissions, and a set of federal measures that aims at transforming the US traditional fossil fuel-based economy into a cleaner economy, based on renewable energy and low carbon alternatives. If passed by the Senate, the bill would intent to reduce US GHG emissions by 17% in 2020 and 80% in 2050 under 2005 levels, along with a 2 degrees / 450 ppm GHG concentration global objective. This brief provides an overview of the 1,428-page bill mechanisms and its implications at the national and international levels. It highlights the key uncertainties surrounding its institutional adoption and operational implementation. It also emphasizes its main differences with the European approach on cap and trade, the EU Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS), as well as examines its international implications on carbon markets and negotiations. (authors)

  6. A wireless partially glaciated watershed in a virtual globe: Integrating data, models, and visualization to increase climate change understanding (United States)

    Jones, J.; Hood, E.; Fatland, D. R.; Berner, L.; Heavner, M.; Connor, C.; O'Brien, W.


    SEAMONSTER, a NASA funded sensor web project, is the SouthEast Alaska MOnitoring Network for Science, Telecommunications, Education and Research. SEAMONSTER is operating in the partially glaciated Mendenhall and Lemon Creek Watersheds, in the Juneau area, on the margins of the Juneau Icefield. These watersheds are studied for both 1. long term monitoring of changes, and 2. detection and analysis of transient events (such as glacier lake outburst floods). The diverse sensors (meteorological, dual frequency GPS, water quality, lake level, etc), power and bandwidth constraints, and competing time scales of interest require autonomous reactivity of the sensor web. The sensors are deployed throughout two partially glaciated watersheds and facilitated data acquisition in temperate rain forest, alpine, lacustrine, and glacial environments. Understanding these environments is important for public understanding of climate change. These environments are geographically isolated, limiting public access to, and understanding of, such locales. In an effort to inform the general public and primary educators about the basic processes occurring in these unique natural systems, we have developed an interactive website. This web portal supplements and enhances environmental science primary education by providing educators and students with interactive access to basic information from the glaciological, hydrological, and meteorological systems we are studying. In addition, we have developed an interactive virtual tour of the Lemon Glacier and its watershed. The focus of this presentation is using the data gathered by the SEAMONSTER sensor web, coupled with a temperature-indexed glacial melt model, to educate students and the public on topics ranging from modeling responses due to environmental changes to glacial hydrology. The interactive SEAMONSTER web site is the primary source for visualizing the data, while Google Earth can be used to visualize the isolated Lemon Creek watershed

  7. Understanding persuasion contexts in health gamification: A systematic analysis of gamified health behavior change support systems literature. (United States)

    Alahäivälä, Tuomas; Oinas-Kukkonen, Harri


    Gamification is increasingly used as a design strategy when developing behavior change support systems in the healthcare domain. It is commonly agreed that understanding the contextual factors is critical for successful gamification, but systematic analyses of the persuasive contexts have been lacking so far within gamified health intervention studies. Through a persuasion context analysis of the gamified health behavior change support systems (hBCSSs) literature, we inspect how the contextual factors have been addressed in the prior gamified health BCSS studies. The implications of this study are to provide the practitioners and researchers examples of how to conduct a systematic analysis to help guide the design and research on gamified health BCSSs. The ideas derived from the analysis of the included studies will help identify potential pitfalls and shortcomings in both the research and implementations of gamified health behavior change support systems. We systematically analyzed the persuasion contexts of 15 gamified health intervention studies. According to our results, gamified hBCSSs are implemented under different facets of lifestyle change and treatments compliance, and use a multitude of technologies and methods. We present a set of ideas and concepts to help improve endeavors in studying gamified health intervention through comprehensive understanding of the persuasive contextual factors. Future research on gamified hBCSSs should systematically compare the different combinations of contextual factors, related theories, chosen gamification strategies, and the study of outcomes to help understand how to achieve the most efficient use of gamification on the different aspects of healthcare. Analyzing the persuasion context is essential to achieve this. With the attained knowledge, those planning health interventions can choose the 'tried-and-tested' approaches for each particular situation, rather than develop solutions in an ad-hoc manner. Copyright © 2016


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rice, Jennie S.; Runci, Paul J.; Moss, Richard H.; Anderson, Kate L.


    The impacts of climate change are already affecting human and environmental systems worldwide, yet many uncertainties persist in the prediction of future climate changes and impacts due to limitations in scientific understanding of relevant causal factors. In particular, there is mounting urgency to efforts to improve models of human and environmental systems at the regional scale, and to integrate climate, ecosystem and energy-economic models to support policy, investment, and risk management decisions related to climate change mitigation (i.e., reducing greenhouse gas emissions) and adaptation (i.e., responding to climate change impacts). The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is developing a modeling framework, the integrated Regional Earth System Model (iRESM), to address regional human-environmental system interactions in response to climate change and the uncertainties therein. The framework will consist of a suite of integrated models representing regional climate change, regional climate policy, and the regional economy, with a focus on simulating the mitigation and adaptation decisions made over time in the energy, transportation, agriculture, and natural resource management sectors.

  9. The Notion of Revolutionary War in Fernando Landazábal Reyes and its Repercussions in Colombian Armed Conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Velásquez Rivera


    Full Text Available One of the characteristics of the armed Colombian conflict is the murder of civilians by the members of organisms of national security, who accuse those they kill of participating in a subversive strategy led by the Colombian Communist Party, which in turn supposedly originates in the revolutionary war, antithesis of the classic war. In Colombia, the phenomenon of revolutionary war has been approached in depth by the officer Fernando Landazábal Reyes. This article tries to show the principal features of the revolutionary war, from the perspective of the mentioned military man and the way since it could have reverberated in the armed colombian conflict.

  10. Understanding industrial energy use: Physical energy intensity changes in Indian manufacturing sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudhakara Reddy, B., E-mail: [Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research, Goregaon (E), Mumbai 400 065 (India); Kumar Ray, Binay [Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research, Goregaon (E), Mumbai 400 065 (India)


    This study develops and examines physical energy intensity indicators in five industrial sub-sectors-iron and steel, aluminum, textiles, paper, and cement-and investigates mitigation options for energy related CO{sub 2} emissions (during 1991-2005). Decomposition analysis has been employed to separate the structural effect (share of different products in the sector) from pure intensity effect (efficiency increase through technical improvement) for each industry. The results show that the combined effect (considering both structural and intensity effects together) on both iron and steel and paper and pulp industries is negative while it is positive for aluminum and textiles. The intensity effect for all the industries, barring textiles, is negative showing improvement in energy efficiency; iron and steel in particular, has seen a decrease of 134 PJ in energy consumption owing to improvements in efficiency. However, energy intensity in textiles has risen by 47 PJ due to increased mechanization. Structural effect is positive in aluminum and iron and steel industries indicating a movement towards higher energy-intensive products. In the case of aluminum, positive structural effect dominates over negative intensive effect whereas negative intensive effect dominates iron and steel industry. The paper helps in designing policies for improving productivity and reduce energy consumption in India's manufacturing sector. - Highlights: > The study develops physical energy intensity indicators in industrial sub-sectors of India. > It identifies technological and other options for reduction in energy consumption. > The study quantifies savings in energy as well as CO{sub 2} emissions. > The indicators are useful in examining structural changes.

  11. Sensor Webs and Virtual Globes: Enabling Understanding of Changes in a partially Glaciated Watershed (United States)

    Heavner, M.; Fatland, D. R.; Habermann, M.; Berner, L.; Hood, E.; Connor, C.; Galbraith, J.; Knuth, E.; O'Brien, W.


    The University of Alaska Southeast is currently implementing a sensor web identified as the SouthEast Alaska MOnitoring Network for Science, Telecommunications, Education, and Research (SEAMONSTER). SEAMONSTER is operating in the partially glaciated Mendenhall and Lemon Creek Watersheds, in the Juneau area, on the margins of the Juneau Icefield. These watersheds are studied for both 1. long term monitoring of changes, and 2. detection and analysis of transient events (such as glacier lake outburst floods). The heterogeneous sensors (meteorologic, dual frequency GPS, water quality, lake level, etc), power and bandwidth constraints, and competing time scales of interest require autonomous reactivity of the sensor web. They also present challenges for operational management of the sensor web. The harsh conditions on the glaciers provide additional operating constraints. The tight integration of the sensor web and virtual global enabling technology enhance the project in multiple ways. We are utilizing virtual globe infrastructures to enhance both sensor web management and data access. SEAMONSTER utilizes virtual globes for education and public outreach, sensor web management, data dissemination, and enabling collaboration. Using a PosgreSQL with GIS extensions database coupled to the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Geoserver, we generate near-real-time auto-updating geobrowser files of the data in multiple OGC standard formats (e.g KML, WCS). Additionally, embedding wiki pages in this database allows the development of a geospatially aware wiki describing the projects for better public outreach and education. In this presentation we will describe how we have implemented these technologies to date, the lessons learned, and our efforts towards greater OGC standard implementation. A major focus will be on demonstrating how geobrowsers and virtual globes have made this project possible.

  12. Alcohol, liver disease, and transplantation: shifting attitudes and new understanding leads to changes in practice. (United States)

    Mathurin, Philippe; Lucey, Michael R


    Review the current status of liver transplantation for patients with alcohol use disorder (AUD). Alcohol-related liver disease (ALD) will increase as a source of patients requiring liver transplantation. Attitudes to use of liver transplantation as rescue therapy for patients with severe alcohol-related hepatitis are changing. The long-term health of ALD liver transplantation recipients requires continued assistance to patients with AUD. Liver transplantation of patients with ALD increased during the last decade and we predict that this trend will continue because of the decline in the number of hepatitis C virus-infected candidates. Concomitantly, a shift in the selection for liver transplantation has occurred of patients with severe alcohol-related hepatitis not responding to medical therapy. Although rescue liver transplantation is a valuable option for patients with severe alcohol-related hepatitis, worldwide practice regarding rescue liver transplantation remains very heterogeneous. There is increasing recognition that excessive consumption of alcohol after liver transplantation is harmful to graft function and patient survival. Factors associated with relapse are younger age at liver transplantation and shorter duration of sobriety prior to liver transplantation. The long-term health of the ALD liver transplant recipient requires continued assistance regarding AUD, a lifelong disorder of craving, relapse, and remission. However, there have been very few studies evaluating best practices for long-term addiction care in transplant recipients. After liver transplantation, the prevalence of cardiovascular disease, infections, and cancer increases over time. Addiction to tobacco constitutes an important issue that must be considered as tobacco cessation may decrease the incidence of tobacco-related cardiovascular and lung disease and aerodigestive cancers.

  13. 'New to me': changing patient understanding of psoriasis and identifying mechanisms of change. The Pso Well®patient materials mixed-methods feasibility study. (United States)

    Nelson, P A; Kane, K; Pearce, C J; Bundy, C; Chisholm, A; Hilton, R; Thorneloe, R; Young, H; Griffiths, C E M; Cordingley, L


    Psoriasis is an inflammatory long-term condition involving comorbidities, unhealthy lifestyle and significant life impact. Patients' understanding of psoriasis is limited and support lacking. The Common-Sense Model of Self-Regulation of Health and Illness emphasizes the role of illness and treatment beliefs on coping and self-management. New 'Pso Well ® ' patient materials informed by the model, addressed psoriasis as a long-term condition, medication management and lifestyle behaviours. To investigate whether Pso Well ® materials (i) broaden understanding of psoriasis without increasing anxiety; (ii) are acceptable; and (iii) comprise features that appear to effect change. The Revised Illness Perceptions Questionnaire (IPQ-R modified) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) were administered in patients before and after intervention. Numerical rating scales assessed perceptions of change in understanding and anxiety resulting from engagement with the materials. Qualitative interviews explored acceptability and perceived 'active ingredients'. Fifty-five patients completed pre- and postintervention questionnaires (56% female; median age 59 years). Postintervention, a large effect size was indicated in two IPQ-R domains - illness coherence [t(55) = -3·48, P = 0·001 (two-tailed), η 2  = 0·19] and personal control [t(55) = -2·98, P = 0·004 (two-tailed), η 2  = 0·14] - and a medium effect in one, treatment control [t(55) = -2·08, P = 0·042 (two-tailed), η 2  = 0·08]. HADS scores did not change. For numerical rating scales, 80% of participants reported increased understanding of psoriasis and none reported increased anxiety. Interviews with 19 patients indicated the materials were acceptable and usable. Factors reported to broaden understanding and promote engagement with self-management included linking of related disease aspects, personally relevant content and high-quality design. High-quality, theory-based psoriasis

  14. Understanding Controversies in Urban Climate Change Adaptation. A case study of the role of homeowners in the process of climate change adaptation in Copenhagen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Baron


    Full Text Available This article explores the controversies that exist in urban climate change adaptation and how these controversies influence the role of homeowners in urban adaptation planning. A concrete ‘Sustainable Urban Drainages System’ (SUDS project in a housing cooperative in Copenhagen has been used as a case study, thereby investigating multiple understandings of urban climate change adaptation. Several different perspectives are identified with regard to what are and what will become the main climate problems in the urban environment as well as what are considered to be the best responses to these problems. Building on the actor-network inspired theory of ‘urban green assemblages’ we argue that at least three different assemblages can be identified in urban climate change adaptation. Each assemblage constitutes and connects problems and responses differently and thereby involve homeowners in different ways. As climate change is a problem of unknown character and outcome in the future, we argue that it can be problematic if one way of constituting urban climate change adaptation becomes dominant, in which case some climate problems and adaptation options may become less influential, even though the enrolment of these could contribute to a more resilient city. Furthermore, the case study from Copenhagen also shows that the influence and involvement of homeowners might be reduced if the conception of future climate problems becomes too restricted. The result would be that the potential benefits of involving urban citizens in defining and responding to problems related to climate change would be lost.

  15. Understanding the Mechanisms behind Changing People’s Recycling Behavior at Work by Applying a Comprehensive Action Determination Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunita Prugsamatz Ofstad


    Full Text Available This study moves toward a better understanding of the mechanisms behind changing people’s recycling behavior at work by mapping out which pathways and variables change in recycling behavior as triggered by interventions. A questionnaire was designed based on the theory of planned behaviour, the norm-activation model, habits, and a comprehensive action determination model (CADM. The data was collected in two rounds: before the intervention and after a three-month pilot period with implemented interventions using a sample of n = 1269 students and employees. The CADM model appears to be a good fit with the data. The results from the structural equation modelling indicate the pathways to influencing behavioural change. The most important psychological variables accounting for waste separation behaviour are intentions, perceived behavioural control, personal norms, social norms and habits. No difference in waste separation behaviour was observed in the control building. Interventions targeting the increase in waste separation raised participants’ intentions to engage in such behaviour. Results indicate that waste separation at work must go beyond technical aspects to include various key elements of sustainability to ensure success. Furthermore, understanding human behavior is key in determining the performance and success of an integrated and effective recycling intervention strategy.

  16. Recent progress in the understanding of tissue culture-induced genome level changes in plants and potential applications. (United States)

    Neelakandan, Anjanasree K; Wang, Kan


    In vitro cell and tissue-based systems have tremendous potential in fundamental research and for commercial applications such as clonal propagation, genetic engineering and production of valuable metabolites. Since the invention of plant cell and tissue culture techniques more than half a century ago, scientists have been trying to understand the morphological, physiological, biochemical and molecular changes associated with tissue culture responses. Establishment of de novo developmental cell fate in vitro is governed by factors such as genetic make-up, stress and plant growth regulators. In vitro culture is believed to destabilize the genetic and epigenetic program of intact plant tissue and can lead to chromosomal and DNA sequence variations, methylation changes, transposon activation, and generation of somaclonal variants. In this review, we discuss the current status of understanding the genomic and epigenomic changes that take place under in vitro conditions. It is hoped that a precise and comprehensive knowledge of the molecular basis of these variations and acquisition of developmental cell fate would help to devise strategies to improve the totipotency and embryogenic capability in recalcitrant species and genotypes, and to address bottlenecks associated with clonal propagation. © Springer-Verlag 2011

  17. Predicting plant diversity patterns in Madagascar: understanding the effects of climate and land cover change in a biodiversity hotspot.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry A Brown

    Full Text Available Climate and land cover change are driving a major reorganization of terrestrial biotic communities in tropical ecosystems. In an effort to understand how biodiversity patterns in the tropics will respond to individual and combined effects of these two drivers of environmental change, we use species distribution models (SDMs calibrated for recent climate and land cover variables and projected to future scenarios to predict changes in diversity patterns in Madagascar. We collected occurrence records for 828 plant genera and 2186 plant species. We developed three scenarios, (i.e., climate only, land cover only and combined climate-land cover based on recent and future climate and land cover variables. We used this modelling framework to investigate how the impacts of changes to climate and land cover influenced biodiversity across ecoregions and elevation bands. There were large-scale climate- and land cover-driven changes in plant biodiversity across Madagascar, including both losses and gains in diversity. The sharpest declines in biodiversity were projected for the eastern escarpment and high elevation ecosystems. Sharp declines in diversity were driven by the combined climate-land cover scenarios; however, there were subtle, region-specific differences in model outputs for each scenario, where certain regions experienced relatively higher species loss under climate or land cover only models. We strongly caution that predicted future gains in plant diversity will depend on the development and maintenance of dispersal pathways that connect current and future suitable habitats. The forecast for Madagascar's plant diversity in the face of future environmental change is worrying: regional diversity will continue to decrease in response to the combined effects of climate and land cover change, with habitats such as ericoid thickets and eastern lowland and sub-humid forests particularly vulnerable into the future.

  18. Predicting plant diversity patterns in Madagascar: understanding the effects of climate and land cover change in a biodiversity hotspot. (United States)

    Brown, Kerry A; Parks, Katherine E; Bethell, Colin A; Johnson, Steig E; Mulligan, Mark


    Climate and land cover change are driving a major reorganization of terrestrial biotic communities in tropical ecosystems. In an effort to understand how biodiversity patterns in the tropics will respond to individual and combined effects of these two drivers of environmental change, we use species distribution models (SDMs) calibrated for recent climate and land cover variables and projected to future scenarios to predict changes in diversity patterns in Madagascar. We collected occurrence records for 828 plant genera and 2186 plant species. We developed three scenarios, (i.e., climate only, land cover only and combined climate-land cover) based on recent and future climate and land cover variables. We used this modelling framework to investigate how the impacts of changes to climate and land cover influenced biodiversity across ecoregions and elevation bands. There were large-scale climate- and land cover-driven changes in plant biodiversity across Madagascar, including both losses and gains in diversity. The sharpest declines in biodiversity were projected for the eastern escarpment and high elevation ecosystems. Sharp declines in diversity were driven by the combined climate-land cover scenarios; however, there were subtle, region-specific differences in model outputs for each scenario, where certain regions experienced relatively higher species loss under climate or land cover only models. We strongly caution that predicted future gains in plant diversity will depend on the development and maintenance of dispersal pathways that connect current and future suitable habitats. The forecast for Madagascar's plant diversity in the face of future environmental change is worrying: regional diversity will continue to decrease in response to the combined effects of climate and land cover change, with habitats such as ericoid thickets and eastern lowland and sub-humid forests particularly vulnerable into the future.

  19. A Collaborative Proposal: Simulating and Understanding Abrupt Climate-Ecosystem Changes During Holocene with NCAR-CCSM3.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhengyu Liu, Bette Otto-Bliesner


    We have made significant progress in our proposed work in the last 4 years (3 years plus 1 year of no cost extension). In anticipation of the next phase of study, we have spent time on the abrupt changes since the last glacial maximum. First, we have performed further model-data comparison based on our baseline TRACE-21 simulation and made important progress towards the understanding of several major climate transitions. Second, we have made a significant effort in processing the model output of TRACE-21 and have put this output on a website for access by the community. Third, we have completed many additional sensitivity experiments. In addition, we have organized synthesis workshops to facilitate and promote transient model-data comparison for the international community. Finally, we have identified new areas of interest for Holocene climate changes.

  20. Adrian Marino and the intellectual travel journal as an expression of revolutionary freedom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica FRENŢIU


    Full Text Available Seen as a logical continuation of the author’s preoccupations for comparative literature, the travel journal becomes a journal of ideas in Adrian Marino’s case, by trying not only to explain the formation of a certain type of personality, but also to transcribe/redact a chronicle of social and political history. Adrian Marino’s journal of ideas firstly emphasizes an „individual” reality, but also bears deeper „universal” signification, as it militates for humanism and liberal democracy, for actual convergence of world cultures. The present study (Adrian Marino and the intellectual travel journal as an expression of revolutionary freedom proposes an investigation attempting to prove that Adrian Marino eventually suggests a personal dialogue with the world and especially with Europe, audaciously trying to concur at substantiating a modern Romanian conscience.

  1. For a Critique of Transatlantic Mestiza Territoriality: Challenging the Angolan-Cuban Revolutionary Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena López


    Full Text Available This essay presents the transatlantic confluence of two hegemonic cultural traditions; the ideology of mestizaje and lusotropicalismo in the discourses of the Angolan and Cuban socialist regimes. The shared political utopia during the Angolan Civil War envisioned a South-South community, racially homogeneous. In the last part of the essay I review the works Dulces guerreros cubanos (1999 by Norberto Fuentes, Desconfiemos de los amaneceres apacibles (2011 by Emilio Comas Paret, Geração da Utopía (1992 by Pepetela, and Estação das Chuvas (1996 by José Eduardo Agualusa, in order to demonstrate socio-racial conflicts embedded in the leftist armed struggle. These narratives challenge the homogeneity of official discourses about identity that sustained the transatlantic mestiza territoriality. In doing so, they note a historical continuity of inequality and authoritarianism between colonial and postcolonial, between pre-national and revolutionary nation.

  2. Changing behaviours, pushing social practices towards more sustainability. The contribution of human and social sciences to understand and act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Solange; Gaspard, Albane


    Beyond broad policy declarations, the implementation of ecological transition - which consists mainly in curbing consumption of energy and raw materials in our societies - requires substantial behavioural change at the collective, but also, quite obviously, the individual level. Yet, though there is general consensus around the principle of embarking on the path to transition, things get more complicated when it comes to changing our practices and habits. Can we act on individual behaviour and collective dynamics in respect of this particular aim of ecological transition, and, if so, how are we to go about it? Solange Martin and Albane Gaspard have examined this question for the French Environment and Energy Management Agency (ADEME) and offer us the fruit of their labours here. They show, for example, how the social and human sciences help to understand behaviour both at the individual level and in its collective dimensions, and they outline different possible lines of action to modify it. But, given the entanglement between various levels, it is essential, if we are to act effectively on behaviour, to combine approaches, tools and actors, and to analyse and understand social practices thoroughly before implementing political projects or measures

  3. Understanding Social Media’s Take on Climate Change through Large-Scale Analysis of Targeted Opinions and Emotions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pathak, Neetu; Henry, Michael J.; Volkova, Svitlana


    Social media is a powerful data source for researchers interested in understanding population-level behavior, having been successfully leveraged in a number of different application areas including flu and illness prediction models, detecting civil unrest, and measuring public sentiment towards a given topic of interest within the public discourse. In this work, we present a study of a large collection of Twitter data centered on the social conversation around global cli- mate change during the UN Climate Change Conference, held in Paris, France during December 2015 (COP21). We first developed a mechanism for distinguishing between personal and non-personal accounts. We then analyzed demographics and emotion and opinion dynamics over time and location in order to understand how the different user types converse around meaningful topics on social media. This methodology offers an in-depth insight into the behavior and opinions around a topic where multiple distinct narratives are present, and lays the groundwork for future work in studying narratives in social media.

  4. Interspecies gene transfer as a method for understanding the genetic basis for evolutionary change: Progress, Pitfalls and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lachezar A. Nikolov


    Full Text Available The recent revolution in high throughput sequencing and associated applications provides excellent opportunities to catalogue variation in DNA sequences and gene expression between species. However, understanding the astonishing diversity of the Tree of Life requires understanding the phenotypic consequences of such variation and identification of those rare genetic changes that are causal to diversity. One way to study the genetic basis for trait diversity is to apply a transgenic approach and introduce genes of interest from a donor into a recipient species. Such interspecies gene transfer (IGT is based on the premise that if a gene is causal to the morphological divergence of the two species, the transfer will endow the recipient with properties of the donor. Extensions of this approach further allow identifying novel loci for the diversification of form and investigating cis- and trans-contributions to morphological evolution. Here we review recent examples from both plant and animal systems that have employed IGT to provide insight into the genetic basis of evolutionary change. We outline the practice of IGT, its methodological strengths and weaknesses, and consider guidelines for its application, emphasizing the importance of phylogenetic distance, character polarity, and life history. We also discuss future perspectives for exploiting IGT in the context of expanding genomic resources in emerging experimental systems and advances in genome editing.

  5. Polar Bears or People?: How Framing Can Provide a Useful Analytic Tool to Understand & Improve Climate Change Communication in Classrooms (United States)

    Busch, K. C.


    Not only will young adults bear the brunt of climate change's effects, they are also the ones who will be required to take action - to mitigate and to adapt. The Next Generation Science Standards include climate change, ensuring the topic will be covered in U.S. science classrooms in the near future. Additionally, school is a primary source of information about climate change for young adults. The larger question, though, is how can the teaching of climate change be done in such a way as to ascribe agency - a willingness to act - to students? Framing - as both a theory and an analytic method - has been used to understand how language in the media can affect the audience's intention to act. Frames function as a two-way filter, affecting both the message sent and the message received. This study adapted both the theory and the analytic methods of framing, applying them to teachers in the classroom to answer the research question: How do teachers frame climate change in the classroom? To answer this question, twenty-five lessons from seven teachers were analyzed using semiotic discourse analysis methods. It was found that the teachers' frames overlapped to form two distinct discourses: a Science Discourse and a Social Discourse. The Science Discourse, which was dominant, can be summarized as: Climate change is a current scientific problem that will have profound global effects on the Earth's physical systems. The Social Discourse, used much less often, can be summarized as: Climate change is a future social issue because it will have negative impacts at the local level on people. While it may not be surprising that the Science Discourse was most often heard in these science classrooms, it is possibly problematic if it were the only discourse used. The research literature on framing indicates that the frames found in the Science Discourse - global scale, scientific statistics and facts, and impact on the Earth's systems - are not likely to inspire action-taking. This

  6. Turar Ryskulov: the Career of a Kazakh Revolutionary Leader during the Construction of the New Soviet State, 1917-1926

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Hallez


    Full Text Available Turar Ryskulov: the Career of a Kazakh Revolutionary Leader during the Construction of the New Soviet State, 1917-1926 This article is about the biography of a young Kazakh born in the last decade of the 19th century, Turar Ryskulov (1894-1938, who was an essential actor of the revolutionary period in Russian Turkestan. The approach of this brief biography will follow the line of a definition of the national and the nation. The postulate is that the identity is tackled through a political understanding and that it is chosen among multiple pre-existing or invented designations. National identity is a moving construction, favoring one of the possible designations depending on the needs of a group in the struggle for power. Ryskulov began his political activity with the idea of a common Kirghiz interest, then went through the Muslim and Turkic designations. Finally, he had to submit to a soviet Kazakh one. Against the Russian colonial heritage, Ryskulov’s political project was to offer a real place for his Turkestani compatriot in the new soviet regime. He thought it through a unified Turkestan beyond Kazakh, Uzbek, Turkmen or Tajik designations. Turar Ryskulov: kariera kazachskiego przywódcy rewolucyjnego w epoce tworzenia nowego państwa radzieckiego, 1917-1926 Artykuł dotyczy biografii młodego Kazacha urodzonego w ostatniej dekadzie XIX wieku, Turara Ryskulova (1894-1938; Ryskulov był kluczowym aktorem okresu rewolucyjnego w radzieckim Turkiestanie. Jego krótka biografia będzie się koncentrować wokół definicji narodu oraz tożsamości narodowej. W myśl przesłanki wyjściowej tożsamość kształtuje się zgodnie z interpretacją polityczną i jest wynikiem wyboru spośród wielu uprzednich lub wymyślonych kategorii. Tożsamość narodowa to konstrukcja płynna, skłaniająca się do jednej pośród możliwych kategorii w zależności od potrzeb grupy walczącej o władzę. Ryskulov w początkach kariery politycznej głosił ide

  7. Women on the Edge of Time: Representations of revolutionary motherhood in the NEP-era Soviet Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Proctor


    Full Text Available Following the October revolution of 1917 the fledgling Soviet government legalized divorce and abortion, secularized marriage, and decriminalized homosexuality. Utopians dreamed of the withering away of the family and the transformation of women's roles in the home and the workplace. But at least for the time being, only some bodies were capable of bearing children. Women's bodies became contested territory, a site of paradox. On the one hand the image of woman was re-imagined as a de-libidinalized fellow comrade, but this was combined with a continued emphasis on women's biological role as the privileged carriers of the future generation. Rather than circumventing this seeming contradiction, Soviet artworks of the 1920s confronted it, depicting motherhood as an emancipatory and revolutionary act. And this crucially does not only relate to bodies but to emotions. Revolutionary maternal love has a positive, affective dimension that provides an alternative to sexual love. The figure of the revolutionary mother prefigures the still hazily defined qualitative richness of the communist future. This article examines the figure of the revolutionary mother through a discussion of key artworks from the NEP era (1921-1928 concluding by considering how the representation of motherhood shifted in the Stalin era. The article asks what these historical ideas might still teach us today.

  8. Bringing radical behaviorism to revolutionary Brazil and back: Fred Keller's Personalized System of Instruction and Cold War engineering education. (United States)

    Akera, Atsushi


    This article traces the shifting epistemic commitments of Fred S. Keller and his behaviorist colleagues during their application of Skinnerian radical behaviorism to higher education pedagogy. Building on prior work by Alexandra Rutherford and her focus on the successive adaptation of Skinnerian behaviorism during its successive applications, this study utilizes sociologist of science Karin Knorr Cetina's concept of epistemic cultures to more precisely trace the changes in the epistemic commitments of a group of radical behaviorists as they shifted their focus to applied behavioral analysis. The story revolves around a self-paced system of instruction known as the Personalized System of Instruction, or PSI, which utilized behaviorist principles to accelerate learning within the classroom. Unlike Skinner's entry into education, and his focus on educational technologies, Keller developed a mastery-based approach to instruction that utilized generalized reinforcers to cultivate higher-order learning behaviors. As it happens, the story also unfolds across a rather fantastic political terrain: PSI originated in the context of Brazilian revolutionary history, but circulated widely in the U.S. amidst Cold War concerns about an engineering manpower(sic) crisis. This study also presents us with an opportunity to test Knorr Cetina's conjecture about the possible use of a focus on epistemic cultures in addressing a classic problem in the sociology of science, namely unpacking the relationship between knowledge and its social context. Ultimately, however, this study complements another historical case study in applied behavioral analysis, where a difference in outcome helps to lay out the range of possible shifts in the epistemic commitments of radical behaviorists who entered different domains of application. The case study also has some practical implications for those creating distance learning environments today, which are briefly explored in the conclusion. © 2017 Wiley

  9. Seasonal Sea Level Cycle Change: Understanding the Possible Climate Feedbacks Over the Gulf of Mexico and the Gulf Stream Region (United States)

    Ricko, M.; Ray, R. D.; Beckley, B. D.


    Recent change in the seasonal sea level cycle has been observed in satellite radar altimetry record, especially over regions such as the Gulf of Mexico and the Gulf Stream region. Gridded satellite data is in a good agreement with ground tide gauge data that also confirm increased annual amplitude of sea level during most recent years. Data analysis is based on a set of tide gauges, satellite measurements and models. A consistent positive trend in the seasonal sea level cycle during recent years over different regions has been well confirmed (e.g., Wahl et al. 2014, Etcheverry et al. 2015). Over a longer timescale, historical tide gauge data give a neutral or slightly positive trend in the seasonal cycle of sea level along the coast of the Gulf of Mexico. This observed signal of increased seasonal sea level cycle in tide gauges over the coastal areas is extended with satellite observations to open ocean regions. It is most evident during last several years (2007-2015) over most of the Gulf of Mexico, especially over north-eastern and central parts of the Gulf of Mexico, and over the Gulf Stream region, showing mean annual amplitude larger than 15 cm. One part of this increase appears to be due to change in mean sea level pressure. However, main causes of seasonal sea level cycle change on interannual to climate scale have not yet been understood. To determine possible climate feedbacks responsible for observed change in the seasonal sea level cycle, its relationship with parameters such as sea surface temperature, wind curl, circulation, mesoscale eddies, etc., is investigated. Model-based results (e.g., NASA's GMAO model) give similar trend and feedbacks, but with a consistent bias and underestimation of annual amplitude increase. Understanding climate mechanisms responsible for observed seasonal sea level cycle change would offer better prediction of sea level variability on interannual to interdecadal time scales.

  10. Work related Changes And New Understandings Of Prevention: Results Of Multi-Level Participatory Interventions In Four SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ipsen, Christine; Poulsen, Signe; Gish, Liv


    be addressed and how prevention of work-related stress can be understood. In addition to supporting a new understanding of prevention, the use of the model also results in concrete changes which become solutions to the work-place’s current and specific problems. The use of the PoWRS model thus enables an SME......This paper presents the result of four SMEs’ use of a multi-level participatory self-help intervention model (the PoWRS model – Prevention of Work Related Stress). The model itself supports a new view on prevention of work-related stress in the participating companies besides the concrete...... to explicate tacit knowledge about what creates enthusiasms and stress at the work place, Multi-voting which decided two work-related changes to be initiated, a KickOff session to mark the start-up of the actual changes, continuous interviews of colleagues by the in-house facilitators, and ongoing status...

  11. Is There a Role for Endogenous 5-HT in Gastrointestinal Motility? How Recent Studies Have Changed Our Understanding. (United States)

    Spencer, Nick J; Keating, Damien J


    Over the past few years, there have been dramatic changes in our understanding of the role of endogenous 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in the generation of gastrointestinal (GI) motility patterns in the small and large intestine. The idea that endogenous 5-HT played a major role in the generation of peristalsis in the small intestine was first proposed in the mid 1950s, after it was discovered that endogenous 5-HT could be released from the mucosa at a similar time that peristalsis occurred; and that exogenous 5-HT could potently stimulate peristalsis. The fact that exogenous 5-HT stimulated peristalsis and that there was a similarity in timing between the release of 5-HT from the mucosa and the onset of peristalsis led investigators to propose that release of endogenous 5-HT from the mucosa was causally related to the generation of peristalsis. In further support of this, other studies showed that selective 5-HT antagonists could inhibit or block peristalsis, and other motor patterns, such as the migrating motor complex. Taken together, based on these findings, some laboratories believed that endogenous 5-HT (synthesized in the gut wall) was an important mediator, or initiator, of different propulsive motor patterns in the lower GI tract. This notion changed dramatically in the past few years, however, after it was discovered that removal of the mucosa abolished all cyclical release of endogenous 5-HT, but did not block peristalsis, nor the cyclical migrating complex. Furthermore, other laboratories revealed that genetic deletion of the gene tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (TPH-1) (that synthesizes endogenous 5-HT in the mucosa) actually had no inhibitory effect on transit of intestinal contents in live animals. Then, perhaps one of the most startling of all observations was the discovery that selective 5-HT receptor antagonists actually have the same inhibitory effects on peristalsis and the migrating complex in segments of intestine that had been depleted of all

  12. Neural basis of understanding communicative actions: Changes associated with knowing the actor's intention and the meanings of the actions. (United States)

    Möttönen, Riikka; Farmer, Harry; Watkins, Kate E


    People can communicate by using hand actions, e.g., signs. Understanding communicative actions requires that the observer knows that the actor has an intention to communicate and the meanings of the actions. Here, we investigated how this prior knowledge affects processing of observed actions. We used functional MRI to determine changes in action processing when non-signers were told that the observed actions are communicative (i.e., signs) and learned the meanings of half of the actions. Processing of hand actions activated the left and right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG, BA 44 and 45) when the communicative intention of the actor was known, even when the meanings of the actions remained unknown. These regions were not active when the observers did not know about the communicative nature of the hand actions. These findings suggest that the left and right IFG play a role in understanding the intention of the actor, but do not process visuospatial features of the communicative actions. Knowing the meanings of the hand actions further enhanced activity in the anterior part of the IFG (BA 45), the inferior parietal lobule and posterior inferior and middle temporal gyri in the left hemisphere. These left-hemisphere language regions could provide a link between meanings and observed actions. In sum, the findings provide evidence for the segregation of the networks involved in the neural processing of visuospatial features of communicative hand actions and those involved in understanding the actor's intention and the meanings of the actions. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Understanding the interactions between Social Capital, climate change, and community resilience in Gulf of Mexico coastal counties (United States)

    Young, C.; Blomberg, B.; Kolker, A.; Nguyen, U.; Page, C. M.; Sherchan, S. P.; Tobias, V. D.; Wu, H.


    Coastal communities in the Gulf of Mexico are facing new and complex challenges as their physical environment is altered by climate warming and sea level rise. To effectively prepare for environmental changes, coastal communities must build resilience in both physical structures and social structures. One measure of social structure resilience is how much social capital a community possesses. Social capital is defined as the connections among individuals which result in networks with shared norms, values and understandings that facilitate cooperation within or among groups. Social capital exists in three levels; bonding, bridging and linking. Bonding social capital is a measure of the strength of relationships amongst members of a network who are similar in some form. Bridging social capital is a measure of relationships amongst people who are dissimilar in some way, such as age, education, or race/ethnicity. Finally Linking social capital measures the extent to which individuals build relationships with institutions and individuals who have relative power over them (e.g local government, educational institutions). Using census and American Community Survey data, we calculated a Social Capital index value for bonding, bridging and linking for 60 Gulf of Mexico coastal counties for the years 2000, and 2010 to 2015. To investigate the impact of social capital on community resilience we coupled social capital index values with physical datasets of land-use/land cover, sea level change, climate, elevation and surface water quality for each coastal county in each year. Preliminary results indicate that in Gulf of Mexico coastal counties, increased bonding social capital results in decreased population change. In addition, we observed a multi-year time lag in the effect of increased bridging social capital on population stability, potentially suggesting key linkages between the physical and social environment in this complex coupled-natural human system. This

  14. Beyond Climate Scenarios: Advancing from Changes in the Mean to a Better Understanding of Physical Processes to Enhance Stakeholder Engagement (United States)

    Yates, D. N.; Kaatz, L.; Ammann, C. M.


    Great strides have been made within the climate sciences community to make Global Climate Model (GCM) output and their results as meaningful as possible to the broad community of stakeholders that might benefit from this information. Regardless of these good intentions, the fact remains that most data from GCMs are viewed as being highly uncertain and thus not actionable for water resources planning. The most common use of GCM data is informing projected future climate by use of a mean change, primarily for temperature, given the generally greater confidence in this variable. In contrast, precipitation is viewed as highly uncertain, primarily because it has not validated well against observed precipitation climatologies at local and regional levels. Simple perturbations to historical mean temperature and precipitation sequences are not as complex as using direct GCM outputs and have fewer analytical requirements. Mean climate change information can still give valuable information to water managers, providing meaningful insights and sign posts into future vulnerabilities and is an approach that is arguably deemed more actionable. These temperature and precipitation sign posts can be monitored and used as indicators when certain actions become necessary and/or until there are improvements in actionable climate science information. Recent advances in regional climate modeling (RCM), particularly those run at very high resolution and are cloud resolving, show promise in advancing our understanding of the interaction among climate variables at the regional level. Thus, in addition to exploring how changes in the mean climate (e.g. 2oC warming) might impact a water system, this bottom-up approach makes use of carefully constructed regional climate experiments that are conducted, for example, under conditions of a warmer atmosphere that can hold more moisture. One can then explore what happens to, for example, rain-snow partitioning at various elevations across a snow

  15. Coupling environmental, social and economic models to understand land-use change dynamics in the Mekong Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis eDrogoul


    Full Text Available The Vietnamese Mekong Delta has undergone in recent years a considerable transformation in agricultural land-use, fueled by a boom of the exportation, an increase of population, a focus on intensive crops, but also environmental factors like sea level rise or the progression of soil salinity. These transformations have been, however, largely misestimated by the ten-year agricultural plans designed at the provincial levels, on the predictions of which, though, most of the large-scale investments (irrigation infrastructures, protection against flooding or salinity intrusion, and so on are normally planned. This situation raises the question of how to explain the divergence between the predictions used as a basis for these plans and the actual situation. Answering it could, as a matter of fact, offer some insights on the dynamics at play and hopefully allow designing them more accurately.The dynamics of land-use change at a scale of a region results from the interactions between heterogeneous actors and factors at different scales, among them institutional policies, individual farming choices, land-cover and environmental changes, economic conditions, social dynamics, just to name a few. Understanding its evolution, for example, in this case, to better support agricultural planning, therefore requires the use of models that can represent the individual contributions of each actor or factor, and of course their interactions.We address this question through the design of an integrated hybrid model of land-use change in a specific and carefully chosen case study, which relies on the central hypothesis that the main force driving land-use change is actually the individual choices made by farmers at their local level. Farmers are the actors who decide (or not to switch from one culture to another and the shifts observed at more global levels (village, district, province, region are considered, in this model, as a consequence of the aggregation of these

  16. Design of Dwellings and Interior Family Space in China: Understanding the History of Change and Opportunities for Improved Sustainability Practices

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    Adrian Pitts


    Full Text Available This paper reviews briefly the recent history of dwelling design in China. It notes the rapid changes that have taken place since the 1980s and identifies the way contemporary procurement processes leave out the final fit-out and decoration/refurbishment. A range of stakeholders were interviewed, and access was gained to drawings and other technical data that indicated how the secondary processes were carried out. These are largely ungoverned by regulation in the same way necessary for initial design. The key group is the occupants who drive the fit-out and decoration according to personal and cultural requirements, but often with less than perfect understanding of sustainability. The interior design industry has developed rapidly over the same period and was initially lacking in professional knowledge and understanding (something which can still be found. Advice provided to dwelling occupants was based more on appearance than function and efficiency. Over the same period, beneficial modifications to construction processes have been introduced in relation to structural design, and it should be possible to do the same for sustainability-related design issues. The paper advocates: more regulation; better assessment techniques; more information and guidance for home-owners; and a greater focus on energy issues.

  17. Habit Discontinuity, Self-Activation, and the Diminishing Influence of Context Change: Evidence from the UK Understanding Society Survey. (United States)

    Thomas, Gregory Owen; Poortinga, Wouter; Sautkina, Elena


    Repeated behaviours in stable contexts can become automatic habits. Habits are resistant to information-based techniques to change behaviour, but are contextually cued, so a change in behaviour context (e.g., location) weakens habit strength and can facilitate greater consideration of the behaviour. This idea was demonstrated in previous work, whereby people with strong environmental attitudes have lower car use, but only after recently moving home. We examine the habit discontinuity hypothesis by analysing the Understanding Society dataset with 18,053 individuals representative of the UK population, measuring time since moving home, travel mode to work, and strength of environmental attitudes. Results support previous findings where car use is significantly lower among those with stronger environmental views (but only after recently moving home), and in addition, demonstrate a trend where this effects decays as the time since moving home increases. We discuss results in light of moving into a new home being a potential 'window of opportunity' to promote pro-environmental behaviours.

  18. Habit Discontinuity, Self-Activation, and the Diminishing Influence of Context Change: Evidence from the UK Understanding Society Survey.

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    Gregory Owen Thomas

    Full Text Available Repeated behaviours in stable contexts can become automatic habits. Habits are resistant to information-based techniques to change behaviour, but are contextually cued, so a change in behaviour context (e.g., location weakens habit strength and can facilitate greater consideration of the behaviour. This idea was demonstrated in previous work, whereby people with strong environmental attitudes have lower car use, but only after recently moving home. We examine the habit discontinuity hypothesis by analysing the Understanding Society dataset with 18,053 individuals representative of the UK population, measuring time since moving home, travel mode to work, and strength of environmental attitudes. Results support previous findings where car use is significantly lower among those with stronger environmental views (but only after recently moving home, and in addition, demonstrate a trend where this effects decays as the time since moving home increases. We discuss results in light of moving into a new home being a potential 'window of opportunity' to promote pro-environmental behaviours.

  19. Microencapsulated Phase Change Materials in Solar-Thermal Conversion Systems: Understanding Geometry-Dependent Heating Efficiency and System Reliability. (United States)

    Zheng, Zhaoliang; Chang, Zhuo; Xu, Guang-Kui; McBride, Fiona; Ho, Alexandra; Zhuola, Zhuola; Michailidis, Marios; Li, Wei; Raval, Rasmita; Akhtar, Riaz; Shchukin, Dmitry


    The performance of solar-thermal conversion systems can be improved by incorporation of nanocarbon-stabilized microencapsulated phase change materials (MPCMs). The geometry of MPCMs in the microcapsules plays an important role for improving their heating efficiency and reliability. Yet few efforts have been made to critically examine the formation mechanism of different geometries and their effect on MPCMs-shell interaction. Herein, through changing the cooling rate of original emulsions, we acquire MPCMs within the nanocarbon microcapsules with a hollow structure of MPCMs (h-MPCMs) or solid PCM core particles (s-MPCMs). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy reveals that the capsule shell of the h-MPCMs is enriched with nanocarbons and has a greater MPCMs-shell interaction compared to s-MPCMs. This results in the h-MPCMs being more stable and having greater heat diffusivity within and above the phase transition range than the s-MPCMs do. The geometry-dependent heating efficiency and system stability may have important and general implications for the fundamental understanding of microencapsulation and wider breadth of heating generating systems.

  20. Understanding the impact of changes in land-use/land-cover and atmospheric dust loading and their coupling upon climate change in the NEESPI study domain drylands (United States)

    Sokolik, I.; Darmenova, K.; Darmenov, A.; Xi, X.; Shao, Y.; Marticorena, B.; Bergametti, G.


    The Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI) Science Plan identifies atmospheric aerosols and pollutions and their impacts on and interactions with the Earth systems (and terrestrial ecosystem dynamics in particular) as a cross-cutting topic of special interest. Wind-blown mineral dust, being an important atmospheric constituent in the NEESPI drylands, can exert strong radiative forcing upon the regional climate and cause adverse impacts on human and ecosystems health. The impacts of dust storms are not only regional, but may affect areas thousands of kilometers from their source, making interactions between climate change, land use and dust aerosols globally relevant. Given the intimate coupling between the land processes and wind-blown atmospheric dust and their importance in the climate system, an improved understanding of how land-use/land-cover changes affect Asian dust and associated feedbacks is needed to make assessments of climate change more realistic. To improve the ability to predict impacts of dust on the climate and environment, we have been developing a coupled regional dust modeling system for Central and East Asia. This includes implementation of a new dust module DuMo into the NCAR Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model as well as a coupled treatment of dust aerosol interactions with atmospheric radiation. The dust module DuMo includes two different state-of-the art schemes that explicitly account for land properties (including vegetation and soil geomorphology and moisture) and meteorology, and, thus, improves modeling capability. The focus of this talk will be on the impact of atmospheric dust on the surface energy balance and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). Both processes play a key role in the ecosystem functioning as well as overall in land-atmosphere interactions, but they are rarely considered in an integrated fashion.

  1. Understanding mechanisms of rarity in pteridophytes: competition and climate change threaten the rare fern Asplenium scolopendrium var. americanum (Aspleniaceae). (United States)

    Testo, Weston L; Watkins, James E


    Understanding the ecology of rare species can inform aspects of conservation strategies; however, the mechanisms of rarity remain elusive for most pteridophytes, which possess independent and ecologically distinct gametophyte and sporophyte generations. To elucidate factors contributing to recent declines of the rare fern Asplenium scolopendrium var. americanum, we studied the ecology and ecophysiology of its gametophyte generation, focusing on responses to competition, temperature, and water stress. Gametophytes of A. scolopendrium var. americanum, its widespread European relative A. scolopendrium var. scolopendrium, and five co-occurring fern species were grown from spores. Gametophytes were grown at 20°C and 25°C, and germination rates, intra- and interspecific competition, desiccation tolerance, and sporophyte production were determined for all species. Gametophytes of A. scolopendrium var. americanum had the lowest rates of germination and sporophyte production among all species studied and exhibited the greatest sensitivity to interspecific competition, temperature increases, and desiccation. Mature gametophytes of A. scolopendrium var. americanum grown at 25°C were 84.6% smaller than those grown at 20°C, and only 1.5% produced sporophytes after 200 d in culture. Similar responses were not observed in other species studied. The recent declines and current status of populations of A. scolopendrium var. americanum are linked to its gametophyte's limited capacity to tolerate competition and physiological stress linked to climate change. This is the first study to develop a mechanistic understanding of rarity and decline in a fern and demonstrates the importance of considering the ecology of the gametophyte in plants with independent sporophyte and gametophyte generations.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murad Mohammed Ba Alawi


    Full Text Available The article is about the role that played the Internet in the organization of the occurred events of 2011 in the Arab world, the so-called «Arab spring».It has been shown how they used new media as an instrument of calls, organizing protests and exchanging information and the import of revolution from one country to another. It is revealed how the Arab events have demonstrated the importance and high efficiency of modern technologies.Purpose. To reveal the role of modern media and their influence on the revolutionary process in the Arab countries.Methodology. Applied general scientific methods of analysis and synthesis, system approach. In the process of preparations the article carried out an analysis of factual material, scientific sources, used statistical data.Results. It has been shown the absence of trust in the traditional media that belongs to the state, and mastering new technological facilities have led to an active use of the Internet as a political instrument during the «Arab Spring».

  3. New Revolutionary Agenda: The Interwar Japanese Left on the “Chinese Revolution”

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    Tatiana Linkhoeva


    Full Text Available To achieve socialist revolutions in Asia, the Third Communist International (Comintern recommended to Asian revolutionaries the strategy of a united front comprising the proletariat and the national bourgeoisie, which would prioritize the anti-colonial and anti-imperialist struggle. The early Japanese Communist Party (JCP (1922–1926 resisted this recommendation, which lumped together colonized India and semi-colonized China with the only empire in Asia, Japan. The JCP insisted on the priority of the domestic national struggle, arguing that without toppling the imperial government at home by means of a socialist revolution, there could be no dismantling of Japanese imperialism and therefore no Chinese Revolution. After the outbreak of Japanese aggression in China in 1927 (the first Shantung intervention in May of that year and the rise of popular nationalist support for the empire at home, members of the Japanese Left recognized that they had failed to properly engage with Japanese imperialism in Asia. Based on Comintern archives and the writings of leading Japanese Communists, this article argues that, as a strategy to rebrand and redeem itself in the new critical situation in Asia, the Japanese Left began to regard the Chinese Revolution as the only path to liberation, not only for Asia but for Japan as well.

  4. The ubiquitous reflex and its critics in post-revolutionary Russia. (United States)

    Sirotkina, Irina


    In the last century, the reflex was more than a scientific concept: it was a cultural idiom that could be used to various aims--political, scholarly, and artistic. In Russia in the 1920s, the reflex became a ubiquitous notion and a current word, part of the revolutionary discourse and, finally, a password to modernity. Two major factors contributed to it: physiological theories of the reflex, widespread in Russia at the early twentieth-century, and the materialist philosophy backed after the Revolution by the Communist party. Everybody who wished to be modern and materialist, in conformity with the official communist views, had to refer to reflexes. Yet, even in this period, the concept was not unproblematic and was criticized by some scientists, philosophers, artists and even Party members. In the paper, I describe both the array of uses of the term and the criticism it received in political, scientific and artistic discourses. It is not uncommon that, taking their origins in culture and common language, scientific concepts later return there in the form of metaphors. Similarly, the reflex was made into a rigorous scientific concept in the nineteenth century but, in the next century, it circulated as a cultural idiom penetrating various areas of political, artistic and academic life.

  5. Consequences of the Communist Revolutionary Ideology for the Catholic Community in Slovenia

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    Bogdan Kolar


    Full Text Available The Second World War began in Slovenia on 6 April, 1941 with the occupation of the national territory by the German, Italian and Hungarian occupying forces and resulted not only in the efforts to liberate the country but gave rise to intense revolutionary events. By declaring the liberation movement its exclusive right, the Communist Party, until then banned and working underground, announced a fierce fight against anyone not willing to submit to its plans and leadership. It also used the Civil War to launch a revolution. Following the Church’s teaching, Slovenian Catholics were reluctant to go along with such conduct. Violence against ideological opponents of Communism began already in the autumn of 1941. At the end of war when the Communist Party and its satellite organizations took over the country, the violence against those who disagreed continued and culminated in the summer of 1945. Among them were many Catholic families, priests and members of religious orders. Pressure on the priests started to decline after 1960, yet the pressure on the Catholic laity grew stronger.

  6. Metaphors of mind and society. The origins of German psychiatry in the revolutionary era. (United States)

    Hansen, L


    Johann Christian Reil's long polemic, Rhapsodieen über die Anwendung der psychischen Curmethode der Geisteszerrütungen (1803), is a call for the reform of the treatment of the insane. It also marks a transition from the Kantian approach to physiology of his earlier work to the Naturphilosophie that increasingly characterized his publications after this time. In this essay I first survey the historiographical debates of recent years concerning society and the emergence of psychiatry. I then examine the social-cultural context of the late Aufklärung in Prussia, out of which Reil's work emerged, before sketching the intellectual background of the Rhapsodieen, which lies in the development of German physiology since the 1750s. The heart of my work is a close analysis of Reil's theory of mental illness. Here I tease out his political and cultural imagery and note the ways in which his originally Enlightenment assumptions shifted toward the Romantic amid the anxieties of the revolutionary era.

  7. Mark Twain in the Russian Pre-Revolutionary Periodical. Part 2

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    Ekaterina A. Stetsenko


    Full Text Available This article deals with the analysis of interpretation of the works by Mark Twain, famous American author, in the Russian pre-revolutionary periodical press (1872–1916. The objects of research are critical articles, essays, reviews, correspondences, introductions to publications of Twain’s short stories and novels, obituaries, and other materials printed in central and provincial magazines and newspapers. Perception of Twain in Russia was contingent on many factors including political and cultural situation in the country, state of social thought and literary criticism, newspaper and magazine conjuncture etc., always remaining polysemantic and conflicting. In different times, in the years of democratic rising or reaction critics looked for something in Twain’s works that corresponded to the spirit of their time and helped solve ideological and aesthetic problems. Twain had reputation of either a “pure humorist” or a great writer, philosopher, and moralist. Democrats, liberals, conservatives, feminists, adepts of realistic or naturalistic trends in art discussed Twain’s works that became a source of knowledge about the United States and inspired polemics about Russia’s further development. Twain was highly esteemed as the author of books for children and young people. Yet his works that criticized monarchism and imperialism were often ignored or abridged. The history of Twain’s interpretation in the Russian press serves as evidence of the fact that perception of foreign literature is a dynamic and bumpy process, repeating itself and moving backwards but also getting to deeper levels of meanings.

  8. Materials on the Ethnography of the Kazakh-Bukeev in the Russian Pre-Revolutionary Periodicals

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    Marina A. Ryblova


    Full Text Available This article presents the review and analysis of pre-revolutionary periodicals devoted to ethnography of Bukeev Khanate Kazakhs. The study of multiple publications printed in Metropolitan and regional newspapers and magazines showed that the Russian public expressed huge interest towards the territories and ethnicities that were part of Russian Empire. Work on collecting ethnographic material throughout the whole country including those territories inhabited by Kazakhs was conducted by public and state organizations (like Russian Geographical Society, Free Economic Society, etc. as well as by enthusiasts: local lore specialists, medical doctors, government officials that expressed not only a scientific interest but also civil responsibility with regard to the fate of affiliated ethnicities. Pages of periodicals of the second half of the 19th – first half of the 20th centuries turned into arena of sharp disputes about variants of state policies with regards to those ethnicities, ways and forms of their integration into Russian society, and modernization of their traditional culture. Newspapers’ and magazines’ publications of that period give vast material that allows to reconstruct main elements of material and spiritual culture of Bukeev Horde Kazakhs, as well as to identify emotionally coloured images of “friends” and “strangers”, to discover the features of mentality not only of the studied Kazaks but also Russians that conducted those studies.

  9. The Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC and the Development of Narco-Submarines

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    Michelle Jacome Jaramillo


    Full Text Available The Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC have been one of the world's most consistently formidable violent non-state actors over the last forty years. Unsurprisingly, the group has provided one of the most compelling and concerning examples of the level of technical sophistication attainable by sub-state organizations. Over the last two decades the group has carried out an iterative and innovative process that, in reaction to improved detection capabilities, has brought them from depending on disposable go-fast boats to transport drugs to possessing fully submersible and reusable covert vessels for transportation. The following case study will discuss the development of narco-submarines and the underlying motivations behind the pursuit of this complex engineering task. The case study will outline the different phases of the narco-submarine development and highlight FARC’s determination to overcome the challenges present in each design. This discussion will show how FARC’s systematized acquiring of information and expertise has resulted in the accomplishment of fully submersible vessels, capable of transporting more than 10 tons of illicit product.

  10. Bridging the Gap between Scientific and Indigenous knowledge to Better Understand Social Impacts of Changing Rainfall Regimes (United States)

    Lynch, A. H.; Joachim, L.; Zhu, X.; Hammer, C.; Harris, M.; Griggs, D.


    The Murray-Darling Basin incorporates Australia's three longest rivers and is important for an agricultural industry worth more than $9 billion per annum, a rich biodiversity of habitat and species, and the very life of its traditional owners. The complex and sometimes enigmatic relationships between modes of variability and Australian regional rainfall distribution means that reliable projections of future water availability remain highly uncertain. Persistent drought, with associated heat stress and high fire danger, and episodic flooding rains present further challenges. Indeed, recent extremes likely herald a tipping point for the communities and ecosystems that rely on the river system. The Barmah-Millewa region in the Murray-Darling Basin is the heart of Yorta Yorta Traditional Tribal Lands. The Yorta Yorta continue to assert their inherent rights to country and have shown through oral, documentary and material evidence, that their social, spiritual, economic and cultural links with country have never been broken. Current water policy and practice, highly contested community consultation processes, cross-border governance issues and a changing social landscape create in this region a microcosm for understanding the complex demands of economic, environmental and cultural security along the Murray-Darling Basin as the climate changes. New approaches to bridging the gap between scientific and Indigenous epistemologies have emerged in recent years, including for example ecosystem-based adaptation (Vignola et al. 2009) and the analysis of cultural water flows (Weir 2010). The potential for innovation using these approaches has informed a study that investigates how the deep knowledge of country of the Yorta Yorta people can be combined with state of the art climate science to develop a better understanding of the competing demands on water resources in the Barmah-Millewa region now and in the future. An important dimension of this collaborative work with the Yorta

  11. Understanding the Relationship between Social Change and Its Impacts: The Experience of Rural Land Use Change in South-Eastern Australia (United States)

    Williams, Kathryn J. H.; Schirmer, Jacki


    This study investigated socio-economic impacts of land use change, giving explicit attention to the relationships between independently observed land use change and associated socio-economic changes, perceived land use change and socio-economic change, attributed cause of change, and experienced impacts of change. Using a case study region in…

  12. Northern Forest DroughtNet: A New Framework to Understand Impacts of Precipitation Change on the Northern Forest Ecosystem (United States)

    Asbjornsen, H.; Rustad, L.; Templer, P. H.; Jennings, K.; Phillips, R.; Smith, M.


    Recent trends and projections for future change for the U.S. northern forests suggest that the region's climate is becoming warmer, wetter, and, ironically, drier, with more precipitation occurring as large events, separated by longer periods with no precipitation. However, to date, precipitation manipulation experiments conducted in forest ecosystems represent only ~5% of all such experiments worldwide, and our understanding of how the mesic-adapted northern forest will respond to greater frequency and intensity of drought in the future is especially poor. Several important challenges have hampered previous research efforts to conduct forest drought experiments and draw robust conclusions, including difficulties in reducing water uptake by deep and lateral tree roots, logistical and financial constraints to establishing and maintaining large-scale field experiments, and the lack of standardized approaches for determining the appropriate precipitation manipulation treatment (e.g., amount and timing of throughfall displacement), designing and constructing the throughfall displacement infrastructure, identifying key response variables, and collecting and analyzing the field data. The overarching goal of this project is to establish a regional research coordination network - Northern Forest DroughtNet - to investigate the impacts of changes in the amount and distribution of precipitation on the hydrology, biogeochemistry, and carbon (C) cycling dynamics of northern temperate forests. Specific objectives include the development of a standard prototype for conducting precipitation manipulation studies in forest ecosystems (in collaboration with the international DroughtNet-RCN) and the implementation of this prototype drought experiment at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest. Here, we present the advances made thus far towards achieving the objectives of Northern Forest DroughtNet, plans for future work, and an invitation to the larger scientific community interested

  13. A New Model Hierarchy to Understand the Impact of Radiation and Convection on the Extratropical Circulation Response to Climate Change (United States)

    Tan, Z.; Shaw, T.


    State-of-the-art climate models exhibit a large spread in the magnitude of projected poleward jet shift and Hadley cell expansion in response to warming. Interestingly, some idealized gray radiation models with simplified convective schemes produce an equatorward jet shift in response to warming. In order to understand the impact of radiation and convection on the circulation response and resolve the discrepancies across the model hierarchy, we introduce a new model radiation-convection hierarchy. The hierarchy spans idealized (gray) through sophisticated (RRTMG) radiation, and idealized (Betts-Miller) through sophisticated (eddy-diffusivity mass-flux scheme) convection schemes in the same general circulation model. It is used to systematically explore the impact of radiation and convection on the extratropical circulation response to climate change independent of mean surface temperature and meridional temperature gradient responses. With a gray radiation scheme, the jet stream shift depends on the prescribed stratospheric optical depth, which controls the climatological jet regime. A large optical depth leads to a split jet and an equatorward shift. A small optical depth leads to a poleward shift. The different shifts are connected to the vertical extent of tropical long wave cooling that impacts the subtropical jet and Hadley circulation. In spite of these sensitivities, the storm track position, defined by the meridonal eddy heat flux and moist static energy flux maxima, shifts robustly poleward. In contrast to gray radiation, with a comprehensive radiation scheme, the jet and storm track shift robustly poleward irrespective of radiative assumptions (clear sky versus cloudy sky, ozone versus no ozone). This response is reproduced by adding more spectral bands and including the water vapor feedback in the gray scheme. Dynamical sensitivities to convective assumption are also explored. Overall the new hierarchy highlights the importance of radiative and

  14. Dreaming the Chinese Dream. How the People’s Republic of China Moved from Revolutionary Goals to Global Ambitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan R. Landsberger


    Full Text Available On 1 October 2014, the People’s Republic of China (PRC will observe the 65th anniversary of its founding which ended a decades’ long period of oppression by imperialism, internal strife and (civil war. Under the Chinese Communist Party (CCP, modernisation became the most important task. Marxism-Leninism and Mao Zedong Thought guided the nation along this path that would lead to modernisation and the recognition of the new, strong China. As the first three decades passed, it became clear that ideological purity and revolutionary motivation did not lead to the realisation of the dream of rejuvenation. In late 1978, the Maoist revolutionary goals were replaced by the pragmatic policies that turned China into today’s economic powerhouse. How has this radical turn from revolution to economic development been realised? How has it affected China’s political, social and artistic cultures? Is China’s present Dream structurally different from the one cherished in 1949?

  15. Understanding changes in lignin of Panicum virgatum and Eucalyptus globulus as a function of ionic liquid pretreatment. (United States)

    Varanasi, Patanjali; Singh, Priyanka; Arora, Rohit; Adams, Paul D; Auer, Manfred; Simmons, Blake A; Singh, Seema


    Ionic liquids (ILs) have shown great potential for the reduction of lignin in biomass after pretreatment. Although dilute acid and base pretreatments have been shown to result in pretreated biomass with substantially different lignin composition, there is scarce information on the composition of lignin of IL pretreated biomass. In this work, temperature dependent compositional changes in lignin after IL pretreatment were studied to develop a mechanistic understanding of the process. Panicum virgatum and Eucalyptus globulus were pretreated with 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([C(2)mim][OAc]). Measurement of syringyl and guaiacyl ratio using pyrolysis-GC/MS and Kamlet-Taft properties of [C(2)mim][OAc] at 120 °C and 160 °C strongly suggest two different modes of IL pretreatment. Preferential breakdown of S-lignin in both eucalyptus and switchgrass at high pretreatment temperature (160 °C) and breakdown of G-lignin for eucalyptus and no preferential break down of either S- or G-lignin in switchgrass was observed at lower pretreatment temperatures (120 °C). Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Limited resources and evolutionary learning may help to understand the mistimed reproduction in birds caused by climate change. (United States)

    Campos, Daniel; Llebot, Josep E; Méndez, Vicenç


    We present an agent-based model inspired by the Evolutionary Minority Game (EMG), albeit strongly adapted, to the case of competition for limited resources in ecology. The agents in this game become able, after some time, to predict the a priori best option as a result of an evolution-driven learning process. We show that a self-segregated social structure can emerge from this process, i.e., extreme learning strategies are always favoured while intermediate learning strategies tend to die out. This result may contribute to understanding some levels of organization and cooperative behaviour in ecological and social systems. We use the ideas and results reported here to discuss an issue of current interest in ecology: the mistimings in egg laying observed for some species of bird as a consequence of their slower rate of adaptation to climate change in comparison with that shown by their prey. Our model supports the hypothesis that habitat-specific constraints could explain why different populations are adapting differently to this situation, in agreement with recent experiments.

  17. The role of ENSO in understanding changes in Colombia's annual malaria burden by region, 1960–2006 (United States)

    Mantilla, Gilma; Oliveros, Hugo; Barnston, Anthony G


    Background Malaria remains a serious problem in Colombia. The number of malaria cases is governed by multiple climatic and non-climatic factors. Malaria control policies, and climate controls such as rainfall and temperature variations associated with the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO), have been associated with malaria case numbers. Using historical climate data and annual malaria case number data from 1960 to 2006, statistical models are developed to isolate the effects of climate in each of Colombia's five contrasting geographical regions. Methods Because year to year climate variability associated with ENSO causes interannual variability in malaria case numbers, while changes in population and institutional control policy result in more gradual trends, the chosen predictors in the models are annual indices of the ENSO state (sea surface temperature [SST] in the tropical Pacific Ocean) and time reference indices keyed to two major malaria trends during the study period. Two models were used: a Poisson and a Negative Binomial regression model. Two ENSO indices, two time reference indices, and one dummy variable are chosen as candidate predictors. The analysis was conducted using the five geographical regions to match the similar aggregation used by the National Institute of Health for its official reports. Results The Negative Binomial regression model is found better suited to the malaria cases in Colombia. Both the trend variables and the ENSO measures are significant predictors of malaria case numbers in Colombia as a whole, and in two of the five regions. A one degree Celsius change in SST (indicating a weak to moderate ENSO event) is seen to translate to an approximate 20% increase in malaria cases, holding other variables constant. Conclusion Regional differentiation in the role of ENSO in understanding changes in Colombia's annual malaria burden during 1960–2006 was found, constituting a new approach to use ENSO as a significant predictor of the

  18. The role of ENSO in understanding changes in Colombia's annual malaria burden by region, 1960-2006. (United States)

    Mantilla, Gilma; Oliveros, Hugo; Barnston, Anthony G


    Malaria remains a serious problem in Colombia. The number of malaria cases is governed by multiple climatic and non-climatic factors. Malaria control policies, and climate controls such as rainfall and temperature variations associated with the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO), have been associated with malaria case numbers. Using historical climate data and annual malaria case number data from 1960 to 2006, statistical models are developed to isolate the effects of climate in each of Colombia's five contrasting geographical regions. Because year to year climate variability associated with ENSO causes interannual variability in malaria case numbers, while changes in population and institutional control policy result in more gradual trends, the chosen predictors in the models are annual indices of the ENSO state (sea surface temperature [SST] in the tropical Pacific Ocean) and time reference indices keyed to two major malaria trends during the study period. Two models were used: a Poisson and a Negative Binomial regression model. Two ENSO indices, two time reference indices, and one dummy variable are chosen as candidate predictors. The analysis was conducted using the five geographical regions to match the similar aggregation used by the National Institute of Health for its official reports. The Negative Binomial regression model is found better suited to the malaria cases in Colombia. Both the trend variables and the ENSO measures are significant predictors of malaria case numbers in Colombia as a whole, and in two of the five regions. A one degree Celsius change in SST (indicating a weak to moderate ENSO event) is seen to translate to an approximate 20% increase in malaria cases, holding other variables constant. Regional differentiation in the role of ENSO in understanding changes in Colombia's annual malaria burden during 1960-2006 was found, constituting a new approach to use ENSO as a significant predictor of the malaria cases in Colombia. These results

  19. Mainstreaming Climate Change: Recent and Ongoing Efforts to Understand, Improve, and Expand Consideration of Climate Change in Federal Water Resources Planning (United States)

    Ferguson, I. M.; McGuire, M.; Broman, D.; Gangopadhyay, S.


    The Bureau of Reclamation is a Federal agency tasked with developing and managing water supply and hydropower projects in the Western U.S. Climate and hydrologic variability and change significantly impact management actions and outcomes across Reclamation's programs and initiatives, including water resource planning and operations, infrastructure design and maintenance, hydropower generation, and ecosystem restoration, among others. Planning, design, and implementation of these programs therefore requires consideration of future climate and hydrologic conditions will impact program objectives. Over the past decade, Reclamation and other Federal agencies have adopted new guidelines, directives, and mandates that require consideration of climate change in water resources planning and decision making. Meanwhile, the scientific community has developed a large number of climate projections, along with an array of models, methods, and tools to facilitate consideration of climate projections in planning and decision making. However, water resources engineers, planners, and decision makers continue to face challenges regarding how best to use the available data and tools to support major decisions, including decisions regarding infrastructure investments and long-term operating criteria. This presentation will discuss recent and ongoing research towards understanding, improving, and expanding consideration of climate projections and related uncertainties in Federal water resources planning and decision making. These research efforts address a variety of challenges, including: How to choose between available climate projection datasets and related methods, models, and tools—many of which are considered experimental or research tools? How to select an appropriate decision framework when design or operating alternatives may differ between climate scenarios? How to effectively communicate results of a climate impacts analysis to decision makers? And, how to improve

  20. Embodied understanding. (United States)

    Johnson, Mark


    Western culture has inherited a view of understanding as an intellectual cognitive operation of grasping of concepts and their relations. However, cognitive science research has shown that this received intellectualist conception is substantially out of touch with how humans actually make and experience meaning. The view emerging from the mind sciences recognizes that understanding is profoundly embodied, insofar as our conceptualization and reasoning recruit sensory, motor, and affective patterns and processes to structure our understanding of, and engagement with, our world. A psychologically realistic account of understanding must begin with the patterns of ongoing interaction between an organism and its physical and cultural environments and must include both our emotional responses to changes in our body and environment, and also the actions by which we continuously transform our experience. Consequently, embodied understanding is not merely a conceptual/propositional activity of thought, but rather constitutes our most basic way of being in, and engaging with, our surroundings in a deep visceral manner.

  1. Teaching Teaching & Understanding Understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    "Teaching Teaching & Understanding Understanding" is a 19-minute award-winning short-film about teaching at university and higher-level educational institutions. It is based on the "Constructive Alignment" theory developed by Prof. John Biggs. The film delivers a foundation for understanding what...

  2. The revolutionary founding moments of a contra-Grierson tradition [review of: Post-revolution nonfiction film: building the Soviet and Cuban Nations by Joshua Malitsky, 2013


    Winston, Brian


    “The revolutionary founding moments of a contra-Grierson tradition” Joshua Malitsky, Post-revolution nonfiction film: building the Soviet and Cuban Nations (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2013).

  3. Understanding the impacts of climate change and human activities on streamflow: a case study of the Soan River basin, Pakistan (United States)

    Shahid, Muhammad; Cong, Zhentao; Zhang, Danwu


    Climate change and land use change are the two main factors that can alter the catchment hydrological process. The objective of this study is to evaluate the relative contribution of climate change and land use change to runoff change of the Soan River basin. The Mann-Kendal and the Pettit tests are used to find out the trends and change point in hydroclimatic variables during the period 1983-2012. Two different approaches including the abcd hydrological model and the Budyko framework are then used to quantify the impact of climate change and land use change on streamflow. The results from both methods are consistent and show that annual runoff has significantly decreased with a change point around 1997. The decrease in precipitation and increases in potential evapotranspiration contribute 68% of the detected change while the rest of the detected change is due to land use change. The land use change acquired from Landsat shows that during post-change period, the agriculture has increased in the Soan basin, which is in line with the positive contribution of land use change to runoff decrease. This study concludes that aforementioned methods performed well in quantifying the relative contribution of land use change and climate change to runoff change.

  4. Validity of marti’s thought in the cuban revolutionary sport philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de Lourdes Rodríguez-Pérez


    Full Text Available On José Martí long pilgrimage around the world, nothing was estranging for him. Nobody as he knew how to describe with so much beauty, emotion and analytic Revista electrónica de Ciencia y Tecnología en la Cultura Física vision the facts and the environment that surrounded him. In the informative journalistic branch he covered, among other things, reports with sport traits. It is highlighted the correct relationship that he found between the physical exercise and the mental health offering in his chronicles an appropriate valuation of the Physical Culture social necessity. Martí was ahead to the campaign that today it is carried out against the sedentary lifestyle and the physical inactivity when he praised the importance of the exercise in the man's life. His experience together with the journalistic profession that he exercised during long years, qualified him to emit concepts regarding to the scientific content of the physical culture, not exempt of aesthetic and humane valuation, studying the man like a biological, psychological and social entity, thought that maintains today a full validity. The aspects related with the sport and the physical education previously referred are analyzed and examined in the work through textual appointments of the chronicles written by the apostle, which have connections with some Fidel Castro’s statements expressed on his speeches about the importance of the sport and it characteristics in the revolutionary stage in which its reflected the validity o The Teacher’s ideas.

  5. Understanding plate-motion changes over the past 100 Myr with quantitative models of the coupled lithosphere/mantle system (United States)

    Stotz, Ingo; Iaffaldano, Giampiero; Rhodri Davies, D.


    The volume of geophysical datasets has grown substantially over recent decades. Our knowledge of continental evolution has increased due to advances in interpreting the records of orogeny and sedimentation. Ocean-floor observations now allow one to resolve past plate motions (e.g. in the North Atlantic and Indian Ocean over the past 20 Myr) at temporal resolutions of about 1 Myr. Altogether, these ever-growing datasets allow us to reconstruct the past evolution of Earth's lithospheric plates in greater detail. This is key to unravelling the dynamics of geological processes, because plate motions and their temporal changes are powerful probe into the evolving force balance between shallow- and deep-rooted processes. However, such progress is not yet matched by the ability to quantitatively model past plate-motion changes and, therefore, to test hypotheses on the dominant controls. The main technical challenge is simulating the rheological behaviour of the lithosphere/mantle system, which varies significantly from viscous to brittle. Traditionally computer models for viscous mantle flow on the one hand, and for the motions of the brittle lithosphere on the other hand, have been developed separately. Coupling of these two independent classes of models has been accomplished only for neo-tectonic scenarios, without accounting for the impact of time-evolving mantle-flow (e.g. Iaffaldano and Bunge 2009). However, we have built a coupled model to simulate the lithosphere/mantle system (using SHELLS and TERRA, respectively) through geological time, and to exploit the growing body of geophysical data as a primary constraint on these quantitative models. TERRA is a global spherical finite-element code for mantle convection (e.g. Baumgardner 1985, Bunge et al. 1996, Davies et al. 2013), whilst SHELLS is a thin-sheet finite-element code for lithosphere dynamics (e.g. Bird 1998). Our efforts are focused, in particular, on achieving the technical ability to: (i) simulate the

  6. Learning-Related Changes in Adolescents' Neural Networks during Hypothesis-Generating and Hypothesis-Understanding Training (United States)

    Lee, Jun-Ki; Kwon, Yongju


    Fourteen science high school students participated in this study, which investigated neural-network plasticity associated with hypothesis-generating and hypothesis-understanding in learning. The students were divided into two groups and participated in either hypothesis-generating or hypothesis-understanding type learning programs, which were…

  7. First-Year Medical Students' Conceptual Understanding of and Resistance to Conceptual Change Concerning the Central Cardiovascular System (United States)

    Mikkila-Erdmann, Mirjamaija; Sodervik, Ilona; Vilppu, Henna; Kaapa, Pekka; Olkinuora, Erkki


    Medical students often have initial understanding concerning medical domains, such as the central cardiovascular system (CCVS), when they enter the study programme. These notions may to some extent be in conflict with scientific understanding, which can be seen as a challenge for medical teaching. Hence, the purpose of this study was to analyse…

  8. Understanding Technology?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Bendtsen


    Full Text Available We are facing radical changes in our ways of living in the nearest future. Not necessarily of our own choice, but because tchnological development is moving so fast, that it will have still greater impact on many aspects of our lives. We have seen the beginnings of that change within the latest 35 years or so, but according to newest research that change will speed up immensely in the nearest years to come. The impact of that change or these changes will affect our working life immensely as a consequence of automation. How these changes are brought about and which are their consequences in a broad sense is being attempted to be understood and guessed by researchers. No one knows for sure, but specific patterns are visible. This paper will not try to guess, what will come, but will rather try to understand the deepest ”nature” of technology in order to understand the driving factors in this development: the genesis of technology in a broad sense in order to contibute to the understanding of the basis for the expected development.

  9. Observational research study around tropical Western Pacific: PALAU (Pacific Area Long-term Atmospheric observation for Understanding climate change) project (United States)

    Shirooka, Ryuichi


    The warm water pool region in the tropical Western Pacific is a key area for global climate systems, as strong atmospheric convective activity in this area is the driving engine of the atmosphere. However, there are many processes between meso-scale convective activities and the global-scale climate, and these are not fully understood yet. To understand the mechanism of clouds-precipitation processes and air-sea interactions over the warm pool in the tropics, there are in need of further investigation on the Western Pacific monsoon and the tropical-extratropical interactions. Toward these objectives, we have continued a long-term observational project named PALAU (Pacific Area Long-term Atmospheric observation for Understanding climate change) around the tropical Western Pacific near the Republic of Palau. The main target of this project is to describe multi-scale interactions of cloud systems to intra-seasonal oscillations affected by monsoon activities. To elucidate the structure of tropical cyclones, which occur over a monsoon trough near Palau, is also a major interest. Since November 2000, we have been continuously operating a surface weather observation site in Palau. We also have conducted several intensive field campaigns targeted for various phenomena. PALAU2013, one of the intensive campaign, was carried out to focus on the formation mechanism of tropical cyclones and their relation to intra-seasonal oscillations and monsoon activity over the tropical Western Pacific. During the campaign, R/V Mirai was placed near Palau and conducted atmospheric and oceanic observations using Doppler radar, radiosonde, CTD and so on. Daily profiling Argo-floats were deployed for analyzing air-sea interactions. To capture the monsoon activity with wide area, we constructed intensified sounding network from Philippines, Palau, and Yap to Guam. Three X-band radars were utilized to obtain the internal structure of cloud systems. Dual-polarization parameters also can be

  10. Smart medicine: how the changing role of doctors will revolutionize health care

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hanson, William, M.D


    .... In Smart Medicine, William Hanson brings to life the fascinating true world of doctors and nurses and reveals the revolutionary changes that will soon be sweeping through the medical community...

  11. “Globalizing the science classroom" : Exploring the development of students’ conceptual understanding of climate change from international peer collaboration


    Korsager, Majken


    Climate change is not local, it is global. This means that many environmental issues related to climate change are not geographically limited and hence concern humans in more than one location. There is a growing body of research indicating that today’s increased climate change is caused by human activities and our modern lifestyle. Consequently, climate change awareness and attention from the entire world’s population needs to be a global priority and we need to work collaboratively to attai...

  12. Climate Change: Understanding it Links Directly to Achieving National Space Policy Goals While Being Useful at Tactical and Strategic Levels (United States)


    Acidification In addition to changing the atmosphere, rising car- bon dioxide levels change the acidity of the oceans . Ocean water takes up carbon in... carbon dioxide , and chlorofluorocarbons also change the way signals travel through the atmosphere. If the changes can be predicted, sensors can possibly...greenhouse effect, and its average surface temperature is -81 degrees F. Venus has an almost completely carbon dioxide atmosphere, with a “runaway

  13. Argumentation as a Strategy for Increasing Preservice Teachers' Understanding of Climate Change, a Key Global Socioscientific Issue (United States)

    Lambert, Julie L.; Bleicher, Robert E.


    Findings of this study suggest that scientific argumentation can play an effective role in addressing complex socioscientific issues (i.e. global climate change). This research examined changes in preservice teachers' knowledge and perceptions about climate change in an innovative undergraduate-level elementary science methods course. The…

  14. To Dream of Fanon: Reconstructing a Method for Thought by a Revolutionary Intellectual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali Prabhu


    Full Text Available The half-century, which is the time that has elapsed since the publication of Wretched of the Earth, seems such a short period when one imagines its author in all his intellectual magnificence, his anguish, and the many details we all know of his short-lived reality. Dare one say, after the concept has long been declared “dead” that we imagine him as having been a live “author”? As I write this, the idea of various notable intellectuals and revolutionary movements could come to mind in order for them to serve as interesting comparisons as we discuss and remember Fanon, his analyses of the colonial aftermath, and his many predictions, both explicit and implicit. However, the “death” of the author is, in fact, as Barthes’ polemical essay showed, a premise that empowers the text in its full potentiality well beyond the deism by which the identity of the author becomes the authority. Here, the liberation of the text joins up the enunciation with its “content” so to speak, or in Barthes’ words, reveals how Fanon “made of his very life a work for which his book was a model.” It is from this idea that I wish to see Fanon as incomparable. The reason to do so does not stem from some esoteric form of admiration, but rather a conviction that Fanon’s narration itself is both indicative and exemplary of a process of thinking that, for me, remains unparalleled in theorizing the role of the intellectual. Such a conviction requires us to read beyond the content of Wretched and be “reborn” in the Barthesian sense as readers. In essence, it is to simply follow the way Fanon himself allows us to actually trace how he dreams of “the native” or “the people” and thus accomplishes an affective leap, arguably, more completely than any other intellectual. This reading is, thus, an invitation to dream – even momentarily – of Fanon.

  15. About the science-theoretical measuring of history of revolutionary shocks in Russia (to the 100 year of February and October, 1917

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey V. Ishin


    Full Text Available The article is devoted the comprehension of the science-theoretical tool of research of revolutionary shocks in Russia. The 100-years-old anniversary of revolutionary shocks in Russia pulls out before researchers the vital task of complex comprehension of reasons, character and consequences of revolution. Scientific tasks which stood before the scientists of soviet epoch lay mainly inplane illumination of event of revolution and Civil war as displays of fight of «leading revolutionary class» — proletariat at the head with bolshevist communist party with «regressive classes» — bourgeoisie, squires, clergy, the «kulak». Within the framework of this main approach, researchers succeeded to form the fully integral scientific picture of social and political conflict of 1917-1922 years, on the whole to expose his motive forces, leading political actors, to trace the dynamics of events.However and presently to a full degree the task of comprehensive scientific analysis of structural-functional features of becoming and evolution of organs of power saves the actuality, which functioned within the framework of the different political modes, including modes of antibolshevist orientation. The important element of search is an exposure of specific of mutual relations of public institutions, basic directions of policy, historical factors which stipulated acceptance and practical realization of important administrative decisions.Іnstitucional approach must organically complement dominant to this day in scientific literature historical-event approach. Institucional approach consists in that a look to the social and political process is inplane not «from» (as in the historical-event measuring outside, and, vice versa, «from within». In obedience to this approach, research attention applies foremost on subsoil and on organization of administrative mechanisms, internal logic of acceptance both key and, on the face of it, second-rate decisions

  16. Understanding Perceptions of Climate Change, Priorities, and Decision-Making among Municipalities in Lima, Peru to Better Inform Adaptation and Mitigation Planning. (United States)

    Siña, Mariella; Wood, Rachel C; Saldarriaga, Enrique; Lawler, Joshua; Zunt, Joseph; Garcia, Patricia; Cárcamo, César


    Climate change poses multiple risks to the population of Lima, the largest city and capital of Peru, located on the Pacific coast in a desert ecosystem. These risks include increased water scarcity, increased heat, and the introduction and emergence of vector-borne and other climate sensitive diseases. To respond to these threats, it is necessary for the government, at every level, to adopt more mitigation and adaptation strategies. Here, focus groups were conducted with representatives from five Lima municipalities to determine priorities, perception of climate change, and decision-making processes for implementing projects within each municipality. These factors can affect the ability and desire of a community to implement climate change adaptation and mitigation strategies. The results show that climate change and other environmental factors are of relatively low priority, whereas public safety and water and sanitation services are of highest concern. Perhaps most importantly, climate change is not well understood among the municipalities. Participants had trouble distinguishing climate change from other environmental issues and did not fully understand its causes and effects. Greater understanding of what climate change is and why it is important is necessary for it to become a priority for the municipalities. Different aspects of increased climate change awareness seem to be connected to having experienced extreme weather events, whether related or not to climate change, and to higher socioeconomic status.

  17. Building a democratic education. The Teacher Training College Model in times of revolutionary crisis (1974-1976

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Mota


    Full Text Available The present paper attempts to analyze the model and meaning of the reform of ordinary primary education, its ends and goals, and to address the ideological debate and clashes present in Teacher Training Colleges during the Ongoing Revolutionary Process (PREC. Experimental times of «pedagogical experiences», of the democratic construction of education, supported by a logic of equal opportunities and openness and intervention in the community, at a time when the educational system received the mandate to democratize success and combat social inequalities (Stoer, Stoleroff, Correia, 1990. Based on the triangulation of information (Denzin and Lincoln, 2000, our analysis focuses on the stakeholders’ discourses published by media specialized in education and teaching, or other, using anamnesis, oral accounts collected through interviews, and the few (still existing information sources. During the ideological debate and clash, two trends of the revolutionary process competed, that of the basic dynamics and of instrumentalisation. In the context of Teacher Training Colleges, the latter prevailed. It formed a centralised vision of the revolutionary process by fostering a mobilising dynamics, from the centre to the periphery, using the dimensions of academic knowledge, ideological principles and techniques for organising society following the ideological model established. It captured the strength and energy of the basic dynamics, either by outlining first the sense of mobilisation or assessing the propriety of the proposals arising from the mobilisation and adjusting them to its purposes. How to reference this article Mota, L., & Ferreira, A. G. (2015. La construcción de una educación democrática. Las escuelas de magisterio primario en tiempos de crisis revolucionaria (1974-1976. Espacio, Tiempo y Educación, 2(2, 265-288. doi:

  18. Simplifying mental math: Changing how added sugars are displayed on the nutrition facts label can improve consumer understanding. (United States)

    Khandpur, Neha; Graham, Dan J; Roberto, Christina A


    Proposed variations to Nutrition Facts Labels (NFL) have included the display of added sugars (AS) content, but its impact on consumer understanding is poorly understood. To examine the degree to which different formats for displaying AS influence consumer understanding, perceptions, and purchase intentions. Randomized-controlled online experiment. A sample of 2509 U.S adults. Participants were randomized to 1 of 8 conditions and viewed 10 food or beverage images with either: (1) no label (control); (2) the current NFL (without AS); (3) the proposed NFL without AS; or the proposed NFL with AS in (4) grams, (5) grams and teaspoons, (6) grams and percent Daily Value (%DV), (7) grams with high/medium/low text, or (8) grams with high/medium/low text and %DV. ANCOVAs compared scores on quizzes that assessed the accuracy of judgments about AS, overall nutrition understanding and purchase intentions. Presenting AS in grams plus high/medium/low text with and without %DV led to the highest AS understanding scores (85% and 83% correct, respectively) compared to 70% correct when AS was not on the label or was displayed in grams only (74% correct). Displaying AS in teaspoons did not significantly improve understanding beyond grams alone. Consumers were best able to determine which of two products was healthier when AS was presented as %DV (68% correct) versus displayed in grams alone (60% correct), but %DV did not differ from high/medium/low text or teaspoons. None of the labels influenced purchase intentions relative to no label. Displaying AS on the NFL in grams with high/medium/low text, %DV, or the combination of the two, improved consumer understanding more than presenting it in grams or teaspoons. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Medical Offerings, Healers, and Public Opinion: El Niño Fidencio in Post-Revolutionary Mexico


    Claudia Agostoni


    The purpose of this article is to analyze the coexistence of folk and official practices and medical and healing offerings in Mexico during the first decade of the post-revolutionary period (1920-1930), through the study of the eclectic healer José Fidencio Síntora Constantino, better known as el Niño Fidencio (1898- 1938). The paper argues that the fluid coexistence of diverse practices, offerings, and conceptions of health, illness, and care processes contrasted with the goals of health ins...

  20. The Development of Peasant Household in the Kursk Province during the Revolutionary Events of 1917 and the Civil War

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    Andrey A. Kolupaev


    Full Text Available The article is concerned with the integrated study of certain elements of a peasant household in the Kursk Province during the revolutionary events of 1917 and the Civil War on the basis of the unresearched sources. The article studies labor forces and the activities of peasant population, land ownership and land management, the level of material and technical basis, farm production. The author concludes that failures of reforms, establishment of a state trade monopoly resulted in the reduction of crop yields, decrease in cultivated areas and livestock. After October 1917 the crisis of industry and inflation contributed to further decrease in farm production, as a result peasant household became natural.