Shaver, John H; Sibley, Chris G; Osborne, Danny; Bulbulia, Joseph
News coverage of Islamic extremism is reigniting debates about the media's role in promoting prejudice toward Muslims. Psychological theories of media-induced prejudice date to the 1950's, and find support from controlled experiments. However, national-scale studies of media effects on Muslim prejudice are lacking. Orthogonal research investigating media-induced prejudice toward immigrants has failed to establish any link. Moreover, it has been found that people interpret the news in ways that confirm pre-existing attitudes, suggesting that media induced Muslim prejudice in liberal democracies is unlikely. Here, we test the association between news exposure and anti-Muslim prejudice in a diverse national sample from one of the world's most tolerant societies, where media effects are least likely to hold (N = 16,584, New Zealand). In support of media-induced Islamophobia, results show that greater news exposure is associated with both increased anger and reduced warmth toward Muslims. Additionally, the relationship between media exposure and anti-Muslim prejudice does not reliably vary with political ideology, supporting claims that it is widespread representations of Muslims in the news, rather than partisan media biases, that drives anti-Muslim prejudice.
Velasco González, Karina; Verkuyten, Maykel; Weesie, Jeroen; Poppe, Edwin
This study uses integrated threat theory to examine Dutch adolescents’ (N ¼ 1; 187) prejudice towards Muslim minorities. One out of two participants was found to have negative feelings towards Muslims. Perceived symbolic and realistic threat and negative stereotypes were examined as mediators
Shaver, John H.; Troughton, Geoffrey; Sibley, Chris G.; Bulbulia, Joseph A.
In the West, anti-Muslim sentiments are widespread. It has been theorized that inter-religious tensions fuel anti-Muslim prejudice, yet previous attempts to isolate sectarian motives have been inconclusive. Factors contributing to ambiguous results are: (1) failures to assess and adjust for multi-level denomination effects; (2) inattention to demographic covariates; (3) inadequate methods for comparing anti-Muslim prejudice relative to other minority group prejudices; and (4) ad hoc theories for the mechanisms that underpin prejudice and tolerance. Here we investigate anti-Muslim prejudice using a large national sample of non-Muslim New Zealanders (N = 13,955) who responded to the 2013 New Zealand Attitudes and Values Study. We address previous shortcomings by: (1) building Bayesian multivariate, multi-level regression models with denominations modeled as random effects; (2) including high-resolution demographic information that adjusts for factors known to influence prejudice; (3) simultaneously evaluating the relative strength of anti-Muslim prejudice by comparing it to anti-Arab prejudice and anti-immigrant prejudice within the same statistical model; and (4) testing predictions derived from the Evolutionary Lag Theory of religious prejudice and tolerance. This theory predicts that in countries such as New Zealand, with historically low levels of conflict, religion will tend to increase tolerance generally, and extend to minority religious groups. Results show that anti-Muslim and anti-Arab sentiments are confounded, widespread, and substantially higher than anti-immigrant sentiments. In support of the theory, the intensity of religious commitments was associated with a general increase in tolerance toward minority groups, including a poorly tolerated religious minority group: Muslims. Results clarify religion’s power to enhance tolerance in peaceful societies that are nevertheless afflicted by prejudice. PMID:26959976
Shaver, John H; Troughton, Geoffrey; Sibley, Chris G; Bulbulia, Joseph A
In the West, anti-Muslim sentiments are widespread. It has been theorized that inter-religious tensions fuel anti-Muslim prejudice, yet previous attempts to isolate sectarian motives have been inconclusive. Factors contributing to ambiguous results are: (1) failures to assess and adjust for multi-level denomination effects; (2) inattention to demographic covariates; (3) inadequate methods for comparing anti-Muslim prejudice relative to other minority group prejudices; and (4) ad hoc theories for the mechanisms that underpin prejudice and tolerance. Here we investigate anti-Muslim prejudice using a large national sample of non-Muslim New Zealanders (N = 13,955) who responded to the 2013 New Zealand Attitudes and Values Study. We address previous shortcomings by: (1) building Bayesian multivariate, multi-level regression models with denominations modeled as random effects; (2) including high-resolution demographic information that adjusts for factors known to influence prejudice; (3) simultaneously evaluating the relative strength of anti-Muslim prejudice by comparing it to anti-Arab prejudice and anti-immigrant prejudice within the same statistical model; and (4) testing predictions derived from the Evolutionary Lag Theory of religious prejudice and tolerance. This theory predicts that in countries such as New Zealand, with historically low levels of conflict, religion will tend to increase tolerance generally, and extend to minority religious groups. Results show that anti-Muslim and anti-Arab sentiments are confounded, widespread, and substantially higher than anti-immigrant sentiments. In support of the theory, the intensity of religious commitments was associated with a general increase in tolerance toward minority groups, including a poorly tolerated religious minority group: Muslims. Results clarify religion's power to enhance tolerance in peaceful societies that are nevertheless afflicted by prejudice.
Full Text Available Mohammed Zahid. The Muslim Brotherhood and Egypt's Succession Crisis: The Politics of Liberalisation and Reform in the Middle East. London; New York: I. B. Tauris  2012. Carrie Rosefsky Wickham. The Muslim Brotherhood: Evolution of an Islamist Movement. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2013. Hazem Kandil. Inside the Brotherhood. Cambridge: Policy Press, 2015. The status of the Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt presently is, at best, tenuous. Accordingly, some questions that are pertinent for today and tomorrow include: Is this movement in Egypt that at one point attained a pinnacle of success beyond its members' wildest dreams alive and well? If not, can the movement in Egypt still make a comeback? The three books selected for review offer insights on these and other related questions from different points of view. Of particular interest are the following topics that all three books develop directly or indirectly: (1 history of the movement; (2 the spiritual or religious objectives of the movement vis a vis the political objectives of the movement; (3 the conflict between the Brotherhood leadership and its youthful reformist membership in the organization; and, (4 how these topics were interrelated in the days before and after the fall of Morsi. The three texts cover the historical context of the secular revolution of 2011 from three overlapping temporal vantage points. Zahid covers the Muslim Brotherhood up to 2011; Wickham covers the Brotherhood to the period just after its ascension to power, but before its fall; and, Kandil covers the Brotherhood through its fall from power to the immediate aftermath thereof.
Halal Lifestyle: Understanding Muslim Consumers \\ud November 25th, 2013 Parallel Session 1C Hall C \\ud \\ud my talk starts at: 16:15-25:00 \\ud my answers start at 42:20 [to questions starting at 36:30] \\ud \\ud The Global Islamic Economy Summit 2013 was organized by Dubai Chamber of Commerce & Industry and Thomson Reuters, held on 25th-26th November, 2013 at Madinat Jumeirah, Dubai, UAE under the patronage of HH Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum, \\ud Vice President and Prime Minister of the...
Within Western nation-states such as Denmark, Islamic identities are often seen as inherently and divergently visible, an aspect that some argue is detrimental to the secular nation-state. From a research perspective, one way to nuance this position is by focusing on groups of 'invisible' Muslims...
Hoyle, Fred; Wickramasinghe, Chandra
We discuss a possible biological explanation of the phenomenon of colour prejudice that hinges on the relative advantages and disadvantages in the expression of the strongly dominant gene(s) for melanin under ice-age conditions at different locations on the Earth. An understanding of the genesis of this prejudice could hopefully eradicate or ameliorate its worst manifestations in modern society.
DeTample, Darrell R.
Most Americans misunderstand the terms "Arab" and "Muslim," while also casting Arabs and Muslims as threats to national security. These perceived threats have led to the justification of the oppression of Arab and Muslim Americans similar to other minority groups in the United States, as non-Arab and non-Muslim Americans have…
Bergh, Robin; Akrami, Nazar; Sidanius, Jim; Sibley, Chris G
Many scholars have proposed that people who reject one outgroup tend to reject other outgroups. Studies examining a latent factor behind different prejudices (e.g., toward ethnic and sexual minorities) have referred to this as generalized prejudice. Such research has also documented robust relations between latent prejudice factors and basic personality traits. However, targets of generalized prejudice tend to be lower in power and status and thus it remains an open question as to whether generalized prejudice, as traditionally studied, is about devaluing outgroups or devaluing marginalized groups. We present 7 studies, including experiments and national probability samples (N = 9,907 and 4,037) assessing the importance of outgroup devaluation, versus status- or power based devaluations, for understanding the nature of generalized prejudice, and its links to personality. Results show that (a) personality variables do not predict ingroup/outgroup biases in settings where power and status differences are absent, (b) women and overweight people who score high on generalized prejudice devalue their own groups, and (c) personality variables are far more predictive of prejudice toward low-compared with high-status targets. Together, these findings suggest that the personality explanation of prejudice including the generalized prejudice concept is not about ingroups versus outgroups per se, but rather about devaluing marginalized groups. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Junn, Ellen N.; Grier, Leslie K.; Behrens, Debra P.
Describes an experiential classroom exercise that was designed to help students understand stereotyping and prejudice. The instructor read behavioral and psychological descriptions, asked students to imagine they were Sherlock Holmes, and identify classmates to whom the descriptions might apply. States that students of color reported more benefits…
González-Pascual, Juan Luis; Esteban-Gonzalo, Laura; Rodríguez-García, Marta; Gómez-Cantarino, Sagrario; Moreno-Preciado, Manuel
Modern Western societies are characterized by a considerable cultural and ethnic diversity whereby different groups and minorities live side by side. However, not all people are viewed in the same light by the autochthonous population. This is particularly true in the case of Muslim immigrants, who are often prone to negative stereotyping and prejudice. This has become increasingly apparent since the 2001 terrorist attacks in New York and the subsequent attacks in various Western countries. This study seeks to analyze the relation between female nurses and those labeled by nurses as "Muslim fathers," as part of a research project on the care of immigrant children in Madrid (Spain). The findings promote reflection on the effects of nurses' stereotypes and prejudices regarding the gender roles of "Muslim fathers" and the relations between these groups. These prejudices can lead to situations of cultural imposition and/or discrimination. Self-reflection regarding stereotypes and prejudices is necessary in order to provide culturally competent care. The anthropobiological approach by Marie Françoise Collière may be useful for extending this type of care universally, not only to immigrant groups, as everyone, including nurses, patients, and family members, belong to part of a specific sociocultural context. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Sirois, M L; Darby, M; Tolle, S
Healthcare providers who understand the basic pillars of Islamic beliefs and common religious practices can apply these concepts, anticipate the needs of the Muslim patient and family, and attract Muslim patients to the practice. Cross cultural knowledge can motivate dental hygienists to adopt culturally acceptable behaviors, strengthen patient-provider relationships and optimize therapeutic outcomes. Trends in Muslim population growth, Islamic history and beliefs, modesty practices, healthcare beliefs, contraception, childbearing, childrearing, pilgrimage, dietary practices, dental care considerations and communication are explained. This paper reviews traditional Muslim beliefs and practices regarding lifestyle, customs, healthcare and religion as derived from the literature and study abroad experiences. Recommendations are offered on how to blend western healthcare with Islamic practices when making introductions, appointments, eye contact, and selecting a practitioner. The significance of fasting and how dental hygiene care can invalidate the fast are also discussed. The ultimate goal is for practitioners to be culturally competent in providing care to Muslim patients, while keeping in mind that beliefs and practices can vary widely within a culture. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
VA 22202-4302, and to the Office of Management and Budget, Paperwork Reduction Project (0704-0188) Washington, DC 20503. 1. AGENCY USE ONLY (Leave...toward Arabs, Shaheen also produced a documentary in 2006, “Reel Bad Arabs: How Hollywood Vilifies a People,” which sought to expose the negative...stereotyping of Arabs in the media. The documentary provides example after example of cartoonish stereotypes of Arabs as snake charmers, swindlers
Essers, C.; Benschop, Y.W.M.; Doorewaard, J.A.C.M.
Building on theories of intersectionality, in this article we develop the concept of female ethnicity in order to understand the meanings of femininity for Muslim immigrant businesswomen in the context of entrepreneurship. Through the notion of female ethnicity we analyse four life stories and
Brambilla, Maria; Manzi, Claudia; Regalia, Camillo; Verkuyten, Maykel
The literature on the relationship between religiosity and prejudice has shown inconsistent findings. We argue that it is necessary to distinguish between different types of religiosity and that its relationship with prejudice is mediated by different values. Results of two studies conducted in Italy show that identified religiosity and introjected religiosity predict different levels of prejudice toward Muslim immigrants. Moreover, the negative relationship between identified religiosity and prejudice was mediated by prosocial values, whereas valuing conformity mediated the positive relationship between introjected religiosity and prejudice. The results show that it is possible to better understand the relationship between religiosity and prejudice by disentangling the different ways of being religious.
Putra, Idhamsyah Eka
The present study aims to understand the conditions where prejudice can be predicted by ingroup and outgroup meta-prejudice. The data collecting was disseminated toward Muslim and Christian participants (N = 362) living in Maumere, Flores Island, Indonesia. In Flores, Christianity is the largest religion and Islam is the second. Across two samples, the effects of ingroup and outgroup meta-prejudice on prejudice were found to be moderated by ingroup self-evaluation. It shows that at high level (but not low) of positive ingroup self-evaluation, ingroup and outgroup meta-prejudice were found to predict prejudice. The results suggest that it is important to consider how group members evaluate their own group and how group members think what others are thinking, in the study pertaining to intergroup relations.
Quintana, Stephen M.; Vera, Elizabeth M.
Interviews with 47 Mexican-American children in grades 2 and 6 and their parents revealed that parental ethnic socialization about ethnic discrimination was associated with children's development of ethnic knowledge. Children's understanding of ethnic prejudice was related to their ethnic knowledge but not their ethnic behaviors. Contains 24…
Alghamdi, Malak A; Ziermann, Janine M; Diogo, Rui
It is usually assumed that Galen is one of the fathers of anatomy and that between the Corpus Galenicum and the Renaissance there was no major advance in anatomical knowledge. However, it is also consensually accepted that Muslim scholars had the intellectual leadership from the 8th/9th to 13th centuries, and that they made remarkable progresses in numerous scientific fields including medicine. So, how is it possible that they did not contribute to advance human anatomy during that period? According to the dominant view, Muslim scholars exclusively had a passive role: their transmission of knowledge from the Greeks to the West. Here, we summarize, for the first time in a single paper, the studies of major Muslim scholars that published on human anatomy before Vesalius. This summary is based on analyses of original Arabic texts and of more recent publications by anatomists and historians, and on comparisons between the descriptions provided by Galen and by these Muslim scholars. We show that Arabic speakers and Persians made important advances in human anatomy well before Vesalius. The most notable exception concerns the muscular system: strikingly, there were apparently neither advances made by Muslims nor by Westerners for more than 1000 years. Unbiased discussions of these and other related issues, and particularly of the mainly untold story about the major contributions of Muslim scholars to anatomy, are crucial to our knowledge of the history of anatomy, biology and sciences, and also of our way of thinking, biases, and prejudices. Anat Rec, 300:986-1008, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Schaller, Mark; Neuberg, Steven L
Different groups, because they are perceived to pose different threats, elicit different prejudices. Collective action by disadvantaged groups can amplify the perception of specific threats, with predictable and potentially counterproductive consequences. It is important to carefully consider the threat-based psychology of prejudice(s) before implementing any strategy intended to promote positive social change.
Ally, Yaseen; Laher, Sumaya
The important role that religious beliefs may have on perceptions of mental illness cannot be ignored. Many religions including Islam advocate witchcraft and spirit possession--all of which are thought to influence the behaviour of a person so as to resemble that of a mentally ill individual. Thus this research explored Muslim Faith Healers perceptions of mental and spiritual illness in terms of their understanding of the distinctions between the two, the aetiologies and the treatments thereof. Six Muslim Healers in the Johannesburg community were interviewed and thematic content analysis was used to analyse the data. From the results it is clear that the faith healers were aware of the distinction between mental and spiritual illnesses. It was also apparent that Islam has a clear taxonomy that distinguishes illness and the causes thereof. Treatments are then advised accordingly. Thus this paper argues that the predominant Western view of the aetiology and understanding of mental illness needs to acknowledge the various culturally inclined taxonomies of mental illness so as to better understand and aid clients.
Based on Self-Determination Theory, the role of parental extrinsic versus intrinsic (E / I) goal promotion for adolescent ethnic prejudice and the mechanisms underlying this effect were examined in a sample of adolescents and their parents. Results indicate that paternal and maternal E / I goal promotion had a significantly positive effect on ethnic prejudice. This effect could be accounted for by differences in adolescent right-wing authoritarianism (RWA) and social dominance orientation (SDO). In addition, differences in adolescent E / I goal pursuit fully mediated the effects of parental E / I goal promotion on RWA and SDO. Finally, the effects of adolescent E / I goal pursuits on ethnic prejudice were fully mediated by RWA and SDO. Implications of these findings will be discussed.
Brockett, Adrian; Village, Andrew; Francis, Leslie J.
The Outgroup Prejudice Index is a six-item scale that uses social distance to assess prejudice towards ethnic and religious out groups among Asians and whites. It was developed among a sample of 2,982 teenagers attending schools in northern England who indicated their religion as "Muslim", "Christian" or "No…
There are about 1.8 billion Muslims around the world, in which almost one in four of the world’s population is a Muslim, and this number is expected to grow by a significant 35% to 2.2 billion in 2030 globally (Ogilvydo, 2014). Hence, the purchasing power of Muslims market is increasing constantly. Global brands dealing with multicultural markets such as the Muslim market face difficulty with respect to the extent to which international marketing strategy is standardized across national borde...
Van de Vyver, Julie; Houston, Diane M; Abrams, Dominic; Vasiljevic, Milica
Major terrorist events, such as the recent attacks in Ankara, Sinai, and Paris, can have profound effects on a nation's values, attitudes, and prejudices. Yet psychological evidence testing the impact of such events via data collected immediately before and after an attack is understandably rare. In the present research, we tested the independent and joint effects of threat (the July 7, 2005, London bombings) and political ideology on endorsement of moral foundations and prejudices among two nationally representative samples (combined N = 2,031) about 6 weeks before and 1 month after the London bombings. After the bombings, there was greater endorsement of the in-group foundation, lower endorsement of the fairness-reciprocity foundation, and stronger prejudices toward Muslims and immigrants. The differences in both the endorsement of the foundations and the prejudices were larger among people with a liberal orientation than among those with a conservative orientation. Furthermore, the changes in endorsement of moral foundations among liberals explained their increases in prejudice. The results highlight the value of psychological theory and research for understanding societal changes in attitudes and prejudices after major terrorist events. © The Author(s) 2015.
Boag, Elle M; Carnelley, Katherine B
In two studies, we examined the novel hypothesis that empathy is a mechanism through which the relationship between attachment patterns and prejudice can be explained. Study 1 examined primed attachment security (vs. neutral prime), empathy, and prejudice towards immigrants. Study 2 examined primed attachment patterns (secure, avoidant, anxious), empathy subscales (perspective taking, empathic concern, personal distress), and prejudice towards Muslims. Across both studies, empathy mediated the relationship between primed attachment security and low prejudice levels. The findings suggest that enhancing felt security and empathic skills in individuals high in attachment-avoidance may lead to reduced prejudice. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.
Hariri, Jacob Gerner
The democratic deficit in the Middle East and the Muslim world is well-established. No study has, however, identified what it is about being a Middle Eastern or Muslim-majority country that impedes democracy. The explanatory deficit has given rise to an idea of Middle Eastern....... If they were colonized, territories with more developed state structures were more likely to experience an indirect form of colonial rule. Such territories, including the Islamic heartland in the Middle East, experienced less European settlement and colonial rule through local intermediaries and were therefore...
Herek, Gregory M; McLemore, Kevin A
Despite shifts toward greater acceptance in U.S. public opinion and policy, lesbian, gay, and bisexual people remain widely stigmatized. This article reviews empirical research on sexual prejudice, that is, heterosexuals' internalization of cultural stigma, manifested in the form of negative attitudes toward sexual minorities and same-sex desires and behaviors. After briefly reviewing measurement issues, we discuss linkages between sexual prejudice and religion, gender, sexuality, and related variables, and consider how the cultural institutions encompassing these domains create a social context within which individual expressions of prejudice can meet important psychological needs. These include needs for securing social acceptance, affirming values that are central to one's self-concept, and avoiding anxiety and other negative emotions associated with threats to self-esteem. We conclude by discussing factors that may motivate heterosexuals to reduce their own sexual prejudice, including intergroup contact, as well as avenues for future empirical inquiry.
Islam, Nadia; Patel, Shilpa; Brooks-Griffin, Quanza; Kemp, Patrice; Raveis, Victoria; Riley, Lindsey; Gummi, Sindhura; Nur, Potrirankamanis Queano; Ravenell, Joseph; Cole, Helen; Kwon, Simona
Muslims are one of the fastest growing religious groups in the US. However, little is known about their health disparities, and how their unique cultural, religious, and social beliefs and practices affect health behaviors and outcomes. Studies demonstrate Muslim women may have lower rates of breast and cervical cancer screening compared to the overall population. The purpose of this study was to: 1) conduct key-informant interviews with Muslim community leaders in New York City (NYC), to understand contextual factors that impact Muslim women's beliefs and practices regarding breast and cervical cancer screening; and 2) inform the development and implementation of a research study on breast and cervical cancer screening among Muslims. Twelve key-informant interviews were conducted. The sample included imams, female religious leaders, physicians, community-based organization leaders, and social service representatives. The interview guide assessed: 1) unique healthcare barriers faced by Muslim women; 2) cultural and social considerations in conducting research; 3) potential strategies for increasing screening in this population; and 4) content and venues for culturally tailored programming and messaging. Key informants noted structure and culture as barriers and religion as a facilitator to breast and cervical cancer screening. Themes regarding the development of targeted health campaigns to increase screening included the importance of educational and in-language materials and messaging, and engaging mosques and religious leaders for dissemination. Although Muslim women face a number of barriers to screening, religious beliefs and support structures can be leveraged to facilitate screening and enhance the dissemination and promotion of screening.
Carter, Clifford; Rice, C. Lynne
Identifies three major categories of prejudice: conscious/intentional, conscious/unintentional, and unconscious/unintentional. Asserts that prejudice plays a large role in the development of children and has its origins in the individual's group identity. Claims that exposure to and understanding of the development of prejudice can diminish its…
Ahmad, Khadher; Ariffin, Mohd Farhan Md; Deraman, Fauzi; Ariffin, Sedek; Abdullah, Mustaffa; Razzak, Monika Munirah Abd; Yusoff, M Y Zulkifli Mohd; Achour, Meguellati
This study was conducted to identify and describe the patients' perceptions of Islamic medicine based on gender, age, marital, educational level and working status among the Malaysian Muslim population. A nationwide interviewer-administered questionnaire survey was conducted in 2013. An open-ended questionnaire pertaining to Islamic medicine was used to increase the probability of capturing maximum data. This survey implemented a multistage design, stratified by state, proportionate to the size of the state population and was representative of the Malaysian population. Post-survey classification of results was performed accordingly. Complex data analysis was carried out using SPSS 16.0. The discussion was identified and categorised into various sections. The paper concludes that Islamic medicine has a major influence in the Malaysian Muslim community compared to other alternatives. Further, its potential for growth and importance especially for treating spiritual ailments cannot be denied. The respondents indicated that two factors motivate Islamic medicine in Malaysia: (1) the Muslim community opts for alternative healing because of their dissatisfaction with conventional methods; (2) Islamic medicine focuses only on healing spiritual-related problems. The average perception of respondents is that the function of Islamic medicine in healing physical diseases is undervalued and that it is not suitable to replace the functions of modern health institutions.
de Rooij, Eline A; Goodwin, Matthew J; Pickup, Mark
This paper examines how a major outbreak of rioting in England in 2011 impacted on prejudice toward three minority groups in Britain: Muslims, Black British and East Europeans. We test whether the riots mobilized individuals by increasing feelings of realistic and symbolic threat and ultimately prejudice, or whether the riots galvanized those already concerned about minorities, thus strengthening the relationship between threat and prejudice. We conducted three national surveys - before, after and one year on from the riots - and show that after the riots individuals were more likely to perceive threats to society's security and culture, and by extension express increased prejudice toward Black British and East European minorities. We find little evidence of a galvanizing impact. One year later, threat and prejudice had returned to pre-riots levels; however, results from a survey experiment show that priming memories of the riots can raise levels of prejudice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lai, Calvin; Nosek, Brian; Hoffman, Kelly
Implicit prejudice are social preferences that exist outside of conscious awareness or conscious control. We summarize evidence for three mechanisms that influence the expression of implicit prejudice: associative change, contextual change, and change in control over implicit prejudice. We then review the evidence (or lack thereof) for five open issues in implicit prejudice reduction research: 1) what shows effectiveness in real-world application; 2) what doesn’t work for implicit prejudice r...
Das, E.; Bushman, B.J.; Bezemer, M.D.; Kerkhof, P.; Vermeulen, I.E.
Three studies tested predictions derived from terror management theory (TMT) about the effects of terrorism news on prejudice. Exposure to terrorism news should confront receivers with thoughts about their own death, which, in turn, should increase prejudice toward outgroup members. Non-Muslim
Anne Sofie Roald
Full Text Available This article deals with the Muslim community in Sweden in view of the majority–minority dynamics with focus on how values, attitudes, behaviors, and practices of the Swedish majority influence Muslim minority communities and how majority society’s approach to Muslims and Islam influences both the relationship Muslims have with non-Muslims and the understandings that Muslims have of Islam.
AN ANALYSIS OF FEAR AND PREJUDICE WAS MADE THROUGH A SERIES OF ATTITUDE QUESTIONNAIRES, PRIVATE INTERVIEWS CONDUCTED BY TRAINED PSYCHOLOGISTS, AND A SERIES OF PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS. RESULTS SHOWED THAT PREJUDICE STARTED IN THE FIRST FEW YEARS OF A CHILD'S LIFE THROUGH HIS RELATIONSHIP WITH HIS PARENTS. THE ADULTS LOW IN PREJUDICE HAD STABLE OUTLOOKS…
Madison, Guy; Ullén, Fredrik
Human behavior is guided by evolutionarily shaped brain mechanisms that make statistical predictions based on limited information. Such mechanisms are important for facilitating interpersonal relationships, avoiding dangers, and seizing opportunities in social interaction. We thus suggest that it is essential for analyses of prejudice and prejudice reduction to take the predictive accuracy and adaptivity of the studied prejudices into account.
Based on Jane Austen's novel "Pride and Prejudice," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand that classics are those pieces of literature that continue to be popular long after they were written; classics tend to have universal themes; and Austen's writing has been updated and dramatized and, most likely, will…
and processes of becoming. The act of prayer (salat) is used as a point of departure in understanding how it is possible to position oneself as a Muslim in regard to secular and religious discourses present in school and society. The analysis shows how religiosity is intrinsically linked to subjectivity...
Carnelley, Katherine B; Boag, Elle M
There is a paucity of research that examines prejudice from an attachment theory perspective. Herein we make theoretical links between attachment patterns and levels of prejudice. Perceptions of outgroup threat, which activate the attachment system, are thought to lead to fear and prejudice for those high in attachment anxiety, and to distancing and prejudice for those high in attachment avoidance. We review the literature that examines the associations between attachment patterns and prejudice; evidence from attachment priming studies suggests a causal role of attachment security in reducing prejudice. We identify several mediators of these links: empathy, negative emotions, trust, social dominance orientation, romanticism, and contact quality. Future research should manipulate potential mediators and use psychophysiological assessments of threat. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Amodio, David M
Despite global increases in diversity, social prejudices continue to fuel intergroup conflict, disparities and discrimination. Moreover, as norms have become more egalitarian, prejudices seem to have 'gone underground', operating covertly and often unconsciously, such that they are difficult to detect and control. Neuroscientists have recently begun to probe the neural basis of prejudice and stereotyping in an effort to identify the processes through which these biases form, influence behaviour and are regulated. This research aims to elucidate basic mechanisms of the social brain while advancing our understanding of intergroup bias in social behaviour.
Gesser-Edelsburg, Anat; Shbat, Shbat
This study focuses on the process of the integration of Arab Muslim Israelis suffering from mental disorders into the normative community, addressing perspectives of both people with mental disorders and the community. This qualitative-constructivist study seeks to understand the dynamics of face-to-face meetings by highlighting the participants' points of view. The main themes of the findings included stereotypes and prejudices, gender discrimination, and the effect of face-to-face meetings on integration of people with mental disorders (PMD) into the community. The findings support former studies about the integration of PMD into the normative community, but add a unique finding that females suffer from double discrimination: both as women in a conservative society and as PMD. The study findings indicate a perception of lack of self-efficacy of PMD as a key barrier preventing integration into the community, which also prevents community members and counselors from accepting them or treating them as equals. We recommend on a social marketing campaign to be undertaken with the Arab Muslim community to refute stigmas and prejudices, particulary with double gender discrimination suffered by women with mental disorders in the Muslim community and training of community center counselors who have contact with the PMD population.
Ashiq Ali Shah
Full Text Available An analysis of psychological theories and the social dynamics of the society help identify salient attributes and processes relevant to conflict among Muslims. The psychodynamic concept of personality and frustration-aggression hypothesis account for the socialization practices in the Muslim societies, emotional instability, unfavorable evaluation of those holding a different viewpoint and venting out one's aggression on the weaker. The tendency of the Muslims to praise their sect/tribe/religious group leads to a groupthink situation that polarizes intergroup relationships. The acts of categorization in group and out group, as postulated by the social identity theory, contribute towards the distorted perception of each other. The Islamic notions of brotherhood, unity and ethnic identity as means of personal identification and social interaction seems to have been forgotten by the Muslims. Though the Western social-psychological constructs are helpful in understanding the causes of conflict among Muslims, they are not germane to Muslim societies. The group belongingness and group favouritism is not necessarily a tool of discrimination and conflict but is an essential component of one's survival in a collectivist society. The Western theories also do not address the economic and political circumstances responsible for the multitude of conflicts among Muslims.
Byrnes, Deborah A.
Reviews studies on prejudice and children focusing on how children learn prejudice and what can be done to prevent it. Offers three activity and discussion ideas which can be used to develop children's awareness of inappropriate prejudgments. Identifies a selection of related instructional resources and includes a 34-item bibliography. (JDH)
A tour de force of wit and sparkling dialogue, Pride and Prejudice shows how the headstrong Elizabeth Bennett and the aristocratic Mr Darcy must have their pride humbled and their prejudices dissolved before they can acknowledge their love for each other.
A major shortcoming of current models of ideological prejudice is that although they can anticipate the direction of the association between participants’ ideology and their prejudice against a range of target groups, they cannot predict the size of this association. I developed and tested models
This thesis investigates the stereotypical portrayal of Muslims in the American media. More specifically, it explores the relative importance of stereotype theory, prejudice theory and the stereotype content model in the media’s remaking and reinforcing of common stereotypes of Muslims. This study argues that that Muslims were stereotypically portrayed in The New York Times’ and The Washington Times’ coverage of the Muhammad cartoons controversy and the tradition of veiling among Muslim women...
[Artikel ini adalah penelitian etnografi tentang praktik AMPA co’i ndai (ACN di kalangan masyarakat semi-urban muslim Bima di kawasan timur Indonesia. Budaya ini dilaksanakan dengan cara pengantin perempuan, dengan bantuan orang tua dan saudara perempuannya, menyediakan biaya pernikahan (co’i dan mahar. Tradisi ini dipraktikkan hanya ketika calon pengantin pria adalah pegawai negeri, yang diasumsikan memiliki status sosial yang lebih. Namun, saat resepsi pernikahan, deiumumkan bahwa biaya-biaya berasal dari pengantin pria. Narasi kehidupan dari sembilan belas perempuan yang terlibat mengungkapkan fungsi ACN sebagai mekanisme penyetaraan gender dengan meminimalkan relasi kuasa serta nmendudukkan pasangan untuk saling melengkapi dalam keluarga maupun masyarakat. Praktik ACN dapat dilihat sebagai bentuk lokal pemahaman konsep kafā’a, yang berarti “kesetaraan” untuk “melengkapi”. Namun, pemahaman lokal kafā’a ini merupakan bukti kompleksitas relasi kuasa dalam masalah gender.
Shields, David Light
While subdued forms of everyday prejudice may seem harmless, appearances can be deceiving. Such commonplace prejudices form the foundation upon which more extreme acts of prejudice build. And they also leave us vulnerable to costly errors of judgment that can have tragic consequences. That is why addressing prejudice in the classroom is as crucial…
Few of us are free of all prejudices, however subtle and subconscious, and they may affect both patient care and teaching. Here I use reflection about a patient with HIV infection, from the points of view of two doctors caring for him and the patient himself, to explore prejudice against lifestyles that are considered "dangerous". The paper then goes on to discuss research about physicians' attitudes to such cases, the teaching of ethics in a clinical environment and the need to support junior medical staff. Key Words: Prejudice • HIV infections • professional-patient relationships PMID:11314156
Brandt, Mark J
A major shortcoming of current models of ideological prejudice is that although they can anticipate the direction of the association between participants' ideology and their prejudice against a range of target groups, they cannot predict the size of this association. I developed and tested models that can make specific size predictions for this association. A quantitative model that used the perceived ideology of the target group as the primary predictor of the ideology-prejudice relationship was developed with a representative sample of Americans ( N = 4,940) and tested against models using the perceived status of and choice to belong to the target group as predictors. In four studies (total N = 2,093), ideology-prejudice associations were estimated, and these observed estimates were compared with the models' predictions. The model that was based only on perceived ideology was the most parsimonious with the smallest errors.
Sulehri, Waqas A.
The 9/11 terror attacks prompted a large number of public opinion surveys in the Islamic world by Gallup, Pew, Zogby, and others seeking to understand the level and nature of muslim antagonism toward America. Far less attention has been paid to public opinion surveys of Americans concerning their views of Islam, Muslims, and Muslim countries. This thesis sorts through the surveys and presents some surprising findings. First, while American views of Muslim have generally been rather unfavor...
Dural Şenoğuz, Uzay; Dural Senoguz, Uzay
The widespread underrepresentation of women in senior leadership positions and discrimination against them has been mostly explained using socio-cognitive processes, such as stereotypic and prejudicial attitudes against women’s leadership. Any reduction in such unfavorable attitudes of employees seems to be necessary before we can see more gender balance in senior leadership. There are divergent theories and contradicting results on how malleable stereotypes and prejudices toward women manage...
Forscher, Patrick S.; Cox, William T. L.; Graetz, Nicholas; Devine, Patricia G.
Contemporary prejudice research focuses primarily on people who are motivated to respond without prejudice and the ways in which unintentional bias can cause these people to act inconsistent with this motivation. However, some real-world phenomena (e.g., hate speech, hate crimes) and experimental findings (e.g., Plant & Devine, 2001; 2009) suggest that some expressions of prejudice are intentional. These phenomena and findings are difficult to explain solely from the motivations to respond without prejudice. We argue that some people are motivated to express prejudice, and we develop the motivation to express prejudice (MP) scale to measure this motivation. In seven studies involving more than 6,000 participants, we demonstrate that, across scale versions targeted at Black people and gay men, the MP scale has good reliability and convergent, discriminant, and predictive validity. In normative climates that prohibit prejudice, the internal and external motivations to express prejudice are functionally non-independent, but they become more independent when normative climates permit more prejudice toward a target group. People high in the motivation to express prejudice are relatively likely to resist pressure to support programs promoting intergroup contact and vote for political candidates who support oppressive policies. The motivation to express prejudice predicted these outcomes even when controlling for attitudes and the motivations to respond without prejudice. This work encourages contemporary prejudice researchers to broaden the range of samples, target groups, and phenomena that they study, and more generally to consider the intentional aspects of negative intergroup behavior. PMID:26479365
Pettigrew, T.F.; Brika, J.B.; Lemaine, G.; Meertens, R.W.; Jackson, J.S.; Wagner, U.; Zick, A.; Hewstone, M.; Stroebe, W.
(from the chapter) Outgroup prejudice has been a major area for social psychological applications. Yet European social psychology has not widely studied prejudice against the continent's new minorities. These groups provide a useful comparison with which to test generalization concerning prejudice
Hedegaard, Morten; Tyran, Jean-Robert Karl
We present a new type of field experiment to investigate ethnic prejudice in the workplace. Our design allows us to study how potential discriminators respond to changes in the cost of discrimination. We find that ethnic discrimination is common but highly responsive to the “price of prejudice”, i...
Full Text Available Most teachers have experienced various forms of prejudice expressed in the classroom. When one hears attitudes or opinions that go against school and society’s values, it is not always easy to know how to respond appropriately and wisely.Educators have a social responsibility both towards the individual and the community. Individuals are the learning subjects, but the context for learning is group-based. Teachers’ social responsibility entails both individuals that have expressed prejudice against a particular group, and those who identify themselves with this particular group. In addition, educators have responsibility for the group based learning arena, which all the individuals belong to. Beyond this, schools are expected to contribute to a democratic society. Preventing prejudice expressed in the class room will not only ensure a safer environment for the pupils, it will also contribute to society as a whole by promoting democratic values. In other words, there are several reasons why schools should work to prevent prejudice.Many have antipathies or prejudices against groups of people. However, but some groups are more often faced with prejudice than others. A prerequisite for the development of prejudice is the formation of categories. People are able to suppress their prejudices. Prejudice is not created in a vacuum; they are social stances that must be understood in the context of the specific human environment. Studies show that if a person has prejudices against Jews, for example, the person tends to be more disposed to have prejudices against other groups as well, such as for example gays, , Muslims and immigrants. This disposition is called "group focused enmity."When a child is between eight and twelve years, the child starts to check and correct its perception of the world. Before it reaches this stage, the child’s comments about out-groups mainly stems from other people’s instructions. Studies from the USA have shown that
The aim of this article is to compare women’s activism in Diaspora communities in Muslim majority countries, such as Iran, with some of the experiences of women activists in Western counties such as Australia. This is by no means a definitive account of Arab and Muslim women’s activism in either country but an attempt to raise some questions and provide a framework in order to understand some of the issues facing Arab and Muslim activists today. I believe that it is important to look at these...
There has been growing discussion surrounding the phenomenon of Islamophobia in Western societies over the last few years. However, in-depth empirical research of the prevalence and patterns of prejudice toward Muslims remains scarce, especially in the Canadian context. With data from the 2011 Canadian Election Study and the 2014 General Social Survey, this study measures the extent to which negative feelings toward Muslims are present among the general adult population, and the extent to which Muslim Canadians themselves say they have experienced discrimination in recent years due to their religion, ethnicity, and culture. © 2018 Canadian Sociological Association/La Société canadienne de sociologie.
Forscher, Patrick S; Cox, William T L; Graetz, Nicholas; Devine, Patricia G
Contemporary prejudice research focuses primarily on people who are motivated to respond without prejudice and the ways in which unintentional bias can cause these people to act in a manner inconsistent with this motivation. However, some real-world phenomena (e.g., hate speech, hate crimes) and experimental findings (e.g., Plant & Devine, 2001, 2009) suggest that some prejudice is intentional. These phenomena and findings are difficult to explain solely from the motivations to respond without prejudice. We argue that some people are motivated to express prejudice, and we develop the Motivation to Express Prejudice Scale (MP) to measure this motivation. In 7 studies involving more than 6,000 participants, we demonstrate that, across scale versions targeted at Black people and gay men, the MP has good reliability and convergent, discriminant, and predictive validity. In normative climates that prohibit prejudice, the internal and external motivations to express prejudice are functionally nonindependent, but they become more independent when normative climates permit more prejudice toward a target group. People high in the motivation to express prejudice are relatively likely to resist pressure to support programs promoting intergroup contact and to vote for political candidates who support oppressive policies. The motivation to express prejudice predicted these outcomes even when controlling for attitudes and the motivations to respond without prejudice. This work encourages contemporary prejudice researchers to give greater consideration to the intentional aspects of negative intergroup behavior and to broaden the range of phenomena, target groups, and samples that they study. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Wirtz, C.; van der Pligt, Joop; Doosje, Bertjan
The present study addresses negative attitudes toward Muslims in The Netherlands, and combines ideas from integrated threat theory and socio-functional perspectives on threats and emotions. We proposed a model in which symbolic threat and negative stereotypes predict prejudice, social distance, and
Rutland, Suzanne D.
Holocaust education can play a role in countering the ongoing problem of prejudice and incitement to hate that can lead to racial tension and violence. This article examines the beliefs of Muslim school children towards Jews in Sydney, Australia. It then discusses efforts to use Holocaust education to combat racist beliefs and hate language, and…
Full Text Available Madrasa education is a very important part of the History of Muslim education and Islamic studies in India. As many as 25 per cent of Muslim children in the 6-14 year age group have either never attended school or have dropped out, so madrasa school is the only choice for them.
Full Text Available This paper examines the notion of state and leadership according to the contemporary Islamic thought. To be more precise, the paper asks whether it is possible for a non-Muslim to be the president of the majority Muslim country. To answer this, the paper will dwell into the problem of citizenship both in classical and modern Islamic thought by taking into account the political and social situation that shapes this thought. The paper maintains that many Muslims—both in the past and at the present—fail to offer a proper discourse on statehood and leadership in Islamic perspective. The mainstream discourse on this issue—the paper argues—is that which keeps in a good balance the notion of religiosity and citizenship. The rightwing Muslims will provide a textual understanding of the problem, while the left-wing will otherwise offer a secular interpretation of it. This paper will try to keep the two in a balance, and present a fair understanding of what the Qur'an and the Sunnah say about the problem at hand.
Ribberink, E.C.; Achterberg, P.H.J.; Houtman, D.
he literature about secularization proposes two distinct explanations of anti-Muslim sentiment in secularized societies. The first theory understands it in terms of religious competition between Muslims and the remaining minority of orthodox Protestants; the second understands it as resulting from
Luguri, Jamie B; Napier, Jaime L; Dovidio, John F
Myrdal (1944) described the "American dilemma" as the conflict between abstract national values ("liberty and justice for all") and more concrete, everyday prejudices. We leveraged construal-level theory to empirically test Myrdal's proposition that construal level (abstract vs. concrete) can influence prejudice. We measured individual differences in construal level (Study 1) and manipulated construal level (Studies 2 and 3); across these three studies, we found that adopting an abstract mind-set heightened conservatives' tolerance for groups that are perceived as deviating from Judeo-Christian values (gay men, lesbians, Muslims, and atheists). Among participants who adopted a concrete mind-set, conservatives were less tolerant of these nonnormative groups than liberals were, but political orientation did not have a reliable effect on tolerance among participants who adopted an abstract mind-set. Attitudes toward racial out-groups and dominant groups (e.g., Whites, Christians) were unaffected by construal level. In Study 3, we found that the effect of abstract thinking on prejudice was mediated by an increase in concerns about fairness.
This article provides a reflection on the experiences of Muslim women with regard to domestic violence. A qualitative approach was utilised following an explorative, descriptive, phenomenological contextual research design, as the researchers sought to understand the lived experiences of Muslim women in abusive ...
Brandt, Mark; Crawford, Jarret
Existing meta-analytic evidence finds that low levels of Openness and Agreeableness correlate with generalized prejudice. However, previous studies relied on restricted operationalizations of generalized prejudice that only assessed prejudice toward disadvantaged, low-status groups. Across four samples (total N = 7,543), we tested the associations between Big Five traits and generalized prejudice using an inclusive operationalization of generalized prejudice. A meta-analysis of these findings...
Drs. Ewoud Jansen
The corporate goal of striving for stockholder value meets considerable resistance due to various misunderstandings and prejudices. The goal of this contribution is to clear up some of those misperceptions.
Anderson, Joel; Antalíková, Radka
Denmark is currently experiencing the highest immigration rate in its modern history. Population surveys indicate that negative public attitudes toward immigrants actually stem from attitudes toward their (perceived) Islamic affiliation. We used a framing paradigm to investigate the explicit and implicit attitudes of Christian and Atheist Danes toward targets framed as Muslims or as immigrants. The results showed that explicit and implicit attitudes were more negative when the target was framed as a Muslim, rather than as an immigrant. Interestingly, implicit attitudes were qualified by the participants' religion. Specifically, analyses revealed that Christians demonstrated more negative implicit attitudes toward immigrants than Muslims. Conversely, Atheists demonstrated more negative implicit attitudes toward Muslims than Atheists. These results suggest a complex relationship between religion, and implicit and explicit prejudice. Both the religious affiliation of the perceiver and the perceived religious affiliation of the target are key factors in social perception. © 2014 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Muslims are folk-devils that mark the ubiquitous moral panic. For some, the idea of the "Muslim problematic" signifies a long and worrying trend of creeping "Islamification" of state schools. For others, the discourse of the "Muslim problematic" reflects the ongoing racial patholigisation of Britain's minoritised…
Aroian, Karen J.
Although there is ample evidence of discrimination toward Muslim Americans in general, there is limited information specific to Muslim American adolescents. The few existing studies specific to this age group suggest that Muslim American adolescents encounter much discrimination from teachers, school administrators, and classmates. This…
Gervais, Will M; Shariff, Azim F; Norenzayan, Ara
Recent polls indicate that atheists are among the least liked people in areas with religious majorities (i.e., in most of the world). The sociofunctional approach to prejudice, combined with a cultural evolutionary theory of religion's effects on cooperation, suggest that anti-atheist prejudice is particularly motivated by distrust. Consistent with this theoretical framework, a broad sample of American adults revealed that distrust characterized anti-atheist prejudice but not anti-gay prejudice (Study 1). In subsequent studies, distrust of atheists generalized even to participants from more liberal, secular populations. A description of a criminally untrustworthy individual was seen as comparably representative of atheists and rapists but not representative of Christians, Muslims, Jewish people, feminists, or homosexuals (Studies 2-4). In addition, results were consistent with the hypothesis that the relationship between belief in God and atheist distrust was fully mediated by the belief that people behave better if they feel that God is watching them (Study 4). In implicit measures, participants strongly associated atheists with distrust, and belief in God was more strongly associated with implicit distrust of atheists than with implicit dislike of atheists (Study 5). Finally, atheists were systematically socially excluded only in high-trust domains; belief in God, but not authoritarianism, predicted this discriminatory decision-making against atheists in high trust domains (Study 6). These 6 studies are the first to systematically explore the social psychological underpinnings of anti-atheist prejudice, and converge to indicate the centrality of distrust in this phenomenon.
Krolikowski, Alex M; Rinella, Mark; Ratcliff, Jennifer J
Although the negative consequences of subtle and blatant prejudice for the targets of prejudice are clear in the psychological literature, the impact of exposure to subtle and blatant prejudice on non-targets remains unclear. The current work examines how exposure to blatant and subtle sexual prejudice affects non-targets' personal endorsement of prejudice and their identification with the prejudice expresser. Results suggest that relative to exposure to blatant or neutral expressions of prejudice, exposure to subtle prejudice increased prejudice levels. Individuals were also more likely to distance from the prejudice expresser when exposed to blatant compared to subtle prejudice. The implications are discussed.
Crandall, Christian S; Bahns, Angela J; Warner, Ruth; Schaller, Mark
Three experiments investigate how stereotypes form as justifications for prejudice. The authors created novel content-free prejudices toward unfamiliar social groups using either subliminal (Experiment 1, N = 79) or supraliminal (Experiment 2, N = 105; Experiment 3, N = 130) affective conditioning and measured the consequent endorsement of stereotypes about the groups. Following the stereotype content model, analyses focused on the extent to which stereotypes connoted warmth or competence. Results from all three experiments revealed effects on the warmth dimension but not on the competence dimension: Groups associated with negative affect were stereotyped as comparatively cold (but not comparatively incompetent). These results provide the first evidence that-in the absence of information, interaction, or history of behavioral discrimination-stereotypes develop to justify prejudice.
Full Text Available The overt expression of anti-Muslim sentiment is a relatively new phenomenon in Australia. It builds upon racism embedded in history, “clash of civilisations” ideologies and constructs of border-terrorism. Denigration of Muslims, commonly termed Islamophobia, is overtly evident in the official sphere, media reporting and increasing popular rejection of Islamic amenities such as schools and mosques. Connected but more insidious is the Islamophobia of the ‘white savior rescue’ movement, in which Muslim men and Islam are positioned as perpetrators of oppression and harm toward Muslim women, requiring non-Muslim intervention. Varied forms of Islamophobia and their impacts are discussed.
Sulehri, Waqas A
The 9/11 terror attacks prompted a large number of public opinion surveys in the Islamic world by Gallup, Pew, Zogby, and others seeking to understand the level and nature of Muslim antagonism toward America...
Full Text Available In the United the States the largest segment of studies has predictively been the descriptive or documenttaion of racial prejudice for over four decades (Crosby, Bromley and Saxe, 1984. The differential treatment of individuals based on their gorup membership, especially race, can be measured by discrriminatory behaviour and prejudiced attitudes. The pre-sumption of certain sttributes in individuals solely on the basis of a particular group, called stereotyping, is another form of prejudice that is a useful measure for racism.
Moore, J. William; And Others
This study examined the relationship of childrens' racial prejudice to child's race, interracial contact, grade, sex, intelligence, locus of control, anxiety, and self-concept. Five facets of racial prejudice were examined: a total index of racial prejudice, dating and marriage, school, social relationships, and racial interactions in restaurants.…
Etxeberria, Felix; Murua, Hilario; Arrieta, Elisabet; Garmendia, Joxe; Etxeberria, Juan
This paper presents the results of a study of prejudice against immigrants in secondary schools in the Basque Country, in Spain. We carried out a review of the best-known questionnaires and catalogues on prejudices regarding immigration and we drew up a new questionnaire, with positive and negative scales of prejudices, in order to apply them to…
Spong, Sheila J.
This paper considers the implications for training and practice of counsellors' responses to the notion of challenging clients' prejudices. It explores tensions in counselling discourse between social responsibility, responsibility to the client and responsibility for one's self as counsellor. Three focus groups of counsellors were asked whether a…
Olsen, Nancy J.; Willemsen, Eleanor W.
Explores a methodology for studying sex prejudice in children. First-, third-, and fifth-grade students were asked to rate the performance of an eight-year-old child identified as a girl for half of the subjects and as a boy for the remaining half. (BD)
Plug, E.; Webbink, D.; Martin, N.
This article examines whether gay and lesbian workers sort into tolerant occupations. With information on sexual orientation, prejudice, and occupational choice taken from Australian Twin Registers, we find that gays and lesbians shy away from prejudiced occupations. We show that our segregation
Pettigrew, T.F.; Christ, O.; Wagner, U.; Meertens, R.W.; van Dick, R.; Zick, A.
Using three diverse European surveys, we test the relationship between relative deprivation (RD) and anti-immigrant prejudice. We find that both group relative deprivation (GRD) and individual relative deprivation (IRD) are found primarily among working-class respondents who are politically
Bauermeister, José A.; Morales, Mercedes M.; Seda, Gretchen; González-Rivera, Milagritos
Sexual prejudice is linked to hate crimes, mental health, risk behaviors, and stigma. Few studies have examined sexual prejudice among Latinos. We surveyed 382 college students in Puerto Rico. A structural model tested whether contact and positive experiences with homosexuals, perceived similarities with peers' attitudes toward homosexuality, and religiosity were predictive of sexual prejudice among Puerto Rican young adults. Sex differences in the structural model were explored. With the exception of peers' attitudes toward homosexuality, all study variables predict sexual prejudice. No sex differences were found. Implications for decreasing sexual prejudice among Puerto Rican youth in a college setting are discussed. PMID:18689195
Cotta, R.C.; Gainer, J.S.; Hewett, J.L.; Rizzo, T.G.; /SLAC
might not be sufficient to determine the correct model of the underlying physics. As a first look at the signatures of these models in indirect detection experiments, we examined whether our models could explain the PAMELA excess in the positron to electron ratio at high energies. We find that there are models which fit the PAMELA data rather well, and some of these have significantly smaller boost factors than generally assumed for a thermal relic. The study of the pMSSM presents exciting new possibilities for SUSY phenomenology. The next few years will hopefully see important discoveries both in colliders and in satellite or ground-based astrophysical experiments. It is important that we follow the data and not our existing prejudices; hopefully this sort of relatively model-independent approach to collider and astrophysical phenomenology can be useful in this regard.
determine the correct model of the underlying physics. As a first look at the signatures of these models in indirect detection experiments, we examined whether our models could explain the PAMELA excess in the positron to electron ratio at high energies. We find that there are models which fit the PAMELA data rather well, and some of these have significantly smaller boost factors than generally assumed for a thermal relic. The study of the pMSSM presents exciting new possibilities for SUSY phenomenology. The next few years will hopefully see important discoveries both in colliders and in satellite or ground-based astrophysical experiments. It is important that we follow the data and not our existing prejudices; hopefully this sort of relatively model-independent approach to collider and astrophysical phenomenology can be useful in this regard.
In Western culture, there appears to be widespread endorsement of Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (which stresses equality and freedom). But do people really apply their equality values equally, or are their principles and application systematically discrepant, resulting in equality hypocrisy? The present study, conducted with a representative national sample of adults in the United Kingdom (N = 2,895), provides the first societal test of whether people apply their value of “equality for all” similarly across multiple types of status minority (women, disabled people, people aged over 70, Blacks, Muslims, and gay people). Drawing on theories of intergroup relations and stereotyping we examined, relation to each of these groups, respondents’ judgments of how important it is to satisfy their particular wishes, whether there should be greater or reduced equality of employment opportunities, and feelings of social distance. The data revealed a clear gap between general equality values and responses to these specific measures. Respondents prioritized equality more for “paternalized” groups (targets of benevolent prejudice: women, disabled, over 70) than others (Black people, Muslims, and homosexual people), demonstrating significant inconsistency. Respondents who valued equality more, or who expressed higher internal or external motivation to control prejudice, showed greater consistency in applying equality. However, even respondents who valued equality highly showed significant divergence in their responses to paternalized versus nonpaternalized groups, revealing a degree of hypocrisy. Implications for strategies to promote equality and challenge prejudice are discussed. PMID:25914516
Abrams, Dominic; Houston, Diane M; Van de Vyver, Julie; Vasiljevic, Milica
In Western culture, there appears to be widespread endorsement of Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (which stresses equality and freedom). But do people really apply their equality values equally, or are their principles and application systematically discrepant, resulting in equality hypocrisy? The present study, conducted with a representative national sample of adults in the United Kingdom ( N = 2,895), provides the first societal test of whether people apply their value of "equality for all" similarly across multiple types of status minority (women, disabled people, people aged over 70, Blacks, Muslims, and gay people). Drawing on theories of intergroup relations and stereotyping we examined, relation to each of these groups, respondents' judgments of how important it is to satisfy their particular wishes, whether there should be greater or reduced equality of employment opportunities, and feelings of social distance. The data revealed a clear gap between general equality values and responses to these specific measures. Respondents prioritized equality more for "paternalized" groups (targets of benevolent prejudice: women, disabled, over 70) than others (Black people, Muslims, and homosexual people), demonstrating significant inconsistency. Respondents who valued equality more, or who expressed higher internal or external motivation to control prejudice, showed greater consistency in applying equality. However, even respondents who valued equality highly showed significant divergence in their responses to paternalized versus nonpaternalized groups, revealing a degree of hypocrisy. Implications for strategies to promote equality and challenge prejudice are discussed.
Phelan, Jo; Link, Bruce G; Dovidio, John F
In light of increasing cross-communication and possible coalescence of conceptual models of stigma and prejudice, we reviewed 18 key models in order to explore commonalities and possible distinctions between prejudice and stigma. We arrive at two conclusions. First, the two sets of models have much in common (representing “one animal”); most differences are a matter of focus and emphasis. Second, one important distinction is in the type of human characteristics that are the primary focus of models of prejudice (race) and stigma (deviant behavior and identities, and disease and disabilities). This led us to develop a typology of three functions of stigma and prejudice: exploitation and domination (keeping people down); norm enforcement (keeping people in); and disease avoidance (keeping people away). We argue that attention to these functions will enhance our understanding of stigma and prejudice and our ability to reduce them. PMID:18524444
Miller, Audrey K; Wagner, Maverick M; Hunt, Amy N
Extant research has established numerous demographic, personal-history, attitudinal, and ideological correlates of sexual prejudice, also known as homophobia. The present study investigated whether Five-Factor Model (FFM) personality domains, particularly Openness, and FFM facets, particularly Openness to Values, contribute independent and incremental variance to the prediction of sexual prejudice beyond these established correlates. Participants were 117 college students who completed a comprehensive FFM measure, measures of sexual prejudice, and a demographics, personal-history, and attitudes-and-ideologies questionnaire. Results of stepwise multiple regression analyses demonstrated that, whereas Openness domain score predicted only marginal incremental variance in sexual prejudice, Openness facet scores (particularly Openness to Values) predicted independent and substantial incremental variance beyond numerous other zero-order correlates of sexual prejudice. The importance of integrating FFM personality variables, especially facet-level variables, into conceptualizations of sexual prejudice is highlighted. Study strengths and weaknesses are discussed as are potential implications for prejudice-reduction interventions.
Lai, Calvin K; Haidt, Jonathan; Nosek, Brian A
Disgust is linked to social evaluation. People with higher disgust sensitivity exhibit more sexual prejudice, and inducing disgust increases sexual prejudice. We tested whether inducing moral elevation, the theoretical opposite of disgust, would reduce sexual prejudice. In four studies (N = 3622), we induced elevation with inspiring videos and then measured sexual prejudice with implicit and explicit measures. Compared to control videos that elicited no particular affective state, we found that elevation reduced implicit and explicit sexual prejudice, albeit very slightly. No effect was observed when the target of social evaluation was changed to race (Black-White). Inducing amusement, another positive emotion, did not significantly affect sexual prejudice. We conclude that elevation weakly but reliably reduces prejudice towards gay men.
Pereira, Annelyse; Monteiro, Maria Benedicta; Camino, Leoncio
Different studies regarding the role of norms on the expression of prejudice have shown that the anti-prejudice norm influences people to inhibit prejudice expressions. However, if norm pressure has led to a substantial decrease in the public expression of prejudice against certain targets (e.g., blacks, women, blind people), little theoretical and empirical attention has been paid to the role of this general norm regarding sexual minorities (e.g., prostitutes, lesbians and gays). In this sense, the issue we want to address is whether general anti-prejudice norms can reduce the expression of prejudice against homosexual individuals. In this research we investigate the effect of activating an anti-prejudice norm against homosexuals on blatant and subtle expressions of prejudice. The anti-prejudice norm was experimentally manipulated and its effects were observed on rejection to intimacy (blatant prejudice) and on positive-negative emotions (subtle prejudice) regarding homosexuals. 136 university students were randomly allocated to activated-norm and control conditions and completed a questionnaire that included norm manipulation and the dependent variables. A multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) as well as subsequent ANOVAS showed that only in the high normative pressure condition participants expressed less rejection to intimacy and less negative emotions against homosexuals, when compared to the simple norm-activation and the control conditions. Positive emotions, however, were similar both in the high normative pressure and the control conditions. We concluded that a high anti-prejudice pressure regarding homosexuals could reduce blatant prejudice but not subtle prejudice, considering that the expression of negative emotions decreased while the expression of positive emotions remained stable.
Full Text Available The aim of this article is to compare women’s activism in Diaspora communities in Muslim majority countries, such as Iran, with some of the experiences of women activists in Western counties such as Australia. This is by no means a definitive account of Arab and Muslim women’s activism in either country but an attempt to raise some questions and provide a framework in order to understand some of the issues facing Arab and Muslim activists today. I believe that it is important to look at these issues in a way that is contextualized in terms of the material circumstances in which women living in Diaspora communities find themselves. In doing so, I hope to reveal the complexity and dynamism of women’s activism and to take on critically, Orientalist, essentialist and racist arguments regarding the nature of Arab and Muslim women’s role in opposing war and neo-liberalism and in the struggle for gender equality. As Edward Said argues, exile forces us to “see things not simply as they are, but as they have come to be that way. Look at situations as contingent, not as inevitable, look at them as a series of historical choices made by men and women, facts of society made by human beings not as natural or God-given, therefore unchangeable, permanent, irreversible.”
Charles, Eric P; Rowland, Nicholas J; Long, Brooke; Yarrison, Fritz
Our research on non-religion supports the proposed shift toward more interactive models of prejudice. Being nonreligious is easily hideable and, increasingly, of low salience, leading to experiences not easily understood via traditional or contemporary frameworks for studying prejudice and prejudice reduction. This context affords new opportunity to observe reverse forms of interactive prejudice, which can interfere with prejudice reduction.
Full Text Available This paper deals with interpretations of prejudices and specifically, prejudices towards people with disabilities, from the perspective of one of the many theoretical approaches. Psychoanalytic theoretical point of view interpret prejudices through the personality of the individual. The study and interpretation of prejudices towards people with disabilities is one of the major themes of modern social model of disability. Psychoanalytic interpretations determine prejudices, as well as prejudices towards people with disabilities, as a result of defense mechanisms, especially projection. This paper discusses the emotional component of attitude, based on its predominance in prejudices, as a extreme attitudes. In this analysis we have taken into account the emotional and unconscious reactions that can compose an emotional ambivalence in relation to the object of an attitude. Prejudice towards people with disabilities were brought in connection with the irrational and emotional reactions and unconscious fantasies related to the object of an attitude.
This article employs two previously neglected indicators of racial prejudice from the British Social Attitudes surveys to examine the social distribution of prejudices against black and Asian Britons. Three hypotheses are proposed and tested: that racial prejudice is declining in Britain; that this decline is principally generational in nature; and that greater prejudice is shown towards more culturally distinct Asian minorities than black minorities. Strong evidence is found for the first two hypotheses, with evidence of an overall decline in prejudice and of a sharp decline in prejudices among generations who have grown up since mass black and Asian immigration began in the 1950s. Little evidence is found for the third hypothesis: British reactions towards black and Asian minorities are broadly similar suggesting racial differences may still be the main factor prompting white hostility to British minorities.
Utsey, Shawn O.; Ponterotto, Joseph G.; Porter, Jerlym S.
This article addresses the origins, mechanisms, and expressions of prejudice. A selective review of research finds strong support for the validity of G. W. Allport's (1954) contact hypothesis conditions in reducing prejudice. Methodological advances in the study of prejudice are reviewed, and implications of research findings for counselors are…
MIRELA CRISTIANA NILĂ STRATONE
Full Text Available This study is part of an extensive analysis of the social impact caused by the characteristics of the Muslim family in the Romanian and European society. Between the religious and the social demands, Muslim family manages all the harder to enroll in the course imposed by tradition. A great importance has the knowledge and the understanding of the intra and interfamilial behaviors, this one needs first to detect and to avoid the myths related to the Muslim family. Addressing and clarifying this issue lies in the center of the present study. He represents a necessity without which Muslim family life, the role of the woman and the man in this family can not be understood fully, given that their religion and their way of life tend to cover an area of increasingly greater psychosocial space both at European level and worldwide.
Full Text Available This article discusses Islamic culture that undergoes shift in meaning as a form of expression and self-representation of Middle Class Muslim Women. Basically, the religious movement of women constitutes a form of identity assertion. The Middle Class Muslim Women unconsciously exhibit new culture, although it must be admitted that not all Middle Class Muslims in Indonesia follow popular lifestyle. Instead, they demonstrate culture different from what of fundamentalist groups with their turban, cloak, and veil of a specific color. Middle Class Muslim Women create an alternative lifestyle which conforms Islamic norms, flexible, not rigid to build Islamic identity. In general, Middle Class Muslim Women in Surabaya have a relatively similar lifestyle. They tend to be rationalistic in understanding religion. They prefer, for example, more scientific materials to enrich their religious knowledge. Although they are rationalistic and follow the values of modernity, they still adhere to normative values of religion. The ethical values or religious norms are their main guideline for behavior including the reason for wearing Muslim clothing and veil.
Nadzirah Ahmad Basri
Full Text Available Active religious practice is central to Muslim livelihood. Among Muslims, this religious engagement is rarely studied with regards to its association in coping with critical illnesses. This study investigated the association between Islamic religiosity with depression and anxiety in Muslim cancer patients. Fifty-nine cancer patients recruited from a Malaysian public hospital and a cancer support group completed the Muslim Religiosity and Personality Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory and Beck Anxiety Inventory in July and August 2010. Islamic religiosity score, obtained from the sum of subscale scores of Islamic worldview and religious personality represents a greater understanding and practice of Islam in a comprehensive manner. Results yielded a significant negative correlation between Islamic religiosity score with both depression and anxiety. Depression was also found to be negatively associated with religious personality subscale. Older patients scored significantly higher on both Islamic worldview and religious personality whereas patients with higher education scored higher on Islamic worldview. Married patients scored significantly higher scores on religious personality than the single patients. Results provided an insight into the significant role of religious intervention which has huge potentials to improve the psychological health of cancer patients particularly Muslims in Malaysia. Research implication includes the call for professionals to meet the spiritual needs of Muslim cancer patients and incorporating religious components in their treatment, especially in palliative care.
Full Text Available Terrorism is currently becoming an ideological challenge for Muslims in contemporary world. The rise of terrorist groups such as the Islamic State (IS and others who claimed themselves as jihadist and propagates Islamic jihad similar to the idea of the medieval ‘Holy War’ not only target non-Muslims or kuffar, but also their Muslim brothers respectively. This act of terrorism raised dilemma among Muslim societies in general whether to support the extreme groups or to defy them as they portrayed themselves as representing the whole Muslims whereas in fact they only represent a group of disillusioned Muslims. This paper aims at analysing their ideological challenge from the philosophical point of view and Islamic ethics. Generally, this analysis emphasizes on the importance of Islamic ethics and law in order to achieve true understanding of jihad.
Butz, David A; Plant, E Ashby
A decade of research indicates that individual differences in motivation to respond without prejudice have important implications for the control of prejudice and interracial relations. In reviewing this work, we draw on W. Mischel and Y. Shoda's (1995, 1999) Cognitive-Affective Processing System (CAPS) to demonstrate that people with varying sources of motivation to respond without prejudice respond in distinct ways to situational cues, resulting in differing situation-behavior profiles in interracial contexts. People whose motivation is self-determined (i.e., the internally motivated) effectively control prejudice across situations and strive for positive interracial interactions. In contrast, people who respond without prejudice to avoid social sanction (i.e., the primarily externally motivated) consistently fail at regulating difficult to control prejudice and respond with anxiety and avoidance in interracial interactions. We further consider the nature of the cognitive-affective units of personality associated with motivation to respond without prejudice and their implications for the quality of interracial relations.
Wolf, L.J.; Maio, G.R.; Karremans, J.C.T.M.; Leygue, C.
Because of the innocence and dependence of children, it would be reassuring to believe that implicit racial prejudice against out-group children is lower than implicit prejudice against out-group adults. Yet, prior research has not directly tested whether or not adults exhibit less spontaneous
Case, Kim A.; Stewart, Briana
The transgender community encounters pervasive prejudice, discrimination, and violence, yet social science literature lacks research that focuses on reduction of antitransgender prejudice. This experimental study examined the effectiveness of three interventions aimed at decreasing negative attitudes toward transsexuals, correcting participants'…
The aim of the approach of emotional deactivation is to help students reduce the prejudice they may feel towards diverse social groups. Be those groups homosexuals, people living with a disability or immigrants, the victims of prejudice are invited to come into classrooms and to confront the preconceptions that students have in their respect.…
Full Text Available This paper aims to encourage greater reflexivity about the limits of prejudice reduction as a model of social change, particularly when applied to societies characterised by historically entrenched patterns of inequality. We begin by outlining some underlying values and assumptions of this model. We then elaborate how our research on political attitudes in post-apartheid South Africa has led us to question, qualify and sometimes reject those assumptions and move towards a ‘contextualist’ perspective on the efficacy of different models of social change. We agree that the project of getting us to like one another may be crucial for producing change in some contexts. In other contexts, however, it is an epiphenomenon that distracts psychologists from the main causes of, and solutions to, problems such as race, class, or gender discrimination. In still others, with an irony that is evidenced increasingly by research, prejudice reduction may actually contribute to the very problem it is designed to resolve. That is, it may diminish the extent to which social injustice is acknowledged, rejected and challenged.
The article explores the place, role and status of technology in Muslim moral philosophy. Invoking early Muslim encounters with technology the author makes the case why technology is already deeply embedded in contemporary Muslim bioethical thinking. Due to an absence of the philosophical grounding there remains some ambivalence as to why technology is essential to Muslim ethical thinking. Countering the techno-pessimists, the author makes a case in favor of compositional thinking, namely that our thinking itself is altered by our tools and our environment. Compositional thinking opposes the representational mode of thinking that creates a dichotomy between nature versus culture, and technology versus nature. One should, however, anticipate an environment in which technology would be beneficial and not be viewed as potentially harmful.
Jung, Dietrich; Petersen, Marie Juul; Sparre, Sara Lei
Examining modern Muslim identity constructions, the authors introduce a novel analytical framework to Islamic Studies, drawing on theories of successive modernities, sociology of religion, and poststructuralist approaches to modern subjectivity, as well as the results of extensive fieldwork...
This is the first quantitative research to investigate attitudes toward heterosexual anal and oral sex in Jamaica, compare them to anti-gay and anti-lesbian attitudes, and frame them within a broader understanding of sexual prejudice based on gender norms. Fifty Jamaican participants’ attitudes toward heterosexual anal sex were as negative as attitudes toward gay male sex, and more negative than attitudes toward lesbian sex. Negative attitudes toward male sexual behaviours were predicted by m...
Naji Amrani, Imane
The need to understand how Muslim students experience college is a growing concern, given the number of incidents that indicate a hostile environment after the events of September 11, and the subsequent war against terror. Muslim graduate students are more visible on campuses across the United States. This study examines the experiences of Muslim…
Islam is the fastest growing faith in the Republic of Ireland, with the number of adherents reported in 2012 at 50,000. However, despite this number there are only three Muslim primary schools. Empirical research on Muslim schools in Ireland is currently very limited. This article aims to provide insight and understanding into the role of ethos as…
Nanji, Michelle Mojgan
The Muslim population in the United States has faced numerous challenges in the aftermath of September 11th, including increased negative portrayal of Muslims in the media. While there is increased understanding that the social environment in the US has become more Islamophobic, there is little research in applied psychology fields to understand…
The racial segregation of romantic networks has been documented by social scientists for generations. However, because of limitations in available data, we still have a surprisingly basic idea of the extent to which this pattern is generated by actual interpersonal prejudice as opposed to structural constraints on meeting opportunities, how severe this prejudice is, and the circumstances under which it can be reduced. I analyzed a network of messages sent and received among 126,134 users of a popular online dating site over a 2.5-mo period. As in face-to-face interaction, online exchanges are structured heavily by race. Even when controlling for regional differences in meeting opportunities, site users—especially minority site users—disproportionately message other users from the same racial background. However, this high degree of self-segregation peaks at the first stage of contact. First, users from all racial backgrounds are equally likely or more likely to cross a racial boundary when reciprocating than when initiating romantic interest. Second, users who receive a cross-race message initiate more new interracial exchanges in the future than they would have otherwise. This effect varies by gender, racial background, and site experience; is specific to the racial background of the original sender; requires that the recipient replied to the original message; and diminishes after a week. In contrast to prior research on relationship outcomes, these findings shed light on the complex interactional dynamics that—under certain circumstances—may amplify the effects of racial boundary crossing and foster greater interracial mixing. PMID:24191008
Bonn, Scott; Wilson, George
We enhance understanding of the prejudice-induced “color coding” phenomenon among whites by determining whether racial and ethnic prejudices are associated with a previously unexplored policy outcome, spending on drug rehabilitation. We examine attitudes toward both blacks and Latinos; the latter is a group largely ignored in previous research. We assess the impact of several types of racial/ethnic views, including those that manifest modern/indirect prejudice (e.g., stereotypes about violence, individualistic causal attributions) and those that reflect social-distance-based traditional prejudice (opposition to residential proximity and to interracial marriage). These relationships are examined using data from the General Social Survey. Bivariate results support the linkage between both traditional and modern prejudice and rehabilitation spending. Logistic regression analyses also indicate that support for rehabilitation is racialized: Attributing race differences in socioeconomic outcomes to “structural” factors, namely discrimination and lack of chance for education, is associated with believing rehabilitation spending is inadequate, controlling for the effects of other racial/ethnic attitudes and background factors. The relationship between this measure of modern prejudice and the outcome is consistent with color coding. The implications of the findings are discussed, and suggestions for future research that further examine the scope of color coding are offered. PMID:21532926
O'Brien, Kerry S; Daníelsdóttir, Sigrún; Ólafsson, Ragnar P; Hansdóttir, Ingunn; Fridjónsdóttir, Thorarna G; Jónsdóttir, Halla
This study examined relationships between physical appearance concerns (fear of fat, body image disturbance; BIDQ), disgust, and anti-fat prejudice (dislike, blame), and tested whether disgust mediates relationships between physical appearance concerns and anti-fat prejudice. Participants (N=1649; age=28 years) provided demographic data and completed measures of anti-fat prejudice, tendency to feel disgust, and physical appearance concerns. Univariate, multivariate, and mediation analyses were conducted. Univariate and multivariate associations were found between fear of fat, BIDQ, disgust, and anti-fat prejudice for women. For women only, mediation analyses showed that disgust partially mediated relationships between physical appearance concerns and dislike of fat people. For men, univariate and multivariate relationships were found between fear of fat, and dislike and blame of fat people, but disgust was not related to anti-fat prejudice. Newer constructs centering on physical appearance concerns and disgust appear promising candidates for understanding anti-fat prejudice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Vervaet, Roselien; D'hondt, Fanny; Van Houtte, Mieke; Stevens, Peter A J
The aim of this study is to investigate the association between ethnic composition in school and the ethnic prejudice of teachers, controlling for the individual characteristics of teachers and their perceptions of pupils' teachability. Multilevel analyses were carried out on data for 499 Flemish teachers in 44 Flemish (Belgian) secondary schools, collected through an online questionnaire. In this study, ethnic prejudice means a negative attitude to Moroccans, Turks, and Eastern Europeans. A scale was created by taking the mean scores for 18 items, with higher scores indicating greater ethnic prejudice (Quillian, 1995; Witte, 1999). Teachers with long-term higher education or a university diploma are shown to be less ethnically prejudiced than teachers with a lower level of education. Moreover, teachers who work at a school with a greater number of ethnic minority pupils, and at the same time evaluate their pupils as more teachable, are less ethnically prejudiced. These findings highlight the need for more research into the underlying processes, such as pupils' teachability, that influence the relationship between school characteristics and the ethnic prejudice of teachers. More knowledge about the context-specific factors and processes that mediate and/or moderate this relationship can increase the theoretical understanding of the development of ethnic prejudice. It can also highlight particular social characteristics, which can be the focus of social and organizational policy aimed at reducing ethnic prejudices. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Munter, Preston A.
This article, noting some current change in attitude towards homosexuals, discusses the validity of certain beliefs about them and stresses the need for health care that is above prejudice for homosexuals and heterosexuals alike.
Nesdale, Drew; Robbe, Mike de Vries; Van Oudenhoven, Jan Pieter
This study examined the extent to which intercultural effectiveness dimensions (cultural empathy, open-mindedness, social initiative, emotional stability, flexibility) and right-wing authoritarianism (RWA) predicted the ethnic prejudice of 166 Australian respondents toward Indigenous Australians.
Spiers, Hugo J; Love, Bradley C; Le Pelley, Mike E; Gibb, Charlotte E; Murphy, Robin A
Despite advances in understanding the brain structures involved in the expression of stereotypes and prejudice, little is known about the brain structures involved in their acquisition. Here, we combined fMRI, a task involving learning the valence of different social groups, and modeling of the learning process involved in the development of biases in thinking about social groups that support prejudice. Participants read descriptions of valenced behaviors performed by members of novel social groups, with majority groups being more frequently encountered during learning than minority groups. A model-based fMRI analysis revealed that the anterior temporal lobe tracked the trial-by-trial changes in the valence associated with each group encountered in the task. Descriptions of behavior by group members that deviated from the group average (i.e., prediction errors) were associated with activity in the left lateral PFC, dorsomedial PFC, and lateral anterior temporal cortex. Minority social groups were associated with slower acquisition rates and more activity in the ventral striatum and ACC/dorsomedial PFC compared with majority groups. These findings provide new insights into the brain regions that (a) support the acquisition of prejudice and (b) detect situations in which an individual's behavior deviates from the prejudicial attitude held toward their group.
Ali, Arshad Imtiaz
This article explores the raced representations of the "Muslim Other" and how these representations engaged the lived realities and found footing in how Muslim youth understood their identities. Utilizing qualitative life history interviews with 24 Muslim undergraduates, I examine student talk addressing the construction of the Muslim in…
Collective volume of contributions to workshop "Health, Jinn and the Muslim Body" on 17 May 2018......Collective volume of contributions to workshop "Health, Jinn and the Muslim Body" on 17 May 2018...
Al Wazni, Anderson Beckmann
This article presents an exploratory, qualitative study of 12 Muslim women living in the Triangle area of North Carolina, who were interviewed regarding their voluntary practice of hijab (Muslim tradition of veiling), exercise of choice in hijab, their relationship to feminist belief and identity, female empowerment, and body image. Through examining the influence of political movements in concert with market capitalism, this article examines how the hijab and those who voluntarily practice this Muslim tradition challenge or contradict mainstream images of what is marketed in the West as feminist. Moreover, this article seeks to examine how, if at all, the hijab empowers those women who practice it, whether it offers an avenue of female empowerment and liberation not traditionally included in prevailing feminist thought, and how this may contribute to third-wave feminist theory. This article informs social work practitioners of the strength of Muslim women, the exercise of choice in hijab, and contributions to feminist thought as participants respond to assumptions of oppression, patriarchal control, and prejudice in a post-9/11 society.
Alina Beatrice Cheșcă
Full Text Available The images of the other can be found everywhere in the Western civilization and undoubtedly, they have become part of the discourse of colonization. It must be admitted that the encounters between the Western world and the Islam have produced a portrayal of the Islamic religion and Muslim culture mostly in negative, unfair and self-serving ways. Considering that the literature approaching these stereotypes is quite comprehensive, this paper analyses why the Western world has always shown negative images of the Islam and Muslims. The Western image-makers, such as the religious leaders, political institutions and mass-media render the portraits of Muslims in both funny and cruel ways. All these images of the Other seem to have served important goals throughout the history of Western civilization. Sometimes these goals are not very serious, while in other situations they can be terribly destructive. Unfortunately, for Muslims there are bad consequences coming from the social and political background. However, we must all agree that, beyond culture, religion, politics or race, beyond image, prejudices and stereotypes, there should be no boundaries between human beings, our souls and minds, as we are all equal, valuable and important for the whole mankind.
Guimond, Serge; Crisp, Richard J; De Oliveira, Pierre; Kamiejski, Rodolphe; Kteily, Nour; Kuepper, Beate; Lalonde, Richard N; Levin, Shana; Pratto, Felicia; Tougas, Francine; Sidanius, Jim; Zick, Andreas
In contrast to authors of previous single-nation studies, we propose that supporting multiculturalism (MC) or assimilation (AS) is likely to have different effects in different countries, depending on the diversity policy in place in a particular country and the associated norms. A causal model of intergroup attitudes and behaviors, integrating both country-specific factors (attitudes and perceived norms related to a particular diversity policy) and general social-psychological determinants (social dominance orientation), was tested among participants from countries where the pro-diversity policy was independently classified as low, medium, or high (N = 1,232). Results showed that (a) anti-Muslim prejudice was significantly reduced when the pro-diversity policy was high; (b) countries differed strongly in perceived norms related to MC and AS, in ways consistent with the actual diversity policy in each country and regardless of participants' personal attitudes toward MC and AS; (c) as predicted, when these norms were salient, due to subtle priming, structural equation modeling with country included as a variable provided support for the proposed model, suggesting that the effect of country on prejudice can be successfully accounted by it; and (d) consistent with the claim that personal support for MC and AS played a different role in different countries, within-country mediation analyses provided evidence that personal attitudes toward AS mediated the effect of social dominance orientation on prejudice when pro-diversity policy was low, whereas personal attitudes toward MC was the mediator when pro-diversity policy was high. Thus, the critical variables shaping prejudice can vary across nations. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
This article focuses on media debates about interracial and interethnic marriage practices. In 2012, Danish immigrants and descendants, especially Muslim women, were accused of harming the integration processes as they were not marrying ethnically Danish men. Through analysis of newspaper articles...... and Internet debates the article shows how Muslim women became excluded from the national community in these debates. Drawing upon previous debates about interracial/ethnic relationships, the article illustrates how the contemporary criticism mirrors historical criticism of sexuality. Moreover, the 2012 debate...
Full Text Available The increasing flow of immigrants in many European countries and the growing presence of children from immigrant families in schools makes it relevant to study the development of prejudice in children. Parents play an important role in shaping children’s values and their attitudes toward members of other ethnic groups; an intergenerational transmission of prejudice has been found in a number of studies targeting adolescents. The present study aims to investigate the intergenerational transmission of ethnic prejudice in 3- to 9- year-old children and its relations to parenting styles. Parents’ blatant and subtle ethnic prejudice and parenting style are measured together with children’s explicit and implicit ethnic prejudice in pupils and parents of preschool and primary schools in the region of Rome, Italy (N = 318. Results show that parents’ subtle prejudice predicts children’s implicit prejudice regardless of the parenting style. Findings indicate that children might acquire prejudice by means of the parents’ implicit cognition and automatic behavior and educational actions. Implications for future studies and insights for possible applied interventions are discussed.
Pirchio, Sabine; Passiatore, Ylenia; Panno, Angelo; Maricchiolo, Fridanna; Carrus, Giuseppe
The increasing flow of immigrants in many European countries and the growing presence of children from immigrant families in schools makes it relevant to study the development of prejudice in children. Parents play an important role in shaping children’s values and their attitudes toward members of other ethnic groups; an intergenerational transmission of prejudice has been found in a number of studies targeting adolescents. The present study aims to investigate the intergenerational transmission of ethnic prejudice in 3- to 9- year-old children and its relations to parenting styles. Parents’ blatant and subtle ethnic prejudice and parenting style are measured together with children’s explicit and implicit ethnic prejudice in pupils and parents of preschool and primary schools in the region of Rome, Italy (N = 318). Results show that parents’ subtle prejudice predicts children’s implicit prejudice regardless of the parenting style. Findings indicate that children might acquire prejudice by means of the parents’ implicit cognition and automatic behavior and educational actions. Implications for future studies and insights for possible applied interventions are discussed. PMID:29479328
The work is the second of an annual series. It consist of three parts covering the year 2009. The first part contains systematically presented data about Muslims in 46 countries of western and central Europe. Part two comprises five research articles which analyse issues that have been significant...
Nielsen, Jørgen Schøler; Akgönül, Samim; Alibašic, Ahmet
The work is the first of an annual series. It consist of three parts covering the yeat 2008. The first part contains systematically presented data about Muslims in 37 countries of western and central Europe. Part two comprises five research articles which analyse issues that have been significant...
Pirlott, Angela G; Rusten, Marta L; Butterfuss, Reese M
Many studies have investigated heterosexuals' prejudices toward nonheterosexuals, yet LGB's prejudices toward heterosexuals remain largely unexplored. Therefore, we sought to determine the threats and opportunities (i.e., affordances) LGB perceive heterosexuals to pose and whether those affordances explain their sexual prejudices toward heterosexuals. Study 1 analyzed LGB's reasons for liking and disliking heterosexuals, which determined whether the threats predicted to be salient for LGB mirrored the affordances they generated. Study 2 measured these perceived affordances and examined the extent to which they drove LGB's prejudices toward heterosexuals. Generally, perceptions of discrimination and unreciprocated sexual interest threats drove anger, physical safety and sexual autonomy threats drove fear, and values threats drove moral disgust toward heterosexuals, although results varied slightly by perceiver and target groups. Goals to alleviate the tensions between heterosexuals and LGB require an understanding of the dynamics between these groups. This research provides preliminary insights into understanding those dynamics. © 2016 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.
O'Brien, K S; Latner, J D; Ebneter, D; Hunter, J A
the validity of explicit measures of anti-fat prejudice. Here, the UMB, authoritarianism, and physical appearance investment predicted obesity discrimination. The present results provide support for the use of these measures by researchers seeking to assess, understand, and reduce anti-fat prejudice and discrimination.
Based on an 18 month ethnographic case study of a construction partnering project, the paper adopts practice based theory for understanding the identity formation and practices of collaboration in construction. Drawing upon practice based theory in general and actor network theory and communities...... of practice in particular, the construction project is interpreted as configuration of networked practices characterized by strong professional practices (e.g. architects and contractors) and locally negotiated collaboration practices. During the construction project, actors gain experiences in relation...... practices – enabling and inhibiting collaboration. Pride and prejudice are thus central constitutive elements of present construction practices in the formation of identity and development of collaboration processes....
Full Text Available Although immunization is one of the most successful and cost-effective health interventions, there has been always opposition to vaccines. This may be due to several factors, some of which are : 1 the vaccines are given to healthy individuals to prevent disease; 2 the perception of the vaccine value paradoxically declines when the use of a vaccine reduces or eliminates the risk of a disease. Contrasting anti-vaccine movements/ feelings is important in order to keep vaccinate coverage rates high. Specific training of health care workers and other vaccine providers is needed in order to understand the reasons of reluctant parents, and to deal with prejudice and misinformation.
Carr, Priyanka B; Dweck, Carol S; Pauker, Kristin
Prejudiced behavior is typically seen as emanating from prejudiced attitudes. Eight studies showed that majority-group members' beliefs about prejudice can create seemingly "prejudiced" behaviors above and beyond prejudice measured explicitly (Study 1b) and implicitly (Study 2). Those who believed prejudice was relatively fixed, rather than malleable, were less interested in interracial interactions (Studies 1a-1d), race- or diversity-related activities (Study 1a), and activities to reduce their prejudice (Study 3). They were also more uncomfortable in interracial, but not same-race, interactions (Study 2). Study 4 manipulated beliefs about prejudice and found that a fixed belief, by heightening concerns about revealing prejudice to oneself and others, depressed interest in interracial interactions. Further, though Whites who were taught a fixed belief were more anxious and unfriendly in an interaction with a Black compared with a White individual, Whites who were taught a malleable belief were not (Study 5). Implications for reducing prejudice and improving intergroup relations are discussed.
Carr, Priyanka B.; Dweck, Carol S.; Pauker, Kristin
Prejudiced behavior is typically seen as emanating from prejudiced attitudes. Eight studies showed that majority-group members’ beliefs about prejudice can create seemingly “prejudiced” behaviors above and beyond prejudice measured explicitly (Study 1b) and implicitly (Study 2). Those who believed prejudice was relatively fixed, rather than malleable, were less interested in interracial interactions (Studies 1a–d), race- or diversity-related activities (Study 1a), and activities to reduce their prejudice (Study 3). They were also more uncomfortable in interracial, but not same-race, interactions (Study 2). Study 4 manipulated beliefs about prejudice and found that a fixed belief, by heightening concerns about revealing prejudice to oneself and others, depressed interest in interracial interactions. Further, though those taught a fixed belief were more anxious and unfriendly in an interaction with a Black compared to White individual, those taught a malleable belief were not (Study 5). Implications for reducing prejudice and improving intergroup relations are discussed. PMID:22708626
Rattan, Aneeta; Dweck, Carol S
Despite the possible costs, confronting prejudice can have important benefits, ranging from the well-being of the target of prejudice to social change. What, then, motivates targets of prejudice to confront people who express explicit bias? In three studies, we tested the hypothesis that targets who hold an incremental theory of personality (i.e., the belief that people can change) are more likely to confront prejudice than targets who hold an entity theory of personality (i.e., the belief that people have fixed traits). In Study 1, targets' beliefs about the malleability of personality predicted whether they spontaneously confronted an individual who expressed bias. In Study 2, targets who held more of an incremental theory reported that they would be more likely to confront prejudice and less likely to withdraw from future interactions with an individual who expressed prejudice. In Study 3, we manipulated implicit theories and replicated these findings. By highlighting the central role that implicit theories of personality play in targets' motivation to confront prejudice, this research has important implications for intergroup relations and social change.
Costello, Kimberly; Hodson, Gordon
Although many theoretical approaches have emerged to explain prejudices expressed by children, none incorporate outgroup dehumanization, a key predictor of prejudice among adults. According to the Interspecies Model of Prejudice, beliefs in the human-animal divide facilitate outgroup prejudice through fostering animalistic dehumanization (Costello & Hodson, 2010). In the present investigation, White children attributed Black children fewer 'uniquely human' characteristics, representing the first systematic evidence of racial dehumanization among children (Studies 1 and 2). In Study 2, path analyses supported the Interspecies Model of Prejudice: children's human-animal divide beliefs predicted greater racial prejudice, an effect explained by heightened racial dehumanization. Similar patterns emerged among parents. Furthermore, parent Social Dominance Orientation predicted child prejudice indirectly through children's endorsement of a hierarchical human-animal divide and subsequent dehumanizing tendencies. Encouragingly, children's human-animal divide perceptions were malleable to an experimental prime highlighting animal-human similarity. Implications for prejudice interventions are considered. © 2012 The British Psychological Society.
Hodson, Gordon; Skorska, Malvina N
Psychological essentialism, the perception that groups possess inherent properties binding them and differentiating them from others, is theoretically relevant to predicting prejudice. Recent developments isolate two key dimensions: essentialistic entitativity (EE; groups as unitary, whole, entity-like) and essentialistic naturalness (EN; groups as fixed and immutable). We introduce a novel question: does tapping the covariance between EE and EN, rather than pitting them against each other, boost prejudice prediction? In Study 1 (re-analysis of Roets & Van Hiel, 2011b, Samples 1-3, in Belgium) and Study 2 (new Canadian data) their common/shared variance, modelled as generalized essentialism, doubles the predictive power relative to regression-based approaches with regard to racism (but not anti-gay or -schizophrenic prejudices). Theoretical implications are discussed. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.
Full Text Available This essay examines the construction of prejudice and the visibility of the ensuing discriminations associated with the emergence of differences, be it through the affirmation and manipulation of the conditions of difference or through their denial and dissimulation. In both cases, there is a lack of recognition of, or disrespect for, differences that is constitutive of new patterns of violence. This essay builds a bridge between discrimination and violence, emphasizing the diverse forms of discrimination and exclusion, which include: the juridical parameters related to co-existence and re-cognition; the social sciences approach to the construction of differences/non-similarities; the conceptual framework of the category prejudice‘ and its derivative forms of discrimination and social exclusion; the mechanisms of prejudice; and the difference-prejudice relation, image and rationalization of the Other .
Benner, Aprile D.; Crosnoe, Robert; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.
Adolescents’ perceptions of the prejudice in their social environments can factor into their developmental outcomes. The degree to which others in the environment perceive such prejudice—regardless of adolescents’ own perceptions—also matters by shedding light on the contextual climate in which adolescents spend their daily lives. Drawing on the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, this study revealed that schoolwide perceptions of peer prejudice, which tap into the interpersonal climate of schools, appeared to be particularly risky for adolescents’ academic achievement. In contrast, adolescents’ own perceptions of peer prejudice at schools were associated with their feelings of alienation in school. Importantly, these patterns did not vary substantially by several markers of vulnerability to social stigmatization. PMID:25750496
Full Text Available Much of the existing public discourse surrounding Muslim youth in Western societies is framed through a simplistic and static understanding of the role of the Mosque in their everyday life. Mosques are often seen as places for the development of Muslim conservatism where membership is gender and ethno-specific and activities are socially restrictive (Spalek & Imtoual, 2007, p. 195; Spalek & Lambert, 2008; Poynting & Mason, 2008, p. 237. This contributes to an ongoing public preoccupation with the idea that it is necessary to integrate Muslim youth into “mainstream society” as a counter measure to anti-social behaviour and attributed outcomes (i.e. terrorism. This paper, building on the work of Dialmy (2007, p. 70 and Jamal (2005, p. 523, offers an account of how young Muslims network and socialise around the Mosque in Brisbane, Australia. We show that contrary to popular public conception, the role of the Mosque in the lives of Muslim youth is multifaceted and serves as the centrepiece from which the majority of socialisation, across variety formal and informal networks, occurs. This paper also explores the reasons underpinning Muslim youth’s social participation, emphasizing the socio-cultural factors (both within and beyond the place of worship that facilitate and hinder participation across a range of social settings. We argue that discussions on Muslim youth and social engagement must be positioned within an informed understanding of the nuanced role of the Mosque in the generation of social networks within Western contexts.
PTA Today, 1995
Presents guidelines for parents to use in teaching their children that prejudice or discrimination in the home, school, community, or workplace is wrong. The article details how prejudice begins, how to respond to children's questions, and what parents can do to combat prejudice. (SM)
In line with Dixon et al.'s argument, I contend that prejudice should be understood in broadly political rather than in narrowly psychological terms. First, what counts as prejudice is a political judgement. Second, studies of collective action demonstrate that it is in "political" struggles, where subordinate groups together oppose dominant groups, that prejudice can be overcome.
... prejudice. 180.8 Section 180.8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... § 180.8 Withdrawal of petitions without prejudice. In some cases the Administrator will notify the... clarification or the obtaining of additional data. This withdrawal may be without prejudice to a future filing...
... prejudice (Rule 35). 6302.35 Section 6302.35 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BOARD OF CONTRACT APPEALS RULES OF PROCEDURE 6302.35 Dismissal without prejudice (Rule 35). When... prejudice to its restoration to the Board's docket when the cause of suspension has been eliminated. Unless...
... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Withdrawal of petition without prejudice. 171.7... Withdrawal of petition without prejudice. (a) In some cases the Commissioner will notify the petitioner that... clarification or the obtaining of additional data. This withdrawal will be without prejudice to a future filing...
Liu, Yunzhe; Lin, Wanjun; Xu, Pengfei; Zhang, Dandan; Luo, Yuejia
Worldwide racial prejudice is originated from in-group/out-group discrimination. This prejudice can bias face perception at the very beginning of social interaction. However, little is known about the neurocognitive mechanism underlying the influence of racial prejudice on facial emotion perception.
... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Withdrawal of applications without prejudice. 514... Withdrawal of applications without prejudice. The sponsor may withdraw his pending application from.... Such withdrawal may be made without prejudice to a future filing. Upon resubmission, the time...
Castillo, Linda G.; Conoley, Collie W.; King, Jennifer; Rollins, Dahl; Rivera, Saori; Veve, Mia
This study extends the research on racial prejudice by combining previously identified predictors into 1 study to determine their relative importance in contributing to racial prejudice. Results revealed that White racial identity significantly predicted racial prejudice when demographic variables were controlled. Implications of reducing racial…
... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Withdrawal of petition without prejudice. 571.7... Withdrawal of petition without prejudice. (a) In some cases the Commissioner will notify the petitioner that... clarification or the obtaining of additional data. This withdrawal will be without prejudice to a future filing...
... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dismissal without prejudice. 955.31 Section 955.31... OF CONTRACT APPEALS § 955.31 Dismissal without prejudice. In certain cases, appeals docketed before... discretion, dismiss such appeals from its docket without prejudice to their restoration when the cause of...
Muslim schools are a growing phenomenon across the world. Muslim diaspora resulting from multiple factors including political, religious and economic enhanced the need among Muslims to maintain and develop their faith identity. Marginalisation of Muslims, in whatever forms and for whatever reasons, particularly in Muslim minority and/or secular…
Mat Rahim Ainurliza
Full Text Available In the context of multi-ethnic Britain, the major concern lies in the diversity and complexity of Muslims living in the West, which somehow is misrepresented in the western media as a frozen, static population, fixed in time and space. This misrepresentation dominates mainstream media through the hegemony of western superiority. The operation and role of Muslim media organisations are still underresearched yet potentially constitute an integral part of accommodating the minority population within the wider society. This paper discusses on the reception of images published in two British Muslim magazines by taking views from Muslims and non-Muslims into account. The results show that both groups recognize the identities of British Muslims via visual representations in the Muslim media and that the representations challenge the mainstream images of Muslims.
Xu, Runjiang; Li, Yucheng
This thesis attempts to search for the clues related to British domestic exploitation of the peasant labors and overseas colonization of other countries after rereading the novel "Pride and Prejudice," with an aim to bring out Austen's intimacy with Imperialism. It will offer some insights into a better understanding of provincial world…
Museus, Samuel D.; Lambe Sariñana, Susan A.; Yee, April L.; Robinson, Thomas E.
Mixed-race persons constitute a substantial and growing population in the United States. We examined multiracial college students' experiences with prejudice and discrimination in college with conducted focus group interviews with 12 mixed-race participants and individual interviews with 22 mixed-race undergraduates to understand how they…
Rifat S. Ilhan; Abdulkadir Cevik
Abstract By the elementary usage in every day life, Prejeudice is a multidimensional phenomena which is influenced by evolutional, ontogenetical, historical, economic, sociopolitic fields. Because of the biopyschosocial features of Human being, Prejudice emerges in many situations. There for, we can be under the influence of prejudice when we make decision and make our choises. From the psychological point of view, identity development process has an important role at the forming of prejud...
Nesdale, Drew; Maass, Anne; Durkin, Kevin; Griffiths, Judith
To assess predictions from social identity development theory (SIDT; Nesdale, 2004) concerning children's ethnic/racial prejudice, 197 Anglo-Australian children ages 7 or 9 years participated in a minimal group study as a member of a team that had a norm of inclusion or exclusion. The team was threatened or not threatened by an out-group that was…
Haslam, Nick; Rothschild, Louis; Ernst, Donald
Gordon Allport (1954) proposed that belief in group essences is one aspect of the prejudiced personality, alongside a rigid, dichotomous and ambiguity-intolerant cognitive style. We examined whether essentialist beliefs-beliefs that a social category has a fixed, inherent, identity-defining nature-are indeed associated in this fashion with prejudice towards black people, women and gay men. Allport's claim, which is mirrored by many contemporary social theorists, received partial support but had to be qualified in important respects. Essence-related beliefs were associated strongly with anti-gay attitudes but only weakly with sexism and racism, and they did not reflect a cognitive style that was consistent across stigmatized categories. When associations with prejudice were obtained, only a few specific beliefs were involved, and some anti-essentialist beliefs were associated with anti-gay attitudes. Nevertheless, the powerful association that essence-related beliefs had with anti-gay attitudes was independent of established prejudice-related traits, indicating that they have a significant role to play in the psychology of prejudice.
Ghoshal, Raj Andrew; Lippard, Cameron; Ribas, Vanesa; Muir, Ken
Researchers have demonstrated that unconscious prejudices around characteristics such as race, gender, and class are common, even among people who avow themselves unbiased. The authors present a method for teaching about implicit racial bias using online Implicit Association Tests. The authors do not claim that their method rids students of…
Degner, J.; Wentura, D.
Four cross-sectional studies are presented that investigated the automatic activation of prejudice in children and adolescents (aged 9 years to 15 years). Therefore, 4 different versions of the affective priming task were used, with pictures of ingroup and outgroup members being presented as
Nesdale, Drew; Durkin, Kevin; Maass, Anne; Kiesner, Jeff; Griffiths, Judith; Daly, Josh; McKenzie, David
Two simulation studies examined the effect of peer group rejection on 7 and 9 year old children's outgroup prejudice. In Study 1, children (n = 88) pretended that they were accepted or rejected by their assigned group, prior to competing with a lower status outgroup. Results indicated that rejected versus accepted children showed increased…
Suhay, E; Brandt, M.J.; Proulx, T.
Building on psychological research linking essentialist beliefs about human differences with prejudice, we test whether lay belief in the biological basis of political ideology is associated with political intolerance and social avoidance. In two studies of American adults (Study 1: N = 288, Study
Sobredo, Laura Dolores
If being named somehow is condition of human existencies and to a certain extent also makes them determinate, then the dimension of prejudice is perhaps irreducible; at least in this sense, as a previous idea being the site of understanding, reflection and production. The present work starts from the ideas of the production and transformation of reality produced by the theoretical developments that describe and legitimate the practice of a certain discipline and the notion of gender as a socio historical category referring to the social relations of power and subordination established between males and females and are translated, through an extrapolative operation, into social inequalities. By going through the psychoanalytic conceptualisation of the Oedipus Complex in women, an understanding is made possible of some prejudices affecting psychiatrists in thier practice with women pacients. An attempt to read from a particular theoretical framework that makes these women what is called mad, starts from the history of those that name them in such a manner, with reference to the nexus with the mother. Such nexus is transited by each, with a better or worse destiny. Taking into account the responsibility of a determinate creation of subjectivity from the position of subject of the enunciation that is produced in the daily task from a particular ethical position.
Ahmad, Mirza Masroor
Abdus Salam was an Ahmadi Muslim from Pakistan, a renowned theoretical physicist who received the Nobel Prize in 1979 for his work in electroweak theory. Although he was the first Muslim Nobel Laureate, Pakistan's military dictator at that time could not admit that its brilliant scientist was a Muslim citizen. Dr Salam's entire award was devoted to the furtherance of education: he did not spend a penny on himself or his family...
Liz Ercevik Amado
In August 2008, the Coalition for Sexual and Bodily Rights in Muslim Societies (CSBR) organized the CSBR Sexuality Institute, the first international Institute on sexuality and sexual rights in Muslim societies in Malaysia. Liz Amado presents how the Institute expanded the discourse, knowledge and thinking around sexuality in Muslim societies, as well as providing a unique space for the much needed exchange of information and experience among sexual rights advocates. Development (2009) 52, 59...
Full Text Available The majority of the Indonesian population is Muslim, in which the share of Sharia Banking is only three (3 percent of the total banking market share in the country. This indicates a low participation, possibly leading to a negative perception on ethic reputation and low awareness among the Muslim communities in using sharia banking products and services. The objectives of this paper are to analyze the influence of sharia banking organization ethics reputation on Muslims customer loyalty and to analyze the role of satisfaction as a mediating effect on sharia banking organization ethics reputation on Muslims customer loyalty for the sharia banking products and services. Survey with 315 respondents in the city of Malang, Indonesia was conducted to gather information to further understand the situation, to answer the questions raised and to meet the study objectives. Purposive sampling was used to select the relevant respondents. The Structural Equation Model (SEM is used to analyze the direct and indirect relationship between sharia banking organization ethic reputation, satisfaction and Muslims customer loyalty. The findings of this study showed that all independent variables significantly influenced the dependent variable, both directly and indirectly. Satisfaction as mediating factor has a high positive support to the relationship between organization ethic reputation Muslims customer loyalty. Hence, satisfaction plays an important role to support the perception of ethic reputation of the sharia banking organization in influencing Muslim customer loyalty. In addition, the study also suggests that ethic reputation of an organization also helps in maintaining customer loyalty.
Krista Melanie Riley
Full Text Available This paper explores the practices of certain high-profile Canadian Muslims who call themselves “progressive” or “moderate” as an example of attempts to increase one’s claims to national belonging through a reification of tropes that designate many Muslims as fanatical, scary and a threat to the Canadian nation. Through tracing the different understandings of “Muslim” and “Canadian” identities and an examination of articles printed in The National Post, this paper argues that this accumulation occurs in three main ways, with portrayals of the “good” Muslim as a patriotic Canadian, as an object of threat from other Muslims and as a protector of oppressed Muslim women. However, in a context marked by rampant Islamophobia throughout Canadian society, these nationalist practices may do more to produce further racialisation of and violence towards those that they positioned as “bad” Muslims than to ensure any lasting claims to national belonging for those who assert themselves to be representative of the “good” Muslims.
Full Text Available Purpose of the research to know the influence of Muslim Personality on Bullying Behaviours in Islamic Hospital of Palembang City Region. Some research that has been done in the West states that 56% of nurses become victims of bullying in their of workplacecausing harm to both individuals and organizations. The hypothesis of this research is that there is influence of Muslim personality on bullying behaviours in the workplace. The higher the comprehensionand practice of Muslim personality, the lower the occurrence of bullying behaviours in the workplace. This research using correlation research methods, research sample 214 nurses from 2 Islamic Hospital in Palembang, data collected using scalemethod, namely: Bullying Behaviour scale and Muslim Personality Scale and data analysis methods using simple regression analysis with SPSS programming. 22.5 for windows. Based on the results obtained r = 0.412in other word,there is influence of Muslim personality on bullying behaviours in the workplace. The higher the understanding and practice of Muslim personality, the lower the occurrence of bullying behaviours in the workplace and r2 of 0.170 means that 17% of Muslim personality contributed to bullying behaviours in the workplace.
Full Text Available Past research has found a robust effect of prejudice against atheists in largely Christian-dominated (belief-oriented samples. We propose that religious centrality of beliefs vs. practices influences attitudes toward atheists, such that religious groups emphasizing beliefs perceive non-believers more negatively than believers, while groups emphasizing practices perceive non-practicing individuals more negatively than practicing individuals. Studies 1-2, in surveys of 41 countries, found that Muslims and Protestants (belief-oriented had more negative attitudes toward atheists than did Jews and Hindus (practice-oriented. Study 3 experimentally manipulated a target individual’s beliefs and practices. Protestants had more negative attitudes toward a non-believer (vs. a believer, whereas Jews had more negative attitudes toward a non-practicing individual (vs. a practicing individual, particularly when they had a Jewish background. This research has implications for the psychology of religion, anti-atheist prejudice, and cross-cultural attitudes regarding where dissent in beliefs or practices may be tolerated or censured within religious groups.
Hughes, Jeffrey; Grossmann, Igor; Cohen, Adam B
Past research has found a robust effect of prejudice against atheists in largely Christian-dominated (belief-oriented) samples. We propose that religious centrality of beliefs vs. practices influences attitudes toward atheists, such that religious groups emphasizing beliefs perceive non-believers more negatively than believers, while groups emphasizing practices perceive non-practicing individuals more negatively than practicing individuals. Studies 1-2, in surveys of 41 countries, found that Muslims and Protestants (belief-oriented) had more negative attitudes toward atheists than did Jews and Hindus (practice-oriented). Study 3 experimentally manipulated a target individual's beliefs and practices. Protestants had more negative attitudes toward a non-believer (vs. a believer), whereas Jews had more negative attitudes toward a non-practicing individual (vs. a practicing individual, particularly when they had a Jewish background). This research has implications for the psychology of religion, anti-atheist prejudice, and cross-cultural attitudes regarding where dissent in beliefs or practices may be tolerated or censured within religious groups.
Nora Shikeen Amath
Full Text Available There is great interest on issues related to Muslims and Islam; however, a large concentration of the scholarly literature as well as media and political discourses focus predominantly on political issues and actions related to fundamentalism, radicalisation, militancy and terrorism. The dominance of these issues in the discourses does not provide a holistic understanding of Muslims, particularly their role, place and identity as minorities in a Western society. Indeed, we know relatively little about the larger number of Muslim political actors engaged in civil society, especially those involved in creating pathways to social inclusion. Utilising descriptive phenomenology, this paper explores the complex issues of social inclusion and the Australian Muslim communities. Underpinning this discussion is the theory of social capital; as noted by a number of scholars and social policy experts, the theory of social inclusion alone is inadequate and ineffective in creating participation, equality and cohesion. This paper also observes that while many reports and studies provide pragmatic suggestions on how to work towards the social inclusion of Australian Muslims, the concentration on these suggestions tend to focus on how the government can provide these solutions. What is lacking in the literature is the recognition of the Australian Muslim community’s role and agency in initiating and executing the programs needed to address such issues of social exclusion. The 30 unstructured phenomenological interviews demonstrate that Australian MCSOs are proactively engaging with their communities to ensure that they are responding appropriately to these issues. Moreover, they are creating pathways and access for Australian Muslims to better participate, engage in and contribute to mainstream society. In particular, the MCSO actors revealed four themes related to social inclusion: supporting participation in education and training, facilitating participation
Bigler, Rebecca S; Liben, Lynn S
Developmental intergroup theory specifies the mechanisms and rules that govern the processes by which children single out groups as targets of stereotyping and prejudice, and by which children learn and construct both the characteristics (i.e., stereotypes) and affective responses (i.e., prejudices) that are associated with these groups in their culture. Specifically, we argue that children have a drive to understand their world, and that this drive is manifested in their tendency to classify natural and non-natural stimuli into categories, and to search the environment for cues about which of the great number of potential bases for categorization are important. The first step in the process of stereotype and prejudice formation is, therefore, the establishment of the psychological salience of some particular set of dimensions. Four factors are hypothesized to affect the establishment of the psychological salience of person attributes: (1) perceptual discriminability of social groups, (2) proportional group size, (3) explicit labeling and use of social groups, and (4) implicit use of social groups. We argue that person characteristics that are perceptually discriminable are more likely than other characteristics to become the basis of stereotyping, but that perceptual discriminability alone is insufficient to trigger psychological salience. Thus, for example, young children's ability to detect race or gender does not mean that these distinctions will inevitably become the bases of stereotypes and prejudice. Instead, for perceptually salient groups to become psychologically salient, one or more additional circumstances must hold, including being characterized by minority status, by adults' use of different labels for different groups, by adults using group divisions functionally, or by segregation. After a particular characteristic that may be used to differentiate among individuals becomes salient, we propose that children who have the ability to sort consistently
Rassool, G Hussein
Given the rapidly growing population of Muslims in Western societies, it is imperative to develop a better understanding of the mental health needs and concerns of this community. Muslim religious beliefs have an impact on the mental health of individuals, families and communities. The lack of understanding of the interplay between religious influences on health or sickness behaviors can have a significant effect upon the delivery of nursing practice. The Muslim community is experiencing social exclusion (social exclusion correlates with mental health problems) related to their cultural and religious identity. In addition, the emergence of radical extremism and the resulting media coverage have magnified this problem. Misunderstanding the worldview of the patient can lead to ethical dilemmas, practice problems, and problems in communication. Often, Muslim individuals are stigmatized and families are rejected and isolated for their association with mental health problems, addiction and suicide. There are indicators that Muslims experience mental ill health, but that they either are unidentified by mainstream mental health services or present late to the services. The aims of the paper are to examine the religious and cultural influences on mental health beliefs of Muslims, and provide an understanding of mental health problems, and its implications in counseling and spiritual interventions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This article argues that much of the postmodern discourse on the Muslim woman and her veil is symptomatic of what I call the “essentialist paradigm”. The world is seen through the prism of a group’s religious/cultural identity and eventually constructs a Muslim identity – and with it an image of the Muslim Woman. The image of the oppressed veiled Muslim Woman and the treatment of a piece of cloth as synonymous with her whole identity and being are products of this paradigm of thought. Using an interdisciplinary approach that combines discourse analysis and a case study of the construction of the British Muslim community, this article argues that the essentialist paradigm ignores the context of its subject matter with all its accompanying power structures, political and social factors, and the roles played by both the state and fundamentalist Islam in constructing a Muslim identity and with it the Muslim Woman and her dress code.
Liudmila R. Sadykova
Full Text Available The past two-three decades can be characterized by the period of global migration and sharp jump of migratory streams is connected with globalization and with the economic factor, generating labor movement behind resources from Third World countries to the countries with deficiency of labor. The desire to receive comfort life becomes the major reason, and the migrant makes the decision being guided by private interest more often instead of external factors. Western Europe became one of the most important center of gravity of migrants. During the post-war period the need of Europe in foreign labor for restoration of the economy destroyed by war, laid the foundation of mass international migration to this region. Globalization of migratory streams, penetration of foreign culture groups into structure of accepting society and prevalence of multicultural, multiethnic societies are important characteristics of a modern era. Western Europe became one of the most important centers of gravity of migrants. During the post-war period, the need of Europe in foreign labor for restoration of the economy destroyed by war laid the foundation of mass international migration to this region. Special relevance the problem of reception of immigrants, in particular from the Muslim countries, got for the former colonial powers, in particular Great Britain, France, and the Netherlands. Germany also faced this problem; migrants workers from other countries were required for the post-war restoration. Now Germany still is one of the main centers of an attraction of migrants, and concentration of them in this country annually increases. Despite the steps taken by the German government on elimination of Muslim isolation in the German society, its efforts did not bear fruits so far. The majority of Muslims live their life and are still torn off from high life of the country. A possible threat of destruction of the German community appeared when the various ethnic groups
Ali, Arshad Imtiaz
Reflecting upon a decade of research with Muslim youth across the United States, this article highlights the fears and concerns Muslim communities have expressed in the wake of Donald Trump's 2016 U.S. presidential victory. In explicating the concerns expressed by these youth, the author examines the context of Trump's rise and its relationship to…
van de Wetering, W.B.S.; Budak, B.; el Bouayadi- van de Wetering, W.B.S.; Miedema, Siebren
The problems Muslim youth experience in Dutch secular postmodern society. Muslim children and youth are confronted with conflicting norms, values, and expectations at home, in the mosque and in school. If they do not find adults who are able to clarify the conflicts that may arise from this
Nils Petter Gleditsch
Full Text Available In recent years, most armed conflicts have taken place in Muslim countries. Are Muslim countries more war-prone? Not necessarily, if we look at data for the whole period after World War II. But in the post-Cold War era, most wars are civil wars and Muslim countries have a disproportionate share of these. This is not mainly because conflicts among Muslims have increased, but because other conflicts have declined. Muslim countries are also overrepresented among countries with high levels of other forms of internal violence, including non-state conflict, one-sided violence, highly repressive human rights policies, and countries that practice capital punishment. They also have a higher than average participation in interstate conflicts. This is not a “clash of civilizations”—most of the victims are Muslims. We list several hypotheses, apart from religion itself, for why this pattern has emerged, including colonial history, interventions from major powers, and economic and political development. Finally, on a more optimistic note, while many Muslims are exposed to violence, four of the five countries with the largest Muslim populations do not currently experience civil war.
There is good reason to believe that anti-Semitism is rife in Muslim communities across the world. Consequently, one might expect that teaching the Holocaust in schools with a substantial Muslim presence would prove a difficult and stressful experience. In this article, I draw on a diverse body of literature to argue for a more nuanced approach to…
Inman, M L; Baron, R S
Two studies examined the influence of cultural stereotypes and personal factors (one's race, gender) on perceptions of racial and gender discrimination. Overall, the data suggest that our perceptions of prejudice are strongly influenced by specific expectations regarding who are the prototypic perpetrators and victims of prejudice. More general expectations regarding out-group conflict or regarding only the characteristics of the perpetrator appear to have less of an impact on such perceptions. Additionally, women were found to be more likely than men to perceive sexism directed against men and racism directed at African Americans and Caucasians. Also, African Americans were more likely than Caucasians to perceive racist events against Whites and Blacks. The implications of these data are discussed.
Full Text Available In this paper I give a short introduction to the standard way to treat offensive language in contemporary philosophy of language, without giving details on the very rich contemporary literature on the problem. My aim here is to connect what is called a “presuppositional point of view” on pejoratives to the topic of prejudice. At the same time, I want to develop some hints given by Flavio Baroncelli, a political philosopher and colleague who offered some provocative suggestions on the educative role of politically correct language. I will show that some of his ideas are still workable, and at the same time I eventually will try to show what is really new in the diffusion of prejudice through social networks and which kinds of reactions can be foreseen.
Full Text Available The paper aims to show, by means of a close look at the most recent samples of political discourse in Europe and America, how much and how frequently populists set up their narratives around a relatively small number of patterns, such as the worship of the people, a (more or less overt appeal to prejudice and the rhetoric of privilege. In so doing, it offers some useful insights into the nature of contemporary populism.
Hamdi, Nassim; Lachheb, Monia; Anderson, Eric
While a number of investigations have examined how gay Muslim men view homosexuality in relation to religious Western homophobia, this research constitutes the first account of the experiences of self-identified gay men living in an African, Muslim nation, where same-sex sex is both illegal and actively persecuted. We interviewed 28 gay men living in Tunisia in order to understand how they assimilate their sexual, religious and ethnic identities within a highly homophobic culture. Utilizing notions of homoerasure and homohysteria (McCormack and Eric Anderson ,b), and examining the intersection of identity conflict and new social movement theory, we highlight four strategies that participants use to negotiate the dissonance of living with conflicting identities in a context of religious homophobia: (1) privileging their Islamic identities and rejecting homosexuality as a legitimate sexual identity; (2) rejecting Islam and accepting homosexuality as a legitimate sexual identity; (3) interpreting Islam to be supportive of homosexuality; and (4) creating a non-penetrative homosexuality to be compatible with literal Qur'anic interpretations. We discuss the multiple difficulties these men face in relation to religious intolerance and ethnic heteronormativity, and reflect upon the possibilities and obstacles of using Western identity politics towards the promotion of social justice within a framework of growing homohysteria. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2017.
Sahu, Biswamitra; Jeffery, Patricia; Nakkeeran, N
Gender inequalities in educational attainment have attracted considerable attention and this article aims to contribute to our understanding of young women's access to higher education. The article is based on our in-depth interviews with 26 Hindu and Muslim young women attending colleges in urban Bengaluru (formerly Bangalore), south India, and explores the barriers they confronted in fulfilling their aspirations. We highlight the similarities amongst the young women, as well as the distinctive experiences of the Hindu and Muslim interviewees. Financial constraints, lack of safety for women in public space, and gender bias, gossip and social control within the family and the local community affected Hindu and Muslim interviewees in substantially similar ways. For the Muslim interviewees, however, gender disadvantage was compounded by their minority status. This both underlines the importance of incorporating communal politics into our analysis and undermines popular discourses that stereotype Muslims in India as averse to girls' and young women's education.
Mohd Mustaque AHMED
Full Text Available Long distance traveling and trading activity of Muslims from great antiquity brought plants into Manipur (Indo-Burma-China region. The indigenous traveling vehicles, horses needed poppy as their essential medicinal food as well as horse diet. Some words such as- Turushka, Pasha (Pasa, Pangal, Pathan, Mangal, Mughal, are found to be synonymous with the word Muslims and these words were associated with the plants. Ethno-domestication of 18 (eighteen plants in their kitchen garden, flower garden, courtyard, fields, orchards etc, was found. Survey of literature couples with field survey was carried out with an aim to understand the sustainable use of bio-resources. Uses of plants among Manipuri community in various purposes were known to this community. To this aspect, an approach of traditional plant stalk conservation is observed from time immemorial.
In this article, I offer a qualitative study of three spaces created by and for young Muslim women in Toronto, Canada: an after-school drop-in programme for Muslim girls, a Somali women's group and a Muslim women's collective. I focus on data gathered from interviews of seven Muslim women in their 20s who created the spaces, which offered refuge…
This paper reports a study the aim of which was to further understanding of cultural safety by focusing on the social health of a small immigrant community of Muslims in a relatively homogeneous region of Canada following the terror attacks on 11 September 2001 (9/11). The aftermath of 9/11 negatively affected Muslims living in many centers of Western Europe and North America. Little is known about the social health of Muslims in smaller areas with little cultural diversity. Developed by Maori nurses, the cultural safety concept captures the negative health effects of inequities experienced by the indigenous people of New Zealand. Nurses in Canada have used the concept to understand the health of Aboriginal peoples. It has also been used to investigate the nursing care of immigrants in a Canadian metropolitan centre. Findings indicated, however, that the dichotomy between culturally safe and unsafe groups was blurred. The methodology was qualitative, based on the constructivist paradigm. A purposive sample of 26 Muslims of Middle Eastern, Indian or Pakistani origin and residing in the province of New Brunswick, Canada were interviewed in 2002-2003. Findings. Participants experienced a sudden transition from cultural safety to cultural risk following 9/11. Their experience of cultural safety included a sense of social integration in the community and invisibility as a minority. Cultural risk stemmed from being in the spotlight of an international media and becoming a visible minority. Cultural risk is not necessarily rooted in historical events and may be generated by outside forces rather than by longstanding inequities in relationships between groups within the community. Nurses need to think about the cultural safety of their practices when caring for members of socially disadvantaged cultural minority groups as this may affect the health services delivered to them.
Fieder, Martin; Huber, Susanne; Pichl, Elmar; Wallner, Bernard; Seidler, Horst
For modern Western societies with a regime of monogamy, it has recently been demonstrated that the socioeconomic status of men is positively associated with being or having been married. This study aims to compare marriage patterns (if a person has been married at least once) for cultures with a tradition of monogamy and polygyny. As no worldwide data on polygyny exist, religion was used as a proxy for monogamy (Christians) vs polygyny (Muslims). The analyses were based on 2000-2011 census data from 39 countries worldwide for 52,339,594 men and women, controlling for sex, sex ratio, age, education, migration within the last 5 years and employment. Overall, a higher proportion of Muslims were married compared with Christians, but the difference in the fraction of married men compared with married women at a certain age (the 'marriage gap') was much more pronounced in Muslims than in Christians, i.e. compared with Christians, a substantially higher proportion of Muslim women than men were married up to the age of approximately 31 years. As expected for a tradition of polygyny, the results indicate that the socioeconomic threshold for entering marriage is higher for Muslim than Christian men, and Muslim women in particular face a negative effect of socioeconomic status on the probability of ever being married. The large 'marriage gap' at a certain age in Muslim societies leads to high numbers of married women and unmarried young men, and may put such polygenic societies under pressure.
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to explore the factors which are affecting Muslim consumer's perception towards tax deduction through zakat in Malaysia. A conceptual framework was drawn based on the literature. Six factors were extracted through principal component analysis and SEM was run to test the hypotheses. This research found that halal-haram aspect of Islamic Shariah has a very positive influence on Muslim consumers’ perception towards the tax rebate system. In addition, legal consciousness and knowledge about tax and zakat have a positive significant impact on Muslim consumers’ perceptions towards this system. Due to the limited literature available on this subject matter, this study offers unique findings that may help in capitalizing the practices in Muslim countries and to understand their consumers’ perception regarding the tax deduction system. In conclusion, zakat institutions in Malaysia will also be better benefitted through this research finding. =========================================== Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menggali faktor- faktor yang mempengaruhi persepsi para konsumen muslim terkait dengan pengurangan pajak melalui zakat di Malaysia. Suatu kerangka konseptual telah digambarkan berdasarkan literatur. Penelitian ini menemukan bahwa aspek halal- haram dalam Syariah Islami memiliki pengaruh yang sangat positif terhadap persepsi para konsumen muslim terkait dengan sistem pengurangan pajak. Sebagai tambahan, kesadaran hukum dan pengetahuan tentang pajak dan zakat memiliki pengaruh positif yang signifikan pada persepsi konsumen muslim yang terkait dengan sistem ini. Sehubungan dengan terbatasnya literatur yang tersedia terkait dengan masalah ini, penelitian ini menawarkan temuan- temuan yang menarik yang dapat mendukung pengembangan praktik- praktik di negara- negara muslim dan untuk memahami persepsi para konsumennya terkait dengan sistem pengurangan pajak.
Full Text Available In this ethnographic sketch, I analyze the complex processes of Sino-Islamic identity formation by examining the variety and diversity of locally produced “authenticity,” situated within a global understanding of Islam. Even within a single province, among a single official minzu (nationality that People’s Republic of China propaganda, media, and scholarship often construct as a unified, static group, localized practices and processes of identity formation are remarkably diverse. This article investigates how trans/national discourses and practices of Islamic authenticity are localized within two specific field sites: the provincial capital of Kunming and the rural Muslim enclave of Shadian. For the purposes of this article, I focus primarily on how life is temporally and spatially structured, both in everyday practice and in imaginings of one’s place in history, modernity, the Muslim world, and the Chinese state. By setting out details of the daily lives of two Hui Muslim women, I aim to elucidate how temporal and spatial structures of life, which are tied to urban or rural location, reflect and shape local identity formation. I argue that as actors involved in their own self-production, Hui Muslims in Kunming and Shadian negotiated, appropriated, and contested both monolithic notions of Islam and the official state-propagated minzu classificatory system, producing their own versions of authentic Hui Muslim identities. What constituted authentic Hui Muslim identity depended to a great extent on the residence of the individual.
Hopkins, Nick; Kahani-Hopkins, Vered
Political activity is often addressed in terms of rational actor theory (RAT). We review RAT's psychological assumptions and highlight the neglect of collective identity. In turn, we view the perception of 'interest' as contingent upon constructions of identity and explore how different characterizations of collective identity are organized strategically so as to shape people's understandings of their interests and how they should act to realize them. Using examples taken from a study of British Muslims' political activity we emphasize the contested and strategic dimension to identity construction and analyse how activists addressing the same constituency construe Muslim identity in different ways so as to promote different conceptions of collective interest. Specifically, we explore the contested invocations of Prophetic example in the definition of Muslim identity. The broader thrust behind this work is a critique of the sharp dichotomization of Muslim and non-Muslim political activity. We maintain that essentially similar processes of identity construction underlie all attempts to organize collective sentiment and political action (including that comprising so-called 'conventional' electoralist politics in the West), and that conceiving of identity as a site of political struggle underscores the inadequacy of Orientalist characterizations of Muslim identity in terms of a singular, transhistorical essence.
Legault, Lisa; Gutsell, Jennifer N; Inzlicht, Michael
Although prejudice-reduction policies and interventions abound, is it possible that some of them result in the precise opposite of their intended effect--an increase in prejudice? We examined this question by exploring the impact of motivation-based prejudice-reduction interventions and assessing whether certain popular practices might in fact increase prejudice. In two experiments, participants received detailed information on, or were primed with, the goal of prejudice reduction; the information and primes either encouraged autonomous motivation to regulate prejudice or emphasized the societal requirement to control prejudice. Ironically, motivating people to reduce prejudice by emphasizing external control produced more explicit and implicit prejudice than did not intervening at all. Conversely, participants in whom autonomous motivation to regulate prejudice was induced displayed less explicit and implicit prejudice compared with no-treatment control participants. We outline strategies for effectively reducing prejudice and discuss the detrimental consequences of enforcing antiprejudice standards.
Ford, Thomas E; Teeter, Sabrina R; Richardson, Kyle; Woodzicka, Julie A
When people high in prejudice censor prejudice in one setting, they can experience a prejudice rebound effect-subsequently responding with more prejudice than otherwise. Disparagement humor fosters the release rather than suppression of prejudice. Thus, two experiments tested the hypothesis that exposure to disparagement humor attenuates rebound effects. Participants suppressed prejudice by writing fewer anti-gay thoughts about same-sex adoption (Experiment 1) or by reporting greater support for same-sex civil rights (Experiment 2) when expecting to share their responses with others (non-prejudice norm condition) but not if others first exchanged anti-gay jokes (prejudice norm condition). High-prejudice participants then exhibited prejudice rebound in the non-prejudice norm condition only. They rated a gay man more stereotypically (Experiment 1) and allocated greater budget cuts to a gay student organization (Experiment 2) in the non-prejudice norm condition.
Hitlan, Robert Thomas; A Zárate, Michael; Kelly, Kristine M; Catherine DeSoto, M
This research investigated the effects of linguistic ostracism, defined as any communication setting in which a target individual (or group) is ostracized by another individual (or group) in a language that the target has extremely limited ability to understand. Participants were included or ostracized by their group members during a computer-mediated group discussion. Half of the ostracized participants were linguistically ostracized via their group members conversing with one another in a language the participant did not know well (Spanish Ostracism: SO), or in a language the participant did know well (English Ostracism: EO). SO participants reported feeling less similar than both included and EO participants. SO participants also reported being angrier and expressed more prejudice than included participants (and EO participants using effect size estimates). Results also provided support for the hypothesized serial mediation model. Findings are discussed in terms of implications for intergroup relations.
Khadijah Mohd Khambali; Azarudin Awang; Suraya Sintang; Nur Farhana Abdul Rahman; Wan Adli Wan Ramli; Khairul Nizam Mat Karim
New brothers, New Muslim and Mualaf are the terms that are often referred to as individuals who began to cultivate the religion of Islam. In the Malaysian context, in reality they are individuals who had embraced Islam for many years. This situation may affect the relation and integration in the community of Saudara Baru, Muslim origin and non-Muslim family members. Furthermore, it raises the issue of ethnic misunderstanding due to the issues that linger in the life of Saudara Bar...
Full Text Available Campaigns against the halal certification of food in Muslim-minority societies reveal the shift in the representation of Muslims from a visible, alien presence to a hidden, covert threat. This paper uses one such campaign in Australia as a point of entry for analysing the ramifications for Muslim identity of this ‘stealth jihad’ discourse. Muslims living in the west are increasingly targeted not for ‘standing out’ as misfits, but for blending in as the invisible enemy. The scare campaign against halal certification closely parallels previous campaigns against kosher certification, highlighting the increasing resemblance between contemporary Islamophobia and historical anti-Semitism.
Khadijah Mohd Khambali
Full Text Available New brothers, New Muslim and Mualaf are the terms that are often referred to as individuals who began to cultivate the religion of Islam. In the Malaysian context, in reality they are individuals who had embraced Islam for many years. This situation may affect the relation and integration in the community of Saudara Baru, Muslim origin and non-Muslim family members. Furthermore, it raises the issue of ethnic misunderstanding due to the issues that linger in the life of Saudara Baru since Saudara Baru in the context of Malaysia is more prominent as a generator in religious interaction among various ethnic groups in Malaysia. This study aims to see the experience of religious tolerance among Muhajir-Muslim-non-Muslim. Data was obtained using qualitative method which focussed on interviews with twenty Muhajir in Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu, Malaysia. The results highlighted the culture of tolerance among Muslim-non-Muslim-Muhajir in the diversity of living together. This relationship is demonstrated through effective relations, meetings and living together that form friendship, brotherhood and affinity across religious boundaries. This shows Muhajir play a role in fostering tolerance especially in relations between Muslims and non-Muslims in Malaysia.
M. Endy Saputro
Full Text Available This paper aims to give a preliminary draft to formulate an innovative concept in the Qur’anic studies world in the age of post-consumerism Muslim. Recent studies on tug of war between globalization and religion have been identifying salient social transformation in some parts of Muslim world, such as the rise of new (media religious authority, religious commodification trends, varieties of Islamic consumption, the emergence of public Islam and so forth. Apart from these recent scholarships, which successfully grasp the globalization’s influence toward religion (Islam, this paper offers the concept of everyday Qur’an as an alternative basic approach of understanding the cultures of Qur’an in this changing (Muslim world and at the same time, seeking to briefly explain its emerging issues. Some exemplary issues then have analytically discussed to reflect how the proposed theory applied. Thus, everyday Qur’an can contribute the discourse of cultures based technology in the context of Qur’anic Studies.
Zerguini, Yacine; Ahmed, Qanta A; Dvorak, Jiri
Islam is a monotheistic Abrahamic faith characterised by devotional orthopraxy. The actions expected of followers of Islam are closely prescribed in the Qur'an. Muslims understand Ramadan as a mandatory requirement, excused only in the event of illness, infirmity or extremes of age. Due to the increasing popularity of football among Muslims, more and more Muslim football players of all levels make the decision to follow the Ramadan fast while they need to practise and compete. Sports medicine clinicians and scientists have the responsibility to provide them with the knowledge and evidence on how exactly Ramadan fasting impacts on their performance and how to optimise their eating, drinking and sleeping in order to minimise negative effects of their religious practice, should any have been demonstrated. The first International Federation of Football Associations (FIFA) Medical Assessment and Research Centre (F-MARC) study concluded that biochemical, nutritional, subjective well-being and performance variables were not adversely affected in young male national level players who followed Ramadan fasting in a controlled environment. Match performance was however not measured and the study did not include elite level players, leading to the Ramadan consensus meeting in order to answer the remaining questions. The conclusions and recommendations published in this supplement suggest that the best coping strategies will remain individual - as is the choice to fast.
Climenhage, L. James
Many stereotypes about persons with red hair are both gender-specific and derogatory. These stereotypes often stand in stark contrast to gender-role stereotypes for men and for women. In three studies, the current research considered if prejudice directed at redheads is, in part, a result of bias against gender-atypical people. In Study 1, participants read about a bullying incident in which the victim was a boy or girl with red hair or another hair colour. Redheads, in general, were seen as ...
Rinaldi, Sergio; Rossa, Fabio Della; Landi, Pietro
A mathematical model is proposed for interpreting the love story between Elizabeth and Darcy portrayed by Jane Austen in the popular novel Pride and Prejudice. The analysis shows that the story is characterized by a sudden explosion of sentimental involvements, revealed by the existence of a saddle-node bifurcation in the model. The paper is interesting not only because it deals for the first time with catastrophic bifurcations in romantic relation-ships, but also because it enriches the list of examples in which love stories are described through ordinary differential equations.
... world and attitudes toward the United States. However, some of the dynamics that are influencing the environment in Muslim countries are also the product of trends that have been at work for many decades...
Van Wie Davis, Elizabeth
.... Two justifications ethnic separatism and religious rhetoric are given. The Uyghurs, who reside throughout the immediate region, are the largest Turkic ethnic group living in Xinjiang as well as being overwhelmingly Muslim...
Aldeeb Abu-Sahlieh, Sami A
Cloning is a modern medical procedure that Muslim religious authorities treat en resorting to the general principles established by classical Muslim law based on the Koran and the Sunnah of Muhhamad as the messenger of God. In this regard, human beings are not capable of deciding what is or what is not lawful without resorting to divine norms. Cloning clashes with several principles. Firstly, the principle of the respect for life in relation to surpernumeraries, but Muslim authors are not in unanimous agreement on the determination of the moment at which life begins. Secondly, is the respect of progeny: cloning could only take place between a married couple. But even if these two principles are respected, cloning poses two major problems: the diversity of species expounded by the Koran and the Sunnah and a lack of interest. Which explains the quasi-unanimous opposition of Muslim writings regarding cloning.
Full Text Available This paper examines the role and effect of executive coaching and mentoring on the empowerment of Muslim women and enhancing their levels of contribution. It further substantiates the manner in which executive coaching can accommodate both the nature and needs of Muslim women while further unleashing her respective talents, creativity and skills. The study further highlights the role and significance of coaching in spheres relevant to family, as well as social and career development. This study highlights the use of the strategic technique for personal and leadership development set to explore talents, leaders and implicit abilities. Moreover, it exhibits the flexibility of self-coaching and its appropriateness for Muslim women, especially concerning self-development, which in turn influences social and institutional development. This inquiry highlights a number of practical results which emphasizes the viability and efficacy of executive coaching on personal and institutional levels as far as the making of better world for Muslim women is concerned.
Mohja Kahf’s novel the girl in the tangerine scarf highlights a broad spectrum of Muslim feminist agencies. In this essay I look at how her literary representations negotiate religious and feminist discourses in doing so. I further argue that her focus on empowerment through self......-defined spirituality and religion sets her novel apart within the canon of contemporary Arab American literature, as most other Arab American feminist narratives focus rather on reappropriations of orientalist Scheherazade figures to reclaim the transnational histories of Muslim women’s agency. The genre of the Arab...... to the intersectional specificity encountered by Muslim feminist writers who have to work within both Western Orientalisms and the disapproval of Muslim conservatives who denounce feminism as a Western import and refuse any critique of their own patriarchy. Kahf suggests a constant double critique and careful...
building national security structures in most Muslim countries while neglecting social development , particu- larly gender equality . Governments from...tries remain hostage to traditional views on gender issues. While some Muslim-majority countries have inducted women into their armed forces, at... Development (OECD): The average median age in the MENA countries is 25 years, well below the aver- age of other emerging regions such as Asia (29 years
Pristed Nielsen, Helene
Under the headline of ‘the mobilisation of Muslim women in Denmark', this paper contains a series of introductory considerations as well as a few preliminary findings on the relatively unexplored question of how and why Muslim women in Denmark form organisations, and via their organisations...... immigrant women´s organisations, this paper aims to explore patterns of networking among these women, and the level and nature of their interaction with other organisations and societal institutions....
Shelton, J. Nicole; Stewart, Rebecca E.
The purpose of this research is to investigate the extent to which social costs influence whether or not targets of prejudice confront individuals who behave in a prejudiced manner during interpersonal interactions. Consistent with our predictions, we found that although women believe they will confront perpetrators of prejudice regardless of the…
Hamburg, David A.
This essay provides an historical perspective on conflict and discusses the relationship of prejudice and ethnocentrism to intergroup conflict, prejudice and conflict resolution in childhood, as well as approaches to conflict resolution in society. History is full of hateful and destructive indulgences based on religious, racial, and other…
Bonazzo, Claude; Wong, Y. Joel
This qualitative study examined four Japanese international female college students' experience of discrimination, prejudice, and stereotypes in a predominately white university. Four themes emerged from the analysis of data: (1) overt forms of prejudice and discrimination; (2) stereotypes common to Asians; (3) stereotypes unique to the Japanese;…
Adams, Virgil H., III; Devos, Thierry; Rivera, Luis M.; Smith, Heather; Vega, Luis A.
Social psychology instructors from five distinct state universities in California examined the effect of incorporating the implicit association test (IAT) in a teaching module on students' perceived knowledge of implicit biases and motivation to control prejudice. Students (N = 258) completed a knowledge survey on prejudice, stereotypes, and…
Pettigrew, T.F.; Meertens, R.W.
Responds to Coenders et al (see record 2001-06995-005) experiment replication and comments on the article by T. F. Pettigrew and R. W. Meertens' (see record 1995-28884-001) which investigated blatant and subtle intergroup prejudice. Coenders et al produced a different analysis of prejudice from the
This article offers a definition of prejudice and then reviews the literature on relevant theories of its development and methods to identify and map it. It then discusses how prejudice is institutionalised and legitimised in schools, before turning to the main thrust of its investigation: the extent to which international education (K-12) can…
Muslim women are an increasingly underserved population in the United States and worldwide. Diagnosis and treatment of female sexual dysfunction bring unique challenges because of the conservative nature of those practicing the religion. Several cultural and religious codes of conduct affect sexual behavior and the dysfunction that can ensue. To assess and describe the types of sexual dysfunction that have been found in Muslim women internationally and encourage a better understanding of their issues to enhance health care delivery. A comprehensive review of the literature through Ovid and PubMed was performed in search of articles reviewing female sexual dysfunction, Muslim women, and Islam. A brief explanation and review of the interpretations of sexuality within Islam are discussed. The link is made between conservative sexual relations and interpretations and the types of sexual dysfunction experienced. Female sexual dysfunction is explored in relation to how female chastity is extolled and how cultural procedures continue despite the ethical and health concerns related to them. Most Muslim women experience sexual dysfunction similar to other women, including arousal, desire, and orgasmic disorders related to organic and psychologic factors. Sexual pain disorders might be more prevalent in this population, particularly concerning unconsummated marriage. There are special concerns related to maintaining virginity and preserving the hymen until marriage. Female genital cutting, practiced by some Muslim countries, has potential sexual consequences. Understanding Islamic views on sexuality and how they can affect sexual dysfunction in Muslim women is critical in opening lines of communication with patients and approaching female sexual dysfunction impartially. Although some issues that arise might introduce ethical dilemmas for the provider, having the cultural competence to address these issues will facilitate improved health care delivery. Rahman S. Female Sexual
Rattan, Aneeta; Dweck, Carol S
Organizations are increasingly concerned with fostering successful diversity. Toward this end, diversity research has focused on trying to reduce prejudice and biased behavior. But what happens when prejudice in the workplace inevitably occurs? Research also needs to focus on whether recovery and repair of social relations after expressions of prejudice are possible. To begin investigating this question, we develop a new framework for understanding reactions to prejudice in the workplace. We hypothesized that when women and minorities choose to confront a prejudiced comment in a workplace interaction (vs. remain silent) and hold a growth (vs. fixed) mindset-the belief that others can change-they remain more positive in their subsequent outlook in the workplace. Studies 1a, 1b, and 2 used hypothetical workplace scenarios to expose participants to someone who expressed bias; Study 3 ensured real-world relevance by eliciting retrospective accounts of workplace bias from African American employees. Across studies, women and minorities who confronted the perpetrator of prejudice exhibited more positive subsequent expectations of that coworker when they held a growth mindset. It is important that these more positive expectations were associated with reports of greater workplace belonging (Study 2), ratings of improved relations with coworkers who had displayed bias (Study 3), and greater workplace satisfaction (Studies 2-3). Thus, a growth mindset contributes to successful workplace diversity by protecting women's and minorities' outlook when they opt to confront expressions of bias. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Banerjee, Ritwik; Gupta, Nabanita Datta
Becker's theory of taste-based discrimination predicts that relative employment of the discriminated social group will improve if there is a decrease in the level of prejudice for the marginally discriminating employer. In this paper we experimentally test this prediction offered by Garry Becker...... in his seminal work on taste based discrimination, in the context of caste in India, with management students (potential employers in the near future) as subjects. First, we measure caste prejudice and show that awareness through a TV social program reduces implicit prejudice against the lower caste...... and the reduction is sustained over time. Second, we find that the treatment reduces the prejudice levels of those in the left tail of the prejudice distribution - the group which can potentially affect real outcomes as predicted by the theory. And finally, a larger share of the treatment group subjects exhibit...
Full Text Available Becker's theory of taste-based discrimination predicts that relative employment of the discriminated social group will improve if there is a decrease in the level of prejudice for the marginally discriminating employer. In this paper we experimentally test this prediction offered by Garry Becker in his seminal work on taste based discrimination, in the context of caste in India, with management students (potential employers in the near future as subjects. First, we measure caste prejudice and show that awareness through a TV social program reduces implicit prejudice against the lower caste and the reduction is sustained over time. Second, we find that the treatment reduces the prejudice levels of those in the left tail of the prejudice distribution--the group which can potentially affect real outcomes as predicted by the theory. And finally, a larger share of the treatment group subjects exhibit favorable opinion about reservation in jobs for the lower caste.
Banerjee, Ritwik; Datta Gupta, Nabanita
Becker's theory of taste-based discrimination predicts that relative employment of the discriminated social group will improve if there is a decrease in the level of prejudice for the marginally discriminating employer. In this paper we experimentally test this prediction offered by Garry Becker in his seminal work on taste based discrimination, in the context of caste in India, with management students (potential employers in the near future) as subjects. First, we measure caste prejudice and show that awareness through a TV social program reduces implicit prejudice against the lower caste and the reduction is sustained over time. Second, we find that the treatment reduces the prejudice levels of those in the left tail of the prejudice distribution--the group which can potentially affect real outcomes as predicted by the theory. And finally, a larger share of the treatment group subjects exhibit favorable opinion about reservation in jobs for the lower caste.
Wan Fariza Alyati Wan Zakaria
Full Text Available The increasing problems and challenges facing the Muslims and the Muslim world nowadays have raised serious concern about the future of the Muslims and the Muslim World among many Muslim scholars. The post-Iranian Islamic Revolution in 1979 had always been seen as the landmark of the rising discourses over the future of Islam, Muslims and the Muslim world. Mahdi Elmandjra, a prominent sociologist and futurist, is one of the Muslim scholars who consistently discuss about the issue and urge the Muslims to take responsibility to create a better future in a systematic way and not to fall into the vicious cycle of misfortunes. This paper aims at discussing Elmandjra’s views on this issue and underscoring the contribution and significance of such discourse within contemporary development.
Herrero Olaizola, Juan; Rodríguez Díaz, Francisco Javier; Musitu Ochoa, Gonzalo
The literature has rarely paid attention to the differential influence of intergroup contact on subtle and blatant prejudice. In this study, we hypothesized that the influence of intergroup contact on subtle prejudice will be smaller than its influence on blatant prejudice. This hypothesis was tested with data from a cross-sectional design on 1,655 school-aged native Spanish adolescents. Prejudice was measured with a shortened version of the Meertens and Pettigrew scale of blatant and subtle prejudice adapted to Spanish adolescent population. Results from multivariate multilevel analyses for correlated outcome variables supported the hypothesis. Students tended to score higher on the subtle prejudice scale; contact with the outgroup was statistically related both to levels of blatant and subtle prejudice; and, the negative relationship of contact with the outgroup and prejudice is greater for blatant prejudice as compared to subtle prejudice. Overall, results provide statistical evidence supporting the greater resistance to change of subtle forms of prejudice.
Full Text Available The aim of the article is to illustrate that prejudice differs fundamentally from legitimate presuppositions that come into play when people interpret the Bible or reflect theologically on contemporary issues such as homosexuality. It is argued that prejudice leads to the theologically untenable phenomenon of homophobia. Though the rejection of prejudicial attitudes does not mean that �anything goes�, it is a theological necessity to expose harmful attitudes and behaviours regarding sexuality. To this end the article investigates the labels �homosexual�, �gay� and �queer� that, on the one hand, express and perpetuate homophobia and on the other hand represent a search for authentic identity on the part of sexual minorities. The� article reflects on the effect of underlying social identity theories on homophobia. Such theories include nominialism with its focus on �sameness� and essentialism that focuses on �difference�, as well as primordialism with its emphasis on the immutability of social identity formation and constructionism that highlights change.
Hello, Evelyn; Scheepers, Peer; Gijsberts, Mérove
Education is often found to be a strong determinant of ethnic prejudice. However, there is preliminary evidence that this educational effect varies across countries. Moreover, there are also theoretical arguments to expect cross-national variances in the educational effect on ethnic prejudice. From
Mata, Jessieka; Ghavami, Negin; Wittig, Michele A.
Drawing on social dominance theory and the contact hypothesis, we developed and tested a two-mediator model for explaining gender differences in early adolescents' attitudes toward gay males and lesbians. Data from more than 400 ninth graders were analyzed. As predicted, gender differences in attitudes toward gay males were partially explained by…
Verkuyten, Maykel; Slooter, Luuk
An experimental questionnaire study, conducted in the Netherlands, examined adolescents’ reasoning about freedom of speech and minority rights. Muslim minority and non-Muslim majority adolescents (12 – 18 years) made judgments of different types of behaviors and different contexts. The group
Verkuyten, Maykel; Slooter, Luuk
An experimental questionnaire study, conducted in the Netherlands, examined adolescents' reasoning about freedom of speech and minority rights. Muslim minority and non-Muslim majority adolescents (12-18 years) made judgments of different types of behaviors and different contexts. The group membership of participants had a clear effect. Muslim…
Cárdenas Castro, Manuel
The main purpose of this study was to investigate the dimensionality of a Spanish-language version of the Blatant and Subtle Prejudice Scale via exploratory (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). No research has confirmed the hypothesized factor structure in Latin American countries. Using data from a random and probability survey in population of the northern area of Chile (N= 896), four models were specified: single factor model (global prejudice factor), correlated two-factor model (subtle and blatant prejudice), correlated two-factor second-order model, and single-factor second-order model. The findings indicated that the two-factor second-order model had the best fit. The corresponding alpha coefficients were .82 (subtle prejudice) and .76 (blatant prejudice). Lastly, differences were examined between , , and regarding their feelings toward immigrants, their feelings about their beliefs concerning the state aid received by these out-groups, and their feelings about their beliefs regarding future policies for them.
Bruneau, Emile; Kteily, Nour; Falk, Emily
Collectively blaming groups for the actions of individuals can license vicarious retribution. Acts of terrorism by Muslim extremists against innocents, and the spikes in anti-Muslim hate crimes against innocent Muslims that follow, suggest that reciprocal bouts of collective blame can spark cycles of violence. How can this cycle be short-circuited? After establishing a link between collective blame of Muslims and anti-Muslim attitudes and behavior, we used an "interventions tournament" to identify a successful intervention (among many that failed). The "winning" intervention reduced collective blame of Muslims by highlighting hypocrisy in the ways individuals collectively blame Muslims-but not other groups (White Americans, Christians)-for individual group members' actions. After replicating the effect in an independent sample, we demonstrate that a novel interactive activity that isolates the psychological mechanism amplifies the effectiveness of the collective blame hypocrisy intervention and results in downstream reductions in anti-Muslim attitudes and anti-Muslim behavior.
Meeusen, Cecil; Kern, Anna
The goal of this paper was to investigate the generalizability of prejudice across contexts by analyzing associations between different types of prejudice in a cross-national perspective and by investigating the relation between country-specific contextual factors and target-specific prejudices. Relying on the European Social Survey (2008), results indicated that prejudices were indeed positively associated, confirming the existence of a generalized prejudice component. Next to substantial cross-national differences in associational strength, also within country variance in target-specific associations was observed. This suggested that the motivations for prejudice largely vary according to the intergroup context. Two aspects of the intergroup context - economic conditions and cultural values - showed to be related to generalized and target-specific components of prejudice. Future research on prejudice and context should take an integrative approach that considers both the idea of generalized and specific prejudice simultaneously. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Muhammed Shahriar Haque
Full Text Available Islam is a misunderstood religion and Muslims suffer from a negative image of being violent and terrorist. The Western projection of the Muslim image falls short of the real identity of Muslims. Tun Dr. Mahathir Mohamad, considered outspoken by the West, has not only set the foundation for the materialization of the true Muslim identity but has also been bold enough to point out the weaknesses of the Muslim communities of the world. An analysis of selected speeches and an interview of the former Prime Minister of Malaysia shows how he constructs and consolidates the Muslim identity in his discourse from a critical discourse analysis perspective.
Full Text Available This paper is a study in mapping out more about the process of formation of the Muslim community in Indonesia. History is a reconstruct of the past. It seems as if the past was to be away from the present. Is it true that this view. We borrow the Kuntowijoyo’s words: “Historians are like people take who takes the train to look back, and he can freely turn to the right and to the left, which can not be done is to look ahead”. History is a valuable clue, a picture of the past that can be used as guidelines in stride, present and future. The Indonesian Islam history has significance for this nation generation. Because it has its own characteristics compared to the history of Islam in other countries. It can give the feel of the real Islam in Indonesia. The Indonesian Islam is an Islamic hue promising future in the era of globalization. Thus, Indonesian Islam will be in focus in the eyes of the world. In this description, the writer describes the entry and the development of Islam in Indonesia with discussion; process and the introduction of Islam to Indonesia, acceptance by indigenous and institutionalization of Islam in society. Then, point the establishment of Islam in Indonesia, as well as the transformation of Indonesia society
Tamulevich, Jeffrey S
.... Results of regression analyses indicate that both gender and ethnicity were significant predictors of sexual harassment and racial prejudice but not drug misuse. Athletic status did not significantly influence perceptions. Implications of these findings are discussed for understanding midshipmen perceptions of these behaviors.
Alex P. Schmid
Full Text Available Since President Trump attempted to ban Muslims from certain countries from entering the United States, the question which Muslims are ‘moderate Muslims’ and which are potential ‘radical Islamist terrorists’ has gained new relevance. While some Muslim leaders deny any connection between their religion and terrorism, it is undeniable that many terrorists claim to act in the name of Islam. This Research Paper first seeks to determine where the world’s 1.6 billion Muslims stand in relation to terrorism, distinguishing between Jihadist Muslims, Islamist Muslims, Conservative Muslims and Pluralist Muslims. It then looks at which criteria would allow us to distinguish between ‘moderates’ and other Muslims. Subsequently, the focus is on the role of moderation in Islam itself, whereby attention is given to the Global Movement of Moderates which originated in Malaysia. While some leading Muslim scholars stress that moderation is a central value in Islam, many Muslims nevertheless do not like to be called ‘moderates’ for fear of being seen as pro-Western. A further section of this Research Paper looks at how Islamist extremists view moderate Muslims. This is followed by a section that focuses on moderate Muslims voicing their opposition to Islamist terrorism – something often overlooked by Western media. The concluding section raises the thorny question whether moderation is rooted in Islam itself or comes from outside and the author pleads for humanism to be the middle ground for moderates of all faiths and political persuasions.
Harrisson, Annika Pohl
This article, based on ethnographic fieldwork in Myanmar 2015–2017, explores the everyday interactions between Muslim and Buddhist residents in an urban ward in Mawlamyine, the capital city of Mon State. The focus is on tensions and injustices, analysed through the prism of everyday dispute...... and insecurities in the current transition play into these dynamics. In analysing the tactics used to navigate the socio-political environment that interlocutors face in their everyday, I contribute to a broader understanding of the complexities of local politics and Muslim–Buddhist relations in Myanmar and how...
Dunagan, Pamela B; Kimble, Laura P; Gunby, Susan Sweat; Andrews, Margaret M
Attitudes of prejudice in nursing students have the potential to impact patient care and ultimately may contribute to culturally based health disparities. The purpose of this study was to describe attitudes of prejudice reported by baccalaureate nursing students. Baccalaureate nursing students were recruited through Web networking and e-mailing. Participants responded to a Web-based survey that contained an open-ended item requesting them to describe a time when they held an attitude of prejudice. Qualitative data were coded and analyzed for themes. The majority of participants (N = 50) were women (86%) and White (68%). Qualitative data analysis revealed two major themes: Prejudice Against Obese Individuals, and Prejudice Against Someone of Another Race. Many of the participants had insight that prejudice was wrong and they wanted to change. Acknowledging prejudice, as an explicit bias, is an important step toward cultural competence. Teaching strategies focused on addressing explicit and implicit bias are warranted. [J Nurs Educ. 2016;55(6):345-348.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.
Zhao, Xian; Liu, Li; Zhang, Xiao-xiao; Shi, Jia-xin; Huang, Zhen-wei
The current research examined the role of the belief in free will on prejudice across Han Chinese and white samples. Belief in free will refers to the extent to which people believe human beings truly have free will. In Study 1, the beliefs of Han Chinese people in free will were measured, and their social distances from the Tibetan Chinese were used as an index of ethnic prejudice. The results showed that the more that Han Chinese endorsed the belief in free will, the less that they showed prejudice against the Tibetan Chinese. In Study 2, the belief of the Han Chinese in free will was manipulated, and their explicit feelings towards the Uyghur Chinese were used as an indicator of ethnic prejudice. The results showed that the participants in the condition of belief in free will reported less prejudice towards Uyghur Chinese compared to their counterparts in the condition of disbelief in free will. In Study 3, white peoples' belief in free will was manipulated, and their pro-black attitudes were measured as an indirect indicator of racial prejudice. The results showed that, compared to the condition of disbelief in free will, the participants who were primed by a belief in free will reported stronger pro-black attitudes. These three studies suggest that endorsement of the belief in free will can lead to decreased ethnic/racial prejudice compared to denial of the belief in free will. The theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
Liu, Yunzhe; Lin, Wanjun; Xu, Pengfei; Zhang, Dandan; Luo, Yuejia
Worldwide racial prejudice is originated from in-group/out-group discrimination. This prejudice can bias face perception at the very beginning of social interaction. However, little is known about the neurocognitive mechanism underlying the influence of racial prejudice on facial emotion perception. Here, we examined the neural basis of disgust perception in racial prejudice using a passive viewing task and functional magnetic resonance imaging. We found that compared with the disgusted faces of in-groups, the disgusted faces of out-groups result in increased amygdala and insular engagement, positive coupling of the insula with amygdala-based emotional system, and negative coupling of the insula with anterior cingulate cortex (ACC)-based regulatory system. Furthermore, machine-learning algorithms revealed that the level of implicit racial prejudice could be predicted by functional couplings of the insula with both the amygdala and the ACC, which suggests that the insula is largely involved in racially biased disgust perception through two distinct neural circuits. In addition, individual difference in disgust sensitivity was found to be predictive of implicit racial prejudice. Taken together, our results suggest a crucial role of insula-centered circuits for disgust perception in racial prejudice. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Gushue, George V; Hinman, Kimberly A
The effects of responding to social pressure (external motivation) are short-lived. Multicultural training, however, seeks to promote change in students and trainees that will be transformative and long-lasting. To this end, understanding the motivational factors that inform training is key. The present study was an investigation of the factors underlying external motivation to respond without prejudice for White individuals from the perspective of Higgins's regulatory focus (promotion and prevention) and regulatory mode (assessment and locomotion) theories. The results indicate that locomotion was negatively associated with external motivation to respond without prejudice, while assessment and prevention were positively associated with external motivation. Taken together, findings highlight the importance of cultivating locomotion (action oriented) motivation and inhibiting prevention (loss oriented) and assessment (preoccupation with finding the correct answer) motivations in multicultural training. Implications for training, effective action for justice, and future research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Hughes, Jeffrey; Grossmann, Igor; Cohen, Adam B.
Past research has found a robust effect of prejudice against atheists in largely Christian-dominated (belief-oriented) samples. We propose that religious centrality of beliefs vs. practices influences attitudes toward atheists, such that religious groups emphasizing beliefs perceive non-believers more negatively than believers, while groups emphasizing practices perceive non-practicing individuals more negatively than practicing individuals. Studies 1–2, in surveys of 41 countries, found that Muslims and Protestants (belief-oriented) had more negative attitudes toward atheists than did Jews and Hindus (practice-oriented). Study 3 experimentally manipulated a target individual's beliefs and practices. Protestants had more negative attitudes toward a non-believer (vs. a believer), whereas Jews had more negative attitudes toward a non-practicing individual (vs. a practicing individual, particularly when they had a Jewish background). This research has implications for the psychology of religion, anti-atheist prejudice, and cross-cultural attitudes regarding where dissent in beliefs or practices may be tolerated or censured within religious groups. PMID:26441728
Banerjee, Ritwik; Datta Gupta, Nabanita
) in the context of caste in India, with management students (potential employers in the near future) as subjects. First, we measure caste prejudice and show that awareness through a TV social program reduces implicit prejudice against the lower caste and the reduction is sustained over time. Second, we find......Becker's theory of taste-based discrimination predicts that relative employment of the discriminated social group will improve if there is a decrease in the level of prejudice for the marginally discriminating employer. In this paper we experimentally test this prediction offered by Becker (1971...
Bloomer, Melissa J; Al-Mutair, Abbas
Australia is a diverse and multicultural nation, made up of a population with a predominant Christian faith. Islam, the second largest religion in the world, has demonstrated significant growth in Australia in the last decade. Coming from various countries of origin and cultural backgrounds, Muslim beliefs can range from what is considered 'traditional' to very 'liberal'. It is neither possible nor practical for every intensive care clinician to have an intimate understanding of Islam and Muslim practices, and cultural variations amongst Muslims will mean that not all beliefs/practices will be applicable to all Muslims. However, being open and flexible in the way that care is provided and respectful of the needs of Muslim patients and their families is essential to providing culturally sensitive care. This discussion paper aims to describe the Islamic faith in terms of Islamic teachings, beliefs and common practices, considering how this impacts upon the perception of illness, the family unit and how it functions, decision-making and care preferences, particularly at the end of life in the intensive care unit. Copyright © 2013 Australian College of Critical Care Nurses Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Muslim Institutions of Higher Education in Postcolonial Africa examines the colonial discriminatory practices against Muslim education through control and dismissal and discusses the education reform movement of the post-colonial experience.
Full Text Available The paper refutes the linkage of Muslim education in Indonesia with radicalization, and addresses the commonly held, if incorrect, perception that theological conservatism has a causal relationship with violent extremism. Rather than a causal agent for extremism, Muslim education in Indonesia tends to operate as a protective mechanism against radicalization, as does participation in vibrant religious and cultural celebrations. Students attending the secular universities are most susceptible to extremist discourse, through the process of re-Islamization and the development of a stark and detached rational understanding of Islam.
Storm, Ingrid; Sobolewska, Maria; Ford, Robert
Most literature on racial prejudice deals with the racial attitudes of the ethnic majority and ethnic minorities separately. This paper breaks this tradition. We examine the social distance attitudes of white and non-white British residents to test if these attitudes follow the same trends over time, whether they are driven by the same social processes and whether they are inter-related. We have three main findings. Firstly, social distance from other ethnic groups has declined over time for both white and ethnic minority Britons. For the white majority there are both period and cohort elements to this decline. Secondly, we see some evidence that social distance between the majority and minority groups is reciprocal. Specifically, minorities who experience rejection by the white British feel a greater sense of distance from them. Thirdly, we find that all groups share the perception of the same ethnic hierarchy. We see evidence of particularly widespread hostility towards Muslim Britons from all ethnic groups suggesting that Muslims are singled out for negative attention from many British residents of all other backgrounds, including a large number who do not express hostility to other groups. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2017.
The purpose of this research was to explore the mental health and well-being of Muslim nursing students in Thailand. Specifically, the study investigated the factors that impact anxiety and depression among Muslim nursing students. This cross-sectional research was conducted with a half sampling method of Muslim undergraduate students who were studying at a public nursing college in Thailand. From the 220 self-identified Muslim nursing students, 110 were sampled for this study, representing 1...
Padela, Aasim I; Curlin, Farr A
Both theory and data suggest that religions shape the way individuals interpret and seek help for their illnesses. Yet, health disparities research has rarely examined the influence of a shared religion on the health of individuals from distinct minority communities. In this paper, we focus on Islam and American Muslims to outline the ways in which a shared religion may impact the health of a racially, ethnically, and socioeconomically diverse minority community. We use Kleinman's "cultural construction of clinical reality" as a theoretical framework to interpret the extant literature on American Muslim health. We then propose a research agenda that would extend current disparities research to include measures of religiosity, particularly among populations that share a minority religious affiliation. The research we propose would provide a fuller understanding of the relationships between religion and health among Muslim Americans and other minority communities and would thereby undergird efforts to reduce unwarranted health disparities.
Mustapha Ben Hamouche
Full Text Available Sight in Islamic culture is subject to legal restrictions that aim at preserving moral consciousness in Muslim societies. These restrictions have a direct impact on architecture in traditional Muslim cities. Details such as placement of doors and windows, the use of balconies and rooftops, and building heights were shaped by legal reasoning based on sight restrictions. The present study aims at highlighting this legal reasoning system by analyzing legal opinions that were continuously advocated by jurists in response to daily practices, and the legal principles on which these opinions were based. This is expected to contribute in developing a new intellectual discourse on Muslim architecture that could go beyond the present design theories.
A significant area of teacher education is the increasing focus in many countries on how faith and schooling should best be understood. Yet, understanding faith perspectives in the lives and careers of teachers appears to be an under-researched area. To this end, the experiences of professional Muslim teachers in state primary schools in England…
Merchant, Natasha Hakimali
This case study investigates the experiences of Shia Ismaili Muslim girls as they encounter themselves as subjects of social studies curriculums on Islam. A postcolonial lens is used to examine differently empowered subjectivities and curricular epistimes within the high school world history context. In an effort to understand their experiences,…
This thesis is an attempt to gain a better understanding of how institutions, whether formal or informal, influence individual- and societal-level economic choices, especially in the Muslim-majority countries. It consists of six research papers that contribute to the economic analysis of institutions. The first paper, published in the Journal of World Intellectual Property in 2011, investigates the relationship between intellectua...
Berger, L.J.; Essers, C.; Himi, M.
The managing of religious diversity is a topic that is of increasing interest as countries and organizations become increasingly multi-cultured and religiously diverse. In this paper, we aim to understand how Muslim employees perform agency and identity work within the context of white, Western
Baggerly, Jennifer; Abugideiri, Salma Elkadi
This article describes Sunni Muslims' view of death, mourning and burial rituals, and accepted healing practices. Interventions for addressing death with Muslim children, group counseling, play therapy, and community outreach are discussed. A case study of interventions for coping with a preschool Muslim boy's death is provided.
Saleem, Daa'iyah; Rasheed, Sakinah
Two Muslim women who hold Ph.D.'s, a clinical and developmental psychologist and a teacher educator speak personally and professionally about important information school counselors need to know about Islam and providing services to Muslim children. First, the authors draw from personal experiences in parenting Muslim children who have come of age…
Contemporary global events of the War on Terror, the War on ISIS, and the United States contentious relationship with Muslim societies make it crucial to teach about Islam and Muslims in school. However, negative representations of Islam and Muslims often impede this process. Overcoming these challenges is critical for the development of…
In this dissertation, I set out to describe religiosity and religious trends among the Dutch Muslim population, and to assess the influence of the social integration of Muslims in co-ethnic minority and majority social networks. Muslim immigrants in the Netherlands migrated from countries in which
Jacobsen, Brian Arly
The article discusses various estimates of Muslim populations in Europe, showing that the public debate on numbers reflects academia’s difficulties in quantifying the Muslim populations. Projections of growth in the number of Muslims in Europe are exaggerated both in academia and in the public in...
Jati Raharjo Wasisto
Full Text Available The emergence of social piety is an interesting phenomenon among recent middle class Indonesian muslim. The aims and scope of social piety which established is to redefine spirituality. Process of reconstucting social piety can be traced from the intersection from both material and spiritual aspect. Spiritual is a holy effort to pray God and material can be analyzed as a complementer factor in spirtual effort. To become pious man is the main thing however the most intention are both recognition and representation from others. This article will elaborate more deeply about the meaning of social piety in recent middle class Indonesian muslim.
Greenaway, Katharine H; Louis, Winnifred R; Hornsey, Matthew J; Jones, Janelle M
People sometimes show a tendency to lash out in a prejudiced manner when they feel threatened. This research shows that the relationship between threat and prejudice is moderated by people's levels of perceived control: Threat leads to prejudice only when people feel concurrently low in control. In two studies, terrorist threat was associated with heightened prejudice among people who were low in perceived control over the threat (Study 1; N = 87) or over their lives in general (Study 2; N = 2,394), but was not associated with prejudice among people who were high in perceived control. Study 3 (N = 139) replicated this finding experimentally in the context of the Global Financial Crisis. The research identifies control as an important ingredient in threatening contexts that, if bolstered, can reduce general tendencies to lash out under threat. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.
Krupnikov, Yanna; Piston, Spencer
A good deal of scholarship examines the effects of prejudice against blacks on public opinion and vote choice in the United States. Despite producing valuable insights, this research largely ignores the attitudes of Latinos—a critical omission, since Latinos constitute a rapidly growing share of the population. Using two nationally representative survey data sets, we find that the level of racial prejudice is comparable for Latinos and non-Hispanic whites. Equally comparable are associations between prejudice and political preferences: policy opinion and support for Obama in the 2008 presidential election. Our findings suggest that despite demographic changes, efforts to enact policies intended to assist blacks and elect black candidates will continue to be undermined by prejudice. That said, Latinos are more likely than non-Hispanic whites to support policies intended to assist blacks, because Latinos are more Democratic than non-Hispanic whites, more egalitarian, and less committed to the value of limited government. PMID:27274574
Goplen, Joanna; Plant, E Ashby
For some people, religion strongly influences their worldviews. We propose that religious outgroups threaten the foundational beliefs of people with strong religious worldviews (RWVs) by endorsing alternative belief systems and that this threat contributes to religious prejudice. To examine these ideas, we developed a measure of RWV strength and assessed the role of RWV threat in religious prejudice. Across five studies, strength of RWV was related to religious prejudice, including derogation and denial of alternative religious viewpoints, as well as support for suppressing, avoiding, and even aggressing against religious outgroups. These responses were strongest toward religious outgroups whose worldviews were the most different, and therefore most threatening. Mediational analyses revealed that strong RWV people expressed heightened prejudice because of the worldview threat posed by religious outgroup members. These findings indicate that the avoidance and subjugation of religious outgroups can serve as a worldview protection strategy for some people. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.
Lisa K. Hartley
Full Text Available While most of the world's refugees reside in developing countries, their arrival to western countries is highly politicised, giving rise to questions about the types of entitlements and rights that should, or should not, be granted. In this study, using a mixed-methods community questionnaire (N = 185, we examined attitudes towards social policies aimed at providing assistance to two categories of new arrivals to Australia: resettled refugees (who arrive via its official refugee resettlement program and asylum seekers (who arrive via boat and then seek refugee status. Social policy attitude was examined as a consequence of feelings of anger, fear, and threat, as well as levels of prejudice. Participants felt significantly higher levels of anger, fear, threat, and prejudice towards asylum seekers compared to resettled refugees. For both resettled refugees and asylum seekers, prejudice was an independent predictor of more restrictive social policy attitudes. For resettled refugees, fear and perceived threat were independent predictors for more restrictive social policy whereas for asylum seekers anger was an independent predictor of restrictive social policy. The qualitative data reinforced the quantitative findings and extended understanding on the appraisals that underpin negative attitudes and emotional responses. Practical implications relating to challenging community attitudes are discussed.
Parrott, Dominic J.; Lisco, Claire G.
Objective This study was the first to test the moderating effect of acute alcohol intoxication on the relation between heterosexual men’s sexual prejudice and perpetration of aggression toward gay men and lesbians. Method Participants were 320 heterosexual men aged 21-30 recruited from a large southeastern United States city. Participants completed a measure of prejudice toward sexual minorities and were randomly assigned to one of eight experimental groups within a 2 (Beverage: Alcohol, No-Alcohol Control) × 2 (Opponent Gender: Male, Female) × 2 (Opponent Sexual Orientation: Homosexual, Heterosexual) design. Following beverage consumption, participants were provoked via reception of electric shocks from a fictitious opponent. Participants’ physical aggression was measured using a shock-based aggression task. Results The association between sexual prejudice and aggression toward the gay male opponent was stronger among intoxicated, relative to sober, participants. This pattern of association was not observed among participants who competed against the heterosexual male, heterosexual female, or lesbian opponent. Conclusions Findings provide the first experimental evidence that alcohol intoxication moderates sexually-prejudiced aggression toward gay men. These data offer a first step toward understanding how alcohol facilitates bias-motivated aggression. Such knowledge contributes to the empirical foundation needed to guide the development of interventions for alcohol-related aggression toward sexual minorities. PMID:26171278
Parrott, Dominic J; Lisco, Claire G
This study was the first to test the moderating effect of acute alcohol intoxication on the relation between heterosexual men's sexual prejudice and perpetration of aggression toward gay men and lesbians. Participants were 320 heterosexual men aged 21-30 recruited from a large southeastern United States city. Participants completed a measure of prejudice toward sexual minorities and were randomly assigned to one of eight experimental groups within a 2 (Beverage: Alcohol, No-Alcohol Control) × 2 (Opponent Gender: Male, Female) × 2 (Opponent Sexual Orientation: Homosexual, Heterosexual) design. Following beverage consumption, participants were provoked via reception of electric shocks from a fictitious opponent. Participants' physical aggression was measured using a shock-based aggression task. The association between sexual prejudice and aggression toward the gay male opponent was stronger among intoxicated, relative to sober, participants. This pattern of association was not observed among participants who competed against the heterosexual male, heterosexual female, or lesbian opponent. Findings provide the first experimental evidence that alcohol intoxication moderates sexually-prejudiced aggression toward gay men. These data offer a first step toward understanding how alcohol facilitates bias-motivated aggression. Such knowledge contributes to the empirical foundation needed to guide the development of interventions for alcohol-related aggression toward sexual minorities.
Titzmann, Peter F; Brenick, Alaina; Silbereisen, Rainer K
Increasingly, adolescents are growing up in multiethnic multicultural societies. While intergroup prejudice can threaten the multicultural societal cohesion, intergroup friendships are strong predictors of reduced prejudice. Thus, more research is needed to fully understand the development of intergroup friendships and their relations to less prejudicial attitudes. This study addressed two major developmental research questions: first, whether longitudinal patterns of intergroup friendships of native adolescents (i.e., whether or not a native German adolescent has a friendship with an immigrant at different points in time) relate to changes in rates of prejudice about immigrants. Second, whether these friendship patterns that unfold over time can be predicted by contact opportunities, attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control assessed at the beginning of the study. The sample included 372 native German adolescents (14.7 years of age at first assessment, 62.3% girls) who showed one of four friendship trajectories over the three annual assessments: they either maintained, gained, never had, or lost a friendship with an outgroup peer. In particular, results showed that adolescents who gained an intergroup friendship over the three time points showed a significant decrease in negative prejudice over the study. All four theorized predictors contributed to explain friendship trajectory membership. Generally, adolescents with many opportunities for contact, positive attitudes about contact, perceived positive social norms for contact, and high levels of behavioral control (self-efficacy) were more likely to maintain a friendship with an outgroup member than to follow any of the three other friendship trajectories (gain, lost, or never had). The pattern of predictions differed, however, depending on the specific pairs of friendship trajectories compared.
Muhammed Shahriar Haque; Mahmud Hasan Khan
Islam is a misunderstood religion and Muslims suffer from a negative image of being violent and terrorist. The Western projection of the Muslim image falls short of the real identity of Muslims. Tun Dr. Mahathir Mohamad, considered outspoken by the West, has not only set the foundation for the materialization of the true Muslim identity but has also been bold enough to point out the weaknesses of the Muslim communities of the world. An analysis of selected speeches and an interview of the for...
Fouad, Khadija Engelbrecht
A qualitative investigation into American Muslim undergraduates' views on evolution revealed three main positions on evolution: theistic evolution, a belief in special creation of all species, and a belief in special creation of humans with evolution for all non-human species. One can conceive of the manner in which respondents chose their…
About this Course: Learn what motivates the restive Muslim youth from Tunis to Tehran, what political positions Islamists from Mali to Chechnya are fighting for, where the seeming obsession with Islamic law comes from, where the secularists have vanished to, and whether it makes sense to speak...
Ünal, R.A.; Moors, A.
Changes in the sartorial practices of Dutch-Turkish women who wear Muslim headscarves may be summarized as a shift from sober, religiously inspired forms of dress towards colorful, more fashionable styles. A focus on the materiality of headscarves indicates, however, that the relation between Islam,
It looks at the role of the literary tradition of Arabic-. Afrikaans and the Islamic .... That these words continued to be used in Cape Muslim Afrikaans, in both sec- ular and religiOUS ...... In tenns of the Arabie dictionary. (Hans Wehr 1980: 68), ...
Jacobsen, Brian Arly
Within four decades of immigration, Islam has become the largest minority-religion in Denmark. This has resulted in a need for Muslim institutions in Denmark such as burial places, educational institutions and places for prayer. The need for these religious institutions has been disputed since...
Mohammad Noviani Ardi
Full Text Available As an academic course, critical thinking has emerged in the last century as the one of the important subjects, especially in the second half. But as a kind of thinking and a process of the human reason, it was exist as old as mankind. What are known, nowadays, as (standards of critical thinking or (characteristic of critical thinker were used by some ancient Greek philosophers, e.g. Socrates, Aristotle, as well as great Muslim scholars, e.g. al-Biruni, al-Ghazali, etc. al-Biruni was known as a great Muslim scholar due to objectively scientific method in his works. Moreover, he also was famed in comparative religion which early in history of discipline of comparative religion. However, this study attempts to talk about al-Biruni, one of greatest Muslim scholar in history from another side of previously discussion. It is tries to analyze al-Biruni as a Muslim critical thinker based on his monumental work of Tahqiq ma li al-Hind min Maqulah Maqbulah fi al-‘Aql aw Mardhulah or it is known by Kitab al-Hind.
Chonody, Jill M
The presence of bias against gay men and lesbian women remains an ongoing issue, and accurate measurement is essential to targeted intervention. A validation study of a new instrument, the Sexual Prejudice Scale, is reported. Students (N = 851) from 4 different universities participated in this study. An exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis were conducted, and results of these analyses indicated a 3-factor solution (affective - valuation, stereotyping, and social equality beliefs) for each of the sex-specific scales. Evidence of validity and the results of the reliability analysis are reported. Implications for future research are discussed.
Full Text Available This paper analyzes a highly public conflict between two Muslim non-profit organizations, the Canadian Islamic Congress (CIC and the Muslim Canadian Congress (MCC, as it played out on the pages of Canadian newspapers and Internet websites. Sparked by profoundly divergent convictions about gender norms and fuelled by contradictory blueprints for “being Muslim in Canada”, this incendiary conflict was fanned by Canadian media coverage. Focusing especially, but not exclusively, on the 2003-2005 debate over Shari’ah-based alternative dispute resolution in Ontario, I will argue that the media have played a role in constructing internal Muslim debates and identity negotiations concerning what it means to be genuinely Canadian and authentically Muslim through controversy-driven journalism that has highlighted opposing ends of a liberal/progressive versus conservative/traditional axis in a search for “point/counter-point” views. Through short stories and commentaries on controversial topicsthat juxtapose two increasingly antagonistic organizational voices, the media have not merely reflected Muslim realities, but also helped to shape them and, more often than not, reinforce polarization between a “majority Muslim” culture seeking to secure space for itself within Canadian society and a “dissident Muslim” culture that seeks to consolidate external support for internal change.
In much of the academic debate on the integration of Muslims into Western liberal democracies, Islam is often treated as one or the sole independent variable in the lives of Muslims. Offering to view Islam-or the understanding of Islam among Muslims-as the dependent variable, The Muslim Question in Canada discusses the influence of socioeconomic forces in shaping the Muslim immigrants' opinions, modes of thinking, and even interpretations of their faith. Drawing on this general approach, which is introduced and developed in the book using a variety of both quantitative and qualitative data, this article focuses on a school of thought within the Islamic jurisprudence known as fiqh al-aqalliyyat al-Muslema (the jurisprudence of Muslim minorities). The premise of the jurisprudence of Muslim minorities is that the lived realities of Muslims who reside in non-Muslim countries are so fundamentally different from those of the Muslim-majority nations that traditional Islamic jurisprudence cannot offer meaningful solutions for their problems. Therefore, there is a need to establish an entirely different jurisprudential approach centered around the lives of the Muslim minorities. The purpose of the bulk of jurisprudential theorization efforts in this line of reasoning is to facilitate the lives of the Muslim minorities; as well, they aim to create a foundation for the moral obligations of Muslims toward non-Muslims in such environments. I argue that a crucial element that triggers such a development is the existence of a positive relationship between Muslims and non-Muslims in immigrant-receiving countries. Souvent au sein des débats sur l'intégration des Musulmans dans des démocraties libérales de l'Ouest, l'Islam est traité comme un ou le seul enjeu dans la vie des fidèles. The Muslim Question in Canada examine l'Islam ou la compréhension de l'Islam chez les Musulmans comme un enjeu dépendent et aborde l'influence des forces socio-économiques sur les opinons des
Padela, Aasim I; Gunter, Katie; Killawi, Amal; Heisler, Michele
Minority populations receive a lower quality healthcare in part due to the inadequate assessment of, and cultural adaptations to meet, their culturally informed healthcare needs. The seven million American Muslims, while ethnically and racially diverse, share religiously informed healthcare values that influence their expectations of healthcare. There is limited empirical research on this community's preferences for cultural modifications in healthcare delivery. Identify healthcare accommodations requested by American Muslims. Using community-based participatory research (CBPR) methods, we partnered with four community organizations in the Greater Detroit area to design and conduct thirteen focus groups at area mosques serving African American, Arab American, and South Asian American Muslims. Qualitative content analysis utilized a framework team-based approach. Participants reported stigmatization within the healthcare system and voiced the need for culturally competent healthcare providers. In addition, they identified three key healthcare accommodations to address Muslim sensitivities: the provision of (1) gender-concordant care, (2) halal food and (3) a neutral prayer space. Gender concordance was requested based on Islamic conceptions of modesty and privacy. Halal food was deemed to be health-promoting and therefore integral to the healing process. Lastly, a neutral prayer space was requested to ensure security and privacy during worship. This study informs efforts to deliver high-quality healthcare to American Muslims in several ways. We note three specific healthcare accommodations requested by this community and the religious values underlying these requests. Healthcare systems can further cultural sensitivity, engender trust, and improve the healthcare experiences of American Muslims by understanding and then attempting to accommodate these values as much as possible.
Alnakshabandi, Kholoud; Fiester, Autumn
Human milk banks are vital for providing donor milk to infants for whom there are maternal or postnatal barriers to the mother's own milk. Although more than 35 countries have active milk banks, not one of those is a Muslim country.(1) Despite widespread support for breastfeeding across the Muslim world, religious constraints surrounding milk-sharing have created challenging barriers to the creation of milk banks. The religious objection centres around the Islamic tenet that consuming human milk builds a kinship bond between individuals who have consumed the same woman's milk which prohibits future marriage between the 'milk-brothers and sisters.' While a small-scale, experimental 'milk exchange' programme has been attempted in two Muslim countries (Kuwait and Malaysia), the only proposed milk bank in the Muslim world was a pilot programme in Turkey that was halted because of religious concerns. The problem with milk banking is the step in the process during which the milk from individual donors is pooled and de-identified, making it impossible to trace its origins and acknowledge the newly formed kinship relationship. To meet the need for Muslim children to be able to access human milk while remaining compliant with the prevalent understanding of Islamic doctrine on milk-sharing, we propose a new approach to milk banking that we term the Conditional Identified Milk Banking System (CIMBS). In this new system, both the donor's and recipient's identities are accessible to all parties through a voluntary registry, and the milk-pooling is limited to three milk donors. Based on recent survey data, we believe that there would be receptivity among practicing Muslims and religious leaders to this alternative approach.
Full Text Available Muslim migrants in society Pangkoh much success in the field of education, work, and life is better in the third decade (2002-2011. In fact, at the beginning of the decade arrived I (1982-1991, a small portion has a secondary education, the majority of elementary school, all start a new life. MasaIahnya ethos is focused on education and welfare. This research is descriptive qualitative, which is closely related to cultural studies. The approach used in this study is ethnography in an effort to understand the ethos of education and prosper in migrant communities Pangkoh. Subjects were Pangkoh Muslim migrants. In collecting the data, using primary techniques are in-depth interviews and observations hooks with problems. The data were analyzed qualitatively ie by way of narrative and interpretive description of the phenomenon and welfare ethos that has been found in the Muslim migrant families studied. This study shows that, first, the Muslim migrant communities in the early arriving (1982 educated middle or slightly higher in the second decade increased by taking up a bachelor S.1 for himself and family. The principal work of this group some Muslim migrants increased in rank and the task of leading the school. Increased revenue from the allowances and benefits lead educator certification. Second, Muslim migrant communities that early arrival basic education, primary school or its equivalent, has the educational ethos that indirectly, in three decades.
Holbrook, Colin; Izuma, Keise; Deblieck, Choi; Fessler, Daniel M T; Iacoboni, Marco
People cleave to ideological convictions with greater intensity in the aftermath of threat. The posterior medial frontal cortex (pMFC) plays a key role in both detecting discrepancies between desired and current conditions and adjusting subsequent behavior to resolve such conflicts. Building on prior literature examining the role of the pMFC in shifts in relatively low-level decision processes, we demonstrate that the pMFC mediates adjustments in adherence to political and religious ideologies. We presented participants with a reminder of death and a critique of their in-group ostensibly written by a member of an out-group, then experimentally decreased both avowed belief in God and out-group derogation by downregulating pMFC activity via transcranial magnetic stimulation. The results provide the first evidence that group prejudice and religious belief are susceptible to targeted neuromodulation, and point to a shared cognitive mechanism underlying concrete and abstract decision processes. We discuss the implications of these findings for further research characterizing the cognitive and affective mechanisms at play. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
We use a theory of semantic representation to study prejudice and stereotyping. Particularly, we consider large datasets of newspaper articles published in the United States, and apply latent semantic analysis (LSA), a prominent model of human semantic memory, to these datasets to learn representations for common male and female, White, African American, and Latino names. LSA performs a singular value decomposition on word distribution statistics in order to recover word vector representations, and we find that our recovered representations display the types of biases observed in human participants using tasks such as the implicit association test. Importantly, these biases are strongest for vector representations with moderate dimensionality, and weaken or disappear for representations with very high or very low dimensionality. Moderate dimensional LSA models are also the best at learning race, ethnicity, and gender-based categories, suggesting that social category knowledge, acquired through dimensionality reduction on word distribution statistics, can facilitate prejudiced and stereotyped associations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Research on prejudice seeks to understand and transform inaccurate beliefs about others. Indeed, historically such research has offered a cautionary tale of the biased nature of human cognition. Recently, however, this view has been challenged by work defending the essential rationality of intergroup perception, a theme captured controversially in Jussim and colleagues' (2009) research on the 'unbearable accuracy of stereotyping'. The present paper argues that in its own terms the 'rationalist turn' in socio-cognitive research on stereotyping presents an important challenge to the prejudice tradition, raising troubling questions about its conceptual and empirical foundations. However, it also argues for the necessity of transcending those terms. By focusing on the correspondence between individual beliefs and the supposedly 'objective' characteristics of others, we neglect the historical and discursive practices through which the social realities that we 'perceive' are actively constructed and institutionalized. We mask their social origins, contested and perspectival nature, relativity, and relationship to wider structures of power. By implication, moving beyond the Allportian perspective that has dominated both the prejudice tradition and the emerging stereotype accuracy paradigm, we may now need to prioritize other kinds of questions. Reversing Allport's famous definition of prejudice, it may now be time to ask: How, and with what consequences, does 'thinking ill of others' become sufficiently warranted? How does such thinking become part of institutionalized relations of power and an accepted way of perceiving, evaluating and treating others? What should social psychologists be doing to challenge this state of affairs? © 2017 The British Psychological Society.
Kahn, Kimberly Barsamian; Barreto, Manuela; Kaiser, Cheryl R; Rego, Marco Silva
This paper examines how perceived pervasiveness of prejudice differentially affects high and low status group members' support for a low status group member who confronts. In Experiment 1 (N = 228), men and women read a text describing sexism as rare or as pervasive and subsequently indicated their support for a woman who confronted or did not confront a sexist remark. Experiment 2 (N = 324) specified the underlying process using a self-affirmation manipulation. Results show that men were more supportive of confrontation when sexism was perceived to be rare than when it was pervasive. By contrast, women tended to prefer confrontation when sexism was pervasive relative to when it was rare. Personal self-affirmation decreased men's and increased women's support for confrontation when prejudice was rare, suggesting that men's and women's support for confrontation when prejudice is rare is driven by personal impression management considerations. Implications for understanding how members of low and high status groups respond to prejudice are discussed. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.
Eva Van MOER
Full Text Available Every form of communication, even every culture , is depending on the interaction between expectation and perception. Every perception is related to anticipations and therefore to comparisons. What we understand or see is not simply a given, but is the product of past experiences and future expecta tions. When understanding fails, expectations become prejudices. A big stumbling-block in interpreting artworks in a museum of contemporary art is having confidence in the concept of multiple interpreta tions. Because contemporary art is characterised as ‘open-ended’, understanding does not always occur and viewers are confused or even disappointed. In this study we investigate the process of understanding contemporary art and focus especially on the formulation of prejudices during a museum visit. We underline that the prejudiced nature of understanding does not have to lead to negative or empty experiences but creates openness to future experiences. Prejudices send people back to re -inspect the initial experience. It is important to bring museum visitors to understand their own constructed meanings by reinvestigating their initial interpretation through inquiring. Museum educators should develop tools which allow visitors to position themselves and make them think from various contexts. This kind of education leads to enriched (reinte rpretation and experiences.
Salter, Michael; McGuire, Kim
The field of hate crime research addresses the presence, sources, and impact of particular types of expressions of prejudice, often perceived as particularly damaging and hurtful forms of interpersonal abuse and violence. There is the reflexive question of the possibilities of researchers themselves ever being able to adopt a truly "unprejudiced" approach to the presence of such damaging prejudices. Can this goal be realized without a researcher necessarily losing an experientially grounded understanding of what these meanings, values and purposes have come to mean, and how they are themselves interpretively reconstituted anew, including within the lived experience of victims, witnesses, police, prosecutors, judges, and victim support workers? A possible philosophically informed approach to the dilemmas posed by this topic is offered by Husserl's phenomenology. This study critically explores the possibilities, reflective stages, and theoretical limitations of a sympathetically reconstructed Husserlian approach to hate crime. It argues that despite its manifest tensions, gaps, ambiguities, and internal contradictions, aspects of the Husserlian philosophical approach directed toward the different levels of experienced hate crime still retain the potential to both challenge and advance our understanding of this topic. © The Author(s) 2014.
Zikri Fachrul Nurhadi
Full Text Available The background of this problem is the increasing number of Indonesian citizens who perform mixed marriages, especially women who are married to foreign nationals. This, resulted in the problem starts from differences of religion or belief, culture and lifestyle are different. The purpose of this study is to find and explain the motives, meaning and experience of Indonesian Muslim women as perpetrators of intermarriage. This research method using the phenomenological method that focuses on the study of meaning in everyday life from the perspective of those who experience it. Data collection techniques used participant observation, interview and documentation study. Subjects were Indonesian Muslim women aged 30-40 years, were married to foreign nationals by purposive sampling technique. The results showed that mixed marriages have a motive "because" that is the motive trauma and interest, while the motive "for" consists of the dream motive, worship and repair descent. Likewise intermarriage experience demonstrated mutual culturally adjust, adapt to a multicultural, open and romantic attitude. While the meaning of marriage is an interesting mix, happy, merging two cultures, respect for differences, mutual understanding, complex, beautiful. Construction of meaning formed that a mixed marriage is a marriage of attractive, beautiful, full of challenges in the face of differences in terms of culture, habits and mindset in running family life.
Full Text Available This article will address the Muslim politics in Malaysia in the light of the broader shifts towards democratization and Islamization by focusing on politics among the majority ethnic Malay community, followed an overview of the ideological rivalry between UMNO and PAS, with special reference to the electoral performances of these parties in the past three general elections (November 1999, March 2004 and March 2008 . It then explores the underlying reason for the perceived importance of Islam in understanding the voting trend among the Malay-Muslim electorate which raised the question to what extent was the discourse on Islam instrumental in persuading the Malays to switch their support from PAS to the UMNO during the 2004 elections, and in the process of continued participation as an ‘Islamic Party’ in Malaysian mainstream politics what factors were that encouraged the PAS leaders to compromises and to play by the ‘rule of democracy’. In the concluding part of the article the writer also provide with an overview on reform agenda of Civilizational Islam (Islam Hadhari under premiership of Tun Abdullah Ahmad Badawi and the current Malaysia’s Transformation Programme (GTP under the leadership of Dato’ Sri Mohd Najib Tun Abdul Razak.
Full Text Available Mihçiyazgan geht der Frage nach wie Differenzen in männlichen und weiblichen Subjektkonstutionen im Westen und im Islam empirisch erfasst werden können. Hierbei verfolgt sie eine antiessentialitische Perspektive, in der sie sich zentral auf Judith Butler und Michel Foucault bezieht. Über beide hinausgehend entwickelt sie ein Modell pluraler Diskurse, mit dessen Hilfe kulturelle bedingte Geschlechterkonstruktionen verstehbar werden. Anhand einer Untersuchung von Interviews, in der sie interaktionsanalytische und diskursanalytische Herangehensweisen verbindet, macht sie unterschiedliche Zonen des Sagbaren und Unsagbaren in westlichen und muslimischen Geschlechterdiskursen sichtbar.Mihçiyazgan approaches the question as to how differences in the constitution of the subject in men and women in the west and in Islam can be empirically measured. She takes an anti-essentialist perspective, referring primarily to Judith Butler and Michel Foucault. Going beyond both, however, she develops a model of plural discourses with which gender constructions that are contingent on culture can be understood. On the basis of interviews, in which she connects her approaches through an interactional and discursive analysis, she makes visible different zones of the speakable and the unspeakable in western and Muslim gender discourses. She points to partially discursive incongruities, referring in particular to Muslim men in marginalized positions. The model presented offers a contribution to understanding discourse analysis as an empirical method. It needs to be made more dynamic, however, in order to avoid cultural codification.
Moh Yasir Alimi
Full Text Available Body provides the contexts as well as the outcomes of social changes in the public sphere of Muslim societies. However, bodies are not conceptually developed enough in the context of Indonesian social sciences. This article aims at outlining theoretical explorations of body in social theory, useful to understand the contemporary development in Islamic public sphere as well as the shift in political Islam. Drawing from a micro-study on the Islamic public sphere in Turkey and my own ethnographic work in South Sulawesi, I argue that Islamic public sphere can be approached conceptually and materially by analyzing bodies as its object of analysis. Analysing the body in the public sphere allows us to understand the current trend for Islamic visibilities and also strategy, particularly that of woman, to challenge the public sphere through their bodies. Key words: body, social theory, Islam, public space
Dorall, R F
This article surveys the arrivals of Muslim refugees from countries in Southeast Asia who have not only come to Malaysia for political refuge, but who have also stayed on, in many instances integrating into the local Muslim community. The author concludes that Burmese, Thai, and Filipino Muslim refugee-cum-migrants, and the estimated 500,000 illegal Indonesian migrant workers in East and Peninsular Malaysia make the presence of economic migrants in Malaysia's towns and rural sectors a far more pressing concern to Malaysians than that posed by the arrival of genuine political refugees. Only the Indonesians present in Malaysia are consistently termed by all parties as illegal migrants and some of them have been subjected to well-publicized deportation by the Malaysian immigration authorities. Sympathy for fellow-Muslims in distress explains Malaysia's open-door policy to Muslim refugees. The Koran specifically enjoins Muslims to assist Muslim refugees who have been persecuted by others. However, the necessity to maintain regional political and military alliances, principally as a bulwark against Communism, and the Malay--Non-Malay, Muslim--Non-Muslim dichotomy in Malaysia which almost evenly divides Malaysia's 16 million population into mutually antagonistic halves, results in any overt public policy in favor of Malays and Muslims to be immediately denounced by the other half of the population as a move against the Non-Malays and Non-Muslims. Without political and media attention, the refugees live wherever they can find work, as do hundreds of thousands of mainly Indonesian illegal migrant workers. They surreptitiously get their children admitted to public schools, and through bribery, can even get Malaysian identification papers. Malaysia is a relatively tranquil haven for Malaysia's Muslim refugees compared to their homelands, but their continued stay remains dependent on the ever-present struggle for more equitable sharing of political and economic power between
Jibrail Bin Yusuf
Full Text Available Ghana, a lower-middle income country that is still grappling with fertility and birth rates, initiated family planning for the youth decades ago. This mainly targeted deprived communities, and the Muslim youth were also exposed to contraception. However, contraception awareness among the Muslim youth has had difficulties and repercussions. Against the social and economic challenges facing the Ghanaian Muslim youth, this article evaluates their awareness about contraception focusing on the issues and their ramification with the aim of identifying prospects for development. The findings reveal that awareness is high but not in a positive sense as the general patronage among couples is low, while among the unmarried, the awareness has negatively affected their morality. Among the issues, there is a disconnection between service providers and the community while some Muslims think that contraception can reduce the Muslim population and is un-Islamic. It was argued that contraception is permitted for Muslims provided there is ethical justification and that in view of the social and economic challenges, including school dropouts and Muslim child migration due to the poverty of parents, the Muslim youth must plan their childbirth. Hence, it was recommended that government must tackle the problem of education in Muslim communities. The Ulama should also dialogue with the service providers to create trust between the health providers and the Muslims.
Zagefka, Hanna; Nigbur, Dennis; Gonzalez, Roberto; Tip, Linda
A study with British participants (N = 90) tested a potential mediator of the effect of essentialist beliefs about the national ingroup on prejudice against immigrants. Essentialist beliefs were defined as beliefs in genetic determinism, a basic assumption that group membership is "written in the blood" and that the groups' boundaries and characteristics are determined by genetic and/or biological factors. Essentialist beliefs were expected to play an important role in the formation of prejudice. They were predicted to be associated with a reduction in the perceived possibility of immigrants' adopting the mainstream culture. Further, it was expected that essentialist beliefs would be positively associated with perceptions of intergroup threat, which in turn would be associated with a stronger demand for immigrants adopting the mainstream culture. Taken together, essentialist beliefs were predicted to be associated with a greater discrepancy between the demand for and perceived feasibility of culture adoption. This discrepancy was hypothesized to mediate the effect of essentialist beliefs on prejudice against immigrants. Structural equation modeling analysis and mediation analysis supported the hypotheses, showing that essentialism attributed to the national ingroup results in people demanding something seemingly impossible from immigrants, and that this situation in which immigrants have little chance of fulfilling majority members' expectations results in prejudice against them. Thus, results show that perceptions of the ingroup are associated with attitudes to the outgroup, and they outline an explanatory mechanism for the positive correlation between essentialism and prejudice which has been found in previous research. Theoretical and applied implications are discussed.
Hariri, Jacob Gerner
to and between the 16th and 18th centuries are relatively less democratic today. The negative effect of early statehood on current levels of democracy is mediated by European colonization and settlement: Europeans were less likely to colonize and settle in territories with more developed state institutions......, also, to alternative theories of the causes and correlates of democracy. This paper presents evidence against the notion of Muslim exceptionalism in democracy research. Thus, outside the European continent, territories that were governed earlier and more consistently by state organizations up...... and were therefore less likely to bring nascent legalistic and representative institutions to these territories. When we remove the autocratic legacy of early statehood and the influence of European settlement, there is nothing signicantly negative about the degree of democracy in Muslim-majority countries....
Based on two fieldworks in Chicago this working paper discusses the role that an Islamic organization – the Inner-City Muslim Action Network (IMAN)– plays for the invigoration of the deprived neighborhood Chicago Lawn. The working paper describes and analyses IMAN’s claim to so-called ghetto cosm...... activities. Via its focus on popular music, graffiti art and talks the festival can be seen as an example of teaching the public – both about a minority religion but also about the potential resources of a deprived inner-city neighborhood....... cosmopolitanism, its building on past race-based struggles in the neighborhood, and also how IMAN challenges ideas of correct religious practice within the American Muslim community. The particular context of the working paper is the festival “Takin’ it to the Streets” which is one of IMANs most prolific...
Gervais, Will M
Although prejudice is typically positively related to relative outgroup size, four studies found converging evidence that perceived atheist prevalence reduces anti-atheist prejudice. Study 1 demonstrated that anti-atheist prejudice among religious believers is reduced in countries in which atheists are especially prevalent. Study 2 demonstrated that perceived atheist prevalence is negatively associated with anti-atheist prejudice. Study 3 demonstrated a causal relationship: Reminders of atheist prevalence reduced explicit distrust of atheists. These results appeared distinct from intergroup contact effects. Study 4 demonstrated that prevalence information decreased implicit atheist distrust. The latter two experiments provide the first evidence that mere prevalence information can reduce prejudice against any outgroup. These findings offer insights about anti-atheist prejudice, a poorly understood phenomenon. Furthermore, they suggest both novel directions for future prejudice research and potential interventions that could reduce a variety of prejudices.
Muslims in Ethiopia represent a considerable part of the total population, but until recently, their literary tradition and their cultural heritage have remained understudied. The present article aims to shed light on the Islamic manuscript tradition in Ethiopia in the late Nineteenth and early...... Twentieth century by focusing on the codices owned by šayḫ Ḥabīb, a renowned scholar and respected walī from Wallo, in northeastern Ethiopia....
Wasisto, Jati Raharjo
The emergence of social piety is an interesting phenomenon among recent middle class Indonesian muslim. The aims and scope of social piety which established is to redefine spirituality. Process of reconstucting social piety can be traced from the intersection from both material and spiritual aspect. Spiritual is a holy effort to pray God and material can be analyzed as a complementer factor in spirtual effort. To become pious man is the main thing however the most intention are both recogniti...
Wasisto, Jati Raharjo
The emergence of social piety is an interesting phenomenon among recent middle class Indonesian muslim. The aims and scope of social piety which established is to redefine spirituality. Process of reconstucting social piety can be traced from the intersection from both material and spiritual aspect. Spiritual is a holy effort to pray God and material can be analyzed as a complementer factor in spirtual effort. To become pious man is the main thing however the most intention are both recogniti...
Adeel Bari; Rana Zamin Abbas
Contemporary advertisement practices have created many social and ethical problems due to their materialistic focus. The effect of these problems can also be seen in many Muslim countries including Pakistan in terms of diversion from their cultural and religious values. This paper attempts to integrate the Islamic business ethics in contemporary advertisement practices to find the solution of the ethical dilemma which is created by these materialistic advertisement practices. The focus of Isl...
Nemec, Patricia B; Swarbrick, Margaret; Legere, Lyn
This column describes the experience of prejudice and discrimination that some mental health service users encounter in their interactions with service providers and organizations. The intent of this column is to highlight potential action steps to address the negative beliefs and attitudes of service providers that contribute to prejudice and discrimination. This description draws from published material and the authors' experience. If the most effective approaches to reduce public prejudice and discrimination toward people diagnosed with a mental illness are education and contact, then those methods may be useful methods to help mental health service providers view and engage persons served from a strengths-based recovery and wellness orientation. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Cunningham, William A; Nezlek, John B; Banaji, Mahzarin R
Two studies investigated relationships among individual differences in implicit and explicit prejudice, right-wing ideology, and rigidity in thinking. The first study examined these relationships focusing on White Americans' prejudice toward Black Americans. The second study provided the first test of implicit ethnocentrism and its relationship to explicit ethnocentrism by studying the relationship between attitudes toward five social groups. Factor analyses found support for both implicit and explicit ethnocentrism. In both studies, mean explicit attitudes toward out groups were positive, whereas implicit attitudes were negative, suggesting that implicit and explicit prejudices are distinct; however, in both studies, implicit and explicit attitudes were related (r = .37, .47). Latent variable modeling indicates a simple structure within this ethnocentric system, with variables organized in order of specificity. These results lead to the conclusion that (a) implicit ethnocentrism exists and (b) it is related to and distinct from explicit ethnocentrism.
West, Keon; Hewstone, Miles; Lolliot, Simon
There is a growing awareness that responses to mental health disorders differ according to the label. Still, research on contact and prejudice against people with mental health disorders has generally focused on the broader label, "mental illness," as though various disorders were interchangeable. The present research specifically investigated the relationship between intergroup contact and avoidance of people with schizophrenia--a particularly stigmatized and challenging group--as well as mediators of that relationship. In Study 1, 78 students completed measures of their prior contact with and prejudice against people with schizophrenia. Prior contact predicted less desired avoidance of people with schizophrenia, and this relationship was mediated by more favorable attitudes. Study 2 (N = 122) replicated the results of Study 1, and also found that less fear and less intergroup anxiety mediated the relationship between contact and avoidance. This suggests that contact may effectively reduce prejudice, even against this highly stigmatized group.
Cumming, C E; Rodda, M
Prejudiced attitudes toward deaf people are a well-established phenomenon (Higgins & Nash, 1982; Moores, 1982; Quigley & Kretschmer, 1982). In recent years, however, a new phenomenon has appeared, and some members of the deaf population now openly express prejudice against the hearing (Boros & Stuckless, 1982; Nash & Nash, 1981). The phenomenon may be an interesting example of Allport's (1954) classical analysis: The victims of the prejudice may tend to reciprocate and/or internalize the prejudice to which they have been exposed. The purpose of our analysis is to examine this phenomenon in more detail, particularly from the perspective of social learning theory as described by Bandura and Walters (1963), Walters (1966), and Bandura (1977).
Amer, Mona M; Bagasra, Anisah
Like other minority groups in North America, Muslim Americans have been largely ignored in the psychological literature. The overwhelming pressures faced by this group, including surveillance, hate crimes, and institutional discrimination, stimulate an urgent need for psychologists to better understand and ensure the well-being of this population. This article reviews challenges in conducting research with Muslim Americans in order to offer recommendations for culturally sensitive approaches that can enhance the growth of future scholarship. We first contextualize this endeavor by assessing trends in psychological scholarship pertinent to Muslims in North America over the past two decades. A total of 559 relevant publications were identified through a PsycINFO database search. The 10 years post 9/11 saw a more than 900% increase in the annual number of publications, paralleling a national interest in the Muslim American community subsequent to the World Trade Center attacks. Researchers who conducted these studies faced numerous barriers, including unclear definition of the target sample, unavailability of culturally sensitive measures, sampling difficulties, and obstacles to participant recruitment. To navigate these challenges, we provide a framework for effective research design along the continuum of the research process from study conceptualization to dissemination of results. The challenges and recommendations are illustrated with examples from previous studies.
Sajid, Mohammed Imran
Religious beliefs and cultures have influenced treatment of dead bodies in different ways by nations throughout history, and attitudes toward the deceased individuals have changed across time and so has the role and mechanism of autopsy. Islam has been a part of Europe for a long time; therefore, we would like to emphasize the important issues for Muslims and their families regarding death, autopsy, and funeral and to describe international perspectives of Muslim autopsies. Muslims have expressed their views on autopsy publically and internationally, and there have been claims of violation of the deceased, delays in burial, and nonconsideration of their religious beliefs. In this article, we aim to increase awareness and understanding of doctors about the religious and ethical issues important to Muslims and their families, so that appropriate considerations may be made where possible with regard to respectful treatment of deceased loved ones to decrease tensions presently being faced. Forensic medicine doctors could assist by undertaking autopsy without delay, in a private room by those of the same sex, and covering parts of the body not being worked on at that time.
Bruinessen, M.M. van
Nurcholish Madjid died in August last year. At the time of his death, the country was drifting away into increasing religious intolerance. The days in which his voice of moderation and inter-religious understanding was almost hegemonic in the media are fading away, and memories of Nurcholish
Full Text Available In this article we examine the title terms of Jane Austen's Pride and Prejudice (1813 with particular attention to their distribution and frequency in the text. Our method is to connect the statistical material gathered on frequency and distribution to a narratological analysis of the terms, with special emphasis on whether they occur within the focalization of the external narrator, or that of character-focalizers. In order to approach this task, we have availed ourselves of the narratological theories of Mieke Bal. We conclude that there is a differentiation among types of focalization in the novel that enhances the thematic structure of match-making. Although Jane Austen wrote and published her major works two centuries ago, they continue to fascinate literary scholars and general readers alike.
Full Text Available This paper is located within the discursive and spatio-temporal landscape of post 9/11 Canada in which national identity and beliefs about belonging are embedded in pervasive Islamophobia. Its starting point is that social media are key sites for expression of discrimination and intolerance vis-à-vis people of the Muslim faith, and especially the constitution of Muslim face and head scarves as a metonym for Islamic terrorism and a quintessential symbol of uniquely fundamentalist manifestation of patriarchy. I ask, however, whether new modes of visibility might be captured when we examine representational sites of Muslim femininity through the lens of ‘new’ or ‘critical’ legal pluralism. I highlight how women have used Social Networking Sites (SNSs to respond and reconfigure more entrenched discourses around Muslim femininity circulated elsewhere, such as in formal institutionalized state-based law, mainstream/Western feminist discourses, and in popular cultural productions. I have found that Muslim women deploy social media to constitute or express alternative subjectivities and to represent and evaluate their own understandings of feminism, normative femininity, religious practices, including the multiple meanings that attach to the donning of Islamic headscarves. Este documento se sitúa en el paisaje discursivo y espacio-temporal de la Canadá post 11-S, cuya identidad nacional y creencias sobre la pertenencia están incrustadas en la islamofobia dominante. Su punto de partida es que las redes sociales son sitios clave para la expresión de la discriminación y la intolerancia vis-à-vis de la fe musulmana, y en especial la constitución del rostro musulmán y del pañuelo en la cabeza como una metonimia de terrorismo islámico y el símbolo por excelencia de la única manifestación fundamentalista del patriarcado. La autora se pregunta, sin embargo, si las nuevas formas de visibilidad pueden ser capturadas cuando examinamos sitios
Pedro Jesús Teruel
Full Text Available The notion of prejudice occupies a not very visible place in the Kantian works. In fact it has been seldom treated in Kantian studies in German, English, French, Italian or Spanish. But it connects with relevant key notes of the Critique of Pure Reason (1781, 1787 as well as from the Critique of Practical Reason (1788 and the Critique of Judgement (1790. The aim of this paper consists in the analysis of the Kantian notion of prejudice, its systematic place and its sources (among these particularly the works of Georg Friedrich Meier and the thought of Christian Thomasius.
in Malaysia became the subject of increasing consumer activism and I explore how Malaysian federal state institutions, Islamic organizations and consumers respond to and are affected by calls to boycott (anti-consumption) and boycott (consumption) a range of products. More specifically, this article examines...... the above issues building on ethnography from fieldwork with Muslim Consumers Association of Malaysia (PPIM), which is an organization that protects the interests of Muslim consumers and entrepreneurs, as well as Malay Muslim middle-class informants....
Farhan Ali Jimale
Full Text Available In Islamic countries, many of them poor and not highly developed, large segments of the Muslim population do not have access to adequate banking services—often because devout Muslims are unwilling to put their savings into a traditional financial system that runs counter to their religious principles. Islamic banks seek to provide financial services in a way that is compatible with Islamic teaching, and if Islamic banks can tap that potential Muslim clientele, that could hasten economic development in these countries. It is expanding not only in nations with majority Muslim populations, but also in other countries where Muslims are a minority, such as the United Kingdom and Japan. Similarly, countries such as India, the Kyrgyz Republic, and Syria have recently granted, or are considering granting, licenses for Islamic banking activities. In fact, there are currently more than 300 Islamic financial institutions spread over 51 countries, plus well over 250 mutual funds that comply with Islamic principles. And, over the past decade, the Islamic banking industry has experienced growth rates of 10-15 percent per year—a trend that is expected to continue. Globally, the assets of Islamic banks have been expanding at double-digit rates for a decade, and Islamic banking is an increasingly visible alternative to conventional banks in Islamic countries and countries with many Muslims. My study identifies the sources of Islamic banking expansion and ways to stimulate its continued growth. Knowing what drives the development of Islamic banking will help developing countries in Africa, Asia, and the Middle East catch up.
MOHD IZANI MOHD ZAIN
Full Text Available The Muslim political rivalry in democracy has triggered the birth of two groups; Islamist and Muslim Democrat. The two groups are competing by using a different approach in getting the support of the people. The Islamist group is championing its Islamic State agenda and the implementation of Shari`a as a political ambition within the framework of democracy while the Muslim Democrat recognises democracy and freedom as the basis of their struggle. Due to a greater development in democracy and a more open political rivalry, the Islamist group that was initially strongly backed by their rigid ideology and approach, has decided to change for a more moderate approach. This can be seen through their political strategy that emphasises on universal issues such as democracy, justice and good governance without rhetorical expressions of Islam and Shari`a. This change from Islamist to that of Muslim Democrat is an exciting development for it shows the transition path and direction of Muslim politics in Malaysia. This paper examines the latest development of the Islamist group, i.e. PAS in political rivalry in Malaysia, particularly in the recent General Election in 2013. This article reveals that due to the changing political landscape and democratization, the Islamist has pragmatically moderated their stance to gain more supports and it has embarked on a new landscape for Muslim political rivalry in Malaysia. Although PAS’s new approach to transform its approach to be more open and democratic is still questionable, this study believes that the participation of the party in democracy is no longer just for the sake of election, on the other hand it should recognise democracy as a political culture that emphasizes justice, freedom and good governance.
Human rights abuses targeted towards LGBT persons constitute a global pattern of serious concern. Despite the fact that discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation and gender identity is prohibited by various international, regional and national legal provisions, prejudices and stereotypes related to LGBT people significantly impede the implementation of non-discrimination laws. This study focuses on contemporary Serbia, and attempts to understand the role of public discourse in incitin...
Tebbe, Esther N.; Moradi, Bonnie
This study aimed to identify theoretically relevant key correlates of anti-transgender prejudice. Specifically, structural equation modeling was used to test the unique relations of anti-lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) prejudice; traditional gender role attitudes; need for closure; and social dominance orientation with anti-transgender prejudice.…
Pettijohn, Terry F., II; Walzer, Amy S.
Students enrolled in Psychology of Prejudice and Introductory Psychology courses completed measures of racism, sexism, and attitudes toward homosexuals at the beginning and end of the term. We predicted that those who took part in the Psychology of Prejudice class would have significantly reduced prejudice as a result of the course experience. We…
Abat Ninet, Antoni
Are Islamic law, human rights and constitutionalism compatible? In answering this question, this paper first discusses the concept of modernity (understood in terms of rationality and standardization), analysing its abrupt implementation in the MENA countries and the role that the first modern...... constitutions played in institutionalising a new sort of dominion in the newly established states. Against this background, the paper discusses the relationship between constitutionalism and Shari’a law, presenting this as a clash between two competing normative visions that are conceptually difficult...... to reconcile and which each claim exclusivity and hierarchical superiority. The paper advocates for a deconstruction of the ideas of human rights and constitutionalism in order to allow for the incorporation of elements of Muslim traditions, thus challenging the understanding of human rights...
Full Text Available Fundamental to Iqbal's reconstruction of religious thought was his challenge to Muslims to understand tawhīd and to re-think their entire concept of, and approach to, Islam. He pleaded for the return of the spirit of ijtihād in the interpretation of the law. He was impressed by Western civilization's passion for self-consciousness, social justice and egalitarianism though he distanced himself from its atheistic strain and from the ideas that were a hindrance to the spiritual and moral advancement of the human being. Iqbal abhorred imperialism, democracy and race-based nationalism. He equally attacked the fossilised religious dogmatism that had sapped the spirit of Islam. Iqbal sketched a blue print of a polity to give life and meaning to tawhidic values.
Schou, Lotte Rahbek
This proposal highlights the AERA 2007 theme of foreign educational research by seeking to pinpoint potential causes of inter-group conflict among the immigrant Muslim and native communities in Denmark by surveying Danish teacher values. The perceptions Muslim and non-Muslim teachers have about...... and public policy developed. Denmark's localized Muslim immigrant community has leaders who lent support to this effort. Based on a summary of interviews, a validated survey instrument available in English and Danish has been designed and administered via the Internet to all teachers in Denmark in 2007...
Ahmed Abdul Wahid A. Al-Zandani
Full Text Available Abstract: Aggregate data analysis of elections held between 1990 and 2002 in the Muslim world show that most of these elections belong to the non-democratic category and these elections were mostly non-competitive. Approximately, 98% of the Muslim world people do not enjoy full political liberty. About 96% of the people in the Muslim world enjoy the right to vote, but their votes hardly result in transfer of power. However, there are four countries in the Muslim world, Bangladesh, Iran, Malaysia and Mali, where elections are relatively free and fair.
Ahmed Abdul Wahid A. Al-Zandani
Abstract: Aggregate data analysis of elections held between 1990 and 2002 in the Muslim world show that most of these elections belong to the non-democratic category and these elections were mostly non-competitive. Approximately, 98% of the Muslim world people do not enjoy full political liberty. About 96% of the people in the Muslim world enjoy the right to vote, but their votes hardly result in transfer of power. However, there are four countries in the Muslim world, Bangladesh, Iran, Malay...
Full Text Available The present doldrums position and state of decadence, internal differences, external aggression (geographical and ideological, lack of self-confidence and dependence, illiteracy, political instability, economic disaster, lack of knowledge and wisdom, back benchers in science and technology, education, medicine, trade and business, banking system and defensive incapability of Muslim Ummah prompted me to write this article. Although most of the Muslim nations got their independence because of their dedicated struggle and historic events and incidents but the old masters remained active for a remote control over the Muslim Ummah. Their intellectuals and scholars, individually as well as collectively, have propagated and advised their leadership, the tactics and approaches by which Muslim Ummah can again be enslaved. Writings of S.P. Huntington and F. Fukuyama are clear examples. They are actively gearing the international institutions so cleverly that Muslim Ummah does not even realize their ill motives and objectives. They brought their leadership in a confronting position with Muslim Ummah and hence threatening the world peace. This situation prompted us to look at our principal sources of inspiration, which are, the Qur’an, Sunnah of the Prophet (SAW, and examples of the “enlightened Caliphs” and see if we could work out a seminal guidelines for our rectification and revival. We have gathered together some of these impressions; these are all tentative, nothing final about them, but these are here nonetheless. ABSTRAK: Kehadiran situasi kebelungguan dan keruntuhan, perbezaan dalaman, pencerobohan luar (geografi dan ideologi, kurang keyakinan diri dan pergantungan, buta huruf, ketidakstabilan politik, bencana ekonomi, kekurangan ilmu dan hikmah, ketinggalan dalam sains dan teknologi, pendidikan, perubatan, perdagangan dan perniagaan, sistem perbankan dan ketidakupayaan pertahanan umat Islam mendorong saya untuk menulis
is a US- only theme. It is true that American culture is very popular in the Philippines—our movies, music and fast-food restaurants are very much in...mosques (snicker) and they love to pray (mocking tone). But they are not kind. They are everywhere in the PI, selling things, like the Chinese ...MILF, Abu Sayyaf and Jemaah Islamiyah and Al-Qa’ida . JI is from Indonesia and Malaysia . (US) al-Qa’ida say/believe they are fighting evil
Brünig, Bianca; Fleischmann, Fenella
In this study we analyze veiling as an Islamic religious practice among Turkish and Moroccan immigrant women in the Netherlands, investigating whether the strength of religious identity, education, contact with natives, and gender role attitudes can explain who veils and who does not. Confirming
Full Text Available Attitudes, stereotyping, and prejudice are often conceived of as inner, mental or cognitive processes. Drawing on discursive psychology and critical theory, this article proposes a language-based understanding of stereotyping and the “syndrome character” of prejudice that is able to avoid certain epistemological shortcomings and connect social-psychological and sociological research. Stereotyping is outlined as a relational concept that denotes a linguistic mode of relating to the world, whilst the syndrome character of prejudice is conceptualized as a phenomenon that shows in particular stereotypical speech acts, but does not completely coincide with them. The impact of this conceptual figuration is empirically illustrated using Anders Breivik’s manifesto.
Roč. 20, č. 5 (2017), s. 583-604 ISSN 1367-6261 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36154G Institutional support: RVO:68378025 Keywords : prejudice * youth * attitudes towards minorities Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography OBOR OECD: Sociology Impact factor: 1.440, year: 2016
Dermer, Shannon B.; Smith, Shannon D.; Barto, Korenna K.
To effectively work with and advocate for lesbians, gay men, and their families, one has to be aware of the individual, relational, and societal forces that may negatively affect them. The focus of this article is to familiarize the reader with terminology used to identify and label sexual prejudice, discrimination, and oppression. The pros and…
O'Connell, Daniel C.; Kowal, Sabine
Three data sets of primary and secondary interjections were compared: (1) the original interjections written into the text of Jane Austen's (1813/1994) novel "Pride and prejudice"; (2) the interjections read aloud in commercial recordings by six professional readers of the entire text of the novel; (3) the interjections spoken by actresses and…
This paper aims to reveal Jane Austen’s creative style of realism through an analysis of the emotional contradiction in Pride and Prejudice,which develops as the only clue of a love story.Its essence as an entanglement of"rationality"and"emotionality" embodies the author’s view of love and the voice of women’s liberation.
This paper aims to reveal Jane Austen' s creative style of realism through an analysis of the emotional contradiction in Pride and Prejudice, which develops as the only clue of a love story. Its essence as an entanglement of "rationality" and "emotionality"embodies the author' s view of love and the voice of women' s liberation.
O'Bryan, Megan; Fishbein, Harold D.; Ritchey, P. Neal
The attitudes of 111 ninth and eleventh graders and both of their biological parents were independently assessed for prejudice against people with HIV/ AIDS, homosexuals, Blacks, and fat people, as well as for male and female sex role stereotyping. This study corrected for two shortcomings in previous research: neglecting to assess both parents…
Christ, Oliver; Schmid, Katharina; Lolliot, Simon; Swart, Hermann; Stolle, Dietlind; Tausch, Nicole; Al Ramiah, Ananthi; Wagner, Ulrich; Vertovec, Steven; Hewstone, Miles
We assessed evidence for a contextual effect of positive intergroup contact, whereby the effect of intergroup contact between social contexts (the between-level effect) on outgroup prejudice is greater than the effect of individual-level contact within contexts (the within-level effect). Across seven large-scale surveys (five cross-sectional and two longitudinal), using multilevel analyses, we found a reliable contextual effect. This effect was found in multiple countries, operationalizing context at multiple levels (regions, districts, and neighborhoods), and with and without controlling for a range of demographic and context variables. In four studies (three cross-sectional and one longitudinal) we showed that the association between context-level contact and prejudice was largely mediated by more tolerant norms. In social contexts where positive contact with outgroups was more commonplace, norms supported such positive interactions between members of different groups. Thus, positive contact reduces prejudice on a macrolevel, whereby people are influenced by the behavior of others in their social context, not merely on a microscale, via individuals’ direct experience of positive contact with outgroup members. These findings reinforce the view that contact has a significant role to play in prejudice reduction, and has great policy potential as a means to improve intergroup relations, because it can simultaneously impact large numbers of people. PMID:24591627
Burkard, Alan W.; Boticki, Michael A.; Madson, Michael B.
Critically reviews diversity measures in terms of item development, psychometric evidence, and utility for counseling and development: Workplace Prejudice/Discrimination Inventory, Attitudes toward Diversity Scale; Organizational Diversity Inventory, Workforce Diversity Questionnaire, Perceived Occupational Opportunity Scale-Form B, and Perceived…
Rhyne, Dwight C.
Teachers and counselors in an eight-week institute on problems of school desegregation were used in this study to estimate the degree of change in ethnic attitudes on the rational-irrational and anti-pro minority dimensions of prejudice as related to participation in an intensive adult education experience. (DS)
Gassner, Breanna; McGuigan, William
Racial prejudice is based upon negative preconceived notions of select racial groups with the assumption that all members of a particular racial group can be categorized with the same negative characteristics. Social categorization allows for quick sorting of individuals into racial groups saturated with a common flavor. Allport's Principle of…
Garza, Christelle Fabiola; Gasquoine, Philip Gerard
Implicit race/ethnic prejudice was assessed using Spanish- and English-language versions of an Implicit Association Test that used Hispanic/Anglo first names and pleasant/unpleasant words as stimuli. This test was administered to a consecutive sample of Mexican American adults residing in the Rio Grande Valley region of Texas of whom about…
Christ, Oliver; Schmid, Katharina; Lolliot, Simon; Swart, Hermann; Stolle, Dietlind; Tausch, Nicole; Al Ramiah, Ananthi; Wagner, Ulrich; Vertovec, Steven; Hewstone, Miles
We assessed evidence for a contextual effect of positive intergroup contact, whereby the effect of intergroup contact between social contexts (the between-level effect) on outgroup prejudice is greater than the effect of individual-level contact within contexts (the within-level effect). Across seven large-scale surveys (five cross-sectional and two longitudinal), using multilevel analyses, we found a reliable contextual effect. This effect was found in multiple countries, operationalizing context at multiple levels (regions, districts, and neighborhoods), and with and without controlling for a range of demographic and context variables. In four studies (three cross-sectional and one longitudinal) we showed that the association between context-level contact and prejudice was largely mediated by more tolerant norms. In social contexts where positive contact with outgroups was more commonplace, norms supported such positive interactions between members of different groups. Thus, positive contact reduces prejudice on a macrolevel, whereby people are influenced by the behavior of others in their social context, not merely on a microscale, via individuals' direct experience of positive contact with outgroup members. These findings reinforce the view that contact has a significant role to play in prejudice reduction, and has great policy potential as a means to improve intergroup relations, because it can simultaneously impact large numbers of people.
Castillo, Jose-Luis Alvarez; Camara, Carmen Palmero; Eguizabal, Alfredo Jimenez
The present paper, drawing from the perspective of social cognition, examines and evaluates an intervention based on social-cognitive perspective-taking on the reduction of stereotyping and prejudice in older adults. Data were collected in a sample of Spanish participants with a mean age of 63.2 years. The intervention, aimed at reducing prejudice…
Tuch, Steven A.
Using prejudice toward blacks as the outcome measure, analysis of national survey data for 1972 and 1985 indicates that: urbanites and non-Southerners are more racially tolerant than their non-urban and Southern counterparts; the net effects of urbanism on tolerance have increased over time while region effects have decreased; and urban to…
Sierp, Aline; Karner, Christian
This special issue brings together scholars who examine the nexus between the (economic) crisis, national identities and the use of historical images, prejudices and stereotypes by focusing particularly on media and political discourses in different European countries. Pictures of Angela Merkel in a
Chambers, John R; Schlenker, Barry R; Collisson, Brian
In three studies, we tested whether prejudice derives from perceived similarities and dissimilarities in political ideologies (the value-conflict hypothesis). Across three diverse samples in study 1, conservatives had less favorable impressions than liberals of groups that were identified as liberal (e.g., African Americans, homosexuals), but more favorable impressions than liberals of groups identified as conservative (e.g., Christian fundamentalists, businesspeople). In studies 2 and 3, we independently manipulated a target's race (European American or African American) and political attitudes (liberal or conservative). Both studies found symmetrical preferences, with liberals and conservatives each liking attitudinally similar targets more than dissimilar targets. The amount of prejudice was comparable for liberals and conservatives, and the race of the target had no effect. In all three studies, the same patterns were obtained even after controlling for individual differences on prejudice-related dimensions (e.g., system justification, social-dominance orientation, modern racism). The patterns strongly support the value-conflict hypothesis and indicate that prejudice exists on both sides of the political spectrum.
Garbin, Cléa Adas Saliba; Garbin, Artênio José Ísper; Carloni, Maria Emília Oliveira Gomes; Rovida, Tânia Adas Saliba; Martins, Ronald Jefferson
To analyze the knowledge, feelings and perceptions involving patients affected by leprosy, as a better understanding of these factors may be useful to decrease the stigma and prejudice associated with the condition. The study cohort consisted of 94 patients who underwent treatment for leprosy at the Health Units in the City of Cuiabá, Mato Grosso (MT), Brazil. The study questionnaire included items to collect information on socio-demographic data, knowledge about the disease, stigma, prejudice, self-esteem and quality of life of leprosy patients. Bivariate analyses were used to assess the data based on the chi-square test with a 5% significance threshold. The results revealed that the study population consisted predominantly of males (55.3%) with an income between 1 and 3 times the minimum wage (67%). The survey respondents reported that the most significant difficulties related to the treatment were the side effects (44.7%) and the duration of the treatment (28.7%). A total of 72.3% of the subjects were knowledgeable about the disease, of whom 26.6% had the leprosy reaction. Stigma and prejudice were cited by 93.6% of the participants. Based on the responses, 40.4% of patients reported being depressed and sad, and 69.1% of the subjects encountered problems at work after being diagnosed. A total of 45.7% of the patients rated their quality of life between bad and very bad. Our results suggest that leprosy causes suffering in patients beyond pain and discomfort and greatly influences social participation.
Cléa Adas Saliba Garbin
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: To analyze the knowledge, feelings and perceptions involving patients affected by leprosy, as a better understanding of these factors may be useful to decrease the stigma and prejudice associated with the condition. METHODS: The study cohort consisted of 94 patients who underwent treatment for leprosy at the Health Units in the City of Cuiabá, Mato Grosso (MT, Brazil. The study questionnaire included items to collect information on socio-demographic data, knowledge about the disease, stigma, prejudice, self-esteem and quality of life of leprosy patients. Bivariate analyses were used to assess the data based on the chi-square test with a 5% significance threshold. RESULTS: The results revealed that the study population consisted predominantly of males (55.3% with an income between 1 and 3 times the minimum wage (67%. The survey respondents reported that the most significant difficulties related to the treatment were the side effects (44.7% and the duration of the treatment (28.7%. A total of 72.3% of the subjects were knowledgeable about the disease, of whom 26.6% had the leprosy reaction. Stigma and prejudice were cited by 93.6% of the participants. Based on the responses, 40.4% of patients reported being depressed and sad, and 69.1% of the subjects encountered problems at work after being diagnosed. A total of 45.7% of the patients rated their quality of life between bad and very bad. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that leprosy causes suffering in patients beyond pain and discomfort and greatly influences social participation.
Full Text Available This paper discusses the roles of Islamic charitable organisations in running dakwah activities on Nias Island. By Showing how Islamic charitable organizations have attempted to create welfare programmes under the dakwah scheme, it investigates whether inclusive attitudes towards beneficiaries with different religious backgrounds have characterised Islamic social activism in ‘non-Islamic’ regions. As a Muslim minority area, post-disaster Nias Island has increasingly become a place where Islamic charitable associations and dakwah movements from outside Nias have attempted to deliver aid as well as to assist the communities, notably the Muslim minority population. As the outer islands and isolated regions have become an arena of contestation for religious missionaries, Muslim preachers to a certain extent should compete with Christian missionaries and indigenous religious groups. By way of a case study, this paper also examines the way in which Islamic charitable associations, negotiate between serving the Muslim community through dakwah, and serving humanity at large through social welfare activities.
Yulia A. Bortnikova
Full Text Available Counteraction to Islamic extremism is the major problem in the modern world. The government of the Russian Empire solved this problem through purposeful education of confessional tolerance of Muslims in 1773–1917. Authors compare understanding of tolerance in Russia and in Western Siberia in 1773-1917, emphasizing that in the Tyumen region society understood this term the same as now. On the basis of earlier unknown archival documents of the Central historical archive of the Republic of Bashkortostan authors consider a state policy on formation of a certain option of Islam which provides religious tolerance in Russia. In article the main attention is paid to Western Siberia as exactly there the confessional state policy made the greatest success. The main directions of a state policy were: to unify Muslim culture according to orthodox samples; to keep the Siberian option of Islam; to create obstacles for distribution of standard Islam; to develop the state measures which would show respect for Muslims and care of them. Authors consider ways of deformation of Muslim culture in Western Siberia: change of architectural forms of mosques and necropolises, deformation of cult objects (existence of a religious sculpture, selection of literature in Muslim libraries, the facilitated conditions for examinations on the mullah's rank, appointment to positions of muftis without spiritual education in the Orenburg Mohammedan spiritual meeting, creation of obstacles for commission of a hajj to Mecca for mullahs.
Rihlah Nur Aulia
Full Text Available This research is motivated by the empowerment of Muslim community through majlis talim or recitation group of mothers in the field of religion and social empowerment of society and its member economics in solving the environmental problems and protection of nature and natural resources can not be solved only by relying on knowledge and technology. Environmental problems and crises can only be overcome by fundamental and radically changing the way people view and behave towards their natural environment. What is needed is a change of perspective and behavior that is not only an individual, but it must be a culture of society at large. The main purpose of this study is to find out how the model of empowerment of Muslim community conducted by the group of majlis talim alkaromah dikelurahan Pejuang sub district Medan satria Bekasi. This research uses qualitative approach. This research is a kind of qualitative research that is through library research which is kind of research from literature treasury and make text world as the main object of analysis, that is by writing, identifying, clarifying, reducing, and presenting data obtained from written source. This study concludes: First, the model of economic empowerment of Muslim society conducted by majlis talim mothers through Garbage Bank can improve the economics of the members of majlis alkaromah. Second, in Bank garbage majlis talim alkaromah aims to empower and can make society more independent. Such programs save the waste which is then converted to rupiah, then with managing the waste, the sharing of profits with the profit-sharing system, and there is also a group of joint ventures through cooperatives, with this joint effort can improve the skills and independence of the community so that when the community Islam is independent, the empowerment has been successful.
El-Khuffash, Afif; Unger, Sharon
Research has documented health benefits associated with donor human milk (DHM). Offering DHM to people of the Muslim faith raises important religious concerns for these families. Knowledge of these beliefs and an understanding of the rationale for these beliefs enable the health care team to establish rapport and build a foundation of trust with patients and their families, thereby paving the way to developing a treatment plan that is in the best interest of the patients without compromising care. This article describes the issues and a rationale for them and provides physicians caring for preterm infants of Muslim families with information to facilitate advocating DHM to those families.
Ahaddour, Chaïma; Van den Branden, Stef; Broeckaert, Bert
This study aims, first, to compare normative Islamic practices toward death and dying and actual practices of Moroccan Muslim women. Second, it seeks to compare the views and practices of middle-aged and elderly women. Qualitative empirical research was conducted with 30 middle-aged and elderly Moroccan Muslim women living in Antwerp (Belgium) and with 15 experts in the field. Our study shows that religious beliefs and worldview have a great impact on Muslims' practices surrounding death and dying. More specifically, practices are strongly shaped by their eschatological beliefs. The rituals are perceived as preparations for the hereafter, entailing purification of both soul and body, and demonstrate the belief in a continued existence of the soul. We found striking similarities between our participants' views and normative Islamic views. We did not find a more secular understanding of death and dying among the middle-aged women.
Ihle, Annette Haaber
this African tradition of religious scholarship in the Middle East. The paper will, with the help of Pierre Bourdieu's notion of forms of capital related to various fields, analyse the challenges which Muslim students encounter during their stay in the Middle East and the forms of capital they bring back......, marked by economic decline and political instability. In Africa a weak or even failed state often means that young people have in reality no access to political, educational or economic positions and resources. In some countries like Nigeria, Ghana and the Ivory Coast the marginalisation of the youth...
freedom of speech , our freedom to vote and assemble and disagree with each other” 24, and therefore “This is not […] just America’s fight, and what is at...widespread belief that Islam and western concepts such as democracy, freedom of speech and women’s rights are incompatible. In the aftermath of 9/11, the...Turkey, Indonesia, and Malaysia, which work fairly well.45 Furthermore, many in the Muslim world agree that political freedom, liberty, and freedom of speech , is
Holistic Development: Muslim Women's Civil Society Groups in Nigeria, Ghana and Tanzania. ... we conceptualize economic and political participation and measure inequality. ... Tanzania to help develop mechanisms for sustainable economic growth and ... Keywords: African women, muslim women, civil society, economic ...
Full Text Available The All-India Muslim League (AIML was formed in 1906, with the primary aim to improve the educational and socioeconomic status of Muslims. Allama Shibli Nu‘mani (1857-1914 put forward an argument in support of Muslims recovering from the political stupor into which they had fallen after the British suppression of the 1857 uprising. He encouraged Muslims to participate in democratic politics in India, departing from the educational focus of his mentor, Sir Saiyid Ahmad Khan (1817-1898. Shibli advanced a strong critique of the Muslim League’s limited ambitions in comparison with the Indian National Congress (INC. His critique, notably in ironic and emotive poetry, significantly contributed to the national discussion pertaining to the Muslim League’s reform and restructure. Based on Shibli’s original writings, this paper analyses his critique of the Muslim League and his efforts to overhaul its structure and policies. It examines the response of the Muslim League to these critiques and studies the extent to which its structure and policies changed.
The purpose of this article is to show how a focus on ‘non-organized’ Muslims in Europe can contribute with insights on the everyday lives and practices of Muslim minorities. The empirical foundation is interviews conducted in Germany and Denmark. I argue that by focusing on institutionalized for...
Bhalotra, S.; Valente, C.; van Soest, A.H.O.
The socio-economic status of Indian Muslims is, on average, considerably lower than that of upper caste Hindus. Muslims have higher fertility and shorter birth spacing and are a minority group that, it has been argued, have poorer access to public goods. They nevertheless exhibit substantially
Rumbaugh, Andrew E.
This study investigated what were the most highly-valued reasons among Muslim caregivers for sending their children to Lebanese evangelical Christian schools. Muslim caregivers (N = 1,403) from four Lebanese evangelical Christian schools responded to determine what were the most highly-valued reasons for sending their children to an evangelical…
... Swaziland constitution; (ii) a report that Muslims were enticing university students to convert to Islam in return for scholarships; and (iii) a public symposium run on the subject of Islam. It concludes that Swazi newspapers frame Muslims as warlike people who are plotting against the kingdom and who pose a threat to Swazi ...
Md Abu Shahid Abdullah
Full Text Available Muslims have never ceased to be important for the West and have been depicted in vilifying and stereotypical manners in western literature and films. However, after the tragic event of 9/11, a dramatic change has been observed in the world’s focus towards Muslims. Although stereotypes and discriminatory actions were nothing new to Muslims, the post-9/11 backlash was absolutely terrible and heartbreaking. People have started to consider Muslims either terrorists or sympathetic to terrorists, and they have been suspected and distrusted. Lots of books, articles and films have depicted Muslims in a derogatory and extreme manner. Pre-9/11 Hollywood movies True Lies and The Siege explicitly show the stereotypical attitude of the West to Muslims while post-9/11 novels like The Reluctant Fundamentalist by Mohsin Hamid and Once in a Promised Land by Laila Halaby depict the plight and predicament of Muslims in America. The article aims to depict the stereotypical, vilifying and antagonistic attitudes of the West to Arabs and Muslims in both pre- and post- 9/11 era. It also aims to prove that the depiction is highly motivated by the media, western authorities and the West’s desire for social, cultural and political dominance over the East. Keywords: Orientalism, Others, Terrorism, Media
Hajj, Mandana; Panizza, Ugo
This paper uses individual-level data and a differences-in-differences estimation strategy to test whether the education gender gap of Muslims is different from that of Christians. In particular, the paper uses data for young Lebanese and shows that, other things equal, girls (both Muslim and Christian) tend to receive more education than boys and…
representation through the medium of autobiography post-9/11, focusing on Sumbul Ali- Karamali's The Muslim Next Door, Asma Gull Hasan's Red, White, and Muslim and the edited collections I Speak for Myself and Love, InshAllah. Highlighting the ...
Myers, Martin; Bhopal, Kalwant
The number of families who choose to home educate has significantly increased in the last decade. This article explores the experiences of British Muslims who home educate using data from a larger study exploring the views of a diverse range of families. Drawing on the work of Beck, we discuss how 'risk' is understood in relation to Muslim home…
President as well as to Muslim leaders in that only Basilan Island (excluding the municipality of Isabela) and Marawi City voted to be included...N. Mercado . 100 years of Filipino Muslim- Christian Relations. Zamboanga City, Philippines: Silsilah Publications, 1999. Davis, Leonard...Politics and Armed Separatism in the Southern Philippines. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998. Mercado , Eliseo R. Mission and Dialogue
Aarzoo, S Shabana; Afzal, Mohammad
North Indian Muslim populations have historical, linguistic, and socioreligious significance to the Indian subcontinent. Although sociocultural and political dimensions of their demography are well documented, no detailed genetic structure of the populations is available. We have undertaken a survey of the gene frequencies of the ABO, Rh, PTC taste ability, sickling, and G6PD systems for different endogamous groups: Sheikh, Syed, Pathan, Ansari, Saifi, and Hindu Bania. All the groups at most loci showed statistically nonsignificant differences, except for ABO and PTC traits, for which interpopulational differences were seen. Heterozygosity ranged from 0.048 to 0.617 among the Sheikh, 0.149 to 0.599 among the Pathan, 0.105 to 0.585 among the Ansari, 0.25 to 0.869 among the Syed, 0.107 to 0.565 among the Saifi, and 0.100 to 0.492 among the Hindu Bania. The average D(ST) and G(ST) values for the five marker loci were 0.0625 +/- 0.098 and 0.1072 +/- 0.041, respectively. A dendrogram was constructed using the UPGMA clustering method. Our results revealed that the Pathan and the Sheikh form one cluster, the Syed and the Hindu Bania form another cluster, and the two clusters join together (the so-called higher caste); also, the Saifi and the Ansari form a separate cluster (lower caste). The results of the genetic distance analysis are useful for understanding the pattern of genetic relationships between different endogamous groups of Muslims.
Miller, Carol T; Varni, Susan E; Solomon, Sondra E; DeSarno, Michael J; Bunn, Janice Y
This study examined how community levels of implicit HIV prejudice are associated with the psychological and physical well-being of people with HIV living in those same communities. It also examined whether community motivation to control prejudice and/or explicit HIV prejudice moderates the relationship of implicit prejudice and well-being. Participants were 206 people with HIV living in 42 different communities in New England who completed measures that assessed psychological distress, thriving, and physical well-being. Telephone surveys of 347 residents of these same communities (selected via random digit dialing) were used to assess community explicit HIV prejudice and motivation to control HIV prejudice. These community residents then completed an online measure of implicit prejudice toward people with HIV, the Implicit Association Test (IAT; Greenwald, McGhee, & Schwartz, 1998). Multilevel analyses showed that higher community implicit HIV prejudice was associated with greater psychological distress among residents with HIV living in that community. The physical well-being of participants with HIV was negatively related to community implicit HIV prejudice in communities in which residents were unmotivated to control HIV prejudice or had high levels of explicit HIV prejudice. These findings indicate that implicit prejudice of residents of real-world communities may create an environment that may impair the well-being of stigmatized people. Implicit prejudice can therefore be considered an element of macro-level or structural stigma. The discussion considered the possible role of implicit HIV prejudice on a community's social capital as a pathway by which it compromises the well-being of residents with HIV. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Department of Education and Culture, Manila (Philippines).
Revised to be in accordance with the customs, traditions, beliefs, and practices of the Muslim Filipinos, these social studies units will help secondary-level Filipino students understand world population problems and develop the necessary skills, attitudes, and values that will lead them to make rational decisions about population matters,…
Department of Education and Culture, Manila (Philippines).
Revised to be in accordance with the customs, traditions, beliefs, and practices of the Muslim Filipinos, these units of study for use in health education courses will help secondary-level Filipino students understand world population problems and develop the necessary skills, attitudes, and values that will lead them to make rational decisions…
Department of Education and Culture, Manila (Philippines).
Revised to be in accordance with the customs, traditions, beliefs, and practices of the Muslim Filipinos, these elementary-level social studies units will help Filipino children understand world population problems and develop the necessary skills, attitudes, and values that will lead them to make rational decisions about population matters,…
Sahu, Biswamitra; Jeffery, Patricia; Nakkeeran, N.
Gender inequalities in educational attainment have attracted considerable attention and this article aims to contribute to our understanding of young women's access to higher education. The article is based on our in-depth interviews with 26 Hindu and Muslim young women attending colleges in urban Bengaluru (formerly Bangalore), south India, and…
Full Text Available Racism and other prejudices have hindered efforts to diversify and further many fields, including education, psychology, politics, law, and healthcare (Race for Opportunity, 2010. Although there are many ways to combat these prejudices, intercultural communication continues to be a vital component in assisting individuals and groups with valuing the past, understanding the present, and preparing for the future of communication in a global society (Sadri and Flammia, 2011, p. 19. This paper provides a brief overview of pertinent research and major theories related to communicating with people of different cultural backgrounds, as well as useful techniques and strategies to use when teaching in international or multinational classrooms, and working or consulting in international or multinational companies, organizations, and educational institutions. It also includes data collected via surveys and interviews that helps to shed light on underlying issues of racism and discontent in Japanese and Nigerian populations within Japan, and concludes with a description of a new approach to one of the most common intercultural communication exercises called the E.A.D. (Evaluate, Analyze, Describe. While this exercise has proved to increase cultural awareness and open the lines of communication between individuals from various cultural and lingual backgrounds, research also shows that other strategies may be necessary to achieve desired levels of communication.
Full Text Available A contribution to the ongoing debate on how anti-Americanism can be adequately conceptualized and how such prejudice can be distinguished from legitimate criticism, arguing that part of these conceptual problems arise from a too narrow focus on defining anti-Americanism and the use of standardized empirical operationalizations. Such approaches exhibit severe limitations in grasping the flexibility of the phenomenon in everyday discourse and often underestimate or ignore the interpretive aspect involved in identifying utterances as anti-American prejudice. Alternatively, a performative approach is proposed, understanding anti-Americanism as a network of speech acts bound by family resemblance rather than identical features. In combination with qualitative empirical research methods such a conceptualization is especially suited to account for the flexible, situated use of anti-American utterances. At the same time it grants reflexivity to the research concept, in the sense of a close description of the scientific application of the notion of anti-Americanism. Two empirical examples from an interview study on anti-American speech in Germany illustrate the potential of such an approach, providing an insight into how anti-Americanism is incorporated into the construction and expression of racist and revisionist national identifications in everyday discourse.
Nelson Filice de Barros
Full Text Available In recent decades an important social movement related to Complementary and Alternative Medicine has been identified worldwide. In Brazil, although homeopathy was recognized as a specialist medical area in 1980, few medical schools offer courses related to it. In a previous study, 176 resident doctors at the University of Campinas Medical School were interviewed and 86 (49% rejected homeopathy as a subject in the core medical curriculum. Thus, this qualitative study was conducted to understand their reasons for refusing. 20 residents from 15 different specialist areas were interviewed. Very few of them admitted to a lack of knowledge for making a judgment about homeopathy; none of them made a conscientious objection to it; and the majority demonstrated prejudice, affirming that there is not enough scientific evidence to support homeopathy, defending their position based on personal opinion, limited clinical practice and on information circulated in the mass media. Finally, resident doctors’ prejudices against homeopathy can be extended to practices other than allopathic medicine.
Cooley, Shelby; Elenbaas, Laura; Killen, Melanie
Children around the world are affected by bias, prejudice, and discrimination. In this chapter, we argue that intergroup social exclusion-exclusion of peers on the basis of group membership-is a form of prejudice. As such, research efforts should be directed at uncovering the negative intergroup attitudes that sustain these behaviors, and encouraging the development of children's capacity to resist biases in favor of inclusion and just treatment of others. In order to interpret what is known about intergroup social exclusion in childhood, as well as identify compelling issues for current investigation, we introduce our integrative social reasoning developmental model, which emphasizes how children weigh moral and social concerns in everyday peer contexts. This chapter emphasizes three areas of research that have contributed to understanding social inclusion and exclusion decisions in childhood which include the roles of: (1) intergroup contact and friendship, (2) peer group norms, and (3) messages from parents and teachers. While providing a background on the state of research to date, this chapter also pinpoints recent work, shedding new light on the complex interplay of moral reasoning and intergroup attitudes in children's inclusion and exclusion decisions. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Afrouz, Rojan; Crisp, Beth R; Taket, Ann
Women from different backgrounds and cultures are at risk of domestic violence. Disclosing the abusive experience and seeking help is not straightforward and easy and might be a complicated and long-term process. Muslim women, like other groups of women, may face various barriers to disclose abusive relationships and for seeking help. Some of the barriers may be common for the majority of Muslim women in different contexts, while others might be related to women's situations and the wider society they live. To identify these barriers and make recommendations for future studies, this article reviews related papers conducted in both Muslim-majority and non-Muslim-majority countries. A critical systematic review of the literature was conducted for identifying Muslim women's barriers in disclosing abuse and seeking help. Twenty-one studies met the inclusion criteria. The main identified barriers are discussed into under four themes: social context, family context, individual factors, and expectations of service providers. Although the researchers tried to investigate various barriers in seeking help, many of them have not focused on structural obstacles. Besides, in many Muslim-majority countries, the issue has not been explored. Therefore, the results of the current article will not apply to those countries. Recommendation for future research comprises more qualitative research compatible with the women's cultures and backgrounds in different societies, focusing more on structural and cultural factors to explore and find women's barriers to seek help.
Full Text Available Between the Renaissance and the French Revolution, hundreds of thousands of Muslim men and women from the southern and eastern shores of the Mediterranean were forcibly transported to Western Europe. Those who were not ransomed or who did not return to their homelands as part of prisoner exchanges, languished for decades and, many, for the remainder of their lives, in chattel slavery. This essay considers the enslavement process overall and the conceptual frameworks necessary to bring this poorly known chapter in European social history into focus. Emphasizing the case of the Muslim galley slaves of the Catholic ports of France, Italy and Malta, it argues that without appreciating this phenomenon as a form of migration, as well as part of a larger history of global slavery, it not possible to understand the specificity of confessionalized enslavement within the early modern Mediterranean.
Full Text Available Abstract The origins of Western culture extensively relate to Ancient Greek culture. While many ancient cultures have contributed to our current knowledge about medicine and the origins of psychiatry, the Ancient Greeks were among the best observers of feelings and moods patients expressed towards medicine and toward what today is referred to as 'psychopathology'. Myths and religious references were used to explain what was otherwise impossible to understand or be easily communicated. Most ancient myths focus on ambiguous feelings patients may have had towards drugs, especially psychotropic ones. Interestingly, such prejudices are common even today. Recalling ancient findings and descriptions made using myths could represent a valuable knowledge base for modern physicians, especially for psychiatrists and their patients, with the aim of better understanding each other and therefore achieving a better clinical outcome. This paper explores many human aspects and feelings towards doctors and their cures, referring to ancient myths and focusing on the perception of mental illness.
Fornaro, Michele; Clementi, Nicoletta; Fornaro, Pantaleo
While many ancient cultures contributed to our current knowledge about medicine and psychiatry origins, Ancient Greeks were among the best observers of feelings and moods patients could express toward medicine and toward what today referred as "psychopathology". Myths and religious references were used to explain what elsewhere impossible to understand or easily communicated. Most of ancient myths focus on ambiguous feelings patients could have towards drugs, especially psychotropic ones. Interestingly, such prejudices are common yet today. Recalling ancient findings and descriptions made using myths, should represent a valuable knowledge for modern physicians, especially for psychiatrists, and their patients, with the aim of better understanding each other and therefore achieving a better clinical outcome. The paper explores many human aspects and feelings toward doctors and their cures, referring to ancient myths, focusing on the perception of mental illness.
Respress, Brandon N.; Small, Eusebius; Francis, Shelley A.; Cordova, David
Although Black adolescents have reported a lower prevalence of substance use relative to non-Hispanic Whites, Black youth are disproportionately affected by adverse social outcomes. Social scientists have highlighted that using a framework that includes perceived peer prejudice and teacher discrimination as social determinants of adolescent risk behaviors is essential to fully understanding substance use behaviors in adolescents. However, this area of research remains underdeveloped. This study examined whether and to what extent perceived peer prejudice and teacher discrimination affect binge drinking and marijuana use by Black (n = 514) and non-Hispanic White (n = 2,818) adolescents using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, Wave 2, Public Use dataset. Findings suggest that peer prejudice increased the risk of substance use in non-Hispanic White youth only, whereas experiences of teacher discrimination increased the risk of substance use in both Black and non-Hispanic White youth. The study’s limitations are noted, and implications for future research are discussed. PMID:24215222
through conceptualisations, productions and explorations of the multitudes of Muslims in Europe, and the authors draw on Jørgen S. Nielsen’s own work on the history and challenges of the Muslim community in Europe, critical thinking, ethnicities and theologies of Muslims in Europe, Muslim minorities...
This article examines six Indonesian Muslim youth's narratives and those of their parents in relation to their experiences of being Muslim in Australian public schools. Previous studies on similar issue found a certain degree of exclusion and discrimination for being Muslims in public school, this present article however, perceives Muslims'…
Building on an ethnographic study of American Muslim undergraduate women at two universities in Washington, D.C., I examine undergraduate Muslim women's construction of gendered discourses. Stereotypes feed into both majority and minority constructions of Muslim women's gendered identities. I highlight Muslim women's resistance to and adoption of…
Eagly, Alice H; Karau, Steven J
A role congruity theory of prejudice toward female leaders proposes that perceived incongruity between the female gender role and leadership roles leads to 2 forms of prejudice: (a) perceiving women less favorably than men as potential occupants of leadership roles and (b) evaluating behavior that fulfills the prescriptions of a leader role less favorably when it is enacted by a woman. One consequence is that attitudes are less positive toward female than male leaders and potential leaders. Other consequences are that it is more difficult for women to become leaders and to achieve success in leadership roles. Evidence from varied research paradigms substantiates that these consequences occur, especially in situations that heighten perceptions of incongruity between the female gender role and leadership roles.
Plant, E Ashby; Devine, Patricia G; Peruche, Michelle B
The current work examined factors that contribute to positive interracial interactions. It argues that the source of people's motivation to respond without prejudice and the goals and strategies they pursue in interracial interactions influence the quality of these interactions. Three studies show that non-Black participants who are highly internally motivated to respond without prejudice tend to focus on strategies and behaviors in interactions with Black people that approach a positive (i.e., egalitarian) outcome. As a result of engaging in these approach behaviors, their interracial interactions go more smoothly for both themselves and their interaction partners as compared to people less internally motivated. In contrast, externally motivated people tend to focus on avoiding negative (i.e., prejudiced) outcomes, which ironically results in their coming across to their partners as prejudiced. The implications of the findings for smoothing out the rocky road to positive intergroup interactions are discussed.
Dion, K L; Earn, B M
The effects of preceived prejudice upon affect and self-evaluation were explored by experimentally investigating the reactions of Jews to failure in an interpersonal situation. Subjects attributing their failure to religious discrimination by gentiles reported feeling more aggression, sadness, anxiety, and egotism on the Mood Adjective Check List than those who could not invoke anti-Semitism as an explanation for their failure. Moreover, they indicated less "social affection," particularly when one of the prejudiced opponents constituted the audience for their self-presentation. Finally, in response in perceived prejudice, subjects also evaluated themselves more favorably on positive traits underlying the Jewish stereotype. These findings were explained in terms of a stress interpretation.
Full Text Available Scholars have long been intrigued by the role of minority elected officials in representing the interests of their communities. There is an on-going debate on whether distinctive minority agendas exist and whether the existence of minority representatives (descriptive representation is a necessary condition to secure the representation of minority interests (substantive representation. This article analyzes original interview data to examine these issues through a case study of Muslim city councilors and the dynamics of local government in the Newham and Hackney Borough Councils of London. It finds that the exceptionally high ethnic diversity of Newham with no dominant ethnic group, the lack of racial or religious divides among neighborhoods, and low racial tensions shapes the political culture of the Council, as well as the Muslim councilors, and yields high responsiveness for all minorities. It also finds that non-Muslim councilors play a significant role in the substantive representation of minority interests, including Muslim interests. In contrast, the case study of the Hackney Council reveals that beyond high party fragmentation, ethnicity and religiosity of the Muslim councilors vary widely and hinder effective representation. In addition, their political incorporation is low, and the leadership positions they hold seem to have symbolic rather than substantive impact. The political behavior and representative styles of Muslim councilors reveal a balancing perspective, whereby they advocate for group interests with a more moderate tone. These factors account for the low government responsiveness to Muslim interests in Hackney.
Kamoun, Camilia; Spatz, Diane
Little is known regarding the influence of religion on breastfeeding in African American communities. In particular, whether Islamic traditions influence breastfeeding beliefs and practices among African American Muslims has not been studied. Research aim: This study sought to gain understanding of breastfeeding attitudes, rates, and education among African American Muslims in West Philadelphia and to examine if engaging Islamic teachings in breastfeeding education can positively influence breastfeeding attitudes. Open-ended, in-person, digitally recorded qualitative interviews were conducted with 10 community leaders and analyzed by conventional content analysis. A study tool distributed to a convenience sample of 44 community members and 11 leaders was used to gather information about education received from community leaders, breastfeeding attitudes and practices, and the potential for Islamic teachings to positively affect breastfeeding attitudes and practices. To obtain further data on this last topic, preliminary data analysis guided the creation of an education pamphlet, about which feedback was gathered through another study tool. Education surrounding Islamic perspectives on breastfeeding was not prevalent. African American Muslims in West Philadelphia view breastfeeding favorably and have higher rates of breastfeeding than African Americans as a whole. Community education about breastfeeding that engaged Islamic teachings improved respondents' breastfeeding attitudes. Increasing education among providers and African American Muslims about Islamic perspectives on breastfeeding may improve breastfeeding exclusivity and duration. Healthcare providers who care for Muslim women should be aware of Islam's tradition of positive attitudes toward breastfeeding and partner with Muslim leaders to improve breastfeeding rates and duration among such women.
Mounting evidence supports longstanding claims that religions can extend cooperative networks. However, religious prosociality may have a strongly parochial component. Moreover, aspects of religion may promote or exacerbate conflict with those outside a given religious group, promoting regional violence, intergroup conflict, as well as tacit prejudice against nonbelievers. Anti-atheist prejudice—a growing concern in increasingly secular societies—affects employment, elections, family life, an...
Golec de Zavala, Agnieszka; Waldzus, Sven; Cypryanska, Marzena
The results of four studies suggest that contamination concerns involved in prejudice towards male homosexuals may be expressed in the increased need for physical cleansing after an imagined contact with a homosexual man. Participants in Study 1 completed word fragments according to the theme of cleansing, and in Study 2, they chose a cleansing wipe more often after imagining using a mobile phone of a homosexual (vs. heterosexual) man. The need for cleansing was specific to the body parts eng...
Jesús ZAMORA BONILLA
Full Text Available Two aspects of Miranda Fricker’s book are criticised: the implicit assumption that ethical theory can solve fundamental problems in epistemology, and the excessive reliance on testimony as a fundamental source of knowledge. Against the former, it is argued that ethical theories are based on cultural prejudices to a higher extent than epistemological theories. Against the latter, argumentation is proposed as a more important epistemic practice than testimony.
Turner, M. S.; Steigman, G.; Krauss, L. M.
Theoretical prejudices argue strongly for a flat universe; however, observations do not support this view. It is pointed out that this apparent conflict could be resolved if the mass density of the universe today were dominated by (1) relativistic particles produced by the recent decay of massive, relic particle species, or by (2) a relic cosmological constant. Scenario (1) has several advantages in the context of galaxy formation, but must confront the problem of a young universe.
The purpose of this thesis is to present an empirical finding in the area of culture and entrepreneurial intention. The author developed an entrepreneurial culture measure regard to values of proudness and prejudice based on the data from the World Values Survey. Entrepreneurial intention as the dependent variable was draw from Global Entrepreneurship Monitor Consortium (GEM) ’s 2006 dataset. The data sample contains 27 countries. The result shows the newly developed culture measure is negati...
Full Text Available This article examines the experiences of Muslim men who had attended the secondary schools in Quebec in the post-9/11 context. Employing a critical ethnographic approach stemming from institutional ethnography, this study presents biases/racism these men had experienced in their secondary schools in the aftermath of the 9/11 terror attacks and throughout the period of the War on Terror, and the possible causes for this treatment.
Leili R. Rustamova
Full Text Available In recent years, a number of foreign policy concepts declared the importance of using the instruments of "soft power" to promote the national interests of a country. Soft power is the ability through political values, culture and foreign policy to influence others by forming attractiveness . Germany is generally recognized as the leader in the resources of "soft power." The article discusses what kind of resources are deployed by Germany to increase its "soft power" in the Muslim direction of foreign policy. The Muslim world has its own specifics, which complicate the use of instruments of "soft power." Countries with large Muslim population are difficult to influence, as they differ from Europe in the civilizational respect, have their own customs and traditions which they strictly follow because of the nature of Muslim religion. The author notes that in the Muslim direction of foreign policy the problem for Germany lies in the fact that the formation of its attractiveness resulted in a significant flow of immigration of Muslims in the country. A part of immigrant Muslims tries to live isolated from European society, professes radical currents ofIslam and participates in military conflicts abroad, participation in which in the role of active player is ruled out by Germany. Failure to integrate them into German society and the lack of progress in the formation of its positive image in the Muslim countries resulted, on the one hand, in the split of German society, on the other hand, in the threat of absorption by foreign civilization, as it is observed now in Germany the presence of "soft power" of Muslim countries, which use its former and current citizens to influence German political course. The article was written within the constructivist methodology, which consider the "soft power" as a way of construction of social reality with the use of tangible and intangible resources for the formation of an attractive image of Germany in world
Ontario's current education system is struggling with the task of fully including children with disabilities in the regular classrooms of their neighbourhood school. While many educators understand that it is wrong to deny admission to publicly funded schools because the child may be Black or female, they nonetheless feel that segregation of…
Clobert, Magali; Saroglou, Vassilis; Hwang, Kwang-Kuo
Does Buddhism really promote tolerance? Based on cross-cultural and cross-religious evidence, we hypothesized that Buddhist concepts, possibly differing from Christian concepts, activate not only prosociality but also tolerance. Subliminally priming Buddhist concepts, compared with neutral or Christian concepts, decreased explicit prejudice against ethnic, ideological, and moral outgroups among Western Buddhists who valued universalism (Experiment 1, N = 116). It also increased spontaneous prosociality, and decreased, among low authoritarians or high universalists, implicit religious and ethnic prejudice among Westerners of Christian background (Experiment 2, N = 128) and Taiwanese of Buddhist/Taoist background (Experiment 3, N = 122). Increased compassion and tolerance of contradiction occasionally mediated some of the effects. The general idea that religion promotes (ingroup) prosociality and outgroup prejudice, based on research in monotheistic contexts, lacks cross-cultural sensitivity; Buddhist concepts activate extended prosociality and tolerance of outgroups, at least among those with socio-cognitive and moral openness. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.
Full Text Available This study focused on the work ethos of Moeslim entrepreneurs who graduated from UIN Walisongo Semarang. It is very interesting to study because of their profession as a businessmen and their educational background which based on Islamic sciences. Through a qualitative descriptive approach, there are two issues to be answered, namely how the work ethos of Muslim entrepreneurs who graduated from UIN Walisongo Semarang in running a business and how relationships between work ethos of muslim entrepreneurs with their success in business? Results of this study stated that Muslim entrepreneurs who graduated from UIN Walisongo Semarang have a high work ethic as capital in running and developing a business that was involved. Their work ethos is not only driven by economic motives, namely in order to meeth the economic needs alone, but it is also driven by social and religious motives. It correlates with the answer to the second issue, that, a high work ethich as been able to deliver the mon the success of the business that was involved, albeit with varying levels of success. It was determined by the type of business that is occupied and the time period to run the business. It also showed a good ability of the entrepreneur to manage and develop their business
Sandra Guardini T. Vasconcelos
Full Text Available By comparing the novel Pride and Prejudice by Jane Austen with an American filmic version from 1940, the article draws attention to the shift in the focus of the two narratives. While the novel provides alternative possibilities for the stories of the female characters, the filmic version chooses to reinforce an idealized image of social harmony. Ao comparar o romance Pride and Prejudice de Jane Austen com uma versão fílmica americana de 1940, o artigo chama atenção para a mudança de enfoque das duas narrativas. Enquanto o romance fornece possibilidades alternativas para as estórias das personagens femininas, a versão fílmica opta por reforçar uma imagem idealizada de harmonia social.
Whitley, Bernard E; Webster, Gregory D
This meta-analysis summarizes the results of research on the relationships of majority group members' endorsement of assimilation, colorblindness, multiculturalism, and the relative relationships of colorblindness and multiculturalism to ethnic prejudice. Random effects analyses found that assimilation was positively related to explicit prejudice ( g. = 0.80), multiculturalism was negatively related to both explicit ( g. = -0.26) and implicit prejudice ( g. = -0.19), and colorblindness was negatively related to explicit prejudice ( g. = -0.07). Multiculturalism was more closely associated with low prejudice than colorblindness ( g. = 0.15). Effect sizes varied as a function of methodology (experimental vs. correlational), country in which research was conducted (United States vs. other countries), and, in experimental studies of multiculturalism, type of prime used (abstract vs. concrete). Discussion points include methodological issues, groups used as targets of prejudice, national diversity norms, additional issues raised in the studies reviewed, and directions for future research.
Falomir-Pichastor, Juan Manuel; Martínez, Carmen; Paterna, Consuelo
Two hundred and twenty-six heterosexual participants (115 women and 111 men) were asked to indicate their attitude toward gender-roles, their perceived similarities with gay men, and their attitude toward gay men (i.e., sexual prejudice). As expected, male participants showed more sexual prejudice than female participants, and perceived dissimilarities were related to a greater sexual prejudice. Support for gender-roles was related to sexual prejudice for male participants, but not for female participants. More interestingly, the three-way interaction suggested that perceived similarities moderated the link between gender-roles and sexual prejudice among heterosexual men, but not among heterosexual women. Attitude in favor of traditional gender-roles was related to sexual prejudice for male participants who perceived gay men as different, but not for those who perceived gay men as similar. These findings are discussed in terms of the defensive function of men's attitude toward homosexuality as a result of threat to masculinity.
Martínez, Carmen; Vázquez, Carolina; Falomir-Pichastor, Juan Manuel
This research examined the hypothesis that heterosexual men's motivation to differentiate themselves from gay men mediates the relationship between the antifemininity norm of masculinity and antigay prejudice. We assessed masculinity through three concepts: status, thoughness, and antifemininity. Participants then reported their perceived similarity with gay men and their antigay prejudice. The results showed that antifemininity was the best predictor of both perceived similarity and antigay prejudice: The more people endorsed the antifemininity norm, the more they perceived themselves as dissimilar from gay men and showed antigay prejudice. More important, perceived similarity mediated the effect of antifemininity on antigay prejudice. These findings provide direct evidence for the link between masculinity and the motivation to differentiate oneself from gay men, and they suggest that antigay prejudice accomplishes the identity function of maintaining unambiguous gender boundaries.
Levin, Michael E.; Luoma, Jason B.; Vilardaga, Roger; Lillis, Jason; Nobles, Richard; Hayes, Steven C.
Research to-date on generalized prejudice has focused primarily on personality factors. Further work is needed identifying manipulable variables that directly inform anti-prejudice interventions. The current study examined three such variables: empathic concern, perspective taking, and psychological inflexibility/flexibility with prejudiced thoughts, as a test of the flexible connectedness model. A sample of 604 undergraduate students completed online surveys. A model indicated prejudice meas...
Full Text Available The mosque constitutes one of the most highly developed forms of religious architecture. With the rapid expansion of the Muslim community through conquests as well as missionary activities, it became necessary to set aside an enclosed area in cities or large towns for the purpose of established communal worship. Mosque architecture in the Muslim period exposes clearly its sacred identity, even it is continuously remarked, but in secular architecture, the ideas are not spiritually motivated in a cosmic sense. Definitely a structural idea and use of materials as well as its functional and aesthetic use play a role in determining what is expressed by it. The development of understanding of functional and aesthetic use of materials and technique with effective manner is depending on assimilated technologies. Integrated process of standard materials, skilled labor, innovative idea and socioeconomic as well as geographical factors may regard to constructing any magnificent architecture. The present study is an attempt to analyse and develop the structure, structural decoration and use of materials and design of the mosques during the Muslim period in Bengal.
Full Text Available The paper addresses criticisms of contemporary acculturation research by adopting a mixed method approach (open-ended survey responses, interviews, focus groups and projective techniques to the study of the acculturation experiences of Muslim youth in New Zealand. The research explores: 1 the meaning, definition and achievement of success; 2 the process of negotiating multiple social identities; and 3 the graphic representation of identity. Thematic analysis indicated that young Muslims aspire to achieve success in personal, social, material and religious domains and that they seek to balance potentially competing demands from family, friends, the Muslim community and the wider society. At the same time they aspire to balance multiple identities, retaining religious and cultural elements in the definition of self while endeavoring to integrate into the wider society. The process of achieving this balance is characterized by three strategies: alternating orientations, blending orientations and minimizing differences. The findings are discussed in relation to advancing our understanding of integration as an acculturation option, and the community-based policy implications for multicultural societies are considered.
Ahmad Nur Fuad
Full Text Available The issue of Islam and human rights has become important issue in Indonesia at least since the last two decades. Indonesian Muslims have developed two different approaches to human rights: in complete agreement with the declaration of universal human rights; and in resistance to that declaration and developing understanding that Islam encompasses human rights values. The article argues for its part that human rights are not absolutely universal, because they are based chiefly on Western values, structures, ethics and morality. For that, it is reasonable to question their universality. The present article focuses on how Indonesian Muslim intellectuals conceive of human rights and Islamic values as they perceive the two. Specifically, it focuses on four principal issues in human rights discourse: freedom of opinion, religious freedoms, rights of women, and criminal law. The authors reveal in the conclusion that although some Indonesian Muslim intellectuals admit that universal human rights are truly universal, they still see differences in certain cases, due to differencesin socio-cultural background. They have tried to affect a synthesis between the universality and particularity of both Islamic and universal human rights in order to make both fit within the Indonesian context.
Full Text Available We test two assumptions of the generalized prejudice literature. First, that the structure of generalized prejudice (i.e. how prejudices are interrelated is dependent on the intergroup context. Second, that different types of prejudice have similar political consequences and run via the generalized prejudice component. We perform these tests in the two main regions of Belgium − Flanders and Wallonia − and investigate the influence of differences in the history of immigration, experience of the linguistic and autonomy conflict, and the separate party system and political discourse (i.e. the societal and intergroup context on these premises. We make use of the Belgian Election Panel (BEP data that included measures of prejudice toward multiple target groups (immigrants, Flemings, Walloons, homosexuals, and Jews and voting propensities for the main political parties. Our results show that, regardless of the differences in intergroup experiences, the structure of prejudice is identical in Flanders and Wallonia. Flemings are, however, more tolerant toward homosexuals and immigrants than Walloons. The political context and the set of potential political outlets does play an important moderating role in the translation of prejudices to party preferences: While negative attitudes toward the other regional group seem to divide the electorate in Flanders, it does not affect voting intentions in Wallonia. Anti-immigrant prejudice is crucial in both regions, but affects voters in different ways at the right-side of the political spectrum.
Muslim women's organizations in East and West Africa have cultivated successful ... we conceptualize economic and political participation and measure inequality. ... Tanzania to help develop mechanisms for sustainable economic growth and ...
Full Text Available Indonesian Halal Tourism became a raising mode to attract Muslim Tourist by Ministry of Tourism Republic Indonesia. Indonesia, as a non-Muslim country by nation ideology, tries to highlight the spiritual spirit of Islam as a culture to attract more tourists and put it into physical practice by having more tourism hospitalities; such as Halal Hotel that has Halal certification, which provides less or even none of alcohol beverages and serves only food based on Halal dietary. Indonesia in developing tourism brand of “Indonesia The Halal Wonders” would possibly lead into positive and negative possibilities. This article used literature review to reach data about Halal tourism in Indonesia. It has a tendency for tourism halal markets to lose the customers that are not Muslim travellers. Keywords: Halal Tourism, Indonesia, Muslim, Tourist
Christian – Muslim Relations in Nigeria: The Problems and Prospects. ... Basic findings of this study show that Nigeria.s stability, democracy, and national ... must embrace Inter-religious dialogue which demands religions nurture, faith, trust, ...
Fleming, Todd D
.... While the United Kingdom takes great pride in its past multicultural policies, it finds itself increasingly estranged from its Muslim minority community while seeing a notable rise in the growth of radicalism...
Verkuyten, Maykel; Hindriks, Paul; Coenders, Marcel
In three survey experimental studies among national samples of the native Dutch, we examined feelings towards Muslim immigrants' political party representation. The strategy of disengagement (reject political representation) was evaluated most positively, followed by the descriptive representation
turation from a socio-cultural perspective, as the occurrence ..... gies, a two-way contingency table analysis was used. This was ..... Muslim students‟ management of their appea- ..... apparel and contemporary American clothing. Journal of ...
Queenova is one of the Muslim fashion brand who play in the online market that has been able to grow rapidly. The purpose of this study is to find out the online marketing communication strategy conducted by Queenova Muslim fashion in increasing brand awareness. This type of research uses descriptive type qualitative approach with qualitative descriptive research method. Technique of data collecting by interview and observation. Technique examination of data validity using triangulation. Quee...
Gressgård , Randi
Abstract The Muslim woman wearing the veil, the female anorexic and the from-male-to-female transsexual constitute three different figures that, despite their striking differences, have a common symbolic ground. By focusing on the similarity between the veiled woman and the other two figures, the article sheds a different light on the debate about the Muslim veil in western societies. It is argued that the ...
Full Text Available This paper describes the ethics toward non-Muslims based on al-Qur’an. Islam as a religion of peace was accused and insulted by the orientalists frequently. These accusations and insulting stated in several articles, journals either in their books. Their books like Islamic Invasion wrote by Robert Morey and Islam Revealed by Anis A Shorrosh are some sample of how the orientalists discredits Islam. Whereas Islam is not like what they accused. On the contrary, Islam has responding their accusations with an elegant and tolerant doctrine. Islam has teaches its peoples to respects another religion’s people, Islam forbids his people to insult other religions, to excoriate their worships or forcing non-Muslims to convert or believes to Islam, even Islam teaches its people to acknowledge non-Muslims as brother and sister. This is Islam’s admiration toward non- Muslims. Surprisingly, these admirations inversely proportional to what non- Muslims did toward Islam and its people. The abuses as what we mention it before, was being happened even until now. Lately, one of Christian pastor in United State was told his people to burn the Holly Qur’an or as we known about suppression of Rohingya’s Muslims that was did by Myanmar’s Buddhists.
Haider H. Alwasiti
Full Text Available Almost all religions incorporate some form of meditation. Muslim prayer is the meditation of Islam. It is an obligatory prayer for all Muslims that is performed five times a day. Although a large body of literature exists on EEG changes in meditation, to date there has been no research published in a peer-reviewed journal on EEG changes during Muslim prayer. The purpose of this pilot study is to encourage further investigation on this type of meditation. Results of EEG analysis in twenty-five trials of Muslim prayer are reported. Some of the findings are consistent with the majority of the previous meditation studies (alpha rhythm slowing, increased alpha rhythm coherence. However, Muslim prayer does not show an increase in alpha and/or theta power like most of the results of other meditation studies. The possible cause of this discrepancy in meditation-related studies is highlighted and a systematic and standardised roadmap for future Muslim prayer EEG research is proposed.
Full Text Available This study aims to answer the question of what social context related to atti- tudes of exclusionary reactions between Muslims and Christians. The data used in this research is resulted from interviews in the city of Ambon. The conceptual framework used to analyze findings of fieldwork is about relation- ship between ethno-religious identification and exclusionary reactions. In addition, actual or symbolic competition in the political, economic, social and cultural behaviour contributes to exclusionary attitudes. Likewise, the collective memory of the conflict led individuals to have prejudices against out-group members. Based on interview data, this study indicates that exclu- sionary reactions present in the city of Ambon in the form of social avoidance between Muslim and Christian students and the support for residential segre- gation. Both of these phenomena related to political and symbolic competi- tion in public institutions such as public universities. Also, social processes of implanting ethno-religious identity in their families have roles in the creation of prejudicial attitudes against out-group members. The collective memory of the conflict also contributes unto the phenomena of social avoidance and support for residential segregation. Studi ini bertujuan untuk menjawab pertanyaan konteks sosial apa yang berkaitan dengan meningkatnya fenomena eksklusivisme sosial antara umat Islam dan Kristen. Data yang digunakan sebagai basis untuk menjawab pertayaan ini tersebut berasal dari sejumlah wawancara di Kota Ambon. Kerangka konsep yang digunakan untuk menganalisis temuan lapangan adalah tentang hubungan identifikasi terhadap identitas kelompok etnik dan agama dengan perilaku mengecualikan kelompok lain. Selain itu, kompetisi aktual maupun simbolik dalam bidang politik, ekonomi, dan sosial budaya ikut memberikan kontribusi pada perilaku mengecualikan kelompok lain. Demikian juga memori kolektif mengenai konflik di masa lalu menjadikan
The study found that before participation in the activities, significantly more subjects in the experimental group who participated in happy Muslim family activities had violent behaviors against their spouses than those in the control group who participated in normal community activities. However, after participating in the happy Muslim family activities, those in the experimental group used significantly less domestic violence against their spouses when compared with those in the control group.
Full Text Available Combining normative analysis of a legal text with a study of a wider social and historical context, this paper tries to prove that the French Law of 15th March 2004, which forbids displaying of religious symbols, and most of all, the Muslim veil in public schools, does not represent a continuation, but a break up with a liberal-democratic tradition of protection of religious rights of the Fifth Republic. The aforementioned legislation radically changes the idea of profane, which is, religiously neutral country, as there is a value itself that is being created out of laicité - an instrumental principle of protection of the freedom of religion, whose protection requires a limitation of the religious freedom. In order to understand the motives of the French legislator, it is necessary to accompany the normative analysis of laws with an observation of a wider social context in which the mentioned problem occurs. Therefore, this paper takes into account the need for a multidisciplinary approach, that is, the need to consider both the historical perspective and the social analysis of the context of the legal prohibition. We are of belief that from a methodological aspect this paper represents a contribution to those positions in legal science which insist on the necessity of studying a wider social background of normative solutions as a prerequisite for a successful analysis of a legal text.
Full Text Available Reasons for copy-pasting someone else’s works has attracted attention from many sides that copy-pasting activities, or more popular with term plagiarism, have been considered as a threat for academic life. It also happens at the case of muslim students, in which Islam teaches the students to be honest and not to steal from others. For understanding why it happens, this exploration is conducted. The students of English Department of IAIN Syekh Nurjati Cirebon have to write many of their assignments in English. The result of my observations, the quality of the students’ writing is not good enough. One of the cases found is the copy-paste works, or plagiarism. Using interviews instrument, I try to figure out why students of English Department of IAIN Syekh Nurjati Cirebon. There are at least three reasons behind why students act plagiarism; ignorance on the quotation and citation rules, poor writing skills, and the need of instant writing result. This paper tries to explore these reasons. Keywords: copy-paste, plagiarism, writing in English
Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to analyze the factors that determines consumers in their purchasing decisions Muslim dress and recommend the proposed marketing mix strategy affects customer satisfaction and loyalty which can have an impact on purchasing decisions / repurchase (repurchase by consumers. The analytical methods used in this study Chi-Square Test, Thurstone Case-V Analysis, Correspondence Analysis, and Structural Equation Model. The results showed the purchasing decisions Muslim clothing there is a relationship between level of education and average revenue / expenditure per month with custom usage Muslim clothing, there are five sequences attribute Muslim clothing that is essential according to the respondents, the underwear model, quality of materials, patterns typical, leisure time used as well as an attractive packaging design. Muslim clothing brand Ke'ke is purchased by consumers because the ads fit the facts, reasonably priced, there are many models of quality koko and containerized, while shortcomings are in the variation of the veil / hijab and less spread of sales outlets. The products are very dominant. They influence purchasing decisions of consumers so that the superiority of the product should be maintained and even improved.Keywords: muslim clothing, the mix marketing, re-purchasing decisions
Bucchianeri, Michaela M; Gower, Amy L; McMorris, Barbara J; Eisenberg, Marla E
Despite prejudice-based harassment's associations with serious physical and mental health risks, research examining multiple forms of harassment among children/adolescents is lacking. This study documents the prevalence of prejudice-based harassment (i.e., harassment on the basis of gender, race/ethnicity, weight or physical appearance, sexual orientation, and disability status) among a large, statewide, school-based Midwestern U.S. sample of 162,034 adolescents. Weight-/appearance-based harassment was most prevalent among both girls (25.3%) and boys (19.8%). Adolescents from certain vulnerable groups experienced higher rates of multiple types of harassment, even when controlling for other sociodemographic characteristics. Prejudice-based harassment experiences are prevalent among adolescent girls and boys. Differential rates of each type of harassment are reported across groups within the corresponding sociodemographic status (e.g., white female adolescents report a significantly lower rate of race-based harassment (4.8%), as compared to Native American (18.6%), mixed/other race (18.9%), Hispanic/Latina (21.5%), Asian/Pacific Islander (24.2%), or Black/African American (24.8%) female adolescents); but a pattern of cross-harassment also is evident, such that differences in prevalence of each harassment type emerge across a variety of statuses (e.g., disability-based harassment was statistically significantly higher among discordant heterosexual (12.7%), gay (13.0%), bisexual (15.3%), and unsure (15.3%) male adolescents than among heterosexual male (7.2%) adolescents). Adolescents from specific sociodemographic groups are particularly vulnerable to certain types of harassment. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dhont, Kristof; Makwana, Arti P.
Abstract Previous research has obtained mixed findings as to whether feelings of self‐worth are positively or negatively related to right‐wing ideological beliefs and prejudice. We propose to clarify the link between self‐worth and ideology by distinguishing between narcissistic and non‐narcissistic self‐evaluations as well as between different dimensions of ideological attitudes. Four studies, conducted in three different socio‐political contexts: the UK (Study 1, N = 422), the US (Studies 2 and 3, Ns = 471 and 289, respectively), and Poland (Study 4, N = 775), investigated the associations between narcissistic and non‐narcissistic self‐evaluations, social dominance orientation (SDO), right‐wing authoritarianism (RWA), and ethnic prejudice. Confirming our hypotheses, the results consistently showed that after controlling for self‐esteem, narcissistic self‐evaluation was positively associated with SDO (accounting for RWA), yet negatively associated with RWA (accounting for SDO). These associations were similar after controlling for psychopathy and Machiavellianism (Study 3) as well as collective narcissism and Big Five personality characteristics (Study 4). Studies 2–4 additionally demonstrated that narcissistic self‐evaluation was indirectly positively associated with prejudice through higher SDO (free of RWA) but indirectly negatively associated with prejudice through lower RWA (free of SDO). Implications for understanding the role of self‐evaluation in right‐wing ideological attitudes and prejudice are discussed. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. European Journal of Personality published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of European Association of Personality Psychology PMID:28983151
Eslen-Ziya, Hande; Koc, Yasin
This paper examines expressions and experiences of internalised sexual stigma with respect to definitions of masculinity and identity conflicts through a thematic analysis of life-history narratives of 14 self-identified gay men living in Turkey. The analysis reveals that internalised sexual prejudice emerges when widely accepted hegemonic masculinity ideology is 'violated' by being gay. Participants' narratives indicate that their construction of masculinity is a vigorous process established via encounters with hegemonic masculinity. Findings are discussed in the context of the relevant literature and in relation to Turkish culture's traditional understanding of gender and gender roles.
Hanly, Margaret Ann Fitzpatrick
Jane Austen's most popular novel, Pride and Prejudice (1813), illuminates and is illuminated by psychoanalytic aesthetics. When Austen dramatizes unconscious oedipal/sibling rivalries, irony acts as a type of aesthetic ambiguity (E. Kris 1952). A psychoanalytic perspective shows that Austen uses a grammar of negatives (negation, denial, minimization) to achieve the dual meanings of irony, engaging the reader's unconscious instinctual satisfactions, while at the same time protecting the reader from unpleasant affects. Austen's plot, which portrays regressions driven by sibling jealousy, reveals that a new tolerance of remorse and depression in her heroine and hero leads to psychic growth.
Bijlstra, Gijsbert; Holland, Rob W; Dotsch, Ron; Wigboldus, Daniel H J
Most research on emotion recognition focuses on facial expressions. However, people communicate emotional information through bodily cues as well. Prior research on facial expressions has demonstrated that emotion recognition is modulated by top-down processes. Here, we tested whether this top-down modulation generalizes to the recognition of emotions from body postures. We report three studies demonstrating that stereotypes and prejudice about men and women may affect how fast people classify various emotional body postures. Our results suggest that gender cues activate gender associations, which affect the recognition of emotions from body postures in a top-down fashion. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
West, Keon; Hewstone, Miles
Jamaica has been called "the most homophobic place on Earth" ( Padgett, 2006 , p. 1), and has been involved in numerous international incidents with Britain, and other countries, concerning anti-gay prejudice. However, neither the severity of Jamaican anti-gay prejudice, nor any means of reducing this prejudice has ever been empirically investigated. Intergroup contact-social interaction with a person from another group-is one of the most successful and widely used social-psychological interventions to reduce prejudice and improve intergroup relations. In this article, we compared sexual prejudice in Jamaica to that in Britain and investigated the relationship between contact and sexual prejudice in both countries. Jamaican participants reported more negative attitudes toward gay men than did British participants, but contact was more strongly associated with reduced sexual prejudice for Jamaican participants than for British participants. Implications for reducing Jamaican sexual prejudice are discussed.
Full Text Available Interaction and communication between religions often develop a harmony culture. Without a good interaction and communication, it can emerge prejudice. It means that interaction in the context of a different culture and religion plays an important role in shaping the integration value. In the context of students at Prince of Songkhla University consisting of Muslims and Buddhists who often interact among each other. The question is how far the conflict in Southern Thai has influenced the communication patterns? Hence, this article discusses the patterns of interaction and communication between Muslims and Buddhists at universities. In addition, how far the interaction and communication among both side have created a religious tolerance. The methodology used in the study is qualitative and quantitative approach using questionnaires and interviews. This study shows that most students have a good interaction and communication. In addition, this study also shows that there are a relationship between interaction and communication with the attitude of religious tolerance at a strong level.
Racism and other prejudices have hindered efforts to diversify and further many fields, including education, psychology, politics, law, and healthcare (Race for Opportunity, 2010). Although there are many ways to combat these prejudices, intercultural communication continues to be a vital component in assisting individuals and groups with valuing…
Although research has shown the effects of empathy manipulations on prejudice, little is known about the long-term relation between empathy and prejudice development, the direction of effects, and the relative effects of cognitive and affective aspects of empathy. Moreover, research has not examined within-person processes; hence, its practical…
Presents interviews with Blacks about past experiences with racial discrimination and the impact of integration and prejudice on their children. Discusses the importance of parental guidance in teaching young Blacks about their cultural heritage and how to cope with prejudice and discrimination. (SA)
Rajbhandari, Mani Man Singh; Rajbhandari, Smriti
The immortality of prejudice after the school management transfer has not been judged. This makes communities to take responsibility for schools further by compelling the government to mandate amendments of Community Managed Schools (CMS) Directives. The purpose was to explore the CMS enduring Ubuntu against immorality of prejudice, through…
The present dissertation provides insights into the effects of communicative roles on stereotyping and prejudice. It has generally been assumed that communicating stereotypes and prejudices serves to strengthen these beliefs in senders and recipients. Whereas we agreed that senders would strengthen
Kite, Mary E.
There is ample reason to be discouraged about the prevalence of sexual prejudice. As Herek (2000) notes, the majority of adult respondents in the United States report that homosexual behavior is wrong or "unnatural." The author readily acknowledges, then, that it is overly optimistic to believe that sexual prejudice is a thing of the past or that…
Problem Statement: Trust is crucial for creating a positive culture in the school environment, which is called as trust culture. On the other hand, prejudice is thought to be a potential barrier for creating trust culture in schools. Thus, it is meaningful to examine the relationship between trust culture and prejudice in schools and then to…
Lee, Yeonjin; Muennig, Peter; Kawachi, Ichiro; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L
We examined whether and how racial prejudice at both the individual and community levels contributes to mortality risk among majority as well as minority group members. We used data on racial attitudes from the General Social Survey (1993-2002) prospectively linked to mortality data from the National Death Index through 2008. Whites and Blacks living in communities with higher levels of racial prejudice were at an elevated risk of mortality, independent of individual and community sociodemographic characteristics and individually held racist beliefs (odds ratio = 1.24; 95% confidence interval = 1.04, 1.49). Living in a highly prejudiced community had similar harmful effects among both Blacks and Whites. Furthermore, the interaction observed between individual- and community-level racial prejudice indicated that respondents with higher levels of racial prejudice had lower survival rates if they lived in communities with low degrees of racial prejudice. Community-level social capital explained the relationship between community racial prejudice and mortality. Community-level racial prejudice may disrupt social capital, and reduced social capital is associated with increased mortality risk among both Whites and Blacks. Our results contribute to an emerging body of literature documenting the negative consequences of prejudice for population health.
Muennig, Peter; Kawachi, Ichiro; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.
Objectives. We examined whether and how racial prejudice at both the individual and community levels contributes to mortality risk among majority as well as minority group members. Methods. We used data on racial attitudes from the General Social Survey (1993–2002) prospectively linked to mortality data from the National Death Index through 2008. Results. Whites and Blacks living in communities with higher levels of racial prejudice were at an elevated risk of mortality, independent of individual and community sociodemographic characteristics and individually held racist beliefs (odds ratio = 1.24; 95% confidence interval = 1.04, 1.49). Living in a highly prejudiced community had similar harmful effects among both Blacks and Whites. Furthermore, the interaction observed between individual- and community-level racial prejudice indicated that respondents with higher levels of racial prejudice had lower survival rates if they lived in communities with low degrees of racial prejudice. Community-level social capital explained the relationship between community racial prejudice and mortality. Conclusions. Community-level racial prejudice may disrupt social capital, and reduced social capital is associated with increased mortality risk among both Whites and Blacks. Our results contribute to an emerging body of literature documenting the negative consequences of prejudice for population health. PMID:26378850
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Cohrs, J Christopher; Kämpfe-Hargrave, Nicole; Riemann, Rainer
Our knowledge on the personality basis of ideological attitudes and prejudice, while based on a substantial body of research, suffers from a potentially serious methodological limitation: an overreliance on the method of self-reports. Across 2 studies (Ns = 193, 424), we examined associations between the Big Five personality dimensions, Right-Wing Authoritarianism (RWA), Social Dominance Orientation (SDO), and generalized prejudice, using both self-report and peer-report data stemming from 1 (Study 1) or 2 (Study 2) peer rater/s. Correlational and regression analyses as well as structural equation modeling showed that (a) the associations between personality dimensions, ideological attitudes, and prejudice were largely similar to previous research for both data sources; (b) RWA and prejudice showed a similar level of self-peer agreement to personality dimensions; (c) most of the known associations between personality, ideological attitudes, and prejudice were replicated also when measured by independent methods; (d) peer reports had some incremental validity in predicting ideological attitudes and prejudice; and (e) there was evidence that Openness to Experience and Agreeableness predicted prejudice directly and not only indirectly via RWA and SDO, respectively. Implications for the status of RWA, SDO, and prejudice as individual-difference constructs and for their bases in personality dimensions are discussed.
Piumatti, Giovanni; Mosso, Cristina
The current study explored how individual differences in endorsement of aggressive behaviors and thoughts relate to individual levels of tolerance and prejudice toward immigrants and established prejudice correlates such as social dominance orientation (SDO) and ethnic out-groups ratings among adolescents. Participants (N = 141; Age M = 16.08, 68% girls) completed the Readiness for Interpersonal Aggression Inventory, the Tolerance and Prejudice Questionnaire, and measures of SDO and ethnic out-groups ratings. Results indicated that higher individual endorsement of aggression was related to higher prejudice and SDO and lower tolerance and ethnic out-groups ratings. Patterns of endorsement of aggression related to habitual and socially determined aggressive acts or stable needs to hurt others as a source of satisfaction were significantly correlated with prejudice. Conversely, the relationship between prejudice and endorsement of impulsive actions lacking of emotional control resulted was less marked. The results highlight how in the cognitive spectrum of prejudice, individual levels of endorsement of aggression may play a significant triggering role during adolescence. These findings may have implications for future studies and interventions aimed at reducing prejudice already in young ages. PMID:28344674
Full Text Available Since 11 September 2001, Islam has been the center of many debates, discussions, parodies and publications. Many Muslims feel that their religion has been portrayed unfairly in Western media. The topics that seem to generate the most criticism relate to gender roles and the treatment of women, both inside the home and in society. The purpose of this paper is to examine the perceived role of Islam on marital and familial relationships from an insider’s perspective and to present participants’ reflections on sensitive issues, including gender roles, women’s rights and marital unity. Content analysis of in-depth interviews of twenty diverse Shia and Sunni Muslim couples living in the U.S. (n = 40 yielded three emergent themes: (1 Islam as a way of life; (2 Islam as a unifying force; and (3 gender roles and the treatment of women. These data suggest that, as perceived by our religiously involved “insider” participants, Islam influences marriage relationships, unites families and (when understood and lived properly protects women from abuse and oppression.
Sanchez, Diana T; Chaney, Kimberly E; Manuel, Sara K; Remedios, Jessica D
Latinos and Asian Americans confront similar stereotypes as they are often presumed to be foreigners and subjected to American identity denial. Across six studies (total N = 992), we demonstrate that Latinos and Asians anticipate ingroup prejudice and specific types of subordination (e.g., American identity threat) in the face of outgroup threats that target one another (i.e., stigma transfer). The studies explore whether stigma transfer occurred primarily when shared Latino and Asian stereotype content was a salient component of the prejudice remark (e.g., foreigner stereotypes; Study 3), or when outgroup prejudice targeted a social group with shared stereotype content (Study 4), though neither appeared to substantively moderate stigma transfer. Minority group members who conceptualize prejudiced people as holding multiple biases (i.e., a monolithic prejudice theory) were more susceptible to stigma transfer suggesting that stereotype content is not necessary for stigma transfer because people assume that prejudice is not singular.
Loi, Natasha M.; Breadsell, Dana
An experiment was conducted to test for the presence of prejudice towards obesity and whether weight controllability beliefs information reduces this prejudice and impacts on a person’s own healthy eating self-efficacy. The experiment randomly allocated 346 participants (49 males) into one of three conditions: controllable contributors toward obesity condition (e.g., information about personal control about diet and exercise); uncontrollable contributors toward obesity condition (e.g., information about genes, factors in society); and a control condition with no information given. Prejudice was present in 81% of the sample. High prejudice was predicted by low self-efficacy for exercise and weight. Weight controllability beliefs information had no significant effect on prejudice levels or exercise or healthy eating self-efficacy levels. Future research directions are discussed. PMID:26966679
Shi, Yuanyuan; Dang, Jianning; Zheng, Wenwen; Liu, Li
Past work suggested that dual identity was effective to reduce prejudice. This study extended research on dual identity and prejudice by identifying a boundary condition in this relationship, that is, group permeability. In Study 1, we replicated previous studies with Chinese individuals and found that inducing dual identity (emphasizing subgroup differences and a common nation identity), compared to the control condition, decreased the urban residents’ prejudice against rural-to-urban migrants. In Study 2, we manipulated the group boundary permeability using the Hukou system reform, and found that when the group boundary was permeable, dual identity was effective in reducing prejudice against rural-to-urban migrants. However, this effect vanished in the condition where the group boundary was impermeable. These results point to the importance of inducing dual identity under specific conditions for research on decreasing prejudice. Some practical implications of the findings for urbanization and immigration are discussed. PMID:28261130
Steffens, M.C.; Jonas, K.J.; Scali, T.
Most prejudice studies focus on a single aspect, for instance, sexual prejudice, overlooking other individual characteristics or multiple minority status (i.e., identity intersections). As a drawback, this approach could overestimate specific sources of prejudice. We demonstrated this empirically in
... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Withdrawal without prejudice of a premarket... ADDITIVES Premarket Notifications § 170.103 Withdrawal without prejudice of a premarket notification for a food contact substance (FCN). A manufacturer or supplier may withdraw an FCN without prejudice to a...
Brockett, Adrian; Wicker, Kate
This study examines the Outgroup Prejudice Index (see "Research in Education," 83, 2010) to see what factors best predict levels of outgroup prejudice among adolescents living in northern England. A sample of 2,502 eleven- to sixteen-year-old secondary school pupils completed a questionnaire that included measures of outgroup prejudice,…
Effron, Daniel A; Knowles, Eric D
We propose that people treat prejudice as more legitimate when it seems rationalistic-that is, linked to a group's pursuit of collective interests. Groups that appear to be coherent and unified wholes (entitative groups) are most likely to have such interests. We thus predicted that belonging to an entitative group licenses people to express prejudice against outgroups. Support for this idea came from 3 correlational studies and 5 experiments examining racial, national, and religious prejudice. The first 4 studies found that prejudice and discrimination seemed more socially acceptable to third parties when committed by members of highly entitative groups, because people could more easily explain entitative groups' biases as a defense of collective interests. Moreover, ingroup entitativity only lent legitimacy to outgroup prejudice when an interests-based explanation was plausible-namely, when the outgroup could possibly threaten the ingroup's interests. The last 4 studies found that people were more willing to express private prejudices when they perceived themselves as belonging to an entitative group. Participants' perceptions of their own race's entitativity were associated with a greater tendency to give explicit voice to their implicit prejudice against other races. Furthermore, experimentally raising participants' perceptions of ingroup entitativity increased explicit expressions of outgroup prejudice, particularly among people most likely to privately harbor such prejudices (i.e., highly identified group members). Together, these findings demonstrate that entitativity can lend a veneer of legitimacy to prejudice and disinhibit its expression. We discuss implications for intergroup relations and shifting national demographics. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved). PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.
Daboin, Irene; Peterson, John L; Parrott, Dominic J
Previous research has consistently found sexual prejudice to be a predictor of antigay aggression and has also revealed specific correlates and antecedents of sexual prejudice. However, extant literature reveals mixed findings about potential racial group differences in sexual prejudice, and few studies have examined racial differences in the correlates of sexual prejudice. The aims of this descriptive study were to determine whether there are (a) racial group differences in reports of sexual prejudice and (b) racial group differences in previously identified correlates of sexual prejudice. Participants were 195 heterosexual males, ages 18 to 30 (98 Blacks and 97 Whites), recruited from a large metropolitan city in the southeastern United States. Based on cultural differences in the influence of religion and in attitudes about male sexuality, it was hypothesized that Black participants would report higher sexual prejudice than White participants. Additionally, based on cultural differences in racial views on masculinity and in sociocultural experiences of male gender roles, it was hypothesized that Blacks would report greater endorsement of religious fundamentalism and the traditional male role norm of status than Whites. Results confirmed all of the hypothesized racial differences and revealed additional differences, including a differential effect of the traditional male role norm of status on sexual prejudice, which explains, at least in part, the racial differences found in sexual prejudice. These findings may reflect underlying cultural differences between Black and White males and may aid in the development of future efforts to reduce sexual prejudice and consequently antigay aggression toward sexual minorities. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Fachrizal A. Halim
Full Text Available The present essay examines the common approach in reading the relationship between Muslims and Russian society as if they were bound by perpetual conflict. Following this angle, historians argue that the Russians underwent long term conflict with Muslims and claim that the Russians have suffered more than any other people in facing the hostile world of Islam. Some also argue that Muslims were completely subdued by the Russians due to Islam’s incompatibility with the secular and atheist Soviet regime. A careful survey of literature on the history of Muslims in Russia, however, does not always lead to the conclusion that the two sides were in continuous conflict. In fact, aside from conflict and subjugation, both Russians and the Muslims enjoyed a considerable level of peace and shared a similar attitude of flexibility in mutual cooperation. Given the extent of flexibility of Muslims in their encounter with the Russians throughout the Czar and the Soviet regimes, I argue that contemporary scholars have scaled down the dynamic of both Russian and Muslims intellectual articulations in relation to modern politics as well as to the internal relationship between the two sides, and that the relationship between them can be written as other than perpetual conflict.[Artikel ini mengulas hubungan Islam dan Rusia yang kerap dijelaskan dalam konteks relasi saling bertentangan. Dari cara pandang demikian, ahli sejarah kerap berpendapat bahwa konflik antara keduanya sudah terjadi lama dan orang Rusia adalah korban paling parah yang diakibatkan kebrutalan Islam. Semantara itu, ahli sejarah lainnya berpendapat bahwa orang Islam jatuh ke tangan kekuasaan Rusia karena Islam tidak mengakui rejim sekuler dan ateis Soviet. Jika literatur mengenai sejarah Islam di Rusia, maka relasi konfliktual antara keduanya tidak sepenuhnya benar. Faktanya, terlepas dari konflik dan penaklukan, baik orang Rusia dan umat Islam dapat hidup secara damai dan fleksibel dalam
Goodwin, Robin; Kaniasty, Krzysztof; Sun, Shaojing; Ben-Ezra, Menachem
Terrorist attacks have the capacity to threaten our beliefs about the world, cause distress across populations and promote discrimination towards particular groups. We examined the impact of two different types of attacks in the same city and same year on psychological distress and probable posttraumatic stress symptoms, and the moderating effects of religion or media use on distress/posttraumatic symptoms and inter-group relations. Two panel surveys four weeks after the January 2015 Charlie Hebdo attack (N = 1981) and the November 2015 Bataclan concert hall/restaurant attacks (N = 1878), measured intrinsic religiosity, social and traditional media use, psychological distress (K6), probable posttraumatic stress symptoms (proposed ICD-11), symbolic racism and willingness to interact with Muslims by non-Muslims. Prevalence of serious mental illness (K6 score > 18) was higher after November 2015 attacks (7.0% after the first attack, 10.2% the second, χ2 (1) = 5.67, p < 0.02), as were probable posttraumatic stress symptoms (11.9% vs. 14.1%; χ2 (1) = 4.15, p < 0.04). In structural equation analyses, sex, age, geographic proximity, media use and religiosity were associated with distress, as was the interaction between event and religiosity. Distress was then associated with racism symbolism and willingness to interact with Muslims. Implications are considered for managing psychological trauma across populations, and protecting inter-group harmony. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to classify and explain democracies in the 47 Muslim countries between the years 1998 and 2008 by using liberties and elections as independent variables. Specifically focusing on the context of the Muslim world, this study examines the performance of civil liberties and elections, variation of democracy practised the most, the elections, civil liberties and democratic transitions and patterns that followed. Based on the quantitative data primarily collected from Freedom House, this study demonstrates the following aggregate findings: first, the “not free not fair” elections, the “limited” civil liberties and the “Illiberal Partial Democracy” were the dominant feature of elections, civil liberties and democracy practised in the Muslim world; second, a total of 413 Muslim regimes out of 470 (47 regimes x 10 years remained the same as their democratic origin points, without any transitions to a better or worse level of democracy, throughout these 10 years; and third, a slow, yet steady positive transition of both elections and civil liberties occurred in the Muslim world with changes in the nature of elections becoming much more progressive compared to the civil liberties’ transitions.
Lou, Alina; Hammoud, Maya
To investigate Muslim women's attitudes concerning Ramadan fasting during pregnancy and determine how healthcare providers can better serve this population. A cross-sectional study targeted Muslim patients with active obstetric records within the University of Michigan Health System who received care at clinics in metro Detroit (MI, USA) during Ramadan in 2013. Patients aged 18-50 years were approached between July 7 and August 15, and asked to complete a written survey on perceptions of fasting, influences on decision making, and healthcare expectations. Among the 37 women who completed the survey, 26 (70%) did not fast in their current or most recent pregnancy during Ramadan. Overall, 23 (62%) women believed that fasting was harmful to themselves, their fetus, or both. Seven (19%) women reported consulting others about fasting during pregnancy, with the most influential individuals being Muslim scholars, followed by family/relatives and healthcare providers. The most important characteristics desired in a physician included being respectful of Islamic beliefs and possessing knowledge about Ramadan. Most women chose not to fast during pregnancy. Although few consulted healthcare providers, pregnant Muslim women valued their opinions. Healthcare providers need to educate themselves about which topics to discuss with Muslim patients to provide care on an individual basis. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Textbook has a strong influence on the formation of children’s attitudes and value system. Therefore, Islamic textbooks as the main learning source for Muslim children in Indonesia need to consider the gender equality. This is very important to note, because feminists often view that Islam contains teachings of gender inequality. Islam places men in the higher position, while women are placed in the lower position. For example, men can be imam for women in prayer, but women cannot be imam for men. It is easier for children to learn textbook material presented in pictures. Therefore, the pictures presented in Islamic textbooks ideally do not contain gender bias. So, a research is needed to know if there is gender bias in the pictures presented in Islamic textbooks taught to Muslim children in Indonesia. To prove it, a literary research is conducted on the Islamic textbooks taught to the first grade Muslim student of Islamic Elementary School/ Madrasah Ibtidaiyah (MI in Indonesia which includes pictures in their teaching materials. Islamic textbooks studied in the research include Fikih, Akidah Akhlak, and Arabic textbooks. The results of this study conclude that the pictures presented in Islamic textbooks taught in Muslim children in Indonesia contain gender bias. The man favor pictures are more than those of woman favor. Based on the conclusion, this study recommends an improvement of pictures presented in Islamic textbooks taught to Muslim children in Indonesia.
Full Text Available Muslim scholars and organisations use the Internet through various websites to spread Islam globally. The presence of many websites providing Islamic contents online makes it necessary to examine their Islamic features and the factors that influence Muslims to use Islamic websites. This paper empirically investigates the Islamic features that influence the use of Islamic websites by Muslim users. The identified Islamic factors were grouped under five factors: beliefs, ethics, services, symbols, and values. A survey of 246 Muslim Islamic website users was conducted between November and December 2012 at the International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM. The study develops and tests a path measurement model to confirm the psychometric properties of the five identified factors. The study found that Islamic features significantly influence Muslims to use Islamic websites. The measurement model and empirical results provide valuable indicators for the direction of future research and also suggest guidelines for developing Islamic websites that will easily influence many Internet users to visit them in order to learn about Islamic teachings and practices. The findings are also of considerable importance as they contribute to the present body of knowledge on Islamic websites’ evaluation and for practice in designing and developing quality Islamic websites.
The article treats the significance of status, citizenship and world-citizenship for two 'minorities' - indigenous people and Muslim.......The article treats the significance of status, citizenship and world-citizenship for two 'minorities' - indigenous people and Muslim....
Saguy, Abigail C; Frederick, David; Gruys, Kjerstin
News reporting on research studies may influence attitudes about health risk, support for public health policies, or attitudes towards people labeled as unhealthy or at risk for disease. Across five experiments (N = 2123) we examined how different news framings of obesity research influence these attitudes. We exposed participants to either a control condition, a news report on a study portraying obesity as a public health crisis, a news report on a study suggesting that obesity may not be as much of a problem as previously thought, or an article discussing weight-based discrimination. Compared to controls, exposure to the public health crisis article did not increase perception of obesity-related health risks but did significantly increase the expression of antifat prejudice in four out of seven comparisons. Across studies, compared to controls, participants who read an article about weight-based discrimination were less likely to agree that overweight constitutes a public health crisis or to support various obesity policies. Effects of exposure to an article questioning the health risks associated with overweight and obesity were mixed. These findings suggest that news reports on the "obesity epidemic" - and, by extension, on public health crises commonly blamed on personal behavior - may unintentionally activate prejudice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The Muslim population of South Africa follows a practice which may be referred to as Muslim personal law. Although section 15 of the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa 108 of 1996 recognises religious freedom and makes provision for the future recognition of other personal law systems, Muslim personal law is, at this stage, not formally recognised in terms of South African law. Since Muslim personal law receives no constitutional recognition the question may be asked whether the 199...
Full Text Available This article examines the roles that religious pluralism and civic rights played in Prophet Muhammad’s vision of a “Muslim nation”. I demonstrate how Muhammad desired a pluralistic society in which citizenship and equal rights were granted to all people regardless of religious beliefs and practices. The Covenants of the Prophet Muhammad with the Christians of his time are used as a framework for analysis. These documents have received little attention in our time, but their messages are crucial in light of current debates about Muslim-Christian relations. The article campaigns for reviving the egalitarian spirit of the Covenants by refocusing our understanding of the ummah as a site for religious freedom and civil rights. Ultimately, I argue that the Covenants of Prophet Muhammad with the Christians of his time can be used to develop a stronger narrative of democratic partnership between Muslims and Christians in the “Islamic world” and beyond.
Full Text Available British rule of India stripped Muslim elites of their traditional status of ruling class and reduced them to the status of a religious minority doubly pressured by the new conditions of colonial society and competition of the majority Hindu community. These pressures strengthened in the collective imagination the perception of a minority at a disadvantage and it helped the Muslim elites to become gradually aware of their right to constitute in nationhood and the need to organize politically to defend their interests. This article aims to analyze how Islamic nationalism was taking shape during the second half of the nineteenth century and an early twentieth century from two fundamental assumptions: the backwardness of the Muslim community and the fear of Hindu hegemony.
Kridli, Suha Al-Oballi
There are clear exemptions in Islam from fasting in Ramadan during sickness, pregnancy, and breastfeeding. Yet, some Muslim women still elect to fast while sick, pregnant, or breastfeeding because of a confluence of social, religious, and cultural factors. Little is known about the physiological effects of fasting during Ramadan on the mother or her unborn baby, and thus nurses and other healthcare providers are faced with the difficult task of providing appropriate medical advice to Muslim women regarding the safety and impact of their fasting. This article describes what is known about this topic and suggests that healthcare professionals learn as much as possible about the multicultural best practices and research-driven information about fasting in order to help Muslim women make informed decisions.
Full Text Available Many history of science writers thought that nowadays science phenomenon achieved by the West without including contribution of some other Moslem countries science. They truly interested with these believed, since the fact that science revolution happen in West Europe. However, labelling all aspect of science invention on the West precisely uncorrect. The fact that some other nation and civilization, such as Greece, China and India strongly and spreadly constribute, direct and indirectly to these science phenomenon. Among nations and it’s contribution to improvement of science which should be countable; is Muslim civilitation with it’s Islam civilitation. Importance of their contribution so that someone surely believed that if Muslim science would be the only trigger of science revolution on the West. Someone also logically believe that revolution of science could be happen among Muslim if only some events would not be happen since it sparge the science development at that time.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Women of reproductive age are vulnerable to psychosocial problems, but these have remained largely unexplored in Muslim women in developing countries. The aim of this study was to explore and describe psychosocial impact and social support following perinatal loss among Muslim women. Methods A qualitative study was conducted in a specialist centre among Muslim mothers who had experienced perinatal loss. Purposive sampling to achieve maximum variation among Muslims in relation to age, parity and previous perinatal death was used. Data was collected by focus group discussion and in-depth unstructured interview until the saturation point met. Sixteen mothers who had recent perinatal loss of wanted pregnancy, had received antenatal follow up from public or private health clinics, and had delivery in our centre participated for the study. All of them had experienced psychological difficulties including feelings of confusion, emptiness and anxiety over facing another pregnancy. Results Two out of sixteen showed anger and one felt guilt. They reported experiencing a lack of communication and privacy in the hospital during the period of grief. Family members and friends play an important role in providing support. The majority agreed that the decision makers were husbands and families instead of themselves. The respondents felt that repetitive reminder of whatever happened was a test from God improved their sense of self-worth. They appreciated this reminder especially when it came from husband, family or friends closed to them. Conclusion Muslim mothers who had experienced perinatal loss showed some level of adverse psychosocial impact which affected their feelings. Husbands and family members were the main decision makers for Muslim women. Health care providers should provide psychosocial support during antenatal, delivery and postnatal care. On-going support involving husband should be available where needed.
Hankir, Ahmed; Carrick, Frederick R; Zaman, Rashid
The allegation that, 'Being Muslim means that you cannot be British' is often made. In view of this, we conducted a small survey (n=75) utilising purposive sampling on Muslims residing in the United Kingdom. Participants were recruited in a King's College London Islamic Society event in November 2014 in Guy's Hospital, London. 75/75 (100%) of the participants recruited responded. 69/75 (94%) of respondents either disagreed or strongly disagreed that, 'Being Muslim means that you cannot be British' (75/75 (100%) Muslim participants, 43/75 (57.3%) female participants, 32/75 (42.7%) male participants, mean Age 20.5 years, (Std. Dev. ±2.5)). This paper broadly seeks to answer two related questions. Firstly, 'What is the relationship between Islam and the West?' and secondly, 'What is the relationship between Islam and mental health?' In relation to the former, the rise of radicalization over recent years and the Islamophobia that has ensued have brought Islam and Muslims under intense scrutiny. Hence we feel it is both timely and important to offer a brief background of Islam and its relevance to the Western world. In relation to the latter, for many people religion and mental health are deeply and intimately intertwined. For example, religion can enable a person to develop mental health resilience and Islam has been reported to be a protective factor against suicidal behaviour. We conclude our paper by illustrating how the two questions are interrelated. We do so by offering an autobiographical narrative from a Muslim healthcare professional residing in the UK who developed a mental health problem precipitated by war in the country of his origin. His narrative includes descriptions of the role Islam that played in his recovery as well as his attempts to reconcile seemingly disparate aspects of his identity.
Brill, Livnat; Mandel, Micha; Karussis, Dimitrios; Petrou, Panayiota; Miller, Keren; Ben-Hur, Tamir; Karni, Arnon; Paltiel, Ora; Israel, Shoshana; Vaknin-Dembinsky, Adi
Previous studies have revealed different human leukocyte antigen (HLA) associations in multiple sclerosis (MS) and neuromyelitis optica (NMO), further discriminating these two demyelinating pathological conditions. In worldwide analyses, NMO and opticospinal MS are represented at higher proportions among demyelinating conditions in African, East-Asian and Latin American populations. There are currently no data regarding the prevalence of NMO in Middle East Muslims. The population in Israel is diverse in many ways, and includes subpopulations, based on religion and ethnicity; some exhibit genetic homogeneity. In Israel, the incidence of MS is lower in the Muslim population than the Jewish population and Muslims carry different allele frequency distribution of HLA haplotypes. To evaluate the occurrence of anti-AQP4 seropositivity in the Israeli Muslim population among patients with central nervous system (CNS) demyelinating conditions; and to identify the HLA DR and DQ profiles of Muslim Arab Israeli patients with NMO spectrum of diseases (NMOSD). The prevalence of anti-AQP4 seropositivity was analyzed in 342 samples, obtained from patients with various CNS demyelinating conditions and in a validation set of 310 samples. HLA class II alleles (HLA-DRB1 and DQB1) were examined in DNA samples from 35 Israeli Muslim Arabs NMO patients and compared to available data from 74 Israeli Muslim controls. Our data reveal a significantly increased prevalence of anti-AQP4 seropositivity, indicative of NMOSD, in Muslim Arab Israeli patients with initial diagnosis of a CNS demyelinating syndrome. In this population, there was a positive association with the HLA-DRB1*04:04 and HLA-DRB1*10:01 alleles (p=0.03), and a strong negative association with the HLA-DRB1*07 and HLA-DQB1*02:02 alleles (p=0.003, p=0.002). Our findings indicate a possibly increased prevalence of NMOSD in Muslim Arabs in Israel with distinct (positive and negative) HLA associations. Further studies in patients with
Examines explanations for lack of progress by Muslims in English education in East Bengal, colonial British India (now Bangladesh). Argues that urban-based, elitist English education failed to provide opportunities to rural Muslim farmers, and that, after the British formulated educational policies meeting Muslim needs, that community responded…
Jensen, Tina Gudrun
This paper examines Muslim religiosities by focusing on the variety of Islam classes offered by Muslim organizations in Denmark. More specifically, the paper highlights conditions for studying religiosity among Muslims in Denmark, and suggests new focus areas. The paper argues against an ‘ethnic’...
Mac an Ghaill, Mairtin; Haywood, Chris
The last 15 years have seen a remarkable shift in the educational representation of British-born Muslim young men. In the media-led reclassification of them, from South Asian to Muslim, they have moved from ideal student to potential jihadist. This article draws upon a three-year ethnographic study with young Muslim men located within the West…
The expansion of state-funded Muslim schools in Britain since 1998 has developed against a backdrop of sustained public political rhetoric around the wider position of British Muslims in both political and educational contexts. This article explores the public policy rhetoric around Muslim schools under New Labour and the subsequent Coalition and…
Bijleveld, Erik; Scheepers, Daan; Ellemers, Naomi
Objectives While prejudice has often been shown to be rooted in experiences of threat, the biological underpinnings of this threat–prejudice association have received less research attention. The present experiment aims to test whether activations of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, due to anticipated interactions with out-group members, predict self-reported prejudice. Moreover, we explore potential moderators of this relationship (i.e., interpersonal similarity; subtle vs. blatant prejudice). Methodology/Principal findings Participants anticipated an interaction with an out-group member who was similar or dissimilar to the self. To index HPA activation, cortisol responses to this event were measured. Then, subtle and blatant prejudices were measured via questionnaires. Findings indicated that only when people anticipated an interaction with an out-group member who was dissimilar to the self, their cortisol response to this event significantly predicted subtle (r = .50) and blatant (r = .53) prejudice. Conclusions These findings indicate that prejudicial attitudes are linked to HPA-axis activity. Furthermore, when intergroup interactions are interpreted to be about individuals (and not so much about groups), experienced threat (or its biological substrate) is less likely to relate to prejudice. This conclusion is discussed in terms of recent insights from social neuroscience. PMID:22442709
Dhont, Kristof; Van Hiel, Alain; De Bolle, Marleen; Roets, Arne
Longitudinal effects of intergroup contact on prejudice were investigated in a sample of 65 young adults (Sample 1) and a sample of their close friends (Sample 2, N= 172), adopting a full cross-lagged panel design. We first validated the self-report measure of intergroup contact from Sample 1 with observer ratings from Sample 2 by demonstrating that self-reports and observer ratings of contact were highly correlated. Moreover, we obtained significant cross-lagged effects of intergroup contact on prejudice with both contact measures, thereby providing a second validation for the use of self-reports of intergroup contact. Finally, by the use of latent change modelling, we demonstrated that, although no overall significant change in contact and prejudice over time was found, there was meaningful variation in absolute change in the individual levels of intergroup contact and prejudice. In particular, some individuals showed increases while others showed decreases in contact or prejudice across time. Moreover, higher levels of intergroup contact at Time 1 were followed by larger subsequent decreases in prejudice between Time 1 and Time 2, and changes in contact were significantly and negatively related to changes in prejudice. Methodological implications of the findings are discussed. © 2012 The British Psychological Society.
Bijleveld, Erik; Scheepers, Daan; Ellemers, Naomi
While prejudice has often been shown to be rooted in experiences of threat, the biological underpinnings of this threat-prejudice association have received less research attention. The present experiment aims to test whether activations of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, due to anticipated interactions with out-group members, predict self-reported prejudice. Moreover, we explore potential moderators of this relationship (i.e., interpersonal similarity; subtle vs. blatant prejudice). Participants anticipated an interaction with an out-group member who was similar or dissimilar to the self. To index HPA activation, cortisol responses to this event were measured. Then, subtle and blatant prejudices were measured via questionnaires. Findings indicated that only when people anticipated an interaction with an out-group member who was dissimilar to the self, their cortisol response to this event significantly predicted subtle (r = .50) and blatant (r = .53) prejudice. These findings indicate that prejudicial attitudes are linked to HPA-axis activity. Furthermore, when intergroup interactions are interpreted to be about individuals (and not so much about groups), experienced threat (or its biological substrate) is less likely to relate to prejudice. This conclusion is discussed in terms of recent insights from social neuroscience.
Full Text Available Queenova is one of the Muslim fashion brand who play in the online market that has been able to grow rapidly. The purpose of this study is to find out the online marketing communication strategy conducted by Queenova Muslim fashion in increasing brand awareness. This type of research uses descriptive type qualitative approach with qualitative descriptive research method. Technique of data collecting by interview and observation. Technique examination of data validity using triangulation. Queenova is a Muslim fashion brand that chooses online path in marketing its products. The results show that in marketing communication strategy undertaken by Muslim fashion Queenova using Above The Line and Below The Line, with focus on promotion and advertisement banner ad sales on facebook. In conclusion the marketing strategy focuses on the promotion of banner ad sales and advertising on the facebook site. Visual communication factors and recommendations also have an effect on increasing brand awareness. Suggestions to improve relationships with existing fans made a form of activity to establish relationships with consumers. It is proposed to have a special person in charge of taking care of online media Queenova merupakan salah satu brand busana muslim yang bermain di pasar online yang telah mampu berkembang pesat. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui strategi komunikasi pemasaran online yang dilakukan oleh busana muslim Queenova dalam meningkatkan brand awareness. Tipe penelitian menggunakan tipe deskriptif pendekatan kualitatif dengan metode penelitian deskriptif kualitatif. Teknik pengumpulan data yang dilakukan dengan wawancara dan observasi. Teknik pemeriksaan keabsahan data menggunakan triangulasi. Queenova merupakan brand busana muslim yang memilih jalur online dalam memasarkan produk-produknya. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa dalam strategi komunikasi pemasaran yang dilakukan oleh busana muslim Queenova mempergunakan jalur Above The Line
Fraser, Gordon Murray
This book presents a biography of Abdus Salam, the first Muslim to win a Nobel Prize for Science (Physics 1979), who was nevertheless excommunicated and branded as a heretic in his own country. His achievements are often overlooked, even besmirched. Realizing that the whole world had to be his stage, he pioneered the International Centre for Theoretical Physics in Trieste, a vital focus of Third World science which remains as his monument. A staunch Muslim, he was ashamed of thedecline of science in the heritage of Islam, and struggled doggedly to restore it to its former glory. Undermined by
This article addresses dilemmas of agency for feminism through reflections on social psychological research on the role of representations in the construction of identity by Muslim women. Engaging first with Saba Mahmood’s account of religious subjectivities in Politics of Piety (2005), the author...... argues that feminist research requires a social conception of agency that addresses dialogical dynamics of representation and identity. Drawing on research concerning veiling and identity among Muslim women in the UK and Denmark, the author shows how a social conception of agency may be elaborated...
Kanburoglu, Mehmet Kenan; Cizmeci, Mehmet Nevzat; Akelma, Ahmet Zulfikar; Orun, Emel; Yesilyurt, Kubra; Tatli, Mustafa Mansur
The compliance of parents with child passenger safety (CPS) has been mainly explained by their level of knowledge. Social, ethnic and cultural factors have not been investigated in detail. This study investigated the rate of compliance of parents with CPS guidelines, as well as the factors hindering it. Parents of infants aged 2-10 days were enrolled. The proportions of families obtaining a car safety seat (CSS; 57%) and complying with CPS recommendations (2%) were very low. Most of the parents thought CSS were harmful for infants (mother, 57%; father, 63%), despite having already purchased one. Parents believed their children to be too small to use CSS and cannot sit in CSS because they should lie flat on their backs at all times. These prejudices may be due to the social and cultural circumstances specific to Turkey, or corresponding findings may be found in countries with similar socioeconomic status. © 2013 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2013 Japan Pediatric Society.
Stewart, Maria-Christina; Schiavo, R Steven; Herzog, David B; Franko, Debra L
Limited research indicates that public attitudes toward individuals with eating disorders are moderately negative. The present study examined specific forms of stigmatisation attributed to individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN). Eighty female participants recruited from an undergraduate institution completed questionnaires assessing stereotypes, prejudice and discrimination of four target individuals: a woman with AN, depression, schizophrenia and mononucleosis. AN was considered to result more from lack of social support and biological factors than poor living habits. Characteristics attributed to targets were less positive for AN than the targets with schizophrenia and mononucleosis; participants reported greater discomfort interacting with the target with AN compared to the targets with depression and mononucleosis. Having actual contact with an individual with AN related to a positive predicted outcome of and comfort in interacting with the target with AN. Findings support the existence of stigma toward individuals with AN. Future research should examine means of reducing stigma. Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.
Arancibia-Martini, Héctor; Ruiz, Miguel Á; Blanco, Amalio; Cárdenas, Manuel
Given the current debate over the distinction between subtle and blatant prejudice, this study provides new evidence regarding problems with the construct validity of the Pettigrew and Meertens' Blatant and Subtle Prejudice Scale. To assess these issues, an existing data sample of 896 Chilean participants collected in 2010 was reanalyzed. The main analysis method used was a confirmatory factor analysis. The model that best represented the original theory (a model of two correlated second-order factors) had an improper solution due to the unidentified model. The scale has substantial psychometric problems, and it was not possible to distinguish between subtle and blatant prejudice. © The Author(s) 2016.
Full Text Available This article discusses the interpretation of Abdul Moqsith Ghazali to al Baqarah : 62 and al-Maidah : 69, on the salvation of non-Muslim community according to religious pluralism. He used three methods of interpretation, which are tafsîr mauḍû’i, uṣûl al-fiqh, and hermeneutics. He said that the combination of them will produce a full understanding. Even so, the results are not as expected. Moqsith interprets the verses that seemed to support the idea of pluralism textually, until reject the interpretation of mufassirîn. He concludes that two verses above, do not explain about the obligation of Jews, Christians, and Shabiah in order to believe in Prophet Muhammad, but only explain about the obligation to believe in Allah and the Last Day, and do good deeds as defined in their holy books. Thus, according to him, the Qur’an does not only recognize religious teachings and people of other religions, however, they will be saved by God as far as they practice their religion. It is clear that the results of the interpretation of Moqsith very contradictory and not in accordance with interpretations of the Muslim scholars. Because of Moqsith’s weakness in method of interpretation, so create a partial understanding that the Qur’an legalizes religious pluralism. On the contrary, it is clear that the majority of mufassirûn did not argue that way.
Nabolsi, Manar M; Carson, Alexander M
Spiritual care is an aspect of nursing in many parts of the world; however, there is very little evidence of this in an Arab Muslim country. This qualitative study explores the meaning of spirituality as experienced by Jordanian Muslim men living with coronary artery disease. A hermeneutical phenomenological orientation was used to explore the experience of spirituality as lived by Arab Muslim men with coronary artery disease. A purposive sample of 19 men was selected from the Coronary care Unit (CCU) in a teaching hospital in Jordan. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews. Data were analyzed using Colaizzi's steps of phenomenological analysis. Four themes emerged from the data. The participants explained that faith facilitated their acceptance of illness and enhanced their coping strategies, that seeking medical treatment did not conflict with their belief in fate, that spirituality enhanced their inner strength, hope and acceptance of self-responsibility and it helped to them to find meaning and purpose in their life. In this study, Parse's theory of human becoming served as the foundation for understanding the paradoxical rhythmical pattern of the human experience of spirituality in illness. The findings suggest that patients' faith plays a central role in the choices they make either healthy or unhealthy, or accepting or rejecting their personal responsibility in promoting their future health and well-being. In addition, it provide nurses with the basis for providing spiritual care and developing a culturally sensitive healthcare plans in this population. © 2011 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences © 2011 Nordic College of Caring Science.
Shapiro, Gilla K
Religion plays a significant role in a patient’s bioethical decision to have an abortion as well as in a country’s abortion policy. Nevertheless, a holistic understanding of the Islamic position remains under-researched. This study first conducted a detailed and systematic analysis of Islam’s position towards abortion through examining the most authoritative biblical texts (i.e. the Quran and Sunnah) as well as other informative factors (i.e. contemporary fatwas, Islamic mysticism and broader Islamic principles, interest groups, and transnational Islamic organizations). Although Islamic jurisprudence does not encourage abortion, there is no direct biblical prohibition. Positions on abortion are notably variable, and many religious scholars permit abortion in particular circumstances during specific stages of gestational development. It is generally agreed that the least blameworthy abortion is when the life of the pregnant woman is threatened and when 120 days have not lapsed; however, there is remarkable heterogeneity in regards to other circumstances (e.g. preserving physical or mental health, foetal impairment, rape, or social or economic reasons), and later gestational development of the foetus. This study secondly conducted a cross-country examination of abortion rights in Muslim-majority countries. A predominantly conservative approach was found whereby 18 of 47 countries do not allow abortion under any circumstances besides saving the life of the pregnant woman. Nevertheless, there was substantial diversity between countries, and 10 countries allowed abortion ‘on request’. Discursive elements that may enable policy development in Muslim-majority countries as well as future research that may enhance the study of abortion rights are discussed. Particularly, more lenient abortion laws may be achieved through disabusing individuals that the most authoritative texts unambiguously oppose abortion, highlighting more lenient interpretations that exist in
Full Text Available The measurement of discrimination in employment is a key variable in understanding dynamics in the nature of, and change in “race relations”. Measuring such discrimination using ‘situation’ and ‘correspondence’ tests was influenced by John Rex’s sociological analyses, and earlier work, begun in America, was continued in England in the 1960s, and further replicated in Europe and America in later decades. This literature is reviewed, and the methodologies of testing for employment discrimination are discussed. Recent work in Britain and the Netherlands is considered in detail in the light of changing social structures, and the rise of Islamophobia. Manchester, apparently the city manifesting the most discrimination in Britain, is considered for a special case study, with a focus on one individual, a Muslim woman seeking intermediate level accountancy employment. Her vita was matched with that of a manifestly indigenous, white Briton. Submitted vitas (to 1043 potential employers indicated significant discrimination against the Muslim woman candidate. Results are discussed within the context of Manchester’s micro-sociology, and Muslim women’s employment progress in broader contexts. We conclude with the critical realist comment that the “hidden racism” of employment discrimination shows that modern societies continue, in several ways, to be institutionally racist, and the failure to reward legitimate aspirations of minorities may have the effect of pushing some ethnic minorities into a permanent precariat, with implications for social justice and social control in ways which may deny minority efforts to “integrate” in society’s employment systems.
Kira, Ibrahim A; Lewandowski, Linda; Ashby, Jeffrey S; Templin, Thomas; Ramaswamy, Vidya; Mohanesh, Jamal
Understanding the dynamics of mental health stigma through existing frameworks, especially in minorities with higher stigma, is problematic. There is a need to reconceptualize stigma, particularly in highly traumatized groups. The current study examines the validity of a new development-based trauma framework that conceptualizes stigma as a type III chronic trauma that contributes to negative mental health effects. This framework proposes that public stigma is a unique chronic traumatic stress that mediates the effects of similar trauma types in mental health patients. To test this proposition, this study explores the relationships between internalized stigma of mental illness (ISMI), different trauma types, and posttrauma spectrum disorders. ISMI, posttraumatic stress disorder, other posttrauma spectrum disorders, and cumulative trauma measures were administered to a sample of 399 mental health patients that included Arab (82%), Muslim (84%), and refugee (31%), as well as American patients (18%). Age in the sample ranged from 18 to 76 years (M = 39.66, SD = 11.45), with 53.5% males. Hierarchical multiple regression, t tests, and path analyses were conducted. Results indicated that ISMI predicted posttraumatic stress disorder and other posttrauma spectrum disorders after controlling for cumulative trauma. ISMI was associated with other chronic collective identity traumas. While Arab Americans, Muslims, and refugees had higher ISMI scores than other Americans, the elevated chronic trauma levels of these groups were significant predictors of these differences. The results provide evidence to support ISMI traumatology model. Implications of the results for treating victims of ISMI, especially Arab Americans, Muslims and refugees are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.
This paper examines publics of young German Muslims. Case studies include the singer Huelya Kandemir, the theatre group Uma Lamo and the social network Zahnräder. By focusing on spiritual music publics, theatrical comedy publics and social publics, it tries a new approach to the way in which we understand minority public engagement. In addition to examining the concept of counterpublics, it utilizes the concept of participatory culture, which offers a relevant complement. The study argues that the publics of young German Muslims display multifaceted artistic and civic engagement, which can best be understood in terms of participation in cultural or civic productions and contribution to the wider German public. Features or effects of counterpublics, such as the countering of mainstream representations of minority identities and the offering of alternative discourses, are occasionally reflected in their activities. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2017.
Angemeer, Alicia Dorothea
Since September 11, 2001, Western readers have been turning to bestselling texts written by or about Muslims in their need to learn more about Muslims. These texts promise an insider's view of predominantly Muslim countries and peoples and are informally influencing and educating many Western readers in their perceptions of Muslims because…
In the contemporary period, the persistence of the dual system of state and "madrasa" education in many Muslim countries has raised for policymakers the dilemma of what form Islam ought to assume as a pedagogic category in these contexts. At one extreme, in the syllabi of traditionalist "madrasas", we find Islam being deployed as an overarching…
Atiyat, Zareen Niazi
In this article, the author, who is a Muslim English teacher shares her teaching experiences after the events of September 11, 2001 and shares her views on Islam. She points out that her appearance and clothing do not represent oppression and restriction but the liberation of her body from the unwanted gazes of those who reduce women from people…
and maci]ine tools, petrol - chemicals, agro-processing and textiles. ’’~ 14 THE NEW GREAT GAME IN MUSLIM CENTRAL ASIA Kazakhstan is well endowed...Algeria, Tunisia , and Morocco---are keeping a wary eye. But at the popular level, this pan-Islmnism has the potential to attract a considerable amount of
van Heelsum, A.; Koomen, M.
Objectives In addition to our target Muslim populations, we aim also to gather information on their community leaders, as well as the policy makers whose policies confront them. We aim through a series of semi-structured interviews to gain information on the position of a variety of community
Benn, Tansin; Pfister, Gertrud Ursula
influences on PE experiences include gender stereotypes, cultural and religious orientations and practices, as well as actions and expectations of parents, communities and coaches/teachers. The studies provide insights into the ways participants managed their identities as Muslim girls in different sport...
Melanie P. Mejia
Full Text Available Muslim women's rights have been a topic of discussion and debate over the past few decades, and with a good reason. Islamic Law (Shariah is considered by many as patriarchal and particularly oppressive to women, and yet there are also others-Muslim women-who have rigorously defended their religion by claiming that Islam is the guarantor par excellence of women's rights. A big question begs to be answered: is Islam particularly oppressive to women?The Qur'an has addressed women's issues fourteen hundred years ago by creating certain reforms to improve the status of women; however, these reforms do not seem to be practiced in Muslim societies today.1 How is this so? I contend that Islam, as revealed to Muhammad, is not oppressive to women; rather, its interpretation, in so far as it is enacted in the family laws and everyday living, is patriarchal and hence needs to be examined.2 The goal of this work is to discuss what the Qur'an says about certain problems which gravely affect Muslim women, specifically: 1. gender equality 2. polygamy 3. divorce and the concept of nushuz
Homosexuality is widely perceived among many Muslims as a "western disease", a natural outcome of the West's secularity and cultural degeneracy. In spite of the emergence of more liberal attitudes towards sexual differences in modern times, moral issues have not lost their relevance in polemical discourse against homosexuality among many…
Zecha, Stefanie; Popp, Stephan; Yasar, Aysun
This paper investigates the Islam and Muslim life in German textbooks. The study is based on the analysis of current Geography textbooks in Bavarian secondary schools. As a first step, the authors developed a system for objective analysis of the textbooks that structures the content in categories. In a second step, the authors used the qualitative…
Tumin, Makmor; Noh, Abdillah; Mohd Satar, Nurulhuda; Chin-Sieng, Chong; Soo-Kun, Lim; Abdullah, Nawi; Kok-Peng, Ng
The aim of this paper is to look into the factors influencing Malaysian Muslims' decision to become deceased organ donors in Malaysia. We approached 900 Malaysian Muslims and 779 participated in our survey, conducted in Kuala Lumpur and its suburb. We examined their willingness to become donors and the willing donors were asked why they did not pledge to become donors. Non-donors were asked why they refuse to become donors. The survey found the main reason for Malaysian Muslims not pledging their organs was due to their lack of information on organ donation and/or their lack of confidence in the government's ability to properly administer organ donation procedures. Another interesting finding is that religion is not a main deterrent to organ donation. The survey suggests that Malaysia can explore many ways to encourage organ donation without having to resort to the highly controversial financial incentive option. A key to Malaysia's success or failure to increase organ donation rate lies in its ability to persuade its Muslim population (its largest population) to donate organs. This can be done by adopting a segmented, focused, and highly localized form of public education and by leveraging on existing networks involving local religious and community leaders as well as government and non-governmental institutions.
On a daily basis people enquire about the dissolution of Islamic marriages, in terms of South African law In South Africa. There exist no legal grounds for obtaining a divorce in a South African court, for persons married in terms of the Islamic law only. The reason for this is due to the fact that Muslim marriages are currently ...
per capita consumption of mutton is five kg and the sheep meat ... A market segment for goat's meat has been identified in the growing Muslim .... basis of studies at two farms; one located in the fjord and the other in .... But in most cases the differences are small as ..... behaviour of Korean American Families in. California.
This contribution explains the discursive modalities, which offer a media visibility of Muslim women in the daily newspaper La Libre Belgique. The analysis examines the newspaper’s material devices such as the creation of sections, the thematic structures and the reference strategies used in the news articles in order to construct social hierarchies based on religious identity and gender criteria.
Full Text Available This contribution explains the discursive modalities, which offer a media visibility of Muslim women in the daily newspaper La Libre Belgique. The analysis examines the newspaper’s material devices such as the creation of sections, the thematic structures and the reference strategies used in the news articles in order to construct social hierarchies based on religious identity and gender criteria.
Commission for Racial Equality, London (England).
This paper discusses the relationship between the religious practices of Muslim employees and the requirements of the workplace. It is designed to provide information on the norms of Islam and the difficulties involved in its workplace practice, and to propose suggestions for resolving these difficulties that can form the basis for discussion and…
Bruinissen, M.M. van
In this paper I wish to begin addressing a number of questions concerning Muslim religious authority, to which I do not have ready answers myself and which, I believe, have only incidentally been touched upon by earlier research. Given the fact that Islamic knowledge – by which I mean that which
Mohsin, M. Naeem; Shabbir, Muhammad; Saeed, Wizra; Mohsin, M. Saleem
The study was conducted to know the status of Muslim immigrants' children with learning difficulties and importance of parents' involvement for the education whose children are with learning difficulties, and the factors responsible for the learning difficulties among immigrants' children. There were 81 immigrant children with learning…
Azaiza, Faisal; Ron, Pnina; Shoham, Meyrav; Gigini, Ibrahim
Death and dying anxiety were examined among elderly Arab Muslims in Israel. A total of 145 people aged 60 and over were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire. Nursing home residents reported higher death anxiety than others; women and uneducated participants reported greater levels of fear of death and dying than others. There were no…
Full Text Available The article examines the roots and causes of protests in Egypt at the present stage. The author focuses on the ideological influence of Islamic parties and movements, in particular the association “Muslim Brotherhood” in the Egyptian Revolution of 2011. Methodological basis of this publication principles amounted to politological, sociological, cultural and historical methods of scientific knowledge.
Vu, Milkie; Azmat, Alia; Radejko, Tala; Padela, Aasim I
Delayed care seeking is associated with adverse health outcomes. For Muslim women, delayed care seeking might include religion-related motivations, such as a preference for female clinicians, concerns about preserving modesty, and fatalistic beliefs. Our study assesses associations between religion-related factors and delayed care seeking due to a perceived lack of female clinicians. Surveys were distributed to Muslim women attending mosque and community events in Chicago. Survey items included measures of religiosity, religious fatalism, discrimination, modesty, and alternative medicine utilization and worship practices. The outcome measure asked for levels of agreement to the statement "I have delayed seeking medical care when no woman doctor is available to see me." Two hundred fifty-four women completed the survey with nearly equal numbers of African Americans (26%), Arab Americans (33%), and South Asians (33%). Fifty-three percent reported delays in care seeking due to a perceived lack of female clinicians. In multivariate analysis adjusting for sociodemographic factors, higher religiosity (odds ratio [OR] = 5.2, p 20 years (OR = 0.22, p American Muslim women reported delays in care seeking due to a perceived lack of female clinicians. Women with higher levels of modesty and self-rated religiosity had higher odds of delaying care. Women who had lived in the United States for longer durations had lower odds of delaying care. Our research highlights the need for gender-concordant providers and culturally sensitive care for American Muslims.
Ramadan is the fasting month for Muslims, during which physical activities like sports may be held in abeyance for a more spiritual life. ... on the standard by Tudor-Locke and Bassett (2004) in which a minimum of 10,000 steps a day denotes an 'active' lifestyle, deemed sufficient to confer health benefits to the individual.