WorldWideScience

Sample records for understanding premium costs

  1. Demystifying first-cost green building premiums in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, Adele; Vittori, Gail; Guenther, Robin

    2009-01-01

    This study assesses the extent of "first-cost green building construction premiums" in the healthcare sector based on data submitted by and interviews with 13 current LEED-certified and LEED-registered healthcare project teams, coupled with a literature survey of articles on the topics of actual and perceived first-cost premiums associated with green building strategies. This analysis covers both perceived and realized costs across a range of projects in this sector, leading to the following conclusions: Construction first-cost premiums may be lower than is generally perceived, and they appear to be independent of both building size and level of "green" achievement; projects are using financial incentives and philanthropy to drive higher levels of achievement; premiums are decreasing over time; and projects are benefiting from improvements in health and productivity which, although difficult to monetize, are universally valued.

  2. Cost Effectiveness of Premium Versus Regular Gasoline in MCPS Buses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baacke, Clifford M.; Frankel, Steven M.

    The primary question posed in this study is whether premium or regular gasoline is more cost effective for the Montgomery County Public School (MCPS) bus fleet, as a whole, when miles-per-gallon, cost-per-gallon, and repair costs associated with mileage are considered. On average, both miles-per-gallon, and repair costs-per-mile favor premium…

  3. 75 FR 38748 - Medicaid Program; Premiums and Cost Sharing; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services 42 CFR Parts 447 and 457 [CMS-2244-CN] RIN 0938-AP73 Medicaid Program; Premiums and Cost Sharing; Correction AGENCY: Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS), HHS ACTION: Correction of final rule with comment period...

  4. Using the Black Scholes method for estimating high cost illness insurance premiums in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Chicaíza

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This article applied the Black-Scholes option valuation formula to calculating high-cost illness reinsurance premiums in the Colombian health system. The coverage pattern used in reinsuring high-cost illnesses was replicated by means of a European call option contract. The option’s relevant variables and parameters were adapted to an insurance market context. The premium estimated by the BlackScholes method fell within the range of premiums estimated by the actuarial method.

  5. Do "premium" joint implants add value?: analysis of high cost joint implants in a community registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gioe, Terence J; Sharma, Amit; Tatman, Penny; Mehle, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Numerous joint implant options of varying cost are available to the surgeon, but it is unclear whether more costly implants add value in terms of function or longevity. We evaluated registry survival of higher-cost "premium" knee and hip components compared to lower-priced standard components. Premium TKA components were defined as mobile-bearing designs, high-flexion designs, oxidized-zirconium designs, those including moderately crosslinked polyethylene inserts, or some combination. Premium THAs included ceramic-on-ceramic, metal-on-metal, and ceramic-on-highly crosslinked polyethylene designs. We compared 3462 standard TKAs to 2806 premium TKAs and 868 standard THAs to 1311 premium THAs using standard statistical methods. The cost of the premium implants was on average approximately $1000 higher than the standard implants. There was no difference in the cumulative revision rate at 7-8 years between premium and standard TKAs or THAs. In this time frame, premium implants did not demonstrate better survival than standard implants. Revision indications for TKA did not differ, and infection and instability remained contributors. Longer followup is necessary to demonstrate whether premium implants add value in younger patient groups. Level III, therapeutic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  6. Demand of Insurance under the Cost-of-Capital Premium Calculation Principle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Merz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We study the optimal insurance design problem. This is a risk sharing problem between an insured and an insurer. The main novelty in this paper is that we study this optimization problem under a risk-adjusted premium calculation principle for the insurance cover. This risk-adjusted premium calculation principle uses the cost-of-capital approach as it is suggested (and used by the regulator and the insurance industry.

  7. Covering bariatric surgery has minimal effect on insurance premium costs within the Affordable Care Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Wayne; Williams, Brandon; Scott, John; Morton, John

    2016-06-01

    Currently, of the 51 state health exchanges operating under the Affordable Care Act, only 23 include benchmark plans that cover bariatric surgery coverage. Bariatric surgery coverage is not considered an essential health benefit in 28 state exchanges, and this lack of coverage has a discriminatory and detrimental impact on millions of Americans participating in state exchanges that do not provide bariatric surgery coverage. We examined 3 state exchanges in which a portion of their plans provided coverage for bariatric surgery to determine if bariatric surgery coverage is correlated with premium costs. State health exchanges; United States. Data from the 2015 state exchange plans were analyzed using information from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services' Individual Market Landscape file and Benefits and Cost Sharing public use files. Only 3 states (Oklahoma, Oregon, and Virginia) in the analysis have 1 or more rating regions in which a portion of the plans cover bariatric surgery. In Oklahoma and Oregon, the average monthly premiums for all bronze, silver, and gold coverage levels are higher for plans covering bariatric surgery. Only 1 of these states included platinum plans that cover bariatric surgery. The average difference in premiums was between $1 to $45 higher in Oklahoma, and $18 to $32 higher in Oregon. Conversely, in Virginia, the average monthly premiums are between $2 and $21 lower for each level for plans covering bariatric surgery. Monthly premiums for plans covering versus not covering bariatric surgery ranged from 6% lower to 15% higher in the same geographic rating region. Across all 3 states in the sample, the average monthly premiums do not differ consistently on the basis of whether the state exchange plans cover bariatric surgery. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Understanding your health care costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/patientinstructions/000878.htm Understanding your health care costs To use the sharing features on this page, ... on out-of-pocket costs. Out-of-Pocket Costs The good news is there is a limit ...

  9. A guide to understanding the variation in premiums in rural health insurance marketplaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Abigail R; McBride, Timothy D; Kemper, Leah M; Mueller, Keith

    2014-05-01

    Key Findings. (1) State-level decisions in implementing the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 (ACA) have led to significant state variation in the design of Health Insurance Marketplace (HIM) rating areas. In some designs, rural counties are grouped together, while in others, rural and urban counties have been deliberately mixed. (2) Urban counties have, on average, approximately one more firm participating in the marketplaces, representing about 11 more plan offerings, than rural counties have. (3) The highest-valued "platinum" plan types are less likely to be available in rural areas. Thus, the overall mix of plan types should be factored into the reporting of average premiums. (4) Levels of competition are likely to have a greater impact on the decisions of firms considering whether to operate in higher-cost areas or not, as those firms must determine how they can pass such costs on to consumers, conditional on the market share they are likely to control.

  10. Consumers Buy Lower-Cost Plans On Covered California, Suggesting Exposure To Premium Increases Is Less Than Commonly Reported.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabel, Jon R; Arnold, Daniel R; Fulton, Brent D; Stromberg, Sam T; Green, Matthew; Whitmore, Heidi; Scheffler, Richard M

    2017-01-01

    With the notable exception of California, states have not made enrollment data for their Affordable Care Act (ACA) Marketplace plans publicly available. Researchers thus have tracked premium trends by calculating changes in the average price for plans offered (a straight average across plans) rather than for plans purchased (a weighted average). Using publicly available enrollment data for Covered California, we found that the average purchased price for all plans was 11.6 percent less than the average offered price in 2014, 13.2 percent less in 2015, and 15.2 percent less in 2016. Premium growth measured by plans purchased was roughly 2 percentage points less than when measured by plans offered in 2014-15 and 2015-16. We observed shifts in consumer choices toward less costly plans, both between and within tiers, and we estimate that a $100 increase in a plan's net annual premium reduces its probability of selection. These findings suggest that the Marketplaces are helping consumers moderate premium cost growth. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  11. Medicaid program; premiums and cost sharing. Final rule; delay of effective date and reopening of comment period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-27

    This action temporarily delays the effective date of the November 25, 2008 final rule entitled, Medicaid Program; Premiums and Cost Sharing" (73 FR 71828) until December 31, 2009. In addition, this action reopens the comment period on the policies set out in the November 25, 2008 final rule, and specifically solicits comments on the effect of certain provisions of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009.

  12. How the ACA's Health Insurance Expansions Have Affected Out-of-Pocket Cost-Sharing and Spending on Premiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glied, Sherry; Solís-Román, Claudia; Parikh, Shivani

    2016-09-01

    One important benefit gained by the millions of Americans with health insurance through the Affordable Care Act (ACA) is protection from high out-of-pocket health spending. While Medicaid unambiguously reduces out-of-pocket premium and medical costs for low-income people, it is less certain that marketplace coverage and other types of insurance purchased to comply with the law's individual mandate also protect from high health spending. Goal: To compare out-of-pocket spending in 2014 to spending in 2013; assess how this spending changed in states where many people enrolled in the marketplaces relative to states where few people enrolled; and project the decline in the percentage of people paying high amounts out-of-pocket. Methods: Linear regression models were used to estimate whether people under age 65 spent above certain thresholds. Key findings and conclusions: The probability of incurring high out-of-pocket costs and premium expenses declined as marketplace enrollment increased. The percentage reductions were greatest among those with incomes between 250 percent and 399 percent of poverty, those who were eligible for premium subsidies, and those who previously were uninsured or had very limited nongroup coverage. These effects appear largely attributable to marketplace enrollment rather than to other ACA provisions or to economic trends.

  13. Construction Performance Optimization toward Green Building Premium Cost Based on Greenship Rating Tools Assessment with Value Engineering Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latief, Yusuf; Berawi, Mohammed Ali; Basten, Van; Riswanto; Budiman, Rachmat

    2017-07-01

    Green building concept becomes important in current building life cycle to mitigate environment issues. The purpose of this paper is to optimize building construction performance towards green building premium cost, achieving green building rating tools with optimizing life cycle cost. Therefore, this study helps building stakeholder determining building fixture to achieve green building certification target. Empirically the paper collects data of green building in the Indonesian construction industry such as green building fixture, initial cost, operational and maintenance cost, and certification score achievement. After that, using value engineering method optimized green building fixture based on building function and cost aspects. Findings indicate that construction performance optimization affected green building achievement with increasing energy and water efficiency factors and life cycle cost effectively especially chosen green building fixture.

  14. State trends in premiums and deductibles, 2003-2009: how building on the Affordable Care Act will help stem the tide of rising costs and eroding benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoen, Cathy; Stremikis, Kristof; How, Sabrina K H; Collins, Sara R

    2010-12-01

    Rapidly rising health insurance costs have strained U.S. families and employers in recent years. This issue brief examines data for all states on changes in private employer premiums and deductibles for 2003 and 2009. The analysis finds that premiums for businesses and their employees increased 41 percent across states from 2003 to 2009, while per-person deductibles jumped 77 percent in large as well as small firms. If these trends continue at the rate prior to enactment of the Affordable Care Act, the average premium for family coverage will rise 79 percent by 2020, to more than $23,000. The authors describe how health reform offers the potential to reduce insurance cost growth while improving value and protection. If reforms succeed in slowing premium growth by 1 percentage point annually in all states, by 2020 employers and families together will save $2,323 annually for family coverage, compared with projected trends.

  15. Medicaid program; premiums and cost sharing. Final rule; delay of effective data and reopening of comment period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-27

    In accordance with the memorandum of January 20, 2009, from the Assistant to the President and Chief of Staff, entitled "Regulatory Review Plan," this action temporarily delays for 60 days the effective date of the final rule entitled "Medicaid Program; Premiums and Cost Sharing" (73 FR 71828). The temporary 60-day delay in effective date is necessary to give Department officials the opportunity for further review and consideration of new regulations. In addition, this action reopens the comment period on the policies set out in the November 25, 2008 final rule.

  16. RISK PREMIUM IN MOTOR VEHICLE INSURANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BANU ÖZGÜREL

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The pure premium or risk premium is the premium that would exactly meet the expected cost of the risk covered ignoring management expenses, commissions, contingency loading, etc. Claim frequency rate and mean claim size are required for estimation in calculating risk premiums. In this study, we discussed to estimate claim frequency rate and mean claim size with several methods and calculated risk premiums. Data, which supported our study, is provided by insurance company involving with motor vehicle insurance.

  17. Received, Understanding and Satisfaction of National Health Insurance Premium Subsidy Scheme by Families of Children with Disabilities: A Census Study in Taipei City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jin-Ding; Lin, Ya-Wen; Yen, Chia-Feng; Loh, Ching-Hui; Chwo, Miao-Ju

    2009-01-01

    The purposes of the present study are to provide the first data on utilization, understanding and satisfaction of the National Health Insurance (NHI) premium subsidy for families of children with disabilities in Taipei. Data from the 2001 Taipei Early Intervention Utilization and Evaluation Survey for Aged 0-6 Children with Disabilities were…

  18. 42 CFR 423.780 - Premium subsidy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) MEDICARE PROGRAM VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Premiums and Cost-Sharing Subsidies for Low... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Premium subsidy. 423.780 Section 423.780 Public...-service plans or 1876 cost plans) in a PDP region in the reference month. (ii) Premium amounts. The...

  19. An Analysis of a Biometric Screening and Premium Incentive-Based Employee Wellness Program: Enrollment Patterns, Cost, and Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeng, Daniel D; Geng, Zhi; Marshall, Wendy M; Hess, Allison L; Tomcavage, Janet F

    2017-11-14

    Since 2012, a large health care system has offered an employee wellness program providing premium discounts for those who voluntarily undergo biometric screenings and meet goals. This study evaluates the program impact on care utilization and total cost of care, taking into account employee self-selection into the program. A retrospective claims data analysis of 6453 employees between 2011 and 2015 was conducted, categorizing the sample into 3 mutually exclusive subgroups: Subgroup 1 enrolled and met goals in all years, Subgroup 2 enrolled or met goals in some years but not all, and Subgroup 3 never enrolled. Each subgroup was compared to a cohort of employees in other employer groups (N = 24,061). Using a difference-in-difference method, significant reductions in total medical cost (14.2%; P = 0.014) and emergency department (ED) visits (11.2%; P = 0.058) were observed only among Subgroup 2 in 2015. No significant impact was detected among those in Subgroup 1. Those in Subgroup 1 were less likely to have chronic conditions at baseline. The results indicate that the wellness program enrollment was characterized by self-selection of healthier employees, among whom the program appeared to have no significant impact. Yet, cost savings and reductions in ED visits were observed among the subset of employees who enrolled or met goal in some years but not all, suggesting a potential link between the wellness program and positive behavior changes among certain subsets of the employee population.

  20. An Analysis of Cost Premiums and Losses Associated with USAF Military Construction (MILCON)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    construction firms ( Molenaar et al. 1999). The design-build+ method is a form of DB which brings the contractor into the planning phase early to help...of firm fixed prices requires the contractor to commit to a set price early in the design process ( Molenaar et al. 1999). Both firm fixed and cost...Research The performance of MILCON projects based on execution method has been investigated in terms of cost, performance, and schedule. Molenaar

  1. Premiums And Reserves, Adjusted By Distortions

    OpenAIRE

    Pichler, Alois

    2013-01-01

    The net-premium principle is considered to be the most genuine and fair premium principle in actuarial applications. However, an insurance company, applying the net-premium principle, goes bankrupt with probability one in the long run, even if the company covers its entire costs by collecting the respective fees from its customers. It is therefore an intrinsic necessity for the insurance industry to apply premium principles, which guarantee at least further existence of the company itself; ot...

  2. Green Building Premium Cost Analysis in Indonesia Using Work Breakdown Structure Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basten, V.; Latief, Y.; Berawi, M. A.; Riswanto; Muliarto, H.

    2018-03-01

    The concept of green building in the construction industry is indispensable for mitigating environmental issues such as waste, pollution, and carbon emissions. There are some countries that have Green Building rating tools. Indonesia particularly is the country which has Greenship rating tools but the number of Green Building is relatively low. Development of building construction is depended on building investors or owner initiation, so this research is conducted to get the building aspects that have significant effect on the attractiveness using The Green Building Concept. The method in this research is work breakdown structure method that detailing the green building activities. The particular activities will be processed to get the cost elements for the green building achievement that it was targeted to improve better than conventional building. The final result of the study was a very significant work package on green building construction in the city of Indonesia case study.

  3. Systematic Approach to Better Understanding Integration Costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stark, Gregory B. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This research presents a systematic approach to evaluating the costs of integrating new generation and operational procedures into an existing power system, and the methodology is independent of the type of change or nature of the generation. The work was commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy and performed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory to investigate three integration cost-related questions: (1) How does the addition of new generation affect a system's operational costs, (2) How do generation mix and operating parameters and procedures affect costs, and (3) How does the amount of variable generation (non-dispatchable wind and solar) impact the accuracy of natural gas orders? A detailed operational analysis was performed for seven sets of experiments: variable generation, large conventional generation, generation mix, gas prices, fast-start generation, self-scheduling, and gas supply constraints. For each experiment, four components of integration costs were examined: cycling costs, non-cycling VO&M costs, fuel costs, and reserves provisioning costs. The investigation was conducted with PLEXOS production cost modeling software utilizing an updated version of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers 118-bus test system overlaid with projected operating loads from the Western Electricity Coordinating Council for the Sacramento Municipal Utility District, Puget Sound Energy, and Public Service Colorado in the year 2020. The test system was selected in consultation with an industry-based technical review committee to be a reasonable approximation of an interconnection yet small enough to allow the research team to investigate a large number of scenarios and sensitivity combinations. The research should prove useful to market designers, regulators, utilities, and others who want to better understand how system changes can affect production costs.

  4. Geographic variation in premiums in health insurance marketplaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Abigail R; McBride, Timothy D; Kemper, Leah M; Mueller, Keith

    2014-08-01

    This policy brief analyzes the 2014 premiums associated with qualified health plans (QHPs) made available through new health insurance marketplaces (HIMs), an implementation of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) of 2010. We report differences in premiums by insurance rating areas while controlling for other important factors such as the actuarial value of the plan (metal level), cost-of-living differences, and state-level decisions over type of rating area. While market equilibrium, based on experience and understanding of the characteristics of the new market, should not be expected this soon, preliminary results give policymakers key issues to monitor.

  5. Downside Variance Risk Premium

    OpenAIRE

    Feunou, Bruno; Jahan-Parvar, Mohammad; Okou, Cedric

    2015-01-01

    We propose a new decomposition of the variance risk premium in terms of upside and downside variance risk premia. The difference between upside and downside variance risk premia is a measure of skewness risk premium. We establish that the downside variance risk premium is the main component of the variance risk premium, and that the skewness risk premium is a priced factor with significant prediction power for aggregate excess returns. Our empirical investigation highlights the positive and s...

  6. Estimating and understanding DOE waste management costs'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, J.S.; Sherick, M.J.

    1995-01-01

    This paper examines costs associated with cleaning up the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) nuclear facilities, with particular emphasis on the waste management program. Life-cycle waste management costs have been compiled and reported in the DOE Baseline Environmental Management Report (BEMR). Waste management costs are a critical issue for DOE because of the current budget constraints. The DOE sites are struggling to accomplish their environmental management objectives given funding scenarios that are well below anticipated waste management costs. Through the BEMR process, DOE has compiled complex-wide cleanup cost estimates and has begun analysis of these costs with respect to alternative waste management scenarios and policy strategies. From this analysis, DOE is attempting to identify the major cost drivers and prioritize environmental management activities to achieve maximum utilization of existing funding. This paper provides an overview of the methodology DOE has used to estimate and analyze some waste management costs, including the key data requirements and uncertainties

  7. 49 CFR 260.17 - Credit risk premium analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Credit risk premium analysis. 260.17 Section 260... Financial Assistance § 260.17 Credit risk premium analysis. (a) When Federal appropriations are not available to cover the total subsidy cost, the Administrator will determine the Credit Risk Premium...

  8. 49 CFR 260.15 - Credit risk premium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Credit risk premium. 260.15 Section 260.15... REHABILITATION AND IMPROVEMENT FINANCING PROGRAM Overview § 260.15 Credit risk premium. (a) Where available... pay to the Administrator a Credit Risk Premium adequate to cover that portion of the subsidy cost not...

  9. 24 CFR 221.254 - Mortgage insurance premiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mortgage insurance premiums. 221... Cost Homes § 221.254 Mortgage insurance premiums. (a) All of the provisions of §§ 203.260 through 203.295 of this chapter relating to mortgage insurance premiums shall apply to mortgages insured under...

  10. Decreasing Relative Risk Premium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Frank

    relative risk premium in the small implies decreasing relative risk premium in the large, and decreasing relative risk premium everywhere implies risk aversion. We finally show that preferences with decreasing relative risk premium may be equivalently expressed in terms of certain preferences on risky......We consider the risk premium demanded by a decision maker with wealth x in order to be indifferent between obtaining a new level of wealth y1 with certainty, or to participate in a lottery which either results in unchanged present wealth or a level of wealth y2 > y1. We define the relative risk...... premium as the quotient between the risk premium and the increase in wealth y1–x which the decision maker puts on the line by choosing the lottery in place of receiving y1 with certainty. We study preferences such that the relative risk premium is a decreasing function of present wealth, and we determine...

  11. Variable-Rate Premiums

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation — These interest rates are used to value vested benefits for variable rate premium purposes as described in PBGC's regulation on Premium Rates (29 CFR Part 4006) and...

  12. Health Insurance Marketplaces: Premium Trends in Rural Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Abigail R; Kemper, Leah M; McBride, Timothy D; Meuller, Keith J

    2016-05-01

    Since 2014, when the Health Insurance Marketplaces (HIMs) authorized by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) were implemented, considerable premium changes have been observed in the marketplaces across the 50 states and the District of Columbia. This policy brief assesses the changes in average HIM plan premiums from 2014 to 2016, before accounting for subsidies, with an emphasis on the widening variation across rural and urban places. Since this brief focuses on premiums without accounting for subsidies, this is not intended to be an analysis of the "affordability" of ACA premiums, as that would require assessment of premiums, cost-sharing adjustments, and other factors.

  13. Renewable Portfolio Standards: Understanding Costs and Benefits | Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    considering the highest cost and lowest benefit outcomes. More Information: Fact Sheet Image of a report cover | Presentation Image of a report cover for A Survey of State-Level Cost and Benefit Estimates of Renewable Portfolio Standards: Understanding Costs and Benefits State policymakers, public utilities commissions, and

  14. Understanding Time-driven Activity-based Costing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharan, Alok D; Schroeder, Gregory D; West, Michael E; Vaccaro, Alexander R

    2016-03-01

    Transitioning to a value-based health care system will require providers to increasingly scrutinize their outcomes and costs. Although there has been a great deal of effort to understand outcomes, cost accounting in health care has been a greater challenge. Currently the cost accounting methods used by hospitals and providers are based off a fee-for-service system. As resources become increasingly scarce and the health care system attempts to understand which services provide the greatest value, it will be critically important to understand the true costs of delivering a service. An understanding of the true costs of a particular service will help providers make smarter decisions on how to allocate and utilize resources as well as determine which activities are nonvalue added. Achieving value will require providers to have a greater focus on accurate outcome data as well as better methods of cost accounting.

  15. PENENTUAN CADANGAN PREMI DENGAN METODE PREMIUM SUFFICIENCY PADA ASURANSI JIWA SEUMUR HIDUP JOINT LIFE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NI PUTU MIRAH PERMATASARI

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to get the formula of premium reserves through the premium sufficiency method. Premium reserve is the amount of fund that is collected by the insurance company in preparation for the claim’s payment. Premium sufficiency method is gross premium calculation. To construct that formula, this research used Tabel Mortalitas Indonesia (TMI 2011, interest rate 2.5% and cost of alpha %. Based on simulation result in men premium reserve value of age 1 of 56 years propotional with insured periods, but after56 years enhancement of premium reserve value.

  16. Premium cost optimization of operational and maintenance of green building in Indonesia using life cycle assessment method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latief, Yusuf; Berawi, Mohammed Ali; Basten, Van; Budiman, Rachmat; Riswanto

    2017-06-01

    Building has a big impact on the environmental developments. There are three general motives in building, namely the economy, society, and environment. Total completed building construction in Indonesia increased by 116% during 2009 to 2011. It made the energy consumption increased by 11% within the last three years. In fact, 70% of energy consumption is used for electricity needs on commercial buildings which leads to an increase of greenhouse gas emissions by 25%. Green Building cycle costs is known as highly building upfront cost in Indonesia. The purpose of optimization in this research improves building performance with some of green concept alternatives. Research methodology is mixed method of qualitative and quantitative approaches through questionnaire surveys and case study. Assessing the successful of optimization functions in the existing green building is based on the operational and maintenance phase with the Life Cycle Assessment Method. Choosing optimization results were based on the largest efficiency of building life cycle and the most effective cost to refund.

  17. The Dutch premium principle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Heerwaarden, A.E.; Kaas, R.

    1992-01-01

    A premium principle is derived, in which the loading for a risk is the reinsurance loading for an excess-of-loss cover. It is shown that the principle is well-behaved in the sense that it results in larger premiums for risks that are larger in stop-loss order or in stochastic dominance.

  18. ACA Marketplace premiums and competition among hospitals and physician practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyakova, Maria; Bundorf, M Kate; Kessler, Daniel P; Baker, Laurence C

    2018-02-01

    To examine the association between annual premiums for health plans available in Federally Facilitated Marketplaces (FFMs) and the extent of competition and integration among physicians and hospitals, as well as the number of insurers. We used observational data from the Center for Consumer Information and Insurance Oversight on the annual premiums and other characteristics of plans, matched to measures of physician, hospital, and insurer market competitiveness and other characteristics of 411 rating areas in the 37 FFMs. We estimated multivariate models of the relationship between annual premiums and Herfindahl-Hirschman indices of hospitals and physician practices, controlling for the number of insurers, the extent of physician-hospital integration, and other plan and rating area characteristics. Premiums for Marketplace plans were higher in rating areas in which physician, hospital, and insurance markets were less competitive. An increase from the 10th to the 90th percentile of physician concentration and hospital concentration was associated with increases of $393 and $189, respectively, in annual premiums for the Silver plan with the second lowest cost. A similar increase in the number of insurers was associated with a $421 decrease in premiums. Physician-hospital integration was not significantly associated with premiums. Premiums for FFM plans were higher in markets with greater concentrations of hospitals and physicians but fewer insurers. Higher premiums make health insurance less affordable for people purchasing unsubsidized coverage and raise the cost of Marketplace premium tax credits to the government.

  19. Employee responses to health insurance premium increases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Dana P; Leibowitz, Arleen A; Robalino, David A

    2004-01-01

    To determine the sensitivity of employees' health insurance decisions--including the decision to not choose health maintenance organization or fee-for-service coverage--during periods of rapidly escalating healthcare costs. A retrospective cohort study of employee plan choices at a single large firm with a "cafeteria-style" benefits plan wherein employees paid all the additional cost of purchasing more generous insurance. We modeled the probability that an employee would drop coverage or switch plans in response to employee premium increases using data from a single large US company with employees across 47 states during the 3-year period of 1989 through 1991, a time of large premium increases within and across plans. Premium increases induced substantial plan switching. Single employees were more likely to respond to premium increases by dropping coverage, whereas families tended to switch to another plan. Premium increases of 10% induced 7% of single employees to drop or severely cut back on coverage; 13% to switch to another plan; and 80% to remain in their existing plan. Similar figures for those with family coverage were 11%, 12%, and 77%, respectively. Simulation results that control for known covariates show similar increases. When faced with a dramatic increase in premiums--on the order of 20%--nearly one fifth of the single employees dropped coverage compared with 10% of those with family coverage. Employee coverage decisions are sensitive to rapidly increasing premiums, and single employees may be likely to drop coverage. This finding suggests that sustained premium increases could induce substantial increases in the number of uninsured individuals.

  20. Premium Auctions and Risk Preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, A.; Offerman, T.J.S.; Zou, L.

    2010-01-01

    In a premium auction, the seller offers some "pay back", called premium, to the highest bidders. This paper investigates how the performance of such premium tactic is related to the participant's risk preferences. By developing an English premium auction model with symmetric interdependent values,

  1. Marriage Premium in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Mercan, Murat A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper contributes to the literature in three ways. Our first contribution is calculating the marriage premium for Turkey. Our results suggest that married men earn 27 percent more than single men and married women earn 4 percent less than single women. Our second contribution is calculating the marriage premium for Turkey’s regions. For men, the wage difference is the smallest, 0.43, in Istanbul. The difference is highest in Akdeniz region. For women, the wage difference is smallest, -0....

  2. PENENTUAN CADANGAN PREMI DENGAN METODE PREMIUM SUFFICIENCY PADA ASURANSI JIWA SEUMUR HIDUP JOINT LIFE

    OpenAIRE

    NI PUTU MIRAH PERMATASARI; I NYOMAN WIDANA; KARTIKA SARI

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research was to get the formula of premium reserves through the premium sufficiency method. Premium reserve is the amount of fund that is collected by the insurance company in preparation for the claim’s payment. Premium sufficiency method is gross premium calculation. To construct that formula, this research used Tabel Mortalitas Indonesia (TMI) 2011, interest rate 2.5% and cost of alpha %. Based on simulation result in men premium reserve value of age 1 of 56 years propotio...

  3. Surgeons' Perspectives on Premium Implants in Total Joint Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasterlain, Amy S; Bello, Ricardo J; Vigdorchik, Jonathan; Schwarzkopf, Ran; Long, William J

    2017-09-01

    Declining total joint arthroplasty reimbursement and rising implant prices have led many hospitals to restrict access to newer, more expensive total joint arthroplasty implants. The authors sought to understand arthroplasty surgeons' perspectives on implants regarding innovation, product launch, costs, and cost-containment strategies including surgeon gain-sharing and patient cost-sharing. Members of the International Congress for Joint Reconstruction were surveyed regarding attitudes about implant technology and costs. Descriptive and univariate analyses were performed. A total of 126 surgeons responded from all 5 regions of the United States. Although 76.9% believed new products advance technology in orthopedics, most (66.7%) supported informing patients that new implants lack long-term clinical data and restricting new implants to a small number of investigators prior to widespread market launch. The survey revealed that 66.7% would forgo gain-sharing incentives in exchange for more freedom to choose implants. Further, 76.9% believed that patients should be allowed to pay incremental costs for "premium" implants. Surgeons who believed that premium products advance orthopedic technology were more willing to forgo gain-sharing (P=.040). Surgeons with higher surgical volume (P=.007), those who believed implant companies should be allowed to charge more for new technology (Pnew implants with patients. Many surgeons support alternative payment models permitting surgeons and patients to retain implant selection autonomy. Most respondents prioritized patient beneficence and surgeon autonomy above personal financial gain. [Orthopedics. 2017; 40(5):e825-e830.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  4. 7 CFR 1962.29 - Payment of fees and insurance premiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Payment of fees and insurance premiums. 1962.29... Security § 1962.29 Payment of fees and insurance premiums. (a) Fees. (1) Security instruments. Borrowers... the service cannot be obtained without cost. (b) Insurance premiums. County Supervisors are authorized...

  5. The marriage premium and compensating wage differentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, W R; Harford, K

    1989-12-01

    This paper proposes and tests an alternative explanation of the marriage premium that relies upon differences in workers' tastes and compensating wage differentials. A key assumption is that marital status proxies for the consumption of family goods, such as children, and that these are costly. Workers whose greater demands for family goods are taste- generated and shown to choose jobs that offer greater wage, and less non-pecuniary compensation. This creates an observed wage premium that has nothing to do with differences in workers' productivities. Supporting empirical evidence for this hypothesis is presented, including a reevaluation of previous studies.

  6. Curb Your Premium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amaral-Garcia, Sofia; Grembi, Veronica

    2014-01-01

    institutional setting. In particular, we implement a difference-in-differences strategy using Italian data at the provider level from 2001 to 2008 to evaluate the impact of monitoring claims on medical liability expenditures, measured as insurance premiums and legal expenditures, which was adopted by only some...... Regions. Our results show that this information-enhancing policy reduces paid premiums by around 15%. This reduced-form effect might arise by higher bargaining power on the demand side or increased competition on the supply side of the insurance market. Validity tests show that our findings are not driven...

  7. 24 CFR 241.805 - Insurance premiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insurance premiums. 241.805 Section... Without a HUD-Insured or HUD-Held Mortgage Premiums § 241.805 Insurance premiums. (a) First premium. The... insurance premium equal to one percent of the original face amount of the note. (b) Second premium. The...

  8. 24 CFR 232.805 - Insurance premiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insurance premiums. 232.805 Section... FACILITIES Contract Rights and Obligations Premiums § 232.805 Insurance premiums. (a) First premium. The... insurance premium equal to one percent of the original face amount of the note. (b) Second premium. The...

  9. Decreasing relative risk premium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Frank

    2007-01-01

    such that the corresponding relative risk premium is a decreasing function of present wealth, and we determine the set of associated utility functions. We find a new characterization of risk vulnerability and determine a large set of utility functions, closed under summation and composition, which are both risk vulnerable...

  10. The dynamics of risk premiums in Nord Pool's futures market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mork, E.

    2006-01-01

    Premiums in futures prices are usually considered through the use of 2 models: a no-arbitrage model; and the equilibrium approach or theory of normal backwardation. The no-arbitrage approach equates futures prices with spot prices, storage costs and convenience yields, and is difficult to apply to electricity markets. This paper investigated future electricity prices in Nord Pool's futures market using an equilibrium approach, which split futures prices into an expected spot price component and a risk premium component. Three main hypotheses were used: (1) that risk premiums were present in the Nord Pool futures market during the period 1997-2004; that risk premiums in the Nord Pool futures market were smaller or absent during the period of 2000 to 2002; and, that there was a significant change in risk premiums in Nord Pool's futures market after the winter of 2002-2003 due to a change in consumer hedging behaviour. Futures prices were compared to realized spot prices in their delivery periods in order to test the hypotheses. In order to estimate the futures premiums, a 1-sample test was performed on the entire period for 1, 30, 60, and 90 days before delivery of the block or month contract. The test employed the null hypothesis that the futures premiums were 0. Premiums were positive and varied between 3.7 per cent and 9.3 per cent. The purpose of the study was to determine whether risk premiums were present. Results showed that risk premiums varied over time. Two additional hypotheses were then investigated to examine whether the presence of outside speculators reduced risk premiums, and to see if a period of high prices and volatility caused more buyers to hedge in the futures market. Results showed that in the face of volatility and higher prices, consumers do not purchase fixed-price contracts which would ultimately increase futures premiums in the market. It was concluded that premiums are an important element in the pricing of Nord Pool futures and forwards

  11. Understanding Costs of Care in the Operating Room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childers, Christopher P; Maggard-Gibbons, Melinda

    2018-04-18

    .40; ambulatory, $14.35 of $20.90), with nonbillable supplies accounting for less than 10% of total expenses (inpatient, $2.55 of $37.37; ambulatory, $3.33 of $35.39). From FY2005 to FY2014, expenses in the OR have increased faster than the consumer price index and medical consumer price index. Teaching hospitals had slower growth in costs than nonteaching hospitals. Over time, the proportion of expenses dedicated to indirect costs has increased, while the proportion attributable to salary and supplies has decreased. The mean cost of OR time is $36 to $37 per minute, using financial data from California's short-term general and specialty hospitals in FY2014. These statewide data provide a generalizable benchmark for the value of OR time. Furthermore, understanding the composition of costs will allow those interested in value improvement to identify high-yield targets.

  12. Risk premium and insalubrity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portela, Josmael; Figueira, Rosania Lucia

    2005-01-01

    The risk premium and insalubrity have been widely discussed in the legal universe/labor. The social and economic impacts interfere on the right of the professional exposed to ionizing radiation to have or not additional rights. Due to the large accidents, with world repercussion, which occurred in recent times, involving workers undergoing these radiation, these professionals are receiving special attention by the competent bodies on the right or not to risk premium and insalubrity. The professional who operates equipment that emit ionising radiation, or those working directly with radioisotopes are undoubtedly under imminent risk, even if they complied with all safety requirements, thus deserving a more careful analysis by our lawyers with respect to receive additional percentages. Recent decisions of higher Courts begin to consolidate a more just and logical reasoning on the subject

  13. PREMIUMS CALCULATION FOR LIFE INSURANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA PREDA

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the techniques and the formulas used on international practice for establishing the premiums for a life policy. The formulas are generally based on a series of indicators named mortality indicators which mainly point out the insured survival probability, the death probability and life expectancy at certain age. I determined, using a case study, the unique net premium, the annual net premium for a survival insurance, whole life insurance and mixed life insurance.

  14. Insurance premiums and insurance coverage of near-poor children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, Jack; Reschovsky, James D; Cunningham, Peter; Kenney, Genevieve; Dubay, Lisa

    States increasingly are using premiums for near-poor children in their public insurance programs (Medicaid/SCHIP) to limit private insurance crowd-out and constrain program costs. Using national data from four rounds of the Community Tracking Study Household Surveys spanning the seven years from 1996 to 2003, this study estimates a multinomial logistic regression model examining how public and private insurance premiums affect insurance coverage outcomes (Medicaid/SCHIP coverage, private coverage, and no coverage). Higher public premiums are significantly associated with a lower probability of public coverage and higher probabilities of private coverage and uninsurance; higher private premiums are significantly related to a lower probability of private coverage and higher probabilities of public coverage and uninsurance. The results imply that uninsurance rates will rise if both public and private premiums increase, and suggest that states that impose or increase public insurance premiums for near-poor children will succeed in discouraging crowd-out of private insurance, but at the expense of higher rates of uninsurance. Sustained increases in private insurance premiums will continue to create enrollment pressures on state insurance programs for children.

  15. Patient-centered and visual quality outcomes of premium cataract surgery: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sophia Y; Stem, Maxwell S; Oren, Gale; Shtein, Roni; Lichter, Paul R

    2017-06-26

    Over 8 million cataract surgeries are performed in the United States and the European Union annually, with many patients choosing to pay out of pocket for premium options including premium intraocular lens implants (IOLs) or laser-assisted cataract surgery (LACS). This report provides a systematic review evaluating patient-centered and visual quality outcomes comparing standard monofocal IOLs to premium cataract surgery options. PubMed and EMBASE were searched for publications published between January 1, 1980, and September 18, 2016, on multifocal, accommodative, and toric IOLs, monovision, and LACS, which reported on 1) dysphotopsias, 2) contrast sensitivity, 3) spectacle independence, 4) vision-related quality of life or patient satisfaction, and 5) IOL exchange. Multifocal lenses achieved higher rates of spectacle independence compared to monofocal lenses but also had higher reported frequency of dysphotopsia and worse contrast sensitivity, especially with low light or glare. Accommodative lenses were not associated with reduced contrast sensitivity or more dysphotopsia but had only modest improvements in spectacle independence compared to monofocal lenses. Studies of monovision did not target a sufficiently myopic outcome in the near-vision eye to achieve the full potential for spectacle independence. Patients reported high levels of overall satisfaction regardless of implanted IOL. No studies correlated patient-reported outcomes with patient expectations. Studies are needed to thoroughly compare patient-reported outcomes with concomitant patient expectations. In light of the substantial patient costs for premium options, patients and their surgeons will benefit from a better understanding of which surgical options best meet patients' expectations and how those expectations can be impacted by premium versus monofocal-including monovision-options.

  16. Premium growth and its effect on employer-sponsored insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vistnes, Jessica; Selden, Thomas

    2011-03-01

    We use variation in premium inflation and general inflation across geographic areas to identify the effects of downward nominal wage rigidity on employers' health insurance decisions. Using employer level data from the 2000 to 2005 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Insurance Component, we examine the effect of premium growth on the likelihood that an employer offers insurance, eligibility rates among employees, continuous measures of employee premium contributions for both single and family coverage, and deductibles. We find that small, low-wage employers are less likely to offer health insurance in response to increased premium inflation, and if they do offer coverage they increase employee contributions and deductible levels. In contrast, larger, low-wage employers maintain their offers of coverage, but reduce eligibility for such coverage. They also increase employee contributions for single and family coverage, but not deductibles. Among high-wage employers, all but the largest increase deductibles in response to cost pressures.

  17. Premium quality for a mechanical design department

    OpenAIRE

    Rofín Serrà, Guillem

    2009-01-01

    This Thesis has been carried out in a market which is expected to grow rapidly in the next decade. Because of this, actors in the market like Alpha want to strengthen their business position through refining the quality of their products and processes. One of the internal targets of MD, a mechanical design department within Alpha, referred to “premium product quality parameters” although these were not defined. Hence, this Thesis intends to contribute in the definition and understanding that ...

  18. Understanding Cost-Effectiveness of Energy Efficiency Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Discusses the five standard tests used to assess the cost-effectiveness of energy efficiency, how states are using these tests, and how the tests can be used to determine the cost-effectiveness of energy efficiency measures.

  19. Understanding Health Care Costs in a Wisconsin Acute Leukemia Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Steinert

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We investigated factors driving health care costs of patients with a diagnosis of acute myeloid and acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Methods: Standard costs identified in insurance claims data obtained from the Wisconsin Health Information Organization were used in a sample of 837 acute leukemia patients from April 2009 to June 2011. The Andersen behavioral model of health care utilization guided selection of patient and community factors expected to influence health care costs. A generalized linear model fitting gamma-distributed data with log-link technique was used to analyze cost. Results: Type of treatment received and disease severity represented significant cost drivers, and patients receiving at least some of their treatment from academic medical centers experienced higher costs. Inpatient care and pharmacy costs of patients who received treatment from providers located in areas of higher poverty experienced lower costs, raising questions of potential treatment and medical practice disparities between provider locations. Directions of study findings were not consistent between different types of services received and underscore the complexity of investigating health care cost. Conclusions: While prevalence of acute leukemia in the United States is low compared to other diseases, its extreme high cost of treatment is not well understood and potentially influences treatment decisions. Acute leukemia health care costs may not follow expected patterns; further exploration of the relationship between cost and the treatment decision, and potential treatment disparities between providers in different socioeconomic locations, is needed.

  20. Medicaid and Children's Health Insurance Programs: essential health benefits in alternative benefit plans, eligibility notices, fair hearing and appeal processes, and premiums and cost sharing; exchanges: eligibility and enrollment. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-15

    This final rule implements provisions of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010 (collectively referred to as the Affordable Care Act. This final rule finalizes new Medicaid eligibility provisions; finalizes changes related to electronic Medicaid and the Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP) eligibility notices and delegation of appeals; modernizes and streamlines existing Medicaid eligibility rules; revises CHIP rules relating to the substitution of coverage to improve the coordination of CHIP coverage with other coverage; and amends requirements for benchmark and benchmark-equivalent benefit packages consistent with sections 1937 of the Social Security Act (which we refer to as ``alternative benefit plans'') to ensure that these benefit packages include essential health benefits and meet certain other minimum standards. This rule also implements specific provisions including those related to authorized representatives, notices, and verification of eligibility for qualifying coverage in an eligible employer-sponsored plan for Affordable Insurance Exchanges. This rule also updates and simplifies the complex Medicaid premium and cost sharing requirements, to promote the most effective use of services, and to assist states in identifying cost sharing flexibilities. It includes transition policies for 2014 as applicable.

  1. The impact of CHIP premium increases on insurance outcomes among CHIP eligible children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolova, Silviya; Stearns, Sally

    2014-03-03

    Within the United States, public insurance premiums are used both to discourage private health policy holders from dropping coverage and to reduce state budget costs. Prior research suggests that the odds of having private coverage and being uninsured increase with increases in public insurance premiums. The aim of this paper is to test effects of Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP) premium increases on public insurance, private insurance, and uninsurance rates. The fact that families just below and above a state-specific income cut-off are likely very similar in terms of observable and unobservable characteristics except the premium contribution provides a natural experiment for estimating the effect of premium increases. Using 2003 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) merged with CHIP premiums, we compare health insurance outcomes for CHIP eligible children as of January 2003 in states with a two-tier premium structure using a cross-sectional regression discontinuity methodology. We use difference-in-differences analysis to compare longitudinal insurance outcomes by December 2003. Higher CHIP premiums are associated with higher likelihood of private insurance. Disenrollment from CHIP in response to premium increases over time does not increase the uninsurance rate. When faced with higher CHIP premiums, private health insurance may be a preferable alternative for CHIP eligible families with higher incomes. Therefore, competition in the insurance exchanges being formed under the Affordable Care Act could enhance choice.

  2. Signaling and the Education Premium

    OpenAIRE

    Gregory Kurtzon

    2004-01-01

    A large portion of the rise in the education premium can be explained by a signaling theory of education which predicts that in the future, increases in the education level of the workforce will actually cause the education premium to rise, simply because different workers are being labeled as “highly educated†. This prediction is supported by past behavior of the high school education premium. It runs counter to the view that increases in the relative supply of high education workers wil...

  3. 28 CFR 345.52 - Premium pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Premium pay. 345.52 Section 345.52... (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.52 Premium pay. Payment of premium pay to... inmates at a location. (a) Eligibility. Inmates in first grade pay status may be considered for premium...

  4. 34 CFR 682.505 - Insurance premium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Insurance premium. 682.505 Section 682.505 Education... § 682.505 Insurance premium. (a) General. The Secretary charges the lender an insurance premium for each Federal GSL Program loan that is guaranteed, except that no insurance premium is charged on a Federal...

  5. 14 CFR 198.13 - Premium insurance-payment of premiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Premium insurance-payment of premiums. 198... (CONTINUED) WAR RISK INSURANCE AVIATION INSURANCE § 198.13 Premium insurance—payment of premiums. The insured must pay the premium for insurance issued under this part within the stated period after receipt of...

  6. Understanding the costs and schedule of hydroelectric projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merrow, E.W.; Schroeder, B.R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper is based on a study conducted for the World Bank which evaluated the feasibility of developing an empirically based ex ante project analysis system for hydroelectric projects. The system would be used to assess: the reasonableness of engineering-based cost and schedule estimates used for project appraisal and preliminary estimates used to select projects for appraisal; and the potential for cost growth and schedule slip. The system would help identify projects early in the project appraisal process that harbor significantly higher than normal risks of overrunning cost and schedule estimates

  7. Effects of public premiums on children's health insurance coverage: evidence from 1999 to 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Genevieve; Hadley, Jack; Blavin, Fredric

    This study uses 2000 to 2004 Current Population Survey data to examine the effects of public premiums on the insurance coverage of children whose family incomes are between 100% and 300% of the federal poverty level. The analysis employs multinomial logistic models that control for factors other than premium costs. While the magnitude of the estimated effects varies across models, the results consistently indicate that raising public premiums reduces enrollment in public programs, with some children who forgo public coverage having private coverage instead and others being uninsured. The results indicate that public premiums have larger effects when applied to lower-income families.

  8. 76 FR 67572 - Medicare Program; Medicare Part B Monthly Actuarial Rates, Premium Rate, and Annual Deductible...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    ... section 1839 of the Act, requires that, starting on January 1,2007, the Part B premium a beneficiary pays... private sector costs of this notice fall below this threshold as well. Executive Order 13132 establishes... B premium rate for 2012 is $99.90, which is equal to 50 percent of the monthly actuarial rate for...

  9. 75 FR 68790 - Medicare Program; Medicare Part B Monthly Actuarial Rates, Premium Rate, and Annual Deductible...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-09

    ... the Act, requires that, starting on January 1, 2007, the Part B premium a beneficiary pays each month... private sector costs of this notice fall below this threshold as well. Executive Order 13132 establishes... B premium rate for 2011 is $115.40, which is equal to 50 percent of the monthly actuarial rate for...

  10. Insurer Competition In Federally Run Marketplaces Is Associated With Lower Premiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Paul D; Banthin, Jessica S; Trachtman, Samuel

    2015-12-01

    Federal subsidies for health insurance premiums sold through the Marketplaces are tied to the cost of the benchmark plan, the second-lowest-cost silver plan. According to economic theory, the presence of more competitors should lead to lower premiums, implying smaller federal outlays for premium subsidies. The long-term impact of the Affordable Care Act on government spending will depend on the cost of these premium subsidies over time, with insurer participation and the level of competition likely to influence those costs. We studied insurer participation and premiums during the first two years of the Marketplaces. We found that the addition of a single insurer in a county was associated with a 1.2 percent lower premium for the average silver plan and a 3.5 percent lower premium for the benchmark plan in the federally run Marketplaces. We found that the effect of insurer entry was muted after two or three additional entrants. These findings suggest that increased insurer participation in the federally run Marketplaces reduces federal payments for premium subsidies. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  11. Children's understanding of the costs and rewards underlying rational action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jara-Ettinger, Julian; Gweon, Hyowon; Tenenbaum, Joshua B; Schulz, Laura E

    2015-07-01

    Humans explain and predict other agents' behavior using mental state concepts, such as beliefs and desires. Computational and developmental evidence suggest that such inferences are enabled by a principle of rational action: the expectation that agents act efficiently, within situational constraints, to achieve their goals. Here we propose that the expectation of rational action is instantiated by a naïve utility calculus sensitive to both agent-constant and agent-specific aspects of costs and rewards associated with actions. In four experiments, we show that, given an agent's choices, children (range: 5-6 year olds; N=96) can infer unobservable aspects of costs (differences in agents' competence) from information about subjective differences in rewards (differences in agents' preferences) and vice versa. Moreover, children can design informative experiments on both objects and agents to infer unobservable constraints on agents' actions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. A Model for Understanding the Relationship Between Transaction Costs and Acquisition Cost Breaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-30

    an assistant professor and received a BA in anthropology and a BA and MA in economics (2004) and a PhD in political economy and public policy (2008...between transaction costs and cost overruns. Biggs (2013) showed that as the EAC SE/PM cost ratio rises there is a statistically significant corresponding...Estimate at Completion ( EAC ) is the sum of the ACWP and the estimate to completion (ETC) for the remaining work. The ETC can be calculated using the cost

  13. Growth and variability in health plan premiums in the individual insurance market before the Affordable Care Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Jonathan

    2014-06-01

    Before we can evaluate the impact of the Affordable Care Act on health insurance premiums in the individual market, it is critical to understand the pricing trends of these premiums before the implementation of the law. Using rates of increase in the individual insurance market collected from state regulators, this issue brief documents trends in premium growth in the pre-ACA period. From 2008 to 2010, premiums grew by 10 percent or more per year. This growth was also highly variable across states, and even more variable across insurance plans within states. The study suggests that evaluating trends in premiums requires looking across a broad array of states and plans, and that policymakers must examine how present and future changes in premium rates compare with the more than 10 percent per year premium increases in the years preceding health reform.

  14. Medical malpractice reform and employer-sponsored health insurance premiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrisey, Michael A; Kilgore, Meredith L; Nelson, Leonard Jack

    2008-12-01

    Tort reform may affect health insurance premiums both by reducing medical malpractice premiums and by reducing the extent of defensive medicine. The objective of this study is to estimate the effects of noneconomic damage caps on the premiums for employer-sponsored health insurance. Employer premium data and plan/establishment characteristics were obtained from the 1999 through 2004 Kaiser/HRET Employer Health Insurance Surveys. Damage caps were obtained and dated based on state annotated codes, statutes, and judicial decisions. Fixed effects regression models were run to estimate the effects of the size of inflation-adjusted damage caps on the weighted average single premiums. State tort reform laws were identified using Westlaw, LEXIS, and statutory compilations. Legislative repeal and amendment of statutes and court decisions resulting in the overturning or repealing state statutes were also identified using LEXIS. Using a variety of empirical specifications, there was no statistically significant evidence that noneconomic damage caps exerted any meaningful influence on the cost of employer-sponsored health insurance. The findings suggest that tort reforms have not translated into insurance savings.

  15. Political economy of marine reserves: Understanding the role of opportunity costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Martin D.; Lynham, John; Sanchirico, James N.; Wilson, James A.

    2010-01-01

    The creation of marine reserves is often controversial. For decisionmakers, trying to find compromises, an understanding of the timing, magnitude, and incidence of the costs of a reserve is critical. Understanding the costs, in turn, requires consideration of not just the direct financial costs but also the opportunity costs associated with reserves. We use a discrete choice model of commercial fishermen’s behavior to examine both the short-run and long-run opportunity costs of marine reserves. Our results can help policymakers recognize the factors influencing commercial fishermen’s responses to reserve proposals. More generally, we highlight the potential drivers behind the political economy of marine reserves. PMID:20133732

  16. 42 CFR 403.254 - Calculation of premiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... rate credits. (4) Unearned premium reserve means the portion of gross premiums due that provide for...) Written premiums for the period; plus— (ii) The total premium reserve at the beginning of the period; less— (iii) The total premium reserve at the end of the period. (2) Written premiums in a period means— (i...

  17. Tax and the Use of Historic Returns in Estimating the Equity Risk Premium

    OpenAIRE

    Armitage, Seth

    1998-01-01

    The paper analyses the use of a historic risk premium as a proxy for the current premium allowing current tax rates to differ from historic rates. If tax rates are assumed constant, adjustments to the CAPM for an imputation system make the CAPM and cash flows to be discounted consistently with respect to tax, but do not model any effect of tax on the cost of equity. If tax rates are allowed to vary and a historic premium is used, the cost of equity is affected by the level of tax at which inv...

  18. Premium indexing in lifelong health insurance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vercruysse, W.; Dhaene, J.; Denuit, M.; Pitacco, E.; Antonio, K.

    2013-01-01

    For lifelong health insurance covers, medical inflation not incorporated in the level premiums determined at policy issue requires an appropriate increase of these premiums and/or the corresponding reserves during the term of the contract. In this paper, we investigate appropriate premium indexing

  19. 5 CFR 890.1208 - Premiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 599C(e) of Public Law 101-513. (b) If the individual is not covered under this subpart for the full pay period, premiums are paid only for the days he or she is actually covered. The daily premium rate is an amount equal to the monthly premium rate multiplied by 12 and divided by 365. (c) The payments required...

  20. 24 CFR 220.804 - Insurance premiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insurance premiums. 220.804 Section... and Obligations-Projects Insured Project Improvement Loans § 220.804 Insurance premiums. (a) First premium. The lender, upon the initial endorsement of the loan for insurance, shall pay to the Commissioner...

  1. 24 CFR 203.443 - Insurance premium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insurance premium. 203.443 Section... premium. All of the provisions of §§ 203.260 through 203.269 1 concerning mortgage insurance premiums... DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES SINGLE...

  2. The Eco-Efficiency Premium Puzzle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guenster, N.; Derwall, J.; Bauer, R.; Koedijk, K.

    2004-09-01

    Conventional investment theory suggests that socially responsible investing (SRI) leads to inferior, rather than superior, portfolio performance. Using Innovest's well-established corporate eco-efficiency scores, we provide evidence supporting the contrary. We compose two equity portfolios that differ in ecoefficiency characteristics and find that our high-ranked portfolio provided substantially higher average returns compared to its low-ranked counterpart over the period 1995-2003. Using a wide range of performance attribution techniques to address common methodological concerns, we show that this performance differential cannot be explained by differences in market sensitivity, investment style, or industry-specific components. We finally investigate whether this ecoefficiency premium puzzle withstands the inclusion of transaction costs scenarios, and evaluate how excess returns can be earned in a practical setting via a best-in-class stock selection strategy. The results remain significant under all levels of transactions costs, thus suggesting that the incremental benefits of SRI can be substantial

  3. The impact of HMO competition on private health insurance premiums, 1985-1992.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickizer, T M; Feldstein, P J

    1995-01-01

    A critical unresolved health policy question is whether competition stimulated by managed care organizations can slow the rate of growth in health care expenditures. We analyzed the competitive effects of health maintenance organizations (HMOs) on the growth in fee-for-service indemnity insurance premiums over the period 1985-1992 using premium data on 95 groups that had policies with a single, large, private insurance carrier. We used multiple regressions to estimate the effect of HMO market penetration on insurance premium growth rates. HMO penetration had a statistically significant (p market whose HMO penetration rate increased by 25% (e.g., from 10% to 12.5%), the real rate of growth in premiums would be approximately 5.9% instead of 7.0%. Our findings indicate that competitive strategies, relying on managed care, have significant potential to reduce health insurance premium growth rates, thereby resulting in substantial cost savings over time.

  4. The Effect of Massachusetts' Health Reform on Employer-Sponsored Insurance Premiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogan, John F; Hubbard, R Glenn; Kessler, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we use publicly available data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey - Insurance Component (MEPS-IC) to investigate the effect of Massachusetts' health reform plan on employer-sponsored insurance premiums. We tabulate premium growth for private-sector employers in Massachusetts and the United States as a whole for 2004 - 2008. We estimate the effect of the plan as the difference in premium growth between Massachusetts and the United States between 2006 and 2008-that is, before versus after the plan-over and above the difference in premium growth for 2004 to 2006. We find that health reform in Massachusetts increased single-coverage employer-sponsored insurance premiums by about 6 percent, or $262. Although our research design has important limitations, it does suggest that policy makers should be concerned about the consequences of health reform for the cost of private insurance.

  5. Global crowd data to understand risk taking behavior: Understanding the costs of crowd sourcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrikx, J.; Johnson, J.

    2016-12-01

    Crowd sourcing is an increasingly common approach to collect data from a large number of places, people, or both, for a given phenomenon or observation. It is often thought of as a very cost effective approach to collect data from large spatial domains, or from difficult to reach areas, or for spatially discrete observations. While crowd sourcing data can provide a wealth of data beyond that which most research teams can collect themselves, there are many associated, and sometime unexpected costs with this approach. We present a case study of a crowd-sourced data collection campaign to collect GPS tracks of back country recreationalists in avalanche terrain. We ask the volunteers to track their outings using the GPS on their smart phone using a free application, and on the completion of their trip email us their track. On receipt of this track we automatically reply with a link to a decision making survey. In this way we collect data on both the physical attributes of their trip, as well as the social, psychological and demographic data about the person. While this approach has been very successful, it has come at a high cost time-wise. Much like the role of an online course instructor, instructor (or in this case researcher) presence is essential. Replying to emails, updating webpages, posting on social media, and connecting with your volunteer data collectors can become a full time job - and that's even before you start the data analysis. We encourage future researchers to plan ahead for this when starting a crowd sourcing project involving the general public, and seek advice and training in social media, web site development and communication techniques like semi-automated email.

  6. The dynamics of risk premiums in Nord Pool's futures market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mork, E. [Consultant, Oslo (Norway)

    2006-04-15

    Premiums in futures prices are usually considered through the use of 2 models: a no-arbitrage model; and the equilibrium approach or theory of normal backwardation. The no-arbitrage approach equates futures prices with spot prices, storage costs and convenience yields, and is difficult to apply to electricity markets. This paper investigated future electricity prices in Nord Pool's futures market using an equilibrium approach, which split futures prices into an expected spot price component and a risk premium component. Three main hypotheses were used: (1) that risk premiums were present in the Nord Pool futures market during the period 1997-2004; that risk premiums in the Nord Pool futures market were smaller or absent during the period of 2000 to 2002; and, that there was a significant change in risk premiums in Nord Pool's futures market after the winter of 2002-2003 due to a change in consumer hedging behaviour. Futures prices were compared to realized spot prices in their delivery periods in order to test the hypotheses. In order to estimate the futures premiums, a 1-sample test was performed on the entire period for 1, 30, 60, and 90 days before delivery of the block or month contract. The test employed the null hypothesis that the futures premiums were 0. Premiums were positive and varied between 3.7 per cent and 9.3 per cent. The purpose of the study was to determine whether risk premiums were present. Results showed that risk premiums varied over time. Two additional hypotheses were then investigated to examine whether the presence of outside speculators reduced risk premiums, and to see if a period of high prices and volatility caused more buyers to hedge in the futures market. Results showed that in the face of volatility and higher prices, consumers do not purchase fixed-price contracts which would ultimately increase futures premiums in the market. It was concluded that premiums are an important element in the pricing of Nord Pool futures and

  7. Studies in Software Cost Model Behavior: Do We Really Understand Cost Model Performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, Karen; Hihn, Jairus; Menzies, Tim

    2006-01-01

    While there exists extensive literature on software cost estimation techniques, industry practice continues to rely upon standard regression-based algorithms. These software effort models are typically calibrated or tuned to local conditions using local data. This paper cautions that current approaches to model calibration often produce sub-optimal models because of the large variance problem inherent in cost data and by including far more effort multipliers than the data supports. Building optimal models requires that a wider range of models be considered while correctly calibrating these models requires rejection rules that prune variables and records and use multiple criteria for evaluating model performance. The main contribution of this paper is to document a standard method that integrates formal model identification, estimation, and validation. It also documents what we call the large variance problem that is a leading cause of cost model brittleness or instability.

  8. Understanding the cost of dermatologic care: A survey study of dermatology providers, residents, and patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen, Aaron J; Mann, Julianne A; Carlberg, Valerie M; Kimball, Alexa B; Musty, Michael J; Simpson, Eric L

    2017-04-01

    The American Academy of Dermatology recommends dermatologists understand the costs of dermatologic care. This study sought to measure dermatology providers' understanding of the cost of dermatologic care and how those costs are communicated to patients. We also aimed to understand the perspectives of patients and dermatological trainees on how cost information enters into the care they receive or provide. Surveys were systematically developed and distributed to 3 study populations: dermatology providers, residents, and patients. Response rates were over 95% in all 3 populations. Dermatology providers and residents consistently underestimated the costs of commonly recommended dermatologic medications but accurately predicted the cost of common dermatologic procedures. Dermatology patients preferred to know the cost of procedures and medications, even when covered by insurance. In this population, the costs of dermatologic medications frequently interfered with patients' ability to properly adhere to prescribed regimens. The surveyed population was limited to the northwestern United States and findings may not be generalizable. Cost estimations were based on average reimbursement rates, which vary by insurer. Improving dermatology providers' awareness and communication of the costs of dermatologic care might enhance medical decision-making, improve adherence and outcomes, and potentially reduce overall health care expenditures. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. In Second Year Of Marketplaces, New Entrants, ACA 'Co-Ops,' And Medicaid Plans Restrain Average Premium Growth Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabel, Jon R; Whitmore, Heidi; Green, Matthew; Stromberg, Sam T; Weinstein, Daniel S; Oran, Rebecca

    2015-12-01

    Premiums for health insurance plans offered through the federally facilitated and state-based Marketplaces remained steady or increased only modestly from 2014 to 2015. We used data from the Marketplaces, state insurance departments, and insurer websites to examine patterns of premium pricing and the factors behind these patterns. Our data came from 2,964 unique plans offered in 2014 and 4,153 unique plans offered in 2015 in forty-nine states and the District of Columbia. Using descriptive and multivariate analysis, we found that the addition of a carrier in a rating area lowered average premiums for the two lowest-cost silver plans and the lowest-cost bronze plan by 2.2 percent. When all plans in a rating area were included, an additional carrier was associated with an average decline in premiums of 1.4 percent. Plans in the Consumer Operated and Oriented Plan Program and Medicaid managed care plans had lower premiums and average premium increases than national commercial and Blue Cross and Blue Shield plans. On average, premiums fell by an appreciably larger amount for catastrophic and bronze plans than for gold plans, and premiums for platinum plans increased. This trend of low premium increases overall is unlikely to continue, however, as insurers are faced with mounting medical claims. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  10. Tort law and medical malpractice insurance premiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilgore, Meredith L; Morrisey, Michael A; Nelson, Leonard J

    2006-01-01

    This paper estimated the effects of tort law and insurer investment returns on physician malpractice insurance premiums. Data were collected on tort law from 1991 through 2004, and multivariate regression models, including fixed effects for state and year, were used to estimate the effect of changes in tort law on medical malpractice premiums. The premium consequences of national policy changes were simulated. The analysis found that the introduction of a new damage cap lowered malpractice premiums for internal medicine, general surgery, and obstetrics/gynecology by 17.3%, 20.7%, and 25.5%, respectively. Lowering damage caps by dollar 100,000 reduced premiums by 4%. Statutes of repose also resulted in lower premiums. No other tort law changes had the effect of lowering premiums. Simulation results indicate that a national cap of dollar 250,000 on awards for noneconomic damages in all states would imply premium savings of dollar 16.9 billion. Extending a dollar 250,000 cap to all states that do not currently have them would save dollar 1.4 billion annually, or about 8% of the total. A negative effect on malpractice premiums was found for the Dow Jones industrial average, but not for bond prices; effects of the Nasdaq index were not significant for internal medicine, but were marginally significant for surgery and obstetrics premiums.

  11. Height premium for job performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Hyun; Han, Euna

    2017-08-01

    This study assessed the relationship of height with wages, using the 1998 and 2012 Korean Labor and Income Panel Study data. The key independent variable was height measured in centimeters, which was included as a series of dummy indicators of height per 5cm span (wages to assess the heterogeneity in the height-wage relationship, across the conditional distribution of monthly wages. We found a non-linear relationship of height with monthly wages. For men, the magnitude of the height wage premium was overall larger at the upper quantile of the conditional distribution of log monthly wages than at the median to low quantile, particularly in professional and semi-professional occupations. The height-wage premium was also larger at the 90th quantile for self-employed women and salaried men. Our findings add a global dimension to the existing evidence on height-wage premium, demonstrating non-linearity in the association between height and wages and heterogeneous changes in the dispersion and direction of the association between height and wages, by wage level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The urban density premium across establishments

    OpenAIRE

    R. Jason Faberman; Matthew Freedman

    2013-01-01

    We use longitudinal microdata to estimate the urban density premium for U.S. establishments, controlling for observed establishment characteristics and dynamic establishment behavior. Consistent with previous studies, we estimate a density premium between 6 and 10 percent, even after controlling for establishment composition, local skill mix, and the endogeneity of location choice. More importantly, we find that the estimated density premium is realized almost entirely at birth and is constan...

  13. Curb your premium! evaluating state intervention in medical malpractice insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Sofia, AmaralGarcia; Veronica, Grembi

    2011-01-01

    Using data of Italian public healthcare providers over years 2001 through 2008, we evaluate the impact of two policies adopted by Italian Regions (i.e., States) to cope with increasing medical malpractice costs using a Difference-in-Difference specification. We assess the impact of the policies on premiums paid and legal expenditures. The first policy consisted in collecting information and monitoring both compensation requests and any legal action related to a medical malpractice claim again...

  14. What should be the basis for compulsory and optional health insurance premiums? Opinions of Swiss doctors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jannot, Anne-Sophie; Perneger, Thomas V

    2014-02-04

    Little is known about doctors' opinions on how to finance health services. In Switzerland, mandatory basic health insurance currently uses regional flat fees that are unrelated to health and ability to pay, and optional complementary insurance uses risk-based premiums. Our objective was to assess Swiss physicians' opinions on what should determine health insurance premiums. We surveyed doctors in the canton of Geneva, Switzerland, about the desirable funding mechanism for mandatory health insurance and complementary health insurance. The proposed determinants of insurance premiums were current health and past medical history, lifestyle, healthcare costs in the previous year, genetic susceptibility to disease, regional average healthcare costs, household income, and wealth and demographic characteristics. Among the 1,516 respondents, only a few (insurance premium should depend on health risk (health status, previous costs, genetics, and age and sex). More than 30% of respondents supported premiums based on lifestyle (34.6%), regional average health expenditures (31.2%), and household income and wealth (39.6%). For complementary health insurance, most respondents supported premiums based on lifestyle (74.6%) and on health risk (46.4%), but surprisingly also on household income and wealth (44.9%) and regional average health expenditures (39.4%). The characteristic most influencing the answers was the medical specialty. Doctors' opinions about healthcare financing mechanisms varied considerably, for both mandatory and complementary health insurance. Lifestyle was a surprisingly frequent choice, even though this criterion is not currently used in Switzerland. Ability to pay was not supported by the majority.

  15. Promoting the market and system integration of renewable energies through premium schemes—A case study of the German market premium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gawel, Erik; Purkus, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    With the share of renewable energies within the electricity sector rising, improving their market and system integration is of increasing importance. By offering plant operators a premium on top of the electricity market price, premium schemes represent an option to increase the alignment of renewable electricity production with market signals, and have been implemented by several EU member states. This paper examines the case study of the German market premium scheme adopted in 2012. Building on an evaluation of early experiences, we discuss whether the market premium contributes to the aims of market and/or system integration (effectiveness), and what potential efficiency gains and additional costs of “administering integration” are associated with it (efficiency). While exposing renewables to price risks is not the scheme’s purpose, it has successfully increased participation in direct marketing. However, risks of overcompensating producers for marketing and balancing costs are high, and the benefits of gradually leading plant operators towards the market are questionable. Incentives for demand-oriented production are established, but they seem insufficient particularly in the case of intermittent renewable energy sources. To conclude, we provide an outlook on alternative designs of premium schemes, and discuss whether they seem better suited for addressing the challenges ahead. - Highlights: • Premium schemes are used to align renewable energy sources (RES) with market signals. • We examine the effectiveness and efficiency of the German market premium scheme. • Participation in direct marketing has increased, but so have support costs. • For intermittent RES, incentives for demand-oriented production are insufficient. • Efficiency gains from exposing RES to market risks entail several trade-offs

  16. Fundamental understanding and development of low-cost, high-efficiency silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ROHATGI,A.; NARASIMHA,S.; MOSCHER,J.; EBONG,A.; KAMRA,S.; KRYGOWSKI,T.; DOSHI,P.; RISTOW,A.; YELUNDUR,V.; RUBY,DOUGLAS S.

    2000-05-01

    The overall objectives of this program are (1) to develop rapid and low-cost processes for manufacturing that can improve yield, throughput, and performance of silicon photovoltaic devices, (2) to design and fabricate high-efficiency solar cells on promising low-cost materials, and (3) to improve the fundamental understanding of advanced photovoltaic devices. Several rapid and potentially low-cost technologies are described in this report that were developed and applied toward the fabrication of high-efficiency silicon solar cells.

  17. The Loss Aversion / Narrow Framing Approach to the Equity Premium Puzzle

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholas Barberis; Ming Huang

    2006-01-01

    We review a recent approach to understanding the equity premium puzzle. The key elements of this approach are loss aversion and narrow framing, two well-known features of decision-making under risk in experimental settings. In equilibrium, models that incorporate these ideas can generate a large equity premium and a low and stable risk-free rate, even when consumption growth is smooth and only weakly correlated with the stock market. Moreover, they can do so for parameter values that correspo...

  18. The conditional size premium and intertemporal risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Oliveira Souza, Thiago

    2018-01-01

    The size premium only appears in states with good expected stock returns as given by several state variables, such as the aggregate book-to-market. The annual premium is 15% when this variable is within the top 33% in historical terms and an insignificant 0.4% otherwise. This renders...

  19. Premium adjustment: actuarial analysis on epidemiological models ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, we analyse insurance premium adjustment in the context of an epidemiological model where the insurer's future financial liability is greater than the premium from patients. In this situation, it becomes extremely difficult for the insurer since a negative reserve would severely increase its risk of insolvency, ...

  20. A note on weighted premium calculation principles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaluszka, M.; Laeven, R.J.A.; Okolewski, A.

    2012-01-01

    A prominent problem in actuarial science is to determine premium calculation principles that satisfy certain criteria. Goovaerts et al. [Goovaerts, M. J., De Vylder, F., Haezendonck, J., 1984. Insurance Premiums: Theory and Applications. North-Holland, Amsterdam, p. 84] establish an optimality-type

  1. Properties of Foreign Exchange Risk Premiums

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarno, Lucio; Schneider, Paul; Wagner, Christian

    2012-01-01

    We study the properties of foreign exchange risk premiums that can explain the forward bias puzzle, defined as the tendency of high-interest rate currencies to appreciate rather than depreciate. These risk premiums arise endogenously from the no-arbitrage condition relating the term structure of ...... and are closely related to global risk aversion, the business cycle, and traditional exchange rate fundamentals.......We study the properties of foreign exchange risk premiums that can explain the forward bias puzzle, defined as the tendency of high-interest rate currencies to appreciate rather than depreciate. These risk premiums arise endogenously from the no-arbitrage condition relating the term structure...... of interest rates and exchange rates. Estimating affine (multi-currency) term structure models reveals a noticeable tradeoff between matching depreciation rates and accuracy in pricing bonds. Risk premiums implied by our global affine model generate unbiased predictions for currency excess returns...

  2. What drives insurer participation and premiums in the Federally-Facilitated Marketplace?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Jean Marie; Drake, Coleman; McCullough, Jeffrey S; Simon, Kosali

    2017-12-01

    We investigate determinants of market entry and premiums within the context of the Affordable Care Act's Marketplaces for individual insurance. Using Bresnahan and Reiss (1991) as the conceptual framework, we study how competition and firm heterogeneity relate to premiums in 36 states using Federally Facilitated or Supported Marketplaces in 2016. Our primary data source is the Qualified Health Plan Landscape File, augmented with market characteristics from the American Community Survey and Area Health Resource File as well as insurer-level information from federal Medical Loss Ratio annual reports. We first estimate a model of insurer entry and then investigate the relationship between a market's predicted number of entrants and insurer-level premiums. Our entry model results suggest that competition is increasing with the number of insurers, most notably as the market size increases from 3 to 4 entrants. Results from the premium regression suggest that each additional entrant is associated with approximately 4% lower premiums, controlling for other factors. An alternative explanation for the relationship between entrants and premiums is that more efficient insurers (who can price lower) are the ones that enter markets with many entrants, and this is reflected in lower premiums. An exploratory analysis of insurers' non-claims costs (a proxy for insurer efficiency) reveals that average costs among entrants are rising slightly with the number of insurers in the market. This pattern does not support the hypothesis that premiums decrease with more entrants because those entrants are more efficient, suggesting instead that the results are being driven mostly by price competition.

  3. A database prototype has been developed to help understand costs in photovoltaic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moorw, Larry M.

    2000-01-01

    High photovoltaic (PV) system costs hinder market growth. An approach to studying these costs has been developed using a database containing system, component and maintenance information. This data, which is both technical and non-technical in nature, is to be used to identify trends related to costs. A pilot database exists at this time and work is continuing. The results of this work may be used by the data owners to improve their operations with the goal of sharing non-attributable information with the public and industry at large. The published objectives of the DOE PV program are to accelerate the development of PV as a national and global energy option, as well as ensure US technology and global market leadership. The approach to supporting these objectives is to understand what drives costs in PV applications. This paper and poster session describe work-in-progress in the form of a database that will help identify costs in PV systems. In an effort to address DOE's Five-Year PV Milestones, a program was established in the summer of 1999 to study system costs in three PV applications--solar home lighting, water pumping, and grid-tied systems. This work began with a RFQ requesting data from these types of systems. Creating a partnership with industry and other system organizations such as Non-Government Organizations (NGOs) was the approach chosen to maintain a close time to the systems in the field. Nine participants were selected as partners, who provided data on their systems. Two activities are emphasized in this work. For the first, an iterative approach of developing baseline reliability and costs information with the participants was taken. This effort led to identifying typical components in these systems as well as the specific data (metrics) that would be needed in any analysis used to understand total systems costs

  4. Determinants of Medicare plan choices: are beneficiaries more influenced by premiums or benefits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Paul D; Buntin, Melinda B

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate the sensitivity of Medicare beneficiaries to premiums and benefits when selecting healthcare plans after the introduction of Part D. We matched respondents in the 2008 Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey to the Medicare Advantage (MA) plans available to them using the Bid Pricing Tool and previously unavailable data on beneficiaries' plan choices. We estimated a 2-stage nested logit model of Medicare plan choice decision making, including the decision to choose traditional fee-for-service (FFS) Medicare or an MA plan, and for those choosing MA, which specific plan they chose. Beneficiaries living in areas with higher average monthly rebates available from MA plans were more likely to choose MA rather than FFS. When choosing MA plans, beneficiaries are roughly 2 to 3 times more responsive to dollars spent to reduce cost sharing than reductions in their premium. We calculated an elasticity of plan choice with respect to the monthly MA premium of -0.20. Beneficiaries with lower incomes are more sensitive to plan premiums and cost sharing than higher-income beneficiaries. MA plans appear to have a limited incentive to aggressively price their products, and seem to compete primarily over reduced beneficiary cost sharing. Given the limitations of the current plan choice environment, policies designed to encourage the selection of lower-cost plans may require increasing premium differences between plans and providing the tools to enable beneficiaries to easily assess those differences.

  5. Financial crisis and market risk premium: Identifying multiple structural changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan J. García-Machado

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between macroeconomic variables and stock market returns is, by now, well-documented in the literature. However, in this article we examine the long-run relationship between stock and bond markets returns over the period from 1991:11 to 2009:11, using Bai and Perron’s multiple structural change approach. Findings indicate that while the market risk premium is usually positive, periods with negative values appear only in three periods (1991:1-1993:2, 1998:3-2002:2 and from 2007:1-2009:11 leading to changes in the GDP evolution. Thereby, the study shows the presence of structural breaks in the Spanish market risk premium and its relationship with business cycle. These findings contribute to a better understanding of close linkages between the financial markets and the macroeconomic variables such as GDP. Implications of the study and suggestions for future research are provided.

  6. The individual insurance market before reform: low premiums and low benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, Heidi; Gabel, Jon R; Pickreign, Jeremy; McDevitt, Roland

    2011-10-01

    Based on analyses of individual market health plans sold through ehealthinsurance and enrollment information collected from individual market carriers, this article profiles the individual health insurance market in 2007, before health reform. The article examines premiums, plan enrollment, cost sharing, and covered benefits and compares individual and group markets. Premiums for the young are lower than in the group market but higher for older people. Cost sharing is substantial in the individual insurance market. Seventy-eight percent of people were enrolled in plans with deductibles for single coverage, which averaged $2,117. Annual out-of-pocket maximums averaged $5,271. Many plans do not cover important benefits. Twelve percent of individually insured persons had no coverage for office visits and only 43% have maternity benefits in their basic coverage. With the advent of health exchanges and new market rules in 2014, covered benefits may become richer, cost sharing will decline, but premiums for the young will rise.

  7. Understanding cost growth during operations of planetary missions: An explanation of changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, J. F.; Chapman, E. L.; Sklar, M. E.

    In the development of project cost estimates for interplanetary missions, considerable focus is generally given to the development of cost estimates for the development of ground, flight, and launch systems, i.e., Phases B, C, and D. Depending on the project team, efforts expended to develop cost estimates for operations (Phase E) may be relatively less rigorous than that devoted to estimates for ground and flight systems development. Furthermore, the project team may be challenged to develop a solid estimate of operations cost in the early stages of mission development, e.g., Concept Study Report or Systems Requirement Review (CSR/SRR), Preliminary Design Review (PDR), as mission specific peculiarities that impact cost may not be well understood. In addition, a methodology generally used to develop Phase E cost is engineering build-up, also known as “ grass roots” . Phase E can include cost and schedule risks that are not anticipated at the time of the major milestone reviews prior to launch. If not incorporated into the engineering build-up cost method for Phase E, this may translate into an estimation of the complexity of operations and overall cost estimates that are not mature and at worse, insufficient. As a result, projects may find themselves with thin reserves during cruise and on-orbit operations or project overruns prior to the end of mission. This paper examines a set of interplanetary missions in an effort to better understand the reasons for cost and staffing growth in Phase E. The method used in the study is discussed as well as the major findings summarized as the Phase E Explanation of Change (EoC). Research for the study entailed the review of project materials, including Estimates at Completion (EAC) for Phase E and staffing profiles, major project milestone reviews, e.g., CSR, PDR, Critical Design Review (CDR), the interviewing of select project and mission management, and review of Phase E replan materials. From this work, a detai- ed

  8. Dynamic jump intensities and risk premiums

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Ornthanalai, Chayawat; Jacobs, Kris

    2012-01-01

    We build a new class of discrete-time models that are relatively easy to estimate using returns and/or options. The distribution of returns is driven by two factors: dynamic volatility and dynamic jump intensity. Each factor has its own risk premium. The models significantly outperform standard...... models without jumps when estimated on S&P500 returns. We find very strong support for time-varying jump intensities. Compared to the risk premium on dynamic volatility, the risk premium on the dynamic jump intensity has a much larger impact on option prices. We confirm these findings using joint...

  9. Storage and the electricity forward premium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglas, Stratford; Popova, Julia

    2008-01-01

    We develop and test a model describing the influence of natural gas storage inventories on the electricity forward premium. The model is constructed by linking the effect of gas storage constraints on the higher moments of the distribution of electricity prices to an established model of the effect of those moments on the forward premium. The model predicts a sharply negative effect of gas storage inventories on the electricity forward premium when demand for electricity is high and space-heating demand for gas is low. Empirical results, based on PJM data, strongly support the model. (author)

  10. Differing Impacts Of Market Concentration On Affordable Care Act Marketplace Premiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffler, Richard M; Arnold, Daniel R; Fulton, Brent D; Glied, Sherry A

    2016-05-01

    Recent increases in market concentration among health plans, hospitals, and medical groups raise questions about what impact such mergers are having on costs to consumers. We examined the impact of market concentration on the growth of health insurance premiums between 2014 and 2015 in two Affordable Care Act state-based Marketplaces: Covered California and NY State of Health. We measured health plan, hospital, and medical group market concentration using the well-known Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI) and used a multivariate regression model to relate these measures to premium growth. Both states exhibited a positive association between hospital concentration and premium growth and a positive (but not statistically significant) association between medical group concentration and premium growth. Our results for health plan concentration differed between the two states: It was positively associated with premium growth in New York but negatively associated with premium growth in California. The health plan concentration finding in Covered California may be the result of its selectively contracting with health plans. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  11. 24 CFR 266.604 - Mortgage insurance premium: Other requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mortgage insurance premium: Other... Contract Rights and Obligations Mortgage Insurance Premiums § 266.604 Mortgage insurance premium: Other..., based upon the respective share of risk, that is to be used in calculating mortgage insurance premiums...

  12. 24 CFR 266.602 - Mortgage insurance premium: Insured advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mortgage insurance premium: Insured... Contract Rights and Obligations Mortgage Insurance Premiums § 266.602 Mortgage insurance premium: Insured.... On each anniversary of the initial closing, the HFA shall pay an interim mortgage insurance premium...

  13. 42 CFR 60.14 - The insurance premium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false The insurance premium. 60.14 Section 60.14 Public... LOAN PROGRAM The Loan § 60.14 The insurance premium. (a) General. (1) The Secretary insures each lender... lender an insurance premium. The insurance premium is due to the Secretary on the date of disbursement of...

  14. CMS Interim Memorandum of Understanding The Costs and How They are Calculated

    CERN Document Server

    Willers, Ian Malcolm

    2001-01-01

    This document explains how we arrived at the costs that are to be used in the Interim Memorandum of Understanding, iMoU. It integrates information taken from the Hoffmann review, PASTA and Lucas Taylor. I would like to thank Petr Moissenz for proof reading which helped me to improve the accuracy of the information in a short period of time. Also Claude Charlot for his valuable comments.

  15. Premium Forecasting of AN Insurance Company:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouladvand, M. Ebrahim; Darooneh, Amir H.

    We present an analytical study of an insurance company. We model the company's performance on a statistical basis and evaluate the predicted annual income of the company in terms of insurance parameters namely the premium, the total number of insured, average loss claims etc. We restrict ourselves to a single insurance class the so-called automobile insurance. We show the existence of a crossover premium pc below which the company is operating at a loss. Above pc, we also give a detailed statistical analysis of the company's financial status and obtain the predicted profit along with the corresponding risk as well as ruin probability in terms of premium. Furthermore we obtain the optimal premium popt which maximizes the company's profit.

  16. Comparison of Seafood and Agricultural Ecological Premiums1

    OpenAIRE

    Ankamah-Yeboah, Isaac; Nielsen, Max; Nielsen, Rasmus

    2017-01-01

    The report compares ecolabeled seafood premiums observed in the market with consumers’ stated willingness to pay premiums. Also ecolabeled premiums in the agricultural sector were examined. The next issue addressed was the sensitivity of changes in the price and premiums of ecolabeled seafood. Empirical findings showed that all things being equal, consumers stated willingness to pay reflects in their actual market behavior though they may pay less than stated. Premiums observed in the aquacul...

  17. Employer Contribution and Premium Growth in Health Insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Yiyan Liu; Ginger Zhe Jin

    2013-01-01

    We study whether employer premium contribution schemes could impact the pricing behavior of health plans and contribute to rising premiums. Using 1991-2011 data before and after a 1999 premium subsidy policy change in the Federal Employees Health Benefits Program (FEHBP), we find that the employer premium contribution scheme has a differential impact on health plan pricing based on two market incentives: 1) consumers are less price sensitive when they only need to pay part of the premium incr...

  18. Quantitative concept tests of organic premium meat products

    OpenAIRE

    Chrysochou , Polymeros; Krystallis Krontalis, Athanasios

    2015-01-01

    This report is part of WP6 of the SUMMER project. The aim is to investigate how consumers perceive organic premium products and if they are willing to pay a price premium for these products. We conducted an experiment with 426 Danish consumers, in which we manipulate production method (organic vs. conventional), premium production (premium vs. non-premium) and extrinsic quality (high vs. low) across three meat products (pork, beef and chicken). Our findings show that consumers perceive organi...

  19. Designing Psychological Treatments for Scalability: The PREMIUM Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukumar Vellakkal

    Full Text Available Lack of access to empirically-supported psychological treatments (EPT that are contextually appropriate and feasible to deliver by non-specialist health workers (referred to as 'counsellors' are major barrier for the treatment of mental health problems in resource poor countries. To address this barrier, the 'Program for Effective Mental Health Interventions in Under-resourced Health Systems' (PREMIUM designed a method for the development of EPT for severe depression and harmful drinking. This was implemented over three years in India. This study assessed the relative usefulness and costs of the five 'steps' (Systematic reviews, In-depth interviews, Key informant surveys, Workshops with international experts, and Workshops with local experts in the first phase of identifying the strategies and theoretical model of the treatment and two 'steps' (Case series with specialists, and Case series and pilot trial with counsellors in the second phase of enhancing the acceptability and feasibility of its delivery by counsellors in PREMIUM with the aim of arriving at a parsimonious set of steps for future investigators to use for developing scalable EPT.The study used two sources of data: the usefulness ratings by the investigators and the resource utilization. The usefulness of each of the seven steps was assessed through the ratings by the investigators involved in the development of each of the two EPT, viz. Healthy Activity Program for severe depression and Counselling for Alcohol Problems for harmful drinking. Quantitative responses were elicited to rate the utility (usefulness/influence, followed by open-ended questions for explaining the rankings. The resources used by PREMIUM were computed in terms of time (months and monetary costs.The theoretical core of the new treatments were consistent with those of EPT derived from global evidence, viz. Behavioural Activation and Motivational Enhancement for severe depression and harmful drinking respectively

  20. Health insurance premium tax credit. Final regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    This document contains final regulations relating to the health insurance premium tax credit enacted by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010.These final regulations provide guidance to individuals related to employees who may enroll in eligible employer-sponsored coverage and who wish to enroll in qualified health plans through Affordable Insurance Exchanges (Exchanges) and claim the premium tax credit.

  1. Brief report: Quantifying the impact of autism coverage on private insurance premiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouder, James N; Spielman, Stuart; Mandell, David S

    2009-06-01

    Many states are considering legislation requiring private insurance companies to pay for autism-related services. Arguments against mandates include that they will result in higher premiums. Using Pennsylvania legislation as an example, which proposed covering services up to $36,000 per year for individuals less than 21 years of age, this paper estimates potential premium increases. The estimate relies on autism treated prevalence, the number of individuals insured by affected plans, mean annual autism expenditures, administrative costs, medical loss ratio, and total insurer revenue. Current treated prevalence and expenditures suggests that premium increases would approximate 1%, with a lower bound of 0.19% and an upper bound of 2.31%. Policy makers can use these results to assess the cost-effectiveness of similar legislation.

  2. Understanding product cost vs. performance through an in-depth system Monte Carlo analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanson, Mark C.

    2017-08-01

    The manner in which an optical system is toleranced and compensated greatly affects the cost to build it. By having a detailed understanding of different tolerance and compensation methods, the end user can decide on the balance of cost and performance. A detailed phased approach Monte Carlo analysis can be used to demonstrate the tradeoffs between cost and performance. In complex high performance optical systems, performance is fine-tuned by making adjustments to the optical systems after they are initially built. This process enables the overall best system performance, without the need for fabricating components to stringent tolerance levels that often can be outside of a fabricator's manufacturing capabilities. A good performance simulation of as built performance can interrogate different steps of the fabrication and build process. Such a simulation may aid the evaluation of whether the measured parameters are within the acceptable range of system performance at that stage of the build process. Finding errors before an optical system progresses further into the build process saves both time and money. Having the appropriate tolerances and compensation strategy tied to a specific performance level will optimize the overall product cost.

  3. Early retirement and the influence on healthcare budgets and insurance premiums in a diabetes population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walzer, Stefan

    2007-01-01

    To contribute to current discussions about budget impact modeling, two different approaches for the impact of a new pharmaceutical product were analyzed: firstly considering the impact on annual healthcare expenditures only, and secondly additional inclusion of lost insurance premiums due to possible early retirement in patients with chronic diseases. The dynamic model calculates the budget impact from two different perspectives: (a) the impact on healthcare expenditures and (b) on expenditures as well as on health insurance revenues due to premiums. The latter approach could especially be useful for patients with chronic diseases who have higher probabilities of early retirement. Early retirement rates and indirect costs were derived from published data. Healthcare premiums were calculated based on an average premium and a mean income. Epidemiological input data were obtained from the literature. Time horizon was 10 years. Results in terms of reimbursement decisions of the budget impact analysis varied depending on the assumptions made for the insurance premiums, costs, and early retirement rate. Sensitivity analyses revealed that in extreme cases the decision for accepting a new pharmaceutical product would probably be negative using approach (a), but positive using approach (b). Depending on the disease and population of interest in a budget impact analysis, not only the healthcare expenditures for a health insurance have to be considered but also the revenue side for an insurance due to retirement should be included.

  4. 78 FR 666 - Treasury Inflation-Protected Securities Issued at a Premium; Bond Premium Carryforward

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-04

    ...-BL29 Treasury Inflation-Protected Securities Issued at a Premium; Bond Premium Carryforward AGENCY... contains final regulations that provide guidance on the tax treatment of Treasury Inflation-Protected... regulations in this document provide guidance to holders of Treasury Inflation-Protected Securities and other...

  5. A diagnosis of eosinophilic esophagitis is associated with increased life insurance premiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiman, D A; Kochar, B; Posner, S; Fan, C; Patel, A; Shaheen, O; Keller, C Y; Koutlas, N T; Eluri, S; Dellon, E S

    2018-05-24

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic disease that can be diagnosed at any age, but is not associated with malignancy and does not shorten lifespan. It remains unknown whether an EoE diagnosis affects insurability or insurance premium costs. We therefore aimed to determine whether a diagnosis of EoE affects the costs of life insurance. Our investigation was a secret shopper audit study whereby we contacted national insurance companies in the United States to evaluate the effect of a diagnosis of EoE on life insurance premiums. We constructed standardized case scenarios for males and females, including a 25-year-old and a 48-year-old without other comorbid conditions, who either had or did not have a diagnosis of EoE. Companies were asked for their best estimate for a $100,000 whole life insurance policy. Comparisons between median premiums were made using the Mann-Whitney U test. There were 20 national life insurance companies contacted and a total of 73 quotes were obtained. The median premium rate was similar for EoE and non-EoE cases at the younger age ($828 [IQR $576-1,020] vs. $756 [IQR $504-$804]; P = 0.10). However, the premium for the older case without EoE was 19% less expensive compared to a case with EoE ($1990 [IQR $1,248-2,350] vs. $2,375 [IQR $2,100-2568; P = 0.02]. This finding was not explained by sex or state of residence. Based on these findings, we conclude that life insurance premiums are significantly more expensive in the older patient case with EoE when compared to the same case without EoE. Patients with EoE and their providers should be aware of the additional cost associated with this diagnosis.

  6. Fed Up with Rising Premiums, Colleges Go into the Insurance Business

    Science.gov (United States)

    June, Audrey William

    2006-01-01

    American universities are turning to captive companies, a highly specialized form of self-insurance, in an effort to cope with ever-increasing premiums. Indiana University formed the Old Crescent Insurance Company in 2005 to provide coverage for the institution's eight campuses, a move that gives it more control over costs while allowing the…

  7. PERHITUNGAN DANA PENSIUN DENGAN METODE PROJECTED UNIT CREDIT DAN INDIVIDUAL LEVEL PREMIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I GUSTI AYU KOMANG KUSUMA WARDHANI

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The company which provides the pension program needs the actuarial valuation to estimate the fund amount required by the company to pay for pension funding. Actuarial method that used in this research are projected unit credit and invidual level premium method. Through this research be obtained the result of valuation pension benefits with career average salary assumption is lower than the other salary assumptions. On the other hand, the result of normal cost final value valuation using individual level premium method is smaller than projected unit credit method that suits for the participants of the pension funding program.

  8. PERHITUNGAN DANA PENSIUN DENGAN METODE PROJECTED UNIT CREDIT DAN INDIVIDUAL LEVEL PREMIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I GUSTI AYU KOMANG KUSUMA WARDHANI

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The company which provides the pension program needs the actuarial valuation to estimate the fund amount required by the company to pay for pension funding. Actuarial method that used in this research are projected unit credit and invidual level premium method. Through this research be obtained the result of valuation pension benefits with career average salary assumption is lower than the other salary assumptions. On the other hand, the result of normal cost final value valuation using individual level premium method is smaller than projected unit credit method that suits for the participants of the pension funding program.

  9. Health Insurance Marketplaces: Early Findings on Changes in Plan Availability and Premiums in Rural Places, 2014-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Abigail; McBride, Timothy D; Kemper, Leah M; Mueller, Keith

    2015-05-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act established Health Insurance Marketplaces (HIMs) in all 50 states and the District of Columbia. This policy brief assesses the changes in HIMs from 2014 to 2015 in terms of choices offered and premiums charged, with emphasis on how these measures vary across rural and urban places. Key Findings. (1) In 74 percent of HIM rating areas, the number of firms operating increased by at least one, while the number of firms decreased in only about 6 percent of rating areas. Further, 64 percent of rating areas with fewer than 50 persons per square mile gained at least one firm. (2) There was no consistent pattern of premium increases with respect to rating area population density (used as a proxy here for the degree of "ruralness" of the rating areas). Nationally, rural areas are not experiencing higher premium increases than their urban counterparts. In fact, the lowest increases in second-lowest cost silver plan premiums occurred in the medium-density population rating areas of 51 to 300 persons per square mile. (3) Average adjusted premiums increased from 2014 to 2015 by 6.7 percent in Federally-Facilitated Marketplaces (FFMs) compared to just 1.4 percent in State-Based Marketplaces (SBMs). Regardless of SBM or FFM status, premium increases across the United States were negatively correlated with the number of firms entering the market. (4) Analysis of the most rural states, in terms of percentage of the population classified as nonmetropolitan, shows that, in general, premiums fell significantly in rural places where they had been rather high, and they increased in rural places where they had been rather low. The five rural states with the lowest premium increases had an average of 0.17 firms entering the market, while the five with the highest premium increases had an average of 0.50 firms exiting the market.

  10. Premium copayments and the trade-off between wages and employer-provided health insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubotsky, Darren; Olson, Craig A

    2015-12-01

    This paper estimates the trade-off between salary and health insurance costs using data on Illinois school teachers between 1991 and 2008 that allow us to address several common empirical challenges in this literature. Teachers paid about 17 percent of the cost of individual health insurance and about 46 percent of the cost of their family members' plans through premium contributions, but we find no evidence that teachers' salaries respond to changes in insurance costs. Consistent with a higher willingness to pay for insurance, we find that premium contributions are higher in districts that employ a higher-tenured workforce. We find no evidence that school districts respond to higher health insurance costs by reducing the number of teachers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Create a Consortium and Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank Rusinko; John Andresen; Jennifer E. Hill; Harold H. Schobert; Bruce G. Miller

    2006-01-01

    The objective of these projects was to investigate alternative technologies for non-fuel uses of coal. Special emphasis was placed on developing premium carbon products from coal-derived feedstocks. A total of 14 projects, which are the 2003 Research Projects, are reported herein. These projects were categorized into three overall objectives. They are: (1) To explore new applications for the use of anthracite in order to improve its marketability; (2) To effectively minimize environmental damage caused by mercury emissions, CO{sub 2} emissions, and coal impounds; and (3) To continue to increase our understanding of coal properties and establish coal usage in non-fuel industries. Research was completed in laboratories throughout the United States. Most research was performed on a bench-scale level with the intent of scaling up if preliminary tests proved successful. These projects resulted in many potential applications for coal-derived feedstocks. These include: (1) Use of anthracite as a sorbent to capture CO{sub 2} emissions; (2) Use of anthracite-based carbon as a catalyst; (3) Use of processed anthracite in carbon electrodes and carbon black; (4) Use of raw coal refuse for producing activated carbon; (5) Reusable PACs to recycle captured mercury; (6) Use of combustion and gasification chars to capture mercury from coal-fired power plants; (7) Development of a synthetic coal tar enamel; (8) Use of alternative binder pitches in aluminum anodes; (9) Use of Solvent Extracted Carbon Ore (SECO) to fuel a carbon fuel cell; (10) Production of a low cost coal-derived turbostratic carbon powder for structural applications; (11) Production of high-value carbon fibers and foams via the co-processing of a low-cost coal extract pitch with well-dispersed carbon nanotubes; (12) Use of carbon from fly ash as metallurgical carbon; (13) Production of bulk carbon fiber for concrete reinforcement; and (14) Characterizing coal solvent extraction processes. Although some of the

  12. Risk Premium and Central Bank Intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Pinar Ozlu

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the relation between the risk premium and central bank intervention. Forward rates are calculated for the Turkish Lira-USD exchange market and then the effect of central bank intervention on the risk premium is estimated. Using high quality daily intervention data from the Central Bank of Turkey as well as implied forward rates, an MA (21)-GARCH (1,1) model is estimated. Both purchases and sales of US dollars by the Central Bank of Turkey appear to have no effect on the si...

  13. 77 FR 30377 - Health Insurance Premium Tax Credit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-23

    ... Health Insurance Premium Tax Credit AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Final regulations. SUMMARY: This document contains final regulations relating to the health insurance premium tax... categories of immigrants described in the Children's Health Insurance Program Reauthorization Act. One...

  14. Public and private health insurance premiums: how do they affect the health insurance status of low-income childless adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy, Gery P; Adams, E Kathleen; Atherly, Adam

    2012-01-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) will substantially increase public health insurance eligibility and alter the costs of insurance coverage. Using Current Population Survey (CPS) data from the period 2000-2008, we examine the effects of public and private health insurance premiums on the insurance status of low-income childless adults, a population substantially affected by the ACA. Results show higher public premiums to be associated with a decrease in the probability of having public insurance and an increase in the probability of being uninsured, while increased private premiums decrease the probability of having private insurance. Eligibility for premium assistance programs and increased subsidy levels are associated with lower rates of uninsurance. The magnitudes of the effects are quite modest and provide important implications for insurance expansions for childless adults under the ACA.

  15. The U.S. health insurance marketplace: are premiums truly affordable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graetz, Ilana; Kaplan, Cameron M; Kaplan, Erin K; Bailey, James E; Waters, Teresa M

    2014-10-21

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act requires that individuals have health insurance or pay a penalty. Individuals are exempt from paying this penalty if the after-subsidy cost of the least-expensive plan available to them is greater than 8% of their income. For this study, premium data for all health plans offered on the state and federal health insurance marketplaces were collected; the after-subsidy cost of premiums for the least-expensive bronze plan for every county in the United States was calculated; and variations in premium affordability by age, income, and geographic area were assessed. Results indicated that-although marketplace subsidies ensure affordable health insurance for most persons in the United States-many individuals with incomes just above the subsidy threshold will lack affordable coverage and will be exempt from the mandate. Furthermore, young individuals with low incomes often pay as much as or more than older individuals for bronze plans. If substantial numbers of younger, healthier adults choose to remain uninsured because of cost, health insurance premiums across all ages may increase over time.

  16. Clearwood quality and softwood lumber prices: what's the real premium?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas R. Waggener; Roger D. Fight

    1999-01-01

    Diminishing quantities of appearance grade lumber and rising price premiums for it have accompanied the transition from old-growth to young-growth timber. The price premiums for better grades are an incentive for producers to undertake investments to increase the yield of those higher valued products. Price premiums, however, are also an incentive for users to...

  17. 7 CFR 400.710 - Preemption and premium taxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Preemption and premium taxation. 400.710 Section 400... of Policies and Rates of Premium § 400.710 Preemption and premium taxation. A policy or plan of insurance that is approved by the Board for FCIC reinsurance is preempted from state and local taxation. ...

  18. 77 FR 26698 - Allocation of Mortgage Insurance Premiums

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-07

    ... Allocation of Mortgage Insurance Premiums AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Final... explain how to allocate prepaid qualified mortgage insurance premiums to determine the amount of the... Act of 2010. The regulations affect taxpayers who pay prepaid qualified mortgage insurance premiums...

  19. 24 CFR 241.1030 - Mortgage insurance premiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mortgage insurance premiums. 241... Loans-Eligibility Requirements § 241.1030 Mortgage insurance premiums. The lender, upon endorsement of the note, shall pay the Commissioner a first mortgage insurance premium equal to 0.5 percent of the...

  20. 78 FR 70856 - Information Reporting of Mortgage Insurance Premiums

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-27

    ... Information Reporting of Mortgage Insurance Premiums AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION... regulations that require information reporting by persons who receive mortgage insurance premiums, including... reporting requirements that result from the extension of the treatment of mortgage insurance premiums made...

  1. 31 CFR 337.8 - Payment of mortgage insurance premiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... insurance premiums. When certificated debentures are tendered for purchase prior to maturity in order that the proceeds thereof be applied to pay for mortgage insurance premiums, any difference between the amount of the debentures purchased and the amount of the mortgage insurance premium will generally be...

  2. Factors influencing buyers' willingness to offer price premiums for carbon credits sourced from urban forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    N.C. Poudyal; J.M. Bowker; J.P. Siry

    2015-01-01

    Marketing carbon offset credits generated by urban forest projects could help cities and local governments achieve their financial self-sufficiency and environmental sustainability goals. Understanding the value of carbon credits sourced from urban forests, and the factors that determine buyers’ willingness to pay a premium for such credits could benefit cities in...

  3. Modeling foreign exchange risk premium in Armenia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Poghosyan, T.; Kočenda, E.; Zemčík, Petr

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 1 (2008), s. 41-61 ISSN 1540-496X R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : foreign exchange risk premium * Armenia * affine term structure models Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.611, year: 2008

  4. Modeling foreign exchange risk premium in Armenia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Poghosyan, Tigran; Kočenda, Evžen; Zemčík, P.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 1 (2008), s. 41-61 ISSN 1540-496X R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM0021620846 Keywords : foreign exchange risk premium * Armenia * affine term structure models Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.611, year: 2008

  5. Gender, Productivity, and the Marital Wage Premium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, Anne E.

    2008-01-01

    Explanations for married men's wage premium often emphasize greater market productivity due to a gendered division of household labor, though this "specialization thesis" has been insufficiently interrogated. Using data from Wave 2 of the National Survey of Families and Households (N = 972), this paper examines the relationship between wages and…

  6. AN EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS OF VARIETY PRICE PREMIUM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Location price difference was inversely related to distance from the central commodity market, and the seasonal price difference was attributed to storage technique. These show imperfect competitive market behaviour. Peu/drum with characteristics of brown colour, rough skin and large grain size had a price premium than ...

  7. 12 CFR 329.103 - Premiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... interest as defined in § 329.1(c). (a) Premiums, whether in the form of merchandise, credit, or cash, given... the balance in a demand deposit account and the duration of the account balance shall not be considered the payment of interest on a demand deposit account and shall not be subject to the limitations in...

  8. Approximations for stop-loss reinsurance premiums

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnen, Rajko; Albers, Willem/Wim; Kallenberg, W.C.M.

    2005-01-01

    Various approximations of stop-loss reinsurance premiums are described in literature. For a wide variety of claim size distributions and retention levels, such approximations are compared in this paper to each other, as well as to a quantitative criterion. For the aggregate claims two models are

  9. Stop-loss premiums under dependence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albers, Willem/Wim

    1999-01-01

    Stop-loss premiums are typically calculated under the assumption that the insured lives in the underlying portfolio are independent. Here we study the effects of small departures from this assumption. Using Edgeworth expansions, it is made transparent which configurations of dependence parameters

  10. 5 CFR 892.303 - Can I pay my premiums directly by check under the premium conversion plan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... under the premium conversion plan? 892.303 Section 892.303 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL FLEXIBLE BENEFITS PLAN: PRE-TAX PAYMENT OF HEALTH BENEFITS PREMIUMS Contributions and Withholdings § 892.303 Can I pay my premiums directly...

  11. Health Care Analysis for the MCRMC Insurance Cost Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    incentive to reduce utilization  Subsidy to leave TRICARE and use other private health insurance  Increases in TRICARE premiums and co-pays  This...analysis develops the estimated cost of providing health care through a premium -based insurance model consistent with an employer-sponsored benefit...State  Income  Plan premium data  Contract cost data 22 May 2015 9 Agenda  Overview  Background  Data  Insurance Cost Estimate Methodology

  12. An Auto Telematics System For Insurance Premium Rating amp Pricing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irode Philip Luvuga

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Insurance telematics is a new technology that has been poised to transform and change the way we buy and underwrite insurance by 2030. Insurance Premium Rate is a major variable that determines if a client will buy or take up a policy cover or not. With the current stiff competition being felt in the Industry the local insurance industry continues to suffer big losses due to unhealthy business practice of competitor undercutting among the insurers to attract more clients but exposing the underwriting companies to potential high risks. This in most cases means that the product is totally underpriced to the extent that it would be uneconomical and unsustainable in the long run for the insurance firms. This research outlines a technology defined model that should be used to determine the ideal premium rate payable in the Motor Insurance industry taking into account all the variables and the risk exposure of the policy holder. The system model is able to determine the insurable risk based on the drivers attributes and profile location of the vehicle in relation to risk geo-locations map monitoring the driving parameters of the vehicle by the driver and the driving style. This enable the insurance company determines costs associated with the risk cover based on factual facts which are scientifically determined by the real risks.

  13. Assessing Alternative Modifications to the Affordable Care Act: Impact on Individual Market Premiums and Insurance Coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eibner, Christine; Saltzman, Evan

    2015-03-20

    The goals of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) are to enable all legal U.S. residents to have access to affordable health insurance and to prevent sicker individuals (such as those with preexisting conditions) from being priced out of the market. The ACA also instituted several policies to stabilize premiums and to encourage enrollment among healthy individuals of all ages. The law's tax credits and cost-sharing subsidies offer a "carrot" that may encourage enrollment among some young and healthy individuals who would otherwise remain uninsured, while the individual mandate acts as a "stick" by imposing penalties on individuals who choose not to enroll. In this article, the authors use the COMPARE microsimulation model, an analytic tool that uses economic theory and data to predict the effects of health policy reforms, to estimate how eliminating the ACA's individual mandate, eliminating the law's tax credits, and combined scenarios that change these and other provisions of the act might affect 2015 individual market premiums and overall insurance coverage. Underlying these estimates is a COMPARE-based analysis of how premiums and insurance coverage outcomes depend on young adults' propensity to enroll in insurance coverage. The authors find that eliminating the ACA's tax credits and eliminating the individual mandate both increase premiums and reduce enrollment on the individual market. They also find that these key features of the ACA help to protect against adverse selection and stabilize the market by encouraging healthy people to enroll and, in the case of the tax credit, shielding subsidized enrollees from premium increases. Further, they find that individual market premiums are only modestly sensitive to young adults' propensity to enroll in insurance coverage, and ensuring market stability does not require that young adults make up a particular share of enrollees.

  14. Understanding the cost bases of Space Shuttle pricing policies for commercial and foreign customers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Barbara A.

    1984-01-01

    The principles and underlying cost bases of the 1977 and 1982 Space Shuttle Reimbursement Policies are compared and contrasted. Out-of-pocket cost recovery has been chosen as the base of the price for the 1986-1988 time period. With this cost base, it is NASA's intent to recover the total cost of consumables and the launch and flight operations costs added by commercial and foreign customers over the 1986-1988 time period. Beyond 1988, NASA intends to return to its policy of full cost recovery.

  15. Equity of the premium of the Ghanaian National Health Insurance Scheme and the implications for achieving universal coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amporfu, Eugenia

    2013-01-07

    The Ghanaian National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) was introduced to provide access to adequate health care regardless of ability to pay. By law the NHIS is mandatory but because the informal sector has to make premium payment before they are enrolled, the authorities are unable to enforce mandatory nature of the scheme. The ultimate goal of the Scheme then is to provide all residents with access to adequate health care at affordable cost. In other words, the Scheme intends to achieve universal coverage. An important factor for the achievement of universal coverage is that revenue collection be equitable. The purpose of this study is to examine the vertical and horizontal equity of the premium collection of the Scheme. The Kakwani index method as well as graphical analysis was used to study the vertical equity. Horizontal inequity was measured through the effect of the premium on redistribution of ability to pay of members. The extent to which the premium could cause catastrophic expenditure was also examined. The results showed that revenue collection was both vertically and horizontally inequitable. The horizontal inequity had a greater effect on redistribution of ability to pay than vertical inequity. The computation of catastrophic expenditure showed that a small minority of the poor were likely to incur catastrophic expenditure from paying the premium a situation that could impede the achievement of universal coverage. The study provides recommendations to improve the inequitable system of premium payment to help achieve universal coverage.

  16. Equity of the premium of the Ghanaian national health insurance scheme and the implications for achieving universal coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amporfu Eugenia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Ghanaian National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS was introduced to provide access to adequate health care regardless of ability to pay. By law the NHIS is mandatory but because the informal sector has to make premium payment before they are enrolled, the authorities are unable to enforce mandatory nature of the scheme. The ultimate goal of the Scheme then is to provide all residents with access to adequate health care at affordable cost. In other words, the Scheme intends to achieve universal coverage. An important factor for the achievement of universal coverage is that revenue collection be equitable. The purpose of this study is to examine the vertical and horizontal equity of the premium collection of the Scheme. The Kakwani index method as well as graphical analysis was used to study the vertical equity. Horizontal inequity was measured through the effect of the premium on redistribution of ability to pay of members. The extent to which the premium could cause catastrophic expenditure was also examined. The results showed that revenue collection was both vertically and horizontally inequitable. The horizontal inequity had a greater effect on redistribution of ability to pay than vertical inequity. The computation of catastrophic expenditure showed that a small minority of the poor were likely to incur catastrophic expenditure from paying the premium a situation that could impede the achievement of universal coverage. The study provides recommendations to improve the inequitable system of premium payment to help achieve universal coverage.

  17. Passive sampling: A cost-effective method for understanding antibiotic fate, behaviour and impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chang-Er; Zhang, Hao; Ying, Guang-Guo; Zhou, Li-Jun; Jones, Kevin C

    2015-12-01

    The occurrence of antibiotics in the environment has raised much concern in recent years. Understanding their release, fate and behaviour in the environment is vital to assess potential risks. In this study, a novel passive water sampler - diffusion gradients in thin-films for organics (o-DGT) - was employed to assess the occurrence and removal of antibiotics in two waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) - one in China and the other in the United Kingdom (UK). Of the targeted compounds, 11 of 19 were detected in the Chinese WWTP (ND-200ng/L) and 10 of 40 were found in the UK plant (ND-1380ng/L). Florfenicol, lincomycin, ofloxacin and roxithromycin were most abundant in the Chinese WWTP (influent), while anhydrous erythromycin, ciprofloxacin, trimethoprim, ofloxacin and sulfapyridine were the most abundant in the UK influent samples. Estimated Chinese and UK consumption data are used to interpret the results. Neither of the WWTPs was very effective at removing antibiotics: ~40-50% (overall) was removed by the two plants, with the rest being discharged into the receiving rivers. This is the first study using o-DGT to assess the occurrence and removal of antibiotics in WWTPs. o-DGT is a useful, cost-effective tool to assess WWTP performance and can highlight the effectiveness of treatment steps, which can be applied to wastewater based epidemiology studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Understanding the reductions in US corn ethanol production costs: An experience curve approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hettinga, W.G.; Junginger, H.M.; Dekker, S.C.; Hoogwijk, M.; McAloon, A.J.; Hicks, K.B.

    2009-01-01

    The US is currently the world's largest ethanol producer. An increasing percentage is used as transportation fuel, but debates continue on its costs competitiveness and energy balance. In this study, technological development of ethanol production and resulting cost reductions are investigated by using the experience curve approach, scrutinizing costs of dry grind ethanol production over the timeframe 1980-2005. Cost reductions are differentiated between feedstock (corn) production and industrial (ethanol) processing. Corn production costs in the US have declined by 62% over 30 years, down to 100$ 2005 /tonne in 2005, while corn production volumes almost doubled since 1975. A progress ratio (PR) of 0.55 is calculated indicating a 45% cost decline over each doubling in cumulative production. Higher corn yields and increasing farm sizes are the most important drivers behind this cost decline. Industrial processing costs of ethanol have declined by 45% since 1983, to below 130$ 2005 /m 3 in 2005 (excluding costs for corn and capital), equivalent to a PR of 0.87. Total ethanol production costs (including capital and net corn costs) have declined approximately 60% from 800$ 2005 /m 3 in the early 1980s, to 300$ 2005 /m 3 in 2005. Higher ethanol yields, lower energy use and the replacement of beverage alcohol-based production technologies have mostly contributed to this substantial cost decline. In addition, the average size of dry grind ethanol plants increased by 235% since 1990. For the future it is estimated that solely due to technological learning, production costs of ethanol may decline 28-44%, though this excludes effects of the current rising corn and fossil fuel costs. It is also concluded that experience curves are a valuable tool to describe both past and potential future cost reductions in US corn-based ethanol production

  19. Understanding Consumer Preference Between Low Cost Airlines and Full Service Carriers : A Study on Consumer Choice and Decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Alex Hoong Onn

    2008-01-01

    The emergence of low cost or no frills airlines in last decade or so have posed considerable threat to the businesses of traditional full service airlines. The competition between the different type of airlines have changed the landscape of the airline industry tremendously and have provided air travelers with options which are unprecedented. The aim of this study is to understand consumer preference between low cost and full service airlines and to determine what are the motivations or facto...

  20. Grabbing the Air Force by the Tail: Applying Strategic Cost Analytics to Understand and Manage Indirect Cost Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-17

    sector   age Technology Impact  that  significant  technology  adoption  (RFID,  ERP,   EDI ,  etc)  has  on  supply  chain... EDI  capabilities   Complexity Impact  of  a  wide  product/service  line  on  the  supply  chain,  cost  of  serving...can incorporate measurements of the number of EDI transactions in the purchasing function, the age of the technology in the production process, the

  1. Country Value Premiums and Financial Crises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Zaremba

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper concentrates on the value premium across countries and contributes to the investment and asset pricing literature in three ways. First, I provide fresh evidence that the high-value countries perform significantly better than the low-value countries. Additionally, this phenomenon is indifferent to the choice of the computational currency, representative index or value indicator. Second, I demonstrate that the value effect can be successfully amplified by combining with country-level size and momentum effects. Third, I show that returns to the high-value countries deteriorate in financial crisis conditions, because the country-level value premium is negatively correlated with the credit spreads, TED spread and expected volatility. I examine data from 66 markets between years 2000 and 2013.

  2. History and the Equity Risk Premium

    OpenAIRE

    William Goetzmann; Roger Ibbotson

    2005-01-01

    We summarize some of our own past findings and place them in the context of the historical development of the idea of the equity risk premium and its empirical measurement by financial economists. In particular, we focus on how the theory of compensation for investment risk developed in the 20th century in tandem with the empirical analysis of historical investment performance. Finally, we update our study of the historical performance of the New York Stock Exchange over the period 1792 to th...

  3. Social Security and the Equity Premium Puzzle

    OpenAIRE

    Olovsson, Conny

    2004-01-01

    This paper shows that social security may be an important factor in explaining the equity premium puzzle. In the absence of shortselling constraints, the young shortsell bonds to the middle-aged and buy equity. Social security reduces the bond demand of the middle-aged, thereby restricting the possibilities of the young to finance their equity purchases. Their equity demand increases as does the average return to equity. Social security also increases the covariance between future consumption...

  4. Employer choices of family premium sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vistnes, Jessica Primoff; Morrisey, Michael A; Jensen, Gail A

    2006-03-01

    In 1997, nearly two-thirds of married couples with children under age 18 were dual-earner couples. Such families may have a variety of insurance options available to them. If so, declining a high employee premium contribution may be a mechanism for one spouse to take money wages in lieu of coverage while the other spouse takes coverage rather than high wages. Employers may use these preferences and the size of premium contributions to encourage workers to obtain family coverage through their spouse. The purpose of this paper is to explore the effects of labor force composition, particularly the proportion of dual-earner couples in the labor market, on the marginal employee premium contribution (marginal EPC) for family coverage. We analyze data from the 1997-2001 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey--Insurance Component (MEPS-IC) List Sample of private establishments. We find strong evidence that the marginal EPC for family coverage is higher when there is a larger concentration of women in the workforce, but only in markets with a higher proportion of dual-earner households.

  5. Understanding cost of care for patients on renal replacement therapy: looking beyond fixed tariffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bernadette; Cairns, John A; Fotheringham, James; Tomson, Charles R; Forsythe, John L; Watson, Christopher; Metcalfe, Wendy; Fogarty, Damian G; Draper, Heather; Oniscu, Gabriel C; Dudley, Christopher; Johnson, Rachel J; Roderick, Paul; Leydon, Geraldine; Bradley, J Andrew; Ravanan, Rommel

    2015-10-01

    In a number of countries, reimbursement to hospitals providing renal dialysis services is set according to a fixed tariff. While the cost of maintenance dialysis and transplant surgery are amenable to a system of fixed tariffs, patients with established renal failure commonly present with comorbid conditions that can lead to variations in the need for hospitalization beyond the provision of renal replacement therapy. Patient-level cost data for incident renal replacement therapy patients in England were obtained as a result of linkage of the Hospital Episodes Statistics dataset to UK Renal Registry data. Regression models were developed to explore variations in hospital costs in relation to treatment modality, number of years on treatment and factors such as age and comorbidities. The final models were then used to predict annual costs for patients with different sets of characteristics. Excluding the cost of renal replacement therapy itself, inpatient costs generally decreased with number of years on treatment for haemodialysis and transplant patients, whereas costs for patients receiving peritoneal dialysis remained constant. Diabetes was associated with higher mean annual costs for all patients irrespective of treatment modality and hospital setting. Age did not have a consistent effect on costs. Combining predicted hospital costs with the fixed costs of renal replacement therapy showed that the total cost differential for a patient continuing on dialysis rather than receiving a transplant is considerable following the first year of renal replacement therapy, thus reinforcing the longer-term economic advantage of transplantation over dialysis for the health service. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  6. Rating a Wildfire Mitigation Strategy with an Insurance Premium: A Boreal Forest Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina Rodriguez-Baca

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Risk analysis entails the systematic use of historical information to determine the frequency, magnitude and effects of unexpected events. Wildfire in boreal North America is a key driver of forest dynamics and may cause very significant economic losses. An actuarial approach to risk analysis based on cumulative probability distributions was developed to reduce the adverse effects of wildfire. To this effect, we developed spatially explicit landscape models to simulate the interactions between harvest, fire and forest succession over time in a boreal forest of eastern Canada. We estimated the amount of reduction of timber harvest necessary to build a buffer stock of sufficient size to cover fire losses and compared it to an insurance premium estimated in units of timber volume from the probability of occurrence and the amount of damage. Overall, the timber harvest reduction we applied was much more costly than the insurance premium even with a zero interest rate. This is due to the fact that the insurance premium is directly related to risk while the timber harvest reduction is not and, as a consequence, is much less efficient. These results, especially the comparison with a standard indicator such as an insurance premium, have useful implications at the time of choosing a mitigation strategy to protect timber supplies against risk without overly diminishing the provision of services from the forest. They are also promoting the use of insurance against disastrous events in forest management planning.

  7. Calculation of benefit reserves based on true m-thly benefit premiums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaman; Susanti, Dwi; Supriatna, Agus; Nurani Ruchjana, Budi

    2017-10-01

    Life insurance is a form of insurance that provides risk mitigation in life or death of a human. One of its advantages is measured life insurance. Insurance companies ought to give a sum of money as reserves to the customers. The benefit reserves are an alternative calculation which involves net and cost premiums. An insured may pay a series of benefit premiums to an insurer equivalent, at the date of policy issue, to the sum of to be paid on the death of the insured, or on survival of the insured to the maturity date. A balancing item is required and this item is a liability for one of the parties and the other is an asset. The balancing item, in loan, is the outstanding principle, an asset for the lender and the liability for the borrower. In this paper we examined the benefit reserves formulas corresponding to the formulas for true m-thly benefit premiums by the prospective method. This method specifies that, the reserves at the end of the first year are zero. Several principles can be used for the determined of benefit premiums, an equivalence relation is established in our discussion.

  8. Understanding the reductions in US corn ethanol production costs: an experience curve approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hettinga, W.; Junginger, H.M.; Dekker, S.C.; Hoogwijk, M.; McAloon, A.; Hicks, K.

    2009-01-01

    The US is currently the world's largest ethanol producer. An increasing percentage is used as transportation fuel, but debates continue on its costs competitiveness and energy balance. In this study, technological development of ethanol production and resulting cost reductions are investigated by

  9. Physical Premium Principle: A New Way for Insurance Pricing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir H. Darooneh

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: In our previous work we suggested a way for computing the non-life insurance premium. The probable surplus of the insurer company assumed to be distributed according to the canonical ensemble theory. The Esscher premium principle appeared as its special case. The difference between our method and traditional principles for premium calculation was shown by simulation. Here we construct a theoretical foundation for the main assumption in our method, in this respect we present a new (physical definition for the economic equilibrium. This approach let us to apply the maximum entropy principle in the economic systems. We also extend our method to deal with the problem of premium calculation for correlated risk categories. Like the Buhlman economic premium principle our method considers the effect of the market on the premium but in a different way.

  10. Physical Premium Principle: A New Way for Insurance Pricing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darooneh, Amir H.

    2005-03-01

    In our previous work we suggested a way for computing the non-life insurance premium. The probable surplus of the insurer company assumed to be distributed according to the canonical ensemble theory. The Esscher premium principle appeared as its special case. The difference between our method and traditional principles for premium calculation was shown by simulation. Here we construct a theoretical foundation for the main assumption in our method, in this respect we present a new (physical) definition for the economic equilibrium. This approach let us to apply the maximum entropy principle in the economic systems. We also extend our method to deal with the problem of premium calculation for correlated risk categories. Like the Buhlman economic premium principle our method considers the effect of the market on the premium but in a different way.

  11. Understanding the cost of power interruptions to U.S. electricity consumers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaCommare, Kristina Hamachi; Eto, Joseph H.

    2004-09-01

    The massive electric power blackout in the northeastern United States and Canada on August 14-15, 2003 resulted in the U.S. electricity system being called ''antiquated'' and catalyzed discussions about modernizing the grid. Industry sources suggested that investments of $50 to $100 billion would be needed. This report seeks to quantify an important piece of information that has been missing from these discussions: how much do power interruptions and fluctuations in power quality (power-quality events) cost U.S. electricity consumers? Accurately estimating this cost will help assess the potential benefits of investments in improving the reliability of the grid. We develop a comprehensive end-use framework for assessing the cost to U.S. electricity consumers of power interruptions and power-quality events (referred to collectively as ''reliability events''). The framework expresses these costs as a function of: (1) Number of customers by type in a region; (2) Frequency and type of reliability events experienced annually (including both power interruptions and power-quality events) by these customers; (3) Cost of reliability events; and (4) Vulnerability of customers to these events. The framework is designed so that its cost estimate can be improved as additional data become available. Using our framework, we estimate that the national cost of power interruptions is about $80 billion annually, based on the best information available in the public domain. However, there are large gaps in and significant uncertainties about the information currently available. Notably, we were not able to develop an estimate of power-quality events. Sensitivity analysis of some of these uncertainties suggests that the total annual cost could range from less than $30 billion to more than $130 billion. Because of this large range and the enormous cost of the decisions that may be based on this estimate, we encourage policy makers, regulators, and

  12. Schedule Matters: Understanding the Relationship between Schedule Delays and Costs on Overruns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majerowicz, Walt; Shinn, Stephen A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between schedule delays and cost overruns on complex projects. It is generally accepted by many project practitioners that cost overruns are directly related to schedule delays. But what does "directly related to" actually mean? Some reasons or root causes for schedule delays and associated cost overruns are obvious, if only in hindsight. For example, unrealistic estimates, supply chain difficulties, insufficient schedule margin, technical problems, scope changes, or the occurrence of risk events can negatively impact schedule performance. Other factors driving schedule delays and cost overruns may be less obvious and more difficult to quantify. Examples of these less obvious factors include project complexity, flawed estimating assumptions, over-optimism, political factors, "black swan" events, or even poor leadership and communication. Indeed, is it even possible the schedule itself could be a source of delay and subsequent cost overrun? Through literature review, surveys of project practitioners, and the authors' own experience on NASA programs and projects, the authors will categorize and examine the various factors affecting the relationship between project schedule delays and cost growth. The authors will also propose some ideas for organizations to consider to help create an awareness of the factors which could cause or influence schedule delays and associated cost growth on complex projects.

  13. Premium Pricing of Liability Insurance Using Random Sum Model

    OpenAIRE

    Kartikasari, Mujiati Dwi

    2017-01-01

    Premium pricing is one of important activities in insurance. Nonlife insurance premium is calculated from expected value of historical data claims. The historical data claims are collected so that it forms a sum of independent random number which is called random sum. In premium pricing using random sum, claim frequency distribution and claim severity distribution are combined. The combination of these distributions is called compound distribution. By using liability claim insurance data, we ...

  14. Optimal Premium Pricing for a Heterogeneous Portfolio of Insurance Risks

    OpenAIRE

    Pantelous, Athanasios A.; Frangos, Nicholas E.; Zimbidis, Alexandros A.

    2009-01-01

    The paper revisits the classical problem of premium rating within a heterogeneous portfolio of insurance risks using a continuous stochastic control framework. The portfolio is divided into several classes where each class interacts with the others. The risks are modelled dynamically by the means of a Brownian motion. This dynamic approach is also transferred to the design of the premium process. The premium is not constant but equals the drift of the Brownian motion plus a controlled percent...

  15. Value Driven Outcomes (VDO): a pragmatic, modular, and extensible software framework for understanding and improving health care costs and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamoto, Kensaku; Martin, Cary J; Williams, Kip; Tu, Ming-Chieh; Park, Charlton G; Hunter, Cheri; Staes, Catherine J; Bray, Bruce E; Deshmukh, Vikrant G; Holbrook, Reid A; Morris, Scott J; Fedderson, Matthew B; Sletta, Amy; Turnbull, James; Mulvihill, Sean J; Crabtree, Gordon L; Entwistle, David E; McKenna, Quinn L; Strong, Michael B; Pendleton, Robert C; Lee, Vivian S

    2015-01-01

    To develop expeditiously a pragmatic, modular, and extensible software framework for understanding and improving healthcare value (costs relative to outcomes). In 2012, a multidisciplinary team was assembled by the leadership of the University of Utah Health Sciences Center and charged with rapidly developing a pragmatic and actionable analytics framework for understanding and enhancing healthcare value. Based on an analysis of relevant prior work, a value analytics framework known as Value Driven Outcomes (VDO) was developed using an agile methodology. Evaluation consisted of measurement against project objectives, including implementation timeliness, system performance, completeness, accuracy, extensibility, adoption, satisfaction, and the ability to support value improvement. A modular, extensible framework was developed to allocate clinical care costs to individual patient encounters. For example, labor costs in a hospital unit are allocated to patients based on the hours they spent in the unit; actual medication acquisition costs are allocated to patients based on utilization; and radiology costs are allocated based on the minutes required for study performance. Relevant process and outcome measures are also available. A visualization layer facilitates the identification of value improvement opportunities, such as high-volume, high-cost case types with high variability in costs across providers. Initial implementation was completed within 6 months, and all project objectives were fulfilled. The framework has been improved iteratively and is now a foundational tool for delivering high-value care. The framework described can be expeditiously implemented to provide a pragmatic, modular, and extensible approach to understanding and improving healthcare value. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association.

  16. Value Driven Outcomes (VDO): a pragmatic, modular, and extensible software framework for understanding and improving health care costs and outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamoto, Kensaku; Martin, Cary J; Williams, Kip; Tu, Ming-Chieh; Park, Charlton G; Hunter, Cheri; Staes, Catherine J; Bray, Bruce E; Deshmukh, Vikrant G; Holbrook, Reid A; Morris, Scott J; Fedderson, Matthew B; Sletta, Amy; Turnbull, James; Mulvihill, Sean J; Crabtree, Gordon L; Entwistle, David E; McKenna, Quinn L; Strong, Michael B; Pendleton, Robert C; Lee, Vivian S

    2015-01-01

    Objective To develop expeditiously a pragmatic, modular, and extensible software framework for understanding and improving healthcare value (costs relative to outcomes). Materials and methods In 2012, a multidisciplinary team was assembled by the leadership of the University of Utah Health Sciences Center and charged with rapidly developing a pragmatic and actionable analytics framework for understanding and enhancing healthcare value. Based on an analysis of relevant prior work, a value analytics framework known as Value Driven Outcomes (VDO) was developed using an agile methodology. Evaluation consisted of measurement against project objectives, including implementation timeliness, system performance, completeness, accuracy, extensibility, adoption, satisfaction, and the ability to support value improvement. Results A modular, extensible framework was developed to allocate clinical care costs to individual patient encounters. For example, labor costs in a hospital unit are allocated to patients based on the hours they spent in the unit; actual medication acquisition costs are allocated to patients based on utilization; and radiology costs are allocated based on the minutes required for study performance. Relevant process and outcome measures are also available. A visualization layer facilitates the identification of value improvement opportunities, such as high-volume, high-cost case types with high variability in costs across providers. Initial implementation was completed within 6 months, and all project objectives were fulfilled. The framework has been improved iteratively and is now a foundational tool for delivering high-value care. Conclusions The framework described can be expeditiously implemented to provide a pragmatic, modular, and extensible approach to understanding and improving healthcare value. PMID:25324556

  17. Age and Social Support Seeking: Understanding the Role of Perceived Social Costs to Others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Li; Drolet, Aimee; Kim, Heejung S

    2018-07-01

    We examined age differences in the use of different types of social support and the reasons for these differences. We found that older adults (age 60+) seek explicit social support less compared with young adults (age 18-25), but there is no difference in implicit social support seeking. Concerns about the potential social costs of seeking explicit support mediate the age differences in explicit social support seeking. Whereas young adults view this strategy as conferring more benefits than costs, older adults have a more balanced view of the costs and benefits of explicit social support seeking. Older and young adults do not differ in perceptions of the relative costs versus benefits of implicit social support seeking. Finally, we found older adults benefit more from implicit (vs. explicit) social support emotionally than young adults, which further explains why age groups differ in their use of explicit versus implicit social support.

  18. Employer contribution and premium growth in health insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yiyan; Jin, Ginger Zhe

    2015-01-01

    We study whether employer premium contribution schemes could impact the pricing behavior of health plans and contribute to rising premiums. Using 1991-2011 data before and after a 1999 premium subsidy policy change in the Federal Employees Health Benefits Program (FEHBP), we find that the employer premium contribution scheme has a differential impact on health plan pricing based on two market incentives: 1) consumers are less price sensitive when they only need to pay part of the premium increase, and 2) each health plan has an incentive to increase the employer's premium contribution to that plan. Both incentives are found to contribute to premium growth. Counterfactual simulation shows that average premium would have been 10% less than observed and the federal government would have saved 15% per year on its premium contribution had the subsidy policy change not occurred in the FEHBP. We discuss the potential of similar incentives in other government-subsidized insurance systems such as the Medicare Part D and the Health Insurance Marketplace under the Affordable Care Act. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Premium Pricing of Liability Insurance Using Random Sum Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mujiati Dwi Kartikasari

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Premium pricing is one of important activities in insurance. Nonlife insurance premium is calculated from expected value of historical data claims. The historical data claims are collected so that it forms a sum of independent random number which is called random sum. In premium pricing using random sum, claim frequency distribution and claim severity distribution are combined. The combination of these distributions is called compound distribution. By using liability claim insurance data, we analyze premium pricing using random sum model based on compound distribution

  20. The Skew Risk Premium in the Equity Index Market

    OpenAIRE

    Roman Kozhan; Anthony Neuberger; Paul Schneider

    2013-01-01

    We develop a new method for measuring moment risk premiums. We find that the skew premium accounts for over 40% of the slope in the implied volatility curve in the S&P 500 market. Skew risk is tightly related to variance risk, in the sense that strategies designed to capture the one and hedge out exposure to the other earn an insignificant risk premium. This provides a new testable restriction for asset pricing models trying to capture, in particular, disaster risk premiums. We base our resul...

  1. Explaining the so-called 'price premium' in oil markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merino, A.; Ortiz, A.

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores the information content of several variables on the so-called ''oil price premium over fundamentals''. We define this premium as the difference between the market oil price and the estimated price consistent with the OECD's relative industry stock level. By using Granger causality tests and extended regressions we test the systematic ability of a broad set of variables to explain the premium. We find that speculation in the oil market - measured by non-commercial long positions - can improve the traditional model, reducing the premium significantly during some parts of the sample. (author)

  2. CHIP premiums, health status, and the insurance coverage of children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marton, James; Talbert, Jeffery C

    2010-01-01

    This study uses the introduction of premiums into Kentucky's Children's Health Insurance Program (KCHIP) to examine whether the enrollment impact of new premiums varies by child health type. We also examine the extent to which children find alternative coverage after premium nonpayment. Public insurance claims data suggest that those with chronic health conditions are less likely to leave public coverage. We find little evidence of a differential impact of premiums on enrollment among the chronically ill. Our survey of nonpayers shows that 56% of responding families found alternative private or public health coverage for their children after losing CHIP.

  3. Understanding the cost of capital of logistics service providers: an empirical investigation of multiple contingency variables

    OpenAIRE

    Lampe, Kerstin; Hofmann, Erik

    2014-01-01

    The article analyzes the influence of company-, industry- and market-related variables on the cost of capital of logistics service providers, as well as on their systematic risk. Financial information has become more and more important in strategic decision making (especially in the international context); in addition of being a measure of performance, the cost of capital is an important variable for logistics service providers in decisions about investing capital and developing the appropria...

  4. 5 CFR 890.502 - Withholdings, contributions, LWOP, premiums, and direct premium payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... amount equal to the premiums for a pay period during which the employee was in a leave without pay (LWOP... for every pay period during which the enrollment continues, except for the 31-day temporary extension... 365 days. (1) An employee who is granted leave without pay (LWOP) under subpart L of part 630 of this...

  5. Building Models to Better Understand the Importance of Cost versus Safety in Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumrall, William; Mott, Michael

    2010-01-01

    While some disasters involving engineered structures are due to events in nature (e.g., tornadoes, hurricanes, earthquakes), others may be caused by inadequate materials, design flaws, and poor maintenance. These catastrophes result in the loss of human lives and cost billions of dollars. In the set of lessons described here, students design a…

  6. Understanding the Uncertainty of an Effectiveness-Cost Ratio in Educational Resource Allocation: A Bayesian Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yilin

    2016-01-01

    Given the necessity to bridge the gap between what happened and what is likely to happen, this paper aims to explore how to apply Bayesian inference to cost-effectiveness analysis so as to capture the uncertainty of a ratio-type efficiency measure. The first part of the paper summarizes the characteristics of the evaluation data that are commonly…

  7. Wind turbine reliability :understanding and minimizing wind turbine operation and maintenance costs.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walford, Christopher A. (Global Energy Concepts. Kirkland, WA)

    2006-03-01

    Wind turbine system reliability is a critical factor in the success of a wind energy project. Poor reliability directly affects both the project's revenue stream through increased operation and maintenance (O&M) costs and reduced availability to generate power due to turbine downtime. Indirectly, the acceptance of wind-generated power by the financial and developer communities as a viable enterprise is influenced by the risk associated with the capital equipment reliability; increased risk, or at least the perception of increased risk, is generally accompanied by increased financing fees or interest rates. This paper outlines the issues relevant to wind turbine reliability for wind turbine power generation projects. The first sections describe the current state of the industry, identify the cost elements associated with wind farm O&M and availability and discuss the causes of uncertainty in estimating wind turbine component reliability. The latter sections discuss the means for reducing O&M costs and propose O&M related research and development efforts that could be pursued by the wind energy research community to reduce cost of energy.

  8. Analysis of drivers affecting the use of market premium for renewables in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genoese, Massimo; Slednev, Viktor; Fichtner, Wolf

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we identify and analyze parameters that determine the profitability of wind power operators in the German market premium model. Based on an empirical analysis of different German wind power profiles from 2007 to mid-2012, we are able to show that the profitability significantly depends on the correlation of the wind power portfolio with the overall wind power feed-in and prediction error in Germany. Significant differences between the wind forecast errors clearing cost of the analyzed portfolios can be identified. Our analysis shows that a wind power operator would profit in most cases from a reduced forecast error, which could be achieved through an improved forecast model and an increased share of the intraday cleared error. Furthermore significant locational portfolio advantages and disadvantages can be identified when comparing the different market values. In general, the empirical analysis shows that a premium of 3.5 €/MWh is suitable to cover the cost of an imperfect forecast. Taking further into account that for 2012 a premium of 12 €/MWh was granted; the direct marketing option can be evaluated as highly attractive, which is furthermore indicated by the rapid increase of the directly marketed wind power and photovoltaic generation. - Highlights: • Wind power operator profitability in the German market premium model is analyzed. • Correlation with the overall wind power feed-in and prediction error is crucial. • Wind forecast error clearing cost of the analyzed portfolios show clear differences. • The direct marketing option of wind power can be evaluated as attractive.

  9. The Phantom Gender Difference in the College Wage Premium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, William H. J.

    2011-01-01

    A growing literature seeks to explain why so many more women than men now attend college. A commonly cited stylized fact is that the college wage premium is, and has been, higher for women than for men. After identifying and correcting a bias in estimates of college wage premiums, I find that there has been essentially no gender difference in the…

  10. The Risk Premium for Equity : Explanations and Implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grant, S.; Quiggin, J.

    2001-01-01

    The equity premium puzzle shows that using standard parameters and setup, the Consumption-based Capital Asset Pricing Model's (CCAPM's) prediction of the premium associated with systematic risk is out by an order of magnitude.The object of this paper is to consider the implications of each of the

  11. Risk premiums in the German day-ahead Electricity Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viehmann, Johannes

    2011-01-01

    This paper conducts an empirical analysis of risk premiums in the German day-ahead Electricity Wholesale Market. We compare hourly price data of the European Energy Exchange (EEX) auction and of the continuous over-the-counter (OTC) market which takes place prior to the EEX auction. Data provided by the Energy Exchange Austria (EXAA) has been used as a snapshot of the OTC market two hours prior to the EEX auction. Ex post analysis found market participants are willing to pay both significant positive and negative premiums for hourly contracts. The largest positive premiums were paid for high demand evening peak hours on weekdays during winter months. By contrast, night hours on weekends featuring lowest demand levels display negative premiums. Additionally, ex ante analysis found a strong positive correlation between the expected tightness of the system and positive premiums. For this purpose, a tightness factor has been introduced that includes expectations of fundamental factors such as power plant availability, wind power production and demand. Hence, findings by can be supported that power traders in liberalised markets behave like risk-averse rational economic agents. - Research highlights: →Analysis of hourly risk premiums in the German day-ahead Electricity Wholesale Market. →Market participants are willing to pay both significant positive and negative premiums for hourly contracts. →A strong correlation exists between the expected tightness of the power system and premiums.

  12. 5 CFR 410.402 - Paying premium pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Paying premium pay. 410.402 Section 410... for Training Expenses § 410.402 Paying premium pay. (a) Prohibitions. Except as provided by paragraph (b) of this section, an agency may not use its funds, appropriated or otherwise available, to pay...

  13. 26 CFR 1.848-2 - Determination of net premiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... reinsurance agreements with parties not subject to United States taxation) are treated separately and are... consideration includes— (i) Advance premiums; (ii) Amounts in a premium deposit fund or similar account, to the... parties not subject to United States taxation. (2) Net consideration determined by a ceding company—(i) In...

  14. Premium Motorsi priimad päevad / Raigo Neudorf

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Neudorf, Raigo

    2007-01-01

    Automüüja Premium Motors on edu saavutanud luksusmaasturi Hummer ning teiste USA eksklusiivsete automarkide müügiõigusega. Tabel: Rentaabel äri. Vt. samas: Palun kaks roosat Hummerit; Premium Motors hakkab sügisel Hiina maastureid müüma.

  15. Generalized financial ratios to predict the equity premium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Algaba, Andres; Boudt, Kris

    2017-01-01

    Empirical evidence for the price-dividend ratio to be a predictor of the equity premium is weak. We argue that changes in the economic conditions and market composition lead to a time-varying relationship between prices, dividends and the equity premium. Exploiting the information in the rolling

  16. Can large long-term investors capture illiquidity premiums

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, F.C.J.M.; Driessen, J.J.A.G.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we perform a literature study to assess whether large long-term investors can benefit from liquidity premiums in different asset classes. We both describe the theoretical predictions on liquidity premiums and portfolio choice with illiquidity, as well as empirical evidence on liquidity

  17. 12 CFR 217.101 - Premiums on deposits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... from paying interest on a demand deposit. Premiums, whether in the form of merchandise, credit, or cash... AGAINST THE PAYMENT OF INTEREST ON DEMAND DEPOSITS (REGULATION Q) Interpretations § 217.101 Premiums on... that is not, directly or indirectly, related to or dependent on the balance in a demand deposit account...

  18. Price premium of organic salmon in Danish retail sale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ankamah Yeboah, Isaac; Nielsen, Max; Nielsen, Rasmus

    2016-01-01

    for organic salmon in Danish retail sale using consumer panel scanner data from households by applying a random effect hedonic price model that permits unobserved household heterogeneity. A price premium of 20% was identified for organic salmon. The magnitude of this premium is comparable to organic labeled...

  19. 75 FR 9247 - Single Family Mortgage Insurance Premium, Single Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT [Docket No. FR-5376-N-13] Single Family Mortgage Insurance Premium, Single Family AGENCY: Office of the Chief Information Officer, HUD. ACTION: Notice... is soliciting public comments on the subject proposal. Lenders use the Single Family Premium...

  20. 78 FR 7264 - Health Insurance Premium Tax Credit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 [TD 9611] RIN 1545-BL49 Health Insurance Premium Tax Credit AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Final regulations. SUMMARY: This document contains final regulations relating to the health insurance premium tax credit...

  1. 76 FR 50931 - Health Insurance Premium Tax Credit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-17

    ... Health Insurance Premium Tax Credit AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of... relating to the health insurance premium tax credit enacted by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care... be able to purchase private health insurance through State-based competitive marketplaces called...

  2. 77 FR 41048 - Health Insurance Premium Tax Credit; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-12

    ... the health insurance premium tax credit enacted by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 [TD 9590] RIN 1545-BJ82 Health Insurance Premium Tax Credit; Correction AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION...

  3. TESTING FOR RISK PREMIUMS IN THE WHEAT-FLOUR SUBSECTOR

    OpenAIRE

    Cotterill, Ronald W.; Salih, Hachim M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper specifies a model of wholesale flour price determination that incorporates risk measures for input prices (wheat) and a joint output price (millfeed). Tests using daily price data for a Buffalo flour miller indicate that risk premiums do exist. Moreover, these premiums persist in a model that incorporates hedging.

  4. 31 CFR 337.13 - Payment of mortgage insurance premiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... insurance premiums. When book-entry debentures are being purchased prior to maturity to pay for mortgage insurance premiums, the difference between the amount of the debentures purchased and the mortgage insurance... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Payment of mortgage insurance...

  5. 24 CFR 213.256 - Premiums; insurance upon completion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Premiums; insurance upon completion... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES COOPERATIVE HOUSING MORTGAGE INSURANCE Contract Rights and Obligations-Projects § 213.256 Premiums...

  6. 24 CFR 236.253 - Premiums-operating loss loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Obligations for Mortgage Insurance § 236.253 Premiums—operating loss loans. All of the provisions of § 207.252a of this chapter relating to mortgage insurance premiums on operating loss loans shall apply to... Act the mortgage insurance premiums due in accordance with § 207.252a shall be calculated on the basis...

  7. Understanding coal quality and its relationship to power plant performance and costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jennison, K.D.; Stallard, G.S. [Black & Veatch International, Overland Park, KS (United States)

    1995-12-01

    The availability of reliable, reasonably priced energy is a necessary cornerstone for established and emerging economies. In addition to addressing coal quality issues strictly at a plant level, it is now prudent to consider long-term performance and economics of particular fuel sources to be selected in the light of system economics and reliability. In order to evaluate coal quality issues in a more comprehensive manner, it is important to develop both an approach and a set of tools which can support the various phases of the planning/analysis processes. The processes must consider the following: (1) Cost/availability of other potential coal supplies, including {open_quotes}raw{close_quotes} domestic sources, {open_quotes}cleaned {close_quotes} domestic sources, and other internationally marketed coals. (2) Power plant performance issues as function of plant design and fuel properties. (3) System expansion plans, candidate technologies, and associated capital and operating costs. (4) Projected load demand, for system and for individual units within the system. (5) Legislative issues such as environmental pressures, power purchase agreements, etc. which could alter the solution. (6) Economics of potential plans/strategies based on overall cost-effectiveness of the utility system, not just individual units. (7) Anticipated unit configuration, including addition of environmental control equipment or other repowering options. The Coal Quality Impact Model (CQIM{trademark}) is a PC-based computer program capable of predicting coal-related cost and performance impacts at electric power generating sites. The CQIM was developed for EPRI by Black & Veatch and represents over a decade of effort geared toward developing an extensible state-of-the-art coal quality assessment tool. This paper will introduce CQIM, its capabilities, and its application to Eastern European coal quality assessment needs.

  8. A comment on 'Storage and the electricity forward premium'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloys van Treslong, Adriaan; Huisman, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the robustness of the results found by Douglas and Popova (2008). They examine the electricity forward premium in relation to gas storage inventories and find that, although electricity is not directly storable, electricity forward premiums are lower when gas storage inventories are higher, especially on days with high temperatures. Douglas and Popova (2008) derive their results from a forward premium model that is an extension of the Bessembinder and Lemmon (2002) model. We examine whether the gas storage inventory results hold under a different specification of the forward risk premium. Our results support the results found by Douglas and Popova (2008) and show that their results are not influenced by the specification of the forward premium model. (author)

  9. Optimal Premium Pricing for a Heterogeneous Portfolio of Insurance Risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios A. Pantelous

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper revisits the classical problem of premium rating within a heterogeneous portfolio of insurance risks using a continuous stochastic control framework. The portfolio is divided into several classes where each class interacts with the others. The risks are modelled dynamically by the means of a Brownian motion. This dynamic approach is also transferred to the design of the premium process. The premium is not constant but equals the drift of the Brownian motion plus a controlled percentage of the respective volatility. The optimal controller for the premium is obtained using advanced optimization techniques, and it is finally shown that the respective pricing strategy follows a more balanced development compared with the traditional premium approaches.

  10. 75 FR 30243 - Medicaid Program; Premiums and Cost Sharing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ... each week from 8:30 a.m. to 4 p.m. To schedule an appointment to view public comments, phone 1-800-743... Pete Domenici Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act of 2008 (Pub. L. 110- 343), relate to the...

  11. Contemporary challenges in applying of the modified model CAPM with country risk premium in emerging economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Dragana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern approach in determining the expected return of foreign investors' investments is based on the evaluation investment in capital asset-CAPM (Capital Asset Pricing Model. In order to use the CAPM model for calculating the expected return of foreign investors in growing economies, it is developed the extended model CAPM with the risk premium in the country. This variant of the CAPM model has been used for estimating the cost of capital. This is the expected return on a portfolio of the company's stocks in less developed countries. Those countries have certain problems and factors of risk investment. This research examines the limitations and shortcomings in the application of the extended model with country risk premium, during the calculation of the cost of capital in the less developed economies. We present possible models to overcome those problems and also a need for upgrading of modified CAPM model with a risk premium of the country which, beside risk of the country (CR must have a discount for the 'advantage of the country'.

  12. Understanding Barriers to Participation in Cost-Share Programs For Pollinator Conservation by Wisconsin (USA) Cranberry Growers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines-Day, Hannah R; Gratton, Claudio

    2017-08-01

    The expansion of modern agriculture has led to the loss and fragmentation of natural habitat, resulting in a global decline in biodiversity, including bees. In many countries, farmers can participate in cost-share programs to create natural habitat on their farms for the conservation of beneficial insects, such as bees. Despite their dependence on bee pollinators and the demonstrated commitment to environmental stewardship, participation in such programs by Wisconsin cranberry growers has been low. The objective of this study was to understand the barriers that prevent participation by Wisconsin cranberry growers in cost-share programs for on-farm conservation of native bees. We conducted a survey of cranberry growers (n = 250) regarding farming practices, pollinators, and conservation. Although only 10% of growers were aware of federal pollinator cost-share programs, one third of them were managing habitat for pollinators without federal aid. Once informed of the programs, 50% of growers expressed interest in participating. Fifty-seven percent of growers manage habitat for other wildlife, although none receive cost-share funding to do so. Participation in cost-share programs could benefit from outreach activities that promote the programs, a reduction of bureaucratic hurdles to participate, and technical support for growers on how to manage habitat for wild bees.

  13. Understanding Barriers to Participation in Cost-Share Programs For Pollinator Conservation by Wisconsin (USA Cranberry Growers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah R. Gaines-Day

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The expansion of modern agriculture has led to the loss and fragmentation of natural habitat, resulting in a global decline in biodiversity, including bees. In many countries, farmers can participate in cost-share programs to create natural habitat on their farms for the conservation of beneficial insects, such as bees. Despite their dependence on bee pollinators and the demonstrated commitment to environmental stewardship, participation in such programs by Wisconsin cranberry growers has been low. The objective of this study was to understand the barriers that prevent participation by Wisconsin cranberry growers in cost-share programs for on-farm conservation of native bees. We conducted a survey of cranberry growers (n = 250 regarding farming practices, pollinators, and conservation. Although only 10% of growers were aware of federal pollinator cost-share programs, one third of them were managing habitat for pollinators without federal aid. Once informed of the programs, 50% of growers expressed interest in participating. Fifty-seven percent of growers manage habitat for other wildlife, although none receive cost-share funding to do so. Participation in cost-share programs could benefit from outreach activities that promote the programs, a reduction of bureaucratic hurdles to participate, and technical support for growers on how to manage habitat for wild bees.

  14. Food waste in South Africa: Understanding the magnitude, water footprint and cost

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oelofse, Suzanna HH

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available by type to water loss as a result of food waste Table 2: Contribution of food commodities to water loss as a result of food waste THE VISION ZERO WASTE HANDBOOK 67 8 FOOD WASTE IN SOUTH AFRICA that cereals (32%), meat (26%) and fruit and vegetables (24... impact of fruit and vegetables are the highest (42%) followed by meat (32%)( Nahman and de Lange, 2013), cereals are contributing the most to water loss (32%) followed by meat (26%) (Figure 3). It is therefore evident that actions to reduce cost vs...

  15. Psychosocial Costs of Racism to Whites: Understanding Patterns among University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanierman, Lisa B.; Todd, Nathan R.; Anderson, Carolyn J.

    2010-01-01

    This investigation adds to the growing body of scholarship on the psychosocial costs of racism to Whites (PCRW), which refer to consequences of being in the dominant position in an unjust, hierarchical system of societal racism. Extending research that identified five distinct constellations of costs of racism (Spanierman, Poteat, Beer, & Armstrong, 2006), we used multinomial logistic regression in the current study to examine what factors related to membership in one of the five PCRW types during the course of an academic year. Among a sample of White university freshmen (n = 287), we found that (a) diversity attitudes (i.e., universal diverse orientation and unawareness of privilege) explain PCRW type at entrance; (b) PCRW type at entrance explained participation in interracial friendships at the end of the year; (c) 45% of participants changed PCRW type during the course of the year; and (d) among those who changed type, particular PCRW types at entrance resulted in greater likelihood of membership in particular PCRW types at the end of the year. PMID:21866985

  16. HIV, wages, and the skill premium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinescu, Ioana

    2014-09-01

    The HIV epidemic has dramatically decreased labor supply among prime-age adults in Sub-Saharan Africa. Using within-country variation in regional HIV prevalence and a synthetic panel, I find that HIV significantly increases the capital-labor ratio in urban manufacturing firms. The impact of HIV on average wages is positive but imprecisely estimated. In contrast, HIV has a large positive impact on the skill premium. The impact of HIV on the wages of low skilled workers is insignificantly different from 0, and is strongly dampened by competition from rural migrants. The HIV epidemic disproportionately increases the incomes of high-skilled survivors, thus increasing inequality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Required Market Risk Premium among countries in 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Fernandez

    2015-12-01

    This survey also links with the Equity Premium Puzzle. It may be explained by the fact that many market participants use historical data and advice from textbooks and finance professors. Consequently, ex-ante equity premia have been high, most market prices have been consistently undervalued, and the ex-post risk premia has been also high. Many investors use historical data and textbook prescriptions to estimate the required and the expected equity premium, the undervaluation and the high ex-post risk premium are self fulfilling prophecies.

  18. 24 CFR 266.600 - Mortgage insurance premium: Insurance upon completion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mortgage insurance premium... MULTIFAMILY PROJECT LOANS Contract Rights and Obligations Mortgage Insurance Premiums § 266.600 Mortgage insurance premium: Insurance upon completion. (a) Initial premium. For projects insured upon completion, on...

  19. 24 CFR 207.252e - Method of payment of mortgage insurance premiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... insurance premiums. 207.252e Section 207.252e Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing... Premiums § 207.252e Method of payment of mortgage insurance premiums. In the cases that the Commissioner... mortgagees, that mortgage insurance premiums be remitted electronically. [63 FR 1303, Jan. 8, 1998] ...

  20. 26 CFR 1.163-11T - Allocation of certain prepaid qualified mortgage insurance premiums (temporary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... insurance premiums (temporary). 1.163-11T Section 1.163-11T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... insurance premiums (temporary). (a) Allocation—(1) In general. As provided in section 163(h)(3)(E), premiums... section applies whether the qualified mortgage insurance premiums are paid in cash or are financed...

  1. Health Benefits In 2016: Family Premiums Rose Modestly, And Offer Rates Remained Stable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claxton, Gary; Rae, Matthew; Long, Michelle; Damico, Anthony; Whitmore, Heidi; Foster, Gregory

    2016-10-01

    The annual Kaiser Family Foundation/Health Research and Educational Trust Employer Health Benefits Survey found that in 2016, average annual premiums (employer and worker contributions combined) were $6,435 for single coverage and $18,142 for family coverage. The family premium in 2016 was 3 percent higher than that in 2015. On average, workers contributed 18 percent of the premium for single coverage and 30 percent for family coverage. The share of firms offering health benefits (56 percent) and of workers covered by their employers' plans (62 percent) remained statistically unchanged from 2015. Employers continued to offer financial incentives for completing wellness or health promotion activities. Almost three in ten covered workers were enrolled in a high-deductible plan with a savings option-a significant increase from 2014. The 2016 survey included new questions on cost sharing for specialty drugs and on the prevalence of incentives for employees to seek care at alternative settings. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  2. Marketplace Plans With Narrow Physician Networks Feature Lower Monthly Premiums Than Plans With Larger Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polsky, Daniel; Cidav, Zuleyha; Swanson, Ashley

    2016-10-01

    The introduction of health insurance Marketplaces under the Affordable Care Act has been associated with growth of restricted provider networks. The value of this plan design strategy, including its association with lower premiums, is uncertain. We used data from all silver plans offered in the 2014 health insurance exchanges in the fifty states and the District of Columbia to estimate the association between the breadth of a provider network and plan premiums. We found that within a market, for plans of otherwise equivalent design and controlling for issuer-specific pricing strategy, a plan with an extra-small network had a monthly premium that was 6.7 percent less expensive than that of a plan with a large network. Because narrow networks remain an important strategy available to insurance companies to offer lower-cost plans on health insurance Marketplaces, the success of health insurance coverage expansions may be tied to the successful implementation of narrow networks. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  3. Selling Into the Sun: Price Premium Analysis of a Multi-State Dataset of Solar Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adomatis, Sandra [Adomatis Appraisal Services, Punta Gorda, FL (United States); Jackson, Thomas [Texas A & M Univ. and Real Property Analytics Inc., College Station, TX (United States); Graff-Zivin, Joshua [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Thayer, Mark [San Diego State Univ., CA (United States); Klise, Geoffrey [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wiser, Ryan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hoen, Ben [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Capturing the value that solar photovoltaic (PV) systems may add to home sales transactions is increasingly important. Our study enhances the PV-home-valuation literature by more than doubling the number of PV home sales analyzed (22,822 homes in total, 3,951 of which are PV) and examining transactions in eight states that span the years 2002–2013. We find that home buyers are consistently willing to pay PV home premiums across various states, housing and PV markets, and home types; average premiums across the full sample equate to approximately $4/W or $15,000 for an average-sized 3.6-kW PV system. Only a small and non-statistically significant difference exists between PV premiums for new and existing homes, though some evidence exists of new home PV system discounting. A PV green cachet might exist, i.e., home buyers might pay a certain amount for any size of PV system and some increment more depending on system size. The market appears to depreciate the value of PV systems in their first 10 years at a rate exceeding the rate of PV efficiency losses and the rate of straightline depreciation over the asset’s useful life. Net cost estimates—which account for government and utility PV incentives—may be the best proxy for market premiums, but income-based estimates may perform equally well if they accurately account for the complicated retail rate structures that exist in some states. Although this study focuses only on host-owned PV systems, future analysis should focus on homes with third-party-owned PV systems.

  4. Effects of health information technology on malpractice insurance premiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye Yeong; Lee, Jinhyung

    2015-04-01

    The widespread adoption of health information technology (IT) will help contain health care costs by decreasing inefficiencies in healthcare delivery. Theoretically, health IT could lower hospitals' malpractice insurance premiums (MIPs) and improve the quality of care by reducing the number and size of malpractice. This study examines the relationship between health IT investment and MIP using California hospital data from 2006 to 2007. To examine the effect of hospital IT on malpractice insurance expense, a generalized estimating equation (GEE) was employed. It was found that health IT investment was not negatively associated with MIP. Health IT was reported to reduce medical error and improve efficiency. Thus, it may reduce malpractice claims from patients, which will reduce malpractice insurance expenses for hospitals. However, health IT adoption could lead to increases in MIPs. For example, we expect increases in MIPs of about 1.2% and 1.5%, respectively, when health IT and labor increase by 10%. This study examined the effect of health IT investment on MIPs controlling other hospital and market, and volume characteristics. Against our expectation, we found that health IT investment was not negatively associated with MIP. There may be some possible reasons that the real effect of health IT on MIPs was not observed; barriers including communication problems among health ITs, shorter sample period, lower IT investment, and lack of a quality of care measure as a moderating variable.

  5. The Effects of Premium Changes on ALL Kids

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Effects of Premium Changes on ALL Kids, Alabamas CHIP Program Unlike many other CHIP programs, ALL Kids is a standalone program that provides year long...

  6. 26 CFR 1.822-11 - Net premiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TAXES Mutual Insurance Companies (other Than Life and Certain Marine Insurance Companies and Other Than Fire Or Flood Insurance Companies Which Operate on Basis of Perpetual Policies Or Premium Deposits) § 1...

  7. 26 CFR 1.823-1 - Net premiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TAXES Mutual Insurance Companies (other Than Life and Certain Marine Insurance Companies and Other Than Fire Or Flood Insurance Companies Which Operate on Basis of Perpetual Policies Or Premium Deposits) § 1...

  8. 26 CFR 1.823-4 - Net premiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TAXES Mutual Insurance Companies (other Than Life and Certain Marine Insurance Companies and Other Than Fire Or Flood Insurance Companies Which Operate on Basis of Perpetual Policies Or Premium Deposits) § 1...

  9. A case for 'prevailing ecology' as premium determinant in home ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A case for 'prevailing ecology' as premium determinant in home-based child care ... Ewe mothers located in Dzemeni a migrant, lakeside community in Ghana. ... It builds a case from the analysis of definitions and concepts in care literature.

  10. Log-supermodularity of weight functions and the loading monotonicity of weighted insurance premiums

    OpenAIRE

    Hristo S. Sendov; Ying Wang; Ricardas Zitikis

    2010-01-01

    The paper is motivated by a problem concerning the monotonicity of insurance premiums with respect to their loading parameter: the larger the parameter, the larger the insurance premium is expected to be. This property, usually called loading monotonicity, is satisfied by premiums that appear in the literature. The increased interest in constructing new insurance premiums has raised a question as to what weight functions would produce loading-monotonic premiums. In this paper we demonstrate a...

  11. Estimating the market premium in short term interest rates

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Hans Fredrik

    2006-01-01

    Looking at the term structure in the interest rate market one can’t help notice the evident market premium above the central banks target rate. What factors might decide this premium? By using different variations of simple regression models we see that the model is constantly lagging the real time series. Acknowledging the fact that market clearings often are subject to several equations; we’re better able to develop a sensible model using a simultaneous equilibrium model. The multiple equat...

  12. Fixed-premium deposit insurance and international credit crunches

    OpenAIRE

    Mark M. Spiegel

    1996-01-01

    This article introduces a monopolistically competitive model of foreign lending in which both explicit and implicit fixed-premium deposit insurance increase the degree to which bank participation in relending to problem debtors falls below its globally optimal level. This provides a channel for fixed-premium deposit insurance to inhibit credit extension in bad states, resulting in an increase in the expected default percentage and an increase in the expected burden on the deposit insurance in...

  13. Big and tall: Does a height premium dwarf an obesity penalty in the labor market?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wang-Sheng

    2017-11-01

    Previous studies have shown that both height and weight are associated with wages. However, some gaps in our understanding of the relationship between body size and wages remain. For example, given a height premium and an obesity penalty, due to forces working in opposite directions, the current literature is unable to provide clear answers to questions such as whether a tall obese woman or a short healthy weight woman would earn a higher wage premium. Using Australian data and iso-contour wage curves derived from a semi-parametric wage regression model, this paper illustrates the complex nature of the relationship between height, weight and wages and how the nature of these differences depends on gender and age. As adult height is fixed, a key focus of the paper is illustrating for various height ranges whether there are any wage benefits in the labor market to increasing or decreasing one's weight. For individuals aged 25-54 as a whole, I find that there are strong effects of weight reduction at lower ends of the height distribution for females (between 1.50-1.70m) but not for males (men (>1.85m), a wage premium is found for being overweight. For relatively taller women (>1.72m), no penalty for being overweight is discernible. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Understanding cost drivers and economic potential of two variants of ionic liquid pretreatment for cellulosic biofuel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Ionic liquid (IL) pretreatment could enable an economically viable route to produce biofuels by providing efficient means to extract sugars and lignin from lignocellulosic biomass. However, to realize this, novel IL-based processes need to be developed in order to minimize the overall production costs and accelerate commercial viability. In this study, two variants of IL-based processes are considered: one based on complete removal of the IL prior to hydrolysis using a water-wash (WW) step and the other based on a “one-pot” (OP) process that does not require IL removal prior to saccharification. Detailed techno-economic analysis (TEA) of these two routes was carried out to understand the cost drivers, economic potential (minimum ethanol selling price, MESP), and relative merits and challenges of each route. Results At high biomass loading (50%), both routes exhibited comparable economic performance with an MESP of $6.3/gal. With the possible advances identified (reduced water or acid/base consumption, improved conversion in pretreatment, and lignin valorization), the MESP could be reduced to around $3/gal ($3.2 in the WW route and $2.8 in the OP route). Conclusions It was found that, to be competitive at industrial scale, lowered cost of ILs used and higher biomass loadings (50%) are essential for both routes, and in particular for the OP route. Overall, while the economic potential of both routes appears to be comparable at higher biomass loadings, the OP route showed the benefit of lower water consumption at the plant level, an important cost and sustainability consideration for biorefineries. PMID:24932217

  15. An empirical study of the information premium on electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benth, Fred Espen; Biegler-König, Richard; Kiesel, Rüdiger

    2013-01-01

    Due to the non-storability of electricity and the resulting lack of arbitrage-based arguments to price electricity forward contracts, a significant time-varying risk premium is exhibited. Using EEX data during the introduction of emission certificates and the German “Atom Moratorium” we show that a significant part of the risk premium in electricity forwards is due to different information sets in spot and forward markets. In order to show the existence of the resulting information premium and to analyse its size we design an empirical method based on techniques relating to enlargement of filtrations and the structure of Hilbert spaces. - Highlights: ► Electricity is non-storable and the classical spot–forward-relationship is invalid. ► Future information will cause an information premium for forward contracts. ► We model this premium mathematically using enlargement of filtrations. ► We develop a statistical method testing for the information premium empirically. ► We apply the test to the 2nd phase of the EUETS and the German “Atom Moratorium”

  16. Advertising non-premium products as if they were premium: The impact of advertising up on advertising elasticity and brand equity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guitart, I.A. (Ivan A.); Gonzalez, J. (Jorge); S. Stremersch (Stefan)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractNon-premium brands occasionally emulate their premium counterparts by using ads that emphasize premium characteristics such as superior performance and exclusivity. We define this practice as “advertising up” and develop hypotheses about its short- and long-term impact on advertising

  17. Premium Efficiency Motor Selection and Application Guide – A Handbook for Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert A. McCoy and John G. Douglass

    2014-02-01

    This handbook informs new motor purchase decisions by identifying energy and cost savings that can come from replacing motors with premium efficiency units. The handbook provides an overview of current motor use in the industrial sector, including the development of motor efficiency standards, currently available and emerging advanced efficiency motor technologies, and guidance on how to evaluate motor efficiency opportunities. It also several tips on getting the most out of industrial motors, such as how to avoid adverse motor interactions with electronic adjustable speed drives and how to ensure efficiency gains are not lost to undervoltage operation or excessive voltage unbalance.

  18. Contemporary challenges in applying of the modified model CAPM with country risk premium in emerging economies

    OpenAIRE

    Petrović Dragana

    2017-01-01

    Modern approach in determining the expected return of foreign investors' investments is based on the evaluation investment in capital asset-CAPM (Capital Asset Pricing Model). In order to use the CAPM model for calculating the expected return of foreign investors in growing economies, it is developed the extended model CAPM with the risk premium in the country. This variant of the CAPM model has been used for estimating the cost of capital. This is the expected return on a portfolio of the co...

  19. Business Cycle and Risk Premium in the Colombian Stock Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Mauricio Gómez Sánchez

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Through the Hodrick-Prescott methodology this paper presents a review about the relationship between the ex post risk premium of the stock market and business cycles observed in Colombia. Through quarterly information from the fourth quarter of 2001 to the third quarter of 2012, statistical evidence shows that the increase and decrease of ex post risk premium follow a countercyclical behavior in tune with existing research conducted about the United States and emerging economies, although with non-contemporary relationships with private consumption. In addition, it is found that in the last decade the Colombian risk premium follows a process of Auto Regressive Moving Average Models (ARMA, showing that there is no variation in at least two consecutive quarters and whose behavior is generated in part by external events at the domestic economic activity level experienced in near past periods.

  20. Experience Studies on Determining Life Premium Insurance Ratings: Practical Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela CRISTEA

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this article is to present the modelling tehcniques used on international practice in the evaluation of right life premiums based. The knowledge and models obtained have a common element of mortality risk indicators but these are varied in different parts of the world. The common elements of these studies and models are generally based on a series of indicators which mainly point out their probability of survival and they are named the mortality indicators. These indicators represent the basis for the calculation of the premiums quotes and for the elaboration by the insurers of premium tables. The benefit for the policyholder is to obtain insurance at a fair and competitive price and for the insurer, to maintain the experience of its portfolio in line with mortality assumptions.

  1. Health Insurance Premium Increases for the 5 Largest School Districts in the United States, 2004–2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantillo, John R.

    2010-01-01

    Background Local school districts are often one of the largest, if not the largest, employers in their respective communities. Like many large employers, school districts offer health insurance to their employees. There is a lack of information about the rate of health insurance premiums in US school districts relative to other employers. Objective To assess the change in the costs of healthcare insurance in the 5 largest public school districts in the United States, between 2004 and 2008, as representative of large public employers in the country. Methods Data for this study were drawn exclusively from a survey sent to the 5 largest public school districts in the United States. The survey requested responses on 3 data elements for each benefit plan offered from 2004 through 2008; these included enrollment, employee costs, and employer costs. Results The premium growth for the 5 largest school districts has slowed down and is consistent with other purchasers—Kaiser/Health Research & Educational Trust and the Federal Employee Health Benefit Program. The average increase in health insurance premium for the schools was 5.9% in 2008, and the average annual growth rate over the study period was 7.5%. For family coverage, these schools provide the most generous employer contribution (80.8%) compared with the employer contribution reported by other employers (73.5%) for 2008. Conclusions Often the largest employers in their communities, school districts demonstrate a commitment to provide choice of benefits and affordability for employees and their families. Despite constraints typical of public employers, the 5 largest school districts in the United States have decelerated in premium growth consistent with other purchasers, albeit at a slower pace. PMID:25126311

  2. Health insurance premium increases for the 5 largest school districts in the United States, 2004-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantillo, John R

    2010-03-01

    Local school districts are often one of the largest, if not the largest, employers in their respective communities. Like many large employers, school districts offer health insurance to their employees. There is a lack of information about the rate of health insurance premiums in US school districts relative to other employers. To assess the change in the costs of healthcare insurance in the 5 largest public school districts in the United States, between 2004 and 2008, as representative of large public employers in the country. Data for this study were drawn exclusively from a survey sent to the 5 largest public school districts in the United States. The survey requested responses on 3 data elements for each benefit plan offered from 2004 through 2008; these included enrollment, employee costs, and employer costs. The premium growth for the 5 largest school districts has slowed down and is consistent with other purchasers-Kaiser/Health Research & Educational Trust and the Federal Employee Health Benefit Program. The average increase in health insurance premium for the schools was 5.9% in 2008, and the average annual growth rate over the study period was 7.5%. For family coverage, these schools provide the most generous employer contribution (80.8%) compared with the employer contribution reported by other employers (73.5%) for 2008. Often the largest employers in their communities, school districts demonstrate a commitment to provide choice of benefits and affordability for employees and their families. Despite constraints typical of public employers, the 5 largest school districts in the United States have decelerated in premium growth consistent with other purchasers, albeit at a slower pace.

  3. Second Thoughts on the Exporter Productivity Premium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp; Sørensen, Allan

    2012-01-01

    and empirical representations of firm productivity. Instead of marginal productivity we examine in both models the theoretical equivalent of empirically observable productivity (value-added per employee). Given the presence of fixed export costs or heterogeneous mark-ups and trade costs, the observable...

  4. ASSESSMENT OF COMBINED HEAT AND POWER SYSTEM"PREMIUM POWER" APPLICATIONS IN CALIFORNIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norwood, Zack; Lipman, Timothy; Stadler, Michael; Marnay, Chris

    2010-06-01

    The effectiveness of combined heat and power (CHP) systems for power interruption intolerant,"premium power," facilities is the focus of this study. Through three real-world case studies and economic cost minimization modeling, the economic and environmental performance of"premium power" CHP is analyzed. The results of the analysis for a brewery, data center, and hospital lead to some interesting conclusions about CHP limited to the specific CHP technologies installed at those sites. Firstly, facilities with high heating loads prove to be the most appropriate for CHP installations from a purely economic standpoint. Secondly, waste heat driven thermal cooling systems are only economically attractive if the technology for these chillers can increase above the current best system efficiency. Thirdly, if the reliability of CHP systems proves to be as high as diesel generators they could replace these generators at little or no additional cost if the thermal to electric (relative) load of those facilities was already high enough to economically justify a CHP system. Lastly, in terms of greenhouse gas emissions, the modeled CHP systems provide some degree of decreased emissions, estimated at approximately 10percent for the hospital, the application with the highest relative thermal load in this case

  5. National trends in occupational injuries before and after 1992 and predictors of workers' compensation costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhushan, Abhinav; Leigh, J Paul

    2011-01-01

    Numbers and costs of occupational injuries and illnesses are significant in terms of morbidity and dollars, yet our understanding of time trends is minimal. We investigated trends and addressed some common hypotheses regarding causes of fluctuations. We pulled data on incidence rates (per 100 full-time employed workers) for injuries and illnesses from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics and on costs and benefits from the National Academy of Social Insurance for 1973 through 2007. Rates reflected all injury and illness cases, lost work-time cases, and cases resulting in at least 31 days away from work. We adjusted dollar costs (premiums) and benefits for inflation and measured them per employed worker. We plotted data in time-trend charts and ran linear regressions. From 1973 to 1991, there was a weak to nonexistent downward trend for injury and illness rates, and rates were strongly and negatively correlated with the unemployment rate. From 1992 to 2007, there were strong, consistent downward trends, but no longer were there statistically significant correlations with unemployment. Significant predictors (and signs) of workers' compensation premiums for 1973-2007 included medical price inflation (positive), number of lost-time injuries (positive), the Dow Jones Industrial Average (negative), and inflation-adjusted interest rate on U.S. Treasury bonds (negative). Dollars of benefits were positively and significantly predicted by medical inflation and number of lost-time cases. For 1992-2007, the Dow Jones variable was the only robust predictor of premiums; the number of injuries was not a significant positive predictor. We had two major conclusions. First, the year 1992 marked a sharp contrast in trends and correlations between unemployment and incidence rates for occupational injuries and illnesses. Second, for the entire time period (1973-2007), insurance carriers' premiums were strongly associated with returns on investments.

  6. Did the Affordable Care Act's Dependent Coverage Mandate Increase Premiums?

    OpenAIRE

    Briggs Depew; James Bailey

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the impact of the Affordable Care Act's dependent coverage mandate on insurance premiums. The expansion of dependent coverage under the ACA allows young adults to remain on their parent's private health insurance plans until the age of 26. We find that the mandate has led to a 2.5-2.8 percent increase in premiums for health insurance plans that cover children, relative to single-coverage plans. We find no evidence that the mandate caused an increase in the amount of the employe...

  7. Premium Forecasting of an Insurance Company: Automobile Insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Fouladvand, M. Ebrahim; Darooneh, Amir H.

    2002-01-01

    We present an analytical study of an insurance company. We model the company's performance on a statistical basis and evaluate the predicted annual income of the company in terms of insurance parameters namely the premium, total number of the insured, average loss claims etc. We restrict ourselves to a single insurance class the so-called automobile insurance. We show the existence a crossover premium p_c below which the company is loss-making. Above p_c, we also give detailed statistical ana...

  8. 5 CFR 892.102 - What is premium conversion and how does it work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL FLEXIBLE BENEFITS PLAN: PRE-TAX PAYMENT OF HEALTH BENEFITS... FEHB insurance premium. If you are a participant in the premium conversion plan, Section 125 of the...

  9. 5 CFR 892.206 - Can I cancel my waiver and participate in premium conversion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL FLEXIBLE BENEFITS PLAN: PRE-TAX PAYMENT OF HEALTH BENEFITS PREMIUMS Eligibility and Participation § 892.206 Can I cancel my waiver and participate in premium...

  10. 75 FR 16645 - Increase in the Primary Nuclear Liability Insurance Premium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-02

    ... Primary Nuclear Liability Insurance Premium AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Final rule... impractical. The NRC is amending its regulations to increase the primary premium for liability insurance... protection requirements and indemnity agreements to increase the primary nuclear liability insurance layer...

  11. Understanding Cost-Effectiveness of Energy Efficiency Programs: Best Practices, Technical Methods, and Emerging Issues for Policy-Makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reviews the issues and approaches involved in considering and adopting cost-effectiveness tests for energy efficiency, including discussing each perspective represented by the five standard cost-effectiveness tests and clarifying key terms.

  12. Utilizing time-driven activity-based costing to understand the short- and long-term costs of treating localized, low-risk prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laviana, Aaron A; Ilg, Annette M; Veruttipong, Darlene; Tan, Hung-Jui; Burke, Michael A; Niedzwiecki, Douglas R; Kupelian, Patrick A; King, Chris R; Steinberg, Michael L; Kundavaram, Chandan R; Kamrava, Mitchell; Kaplan, Alan L; Moriarity, Andrew K; Hsu, William; Margolis, Daniel J A; Hu, Jim C; Saigal, Christopher S

    2016-02-01

    Given the costs of delivering care for men with prostate cancer remain poorly described, this article reports the results of time-driven activity-based costing (TDABC) for competing treatments of low-risk prostate cancer. Process maps were developed for each phase of care from the initial urologic visit through 12 years of follow-up for robotic-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP), cryotherapy, high-dose rate (HDR) and low-dose rate (LDR) brachytherapy, intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT), and active surveillance (AS). The last modality incorporated both traditional transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) biopsy and multiparametric-MRI/TRUS fusion biopsy. The costs of materials, equipment, personnel, and space were calculated per unit of time and based on the relative proportion of capacity used. TDABC for each treatment was defined as the sum of its resources. Substantial cost variation was observed at 5 years, with costs ranging from $7,298 for AS to $23,565 for IMRT, and they remained consistent through 12 years of follow-up. LDR brachytherapy ($8,978) was notably cheaper than HDR brachytherapy ($11,448), and SBRT ($11,665) was notably cheaper than IMRT, with the cost savings attributable to shorter procedure times and fewer visits required for treatment. Both equipment costs and an inpatient stay ($2,306) contributed to the high cost of RALP ($16,946). Cryotherapy ($11,215) was more costly than LDR brachytherapy, largely because of increased single-use equipment costs ($6,292 vs $1,921). AS reached cost equivalence with LDR brachytherapy after 7 years of follow-up. The use of TDABC is feasible for analyzing cancer services and provides insights into cost-reduction tactics in an era focused on emphasizing value. By detailing all steps from diagnosis and treatment through 12 years of follow-up for low-risk prostate cancer, this study has demonstrated significant cost variation between competing treatments. © 2015

  13. Estimating dual deposit insurance premium rates and forecasting non-performing loans: Two new models

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshino, Naoyuki; Taghizadeh-Hesary, Farhad; Nili, Farhad

    2015-01-01

    Risky banks that endanger the stability of the financial system should pay higher deposit insurance premiums than healthy banks and other financial institutions that have shown good financial performance. It is necessary, therefore, to have at least a dual fair premium rate system. In this paper, we develop a model for calculating dual fair premium rates. Our definition of a fair premium rate in this paper is a rate that could cover the operational expenditures of the deposit insuring organiz...

  14. Cigarette brand preference as a function of price among smoking youths in Canada: are they smoking premium, discount or native brands?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leatherdale, S T; Ahmed, R; Barisic, A; Murnaghan, D; Manske, S

    2009-12-01

    Given that little is known about the price-related cigarette brand preferences of youths, the current study seeks to characterise cigarette brand preferences and examine factors associated with smoking discount or native cigarette brands among Canadian youths who are current smokers. This study used nationally representative data collected from 71,003 grade 5-12 students as part of the 2006-7 Canadian Youth Smoking Survey (YSS). Using data from current smokers, logistic regression models were used to examine factors associated with smoking discount or native cigarette brands relative to premium cigarette brands. In 2006, premium cigarettes were the most prevalent brand of cigarette youths report usually smoking (49.4%); a substantial number of youths do report usually smoking either discount (12.9%) or native (9.3%) cigarette brands. Occasional smokers were more likely to report usually smoking premium cigarettes whereas daily smokers were more likely to report smoking either discount or native cigarettes. In particular, discount and native brands appear to be appealing among smoking youths with less spending money or those who are heavier smokers compared to youths smoking premium brands. Discount and native cigarette brands are commonly used by a substantial number of smoking youths in Canada. Additional research is required to better understand the reasons behind different cigarette brand preferences and how youths are able to access premium, discount and illicit native cigarettes. Moreover, ongoing surveillance of the cigarette brand preferences of youths is required for guiding future tobacco control policy and programming activities.

  15. Employee Responses to Health Insurance Premium Increases

    OpenAIRE

    Goldman, Dana; Leibowitz, Arleen; Robalino, David

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To determine the sensitivity of employees’ health insurance decisions—including the decision to not choose health maintenance organization or fee-for-service coverage—during periods of rapidly escalating healthcare costs. Study Design: A retrospective cohort study of employee plan choices at a single large firm with a “cafeteria-style” benefits plan wherein employees paid all the additional cost of purchasing more generous insurance. Methods: We modeled the probabil...

  16. The impact of instant reward programs and bonus premiums on consumer purchase behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minnema, Alec; Bijmolt, Tammo H. A.; Non, Marielle C.

    This study examines the impact of an instant reward program (IRP) with bonus premiums on consumer purchase behavior. An IRP is a rapidly growing form of short-term program that rewards consumers instantly with small premiums per fixed spending, where these premiums are part of a larger set of

  17. Taking private labels upmarket : Empirical generalizations on category drivers of premium private label introductions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ter Braak, A.M.; Geyskens, I.; Dekimpe, M.G.

    Premium private labels (PLs) are considered one of the hottest trends in grocery retailing. Still, retailers do not feel the need to introduce premium PLs in every category. Generalizing across approximately 150 categories for six retailers from two countries that already carry premium PLs for

  18. Mating motives are neither necessary nor sufficient to create the beauty premium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafenbrädl, Sebastian; Dana, Jason

    2017-01-01

    Mating motives lead decision makers to favor attractive people, but this favoritism is not sufficient to create a beauty premium in competitive settings. Further, economic approaches to discrimination, when correctly characterized, could neatly accommodate the experimental and field evidence of a beauty premium. Connecting labor economics and evolutionary psychology is laudable, but mating motives do not explain the beauty premium.

  19. 24 CFR 266.606 - Mortgage insurance premium: Duration and method of paying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mortgage insurance premium... AFFORDABLE MULTIFAMILY PROJECT LOANS Contract Rights and Obligations Mortgage Insurance Premiums § 266.606 Mortgage insurance premium: Duration and method of paying. (a) Duration of payments. Mortgage insurance...

  20. 24 CFR 232.825 - Pro rata refund of insurance premium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ASSISTED LIVING FACILITIES Contract Rights and Obligations Premiums § 232.825 Pro rata refund of insurance premium. Upon termination of a loan insurance contract by a payment in full or by a voluntary termination... rata portion of the current annual loan insurance premium theretofore paid which is applicable to the...

  1. 24 CFR 251.6 - Method of payment of mortgage insurance premiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... insurance premiums. 251.6 Section 251.6 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and... HOUSING PROJECTS § 251.6 Method of payment of mortgage insurance premiums. In the cases that the... affected lenders, that mortgage insurance premiums be remitted electronically. [63 FR 1303, Jan. 8, 1998] ...

  2. 24 CFR 241.825 - Pro rata refund of insurance premium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Projects Without a HUD-Insured or HUD-Held Mortgage Premiums § 241.825 Pro rata refund of insurance premium... of the current annual loan insurance premium theretofore paid which is applicable to the portion of... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pro rata refund of insurance...

  3. 76 FR 40741 - Federal Housing Administration (FHA) Mortgage Insurance Premiums for Multifamily Housing Programs...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-11

    ... Administration (FHA) Mortgage Insurance Premiums for Multifamily Housing Programs, Health Care Facilities and... mortgage insurance premiums (MIPs) for FHA Multifamily Housing, Health Care Facilities, and Hospital... mortgage insurance regulation at 24 CFR 207.254 provides as follows: Notice of future premium changes will...

  4. 26 CFR 1.6050H-3T - Information reporting of mortgage insurance premiums (temporary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Information reporting of mortgage insurance premiums (temporary). (a) Information reporting requirements. Any... section applies to the receipt of all payments of mortgage insurance premiums, by cash or financing... premiums is determined on a mortgage-by-mortgage basis. A recipient need not aggregate mortgage insurance...

  5. 12 CFR 741.4 - Insurance premium and one percent deposit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Insurance premium and one percent deposit. 741... Insurance premium and one percent deposit. (a) Scope. This section implements the requirements of Section... payment of an insurance premium. (b) Definitions. For purposes of this section: (1) Available assets ratio...

  6. 24 CFR 236.252 - First, second, and third mortgage insurance premiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... insurance premiums. 236.252 Section 236.252 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing... insurance premiums. All of the provisions of § 207.252 of this chapter governing the first, second, and third mortgage insurance premiums shall apply to mortgages insured under this subpart, except: (a) Where...

  7. 77 FR 21580 - Changes in Certain Multifamily Housing and Health Care Facility Mortgage Insurance Premiums for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-10

    ... Multifamily Housing and Health Care Facility Mortgage Insurance Premiums for Fiscal Year (FY) 2013 AGENCY...: In accordance with HUD regulations, this notice announces changes of the mortgage insurance premiums... mortgage. The mortgage insurance premiums to be in effect for FHA firm commitments issued or reissued in FY...

  8. 24 CFR 203.260 - Amount of mortgage insurance premium (periodic MIP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Mortgage Insurance Premiums-Periodic Payment § 203.260 Amount of mortgage insurance premium (periodic MIP... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Amount of mortgage insurance premium (periodic MIP). 203.260 Section 203.260 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to...

  9. 38 CFR 8.4 - Deduction of insurance premiums from compensation, retirement pay, or pension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS NATIONAL SERVICE LIFE INSURANCE Premiums § 8.4 Deduction of insurance premiums from compensation, retirement pay, or pension. The insured under a National Service life insurance policy which is not lapsed may authorize the monthly deduction of premiums from disability...

  10. 24 CFR 203.22 - Payment of insurance premiums or charges; prepayment privilege.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Payment of insurance premiums or... Underwriting Procedures Eligible Mortgages § 203.22 Payment of insurance premiums or charges; prepayment privilege. (a) Payment of periodic insurance premiums or charges. Except with respect to mortgages for which...

  11. 24 CFR 266.608 - Mortgage insurance premium: Pro rata refund.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mortgage insurance premium: Pro... PROJECT LOANS Contract Rights and Obligations Mortgage Insurance Premiums § 266.608 Mortgage insurance premium: Pro rata refund. If the Contract of Insurance is terminated by payment in full or is terminated...

  12. 24 CFR 266.610 - Method of payment of mortgage insurance premiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... insurance premiums. 266.610 Section 266.610 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing... MULTIFAMILY PROJECT LOANS Contract Rights and Obligations Mortgage Insurance Premiums § 266.610 Method of payment of mortgage insurance premiums. In the cases that the Commissioner deems appropriate, the...

  13. 48 CFR 2132.770 - Insurance premium payments and special contingency reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Insurance premium payments... GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Contract Funding 2132.770 Insurance premium payments and special contingency reserve. Insurance premium payments and a special contingency reserve are made...

  14. Value-chain analysis of a rural health program: toward understanding the cost benefit of telemedicine applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, John E; Savage, Grant T; Icenogle, Marjorie L

    2004-01-01

    While telemedicine's clinical effectiveness and educational benefits are accepted, its cost-effectiveness is controversial. This study focuses on telemedicine's cost-effectiveness from a provider's perspective. Reviews of the cost-effectiveness literature in telemedicine are critical of past studies' (a) methodological and analytical weaknesses; (b) focus on answering "Can we do this?" rather than "Should we do this?"; and (c) emphasis on patient benefits. Value chain analysis examines structural and executional cost drivers; a self-sustaining business model balances the cost and value associated with each telemedicine activity. We illustrate this analysis in a rural health program, examining teleradiography and telerehabilitation.

  15. A theoretical and practical perspective on the equity risk premium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salomons, Roelof

    In historical perspective, equity returns have been higher than interest rates but have also varied a good deal more. However, the average excess return has been larger than what could be expected based on classical equilibrium theory: the equity risk premium (ERP) puzzle. This paper has two

  16. Cumulative Prospect Theory, Option Returns, and the Variance Premium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baele, Lieven; Driessen, Joost; Ebert, Sebastian; Londono Yarce, J.M.; Spalt, Oliver

    The variance premium and the pricing of out-of-the-money (OTM) equity index options are major challenges to standard asset pricing models. We develop a tractable equilibrium model with Cumulative Prospect Theory (CPT) preferences that can overcome both challenges. The key insight is that the

  17. The equity risk premium: A review of models

    OpenAIRE

    Duarte, Fernando; Rosa, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    We estimate the equity risk premium (ERP) by combining information from twenty models. The ERP in 2012 and 2013 reached heightened levels - of around 12 percent - not seen since the 1970s. We conclude that the high ERP was caused by unusually low Treasury yields.

  18. 'Benefits cycle' replacing premium cycle as consumerism takes hold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-05-01

    The traditional premium cycle of ups and downs in rates is giving way to a new phenomenon--driven by the advent of consumerism in health care--termed the "benefits cycle" by one consultant. Rather than shifts in rates, he argues, the future will see shifts in benefits packages.

  19. The VIX, the Variance Premium, and Expected Returns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osterrieder, Daniela Maria; Ventosa-Santaulària, Daniel; Vera-Valdés, Eduardo

    2018-01-01

    . These problems are eliminated if risk is captured by the variance premium (VP) instead; it is unobservable, however. We propose a 2SLS estimator that produces consistent estimates without observing the VP. Using this method, we find a positive risk–return trade-off and long-run return predictability. Our...

  20. Consumer Protection and Premium Rate Services In Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trzaskowski, Jan

    2006-01-01

    The regulation of the telecommunication industry in Denmark is quite liberal. There are no requirements to register with national authorities when providing telecommunication services or Premium Rate Services. Only Network Operators, who want to make use of the scarce frequency resources, must re...... active in securing compliance with the law....

  1. 46 CFR 308.507 - Security for payment of premiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ....507 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance Ii-Open Policy War Risk Cargo Insurance § 308.507 Security for payment of... collateral deposit fund or a surety bond, to secure the payment of the premiums, in an amount which shall at...

  2. 77 FR 41270 - Health Insurance Premium Tax Credit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Parts 1 and 602 [TD 9590] RIN 1545-BJ82 Health Insurance Premium Tax Credit Correction In rule document 2012-12421 appearing on pages 30377-30400 in the issue of Wednesday, May 23, 2012, make the following corrections: 0 1. On page 30385, in the...

  3. Foreign exchange risk premium determinants: case of Armenia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Poghosyan, Tigran; Kočenda, Evžen

    -, č. 297 (2006), s. 1-37 ISSN 1211-3298 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : “forward premium” puzzle * exchange rate risk * time-varying risk premium Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp297.pdf

  4. Foreign exchange risk premium determinants: case of Armenia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Poghosyan, Tigran; Kočenda, E.

    -, č. 811 (2006), s. 1-17 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : “forward premium” puzzle * exchange rate risk * time-varying risk premium Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.wdi.umich.edu/files/Publications/WorkingPapers/wp811.pdf

  5. Interdependence of life insurance service quality and premium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Benazić

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Insurance companies in Croatia feel the need to find new sources of competitive advantage on the Croatian life insurance market amid increasing competition and a poorly profiled offer of life insurance services. Lately, both marketing literature and practice seem to point to the shaping of a relationship between service quality and price as a possible solution to improving the position of insurance companies on the Croatian market. In providing life insurance services, the insurance companies should focus on the quality elements that offer certain benefits a client is willing to pay for. Changes in individual quality features have been evaluated differently by clients. Such differences in their evaluation of changes in the individual elements of service quality also reflect the willingness of clients to pay a suitable increase on their insurance premium. Improvements in the service quality features that are subjectively evaluated as important should lead to the client’s acceptance of a higher life insurance premium. The paper considers the interdependence between the quality of life insurance services and the premium from the aspect of the client’s willingness to pay a higher life insurance premium for a higher service quality.

  6. Incentive-compatible guaranteed renewable health insurance premiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Bradley; Pauly, Mark V

    2006-05-01

    Theoretical models of guaranteed renewable insurance display front-loaded premium schedules. Such schedules both cover lifetime total claims of low-risk and high-risk individuals and provide an incentive for those who remain low-risk to continue to purchase the policy. Questions have been raised of whether actual individual insurance markets in the US approximate the behavior predicted by these models, both because young consumers may not be able to "afford" front-loading and because insurers may behave strategically in ways that erode the value of protection against risk reclassification. In this paper, the optimal competitive age-based premium schedule for a benchmark guaranteed renewable health insurance policy is estimated using medical expenditure data. Several factors are shown to reduce the amount of front-loading necessary. Indeed, the resulting optimal premium path increases with age. Actual premium paths exhibited by purchasers of individual insurance are close to the optimal renewable schedule we estimate. Finally, consumer utility associated with the feature is examined.

  7. Quantifying the Impact of Autism Coverage on Private Insurance Premiums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouder, James N.; Spielman, Stuart; Mandell, David S.

    2009-01-01

    Many states are considering legislation requiring private insurance companies to pay for autism-related services. Arguments against mandates include that they will result in higher premiums. Using Pennsylvania legislation as an example, which proposed covering services up to $36,000 per year for individuals less than 21 years of age, this paper…

  8. What health plans do people prefer? The trade-off between premium and provider choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Determann, Domino; Lambooij, Mattijs S; de Bekker-Grob, Esther W; Hayen, Arthur P; Varkevisser, Marco; Schut, Frederik T; Wit, G Ardine de

    2016-09-01

    Within a healthcare system with managed competition, health insurers are expected to act as prudent buyers of care on behalf of their customers. To fulfil this role adequately, understanding consumer preferences for health plan characteristics is of vital importance. Little is known, however, about these preferences and how they vary across consumers. Using a discrete choice experiment (DCE) we quantified trade-offs between basic health plan characteristics and analysed whether there are differences in preferences according to age, health status and income. We selected four health plan characteristics to be included in the DCE: (i) the level of provider choice and associated level of reimbursement, (ii) the primary focus of provider contracting (price, quality, social responsibility), (iii) the level of service benefits, and (iv) the monthly premium. This selection was based on a literature study, expert interviews and focus group discussions. The DCE consisted of 17 choice sets, each comprising two hypothetical health plan alternatives. A representative sample (n = 533) of the Dutch adult population, based on age, gender and educational level, completed the online questionnaire during the annual open enrolment period for 2015. The final model with four latent classes showed that being able to choose a care provider freely was by far the most decisive characteristic for respondents aged over 45, those with chronic conditions, and those with a gross income over €3000/month. Monthly premium was the most important choice determinant for young, healthy, and lower income respondents. We conclude that it would be very unlikely for half of the sample to opt for health plans with restricted provider choice. However, a premium discount up to €15/month by restricted health plans might motivate especially younger, healthier, and less wealthy consumers to choose these plans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Advertising non-premium products as if they were premium: The impact of advertising up on advertising elasticity and brand equity

    OpenAIRE

    Guitart, I.A. (Ivan A.); Gonzalez, J. (Jorge); Stremersch, Stefan

    2018-01-01

    textabstractNon-premium brands occasionally emulate their premium counterparts by using ads that emphasize premium characteristics such as superior performance and exclusivity. We define this practice as “advertising up” and develop hypotheses about its short- and long-term impact on advertising elasticity and brand equity respectively. We test the hypotheses in two large-scale empirical studies using a comprehensive dataset from the automotive industry that includes, among others, the conten...

  10. The Association of State Rate Review Authority with Health Insurance Premiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ticse, Caroline

    2015-10-01

    Key findings. (1) Adjusted premiums in the individual market in states with prior approval authority combined with loss ratio requirements were lower in 2010-2013 than premiums in states with no rate review authority or file-and-use regulations only. (2) Adjusted premiums declined modestly in prior approval states while premiums increased in states with no rate review authority or with file-and-use regulations only. (3) The findings suggest that states with prior approval authority and loss ratio requirements constrained increases in health insurance premiums.

  11. Is there evidence that recent consolidation in the health insurance industry has adversely affected premiums?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopit, William G

    2004-01-01

    James Robinson suggests that recent consolidation in the insurance market has been a cause of higher health insurance prices (premiums). Although the recent consolidation among health insurers and rising premiums are indisputable, it is unlikely that consolidation has had any adverse effect on premiums nationwide, and Robinson provides no data that suggest otherwise. Specifically, he does not present data showing an increase in concentration in any relevant market during the past few years, let alone any resulting increase in premiums. Health insurance consolidation in certain local markets could adversely affect premiums, but it seems clear that it is not a major national antitrust issue.

  12. Can the NICE "end-of-life premium" be given a coherent ethical justification?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cookson, Richard

    2013-12-01

    In 2009 the UK National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) announced that its health technology appraisal committees would henceforth give special additional weight to health gains from life-extending end-of-life treatments. This was a response to mounting concern from NICE's stakeholders that effective new drugs for end-stage cancer often fail NICE's standard test of cost effectiveness. This change of policy may be justifiable on procedural grounds as the result of a democratic political process responding to stakeholder concerns. However, according to the "accountability for reasonableness" framework proposed by the philosopher Norman Daniels and endorsed by NICE, there also needs to be transparency about the substantive ethical grounds for public health care resource allocation decisions. In that spirit, I analyze eleven potentially relevant justifications for the NICE "end-of-life premium," drawn from the economics and philosophy literature: (1) rule of rescue, (2) fair chances, (3) ex post willingness to pay, (4) caring externality, (5) financial protection, (6) symbolic value, (7) diminishing marginal value of future life years, (8) concentration of benefits, (9) dread, (10) time to set your affairs in order, and (11) severity of illness. I conclude that none of them yields a coherent ethical justification for the NICE end-of-life premium.

  13. Calculating the Social Costs of Carbon without knowing preferences : Comment on “A rapid assessment model for understanding the social cost of carbon”

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerlagh, R.

    The Social Costs of Carbon (SCC) equals the marginal welfare loss associated with one unit of emitted CO2, divided by the marginal welfare gain associated with one unit of consumption. In stochastic assessments, both the nominator and denominator can depend on uncertain parameters; specifically they

  14. Understanding the Effects of Sampling on Healthcare Risk Modeling for the Prediction of Future High-Cost Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moturu, Sai T.; Liu, Huan; Johnson, William G.

    Rapidly rising healthcare costs represent one of the major issues plaguing the healthcare system. Data from the Arizona Health Care Cost Containment System, Arizona's Medicaid program provide a unique opportunity to exploit state-of-the-art machine learning and data mining algorithms to analyze data and provide actionable findings that can aid cost containment. Our work addresses specific challenges in this real-life healthcare application with respect to data imbalance in the process of building predictive risk models for forecasting high-cost patients. We survey the literature and propose novel data mining approaches customized for this compelling application with specific focus on non-random sampling. Our empirical study indicates that the proposed approach is highly effective and can benefit further research on cost containment in the healthcare industry.

  15. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Bechtel, together with Amax Research and Development Center (Amax R ampersand D), has prepared this study which provides conceptual cost estimates for the production of premium quality coal-water slurry fuel (CWF) in a commercial plant. Two scenarios are presented, one using column flotation technology and the other the selective agglomeration to clean the coal to the required quality specifications. This study forms part of US Department of Energy program Engineering Development of Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning for Premium Fuel Applications, (Contract No. DE-AC22- 92PC92208), under Task 11, Project Final Report. The primary objective of the Department of Energy program is to develop the design base for prototype commercial advanced fine coal cleaning facilities capable of producing ultra-clean coals suitable for conversion to stable and highly loaded CWF. The fuels should contain less than 2 lb ash/MBtu (860 grams ash/GJ) of HHV and preferably less than 1 lb ash/MBtu (430 grams ash/GJ). The advanced fine coal cleaning technologies to be employed are advanced column froth flotation and selective agglomeration. It is further stipulated that operating conditions during the advanced cleaning process should recover not less than 80 percent of the carbon content (heating value) in the run-of-mine source coal. These goals for ultra-clean coal quality are to be met under the constraint that annualized coal production costs does not exceed $2.5 /MBtu ($ 2.37/GJ), including the mine mouth cost of the raw coal. A further objective of the program is to determine the distribution of a selected suite of eleven toxic trace elements between product CWF and the refuse stream of the cleaning processes. Laboratory, bench-scale and Process Development Unit (PDU) tests to evaluate advanced column flotation and selective agglomeration were completed earlier under this program with selected coal samples. A PDU with a capacity of 2 st/h was designed by Bechtel and installed at

  16. Characterization of Sensory Differences in Mixing and Premium Rums Through the Use of Descriptive Sensory Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ickes, Chelsea M; Cadwallader, Keith R

    2017-11-01

    This study identified and quantitated perceived sensory differences between 7 premium rums and 2 mixing rums using a hybrid of the Quantitative Descriptive Analysis and Spectrum methods. In addition, the results of this study validated the previously developed rum flavor wheel created from web-based materials. Results showed that the use of the rum flavor wheel aided in sensory term generation, as 17 additional terms were generated after the wheel was provided to panelists. Thirty-eight sensory terms encompassing aroma, aroma-by-mouth, mouthfeel, taste and aftertaste modalities, were generated and evaluated by the panel. Of the finalized terms, only 5 did not exist previously on the rum flavor wheel. Twenty attributes were found to be significantly different among rums. The majority of rums showed similar aroma profiles with the exception of 2 rums, which were characterized by higher perceived intensities of brown sugar, caramel, vanilla, and chocolate aroma, caramel, maple, and vanilla aroma-by-mouth and caramel aftertaste. These results demonstrate the previously developed rum flavor wheel can be used to adequately describe the flavor profile of rum. Additionally, results of this study document the sensory differences among premium rums and may be used to correlate with analytical data to better understand how changes in chemical composition of the product affect sensory perception. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  17. Risk premium in the UK natural gas forward market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobaek Haff, Ingrid; Lindqvist, Ola; Loeland, Anders

    2008-01-01

    This report investigates the UK natural gas market, and tests whether it is a fair-game efficient forward market, using forward contracts ranging from one to five months time to delivery. The forward and spot price series are separately non-stationary, but cointegrated. Furthermore, the forward prices are biased predictors of both the future spot and the 1-month-ahead forward price. The risk premium on the forward prices is positive, as opposed to the US gas market, where the risk premium was found to be negative in similar work. Moreover, the analysis reveals that the storage model is an incomplete model for the relationship between the spot and forward prices. However, storage has a clear effect on this relationship, an effect that appears to be non-linear. (author)

  18. Sub-Ethnic and Geographic Variations in Out-of-Pocket Private Health Insurance Premiums Among Mid-Life Asians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sunha

    2017-03-01

    This study examined out-of-pocket premium burden of mid-life Asian Americans by comparing six sub-groups of Asians after controlling for geographic clustering at the county and state levels. The 2007-2011 National Health Interview Survey was linked to community-level data and analyzed for 4,628 Asians (ages 50-64), including 697 Asian Indians, 1,125 Chinese, 1,393 Filipinos, 434 Japanese, 524 Koreans, and 455 Vietnamese. Non-Hispanic Whites were included as a comparison group ( n = 48,135). Three-level multilevel modeling (state > county > individual) was conducted. Koreans and Vietnamese were found as vulnerable sub-groups considering their lower private health insurance rates and higher uninsured rates. Among those with private insurance, Asians, specifically Filipinos, paid significantly less than non-Hispanic Whites. Moderate but significant variations in the county- and state-level variance in out-of-pocket premiums were found, especially among mid-life Asians. This study demonstrates the importance of examining within-group heterogeneity and geographic variations in understanding premium burden among mid-life Asians.

  19. Does Intrinsic Habit Formation Actually Resolve the Equity Premium Puzzle?

    OpenAIRE

    David A. Chapman

    2002-01-01

    Constantinides (1990) describes a simple model of intrinsic habit formation that appears to resolve the "equity premium puzzle" of Mehra and Prescott (1985). This finding is particularly important, since it has motivated a broader consideration of the implications of habit formation preferences in dynamic equilibrium models. However, consumption growth actually behaves very differently pre- and post-1948, and the explanatory power of the habit formation model is driven by the pre-1948 data. U...

  20. Stock Market Integration: Are Risk Premiums of International Assets Equal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusdhianto Setiawan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies previous research on capital market integration and applies a simple international capital asset pricing model by considering the incompleteness in market integration and heteroscedasticity of the market returns. When we disregarded those two factors, we found that stock markets were integrated and the law of one price on risk premiums prevails. However, when the factors were considered, the markets were just partially integrated.

  1. QUALITY PREMIUMS FOR AUSTRALIAN WHEAT IN THE GROWING ASIAN MARKETS

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmadi-Esfahani, Fredoun Z.; Stanmore, Roland G.

    1994-01-01

    An hedonic price function is applied to Australia's wheat exports to the growing Asian markets. The values for the quality characteristics in the wheat markets of Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, South Korea, and Thailand are estimated. The data base for the study is from the Australian Wheat Board shipments over the period 1984 to 1991. The sample is divided into two separate time periods to test the consistency in demand for export wheat and to trace recent trends in quality premiums. The im...

  2. The equity premium in finance and valuation textbooks

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez, Pablo

    2008-01-01

    This paper is a review of the recommendations about the equity premium found in the main finance and valuation textbooks. We review several editions of books written by authors such as Brealey and Myers; Copeland, Koller and Murrin (McKinsey); Ross, Westerfield and Jaffe; Bodie, Kane and Marcus; Damodaran; Copeland and Weston; Van Horne; Bodie and Merton; Stowe et al.; Pratt; Penman; Bruner; Weston & Brigham; and Arzac. We highlight the confusing message the textbooks convey regarding the equ...

  3. Coal sulfur-premium models for SO2 allowance valuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, J.B. II; Radulski, D.R.; Ellingson, E.G.; Engels, J.P.

    1995-01-01

    Clean Air Capital Markets, an investment bank structuring SO 2 Allowance transactions, has designed two allowance value models. The first forecasts an equilibrium allowance value based on coal supply and demand. The second estimates the sulfur premium of all reported coal deliveries to utilities. Both models demonstrate that the fundamental allowance value is approximately double current spot market prices for small volumes of off-system allowances

  4. Global Variance Risk Premium and Forex Return Predictability

    OpenAIRE

    Aloosh, Arash

    2014-01-01

    In a long-run risk model with stochastic volatility and frictionless markets, I express expected forex returns as a function of consumption growth variances and stock variance risk premiums (VRPs)—the difference between the risk-neutral and statistical expectations of market return variation. This provides a motivation for using the forward-looking information available in stock market volatility indices to predict forex returns. Empirically, I find that stock VRPs predict forex returns at a ...

  5. How a new 'public plan' could affect hospitals' finances and private insurance premiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Allen; DaVanzo, Joan E; El-Gamil, Audrey M; Berger, Gregory

    2009-01-01

    Two key health reform bills in the House of Representatives and Senate include the option of a "public plan" as an additional source of health coverage. At least initially, the plan would primarily be structured to cover many of the uninsured and those who now have individual coverage. Because it is possible, and perhaps even likely, that this new public payer would pay less than private payers for the same services, such a plan could negatively affect hospital margins. Hospitals may attempt to recoup losses by shifting costs to private payers. We outline the financial pressures that hospitals and private payers could experience under various assumptions. High uninsured enrollment in a public plan would bolster hospital margins; however, this effect is reversed if the privately insured enter a public plan in large proportions, potentially stressing the hospital industry and increasing private insurance premiums.

  6. The Value Premium on the Danish Stock Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risager, Ole

    2005-01-01

    research on this issue. The purpose of this paper is to report evidence for the Danish stock market and to test whether the value premium is a genuine long-term feature of the market or just a phenomenon that pops up now and then. To research this issue we have collected accounting and stock market data......A number of influential studies have documented a strong value premium for US stocks over the period 1963 to 1990 (Fama and French (1992), Lakonishok et al. (1994)). Stocks with low price-earnings multiples, price-book values and other measures of value are reported to have given a higher mean...... return than the high multiple growth firms. Work by Basu (1997) and others have shown that the value dominance is also a feature of the earlier market history of the United States. The value premium is reported also to exist in a number of other countries over the period 1975 to 1995 (Fama and French...

  7. Understanding the costs and benefits of land development : An empirical analysis into the financial effects of location features

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buitelaar, E.; Witte, P.A.; Spit, T.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    As a means to sustainable urban development, redeveloping brownfield sites is advocated over greenfield development in most Western countries. There is much case study research into the factors that influence the (financial) costs, revenues and results of land development. What is virtually absent

  8. How a good understanding of the physical oceanography of your offshore renewables site can drive down project costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royle, J.

    2016-02-01

    For an offshore renewables plant to be viable it must be safe and cost effective to build and maintain (i.e. the conditions mustn't be too harsh to excessively impede operations at the site), it must also have an energetic enough resource to make the project attractive to investors. In order to strike the correct balance between cost and resource reliable datasets describing the meteorological and oceanographic (metocean) environment needs to be collected, analysed and its findings correctly applied . This presentation will use three real world examples from Iberdrola`s portfolio of offshore windfarms in Europe to demonstrate the economic benefits of good quality metocean data and robust analysis. The three examples are: 1) Moving from traditional frequency domain persistence statistics to time domain installation schedules driven by reliable metocean data reduces uncertainty and allows the developer to have better handle on weather risk during contract negotiations. 2) By comparing the planned installation schedules from a well validated metocean dataset with a coarser low cost unvalidated metocean dataset we can show that each Euro invested in the quality of metocean data can reduce the uncertainty in installation schedules by four Euros. 3) Careful consideration of co-varying wave and tidal parameters can justify lower cost designs, such as lower platform levels leading to shorter and cheaper offshore wind turbine foundations. By considering the above examples we will prove the case for investing in analysis of well validated metocean models as a basis for sound financial planning of offshore renewables installations.

  9. MODEL PERAMALAN KONSUMSI BAHAN BAKAR JENIS PREMIUM DI INDONESIA DENGAN REGRESI LINIER BERGANDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farizal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Energy consumption forecasting, especially premium, is an integral part of energy management. Premium is a type of energy that receives government subsidy. Unfortunately, premium forecastings being performed have considerable high error resulting difficulties on reaching planned subsidy target and exploding the amount. In this study forecasting was conducted using multilinear regression (MLR method with ten candidate predictor variables. The result shows that only four variables which are inflation, selling price disparity between pertamanx and premium, economic growth rate, and the number of car, dictate premium consumption. Analsys on the MLR model indicates that the model has a considerable low error with the mean absolute percentage error (MAPE of 5.18%. The model has been used to predict 2013 primium consumption with 1.05% of error. The model predicted that 2013 premium consumption was 29.56 million kiloliter, while the reality was 29.26 million kiloliter.

  10. Impact of terrorism and political instability on equity premium: Evidence from Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    MengYun, Wu; Imran, Muhammad; Zakaria, Muhammad; Linrong, Zhang; Farooq, Muhammad Umer; Muhammad, Shah Khalid

    2018-02-01

    The study quantifies the impact of terrorism and political instability on firm equity premium in Pakistan using panel data for 306 non-financial firms for the period 2001 to 2014. Other variables included are law & order, government regime change and financial crisis of 2007/08. The estimated results reveal that terrorism has statistically significant negative impact on firm equity premium in Pakistan. This result is robust with alternative equation specifications. The result also remains same when terrorism variable is replaced with external and internal conflict variables. Law & order variable has significant positive effect on firm equity premium, which implies that equity premium increases with the improvement in law & order situation in the country. Equity premium also increases with government stability and when there is democratic system in the country. The result also reveals that global financial crisis of 2007/08 negatively influenced the firm equity premium. The study suggests some policy implications.

  11. Pathway to low-cost metallization of silicon solar cell through understanding of the silicon metal interface and plating chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebong, Abasifreke

    2014-01-01

    Metallization is crucial to silicon solar cell performance. It is the second most expensive process step in the fabrication of a solar cell. In order to reduce the cost of solar cell, the metallization cost has to be cut down by using less metal without compromising the efficiency. Screen-printing has been used in metallizing the commercial solar cell because of the high throughput and low cost at the expense of performance. However, because of the variability in the screen-printed gridlines, the amount of Ag metal used cannot be controlled. More so, the dependence of the contact resistance on doping necessitates the use of low sheet resistance emitters, which exacerbates losses in the blue response and hence the efficiency. To balance the contact resistance and improve blue response, several approaches have been undertaken including, use of Ag pastes incorporating nanoparticle glass frits that will not diffuse excessively into a lightly doped emitter, Ni plating on lightly doped emitter through SiNx dielectric plus NiSi formation followed by Cu and/or Ag plating, light induced plating (LIP) of Ag or Cu on fired through dielectric metal seed layers formed by aerosol or inkjet or screen-printing. All these approaches require excellent adhesion and gridline conductivity to minimize the total series resistance, which impedes the collection of electrons. This paper presents the issues and the pathway to achieving high efficiency using low cost metallization technology involving inkjet-printed Ag fine gridline having 38 μm width and 3 μm height fired through the SiNx followed by Ni and Cu plating. A comprehensive analysis of silicon/metal interface, using high precision microscopy, has shown that the investigated metallization technology is appropriate for the longevity of the device

  12. Fair premium rate of the deposit insurance system based on banks' creditworthiness

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshino, Naoyuki; Taghizadeh-Hesary, Farhad; Nili, Farhad

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Deposit insurance is a key element in modern banking, as it guarantees the financial safety of deposits at depository financial institutions. It is necessary to have at least a dual fair premium rate system based on the creditworthiness of financial institutions, as considering a singular premium system for all banks will have a moral hazard. In this paper, we develop a theoretical as well as an empirical model for calculating dual fair premium rates. Design/methodology/approach: Our...

  13. Universal financial protection through National Health Insurance: a stakeholder analysis of the proposed one-time premium payment policy in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abiiro, Gilbert Abotisem; McIntyre, Di

    2013-05-01

    Extending coverage to the informal sector is a key challenge to achieving universal coverage through contributory health insurance schemes. Ghana introduced a mandatory National Health Insurance system in 2004 to provide financial protection for both the formal and informal sectors through a combination of taxes and annual premium payments. As part of its election promise in 2008, the current government (then in opposition) promised to make the payment of premiums 'one-time'. This has been a very controversial policy issue in Ghana. This study sought to contribute to assessing the feasibility of the proposed policy by exploring the understandings of various stakeholders on the policy, their interests or concerns, potential positions, power and influences on it, as well as the general prospects and challenges for its implementation. Data were gathered from a review of relevant documents in the public domain, 28 key informant interviews and six focus group discussions with key stakeholders in Accra and two other districts. The results show that there is a lot of confusion in stakeholders' understanding of the policy issue, and, because of the uncertainties surrounding it, most powerful stakeholders are yet to take clear positions on it. However, stakeholders raised concerns that revolved around issues such as: the meaning of a one-time premium within an insurance scheme context, the affordability of the one-time premium, financing sources and sustainability of the policy, as well as the likely impact of the policy on equity in access to health care. Policy-makers need to clearly explain the meaning of the one-time premium policy and how it will be funded, and critically consider the concerns raised by stakeholders before proceeding with further attempts to implement it. For other countries planning universal coverage reforms, it is important that the terminology of their reforms clearly reflects policy objectives.

  14. 42 CFR 423.782 - Cost-sharing subsidy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost-sharing subsidy. 423.782 Section 423.782... (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Premiums and Cost-Sharing Subsidies... cents. (c) When the out-of-pocket cost for a covered Part D drug under a Part D sponsor's plan benefit...

  15. Harnessing the best of Europe to understand and solve Keel Bone Damage: An ongoing EU-COST Action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Anja Brinch; Sandilands, Victoria; Toscano, M.

    2017-01-01

    on a specific topic, i.e., the causes of KBD and solutions to reduce their severity and frequency. The Action brings various participants with a diverse mix of disciplines together to facilitate novel and trans-disciplinary discussions that will lead to definitive and quantifiable outputs. In addition......The KeelBoneDamage COST Action seeks to provide the European laying hen industry with the innovations in breeding, nutrition, and management necessary to resolve the problem of keel bone damage (KBD) in order to meet the high standards of welfare and productivity demanded by the European community...... to pursuing these research objectives, the Action also seeks to strengthen European research capacity by connecting relevant scientific communities and providing networking opportunities for young scientists. Activities are performed in concert with industrial partners whom are leaders in the field ensuring...

  16. Survey results show that adults are willing to pay higher insurance premiums for generous coverage of specialty drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romley, John A; Sanchez, Yuri; Penrod, John R; Goldman, Dana P

    2012-04-01

    Generous coverage of specialty drugs for cancer and other diseases may be valuable not only for sick patients currently using these drugs, but also for healthy people who recognize the potential need for them in the future. This study estimated how healthy people value insurance coverage of specialty drugs, defined as high-cost drugs that treat cancer and other serious health conditions like multiple sclerosis, by quantifying willingness to pay via a survey. US adults were estimated to be willing to pay an extra $12.94 on average in insurance premiums per month for generous specialty-drug coverage--in effect, $2.58 for every dollar in out-of-pocket costs that they would expect to pay with a less generous insurance plan. Given the value that people assign to generous coverage of specialty drugs, having high cost sharing on these drugs seemingly runs contrary to what people value in their health insurance.

  17. THE EQUITY PREMIUM PUZZLE AND EMOTIONAL ASSET PRICING

    OpenAIRE

    MARC GÜRTLER; NORA HARTMANN

    2007-01-01

    "Since the equity premium as well as the risk-free rate puzzle question the concepts central to financial and economic modeling, we apply behavioral decision theory to asset pricing in view of solving these puzzles. U.S. stock market data for the period 1960-2003 and German stock market data for the period 1977-2003 show that emotional investors who act in accordance to Bell's (1985) disappointment theory -a special case of prospect theory- and additionally administer mental accounts demand a...

  18. Premium Pricing In Health Insurance By Nelson- Aalen Estimator

    OpenAIRE

    Istikaanah, Najmah

    2011-01-01

    In this paper the using of Nelson Aalen estimators are presented to estimate transition probabilities of multistate model. Based on discrete time Markov, we will get transition matrices?é?á which the elements are transition probabilities from Nelson Aalen estimator. Because of the data that used in the construction of transition matrices are person?óÔé¼Ôäós health histories, then it can be seen as a morbidity value, which can be used to premium pricing.?é?á

  19. Alkaloid-derived molecules in low rank Argonne premium coals.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winans, R. E.; Tomczyk, N. A.; Hunt, J. E.

    2000-11-30

    Molecules that are probably derived from alkaloids have been found in the extracts of the subbituminous and lignite Argonne Premium Coals. High resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LCMS) have been used to characterize pyridine and supercritical extracts. The supercritical extraction used an approach that has been successful for extracting alkaloids from natural products. The first indication that there might be these natural products in coals was the large number of molecules found containing multiple nitrogen and oxygen heteroatoms. These molecules are much less abundant in bituminous coals and absent in the higher rank coals.

  20. Assessment of plutonium security effect using import premium method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohkubo, Hiroo; Aoyagi, Tadashi; Kikuchi, Masahiro; Suzuki, Atsuyuki.

    1994-01-01

    A mathematical formulation was developed to describe the concept of import premium method, which can quantify a security effect of demand reduction of imports by introducing the alternative before its supply disruption (or variation) may happen. Next, by using this formula, a security value of plutonium use (especially, fast breeder reactor), defined as a contributor to reduction of possibilities of disruption (or variation) of natural uranium supply was estimated. From these studies, it is concluded that although the formula proposed here is simplified, it may be available for assessing an energy security if only we prepare the data concerning future motions of supply and demand curves. (author)

  1. Children's understanding of advertisers' persuasive tactics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozendaal, E.; Buijzen, M.; Valkenburg, P.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate children’s understanding of six popular tactics used by advertisers to elicit certain advertising effects, including ad repetition, product demonstration, peer popularity appeal, humour, celebrity endorsement and premiums. We first asked 34 advertisers of

  2. A face in the crowd: a non-invasive and cost effective photo-identification methodology to understand the fine scale movement of eastern water dragons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riana Zanarivero Gardiner

    Full Text Available Ectothermic vertebrates face many challenges of thermoregulation. Many species rely on behavioral thermoregulation and move within their landscape to maintain homeostasis. Understanding the fine-scale nature of this regulation through tracking techniques can provide a better understanding of the relationships between such species and their dynamic environments. The use of animal tracking and telemetry technology has allowed the extensive collection of such data which has enabled us to better understand the ways animals move within their landscape. However, such technologies do not come without certain costs: they are generally invasive, relatively expensive, can be too heavy for small sized animals and unreliable in certain habitats. This study provides a cost-effective and non-invasive method through photo-identification, to determine fine scale movements of individuals. With our methodology, we have been able to find that male eastern water dragons (Intellagama leuseurii have home ranges one and a half times larger than those of females. Furthermore, we found intraspecific differences in the size of home ranges depending on the time of the day. Lastly, we found that location mostly influenced females' home ranges, but not males and discuss why this may be so. Overall, we provide valuable information regarding the ecology of the eastern water dragon, but most importantly demonstrate that non-invasive photo-identification can be successfully applied to the study of reptiles.

  3. A face in the crowd: a non-invasive and cost effective photo-identification methodology to understand the fine scale movement of eastern water dragons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, Riana Zanarivero; Doran, Erik; Strickland, Kasha; Carpenter-Bundhoo, Luke; Frère, Celine

    2014-01-01

    Ectothermic vertebrates face many challenges of thermoregulation. Many species rely on behavioral thermoregulation and move within their landscape to maintain homeostasis. Understanding the fine-scale nature of this regulation through tracking techniques can provide a better understanding of the relationships between such species and their dynamic environments. The use of animal tracking and telemetry technology has allowed the extensive collection of such data which has enabled us to better understand the ways animals move within their landscape. However, such technologies do not come without certain costs: they are generally invasive, relatively expensive, can be too heavy for small sized animals and unreliable in certain habitats. This study provides a cost-effective and non-invasive method through photo-identification, to determine fine scale movements of individuals. With our methodology, we have been able to find that male eastern water dragons (Intellagama leuseurii) have home ranges one and a half times larger than those of females. Furthermore, we found intraspecific differences in the size of home ranges depending on the time of the day. Lastly, we found that location mostly influenced females' home ranges, but not males and discuss why this may be so. Overall, we provide valuable information regarding the ecology of the eastern water dragon, but most importantly demonstrate that non-invasive photo-identification can be successfully applied to the study of reptiles.

  4. Defense Sector Consolidation: Will Consolidation Within the Defense Sector Improve the Financial Performance of Defense Contractors While, Simultaneously Yielding Cost Savings to Taxpayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-12-01

    Treaty USSR Union of Soviet Socialist Republics WACC Weighted Average Cost of Capital...a present value using the company’s weighted average cost of capital ( WACC ). Synergy: The Premium for Potential Success For the most part

  5. The estimation of risk-premium implicit in oil prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luis, J.B.

    2001-01-01

    The futures price can be seen as the sum of the expected value of the underlying asset price and a risk-premium. In order to disentangle these two components of the futures price, one can try to model the relationship between spot and futures prices, in order to obtain a closed expression for the risk-premium, or to use information from spot and option prices to estimate risk-aversion functions. Given the high volatility of the ratios between futures and spot prices, we opted for the latter, estimating risk-neutral and subjective probability density functions, respectively, from observed option and spot prices. looking at the prices of Brent and West Texas Intermediate light/sweet crude oil options, the obtained evidence suggests that risk-aversion is typically very low for levels near the futures prices. However, due to price volatility and, consequently, to the tails of distribution, the risk-aversion functions are badly behaved in extreme prices and futures prices do not anticipate sharp movements in oil spot prices. Therefore, futures oil prices seem to be useful in forecasting spot prices only when moderate price changes occur. (author)

  6. 29 CFR 778.205 - Premiums for weekend and holiday work-example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Premiums for weekend and holiday work-example. 778.205....205 Premiums for weekend and holiday work—example. The application of section 7(e)(6) may be illustrated by the following example: Suppose an agreement of employment calls for the payment of $7.50 an...

  7. Estimated value of insurance premium due to Citarum River flood by using Bayesian method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukono; Aisah, I.; Tampubolon, Y. R. H.; Napitupulu, H.; Supian, S.; Subiyanto; Sidi, P.

    2018-03-01

    Citarum river flood in South Bandung, West Java Indonesia, often happens every year. It causes property damage, producing economic loss. The risk of loss can be mitigated by following the flood insurance program. In this paper, we discussed about the estimated value of insurance premiums due to Citarum river flood by Bayesian method. It is assumed that the risk data for flood losses follows the Pareto distribution with the right fat-tail. The estimation of distribution model parameters is done by using Bayesian method. First, parameter estimation is done with assumption that prior comes from Gamma distribution family, while observation data follow Pareto distribution. Second, flood loss data is simulated based on the probability of damage in each flood affected area. The result of the analysis shows that the estimated premium value of insurance based on pure premium principle is as follows: for the loss value of IDR 629.65 million of premium IDR 338.63 million; for a loss of IDR 584.30 million of its premium IDR 314.24 million; and the loss value of IDR 574.53 million of its premium IDR 308.95 million. The premium value estimator can be used as neither a reference in the decision of reasonable premium determination, so as not to incriminate the insured, nor it result in loss of the insurer.

  8. 78 FR 64943 - Medicare Program; Medicare Part B Monthly Actuarial Rates, Premium Rate, and Annual Deductible...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-30

    ... section 1839 of the Act, requires that, starting on January 1, 2007, the Part B premium a beneficiary pays... governments or on the private sector. Executive Order 13132 establishes certain requirements that an agency... B premium rate for all enrollees for 2014 is $104.90, which is equal to 50 percent of the monthly...

  9. Residential consumers in the Cape Peninsula's willingness to pay for premium priced green electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliver, Henry; Volschenk, Jako; Smit, Eon

    2011-01-01

    A number of studies have explored the willingness (i.e. stated willingness as opposed to actual willingness) of consumers to pay a premium for green electricity in developed countries. However, little is known about how this translates into an emerging economy context. This study investigates the level of willingness of residential households in South Africa's Cape Peninsula to pay a premium for electricity from renewable energy. It methodologically drew on recent contributions in the literature on norm-motivated behaviour used to identify testable factors that could influence residential consumers' willingness to pay (WTP). Interestingly, the study found a significant positive link between household income and WTP for green electricity, contrary to the findings of some previous studies. Not only are higher income households more likely to pay a premium, but typically they are also willing to pay a bigger premium. It was also further established that the view that green electricity is reliable, involvement in the recycling of waste and the belief that everyone should contribute to green electricity generation drive the WTP. - Research Highlights: →The study explored the drivers of willingness to pay (WTP) a premium for green electricity. →All the hypothesised drivers of WTP a premium were found to be significant. →Contrary to some former studies, income was found to be a good predictor of WTP and the pledged premium. →The quantum of the premium positively correlates with income levels.

  10. 5 CFR 550.1409 - Inapplicability of premium pay and aggregate pay caps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inapplicability of premium pay and aggregate pay caps. 550.1409 Section 550.1409 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL... Inapplicability of premium pay and aggregate pay caps. Accrued compensatory time off under this subpart is not...

  11. 29 CFR 825.212 - Employee failure to pay health plan premium payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.212 Employee failure to pay health plan premium payments. (a)(1) In... obligations to maintain health insurance coverage cease under FMLA if an employee's premium payment is more... an employee's insurance in accordance with this section and fails to restore the employee's health...

  12. 38 CFR 8.5 - Authorization for deduction of premiums from compensation, retirement pay, or pension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Authorization for deduction of premiums from compensation, retirement pay, or pension. 8.5 Section 8.5 Pensions, Bonuses, and... Authorization for deduction of premiums from compensation, retirement pay, or pension. Deductions from benefits...

  13. 5 CFR 892.202 - Are retirees eligible for the premium conversion plan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... conversion plan? 892.202 Section 892.202 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL FLEXIBLE BENEFITS PLAN: PRE-TAX PAYMENT OF HEALTH BENEFITS PREMIUMS Eligibility and Participation § 892.202 Are retirees eligible for the premium conversion plan? No...

  14. 5 CFR 892.301 - How do I pay my premium?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How do I pay my premium? 892.301 Section 892.301 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL FLEXIBLE BENEFITS PLAN: PRE-TAX PAYMENT OF HEALTH BENEFITS PREMIUMS Contributions and...

  15. 5 CFR 892.201 - Who is covered by the premium conversion plan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... plan? 892.201 Section 892.201 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL FLEXIBLE BENEFITS PLAN: PRE-TAX PAYMENT OF HEALTH BENEFITS PREMIUMS Eligibility and Participation § 892.201 Who is covered by the premium conversion plan? (a) All...

  16. 5 CFR 610.407 - Premium pay for holiday work for employees on compressed work schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... schedule who performs work on a holiday is entitled to basic pay, plus premium pay at a rate equal to basic pay, for the work that is not in excess of the employee's compressed work schedule for that day. For... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Premium pay for holiday work for...

  17. 26 CFR 1.249-1 - Limitation on deduction of bond premium on repurchase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... A issues a callable 20-year convertible bond at face for $1,000 bearing interest at 10 percent per... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Limitation on deduction of bond premium on... deduction of bond premium on repurchase. (a) Limitation—(1) General rule. No deduction is allowed to the...

  18. 24 CFR 255.6 - Method of payment of mortgage insurance premiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... insurance premiums. 255.6 Section 255.6 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and... PROJECTS § 255.6 Method of payment of mortgage insurance premiums. The provisions of 24 CFR 251.6 shall..., DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT...

  19. 24 CFR 4001.203 - Calculation of upfront and annual mortgage insurance premiums for Program mortgages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... mortgage insurance premiums for Program mortgages. 4001.203 Section 4001.203 Housing and Urban Development... HOMEOWNERS PROGRAM HOPE FOR HOMEOWNERS PROGRAM Rights and Obligations Under the Contract of Insurance § 4001.203 Calculation of upfront and annual mortgage insurance premiums for Program mortgages. (a...

  20. 24 CFR 252.6 - Method of payment of mortgage insurance premiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... insurance premiums. 252.6 Section 252.6 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and..., AND BOARD AND CARE HOMES § 252.6 Method of payment of mortgage insurance premiums. The provisions of..., DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT...

  1. 78 FR 59366 - Multifamily, Healthcare Facilities, and Hospital Mortgage Insurance Premiums for Fiscal Year (FY...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-26

    ... Facilities, and Hospital Mortgage Insurance Premiums for Fiscal Year (FY) 2014 AGENCY: Office of the... with HUD regulations, this Notice announces the mortgage insurance premiums (MIPs) for Federal Housing Administration (FHA) Multifamily, Healthcare Facilities, and Hospital mortgage insurance programs that have...

  2. 24 CFR 220.806 - Pro rata refund of insurance premium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... refund of insurance premium. Upon termination of loan insurance contract by a payment in full or by a... equal to the pro rata portion of the current annual loan insurance premium theretofore paid which is... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pro rata refund of insurance...

  3. Introducing the Green Protein Footprint method as an understandable measure of the environmental cost of anchovy consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laso, Jara; Margallo, María; Serrano, María; Vázquez-Rowe, Ian; Avadí, Angel; Fullana, Pere; Bala, Alba; Gazulla, Cristina; Irabien, Ángel; Aldaco, Rubén

    2018-04-15

    In a global framework of growing concern for food security and environmental protection, the selection of food products with higher protein content and lower environmental impact is a challenge. To assess the reliability of different strategies along the food supply chain, a measure of food cost through the environmental impact-protein content binomial is necessary. This study proposes a standardized method to calculate the Green Protein Footprint (GPF) index, a method that assesses both the environmental impact of a food product and its protein content provided to consumers. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) was used to calculate the environmental impact of the selected food products, and a Life Cycle Protein Assessment (LCPA) was performed by accounting for the protein content along the supply chain. Although the GPF can be applied to all food chain products, this paper is focused on European anchovy-based products for indirect human consumption (fishmeal) and for direct human consumption (fresh, salted and canned anchovies). Moreover, the circular economy concept was applied considering the valorization of the anchovy residues generated during the canning process. These residues were used to produce fishmeal, which was employed in bass aquaculture. Hence, humans are finally consuming fish protein from the residues, closing the loop of the original product life cycle. More elaborated, multi-ingredient food products (salted and canned anchovy products), presented higher GPF values due to higher environmental impacts. Furthermore, the increase of food loss throughout their life cycle caused a decrease in the protein content. Regarding salted and canned products, the packaging was the main hotspot. The influence of the packaging was evaluated using the GPF, reaffirming that plastic was the best alternative. These results highlighted the importance of improving packaging materials in food products. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Using a community-based definition of poverty for targeting poor households for premium subsidies in the context of a community health insurance in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savadogo, Germain; Souarès, Aurelia; Sié, Ali; Parmar, Divya; Bibeau, Gilles; Sauerborn, Rainer

    2015-02-06

    One of the biggest challenges in subsidizing premiums of poor households for community health insurance is the identification and selection of these households. Generally, poverty assessments in developing countries are based on monetary terms. The household is regarded as poor if its income or consumption is lower than a predefined poverty cut-off. These measures fail to recognize the multi-dimensional character of poverty, ignoring community members' perception and understanding of poverty, leaving them voiceless and powerless in the identification process. Realizing this, the steering committee of Nouna's health insurance devised a method to involve community members to better define 'perceived' poverty, using this as a key element for the poor selection. The community-identified poor were then used to effectively target premium subsidies for the insurance scheme. The study was conducted in the Nouna's Health District located in northwest Burkina Faso. Participants in each village were selected to take part in focus-group discussions (FGD) organized in 41 villages and 7 sectors of Nouna's town to discuss criteria and perceptions of poverty. The discussions were audio recorded, transcribed and analyzed in French using the software NVivo 9. From the FGD on poverty and the subjective definitions and perceptions of the community members, we found that poverty was mainly seen as scarcity of basic needs, vulnerability, deprivation of capacities, powerlessness, voicelessness, indecent living conditions, and absence of social capital and community networks for support in times of need. Criteria and poverty groups as described by community members can be used to identify poor who can then be targeted for subsidies. Policies targeting the poorest require the establishment of effective selection strategies. These policies are well-conditioned by proper identification of the poor people. Community perceptions and criteria of poverty are grounded in reality, to better

  5. Balancing the Costs of Wildlife Research with the Benefits of Understanding a Panzootic Disease, White-Nose Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeder, DeeAnn M; Field, Kenneth A; Slater, Matthew H

    2016-01-01

    Additional ethical issues surrounding wildlife research compared with biomedical research include consideration of the harm of research to the ecosystem as a whole and the benefits of conservation to the same species of animals under study. Research on white-nose syndrome in bats provides a case study to apply these considerations to determine whether research that harms ecosystems under crisis is justified. By expanding well-established guidelines for animal and human subjects research, we demonstrate that this research can be considered highly justified. Studies must minimize the amount of harm to the ecosystem while maximizing the knowledge gained. However, the likelihood of direct application of the results of the research for conservation should not necessarily take priority over other considerations, particularly when the entire context of the ecologic disaster is poorly understood. Since the emergence of white-nose syndrome, researchers have made great strides in understanding this panzootic disease and are now in a position to utilize this knowledge to mitigate this wildlife crisis. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Obstetricians' rising liability insurance premiums and inductions at late preterm gestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Karna; Grobman, William A; Lee, Todd A; Holl, Jane L

    2009-04-01

    To estimate the association between professional liability insurance premiums for obstetricians and late preterm induction (LPI) rates. Data from the National Center for Health Statistics were used to identify all Illinois women pregnant with singletons at 34 weeks' gestation from 1991 to 2003. The independent association between LPI (induction between 34 and 37 weeks' gestation) rates and the previous year's obstetric malpractice insurance premiums was evaluated using linear regression. The mean annual LPI rate (5.4/1000 in 1991 to 15.2/1000 in 2003, P insurance premiums ($55,480 to $110,613, P insurance premium. Rising premiums are associated with increased frequency of LPI among women with singleton gestations.

  7. PENGARUH KEBIJAKAN HARGA BBM, JUMLAH SEPEDA MOTOR, PENDAPATAN PERKAPITA TERHADAP KONSUMSI PREMIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Atmojo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Konsumsi BBM di Indonesia semakin meningkat karena meningkatnya pendapatan masyarakat, jumlah kendaraan bermotor di Indonesia. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh kebijakan harga BBM, kendaraan bermotor (motor, pendapatan perkapita terhadap konsumsi BBM (Premium. Objek penelitian ini adalah konsumsi BBM di Republik Indonesia kurun waktu 1985-2014. Penelitian ini menggunakan desain penelitian dengan pendekatan kuantitatif. Analisis data menggunakan analisis Regresi Linier Berganda dengan metode Ordinary Least Square (OLS. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian dapat disimpulkan bahwa kebijakan harga berpengaruh signifikan terhadap konsumsi premium, pendapatan per kapita  berpengaruh positif terhadap konsumsi premium, jumlah sepeda motor berpengaruh positif terhadap konsumsi premium, serta harga BBM, pendapatan perkapita, dan jumlah sepeda motor secara serentak berpengaruh positif terhadap konsumsi premium. Fuel consumption in Indonesia is increasing due to rising incomes, the number of motor vehicles in Indonesia. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of fuel price policy, motor vehicles (motorcycles, per capita income on the consumption of fuel (Premium. The object of this study is the fuel consumption in the Republic of Indonesia period 1985-2014. The design of this research study with a quantitative approach. Analyzed using Multiple Linear Regression Ordinary Least Square method (OLS. Based on the results of this study concluded that the pricing policies have a significant effect on the consumption of premium, per capita income has positive influence on consumption of premium, the number of motorcycles positive effect on premium consumption, as well as fuel prices, per capita income, and the number of motorcycles simultaneously positive effect on consumption of premium.

  8. Health insurance, cost expectations, and adverse job turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Randall P; Albert Ma, Ching-To

    2011-01-01

    Because less healthy employees value health insurance more than the healthy ones, when health insurance is newly offered job turnover rates for healthier employees decline less than turnover rates for the less healthy. We call this adverse job turnover, and it implies that a firm's expected health costs will increase when health insurance is first offered. Health insurance premiums may fail to adjust sufficiently fast because state regulations restrict annual premium changes, or insurers are reluctant to change premiums rapidly. Even with premiums set at the long run expected costs, some firms may be charged premiums higher than their current expected costs and choose not to offer insurance. High administrative costs at small firms exacerbate this dynamic selection problem. Using 1998-1999 MEDSTAT MarketScan and 1997 Employer Health Insurance Survey data, we find that expected employee health expenditures at firms that offer insurance have lower within-firm and higher between-firm variance than at firms that do not. Turnover rates are systematically higher in industries in which firms are less likely to offer insurance. Simulations of the offer decision capturing between-firm health-cost heterogeneity and expected turnover rates match the observed pattern across firm sizes well. 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. 75 FR 68798 - Medicare Program; Part A Premiums for CY 2011 for the Uninsured Aged and for Certain Disabled...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-09

    ... Retirement Act and certain others do not have to pay premiums for Medicare Part A.) Section 1818A of the Act... specifies that the premium that these individuals will pay for CY 2011 will be equal to the premium for... consequential effect on State, local, or tribal governments or on the private sector. However, States are...

  10. 12 CFR 221.122 - Applicability of margin requirements to credit in connection with Insurance Premium Funding...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... in connection with Insurance Premium Funding Programs. 221.122 Section 221.122 Banks and Banking...) Interpretations § 221.122 Applicability of margin requirements to credit in connection with Insurance Premium... with insurance premium funding programs. The inquiries are included in a set of guidelines in the...

  11. 24 CFR 213.259a - Premiums-mortgages insured pursuant to section 238(c) of the Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... All of the provisions of §§ 213.253 through 213.259 governing mortgage insurance premiums shall apply... mortgage insurance premiums due on such mortgages in accordance with §§ 213.253 through 213.259 shall be... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Premiums-mortgages insured pursuant...

  12. 25 CFR 103.19 - When must the lender pay BIA the loan guaranty or insurance premium?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... insurance premium? 103.19 Section 103.19 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES LOAN GUARANTY, INSURANCE, AND INTEREST SUBSIDY How a Lender Obtains a Loan Guaranty or Insurance Coverage § 103.19 When must the lender pay BIA the loan guaranty or insurance premium? The premium...

  13. COST Action TU1206 "SUB-URBAN - A European network to improve understanding and use of the ground beneath our cities"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Diarmad; de Beer, Johannes; Lawrence, David; van der Meulen, Michiel; Mielby, Susie; Hay, David; Scanlon, Ray; Campenhout, Ignace; Taugs, Renate; Eriksson, Ingelov

    2014-05-01

    Sustainable urbanisation is the focus of SUB-URBAN, a European Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST) Action TU1206 - A European network to improve understanding and use of the ground beneath our cities. This aims to transform relationships between experts who develop urban subsurface geoscience knowledge - principally national Geological Survey Organisations (GSOs), and those who can most benefit from it - urban decision makers, planners, practitioners and the wider research community. Under COST's Transport and Urban Development Domain, SUB-URBAN has established a network of GSOs and other researchers in over 20 countries, to draw together and evaluate collective urban geoscience research in 3D/4D characterisation, prediction and visualisation. Knowledge exchange between researchers and City-partners within 'SUB-URBAN' is already facilitating new city-scale subsurface projects, and is developing a tool-box of good-practice guidance, decision-support tools, and cost-effective methodologies that are appropriate to local needs and circumstances. These are intended to act as catalysts in the transformation of relationships between geoscientists and urban decision-makers more generally. As a result, the importance of the urban sub-surface in the sustainable development of our cities will be better appreciated, and the conflicting demands currently placed on it will be acknowledged, and resolved appropriately. Existing city-scale 3D/4D model exemplars are being developed by partners in the UK (Glasgow, London), Germany (Hamburg) and France (Paris). These draw on extensive ground investigation (10s-100s of thousands of boreholes) and other data. Model linkage enables prediction of groundwater, heat, SuDS, and engineering properties. Combined subsurface and above-ground (CityGML, BIMs) models are in preparation. These models will provide valuable tools for more holistic urban planning; identifying subsurface opportunities and saving costs by reducing uncertainty in

  14. Patients' annual income adequacy, insurance premiums and out-of-pocket expenses related to heart failure care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piamjariyakul, Ubolrat; Yadrich, Donna Macan; Russell, Christy; Myer, Jane; Prinyarux, Chanawee; Vacek, James L; Ellerbeck, Edward F; Smith, Carol E

    2014-01-01

    To (1) identify the amount patients spend for insurance premiums, co-payments, deductibles, and other out-of-pocket costs related to HF and chronic health care services and estimate their annual non-reimbursed and out-of-pocket costs; and (2) identify patients' concerns about nonreimbursed and out-of-pocket expenses. HF is one of the most expensive illnesses for our society with multiple health services and financial burdens for families. Mixed methods with quantitative questionnaires and qualitative interviews. Patients (N = 149) reported annual averages for non-reimbursed health services co-payments and out-of-pocket costs ranging from $3913 to $5829 depending on insurance coverage. Thirty one patients (21%) reported inadequate health coverage related to their non-reimbursed costs. Non-reimbursed costs related to HF care are substantial and vary depending on their insurance, health services use, and out-of-pocket costs. Patient referral to social services to assist with expenses could provide some relief from the burden of high HF-related costs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Users Handbook for the Argonne Premium Coal Sample Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vorres, K.S.

    1993-10-01

    This Users Handbook for the Argonne Premium Coal Samples provides the recipients of those samples with information that will enhance the value of the samples, to permit greater opportunities to compare their work with that of others, and aid in correlations that can improve the value to all users. It is hoped that this document will foster a spirit of cooperation and collaboration such that the field of basic coal chemistry may be a more efficient and rewarding endeavor for all who participate. The different sections are intended to stand alone. For this reason some of the information may be found in several places. The handbook is also intended to be a dynamic document, constantly subject to change through additions and improvements. Please feel free to write to the editor with your comments and suggestions.

  16. Should people with unhealthy lifestyles pay higher health insurance premiums?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, David R

    2011-02-01

    This commentary sets the article by Dubois on the ethical justification for charging higher insurance premiums for people with unhealthy lifestyles in the context of US health care reform. It reviews the relevance and strength of normative concerns identified by Dubois about the acceptability of such differentiated "means-tested" plans. It identifies key issues involving whether certain health behaviors matter ethically, and if so, the grounds that would justify an obligation for people to take action. The article frames the answer in terms of the need to achieve an ethically acceptable balance between the principle of equality and principle of merit and concludes with four ethical standards to focus the terms of the debate.

  17. Economic analysis of price premiums in the presence of non-convexities. Evidence from German electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschmann, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Analyzing price data from sequential German electricity markets, namely the day-ahead and intraday auction, a puzzling but apparently systematic pattern of price premiums can be identified. The price premiums are highly correlated with the underlying demand profile. As there is evidence that widespread models for electricity forward premiums are not applicable to the market dynamics under analysis, a theoretical model is developed within this article which reveals that non-convexities in only a subset of sequential markets with differing product granularity may cause systematic price premiums at equilibrium. These price premiums may be bidirectional and reflect a value for additional short-term power supply system flexibility.

  18. Economic analysis of price premiums in the presence of non-convexities. Evidence from German electricity markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paschmann, Martin

    2017-11-15

    Analyzing price data from sequential German electricity markets, namely the day-ahead and intraday auction, a puzzling but apparently systematic pattern of price premiums can be identified. The price premiums are highly correlated with the underlying demand profile. As there is evidence that widespread models for electricity forward premiums are not applicable to the market dynamics under analysis, a theoretical model is developed within this article which reveals that non-convexities in only a subset of sequential markets with differing product granularity may cause systematic price premiums at equilibrium. These price premiums may be bidirectional and reflect a value for additional short-term power supply system flexibility.

  19. Plan–Provider Integration, Premiums, and Quality in the Medicare Advantage Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frakt, Austin B; Pizer, Steven D; Feldman, Roger

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To investigate how integration between Medicare Advantage plans and health care providers is related to plan premiums and quality ratings. Data Source. We used public data from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) and the Area Resource File and private data from one large insurer. Premiums and quality ratings are from 2009 CMS administrative files and some control variables are historical. Study Design. We estimated ordinary least-squares models for premiums and plan quality ratings, with state fixed effects and firm random effects. The key independent variable was an indicator of plan–provider integration. Data Collection. With the exception of Medigap premium data, all data were publicly available. We ascertained plan–provider integration through examination of plans’ websites and governance documents. Principal Findings. We found that integrated plan–providers charge higher premiums, controlling for quality. Such plans also have higher quality ratings. We found no evidence that integration is associated with more generous benefits. Conclusions. Current policy encourages plan–provider integration, although potential effects on health insurance products and markets are uncertain. Policy makers and regulators may want to closely monitor changes in premiums and quality after integration and consider whether quality improvement (if any) justifies premium increases (if they occur). PMID:23800017

  20. Plan-provider integration, premiums, and quality in the Medicare Advantage market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frakt, Austin B; Pizer, Steven D; Feldman, Roger

    2013-12-01

    To investigate how integration between Medicare Advantage plans and health care providers is related to plan premiums and quality ratings. We used public data from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) and the Area Resource File and private data from one large insurer. Premiums and quality ratings are from 2009 CMS administrative files and some control variables are historical. We estimated ordinary least-squares models for premiums and plan quality ratings, with state fixed effects and firm random effects. The key independent variable was an indicator of plan-provider integration. With the exception of Medigap premium data, all data were publicly available. We ascertained plan-provider integration through examination of plans' websites and governance documents. We found that integrated plan-providers charge higher premiums, controlling for quality. Such plans also have higher quality ratings. We found no evidence that integration is associated with more generous benefits. Current policy encourages plan-provider integration, although potential effects on health insurance products and markets are uncertain. Policy makers and regulators may want to closely monitor changes in premiums and quality after integration and consider whether quality improvement (if any) justifies premium increases (if they occur). © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  1. Ability and Willingness to Pay Premium in the Framework of National Health Insurance System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aulia Abdillah Ramadhan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The National Health Insurance is one of the government’s efforts to improve community access to health services. The government has fixed the premiums to be paid by community, except for underprivileged community. The aim of the study was to identify Ability to Pay (ATP and Willingness to Pay (WTP of the national health insurance premium. Methods: A descriptive study which involved 210 housewives who were chosen by rapid survey method was conducted from September to November 2013 in Cipacing village, Jatinangor, Sumedang, West Java. Data collection was using questionnaire to obtain level of ability and willingness to pay the health insurance premium. The results were compared to the required premium by the government (Rp 22,000,-. Results: Most of the respondents were only housewives, but there were still respondents who were private workers. Most of them were 20–39 years old. About 57.6% of the respondents were able to pay for the required premium, but Only 17.4% of the them were willing to pay according to the required premium. Conclusions: The ATP of the respondents are higher compared to the WTP, meaning that most of the respondents are able to pay the requires premium but are not willing to pay it.

  2. Estimating Premium Sensitivity for Children's Public Health Insurance Coverage: Selection but No Death Spiral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marton, James; Ketsche, Patricia G; Snyder, Angela; Adams, E Kathleen; Zhou, Mei

    2015-01-01

    Objective To estimate the effect of premium increases on the probability that near-poor and moderate-income children disenroll from public coverage. Data Sources Enrollment, eligibility, and claims data for Georgia's PeachCare for Kids™ (CHIP) program for multiple years. Study Design We exploited policy-induced variation in premiums generated by cross-sectional differences and changes over time in enrollee age, family size, and income to estimate the duration of enrollment as a function of the effective (per child) premium. We classify children as being of low, medium, or high illness severity. Principal Findings A dollar increase in the per-child premium is associated with a slight increase in a typical child's monthly probability of exiting coverage from 7.70 to 7.83 percent. Children with low illness severity have a significantly higher monthly baseline probability of exiting than children with medium or high illness severity, but the enrollment response to premium increases is similar across all three groups. Conclusions Success in achieving coverage gains through public programs is tempered by persistent problems in maintaining enrollment, which is modestly affected by premium increases. Retention is subject to adverse selection problems, but premium increases do not appear to significantly magnify the selection problem in this case. PMID:25130764

  3. The Pricing of Tail Risk and the Equity Premium: Evidence from International Option Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Gustav; Fusari, Nicola; Todorov, Viktor

    We explore the pricing of tail risk as manifest in index options across international equity markets. The risk premium associated with negative tail events displays persistent shifts, unrelated to volatility. This tail risk premium is a potent predictor of future equity returns, while option......-implied volatility only forecasts the future return variation. Hence, compensation for negative jump risk is the primary driver of the equity premium across all indices, whereas the reward for pure diffusive variance risk is largely unrelated to future equity returns. We also document pronounced commonalities...

  4. Consumer Willingness to Pay a Premium for Halal Goat Meat: A Case from Atlanta, Georgia

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim, Mohammed

    2011-01-01

    The growth in goat meat demand is attributed to the influx of immigrants from goat-meat-eating countries into the U.S. This Paper examines the willingness to pay a premium for halal goat meat. The factors that significantly impact the willingness to pay a premium for halal goat meat in Atlanta include income, current consumption, household size, and marital status. Results suggest that the mean willingness to pay a premium for the halal attribute is 50 cents per pound of goat meat.

  5. The Impact of the Term Auction Facility on the Liquidity Risk Premium and Unsecured Interbank Spreads

    OpenAIRE

    Syrstad, Olav

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the effectiveness of the Federal Reserve's Term Auction Facility (TAF) in alleviating the liquidity shortage in USD and reducing the spread between the 3-month Libor rate and the expected policy rate. I construct a proxy for the 3-month liquidity risk premium based on data from the FX forward market which enables me to (i) decompose the Libor spread into a liquidity premium and a credit premium, and (ii) test the effectiveness of the TAF in reducing the liquidity premi...

  6. MCBS Highlights: Ownership and Average Premiums for Medicare Supplementary Insurance Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chulis, George S.; Eppig, Franklin J.; Poisal, John A.

    1995-01-01

    This article describes private supplementary health insurance holdings and average premiums paid by Medicare enrollees. Data were collected as part of the 1992 Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey (MCBS). Data show the number of persons with insurance and average premiums paid by type of insurance held—individually purchased policies, employer-sponsored policies, or both. Distributions are shown for a variety of demographic, socioeconomic, and health status variables. Primary findings include: Seventy-eight percent of Medicare beneficiaries have private supplementary insurance; 25 percent of those with private insurance hold more than one policy. The average premium paid for private insurance in 1992 was $914. PMID:10153473

  7. Optimal dynamic premium control in non-life insurance. Maximizing dividend pay-outs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højgaard, Bjarne

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we consider the problem of finding optimal dynamic premium policies in non-life insurance. The reserve of a company is modeled using the classical Cramér-Lundberg model with premium rates calculated via the expected value principle. The company controls dynamically the relative safety...... loading with the possibility of gaining or loosing customers. It distributes dividends according to a 'barrier strategy' and the objective of the company is to find an optimal premium policy and dividend barrier maximizing the expected total, discounted pay-out of dividends. In the case of exponential...

  8. A Framework for Better Understanding and Enhancing Direct Contact Membrane Distillation (DCMD) in Terms of Module Design, Cost Analysis and Energy Required

    KAUST Repository

    AbuHannoud, Ali

    2011-07-01

    Water is becoming scarcer and several authors have highlighted the upcoming problem of higher water salinity and the difficulty of treating and discharging water. Moreover, current discoveries of problems with chemicals that have been used for pretreating or post-treating water alerted scientists to research better solutions to treat water. Membrane distillation (MD) is a promising technology that might replace current processes as it has lower pretreatment requirements combined with a tremendous ability to treat a wide range of feed sources while producing very high product quality. If it enters the market, it will have a big influence on all products, from food industry to spaceflight. However, there are several problems which make MD a hot topic for research. One of them is the question about the real cost of MD in terms of heating feed and cooling distillate over time with respect to product quantity and quality. In this work, extensive heating and cooling analyses are covered to answer this question in order to enhance the MD process. Results show energy cost to produce water and the main source of energy loss for direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD), and several suggestions are made in order to better understand and hence enhance the process.

  9. Comparison of Biomarkers of Tobacco Exposure between Premium and Discount Brand Cigarette Smokers in the NHANES 2011-2012 Special Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, Emily J; Reilly, Samantha M; Goel, Reema; Foulds, Jonathan; Richie, John P; Muscat, Joshua E

    2018-05-01

    Background: Increased cigarette costs have inadvertently strengthened the appeal of discounted brands to price-sensitive smokers. Although smokers perceive discounted brands as having poorer quality, little is known about their delivery of toxic tobacco smoke constituents compared with premium-branded tobacco products. Methods: We investigated the differences between discount and premium brand smokers using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011-2012 Special Smoker Sample. Our analyses focused on demographic differences and 27 biomarkers of harmful and potentially harmful constituents (HPHC) listed by the FDA, including volatile organic compounds, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol and its glucuronide [4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol glucuronide; reported as total NNAL (tNNAL)], metals, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Data were analyzed using linear regression models adjusting for potential confounders. Results: A total of 976 non-tobacco users and 578 recent cigarette smokers were eligible for analysis, of which 141 (26.0% weighted) smoked discount brand cigarettes and 437 (74.0% weighted) smoked premium. Discount brand smokers were older, predominantly non-Hispanic white, and had higher serum cotinine. Discount brand smokers had significantly higher levels of 13 smoking-related biomarkers, including tNNAL, uranium, styrene, xylene, and biomarkers of exposure to PAHs (naphthalene, fluorene, and phenanthrene), compared with premium brand smokers. Conclusions: These findings suggest that discount cigarette use is associated with higher exposure to several carcinogenic and toxic HPHCs. Impact: These results may have important regulatory implications for product standards, as higher exposures could lead to a greater degree of harm. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 27(5); 601-9. ©2018 AACR . ©2018 American Association for Cancer Research.

  10. Analisis Resepsi Mahasiswa Ilmu Komunikasi Universitas Semarang Terhadap Tayangan Iklan Televisi Layanan SMS Premium Versi Ramalan Paranormal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Febrian Febrian

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to understand the audience reception of cultural horoscope, forecasts and the occult are sold through premium SMS services. Basic theory used in this study is the cultivation theory of McQuail (1996 which states that television become a major tool in which the media or the television audience to learn about society and culture environment. In other words, the perception of what our minds awakened about society and culture is largely determined by the television. The research method qualitative descriptive used is a  interpretive perspective. Research was conducted in the city of Semarang. Informants in this study were students of the University of Semarang science communication. Concluded that the analysis of other research has answered this reception, where there are three positions in the analysis of audience reception that is the position of the dominant readings, readings that are negotiated and oppositional readings. From this study it can be concluded if the ad is a Premium SMS content that contents can not be held responsible, this can be seen from the researcher interviewed informants in the field.

  11. Hydroprocessing and premium II refinery: a new refining philosophy for an era of clean fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgaudio, Caio Veiga Penna; Pinotti, Rafael [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    This paper discusses a brief history of Brazilian's emission and fuel specifications, since the appearance of PROCONVE until the late stages of the program for vehicles powered by gasoline and diesel. The development of the Brazilian refining is analyzed taking into account the emission and specification evolutions, and it can be perceived that the system's complexity increases while new constraints are imposed by the regulator. This aspect is even more apparent when the detailed scheme of the Premium II refinery and its main unit, the catalytic hydrocracker (HCC, which has not yet been part of PETROBRAS' refining park and will appear in three of the four new refineries of the company) is described. The new projects represent the culmination of the intensive use of energy and raw material for obtaining the products with the new specifications. There is a price for this development, both in investments and increased operating costs due to greater complexity of the system. To adapt to the era of clean fuels, refiners will present a series of challenges that will lead them to seek for more efficient processes and operational excellence (and ongoing efforts to reduce their emissions) in order to ensure positive refining margins. (author)

  12. Discounting in agro-industrial complex. A methodological proposal for risk premium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inmaculada Marques-Perez

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The estimation of the discount rate is decisive for a reliable economic valuation. The discount rate has to be adjusted for the risks related to the company, the sector which the company has its market, and the risks related to the investment project. We present a proposal to incorporate the risk premium to the discount rate. The novelty of the methodology is that difference risk groups according to activity as a factor to adjust the cost of capital to companies. The study applies the methodology to the Agro-Industrial Complex (AIC in Spain. The AIC is formed by industries that add value to farming production. This sector’s economic success demands financial management techniques that assess risk. The conventional method responds neither to the heterogeneity of the economic activities that make up the AIC, nor to differentiating risk by groups. The proposed methodology distinguishes activity groups in accordance with the NACE (National Code of Economic Activities and uses net profitability variability to distinguish the risk in each group. Our results demonstrate the various levels of risk per group. The results show that among all the groups that form the AIC there are wide differences between levels of risk; thus, the risk neutral groups present risk levels on the order of 150 times lower than the groups extreme risk levels.

  13. Noise and Vibration Monitoring for Premium Efficiency IE 3 Three-Phase Induction Motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NISTOR, C. G.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the original SV-100 platform that enables low-cost and very high accuracy determinations of noise and vibration levels. The aim of the proposed platform is to achieve an effective integration of the two topics of this analysis: vibrations and noises. To the best of our knowledge, no low price, dedicated compact platform with embedded measuring instruments exists. For proving the practical utility of the proposed platform, two induction motors of 7.5 kW and 11 kW, respectively, in single-layer winding, at 1000 rpm, with IE3 premium efficiency were analyzed. This analysis is required because, according to IEC60034-30 standard, the IE3 efficiency standard has become mandatory for induction motors of rated power greater than 7.5 kW. Therefore, in order to improve the motor operating efficiency, the power losses caused by noises and vibrations have to be reduced. Several variants of supply were studied, i.e., by the three-phase 50 Hz network and by a three-phase inverter at 40, 50 and 60 Hz, respectively. The experimental determinations of noises are presented comparatively, by using a Bruel&Kjaer sonometer and by using the new platform SV-100. The results are compared with the IEC60034 standard.

  14. Discounting in agro-industrial complex. A methodological proposal for risk premium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques-Perez, I.; Guaita-Pradas, I.; Pérez-Salas, J.L.

    2017-09-01

    The estimation of the discount rate is decisive for a reliable economic valuation. The discount rate has to be adjusted for the risks related to the company, the sector which the company has its market, and the risks related to the investment project. We present a proposal to incorporate the risk premium to the discount rate. The novelty of the methodology is that difference risk groups according to activity as a factor to adjust the cost of capital to companies. The study applies the methodology to the Agro-Industrial Complex (AIC) in Spain. The AIC is formed by industries that add value to farming production. This sector’s economic success demands financial management techniques that assess risk. The conventional method responds neither to the heterogeneity of the economic activities that make up the AIC, nor to differentiating risk by groups. The proposed methodology distinguishes activity groups in accordance with the NACE (National Code of Economic Activities) and uses net profitability variability to distinguish the risk in each group. Our results demonstrate the various levels of risk per group. The results show that among all the groups that form the AIC there are wide differences between levels of risk; thus, the risk neutral groups present risk levels on the order of 150 times lower than the groups extreme risk levels.

  15. Discounting in agro-industrial complex. A methodological proposal for risk premium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques-Perez, I.; Guaita-Pradas, I.; Pérez-Salas, J.L.

    2017-01-01

    The estimation of the discount rate is decisive for a reliable economic valuation. The discount rate has to be adjusted for the risks related to the company, the sector which the company has its market, and the risks related to the investment project. We present a proposal to incorporate the risk premium to the discount rate. The novelty of the methodology is that difference risk groups according to activity as a factor to adjust the cost of capital to companies. The study applies the methodology to the Agro-Industrial Complex (AIC) in Spain. The AIC is formed by industries that add value to farming production. This sector’s economic success demands financial management techniques that assess risk. The conventional method responds neither to the heterogeneity of the economic activities that make up the AIC, nor to differentiating risk by groups. The proposed methodology distinguishes activity groups in accordance with the NACE (National Code of Economic Activities) and uses net profitability variability to distinguish the risk in each group. Our results demonstrate the various levels of risk per group. The results show that among all the groups that form the AIC there are wide differences between levels of risk; thus, the risk neutral groups present risk levels on the order of 150 times lower than the groups extreme risk levels.

  16. Small employer perspectives on the Affordable Care Act's premiums, SHOP exchanges, and self-insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabel, Jon R; Whitmore, Heidi; Pickreign, Jeremy; Satorius, Jennifer L; Stromberg, Sam

    2013-11-01

    Beginning January 1, 2014, small businesses having no more than fifty full-time-equivalent workers will be able to obtain health insurance for their employees through Small Business Health Options Program (SHOP) exchanges in every state. Although the Affordable Care Act intended the exchanges to make the purchasing of insurance more attractive and affordable to small businesses, it is not yet known how they will respond to the exchanges. Based on a telephone survey of 604 randomly selected private firms having 3-50 employees, we found that both firms that offered health coverage and those that did not rated most features of SHOP exchanges highly but were also very price sensitive. More than 92 percent of nonoffering small firms said that if they were to offer coverage, it would be "very" or "somewhat" important to them that premium costs be less than they are today. Eighty percent of offering firms use brokers who commonly perform functions of benefit managers--functions that the SHOP exchanges may assume. Twenty-six percent of firms using brokers reported discussing self-insuring with their brokers. An increase in the number of self-insured small employers could pose a threat to SHOP exchanges and other small-group insurance reforms.

  17. Land Suitability and Insurance Premiums: A GIS-based Multicriteria Analysis Approach for Sustainable Rice Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Monjurul Islam

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to develop a land suitability model for rice production based on suitability levels and to propose insurance premiums to obtain maximum returns based on the harvest index and subsidy dependence factor for the marginal and moderately suitable lands in the northern part of Bangladesh. A multicriteria analysis was undertaken and a rice land suitability map was developed using geographical information system and analytical hierarchy process. The analysis identified that 22.74% of the area was highly suitable, while 14.86% was marginally suitable, and 28.54% was moderately suitable for rice production. However, 32.67% of the area, which was occupied by water bodies, rivers, forests, and settlements, is permanently not suitable; 1.19% is presently not suitable. To motivate low-quality land owners to produce rice, there is no alternative but to provide protection through crop insurance. We suggest producing rice up to marginally suitable lands to obtain support from insurance. The minimum coverage is marginal coverage (70% to cover the production costs, while the maximum coverage is high coverage (90% to enable a maximum return. This new crop insurance model, based on land suitability can be a rational support for owners of different quality land to increase production.

  18. Country risk premium: theoretical determinants and empirical evidence for latin american countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selmo Aronovich

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the behavior of the country risk premium for Argentina, Brazil and Mexico, from June 1997 to September 1998. It shows that the level of country risk premium is determined by different factors: the US dollar bond market structure; restrictions on the acquisition of emerging market bonds imposed by developed nations regulators; the credit risk measured by the notion of implied risk-neutral probability default; the different ways agents react to country risk due to asymmetric and imperfect information. The empirical investigation shows: the worse the country credit rating, the greater is the impact on international borrowing cost, which implies that negative expectations have greater impact on lower rated Latin American nations' bonds; country risk yield spreads overreacted to changes in the US dollar interest rates in the sample period.Este artigo investiga o comportamento do conceito de prêmio de risco-país para Argentina, Brasil e México, de junho de 1997 até setembro de 1998. Mostra-se que tal prêmio é determinado pelos seguintes fatores: a estrutura do mercado de títulos de dívida em dólares norte-americanos; as restrições à aquisição de títulos de dívida impostas por agentes reguladores de países desenvolvidos; o risco de crédito mensurado pelo conceito de probabilidade de inadimplência risco-nêutra implícita; o modo como os agentes reagem à informação assimétrica ou imperfeita. A evidência empírica revela que: quanto pior a classificação de risco de crédito, maior é o impacto esperado sobre as condições de captação externa, implicando que expectativas desfavoráveis afetam de forma mais acentuada países com baixa classificação de crédito; o valor do spread representativo do risco-país mostrou-se superelástico à variação da taxa de juros de longo prazo do Tesouro norte-americano no período da amostra.

  19. 75 FR 44028 - Submission of Information Collection for OMB Review; Comment Request; Payment of Premiums

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-27

    ... closed to new entrants. These instructions parallel the benefit-accrual-freeze instructions. Make minor... its premium accounting system to handle the new data element. The collection of information under the...

  20. 75 FR 28304 - Proposed Submission of Information Collection for OMB Review; Comment Request; Payment of Premiums

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-20

    ... recent date that the plan became closed to new entrants. These instructions parallel the benefit-accrual... change until 2012 to provide time to modify its premium accounting system to handle the new data element...

  1. Pricing of premiums for equity-linked life insurance based on joint mortality models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaman; Parmikanti, K.; Irianingsih, I.; Supian, S.

    2018-03-01

    Life insurance equity - linked is a financial product that not only offers protection, but also investment. The calculation of equity-linked life insurance premiums generally uses mortality tables. Because of advances in medical technology and reduced birth rates, it appears that the use of mortality tables is less relevant in the calculation of premiums. To overcome this problem, we use a combination mortality model which in this study is determined based on Indonesian Mortality table 2011 to determine the chances of death and survival. In this research, we use the Combined Mortality Model of the Weibull, Inverse-Weibull, and Gompertz Mortality Model. After determining the Combined Mortality Model, simulators calculate the value of the claim to be given and the premium price numerically. By calculating equity-linked life insurance premiums well, it is expected that no party will be disadvantaged due to the inaccuracy of the calculation result

  2. 5 CFR 892.205 - May I waive participation in premium conversion after the initial implementation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL FLEXIBLE BENEFITS PLAN: PRE-TAX PAYMENT OF HEALTH BENEFITS PREMIUMS Eligibility and Participation § 892.205 May I waive...

  3. The application of variable sampling method in the audit testing of insurance companies' premium income

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovković Biljana

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the procedure of audit sampling using the variable sampling methods for conducting the tests of income from insurance premiums in insurance company 'Takovo'. Since the incomes from the insurance premiums from vehicle insurance and third-party vehicle insurance have the dominant share of the insurance company's income, the application of this method will be shown in the audit examination of these incomes - incomes from VI and TPVI premiums. For investigating the applicability of these methods in testing the income of other insurance companies, we shall implement the method of variable sampling in the audit testing of the premium income from the three leading insurance companies in Serbia, 'Dunav', 'DDOR' and 'Delta Generali' Insurance.

  4. Are Integrated Plan Providers Associated With Lower Premiums on the Health Insurance Marketplaces?

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Forgia, Ambar; Maeda, Jared Lane K; Banthin, Jessica S

    2018-04-01

    As the health insurance industry becomes more consolidated, hospitals and health systems have started to enter the insurance business. Insurers are also rapidly acquiring providers. Although these "vertically" integrated plan providers are small players in the insurance market, they are becoming more numerous. The health insurance marketplaces (HIMs) offer a unique setting to study integrated plan providers relative to other insurer types because the HIMs were designed to promote competition. In this descriptive study, the authors compared the premiums of the lowest priced silver plans of integrated plan providers with other insurer types on the 2015 and 2016 HIMs. Integrated plan providers were associated with modestly lower premiums relative to most other insurer types. This study provides early insights into premium competition on the HIMs. Examining integrated plan providers as a separate insurer type has important policy implications because they are a growing segment of the marketplaces and their pricing behavior may influence future premium trends.

  5. 29 CFR 778.204 - “Clock pattern” premium pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false âClock patternâ premium pay. 778.204 Section 778.204 Labor... Excluded From the âRegular Rateâ Extra Compensation Paid for Overtime § 778.204 “Clock pattern” premium pay... pursuance of an applicable employment contract or collective bargaining agreement,” and the rates of pay and...

  6. Enhancing conservation, ecosystem services, and local livelihoods through a wildlife premium mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinerstein, Eric; Varma, Keshav; Wikramanayake, Eric; Powell, George; Lumpkin, Susan; Naidoo, Robin; Korchinsky, Mike; Del Valle, Christian; Lohani, Shubash; Seidensticker, John; Joldersma, Dirk; Lovejoy, Thomas; Kushlin, Andrey

    2013-02-01

    We propose the wildlife premium mechanism as an innovation to conserve endangered large vertebrates. The performance-based payment scheme would allow stakeholders in lower-income countries to generate revenue by recovering and maintaining threatened fauna that can also serve as umbrella species (i.e., species whose protection benefits other species with which they co-occur). There are 3 possible options for applying the premium: option 1, embed premiums in a carbon payment; option 2, link premiums to a related carbon payment, but as independent and legally separate transactions; option 3, link premiums to noncarbon payments for conserving ecosystem services (PES). Each option presents advantages, such as incentive payments to improve livelihoods of rural poor who reside in or near areas harboring umbrella species, and challenges, such as the establishment of a subnational carbon credit scheme. In Kenya, Peru, and Nepal pilot premium projects are now underway or being finalized that largely follow option 1. The Kasigau (Kenya) project is the first voluntary carbon credit project to win approval from the 2 leading groups sanctioning such protocols and has already sold carbon credits totaling over $1.2 million since June 2011. A portion of the earnings is divided among community landowners and projects that support community members and has added over 350 jobs to the local economy. All 3 projects involve extensive community management because they occur on lands where locals hold the title or have a long-term lease from the government. The monitoring, reporting, and verification required to make premium payments credible to investors include transparent methods for collecting data on key indices by trained community members and verification of their reporting by a biologist. A wildlife premium readiness fund would enable expansion of pilot programs needed to test options beyond those presented here. © 2012 Society for Conservation Biology.

  7. Workplace Variation in Fatherhood Wage Premiums: Do Formalization and Performance Pay Matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Fuller, Sylvia; Cooke, Lynn

    2018-01-01

    Parenthood contributes substantially to broader gender wage inequality. The intensification of gendered divisions of paid and unpaid work after the birth of a child create unequal constraints and expectations such that, all else equal, mothers earn less than childless women, but fathers earn a wage premium. The fatherhood wage premium, however, varies substantially among men. Analyses of linked workplace-employee data from Canada reveal how organizational context conditions educational, occup...

  8. The Effect of Macroeconomic Variables on Market Risk Premium : Study of Sweden, Germany and Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Tahmidi, Arad; Sheludchenko, Dmytro; Allahyari Westlund, Samira

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Title The Effect of Macroeconomic Variables on Market Premium. Study of Sweden, Germany and Canada Authors Samira Allahyari Westlund Arad Tahmidi Dmytro Sheludchenko Supervisor Christos Papahristodoulou Key words Macroeconomic, market risk premium, GDP, inflation, money supply, primary net lending and net borrowing, regression analysis. Institution Mälardalen University School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology Box 883, SE-721 23 Västerås Sweden Course Bachelor The...

  9. The case for risk-based premiums in public health insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zweifel, Peter; Breuer, Michael

    2006-04-01

    Uniform, risk-independent insurance premiums are accepted as part of 'managed competition' in health care. However, they are not compatible with optimality of health insurance contracts in the presence of both ex ante and ex post moral hazard. They have adverse effects on insurer behaviour even if risk adjustment is taken into account. Risk-based premiums combined with means-tested, tax-financed transfers are advocated as an alternative.

  10. Estimating organic, local, and other price premiums in the Hawaii fluid milk market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loke, Matthew K; Xu, Xun; Leung, PingSun

    2015-04-01

    With retail scanner data, we applied hedonic price modeling to explore price premiums for organic, local, and other product attributes of fluid milk in Hawaii. Within the context of revealed preference, this analysis of organic and local attributes, under a single unified framework, is significant, as research in this area is deficient in the existing literature. This paper finds both organic and local attributes delivered price premiums over imported, conventional, whole fluid milk. However, the estimated price premium for organic milk (24.6%) is significantly lower than findings in the existing literature. Likewise, the price premium for the local attribute is estimated at 17.4%, again substantially lower compared with an earlier, stated preference study in Hawaii. Beyond that, we estimated a robust price premium of 19.7% for nutritional benefits claimed. The magnitude of this estimated coefficient reinforces the notion that nutrition information on food is deemed beneficial and valuable. Finally, package size measures the influence of product weight. With each larger package size, the estimate led to a corresponding larger price discount. This result is consistent with the practice of weight discounting that retailers usually offer with fresh packaged food. Additionally, we estimated a fairly high Armington elasticity of substitution, which suggests a relatively high degree of substitution between local and imported fluid milk when their relative price changes. Overall, this study establishes price premiums for organic, local, and nutrition benefits claimed for fluid milk in Hawaii. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. PREMIUM ENERGY FOR LACTEC INSTITUTE FOR TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT LACTEC R&D DPT. CURITIBA, STATE OF PARANA. BRAZIL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silvio Vedovatto

    2003-12-31

    On April 2002 a 200KW Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell (PAFC) Power Plant. was installed at LACTEC Institute For Technology Development, Research and Development facilities. The power plant installed at LACTEC site is the second of its kind in the Southern Hemisphere. Its presence, not only contributed to the creation of a Fuel Cell Stationary Power market for Brazil and the rest of the region, but increased the knowledge about fuel cell technology, and marked the point of entry as a reference for the education of a new generation of applied scientists. On its first year the power plant has operated 8,558 hours achieving an availability factor of 97% and supplying 730.50MWh of premium energy. As a second regional experience with fuel cell technology, we expect this report about LACTEC PACFC power plant performance, applications and cost-benefit evaluation will provide relevant information for future regional investments on this technology.

  12. Progressive or regressive? A second look at the tax exemption for employer-sponsored health insurance premiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoen, Cathy; Stremikis, Kristof; Collins, Sara; Davis, Karen

    2009-05-01

    The major argument for capping the exemption of health insurance benefits from income tax is that doing so will generate significant revenue that can be used to finance an expansion of health coverage. This analysis finds that given the state of insurance markets and current variations in premiums, limiting the current exemption could adversely affect individuals who are already at high risk of losing their health coverage. Evidence suggests that capping the exemption for employment-based health insurance could disproportionately affect workers in small firms, older workers, and wage-earners in industries with high expected claims costs. To avoid putting many families at increased health and financial risk, and to avoid undermining employer-sponsored group coverage, any consideration of a cap would have to be combined with coverage for all, changes in insurance market rules, and shared responsibility for financing.

  13. Wage and Benefit Changes in Response to Rising Health Insurance Costs

    OpenAIRE

    Dana Goldman; Neeraj Sood; Arleen Leibowitz

    2005-01-01

    Many companies have defined-contribution benefit plans requiring employees to pay the full cost (before taxes) of more generous health insurance choices. Research has shown that employee decisions are quite responsive to these arrangements. What is less clear is how the total compensation package changes when health insurance premiums rise. This paper examines employee compensation decisions during a three-year period when health insurance premiums were rising rapidly. The data come from a si...

  14. Premium Fuel Production From Mining and Timber Waste Using Advanced Separation and Pelletizing Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honaker, R. Q.; Taulbee, D.; Parekh, B. K.; Tao, D.

    2005-12-05

    The Commonwealth of Kentucky is one of the leading states in the production of both coal and timber. As a result of mining and processing coal, an estimated 3 million tons of fine coal are disposed annually to waste-slurry impoundments with an additional 500 million tons stored at a number of disposal sites around the state due to past practices. Likewise, the Kentucky timber industry discards nearly 35,000 tons of sawdust on the production site due to unfavorable economics of transporting the material to industrial boilers for use as a fuel. With an average heating value of 6,700 Btu/lb, the monetary value of the energy disposed in the form of sawdust is approximately $490,000 annually. Since the two industries are typically in close proximity, one promising avenue is to selectively recover and dewater the fine-coal particles and then briquette them with sawdust to produce a high-value fuel. The benefits are i) a premium fuel product that is low in moisture and can be handled, transported, and utilized in existing infrastructure, thereby avoiding significant additional capital investment and ii) a reduction in the amount of fine-waste material produced by the two industries that must now be disposed at a significant financial and environmental price. As such, the goal of this project was to evaluate the feasibility of producing a premium fuel with a heating value greater than 10,000 Btu/lb from waste materials generated by the coal and timber industries. Laboratory and pilot-scale testing of the briquetting process indicated that the goal was successfully achieved. Low-ash briquettes containing 5% to 10% sawdust were produced with energy values that were well in excess of 12,000 Btu/lb. A major economic hurdle associated with commercially briquetting coal is binder cost. Approximately fifty binder formulations, both with and without lime, were subjected to an extensive laboratory evaluation to assess their relative technical and economical effectiveness as binding

  15. Portfolio size as funktion of the premium: modeling and optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmussen, Søren; Christensen, Bent Jesper; Taksar, Michael I

    An insurance company has a large number N of potential customers characterized by i.i.d. r.v.'s A1,…,AN giving the arrival rates of claims. Customers are risk averse, and a customer accepts an offered premium p according to his A-value. The modeling further involves a discount rate d>r of customers......, where r is the risk-free interest rate. Based on calculations of the customers' present values of the alternative strategies of insuring and not insuring, the portfolio size n(p) is derived, and also the rate of claims from the insured customers is given. Further, the value of p which is optimal...... for minimizing the ruin probability is derived in a diffusion approximation to the Cramér-Lundberg risk process with an added liability rate L of the company. The solution involves the Lambert W function. Similar discussion is given for extensions involving customers having only partial information...

  16. A functional model for monitoring equity and effectiveness in purchasing health insurance premiums for the poor: evidence from Cambodia and the Lao PDR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annear, Peter Leslie; Bigdeli, Maryam; Jacobs, Bart

    2011-10-01

    To assess the impact on equity and effectiveness of introducing targeted subsidies for the poor into existing voluntary health insurance schemes in Low Income Countries with special reference to cross-subsidisation. A functional model was constructed using routine collected financial data to analyse changes in financial flows and resulting shifts in cross-subsidization between poor and non-poor. Data were collected from two sites, in Cambodia at Kampot operational health district and in the Lao People's Democratic Republic at Nambak district. Six key variables were identified as determining the financial flows between the subsidy and the insurance schemes and with health providers: population coverage, premium rate, facility contact rate, capitation rate, cost of treatment and changes in administration costs. Negative cross-subsidization was revealed where capitation was used as the payment mechanism and where utilisation rates of the poor were significantly below the non-poor. The same level of access for the poor could have been achieved with a lower Health Equity Fund subsidy if used as a direct reimbursement of user charges by the Health Equity Fund to the provider rather than through the Community Based Health Insurance scheme. Purchasing premiums for the poor under these conditions is more costly than direct reimbursement to the provider for the same level of service delivery. Negative cross-subsidization is a serious risk that must be managed appropriately and the benefits of a larger risk pool (cross-subsidization of the poor) are not evident. Benefits from combined coverage may accrue in the longer term with an expanded base of voluntary payers or when those with subsidized premiums are lifted out of poverty. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. —Does Demand Fall When Customers Perceive That Prices Are Unfair? The Case of Premium Pricing for Large Sizes

    OpenAIRE

    Eric T. Anderson; Duncan I. Simester

    2008-01-01

    We analyze a large-scale field test conducted with a mail-order catalog firm to investigate how customers react to premium prices for larger sizes of women's apparel. We find that customers who demand large sizes react unfavorably to paying a higher price than customers for small sizes. Further investigation suggests that these consumers perceive that the price premium is unfair. Overall, premium pricing led to a 6% to 8% decrease in gross profits.

  18. 24 CFR 207.252c - Premiums-mortgages insured pursuant to section 238(c) of the Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... All of the provisions of §§ 207.252 and 207.252a governing mortgage insurance premiums shall apply to... insurance premiums due on such mortgages in accordance with §§ 207.252 and 207.252a shall be calculated on... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Premiums-mortgages insured pursuant...

  19. Optimal Time-Consistent Investment Strategy for a DC Pension Plan with the Return of Premiums Clauses and Annuity Contracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De-Lei Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Defined contribution and annuity contract are merged into one pension plan to study both accumulation phase and distribution phase, which results in such effects that both phases before and after retirement being “defined”. Under the Heston’s stochastic volatility model, this paper focuses on mean-variance insurers with the return of premiums clauses to study the optimal time-consistent investment strategy for the DC pension merged with an annuity contract. Both accumulation phase before retirement and distribution phase after retirement are studied. In the time-consistent framework, the extended Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equations associated with the optimization problem are established. Applying stochastic optimal control technique, the time-consistent explicit solutions of the optimal strategies and the efficient frontiers are obtained. In addition, numerical analysis illustrates our results and also deepens our knowledge or understanding of the research results.

  20. Understanding the direct and indirect costs of patients with schizophrenia [v2; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/5ow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiro Tajima-Pozo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Schizophrenia is a disabling mental disorder with high prevalence and that usually  requires long-term follow-up and expensive lifelong treatment. The cost of schizophrenia treatment consumes a significant amount of the health services' budget in western countries. Objective: The aim of the study was to find out about the costs related to schizophrenia across different european countries and compare them. Results: Schizophrenia treatment costs an estimated 18 billion euros annually worldwide. The direct costs associated with medical help are only part of the total expenditure. The indirect costs are an equally (or even moreimportant part of the total cost. These expenses are related to the lack of productivity of schizophrenic patients and the cost that relatives have to bear as a result of taking care of their affected relatives. Conclusions: Although data on the cost of schizophrenia may vary slightly between different european countries, the general conclusion that can be drawn is that schizophrenia is a very costly disorder. Not only because of direct costs related to medical procedures, but also due to the non-medical (indirect costs. Together this suggests the need to investigate cost-efficient strategies that could provide a better outcome for schizophrenic patients, as well as the people who care for them.

  1. Cost Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Kira

    The objective of this dissertation is to investigate determinants and consequences of asymmetric cost behavior. Asymmetric cost behavior arises if the change in costs is different for increases in activity compared to equivalent decreases in activity. In this case, costs are termed “sticky......” if the change is less when activity falls than when activity rises, whereas costs are termed “anti-sticky” if the change is more when activity falls than when activity rises. Understanding such cost behavior is especially relevant for decision-makers and financial analysts that rely on accurate cost information...... to facilitate resource planning and earnings forecasting. As such, this dissertation relates to the topic of firm profitability and the interpretation of cost variability. The dissertation consists of three parts that are written in the form of separate academic papers. The following section briefly summarizes...

  2. Efforts to Support Consumer Enrollment Decisions Using Total Cost Estimators: Lessons from the Affordable Care Act’s Marketplaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannelli, Justin; Curran, Emily

    2017-02-01

    Issue: Policymakers have sought to improve the shopping experience on the Affordable Care Act’s marketplaces by offering decision support tools that help consumers better understand and compare their health plan options. Cost estimators are one such tool. They are designed to provide consumers a personalized estimate of the total cost--premium, minus subsidy, plus cost-sharing--of their coverage options. Cost estimators were available in most states by the start of the fourth open enrollment period. Goal: To understand the experiences of marketplaces that offer a total cost estimator and the interests and concerns of policymakers from states that are not using them. Methods: Structured interviews with marketplace officials, consumer enrollment assisters, technology vendors, and subject matter experts; analysis of the total cost estimators available on the marketplaces as of October 2016. Key findings and conclusions: Informants strongly supported marketplace adoption of a total cost estimator. Marketplaces that offer an estimator faced a range of design choices and varied significantly in their approaches to resolving them. Interviews suggested a clear need for additional consumer testing and data analysis of tool usage and for sustained outreach to enrollment assisters to encourage greater use of the estimators.

  3. Failure to pay for social health insurance premiums: Acts of protest or desperation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Wyl, Viktor; Beck, Konstantin

    2015-01-01

    In Switzerland, basic health insurance is mandatory for all inhabitants, but a rising number of insured have arrears in premium payments, potentially leading to coverage suspension. We aimed at characterizing insured with debt enforcement proceedings with respect to socio-demographic and health utilization aspects. Cross-sectional analysis of 508.000 insured with basic health insurance contracts in 2013, of whom 14,000 (2.8%) with debt enforcement proceedings, from 11 Swiss cantons. Groups were characterized using logistic regression and latent class analysis. Insured with debt enforcement proceedings were more likely to be young, male and without dependents (partner, kids). Having no supplementary insurance and receiving partial premium subsidies was associated with an increased debt enforcement proceedings risk. Within the debt enforcement proceedings group, three subgroups were identified: 60% were young and seemingly healthy, with a below-average fraction of premium subsidy recipients (18%) and low out-of-pocket payments in prior year (median Swiss Francs 0). Two groups consisted of relatively ill elderly persons (22%, 99% of whom with chronic illnesses) or families (18%), many of whom (29% and 51%) were recipients of premium subsidies. Median out-of-pocket payments in the prior year were high (Swiss Francs 625 and 688, respectively). Sixty percent of premium arrears derive from young insured without apparent financial problems; 40% are owed by elderly and families, which are potentially hurt by coverage loss.

  4. How do health insurer market concentration and bargaining power with hospitals affect health insurance premiums?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trish, Erin E; Herring, Bradley J

    2015-07-01

    The US health insurance industry is highly concentrated, and health insurance premiums are high and rising rapidly. Policymakers have focused on the possible link between the two, leading to ACA provisions to increase insurer competition. However, while market power may enable insurers to include higher profit margins in their premiums, it may also result in stronger bargaining leverage with hospitals to negotiate lower payment rates to partially offset these higher premiums. We empirically examine the relationship between employer-sponsored fully-insured health insurance premiums and the level of concentration in local insurer and hospital markets using the nationally-representative 2006-2011 KFF/HRET Employer Health Benefits Survey. We exploit a unique feature of employer-sponsored insurance, in which self-insured employers purchase only administrative services from managed care organizations, to disentangle these different effects on insurer concentration by constructing one concentration measure representing fully-insured plans' transactions with employers and the other concentration measure representing insurers' bargaining with hospitals. As expected, we find that premiums are indeed higher for plans sold in markets with higher levels of concentration relevant to insurer transactions with employers, lower for plans in markets with higher levels of insurer concentration relevant to insurer bargaining with hospitals, and higher for plans in markets with higher levels of hospital market concentration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal Final Report - Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Bruce; Winton, Shea

    2010-12-31

    Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University successfully managed the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which was a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technologies on premium carbon products from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC was an initiative led by Penn State, its cocharter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provided the base funding for the program, with Penn State responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity continued under cooperative agreement No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003 and ended December 31, 2010. The objective of the second agreement was to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, which included Penn State and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC was its industry-led council that selected proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas had strong industrial support. CPCPC had 58 member companies and universities engaged over the 7-year period of this contract. Members were from 17 states and five countries outside of the U.S. During this period, the CPCPC Executive Council selected 46 projects for funding. DOE/CPCPC provided $3.9 million in funding or an average of $564,000 per year. The total project costs were $5.45 million with $1.5 million, or ~28% of the total, provided by the members as cost share. Total average project size was $118,000 with $85,900 provided by DOE/CPCPC. In addition to

  6. An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal Final Report - Part 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Bruce; Shea, Winton

    2010-12-31

    Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University successfully managed the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which was a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technologies on premium carbon products from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC was an initiative led by Penn State, its cocharter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provided the base funding for the program, with Penn State responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity continued under cooperative agreement No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003 and ended December 31, 2010. The objective of the second agreement was to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, which included Penn State and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC was its industry-led council that selected proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas had strong industrial support. CPCPC had 58 member companies and universities engaged over the 7-year period of this contract. Members were from 17 states and five countries outside of the U.S. During this period, the CPCPC Executive Council selected 46 projects for funding. DOE/CPCPC provided $3.9 million in funding or an average of $564,000 per year. The total project costs were $5.45 million with $1.5 million, or ~28% of the total, provided by the members as cost share. Total average project size was $118,000 with $85,900 provided by DOE/CPCPC. In addition to

  7. An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal Final Report - Part 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Bruce; Shea, Winton

    2010-12-31

    Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University successfully managed the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which was a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technologies on premium carbon products from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC was an initiative led by Penn State, its cocharter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provided the base funding for the program, with Penn State responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity continued under cooperative agreement No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003 and ended December 31, 2010. The objective of the second agreement was to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, which included Penn State and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC was its industry-led council that selected proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas had strong industrial support. CPCPC had 58 member companies and universities engaged over the 7-year period of this contract. Members were from 17 states and five countries outside of the U.S. During this period, the CPCPC Executive Council selected 46 projects for funding. DOE/CPCPC provided $3.9 million in funding or an average of $564,000 per year. The total project costs were $5.45 million with $1.5 million, or {approx}28% of the total, provided by the members as cost share. Total average project size was $118,000 with $85,900 provided by DOE/CPCPC. In

  8. An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal Final Report - Part 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Bruce; Shea, Winton

    2010-12-31

    Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University successfully managed the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which was a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technologies on premium carbon products from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC was an initiative led by Penn State, its cocharter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provided the base funding for the program, with Penn State responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity continued under cooperative agreement No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003 and ended December 31, 2010. The objective of the second agreement was to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, which included Penn State and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC was its industry-led council that selected proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas had strong industrial support. CPCPC had 58 member companies and universities engaged over the 7-year period of this contract. Members were from 17 states and five countries outside of the U.S. During this period, the CPCPC Executive Council selected 46 projects for funding. DOE/CPCPC provided $3.9 million in funding or an average of $564,000 per year. The total project costs were $5.45 million with $1.5 million, or {approx}28% of the total, provided by the members as cost share. Total average project size was $118,000 with $85,900 provided by DOE/CPCPC. In

  9. An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal Final Report - Part 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Bruce; Winton, Shea

    2010-12-31

    Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University successfully managed the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which was a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technologies on premium carbon products from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC was an initiative led by Penn State, its cocharter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provided the base funding for the program, with Penn State responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity continued under cooperative agreement No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003 and ended December 31, 2010. The objective of the second agreement was to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, which included Penn State and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC was its industry-led council that selected proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas had strong industrial support. CPCPC had 58 member companies and universities engaged over the 7-year period of this contract. Members were from 17 states and five countries outside of the U.S. During this period, the CPCPC Executive Council selected 46 projects for funding. DOE/CPCPC provided $3.9 million in funding or an average of $564,000 per year. The total project costs were $5.45 million with $1.5 million, or ~28% of the total, provided by the members as cost share. Total average project size was $118,000 with $85,900 provided by DOE/CPCPC. In addition to

  10. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Managing Cancer Care Finding Health Care Services Costs & Medical Information Advance Directives Using Trusted Resources Understanding Cancer ... Care Finding Health Care Services Managing Costs and Medical Information Advance Directives Using Trusted Resources Cancer Types ...

  11. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Research Managing Cancer Care Finding Health Care Services Costs & Medical Information Advance Directives Using Trusted Resources Understanding ... Managing Cancer Care Finding Health Care Services Managing Costs and Medical Information Advance Directives Using Trusted Resources ...

  12. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Care Finding Health Care Services Costs & Medical Information Advance Directives Using Trusted Resources Understanding Cancer What Is ... Health Care Services Managing Costs and Medical Information Advance Directives Using Trusted Resources Cancer Types Adolescents and ...

  13. 10 CFR 800.200 - Maximum loan; allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY LOANS FOR BID OR PROPOSAL PREPARATION BY MINORITY BUSINESS ENTERPRISES... cost principles of the Federal Procurement Regulation (41 CFR Ch. 1, 1-15.205-3) and DOE Procurement..., but are not limited to: (1) Bid bond premiums. (2) Financial, accounting, legal, engineering and other...

  14. Health benefits in 2013: moderate premium increases in employer-sponsored plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claxton, Gary; Rae, Matthew; Panchal, Nirmita; Damico, Anthony; Whitmore, Heidi; Bostick, Nathan; Kenward, Kevin

    2013-09-01

    Employer-sponsored health insurance premiums rose moderately in 2013, the annual Kaiser Family Foundation/Health Research and Educational Trust (Kaiser/HRET) Employer Health Benefits Survey found. In 2013 single coverage premiums rose 5 percent to $5,884, and family coverage premiums rose 4 percent to $16,351. The percentage of firms offering health benefits (57 percent) was similar to that in 2012, as was the percentage of workers at offering firms who were covered by their firm's health benefits (62 percent). The share of workers with a deductible for single coverage increased significantly from 2012, as did the share of workers in small firms with annual deductibles of $1,000 or more. Most firms (77 percent), including nearly all large employers, continued to offer wellness programs, but relatively few used incentives to encourage employees to participate. More than half of large employers offering health risk appraisals to workers offered financial incentives for completing the appraisal.

  15. Premium inflation in the Irish private health insurance market: drivers and consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, B

    2013-12-01

    Nearly half of the Irish population is covered by private health insurance. In recent years, premium inflation has been significantly ahead of overall inflation and has been accelerating. This has contributing to a drop in the numbers insured since the peak in 2008. The fall in the numbers with private health insurance also has implications for the public health system. Factors behind this premium inflation include rising charges for beds in public hospitals, increasing volume of treatments and increasing quality of service and cover. While some progress has been made by insurers on reducing fees paid to consultants and private hospitals, unless the quantity or quality of care are addressed then premium inflation is unlikely to abate.

  16. Model estimation of claim risk and premium for motor vehicle insurance by using Bayesian method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukono; Riaman; Lesmana, E.; Wulandari, R.; Napitupulu, H.; Supian, S.

    2018-01-01

    Risk models need to be estimated by the insurance company in order to predict the magnitude of the claim and determine the premiums charged to the insured. This is intended to prevent losses in the future. In this paper, we discuss the estimation of risk model claims and motor vehicle insurance premiums using Bayesian methods approach. It is assumed that the frequency of claims follow a Poisson distribution, while a number of claims assumed to follow a Gamma distribution. The estimation of parameters of the distribution of the frequency and amount of claims are made by using Bayesian methods. Furthermore, the estimator distribution of frequency and amount of claims are used to estimate the aggregate risk models as well as the value of the mean and variance. The mean and variance estimator that aggregate risk, was used to predict the premium eligible to be charged to the insured. Based on the analysis results, it is shown that the frequency of claims follow a Poisson distribution with parameter values λ is 5.827. While a number of claims follow the Gamma distribution with parameter values p is 7.922 and θ is 1.414. Therefore, the obtained values of the mean and variance of the aggregate claims respectively are IDR 32,667,489.88 and IDR 38,453,900,000,000.00. In this paper the prediction of the pure premium eligible charged to the insured is obtained, which amounting to IDR 2,722,290.82. The prediction of the claims and premiums aggregate can be used as a reference for the insurance company’s decision-making in management of reserves and premiums of motor vehicle insurance.

  17. Association between rising professional liability insurance premiums and primary cesarean delivery rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Karna; Grobman, William A; Lee, Todd A; Holl, Jane L

    2007-12-01

    To estimate the association between changes in Illinois professional liability premiums for obstetrician-gynecologists and singleton primary cesarean delivery rates. Data from the National Center for Health Statistics were used to identify all singleton births between 37 weeks and 44 weeks of gestation occurring in Illinois from 1998 through 2003. Primary cesarean delivery rates for women delivered between 37 weeks and 44 weeks of gestation per 1,000 gravid women eligible to have a primary cesarean delivery were calculated for each Illinois county. The annual medical professional liability premium for each county in Illinois was represented by the reported professional liability insurance rate charges (adjusted to 2004 dollars) from the ISMIE Mutual Insurance Company. Separate analyses were conducted for nulliparous and multiparous women. The independent association between county-level primary cesarean delivery rates and the previous year's insurance premiums was evaluated using linear regression models. During the study period, 817,521 women were eligible for inclusion in the analysis. The county-level mean primary cesarean delivery rate increased from 126 to 163 per 1,000 (Pinsurance premiums also rose significantly (from $60,766 in 1997 to $83,167 in 2002, Pinsurance premium increase, the primary cesarean delivery rate increased by 15.7 per 1,000 for nulliparous women. This association also was evident for multiparous women, who had an increase in cesarean deliveries of 4.7 per 1,000 for every $10,000 increase. Higher rates of primary cesarean delivery are associated with increased medical professional liability premiums for obstetrician-gynecologists in Illinois. II.

  18. Asymmetric impacts of global risk appetite on the risk premium for an emerging market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanlı, İbrahim Burak

    2008-05-01

    This paper analyzes the impact of global risk appetite on the risk premium utilizing high-frequency data. Taking the Turkish economy as our laboratory, we find that the risk premium volatility responds only to a worsening in the risk appetite for the Turkish economy, which is a result that we do not observe for the other emerging markets. Then, we investigate the role of current account dynamics on this asymmetric effect, by focusing also on an economy with similar current account performance. The empirical results find supporting evidence for the role of current account dynamics on the estimated asymmetry.

  19. Stare down the barrel and center the crosshairs: Targeting the ex ante equity premium

    OpenAIRE

    Glen Donaldson; Mark Kamstra; Lisa Kramer

    2003-01-01

    The equity premium of interest in theoretical models is the extra return investors anticipate when purchasing risky stock instead of risk-free debt. Unfortunately, we do not observe this ex ante premium in the data; we only observe the returns that investors actually receive ex post, after they purchase the stock and hold it over some period of time during which random economic shocks affect prices. Over the past century U.S. stocks have returned roughly 6 percent more than risk-free debt, wh...

  20. Determinants of premiums in aerospace mergers and acquisitions: A preliminary analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, John K.

    There is a large body of literature on different aspects of premiums as they relate to mergers and acquisitions. However, there is very little literature that specifically discusses the determinants of premiums in aerospace. Few industries have experienced the prolonged consolidation that the aerospace industry has seen. Today, the industry is dominated by a few large firms, but there is still merger activity continuing especially with second-tier firms attempting to secure their future through growth. This paper examines several determinants as applied to 18 aerospace mergers of publicly held companies and divisions from 1991 through April of 2002.

  1. The Consumption of Premium Coffee-The Influence of Hedonic Needs vs. Utilitarian Needs

    OpenAIRE

    Hew, Keat Loong

    2013-01-01

    The paper looks at the influence that hedonic and utilitarian needs exude on consumer’s preference for premium coffee and ultimately their willingness to pay a premium for the coffee. Utilitarian needs are related to a desire to achieve some functional or practical benefit and often linked with the notion of product performance and usefulness (e.g. drinking coffee to accomplish a specific task such as a need to stay alert due to work requirement). It has tangible and actual attributes where c...

  2. 77 FR 69859 - Medicare Program; Part A Premiums for CY 2013 for the Uninsured Aged and for Certain Disabled...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-21

    ...)(A) of the Act specifies that the premium that these individuals will pay for CY 2013 will be equal... program or the Railroad Retirement Act and certain others do not have to pay premiums for Medicare Part A.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Background Section 1818 of the Social Security Act (the Act) provides for...

  3. 76 FR 67570 - Medicare Program; Part A Premiums for CY 2012 for the Uninsured Aged and for Certain Disabled...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    ... program or the Railroad Retirement Act and certain others do not have to pay premiums for Medicare Part A... will pay for CY 2012 will be equal to the premium for uninsured aged enrollees reduced by 45 percent.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Background Section 1818 of the Social Security Act (the Act) provides for...

  4. 78 FR 64951 - Medicare Program; Part A Premiums for CY 2014 for the Uninsured Aged and for Certain Disabled...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-30

    ...)(A) of the Act specifies that the premium that these individuals will pay for CY 2014 will be equal... OASDI program or the Railroad Retirement Act and certain others do not have to pay premiums for Medicare...-6390. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Background Section 1818 of the Social Security Act (the Act...

  5. Study of the Insurance Premium Charged to Borrowers under the Guaranteed Student Loan Program. Report No. 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touche Ross and Co., Washington, DC.

    Insurance premiums being charged to borrowers under the Guaranteed Student Loan (GSL) program were studied to determine if the rate exceeded the rate necessary to protect the reserves of the insurer. Attention was directed to whether historical changes in the GSL program have affected insurance premiums. Guaranty agency's sources and uses of funds…

  6. Cost benefit analysis of recycling nuclear fuel cycle in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jewhan; Chang, Soonheung

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear power has become an essential part of electricity generation to meet the continuous growth of electricity demand. The importance if nuclear waste management has been the main issue since the beginning of nuclear history. The recycling nuclear fuel cycle includes the fast reactor, which can burn the nuclear wastes, and the pyro-processing technology, which can reprocess the spent nuclear fuel. In this study, a methodology using Linear Programming (LP) is employed to evaluate the cost and benefits of introducing the recycling strategy and thus, to see the competitiveness of recycling fuel cycle. The LP optimization involves tradeoffs between the fast reactor capital cost with pyro-processing cost premiums and the total system uranium price with spent nuclear fuel management cost premiums. With the help of LP and sensitivity analysis, the effect of important parameters is presented as well as the target values for each cost and price of key factors

  7. Value Premium and Country Risk as Dimensions to Estimate Conditional Returns: a Study of the Brazilian Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian de Castro Medeiros

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Asset pricing is a widely explored theme in the financial literature. Nevertheless, the phenomenon of value premium is still controversial, since although easily detected in developed and emerging markets, little is know about the economic forces that explain its existence. In this context, this article examines value premium in the Brazilian market and investigates the influence of the country risk variable as an additional risk factor for estimating conditional returns in this market not captured by value premium. For that, we employ a five-factor model, formulated by adding the country risk factor to the model of Carhart (1997. We apply the statistical procedure adopted by Fama & French (1993 to the period between 1994 and 2012, with data on nonfinancial companies listed on the BM&FBovespa. The results confirm the existence of value premium in the Brazilian market, and country risk and value premium together are significant factors to explain conditional returns.

  8. Teaching Teaching & Understanding Understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    "Teaching Teaching & Understanding Understanding" is a 19-minute award-winning short-film about teaching at university and higher-level educational institutions. It is based on the "Constructive Alignment" theory developed by Prof. John Biggs. The film delivers a foundation for understanding what...

  9. Assessment of cost sharing in the Pima County Marketplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Nicholas B; Eng, Howard J

    2017-01-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act established health insurance marketplaces to allow consumers to make educated decisions about their health care coverage. During the first open enrollment period in 2013, the federally facilitated marketplace in Pima County, Arizona listed 119 plans, making it one of the most competitive markets in the country. This study compares these plans based on differences in consumer cost sharing, including deductibles, co-pays and premiums. Consumer costs were reviewed using specific cases including a normal delivery pregnancy, the management of Type II Diabetes, and the utilization of specialty drugs to treat Hepatitis C. Total cost of care was calculated as the cost of managing the condition or event plus the cost of monthly premiums, evaluated as a single individual age 27. Evaluating a plan on premium alone is not sufficient as cost sharing can dramatically raise the cost of care. A rating system and better cost transparency tools could provider easier access to pertinent information for consumers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. 38 CFR 8.14 - Provision for extended term insurance-other than 5-year level premium term or limited convertible...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... under 38 U.S.C. 1925, will purchase when applied as a net single premium at the attained age of the... indebtedness for such time from the due date of the premium in default as the reserve of the policy less any indebtedness will purchase when applied as a net single premium at the attained age of the insured. For this...

  11. 24 CFR 257.203 - Calculation of up-front and annual mortgage insurance premiums for H4H program mortgages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... mortgage insurance premiums for H4H program mortgages. 257.203 Section 257.203 Housing and Urban... mortgage insurance premiums for H4H program mortgages. (a) Applicable premiums. Any mortgage presented for... LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES HOPE FOR HOMEOWNERS PROGRAM...

  12. Healthcare costs for new technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goyen, Mathias; Debatin, Joerg F.

    2009-01-01

    Continuous ageing of the population coupled with growing health consciousness and continuous technological advances have fueled the rapid rise in healthcare costs in the United States and Europe for the past several decades. The exact impact of new medical technology on long-term spending growth remains the subject of controversy. By all measures it is apparent that new medical technology is the dominant driver of increases in health-care costs and hence insurance premiums. This paper addresses the impact of medical technology on healthcare delivery systems with regard to medical practice and costs. We first explore factors affecting the growth of medical technology and then attempt to provide a means for assessing the effectiveness of medical technology. Avoidable healthcare cost drivers are identified and related policy issues are discussed. (orig.)

  13. Healthcare costs for new technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goyen, Mathias; Debatin, Joerg F. [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany)

    2009-03-15

    Continuous ageing of the population coupled with growing health consciousness and continuous technological advances have fueled the rapid rise in healthcare costs in the United States and Europe for the past several decades. The exact impact of new medical technology on long-term spending growth remains the subject of controversy. By all measures it is apparent that new medical technology is the dominant driver of increases in health-care costs and hence insurance premiums. This paper addresses the impact of medical technology on healthcare delivery systems with regard to medical practice and costs. We first explore factors affecting the growth of medical technology and then attempt to provide a means for assessing the effectiveness of medical technology. Avoidable healthcare cost drivers are identified and related policy issues are discussed. (orig.)

  14. HMO market penetration and costs of employer-sponsored health plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, L C; Cantor, J C; Long, S H; Marquis, M S

    2000-01-01

    Using two employer surveys, we evaluate the role of increased health maintenance organization (HMO) market share in containing costs of employer-sponsored coverage. Total costs for employer health plans are about 10 percent lower in markets in which HMOs' market share is above 45 percent than they are in markets with HMO enrollments of below 25 percent. This is the result of lower premiums for HMOs than for non-HMO plans, as well as the competitive effect of HMOs that leads to lower non-HMO premiums for employers that continue to offer these benefits. Slower growth in premiums in areas with high HMO enrollments suggests that expanded HMO market share may also lower the long-run growth in costs.

  15. 75 FR 21329 - Medicaid Program; State Allotments for Payment of Medicare Part B Premiums for Qualifying...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-23

    ... includes payment for premiums for Medicare Part B. Section 4732 of the Balanced Budget Act of 1997 (BBA... formula for determining State allotments. However, since certain States projected a deficit in their... minimize the impact on States with FY QI allotments that might be greater than their QI expenditures for...

  16. 26 CFR 1.163-13 - Treatment of bond issuance premium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... its regular method of accounting. (2) Qualified stated interest allocable to an accrual period. See... accounting, and X decides to use annual accrual periods ending on February 1 of each year. X's calculations... interest allocable to an accrual period with the bond issuance premium allocable to that period. Bond...

  17. Pricing Rate of Return Guarantees in Regular Premium Unit Linked Insurance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrager, D.F.; Pelsser, A.

    2004-01-01

    We derive general pricing formulas for Rate of Return Guarantees in Regular Premium Unit Linked Insurance under stochastic interest rates. Our main contribution focusses on the effect of stochastic interest rates. First, we show the effect of stochastic interest rates can be interpreted as, what is

  18. Estimating consumer willingness to pay a price premium for Alaska secondary wood products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geoffrey H. Donovan; David L. Nicholls

    2003-01-01

    Dichotomous choice contingent valuation survey techniques were used to estimate mean willingness to pay (WTP) a price premium for made-in-Alaska secondary wood products. Respondents were asked to compare two superficially identical end tables, one made in China and one made in Alaska. The surveys were administered at home shows in Anchorage, Fairbanks, and Sitka in...

  19. On Mean-Variance Hedging of Bond Options with Stochastic Risk Premium Factor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aihara, ShinIchi; Bagchi, Arunabha; Kumar, Suresh K.

    2014-01-01

    We consider the mean-variance hedging problem for pricing bond options using the yield curve as the observation. The model considered contains infinite-dimensional noise sources with the stochastically- varying risk premium. Hence our model is incomplete. We consider mean-variance hedging under the

  20. Spending the Primary Physical Education and Sport Premium: A West Midlands Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griggs, Gerald

    2016-01-01

    In March 2013 the government announced that it was to provide funding to improve provision of Physical Education and sport in primary schools in England. Entitled The Primary Physical Education and Sport Premium, this ring-fenced annual funding has been allocated to schools that are free to choose how the money is spent but are accountable for its…

  1. 24 CFR 206.107 - Mortgagee election of assignment or shared premium option.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... § 206.123(a)(2)-(5). (v) The mortgage is a first lien of record and title to the property securing the... under any of the circumstances described in § 206.123(a)(2)-(5). (b) No election for shared appreciation. Shared appreciation mortgages shall be insured by the Secretary only under the shared premium option. [54...

  2. How Pensions Contribute to the Premium Paid to Experienced Public School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Joshua B.; Winters, Marcus A.

    2017-01-01

    Many argue that public school systems should stop linking teachers' salaries so closely to their years of experience. However, the effect of deferred retirement compensation on the premium paid to experienced teachers has, to date, been underappreciated. To shed more light on this issue, we calculate the total compensation earned by teachers in…

  3. 76 FR 38281 - Federal Employees Health Benefits Program: New Premium Rating Method for Most Community Rated...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-29

    ... CFR Parts 1602, 1615, et al. Federal Employees Health Benefits Program: New Premium Rating Method for... Part 890; 48 CFR Parts 1602, 1615, 1632, and 1652 RIN 3206-AM39 Federal Employees Health Benefits..., 2011 (76 FR 36857). The document amends the Federal Employees Health Benefits (FEHB) regulations at 5...

  4. Financial analysis of potential retrospective premium assessments under the Price-Anderson system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, R.S.

    1985-04-01

    Ten representative nuclear utilities have been analyzed over the period 1981 to 1983 to evaluate the effects of three levels of retrospective premiums on various financial indicators. This analysis continues and expands on earlier analyses prepared as background for deliberations by the US Congress for possible extension or modification of the Price-Anderson Act

  5. The value premium within and across GICS industry sectors in a pre-financial collapse sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth E. Scislaw

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A portfolio manager employing a top-down/bottom-up method who seeks to capture the value premium long promised in academic literature would want to first determine whether the premium exists across industries and not just observed in firm-specific book-to-market (BE/ME relationships. Next, the investor would want to know if BE/ME characteristics are stable across these defined homogeneous groups or whether there is considerable variation. Results show that certain industries appear to have a natural or structural tendency to reflect either a high or low BE/ME characteristic. Results also shows that growth-oriented industry BE/ME characteristics appear to be more stable than value-oriented industries over time. Moreover, stocks from growth-oriented industries tend to cluster at high rates in the lowest BE/ME quintile, while stocks from value-oriented industries appear more evenly distributed across middle BE/ME quintiles over time. Value stocks found in growth sectors outperform value stocks in value sectors, contrary to prior published results. The January premium exists both within and across Global Industry Classification Standard industry sectors, but the value premium is not subsumed by the January effect in either analysis.

  6. On the common risk explanation of the size-related premiums

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Oliveira Souza, Thiago

    2018-01-01

    to be marginally significant even in low risk states while the size premium is only significant in high risk states. This state dependence explains the out-of-sample R2 of around 29% for forecasts of the returns on the SMB portfolio, but only 7% for the HML portfolio compared to their historical means....

  7. 76 FR 75781 - Treasury Inflation-Protected Securities Issued at a Premium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-05

    ... Inflation-Protected Securities Issued at a Premium AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION... tax treatment of Treasury Inflation-Protected Securities issued with more than a de minimis amount of... a toll-free number). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background Treasury Inflation-Protected Securities...

  8. 76 FR 75829 - Treasury Inflation-Protected Securities Issued at a Premium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-05

    ... Treasury Inflation-Protected Securities Issued at a Premium AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS... IRS is issuing temporary regulations that provide guidance on the tax treatment of Treasury Inflation....1275-7(d) applies to Treasury Inflation-Protected Securities (TIPS) issued with more than a de minimis...

  9. 77 FR 15319 - Treasury Inflation-Protected Securities Issued at a Premium; Hearing Cancellation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 [REG-130777-11] RIN 1545-BK45 Treasury Inflation-Protected Securities Issued at a Premium; Hearing Cancellation AGENCY: Internal Revenue...), providing guidance on the tax treatment of Treasury Inflation-Protected Securities issued with more than a...

  10. Credit frictions, collateral and the cyclical behavior of the finance premium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agénor, P.-R.; Bratsiotis, G.; Pfajfar, D.

    This paper examines the behavior of the finance premium after technology and monetary shocks in a dynamic stochastic general equilibrium (DSGE) model where borrowers use a fraction of their production (output) as collateral. We show that this simple framework is capable of producing a

  11. 29 CFR 778.206 - Premiums for work outside basic workday or workweek-examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-examples. 778.206 Section 778.206 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION... Overtime § 778.206 Premiums for work outside basic workday or workweek—examples. The effect of section 7(e... workday and workweek. Under one such agreement, for example, such workday and workweek are established as...

  12. 7 CFR 91.39 - Premium hourly fee rates for overtime and legal holiday service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... legal holidays or what constitutes overtime service at a particular Science and Technology laboratory is... Premium hourly fee rates for overtime and legal holiday service. (a) When analytical testing in a Science... overtime work. When analytical testing in a Science and Technology facility requires the services of...

  13. 26 CFR 1.381(c)(9)-1 - Amortization of bond discount or premium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Amortization of bond discount or premium. 1.381(c)(9)-1 Section 1.381(c)(9)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Insolvency Reorganizations § 1.381(c)(9)-1 Amortization of...

  14. 26 CFR 1.803-6 - Amortization of premium and accrual of discount.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... amortization of premium and accrual of discount on bonds, notes, debentures, or other evidences of indebtedness... earliest call date specified therein as a day certain, the earliest interest payment date if it is callable or payable at such date, the earliest date at which it is callable at par, or such other call or...

  15. Consumer Acceptance of Genetically Modified Foods in Taiwan: Is Positive Discount the Same as Negative Premium?

    OpenAIRE

    Kaneko, Naoya; Chern, Wen S.

    2005-01-01

    This paper finds Taiwanese consumers' willingness to pay a premium on the non-GM food differs from their willingness to accept a discount on the GM food. It further finds that the non-GM choosers are more committed to the non-GM food than the GM choosers to the GM food.

  16. Children's health insurance program premiums adversely affect enrollment, especially among lower-income children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdus, Salam; Hudson, Julie; Hill, Steven C; Selden, Thomas M

    2014-08-01

    Both Medicaid and the Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP), which are run by the states and funded by federal and state dollars, offer health insurance coverage for low-income children. Thirty-three states charged premiums for children at some income ranges in CHIP or Medicaid in 2013. Using data from the 1999-2010 Medical Expenditure Panel Surveys, we show that the relationship between premiums and coverage varies considerably by income level and by parental access to employer-sponsored insurance. Among children with family incomes above 150 percent of the federal poverty level, a $10 increase in monthly premiums is associated with a 1.6-percentage-point reduction in Medicaid or CHIP coverage. In this income range, the increase in uninsurance may be higher among those children whose parents lack an offer of employer-sponsored insurance than among those whose parents have such an offer. Among children with family incomes of 101-150 percent of poverty, a $10 increase in monthly premiums is associated with a 6.7-percentage-point reduction in Medicaid or CHIP coverage and a 3.3-percentage-point increase in uninsurance. In this income range, the increase in uninsurance is even larger among children whose parents lack offers of employer coverage. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  17. Relative Affordability of Health Insurance Premiums under CHIP Expansion Programs and the ACA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gresenz, Carole Roan; Laugesen, Miriam J; Yesus, Ambeshie; Escarce, José J

    2011-10-01

    Affordability is integral to the success of health care reforms aimed at ensuring universal access to health insurance coverage, and affordability determinations have major policy and practical consequences. This article describes factors that influenced the determination of affordability benchmarks and premium-contribution requirements for Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP) expansions in three states that sought to universalize access to coverage for youth. It also compares subsidy levels developed in these states to the premium subsidy schedule under the Affordable Care Act (ACA) for health insurance plans purchased through an exchange. We find sizeable variability in premium-contribution requirements for children's coverage as a percentage of family income across the three states and in the progressivity and regressivity of the premium-contribution schedules developed. These findings underscore the ambiguity and subjectivity of affordability standards. Further, our analyses suggest that while the ACA increases the affordability of family coverage for families with incomes below 400 percent of the federal poverty level, the evolution of CHIP over the next five to ten years will continue to have significant implications for low-income families.

  18. The effect of virtual bidding on forward premiums in the New York wholesale energy market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, Andrew D.

    In many parts of the United States, the power industry has been deregulated and replaced with regional wholesale energy markets, where utilities purchase electricity from generators at competitive market rates for subsequent distribution to customers. Numerous studies have shown that in each of these markets, the price of energy purchased in the Day Ahead (futures) market exceeds the price in the Real Time (spot) market on average. The existence of this "forward premium" is evidence of market inefficiency and may indicate participants' aversion to risk in the Real Time market or the exercise of market power by generators. To address this inefficiency, the New York Independent System Operator introduced a virtual bidding system within its wholesale market, which permitted participants to engage in purely financial transactions and hedge their exposure to risk. The new policy was expected to promote price convergence by allowing bidders to arbitrage expected differences between Day Ahead and Real Time prices. This study examines whether the presence of virtual bidding was associated with a change in the mean value and magnitude of forward premiums in the NYISO energy market. The study applies a GARCH model to hourly pricing data from 2001 to 2009, controlling for temperature and economic activity. The results indicate that prior to 2005, virtual bidding was associated with significantly lower and less volatile forward premiums in New York's five most congested zones but with increased premiums in the remaining less congested zones. However, when the entire period from 2001 to 2009 is examined, the results suggest that prices have become significantly more divergent in the presence of virtual bidding. Closer examination of the data reveals a dramatic increase in forward premium volatility across all zones beginning in 2005 that is not accounted for by temperature or economic activity and may have biased the results. This study attempts to account for this unexplained

  19. Effect of Frozen Storage Temperature on the Quality of Premium Ice Cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung Hee; Jo, Yeon-Ji; Chun, Ji-Yeon; Hong, Geun-Pyo; Davaatseren, Munkhtugs; Choi, Mi-Jung

    2015-01-01

    The market sales of premium ice cream have paralleled the growth in consumer desire for rich flavor and taste. Storage temperature is a major consideration in preserving the quality attributes of premium ice cream products for both the manufacturer and retailers during prolonged storage. We investigated the effect of storage temperature (-18℃, -30℃, -50℃, and -70℃) and storage times, up to 52 wk, on the quality attributes of premium ice cream. Quality attributes tested included ice crystal size, air cell size, melting resistance, and color. Ice crystal size increased from 40.3 μm to 100.1 μm after 52 wk of storage at -18℃. When ice cream samples were stored at -50℃ or -70℃, ice crystal size slightly increased from 40.3 μm to 57-58 μm. Initial air cell size increased from 37.1 μm to 87.7 μm after storage at -18℃ for 52 wk. However, for storage temperatures of -50℃ and -70℃, air cell size increased only slightly from 37.1 μm to 46-47 μm. Low storage temperature (-50℃ and -70℃) resulted in better melt resistance and minimized color changes in comparison to high temperature storage (-18℃ and -30℃). In our study, quality changes in premium ice cream were gradually minimized according to decrease in storage temperature up to-50℃. No significant beneficial effect of -70℃ storage was found in quality attributes. In the scope of our experiment, we recommend a storage temperature of -50℃ to preserve the quality attributes of premium ice cream.

  20. Identifying the poor for premium exemption: a critical step towards universal health coverage in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeh, Chukwuemeka A

    2017-01-01

    Premium exemption for the poor is a critical step towards achieving universal health coverage in sub-Saharan Africa due to the large proportion of the population living in extreme poverty who cannot pay premium. However, identifying the poor for premium exemption has been a big challenge for SSA countries. This paper is a succinct review of four methods available for identifying the poor, outlining the ideal conditions under which each of the methods should be used and the drawbacks associated with using each of the methods.

  1. 19 CFR 24.16 - Overtime services; overtime compensation and premium pay for Customs Officers; rate of compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... AND ACCOUNTING PROCEDURE § 24.16 Overtime services; overtime compensation and premium pay for Customs... during his/her career with the Customs Service. If the dollar value of the average yearly number of...

  2. 5 CFR 550.143 - Bases for determining positions for which premium pay under § 550.141 is authorized.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Premium Pay Regularly Scheduled... requirement must be definite and the employee must be officially ordered to remain at his station. The...

  3. 5 CFR 892.207 - Can I make changes to my FEHB enrollment while I am participating in premium conversion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL FLEXIBLE BENEFITS PLAN: PRE-TAX PAYMENT OF HEALTH BENEFITS PREMIUMS Eligibility and Participation § 892.207 Can I make...

  4. The Marriage Wealth Premium Revisited: Gender Disparities and Within-Individual Changes in Personal Wealth in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lersch, Philipp M

    2017-06-01

    This study examines the association between marriage and economic wealth of women and men. Going beyond previous research that focused on household wealth, I examine personal wealth, which allows identifying gender disparities in the association between marriage and wealth. Using unique data from the German Socio-Economic Panel Study (2002, 2007, and 2012), I apply random-effects and fixed-effects regression models to test my expectations. I find that both women and men experience substantial marriage wealth premiums not only in household wealth but also in personal wealth. However, I do not find consistent evidence for gender disparities in these general marriage premiums. Additional analyses indicate, however, that women's marriage premiums are substantially lower than men's premiums in older cohorts and when only nonhousing wealth is considered. Overall, this study provides new evidence that women and men gain unequally in their wealth attainment through marriage.

  5. Price volatility, hedging and variable risk premium in the crude oil market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad Jalali-Naini; Maryam Kazemi Manesh

    2006-01-01

    The crude oil price exhibits a high degree of volatility which varies significantly over time. Such characteristics imply that the oil market is a promising area for testing volatility models. Testing and predicting volatility using ARCH and GARCH models have grown in the literature. A useful application of the volatility models is in the formulation of hedging strategies. In this paper we compare the optimal hedge ratio for the crude oil using the classical minimum risk approach and use ARCH to incorporate the effect of heteroskedasticity in the residuals on the hedge ratio. In addition, we test for the existence of a variable risk premium in the crude oil market. We find that, assuming rational expectations, there is a non-zero risk premium. We test for the variability of the risk premia and find evidence in its support when we employed a multivariate GARCH model. (author)

  6. The Russian Landing Rate, Central Bank’s Policy Related Rate and Intermediation Premium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chu V. Nguyen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper illustrates asymmetries in the Russian intermediation premium as measured by the spread between the commercial lending rate and the Central Bank’s policy related rate. Empirical results have shown that the Russian intermediation premium adjusts to the threshold faster when the Central Bank’s policy related rates increase relative to lending rates as opposed to when the Central Bank’s policy related rates move in the opposite direction. The findings of this paper suggest that during the period when the Russian Federation faced formidable challenges from a sharp decline in oil prices and reduced access to international capital markets due to Western sanctions, the Central Bank of Russia was not effective in utilizing countercyclical monetary policy to achieve macroeconomic objectives and commercial banks exhibited predatory pricing behavior.

  7. Rules regarding the health insurance premium tax credit. Final and temporary regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-28

    This document contains final and temporary regulations relating to the health insurance premium tax credit enacted by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010, as amended by the Medicare and Medicaid Extenders Act of 2010, the Comprehensive 1099 Taxpayer Protection and Repayment of Exchange Subsidy Overpayments Act of 2011, and the Department of Defense and Full-Year Continuing Appropriations Act of 2011 and the 3% Withholding Repeal and Job Creation Act. These regulations affect individuals who enroll in qualified health plans through Affordable Insurance Exchanges (Exchanges) and claim the premium tax credit, and Exchanges that make qualified health plans available to individuals. The text of the temporary regulations in this document also serves as the text of proposed regulations set forth in a notice of proposed rulemaking (REG-104579-13) on this subject in the Proposed Rules section in this issue of the Federal Register.

  8. Reexamining financial and economic predictability with new estimators of realized variance and variance risk premium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casas, Isabel; Mao, Xiuping; Veiga, Helena

    This study explores the predictive power of new estimators of the equity variance risk premium and conditional variance for future excess stock market returns, economic activity, and financial instability, both during and after the last global financial crisis. These estimators are obtained from...... time-varying coefficient models are the ones showing considerably higher predictive power for stock market returns and financial instability during the financial crisis, suggesting that an extreme volatility period requires models that can adapt quickly to turmoil........ Moreover, a comparison of the overall results reveals that the conditional variance gains predictive power during the global financial crisis period. Furthermore, both the variance risk premium and conditional variance are determined to be predictors of future financial instability, whereas conditional...

  9. Premium analysis for copula model: A case study for Malaysian motor insurance claims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resti, Yulia; Ismail, Noriszura; Jaaman, Saiful Hafizah

    2014-06-01

    This study performs premium analysis for copula models with regression marginals. For illustration purpose, the copula models are fitted to the Malaysian motor insurance claims data. In this study, we consider copula models from Archimedean and Elliptical families, and marginal distributions of Gamma and Inverse Gaussian regression models. The simulated results from independent model, which is obtained from fitting regression models separately to each claim category, and dependent model, which is obtained from fitting copula models to all claim categories, are compared. The results show that the dependent model using Frank copula is the best model since the risk premiums estimated under this model are closely approximate to the actual claims experience relative to the other copula models.

  10. What are the consequences for Danish Fashion Premium Brand Companies to incorporate Ethical Fashion in their company structure?

    OpenAIRE

    Bartoli, Nicla; Nielsen, Amalie

    2014-01-01

    This paper is meant to investigate the topic of Ethical Fashion implemented in Danish Fashion Premium Brands Companies. In order to have an almost complete scientific paper, the group decided to formulate the folowing problem formulation “What are the consequences for Danish Premium Brand Companies to incorporate Ethical Fashion in their company structure?” With three main research question: The first one is focusing on how Ethical Fashion is defined in the Danish fashion industry, in order t...

  11. Process-based costing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Robert H; Bott, Marjorie J; Forbes, Sarah; Redford, Linda; Swagerty, Daniel L; Taunton, Roma Lee

    2003-01-01

    Understanding how quality improvement affects costs is important. Unfortunately, low-cost, reliable ways of measuring direct costs are scarce. This article builds on the principles of process improvement to develop a costing strategy that meets both criteria. Process-based costing has 4 steps: developing a flowchart, estimating resource use, valuing resources, and calculating direct costs. To illustrate the technique, this article uses it to cost the care planning process in 3 long-term care facilities. We conclude that process-based costing is easy to implement; generates reliable, valid data; and allows nursing managers to assess the costs of new or modified processes.

  12. The Reallocation of Compensation in Response to Health Insurance Premium Increases

    OpenAIRE

    Dana P. Goldman; Neeraj Sood; Arleen Leibowitz

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines how compensation packages change when health insurance premiums rise. We use data on employee choices within a single large firm with a flexible benefits plan; an increasingly common arrangement among medium and large firms. In these companies, employees explicitly choose how to allocate compensation between cash and various benefits such as retirement, medical insurance, life insurance, and dental benefits. We find that a $1 increase in the price of health insurance leads...

  13. Public's willingness to pay a premium for bioethanol in Korea: A contingent valuation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Seul-Ye; Kim, Hyo-Jin; Yoo, Seung-Hoon

    2017-01-01

    Bioethanol (BE), a renewable energy, is well-known to mitigate the greenhouse gas emissions compared with conventional gasoline. Thus, the Korean government is considering the introduction of a BE mandate in which the legal blend is 5% BE and 95% gasoline (E5) until 2020 in order to expand BE use. We should examine the public acceptability of the introduction, which incurs a rise in the fuel price. This study attempts to assess the public's willingness to pay (WTP) a premium for introducing the E5 program in Korea. To this end, a contingent valuation (CV) survey of 1000 randomly selected consumers was conducted in 2014 across the nation. We used a one-and-one-half-bound dichotomous choice question in the CV survey and applied the spike model to handle the WTP data with zeros. The mean WTP, a premium for the E5 per liter, is estimated to be KRW 290 (USD 0.27), which is statistically meaningful at the 1% level. This value amounts to 15.6% of the gasoline retail price in 2014 (KRW 1856 or USD 1.70) and can be interpreted as the external benefit of BE. We can conclude that gasoline consumers in Korea are ready to pay a significant premium for the E5. - Highlights: • Bioethanol (BE) can contribute to the reduction of greenhouse gases emissions. • Korea will introduce a BE mandate of 5% BE and 95% gasoline (E5) until 2020. • We assess the public’s willingness to pay (WTP) a premium for the introduction. • The mean additional WTP for E5 is estimated to be KRW 290 (USD 0.26) per liter. • This value amounts to 15.6% of the gasoline retail price (KRW 1856 or USD 1.70).

  14. Why borrowers pay premiums to larger lenders: Empirical evidence from sovereign syndicated loans

    OpenAIRE

    Hallak, Issam

    2002-01-01

    All other terms being equal (e.g. seniority), syndicated loan contracts provide larger lending compensations (in percentage points) to institutions funding larger amounts. This paper explores empirically the motivation for such a price design on a sample of sovereign syndicated loans in the period 1990-1997. I find strong evidence that a larger premium is associated with higher renegotiation probability and information asymmetries. It hardly has any impact on the number of lenders though. Thi...

  15. Trends in the use and advertising of discount versus premium snuff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timberlake, David S; Pechmann, Cornelia

    2013-02-01

    The Conwood Company, a major producer of discount moist snuff, was awarded a $1 billion antitrust settlement in the year 2000 against its leading competitor, the U.S. Smokeless Tobacco Company. The objective of this study was to examine the trends in use and advertising of discount versus premium snuff since the Conwood settlement, a topic seldom addressed in the tobacco control literature. 2 sources of data were analyzed in 2011: (a) male snuff users from the 2002-2009 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health (N = 13,172) and (b) total advertisements of moist snuff identified from over 350 consumer magazines dated 2005-2009 (N = 861). For the survey data, demographic and tobacco-related measures were assessed as predictors of use of discount versus premium snuff in logistic regression models. For the advertising data, associations were examined between the snuff category and nicotine content, magazine youth readership, and year of magazine publication. The prevalence of discount and premium snuff use among males increased and decreased, respectively, from 2002 to 2009. Significant predictors of using discount versus premium snuff were being an adolescent, being an African-American, being a current or former smoker, living in a less populated region of the country, and using snuff frequently. Discount snuff advertising was associated with publication in magazines with a high youth readership. Discount snuff has grown in popularity among male adolescents who have been a target of advertising. The tobacco's cheap price and high nicotine content pose a public health problem because of the potential for long-term tobacco use and dependence.

  16. Specifics of the Unearned Premium Reserve in the Accounting of Commercial Insurance Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Gláserová

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Commercial insurance companies are liable to create, on the basis of risks arising from the fulfillment of the object of their activity, technical reserves, which are used to cover liabilities arising to insurance companies from insurance and reinsurance activity. The paper focuses on the technical reserve which is, in accordance with the accounting-legal regulation, created obligatorily in commercial insurance companies – it is the unearned premium reserve.The paper explores the role and place of this technical reserve in the accounting of the commercial insurance companies based on the analysis of its substance, i.e. the objective definition. The paper is based on the methodology of the accounting, evaluation and methods of determining the amount of the technical reserve which will affect the income from operations as well as income tax base of commercial insurance companies. The paper also studied the method of reporting of unearned premium reserve in accounting according to Czech accounting legislation in comparison with International Accounting Standards (IAS/IFRS. The aim of this paper is to determine the impacts of the creation and application of the unearned premium reserve on some important items of the financial statements, which are mainly the income of operations, equity capital and balance sheet as well as to identify the impacts of different reporting of this reserve according to Czech accounting legislation and in accordance with IAS/IFRS. Performing the analysis of the accounting-legal regulation of the unearned premium reserve in the insurance companies, the analysis of the method of accounting of this reserve and also the comparison of reporting of this reserve according to both mentioned regulations is a prerequisite for the fulfillment of the aim.

  17. Marital Wage Premium or Ability Selection? The Case of Taiwan 1979-2003

    OpenAIRE

    Anthony Stair

    2007-01-01

    The study of factors determining wages has been an important topic in the field of labor and family economics in the past few decades. Among different factors that account for individual wage differentials, marital status has received special attention. There are at least two competing hypotheses that explain the male marriage premium: the specialization hypothesis and the selection hypothesis. Using the Taiwan Quasi Longitudinal Data Archive (1979-2003), my estimation results support the sel...

  18. States with stronger health insurance rate review authority experienced lower premiums in the individual market in 2010-13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaca-Mandic, Pinar; Fulton, Brent D; Hollingshead, Ann; Scheffler, Richard M

    2015-08-01

    States have varying degrees of review authority over health insurance carriers' rates, including prior approval authority over proposed rates and requirements for loss ratios, the proportion of premium revenues spent on medical claims. The Affordable Care Act (ACA) requires carriers in certain categories of health insurance to provide public justification for rate increases of 10 percent or more. We collected data on how states changed their rate review authority and requirements during 2010-13, the years immediately after enactment of the ACA, and we combined these data with carrier filings. We found that adjusted premiums in the individual market in states that had prior-approval authority combined with loss ratio requirements were lower in 2010-13 ($3,489) than premiums in states with no rate review authority or that had only file-and-use regulations, which gave the states no authority to block rate increases ($3,617). Adjusted premiums declined modestly in prior-approval states with loss ratio requirements, from $3,526 in 2010 to $3,452 in 2013, while premiums increased from $3,422 to $3,683 in states with no rate review authority or file-and-use regulations only. Our findings suggest that states with prior approval authority and loss ratio requirements constrained health insurance premium increases. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  19. The effects of competition on premiums: using United Healthcare's 2015 entry into Affordable Care Act's marketplaces as an instrumental variable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agirdas, Cagdas; Krebs, Robert J; Yano, Masato

    2018-01-08

    One goal of the Affordable Care Act is to increase insurance coverage by improving competition and lowering premiums. To facilitate this goal, the federal government enacted online marketplaces in the 395 rating areas spanning 34 states that chose not to establish their own state-run marketplaces. Few multivariate regression studies analyzing the effects of competition on premiums suffer from endogeneity, due to simultaneity and omitted variable biases. However, United Healthcare's decision to enter these marketplaces in 2015 provides the researcher with an opportunity to address this endogeneity problem. Exploiting the variation caused by United Healthcare's entry decision as an instrument for competition, we study the impact of competition on premiums during the first 2 years of these marketplaces. Combining panel data from five different sources and controlling for 12 variables, we find that one more insurer in a rating area leads to a 6.97% reduction in the second-lowest-priced silver plan premium, which is larger than the estimated effects in existing literature. Furthermore, we run a threshold analysis and find that competition's effects on premiums become statistically insignificant if there are four or more insurers in a rating area. These findings are robust to alternative measures of premiums, inclusion of a non-linear term in the regression models and a county-level analysis.

  20. Estimating local, organic, and other price premiums of shell eggs in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loke, Matthew K; Xu, Xun; Leung, PingSun

    2016-05-01

    Hedonic modeling and retail scanner data were utilized to investigate the influence of local, organic, nutrition benefits, and other attributes of shell eggs on retail price premium in Hawaii. Within a revealed preference framework, the analysis of local and organic attributes, simultaneously, under a single unified setting is important, as such work is highly deficient in the published literature. This paper finds high to moderate price premiums in four key attributes of shell eggs - organic (64%), local (40%), nutrition benefits claimed (33%), and brown shell (18.4%). Large and extra-large sized eggs also experience price premiums over medium sized eggs. With each larger packing size, the estimated coefficients were negative, indicating a price discount, relative to the baseline packing size. However, there is no evidence to support the overwhelming influence of "local" over "organic", as hypothesized in other research work. Overall, the findings in this paper suggest industry producers and retailers should highlight and market effusively the primary attributes of their shell eggs, including "local", to remain competitive in the marketplace. Effective communication channels are crucial to delivering the product information, capturing the attention of consumers, and securing retail sales. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  1. The Equity Premium Puzzle: Analysis in Brazil after the Real Plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Augusto Reis Gomes

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Our paper investigates whether there is evidence of an Equity Premium Puzzle (EPP in Brazil, applying two different methodologies. The EPP was identified by Mehra and Prescott (1985 since the Consumption Capital Asset Pricing Model (CCAPM, when calibrated with reasonable preference parameters, could not explain high historical average risk premiums in the United States. In our first approach, we consider Mehra’s (2003 model and calibrate the coefficient of risk aversion, using 1995:2-2012:1 quarterly data. The Ibovespa index was used as a measure of the market return, whereas the risk-free rate was proxied by the Selic interbank rate and by the savings account rate. In our second approach, we propose a new method to test the puzzle. We jointly estimate, via generalized method of moments, the parameters of interest using a moment condition that has not been previously explored, as far as we are aware of. The two approaches produced a high risk aversion coefficient, however the second approach indicated that we cannot reject the hypothesis of the risk aversion coefficient being statistically equal to zero. A possible explanation for this result might be that in Brazil the equity premium is not statistically different from zero. Therefore there is no evidence of EPP in Brazil for the studied period.

  2. Empirical Analysis of the Impact of Inflation Targeting on the Risk Premium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krušković Borivoje D.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The basis for the conduct of monetary policy is monetary policy strategy. Monetary strategy is necessary for monetary policy makers to analyse all relevant information in order to undertake effective policy actions. Inflation targeting has enabled countries to achieve low inflation in the very short term. Due to this, the financial markets have adjusted their long-term inflation expectations and incorporated them into the interest rate. Risk premiums that compensate for the uncertainty of inflation have fallen. The aim of this paper is to examine how the adoption of inflation targeting affects the movement of the risk premium. The hypothesis we want to test is that the adoption of inflation targeting affects the reduction of the country risk premium by affecting the formation of a more stable macroeconomic environment through a more stable and predictable inflation rate in the medium and long term. The method used for evaluating the regression coefficients is the dynamic panel generalized method of moments (GMM. This method involves the use of conditional moments in endogenous and exogenous variables with a lag as instruments for the assessment of differential equations, while the difference lagged endogenous variables are used as instruments in the levels equation.

  3. Optimal Premium as a Function of the Deductible: Customer Analysis and Portfolio Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Thøgersen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available An insurance company offers an insurance contract ( p , K , consisting of a premium p and a deductible K. In this paper, we consider the problem of choosing the premium optimally as a function of the deductible. The insurance company is facing a market of N customers, each characterized by their personal claim frequency, α, and risk aversion, β. When a customer is offered an insurance contract, she/he will, based on these characteristics, choose whether or not to insure. The decision process of the customer is analyzed in detail. Since the customer characteristics are unknown to the company, it models them as i.i.d. random variables; A 1 , … , A N for the claim frequencies and B 1 , … , B N for the risk aversions. Depending on the distributions of A i and B i , expressions for the portfolio size n ( p ; K ∈ [ 0 , N ] and average claim frequency α ( p ; K in the portfolio are obtained. Knowing these, the company can choose the premium optimally, mainly by minimizing the ruin probability.

  4. Expectations and forward risk premium in the Spanish deregulated power market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furio, Dolores; Meneu, Vicente

    2010-01-01

    Deregulation in energy markets has entailed important changes in the way agents conduct business. Price risk arises as a result of fluctuations in the future price of electricity and agents assume long or short positions in the forward and spot markets to hedge their exposure to price risk. The presence of forward risk premium in prices is evidence of the fact that agents act in the market according to risk considerations. This work aims to analyse the information content of the difference between the forward and spot prices (the so-called forward premium) regarding the agents' decisions. We find that the sign and magnitude of the ex post forward premium depend on the unexpected variation in demand and on the unexpected variation in the hydroelectric capacity, and that both the ex post and the ex ante forward premia are negatively related to the variance of spot price, as predict. We provide additional insights about relevant aspects of spot price pricing in the Spanish electricity market such as the positive relation between spot prices and CO 2 emission allowance prices or the impact on spot prices of the set of market matching rules introduced in March 2006.

  5. Understanding the Data Complexity continuum to reduce data management costs and increase data usability through partnerships with the National Centers for Environmental Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesick, S.; Weathers, K. W.

    2017-12-01

    Data complexity can be seen as a continuum from complex to simple. The term data complexity refers to data collections that are disorganized, poorly documented, and generally do not follow best data management practices. Complex data collections are challenging and expensive to manage. Simplified collections readily support automated archival processes, enhanced discovery and data access, as well as production of services that make data easier to reuse. In this session, NOAA NCEI scientific data stewards will discuss the data complexity continuum. This talk will explore data simplification concepts, methods, and tools that data managers can employ which may offer more control over data management costs and processes, while achieving policy goals for open data access and ready reuse. Topics will include guidance for data managers on best allocation of limited data management resources; models for partnering with NCEI to accomplish shared data management goals; and will demonstrate through case studies the benefits of investing in documentation, accessibility, and services to increase data value and return on investment.

  6. Understanding the roles of faith-based health-care providers in Africa: review of the evidence with a focus on magnitude, reach, cost, and satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivier, Jill; Tsimpo, Clarence; Gemignani, Regina; Shojo, Mari; Coulombe, Harold; Dimmock, Frank; Nguyen, Minh Cong; Hines, Harrison; Mills, Edward J; Dieleman, Joseph L; Haakenstad, Annie; Wodon, Quentin

    2015-10-31

    At a time when many countries might not achieve the health targets of the Millennium Development Goals and the post-2015 agenda for sustainable development is being negotiated, the contribution of faith-based health-care providers is potentially crucial. For better partnership to be achieved and for health systems to be strengthened by the alignment of faith-based health-providers with national systems and priorities, improved information is needed at all levels. Comparisons of basic factors (such as magnitude, reach to poor people, cost to patients, modes of financing, and satisfaction of patients with the services received) within faith-based health-providers and national systems show some differences. As the first report in the Series on faith-based health care, we review a broad body of published work and introduce some empirical evidence on the role of faith-based health-care providers, with a focus on Christian faith-based health providers in sub-Saharan Africa (on which the most detailed documentation has been gathered). The restricted and diverse evidence reported supports the idea that faith-based health providers continue to play a part in health provision, especially in fragile health systems, and the subsequent reports in this Series review controversies in faith-based health care and recommendations for how public and faith sectors might collaborate more effectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Understanding the complexity of the Lévy-walk nature of human mobility with a multi-scale cost/benefit model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scafetta, Nicola

    2011-12-01

    Probability distributions of human displacements have been fit with exponentially truncated Lévy flights or fat tailed Pareto inverse power law probability distributions. Thus, people usually stay within a given location (for example, the city of residence), but with a non-vanishing frequency they visit nearby or far locations too. Herein, we show that an important empirical distribution of human displacements (range: from 1 to 1000 km) can be well fit by three consecutive Pareto distributions with simple integer exponents equal to 1, 2, and (>≈) 3. These three exponents correspond to three displacement range zones of about 1km ≲Δr ≲10 km, 10km ≲Δr ≲300 km, and 300km ≲Δr ≲1000 km, respectively. These three zones can be geographically and physically well determined as displacements within a city, visits to nearby cities that may occur within just one-day trips, and visit to far locations that may require multi-days trips. The incremental integer values of the three exponents can be easily explained with a three-scale mobility cost/benefit model for human displacements based on simple geometrical constrains. Essentially, people would divide the space into three major regions (close, medium, and far distances) and would assume that the travel benefits are randomly/uniformly distributed mostly only within specific urban-like areas. The three displacement distribution zones appear to be characterized by an integer (1, 2, or >≈ 3) inverse power exponent because of the specific number (1, 2, or >≈ 3) of cost mechanisms (each of which is proportional to the displacement length). The distributions in the first two zones would be associated to Pareto distributions with exponent β = 1 and β = 2 because of simple geometrical statistical considerations due to the a priori assumption that most benefits are searched in the urban area of the city of residence or in the urban area of specific nearby cities. We also show, by using independent records of human

  8. Adjusting Teacher Salaries for the Cost of Living: The Effect on Salary Comparisons and Policy Conclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddard, C.

    2005-01-01

    Teaching salaries are commonly adjusted for the cost of living, but this incorrectly accounts for welfare differences across states. Adjusting for area amenities and opportunities, however, produces more accurate salary comparisons. Amenities and opportunities can be measured by the wage premium other workers in a state face. The two methods…

  9. Job-based health insurance: costs climb at a moderate pace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claxton, Gary; DiJulio, Bianca; Whitmore, Heidi; Pickreign, Jeremy; McHugh, Megan; Finder, Benjamin; Osei-Anto, Awo

    2009-01-01

    Each year the Kaiser/HRET Survey of Employer Health Benefits takes a snapshot of the state of employee benefits in the United States, based on interviews with public and private employers. Our findings for 2009 show that families continue to face higher premiums, up about 5 percent from last year, and that cost sharing in the form of deductibles and copayments for office visits is greater as well. Average annual premiums in 2009 were $4,824 for single coverage and $13,375 for family coverage. Enrollment in high-deductible health plans held steady. We offer new insights about health risk assessments and how firms responded to the economic downturn.

  10. THE APPLICATION OF BŰHLMANN-STRAUB MODEL TO THE ESTIMATION OF NET PREMIUM RATES DEPENDING ON THE AGE OF THE INSURED IN THE MOTOR THIRD LIABILITY INSURANCE

    OpenAIRE

    Szymańska, Anna

    2017-01-01

    One of the basic variables used in the process of tariff calculation of premiums in motor liability insurance is the age of the insured. In this type of insurance offered by insurers operating on the Polish market, this variable is taken into account in the ratemaking by discounts and increases in assigned premium, known as the net premiums rates. The aim of this work is to propose a method of rate estimation of net premiums in the groups of the motor third liability insurance portfolio of in...

  11. Cost effectiveness of drug eluting coronary artery stenting in a UK setting: cost-utility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagust, A; Grayson, A D; Palmer, N D; Perry, R A; Walley, T

    2006-01-01

    To assess the cost effectiveness of drug eluting stents (DES) compared with conventional stents for treatment of symptomatic coronary artery disease in the UK. Cost-utility analysis of audit based patient subgroups by means of a simple economic model. Tertiary care. 12 month audit data for 2884 patients receiving percutaneous coronary intervention with stenting at the Cardiothoracic Centre Liverpool between January 2000 and December 2002. Risk of repeat revascularisation within 12 months of index procedure and reduction in risk from use of DES. Economic modelling was used to estimate the cost-utility ratio and threshold price premium. Four factors were identified for patients undergoing elective surgery (n = 1951) and two for non-elective surgery (n = 933) to predict risk of repeat revascularisation within 12 months. Most patients fell within the subgroup with lowest risk (57% of the elective surgery group with 5.6% risk and 91% of the non-elective surgery group with 9.9% risk). Modelled cost-utility ratios were acceptable for only one group of high risk patients undergoing non-elective surgery (only one patient in audit data). Restricting the number of DES for each patient improved results marginally: 4% of stents could then be drug eluting on economic grounds. The threshold price premium justifying 90% substitution of conventional stents was estimated to be 112 pound sterling (212 USD, 162 pound sterling) (sirolimus stents) or 89 pound sterling (167 USD, 130 pound sterling) (paclitaxel stents). At current UK prices, DES are not cost effective compared with conventional stents except for a small minority of patients. Although the technology is clearly effective, general substitution is not justified unless the price premium falls substantially.

  12. A comparison of temperature increases produced by "premium" and "standard" diamond burs: An in-vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Pnina; Sap, Danny; Ben-Amar, Ariel; Levartovsky, Shifra; Matalon, Shlomo

    2016-02-01

    Vital tooth preparations may cause irreversible thermal damage to the pulp. The manufacturing techniques of dental burs may decrease heat production and minimize the risk of overheating and trauma to the dental pulp. Strauss (Raanana, Israel) has introduced "premium" diamond burs, claiming superior efficiency and longevity. We sought to determine the safest preparation methods by performing a comparison of intrapulpal temperature increases caused with "standard" and "premium" burs. Three types of diamond burs (F1R, F21R, and K2) were tested on extracted human teeth (n = 8 teeth per bur type). Premium and standard manufacturing techniques were compared for each bur type (n = 24 teeth per group; total 48 teeth). An intrapulpal thermocouple was used to measure the temperature during the procedure. Comparisons were analyzed with the t test and one-way ANOVA. P ≤ .05 was considered significant. All premium burs demonstrated lower temperature increases compared to the standard burs (P ≤ .001 for F21R and K2, P = .086 for F1R). The temperature increases with premium burs were similar for different bur shapes, but the temperature increases with standard burs depended on the bur shape (P pulp tissue damage, and thus reduce postoperative pulp-associated complications.

  13. Is there a price premium for energy efficiency labels? Evidence from the Introduction of a Label in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Ju Young

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the price premium from Korea's Energy Efficiency Grade Label. The Korean government recently began energy certification of televisions, providing a setting to analyze a possible price effect of the new label. Hedonic regression results seem to show that a price premium exists for products with the Energy Efficiency Grade Label. However, potential unobserved heterogeneity is a concern. Difference-in-difference and fixed-effects models are used to capture the net effect of the label by controlling for time and product differences. The results suggest that any price premium does not result from the energy efficiency label itself. Instead, energy-efficient products already had higher prices before the introduction of the energy efficiency label. The finding turns our attention to the importance of careful design of labeling programs. - Highlights: • The study examines the price premium from Korea's Energy Efficiency Grade Label. • Difference-in-difference and fixed-effects models are used to address potential unobserved heterogeneity and to capture the net effect of the label by controlling for time and product differences. • The result suggests that any price premium does not result from the energy efficiency label itself; instead, energy-efficient products already have higher prices before the introduction of the energy efficiency label. • The finding turns our attention to the importance of careful design of labeling programs.

  14. THE EFFECT OF SALINITY-SODICITY AND GLYPHOSATE FORMULATIONS – AVANS PREMIUM 360 SL ON PHOSPHOMONOESTERASE ACTIVITIES IN SANDY LOAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Płatkowski

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study was to determine the influence of NaCl and glyphosate-based herbicide Avans Premium 360 SL on acid and alkaline phosphomonoesterase activities in sandy loam. The experiment was carried out in laboratory conditions on sandy loam with Corg content 10.90 g/kg. Soil was divided into half kilogram samples and adjusted to 60% of maximum water holding capacity. In the experiment dependent variables were: I – dosages of Avans Premium 360 SL (0, a recommended field dosage – FD, a tenfold higher dosage – 10 FD and hundredfold higher dosage – 100 FD, II – amount of NaCl (0, 3% and 6%, III – day of experiment (1, 7, 14, 28 and 56. On days of experiment the activity of alkaline and acid phosphomonoesterase activity was assayed spectrophotometrically. The obtained result showed that the application of Avans Premium 360 SL decreased in acid and alkaline phosphomonoesterase activity in clay soil. Significant interaction effect between the dosage of Avans Premium 360 SL, NaCl amount and day of experiment was reported in the experiment. The inhibitory effect of Avans Premium 360 SL was the highest in soil with NaCl at the amount of 6%.

  15. Economic policy uncertainty, equity premium and dependence between their quantiles: Evidence from quantile-on-quantile approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raza, Syed Ali; Zaighum, Isma; Shah, Nida

    2018-02-01

    This paper examines the relationship between economic policy uncertainty and equity premium in G7 countries over a period of the monthly data from January 1989 to December 2015 using a novel technique namely QQ regression proposed by Sim and Zhou (2015). Based on QQ approach, we estimate how the quantiles of the economic policy uncertainty affect the quantiles of the equity premium. Thus, it provides a comprehensive insight into the overall dependence structure between the equity premium and economic policy uncertainty as compared to traditional techniques like OLS or quantile regression. Overall, our empirical evidence suggests the existence of a negative association between equity premium and EPU predominately in all G7 countries, especially in the extreme low and extreme high tails. However, differences exist among countries and across different quantiles of EPU and the equity premium within each country. The existence of this heterogeneity among countries is due to the differences in terms of dependency on economic policy, other stock markets, and the linkages with other country's equity market.

  16. Development of a method for the control of an environmentally friendly cultivation of energy crops at provincial level using a differentiated premium payment; Entwicklung einer Methodik zur Steuerung eines umweltschonenden Energiepflanzenanbaus auf Landesebene durch eine differenzierte Praemienzahlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greiff, Kathrin Britta

    2012-07-01

    energy crops rape seed and corn lead to an increase of environmental impact on regional scale. Using the method developed in this work for a scenario for the year 2020 leads to a decrease of negative environmental impact. This result shows that the developed method suits for an environmental friendly support scheme. Developing a regional and crop specific premium based on the designed method leads to needed capital of about 128 Mio. Euro per year (338 Euro/ha) up to 146 Mio. Euro per year (445 Euro/ha). In contrast to this, the capital needed for the NaWaRo-Bonus in 2007 in Bavaria has been about 47 Mio Euro (605 Euro/ha). The disestablishment of the hitherto unspecific support system (NaWaRo-Bonus, biofuel Quota and tax exemption) is preconditioned for the new support system based on the regional and crop specific premium. This premium can be integrated in the second pillar of agricultural support in the EU. The integration is possible in the Annexes I or III of the European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development (EAFRD). Due to the simple appliance of the regional and crop specific premium the effort for controlling seems to be very low. In contrast, the needed governmental capital might be disadvantageous for implementing such a premium. Because of this, it should be considered to refinance the governmental costs by an energy crop fee rendered by energy companies. (orig.)

  17. Social differentials in speed-premium effects in childbearing in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan M. Hoem

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In Sweden, parents receive a parental-leave allowance of a high percentage (currently 80% of their pre-birth salary for about a year in connection with any birth. If they space their births sufficiently closely, they avoid a reduction in the allowance caused by any reduced income earned between the births. The gain is popularly called a "speed premium". In previous work we have shown that childbearing was sped up correspondingly. This is clear evidence of a causal effect of a policy change on childbearing behavior. In the present paper, we study how this change in behavior was adopted in various social strata of the Swedish population.

  18. The Early Exercise Premium Representation for American Options on Multiply Assets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimsiak, Tomasz; Rozkosz, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    In the paper we consider the problem of valuation of American options written on dividend-paying assets whose price dynamics follow the classical multidimensional Black and Scholes model. We provide a general early exercise premium representation formula for options with payoff functions which are convex or satisfy mild regularity assumptions. Examples include index options, spread options, call on max options, put on min options, multiply strike options and power-product options. In the proof of the formula we exploit close connections between the optimal stopping problems associated with valuation of American options, obstacle problems and reflected backward stochastic differential equations

  19. Branding Plan for Arctic Well Spring Water: Establishing a Premium Brand in China

    OpenAIRE

    Lesonen, Essi

    2015-01-01

    The Chinese middle class has been growing at a fast pace during the past years and they have more purchasing power than ever. The growing middle class is also concerned about their health and safety and they are willing to spend money on premium international water. The idea for this thesis came from a group of people in Finland and China who are interested in exporting spring water from the Finnish Lapland to China. The reason for choosing China was the enormity and potential of the mark...

  20. Perception and description of premium beers by panels with different degrees of product expertise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giacalone, Davide; Ribeiro, Leticia Machado; Frøst, Michael Bom

    2016-01-01

    The present study compares subjects with varying degrees of product expertise with regards to their ability to provide a sensory profile of beverages. Eight premium beers were evaluated by three different panels using a Napping® test, followed by a descriptive task. Two panels were constituted of...... were all above 0.90, indicating high configurational similarity. In contrast, PLS-DA showed significant differences in the use of attributes, particularly between Experts and Novices, suggesting that product expertise is more associated with descriptive, rather than perceptual, ability....