WorldWideScience

Sample records for understanding individual vulnerability

  1. The making of vulnerabilities: understanding the differentiated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The making of vulnerabilities: understanding the differentiated effects of HIV and AIDS among street traders in Warwick Junction, Durban, South Africa. ... other societal processes, such as globalisation and urbanisation, or how these processes collectively converge with place-specific conditions to expose, drive and ...

  2. Understanding individual routing behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Antonio; Stanojevic, Rade; Papagiannaki, Dina; Rodriguez, Pablo; González, Marta C

    2016-03-01

    Knowing how individuals move between places is fundamental to advance our understanding of human mobility (González et al. 2008 Nature 453, 779-782. (doi:10.1038/nature06958)), improve our urban infrastructure (Prato 2009 J. Choice Model. 2, 65-100. (doi:10.1016/S1755-5345(13)70005-8)) and drive the development of transportation systems. Current route-choice models that are used in transportation planning are based on the widely accepted assumption that people follow the minimum cost path (Wardrop 1952 Proc. Inst. Civ. Eng. 1, 325-362. (doi:10.1680/ipeds.1952.11362)), despite little empirical support. Fine-grained location traces collected by smart devices give us today an unprecedented opportunity to learn how citizens organize their travel plans into a set of routes, and how similar behaviour patterns emerge among distinct individual choices. Here we study 92 419 anonymized GPS trajectories describing the movement of personal cars over an 18-month period. We group user trips by origin-destination and we find that most drivers use a small number of routes for their routine journeys, and tend to have a preferred route for frequent trips. In contrast to the cost minimization assumption, we also find that a significant fraction of drivers' routes are not optimal. We present a spatial probability distribution that bounds the route selection space within an ellipse, having the origin and the destination as focal points, characterized by high eccentricity independent of the scale. While individual routing choices are not captured by path optimization, their spatial bounds are similar, even for trips performed by distinct individuals and at various scales. These basic discoveries can inform realistic route-choice models that are not based on optimization, having an impact on several applications, such as infrastructure planning, routing recommendation systems and new mobility solutions. © 2016 The Author(s).

  3. Ayurgenomics: Understanding human individuality through ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    mitali

    Ayurgenomics: Understanding human individuality through integration of. Ayurveda and Genomics for stratified medicine. Mitali Mukerji. Programme Director- CSIR-TRISUTRA. (Translational Research and Innovative Science Through Ayurgenomics). & Scientist CSIR-IGIB. Public health Modern medicine. Ayurveda others ...

  4. Individual Day-to-Day Process of Social Anxiety in Vulnerable College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Cynthia G.; Bierman, Karen L.; Molenaar, Peter C. M.

    2016-01-01

    Transitions requiring the creation of new social networks may be challenging for individuals vulnerable to social anxiety, which may hinder successful adjustment. Using person-specific methodology, this study examined social anxiety in vulnerable university freshman away from home during their first semester of college to understand how day-to-day…

  5. Vulnerability and the Sovereign Individual: Nussbaum and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In her paper Pity and Mercy: Nietzsche's Stoicism, Martha Nussbaum argues that Nietzsche's philosophical project can be seen in part as an attempt to 'bring about a revival of Stoic values of self-command and self-transformation'. She argues that, to his detriment, Nietzsche's 'Sovereign Individual' epitomises a kind of stoic ...

  6. Understanding individual human mobility patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Marta C; Hidalgo, César A; Barabási, Albert-László

    2008-06-05

    Despite their importance for urban planning, traffic forecasting and the spread of biological and mobile viruses, our understanding of the basic laws governing human motion remains limited owing to the lack of tools to monitor the time-resolved location of individuals. Here we study the trajectory of 100,000 anonymized mobile phone users whose position is tracked for a six-month period. We find that, in contrast with the random trajectories predicted by the prevailing Lévy flight and random walk models, human trajectories show a high degree of temporal and spatial regularity, each individual being characterized by a time-independent characteristic travel distance and a significant probability to return to a few highly frequented locations. After correcting for differences in travel distances and the inherent anisotropy of each trajectory, the individual travel patterns collapse into a single spatial probability distribution, indicating that, despite the diversity of their travel history, humans follow simple reproducible patterns. This inherent similarity in travel patterns could impact all phenomena driven by human mobility, from epidemic prevention to emergency response, urban planning and agent-based modelling.

  7. [Elements of adolescents' individual vulnerability to HIV/AIDS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo, Melina Mafra; Takahashi, Renata Ferreira; De-La-Torre-Ugarte-Guanilo, Mónica Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    Adolescence is characterized by experimentation and discovery, the development of autonomy and close search of sexuality. The objective of this study was to identify the scientific evidences of literature on the elements of the individual dimension of adolescents' vulnerability of to the HIV/AIDS. Through the integrative review, in electronic data bases (Cinahl PubMed, Scopus, LILACS, Adolec, Dedalus, Digital Library of Brazilian of Teses and Dissertações (BDTD) and Portal of Thesis of University of São Paulo), works published between 1996 and 2006 were tracked. 41 studies compose the final sample. The most frequent element of individual vulnerability in the studies was the degree and quality of the knowledge on HI V/AIDS. The revision allowed identifying excellent scientific evidences of the individual vulnerability for the planning of the actions of prevention to the infection for the HIV in adolescents.

  8. Vulnerabilidade do doente versus autonomia individual The vulnerability of the patient versus individual autonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inês Motta de Morais

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A autonomia é um conceito ético e individual, ao passo que a vulnerabilidade pressupõe a existência de relações desiguais entre indivíduos ou grupos. Tal desigualdade pode estar relacionada a questões sócio-econômicas. Muitas vezes os desprivilegiados têm dificuldades ou, mesmo impossibilidade de decidir. Portanto, é importante o reconhecimento dessa vulnerabilidade para garantir o direito à autonomia e respeito à dignidade de indivíduos, principalmente quando se trata de pesquisas na área da saúde. Este estudo procura analisar a importância do conceito de vulnerabilidade e seu alcance na relação com a autonomia individual. O estudo conclui que a consciência de vulnerabilidade é importante para alimentar a razão crítica que fundamenta a autonomia. Não pretende de forma alguma propor mais uma definição de autonomia individual e vulnerabilidade do doente, e sim apresentar os resultados do levantamento bibliográfico sobre o tema demonstrando os pontos convergentes e divergentes de diversos expoentes literários.Autonomy is and ethical and individual concept, while vulnerability presupposes the existence of unequal relations between individuals or groups. Such inequality may be related to socio-economic issues. The underprivileged often have difficulty in making decisions or find it impossible to do so. It is, therefore, important to recognize this vulnerability in order to ensure the right to autonomy and respect for the dignity of the individual, especially in the case of health research. This study investigates the importance of the concept of vulnerability and the extent to which it is related to individual autonomy. The study concludes that awareness of vulnerability is important in fuelling the critical reason that is the foundation of autonomy. The intention here is certainly not to put forward yet another definition of individual autonomy and patient vulnerability, but rather to present the results of a

  9. Vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taback, I.

    1979-01-01

    The discussion of vulnerability begins with a description of some of the electrical characteristics of fibers before definiting how vulnerability calculations are done. The vulnerability results secured to date are presented. The discussion touches on post exposure vulnerability. After a description of some shock hazard work now underway, the discussion leads into a description of the planned effort and some preliminary conclusions are presented.

  10. Individual, Housing, and Neighborhood Predictors of Psychological Integration Among Vulnerably Housed and Homeless Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecker, John; Aubry, Tim

    2016-09-01

    The current longitudinal study evaluated the individual, housing, and neighborhood characteristics predictive of feeling psychologically integrated within one's neighborhood among a population of homeless and vulnerably housed individuals. Participants were recruited at homeless shelters, meal programs, and rooming houses in Ottawa, Canada and participated in three in-person interviews, each approximately 1 year apart. Prospective and cross-sectional predictors of psychological integration at Follow-up 1 and Follow-up 2 were examined. There were 397 participants at baseline, 341 at Follow-up 1 and 320 at Follow-up 2. A hierarchical multiple regression uncovered several significant predictors of psychological integration. The most salient and common predictors were being older, having greater social support, living in high quality housing, and residing in a neighborhood with a positive impact. Implications for service provision and policy advancements are discussed. © Society for Community Research and Action 2016.

  11. Sea-level rise: towards understanding local vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmstorf, Stefan

    2012-06-01

    , experts are increasingly looking at its potential impacts on coasts to facilitate local adaptation planning. This is a more complex issue than one might think, because different stretches of coast can be affected in very different ways. First of all, the sea-level response to global warming will not be globally uniform, since factors like changes in ocean currents (Levermann et al 2005) and the changing gravitational pull of continental ice (Mitrovica et al 2001) affect the local rise. Secondly, superimposed on the climatic trend is natural variability in sea level, which regionally can be as large as the climatic signal on multi-decadal timescales. Over the past decades, sea level has dropped in sizable parts of the world ocean, although it has of course risen in global mean (IPCC 2007). Thirdly, local land uplift or subsidence affects the local sea-level change relative to the coast, both for natural reasons (post-glacial isostatic adjustment centred on regions that were covered by ice sheets during the last ice age) and artificial ones (e.g., extraction of water or oil as in the Gulf of Mexico). Finally, local vulnerability to sea-level rise depends on many factors. Two interesting new studies in this journal (Tebaldi et al 2012, Strauss et al 2012) make important steps towards understanding sea-level vulnerability along the coasts of the United States, with methods that could also be applied elsewhere. The first, by Strauss and colleagues, merges high-resolution topographic data and a newly available tidal model together with population and housing data in order to estimate what land area and population would be at risk given certain increments in sea level. The results are mapped and tabulated at county and city level. They reveal the 'hot spots' along the US coast where sea-level rise is of the highest concern because of large populations living near the high-tide line: New York City and Long Island; the New Jersey shore; the Norfolk, Virginia, area; near Charleston

  12. The role of vulnerability factors in individuals with an at-risk mental state of psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papmeyer, Martina; Würsch, Irène; Studerus, Erich; Stieglitz, Rolf-Dieter; Riecher-Rössler, Anita

    2016-03-01

    Several indicators of heightened vulnerability to psychosis and relevant stressors have been identified. However, it has rarely been studied prospectively to what extent these vulnerability factors are in fact more frequently present in individuals with an at-risk mental state for psychosis. Moreover, it remains unknown whether any of these contribute to the prediction of psychosis onset in at-risk mental state individuals. There were 28 healthy controls, 86 first-episode psychosis patients and 127 at-risk mental state individuals recruited within the Basel "Früherkennung von Psychosen" project. Relative frequencies of selected vulnerability factors for psychosis were compared between healthy controls, psychosis patients, those at-risk mental state individuals with subsequent psychosis onset (n = 31) and those without subsequent psychosis onset (n = 55). Survival analyses were applied to determine associations between time to transition to psychosis and vulnerability factors in all 127 at-risk mental state individuals. The vulnerability factors/indicators such as "difficulties during school education or vocational training", "difficulties during employment", "being single", "difficulties with intimate relationships" and "being burdened with specific stressful situations" were more commonly found in the at-risk mental state and first-episode psychosis group than in healthy controls. At-risk mental state and first-episode psychosis individuals more frequently present with vulnerability factors. Individual vulnerability factors appear, however, not to be predictive for an onset of psychosis.

  13. The Human Rights and the Social Protection of Vulnerable Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălina Mititelu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In the texts with binding juridical force, drafted and published by the Council of theEuropean Union, we find no provisions regarding the juridical protection of the vulnerable persons (disabled persons, old people and mentally retarded, only planned measures regarding their social protection, that the E.U. States granted in the Social Charter (of 1961 and in the revised one of 1996, and, finally, in the additional Protocol from the year 1988. Given that to know these measures – that also remain compulsory for the signatory States or for the ones that ratified this Charter – is not possible without getting acquainted, at least in brief, with the human Rights provided by the E.U. legislation, within the pages of this study we referred explicitly to the text of the latter in order to evince the imperious necessity to draft a special legislation also regarding the juridical protection of vulnerable persons, not only a protection of a preeminently social nature.

  14. Vulnerability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Issa, Sahar; van der Molen, Irna; Stel, Nora

    2015-01-01

    This chapter reviews the literature on vulnerability. Together with Chapter 3, that offers a literature review specifically focused on resilience, it lays the conceptual foundations for the empirical chapters in this edited volume. Vulnerability symbolizes the susceptibility of a certain system to

  15. Humor Style and Motor Skills: Understanding Vulnerability to Bullying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Plenty

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the role of humor style and motor skills in vulnerability to bullying. 729 adults responded to the Humor Style Questionnaire (HSQ and items retrospectively addressing their motor skills and bullying experiences during childhood. Consistent with recent research, poorer motor skills were associated with a greater extent of having been bullied. An association between stronger motor skills and affiliative humor was found, lending support to a shared biological basis theory underlying social and motor competency processes. Most importantly, being bullied was associated with higher self-defeating humor and lower affiliative humor. This supports earlier theoretical work by Klein and Kuiper (2006 and highlights the role that humor styles play in social interactions that can promote positive peer acceptance and wellbeing.

  16. Creativity for people in vulnerable life situations: Emerging understandings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Bodil Winther; la Cour, Karen; Pedersen, Helle Andrea

    situations, from living with life-threatening illness as advanced cancer or dealing with social isolation due to unemployment or struggling with everyday life challenges caused by mental illness and poverty. Providing opportunities for creative engagement can promote personal, social and environmental...... examples from current practices can open for new understandings of creativity. We intend to critically explore creativity as a supportive means for empowering people in coping with the challenges of everyday living enhanced through creative activity in social relations and the midst of contradicting...... and difficult life situations as well as its possible risks. Questions to stimulate discussion How can different theoretical resources support understandings of creativity in the perspective of occupational science? Does one theoretical position rule out another or how may they be complimentary? How may...

  17. Measuring individual vulnerability to sleep loss--the CHICa scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oginska, Halszka; Mojsa-Kaja, Justyna; Fafrowicz, Magdalena; Marek, Tadeusz

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this project was to construct a psychometrically satisfying scale to describe subjective reactions to sleep deprivation. First, on the basis of a literature review, a list of items was generated which reflected the negatively affected mood and reduced wellbeing associated with sleep loss. Additionally, psychology students were asked to describe their cognitive and emotional symptoms following a night with curtailed sleep. As a result, 69 items were included in the experimental set. University students (n = 102, females, mean age 22.5 ± 1.9 years) completed the form several times during 1 week in June (while preparing for examinations) and on a free day in September; a total of 460 forms were collected. The final, 26-item version of the scale was validated in a sleep deficit experiment lasting 1 week, conducted with 25 female participants (mean age 23.4 ± 1.9 years). Factor analysis showed 71.7% of total variance explained by four components: impaired thermoregulation (C for cold), disrupted appetite (H for hunger), affective problems (I for irritability) and lowered level of cognitive functioning (Ca for cognitive attenuation). A Polish version of the CHICa scale showed satisfactory psychometric properties. Cronbach's alpha of the subscales were between 0.90 and 0.95. All four subscales exhibited a significant increase with an experimental 3-h daily sleep restriction over a period of 1 week; cognitive attenuation was the most symptomatic. Cognitive problems (reduced concentration, comprehension and accuracy) and a lack of energy seem to be the most specific subjective manifestations of the chronic sleep deficit state. CHICa may be helpful in research on inter-and intra-individual differences and on the efficacy of various counteractive treatments for the consequences of sleep deprivation. © 2013 European Sleep Research Society.

  18. Individualized performance prediction during total sleep deprivation: accounting for trait vulnerability to sleep loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Sridhar; Laxminarayan, Srinivas; Thorsley, David; Wesensten, Nancy J; Balkin, Thomas J; Reifman, Jaques

    2012-01-01

    Individual differences in vulnerability to sleep loss can be considerable, and thus, recent efforts have focused on developing individualized models for predicting the effects of sleep loss on performance. Individualized models constructed using a Bayesian formulation, which combines an individual's available performance data with a priori performance predictions from a group-average model, typically need at least 40 h of individual data before showing significant improvement over the group-average model predictions. Here, we improve upon the basic Bayesian formulation for developing individualized models by observing that individuals may be classified into three sleep-loss phenotypes: resilient, average, and vulnerable. For each phenotype, we developed a phenotype-specific group-average model and used these models to identify each individual's phenotype. We then used the phenotype-specific models within the Bayesian formulation to make individualized predictions. Results on psychomotor vigilance test data from 48 individuals indicated that, on average, ∼85% of individual phenotypes were accurately identified within 30 h of wakefulness. The percentage improvement of the proposed approach in 10-h-ahead predictions was 16% for resilient subjects and 6% for vulnerable subjects. The trade-off for these improvements was a slight decrease in prediction accuracy for average subjects.

  19. Transportation vulnerability as a barrier to service utilization for HIV-positive individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagrestano, Lynda M; Clay, Joy; Finerman, Ruthbeth; Gooch, Jennifer; Rapino, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    Research suggests that transportation vulnerability can negatively impact adherence to HIV-related medical treatment. Moreover, transportation can be a barrier to accessing ancillary services which can increase positive health outcomes for HIV-positive individuals. This study examines transportation vulnerability and its impact on HIV-related health and ancillary service utilization in the Mid-South Region. Focus groups and interviews were conducted with service providers and HIV-positive individuals, and survey data were collected from HIV-positive individuals (N=309) using the five A's of access to frame transportation vulnerability: availability, accessibility, accommodation, affordability, and acceptability. Study results indicate that transportation vulnerability can present significant barriers to service utilization for HIV-positive individuals, including insufficient transportation infrastructure, incompatible fit between transportation and health systems, and insensitivity to privacy issues. One consequence of transportation vulnerability is reliance upon weaving together multiple modes of transport to access care and ancillary services, creating additional barriers to service utilization and medical adherence. The research team recommends more investment in public transit systems, expanded services, and innovative approaches to solving procedural problems.

  20. Juridical-Criminal Paternalism, Autonomy and Vulnerability: Legitimation Criteria of Paternalistic Interventions on Individual Autonomy in Criminal Matters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heráclito Mota Barreto Neto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The following paper has as objective questioning the legitimacy of state's paternalistic interventions on individual autonomy by using institutional-criminal instruments. In this path, the paper aims to understand in which cases the State is allowed to interfere in private individual lives under the justification of being promoting a well or avoiding a harm and, as well, in which cases such interference is abusive of individuals self-determination. Into this analysis, the work will study the current concepts of paternalism, the theoretical classifications on paternalistic interventions which will be useful to demonstrate admissible and inadmissible species of paternalism and Joel Feinberg and Gerald Dworkin's anti- paternalistic theories. Following, this subject will be analyzed in association with the implications of juridical-criminal goods involved in conflicts between autonomy, human vulnerabilities and paternalism, specially regarding to the (unavailability of those goods. In the end, the work intends to define legitimation criteria for paternalistic interventions inserted in criminal laws, which superimpose themselves on the individual autonomy, in order to harmonize constitutional values of respect for autonomy, protection of vulnerable individuals and the Criminal Law functions of exclusive protection of juridical goods.

  1. Understanding factors influencing vulnerable older people keeping warm and well in winter: a qualitative study using social marketing techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tod, Angela Mary; Lusambili, Adelaide; Homer, Catherine; Abbott, Joanne; Cooke, Joanne Mary; Stocks, Amanda Jayne; McDaid, Kathleen Anne

    2012-01-01

    To understand the influences and decisions of vulnerable older people in relation to keeping warm in winter. A qualitative study incorporating in-depth, semi-structured individual and group interviews, framework analysis and social marketing segmentation techniques. Rotherham, South Yorkshire, UK. 50 older people (>55) and 25 health and social care staff underwent individual interview. The older people also had household temperature measurements. 24 older people and 19 health and social care staff participated in one of the six group interviews. Multiple complex factors emerged to explain whether vulnerable older people were able to keep warm. These influences combined in various ways that meant older people were not able to or preferred not to access help or change home heating behaviour. Factors influencing behaviours and decisions relating to use of heating, spending money, accessing cheaper tariffs, accessing benefits or asking for help fell into three main categories. These were situational and contextual factors, attitudes and values, and barriers. Barriers included poor knowledge and awareness, technology, disjointed systems and the invisibility of fuel and fuel payment. Findings formed the basis of a social marketing segmentation model used to develop six pen portraits that illustrated how factors that conspire against older people being able to keep warm. The findings illustrate how and why vulnerable older people may be at risk of a cold home. The pen portraits provide an accessible vehicle and reflective tool to raise the capacity of the NHS in responding to their needs in line with the Cold Weather Plan.

  2. Non-intrusive activity assessment of a vulnerable individual for real living environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Shaoqiu; Jones, Gordon R

    2008-01-01

    A system for addressing the scale of activity and detecting periods of immobility of a vulnerable individual is described. The system does not invade the privacy of the individual, is robust to ambient changes and is economic in terms of cost and the amount of data captured. The system is based upon the cross-correlation of changes in the chromatic signatures of a limited number of locations in an environment with the outputs from a triggerable infrared sensor. Results are presented to indicate the system performance

  3. Understanding animal fears: a comparison of the cognitive vulnerability and harm-looming models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armfield Jason M

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Cognitive Vulnerability Model holds that both clinical and sub-clinical manifestations of animal fears are a result of how an animal is perceived, and can be used to explain both individual differences in fear acquisition and the uneven distribution of fears in the population. This study looked at the association between fear of a number of animals and perceptions of the animals as uncontrollable, unpredictable, dangerous and disgusting. Also assessed were the perceived loomingness, prior familiarity, and negative evaluation of the animals as well as possible conditioning experiences. Methods 162 first-year University students rated their fear and perceptions of four high-fear and four low-fear animals. Results Perceptions of the animals as dangerous, disgusting and uncontrollable were significantly associated with fear of both high- and low-fear animals while perceptions of unpredictability were significantly associated with fear of high-fear animals. Conditioning experiences were unrelated to fear of any animals. In multiple regression analyses, loomingness did not account for a significant amount of the variance in fear beyond that accounted for by the cognitive vulnerability variables. However, the vulnerability variables accounted for between 20% and 51% of the variance in all animals fears beyond that accounted for by perceptions of the animals as looming. Perceptions of dangerousness, uncontrollability and unpredictability were highly predictive of the uneven distribution of animal fears. Conclusion This study provides support for the Cognitive Vulnerability Model of the etiology of specific fears and phobias and brings into question the utility of the harm-looming model in explaining animal fear.

  4. Conceptualizing family members of violent mentally ill individuals as a vulnerable population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, Darcy A

    2007-09-01

    A review of literature concerning familial violence and mental illness using the Vulnerable Populations Conceptual Model (VPCM) as an organizing framework is presented. Since family members are most likely to be targets if a person who is mentally ill becomes violent, this review emphasizes the VPCM concepts of resource availability (including capital, stigma, and access to healthcare), risk, and health status of those family members. The population-based VPCM was used in an attempt to move the examination of this phenomenon from a focus on the individual to a conceptualization of it as family violence occurring within a broader, social context.

  5. Formative evaluation of the STAR intervention: improving teachers' ability to provide psychosocial support for vulnerable individuals in the school community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Ronél; Ebersöhn, Liesel

    2011-04-01

    The article describes the pilot phase of a participatory reflection and action (PRA) study. The longitudinal investigation explores teachers' ability to provide psychosocial support within the context of HIV/AIDS following an asset-based intervention. The study ensued from our desire to understand and contribute to knowledge about the changed roles of teachers due to adversity in the community, specifically in relation to HIV/AIDS and education. The supportive teachers, assets and resilience (STAR) intervention was facilitated from November 2003 to October 2005 and consisted of the research team undertaking nine field visits and facilitating 20 intervention sessions (2-3 hours each), and 12 post-intervention research visits have been conducted to date. Ten female teachers were selected for participation through random purposeful sampling at a primary school in an informal settlement outside Port Elizabeth, South Africa. Data-generation included PRA activities, observation, informal interactive interviews, and focus group discussions. The data were analysed by means of inductive thematic analysis. We found that the teachers did not view vulnerability as being related to children or HIV/AIDS in isolation, but rather that their psychosocial support to children and the school community was inclusive across a spectrum of vulnerabilities and services. We argue that teachers who are inclined to provide such support will fulfil this role irrespective of understanding policy or receiving training. We contend that teachers are well-positioned to manage school-based psychosocial support in order to create relevant and caring spaces for vulnerable individuals in the school community.

  6. Patients' perception regarding the influence of individual and social vulnerabilities on the adherence to tuberculosis treatment: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Rosiane Davina; de Luna, Fernanda Darliane Tavares; de Araújo, Aguinaldo José; Camêlo, Edwirde Luiz Silva; Bertolozzi, Maria Rita; Hino, Paula; Lacerda, Sheylla Nadjane Batista; Fook, Sayonara Maria Lia; de Figueiredo, Tânia Maria Ribeiro Monteiro

    2017-09-19

    Tuberculosis remains an important disease which mainly affects the majority of vulnerable individuals in society, who are subjected to poor living conditions and difficulties to access the services of public health. Under these circumstances, the present study aims to understand patients' perception in relation to the influence of individual and social vulnerabilities on the adherence to tuberculosis treatment. A qualitative descriptive cross sectional study was conducted in one large municipality at the state of Paraíba, Northeast of Brazil. The study subjects, who were residents of the study site, covered all tuberculosis cases diagnosed between March and June 2015. The sample was defined by the criteria of response saturation. All interviews were audio recorded, and data analysis was developed through the hermeneutic dialectic method and the theory of Generative Route Sense. The project was approved by the Research Ethics Committee of the University of São Paulo (USP). A total of 13 individuals were interviewed and the responses were identified into two analytical categories: the difficulties they had and the enabling factors they could mention during their tuberculosis treatment. Patients brought up social exclusion as an obstacle to treatment adherence, which, along with stigmatization, weakened their link with family members and health professionals. Moreover, economic precariousness was a major hindrance to the maintenance of a proper diet and transportation access to health centers. However, social support and directly observed treatment helped to break down barriers of prejudice and to promote individual and family empowerment. Finally, patients also reported that their will to live and faith gave them the strength to continue with the treatment. According to patients in this study, social support and the strengthening of links with family members and health professionals may reduce social exclusion and other difficulties they face, thus encouraging them

  7. Patients’ perception regarding the influence of individual and social vulnerabilities on the adherence to tuberculosis treatment: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosiane Davina da Silva

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tuberculosis remains an important disease which mainly affects the majority of vulnerable individuals in society, who are subjected to poor living conditions and difficulties to access the services of public health. Under these circumstances, the present study aims to understand patients’ perception in relation to the influence of individual and social vulnerabilities on the adherence to tuberculosis treatment. Methods A qualitative descriptive cross sectional study was conducted in one large municipality at the state of Paraíba, Northeast of Brazil. The study subjects, who were residents of the study site, covered all tuberculosis cases diagnosed between March and June 2015. The sample was defined by the criteria of response saturation. All interviews were audio recorded, and data analysis was developed through the hermeneutic dialectic method and the theory of Generative Route Sense. The project was approved by the Research Ethics Committee of the University of São Paulo (USP. Results A total of 13 individuals were interviewed and the responses were identified into two analytical categories: the difficulties they had and the enabling factors they could mention during their tuberculosis treatment. Patients brought up social exclusion as an obstacle to treatment adherence, which, along with stigmatization, weakened their link with family members and health professionals. Moreover, economic precariousness was a major hindrance to the maintenance of a proper diet and transportation access to health centers. However, social support and directly observed treatment helped to break down barriers of prejudice and to promote individual and family empowerment. Finally, patients also reported that their will to live and faith gave them the strength to continue with the treatment. Conclusions According to patients in this study, social support and the strengthening of links with family members and health professionals may reduce

  8. A Reflexive Inquiry on the Effect of Place on Research Interviews Conducted With Homeless and Vulnerably Housed Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Ecker

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, I utilized a process of reflexivity to examine the effect of location when conducting interviews with homeless and vulnerably housed individuals. The impact of interview locations has received limited attention in the community psychology literature, despite the majority of research being community-based. The study provides insights into the challenges, benefits, and power relations involved in selecting a research interview site and in conducting interviews. Personal journal entries were used to analyze the effect of location on the participants and I as the researcher, through a comparative analysis of interviews conducted in the community and a research center. Results demonstrate that interview locations hold great amounts of power and can provide the opportunity for holistic understandings of research topics. Lessons learned and methodological implications are discussed. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs170151

  9. Developmental and Individual Differences in Understanding of Fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, Robert S.; Pyke, Aryn A.

    2013-01-01

    We examined developmental and individual differences in 6th and 8th graders' fraction arithmetic and overall mathematics achievement and related them to differences in understanding of fraction magnitudes, whole number division, executive functioning, and metacognitive judgments within a crosssectional design. Results indicated that the difference…

  10. Sources of Individual Differences in Children's Understanding of Fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukovic, Rose K.; Fuchs, Lynn S.; Geary, David C.; Jordan, Nancy C.; Gersten, Russell; Siegler, Robert S.

    2014-01-01

    Longitudinal associations of domain-general and numerical competencies with individual differences in children's understanding of fractions were investigated. Children (n = 163) were assessed at 6 years of age on domain-general (nonverbal reasoning, language, attentive behavior, executive control, visual-spatial memory) and numerical (number…

  11. Understanding Resilience in a Vulnerable Industry: the Case of Reef Tourism in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duan Biggs

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the resilience of vulnerable sectors of social-ecological systems is critical in an era of escalating global change. The coral reef tourism sector is highly vulnerable not only to ecological effects of climate change and other anthropogenic disturbances on reefs, but also to shocks such as economic recession and energy price escalation. Commercial tourism enterprises are key players in reef tourism in Australia and elsewhere. However, the factors that confer resilience to reef-based tourism enterprises, or the reef tourism sector more broadly, in the face of large disturbances have not been investigated to date. This paper empirically examines the perceived resilience of reef tourism enterprises on Australia's Great Barrier Reef to large disturbances or shocks. Binary logistic regression analysis of two measures of enterprise resilience demonstrates the importance of human capital in strengthening enterprise resilience. Lifestyle identity, measured as the extent to which owners and senior managers are active in reef tourism as a lifestyle choice, is positively related to enterprise resilience. Finally, reef tourism enterprises indicate that financial and marketing support are the most important actions that government can take to support enterprises in the face of a large shock.

  12. A Study to Understand the Potential Vulnerabilities to the Foundations of Historic Structures in Coastal Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, C. L.; Curran, B.; Jefferson, M.; Routhier, M.; Mulukutla, G. K.

    2011-12-01

    Sea level rise, one of the most important manifestations of climate change is expected to result in increased coastal erosion and storm surge flooding. This work reports on a project undertaken to assess the vulnerability of foundations of historic structures in coastal areas to the potential consequences from climate change resulting from increased storm surge flooding. Foundations of historic buildings are especially vulnerable to the seepage and ground water intrusion. Many historic structures themselves are used to house valuable historic collections making it all the important to preserve and protect these structures. Data collected from a field subsurface geophysical survey, geospatial field survey, and a simulation to understand the hydrological conditions of the site useful to build an understanding of threats to foundations of historic structures located on the coast. The study site chosen for this project is the Strawbery Banke Living History Museum, in Portsmouth, NH. Located very close to the banks of the Piscataqua River at its meeting point with the Atlantic Ocean, it consists of many buildings of historical importance dating as far back as 1690. Upstream of the river is the tidal estuary system, the Great Bay which itself is formed by a confluence of seven major rivers, making it a highly dynamic, tide-dominated body of fresh and saltwater. Strawbery Banke is representative of historic structures, located on the Northeastern coast of the US, that will likely be impacted by climate change. The primary threat to the sub-structures for the site is Puddle Dock; a tidal inlet , that lies at the heart of the facility, that once provided direct river access to Strawbery Banke (and since filled around 1900). Results from the long term deployment of in -situ water level loggers in test wells, temperature and relative humidity sensors, and a ground penetration radar survey of the Puddle Dock, along with the detailed fine-scale elevation survey of the site

  13. Where Lies the Risk? An Ecological Approach to Understanding Child Mental Health Risk and Vulnerabilities in Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Atilola, Olayinka

    2014-01-01

    Efforts at improving child-health and development initiatives in sub-Saharan Africa had focused on the physical health of children due to the neglect of child and adolescent mental health (CAMH) policy initiatives. A thorough and broad-based understanding of the prevalent child mental-health risk and vulnerability factors is needed to successfully articulate CAMH policies. In this discourse, we present a narrative on the child mental-health risk and vulnerability factors in sub-Saharan Africa...

  14. Procedural and submittal guidance for the individual plant examination of external events (IPEEE) for severe accident vulnerabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, J.T.; Chokshi, N.C.; Kenneally, R.M.; Kelly, G.B.; Beckner, W.D.; McCracken, C.; Murphy, A.J.; Reiter, L.; Jeng, D.

    1991-06-01

    Based on a Policy statement on Severe Accidents, the licensee of each nuclear power plant is requested to perform an individual plant examination. The plant examination systematically looks for vulnerabilities to severe accidents and cost-effective safety improvements that reduce or eliminate the important vulnerabilities. This document presents guidance for performing and reporting the results of the individual plant examination of external events (IPEEE). The guidance for reporting the results of the individual plant examination of internal events (IPE) is presented in NUREG-1335. 53 refs., 1 figs., 2 tabs

  15. Drought, Agriculture, and Labor: Understanding Drought Impacts and Vulnerability in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, C.

    2015-12-01

    Hazardous drought impacts are a product of not only the physical intensity of drought, but also the economic, social, and environmental characteristics of the region exposed to drought. Drought risk management requires understanding the complex links between the physical and human dimensions of drought. Yet, there is a research gap in identifying and explaining the socio-economic complexities of drought in the context of the first world, especially for economic and socially marginal groups who rely on seasonal and temporary jobs. This research uses the current drought in California as a case study to identify the socioeconomic impacts of drought on farmworker communities in California's San Joaquin Valley, with a specific focus on the relationship between drought and agricultural labor. Through both a narrative analysis of drought coverage in newspaper media, drought policy documents, and interviews with farmworkers, farmers, community based organizations, and government officials in the San Joaquin Valley, this research aims to highlight the different understandings and experiences of the human impacts of drought and drought vulnerability in order to better inform drought risk planning and policy.

  16. Landslides in everyday life: An interdisciplinary approach to understanding vulnerability in the Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudmeier-Rieux, K.; Breguet, A.; Dubois, J.; Jaboyedoff, M.

    2009-04-01

    Several thousand landslides were triggered by the Kashmir earthquake, scarring the hillside with cracks. Monsoon rains continue to trigger landslides, which have increased the exposure of populations because of lost agricultural lands, blocked roads and annual fatalities due to landslides. The great majority of these landslides are shallow and relatively small but greatly impacting the population. In this region, landslides were a factor before the earthquake, mainly due to road construction and gravel excavation, but the several thousand landslides triggered by the earthquake have completely overwhelmed the local population and authorities. In Eastern Nepal, the last large earthquake to hit this region occurred in 1988, also triggering numerous landslides and cracks. Here, landslides can be considered a more common phenomenon, yet coping capacities amount to local observations of landslide movement, subsequent abandonment of houses and land as they become too dangerous. We present a comparative case study from Kashmir, Pakistan and Eastern Nepal, highlighting an interdisciplinary approach to understanding the complex interactions between land use, landslides and vulnerability. Our approach sets out to understand underlying causes of the massive landslides triggered by the 2005 earthquake in Kashmir, Pakistan, and also the increasing number of landslides in Nepal. By approaching the issue of landslides from multiple angles (risk perceptions, land use, local coping capacities, geological assessment, risk mapping) and multiple research techniques (remote sensing, GIS, geological assessment, participatory mapping, focus groups) we are better able to create a more complete picture of the "hazardscape". We find that by combining participatory social science research with hazard mapping, we obtain a more complete understanding of underlying causes, coping strategies and possible mitigation options, placing natural hazards in the context of everyday life. This method is

  17. Donepezil improves episodic memory in young individuals vulnerable to the effects of sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuah, Lisa Y M; Chong, Delise L; Chen, Annette K; Rekshan, William R; Tan, Jiat-Chow; Zheng, Hui; Chee, Michael W L

    2009-08-01

    We investigated if donepezil, a long-acting orally administered cholinesterase inhibitor, would reduce episodic memory deficits associated with 24 h of sleep deprivation. Double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study involving 7 laboratory visits over 2 months. Participants underwent 4 functional MRI scans; 2 sessions (donepezil or placebo) followed a normal night's sleep, and 2 sessions followed a night of sleep deprivation. The study took place in a research laboratory. 26 young, healthy volunteers with no history of any sleep, psychiatric, or neurologic disorders. 5 mg of donepezil was taken once daily for approximately 17 days. Subjects were scanned while performing a semantic judgment task and tested for word recognition outside the scanner 45 minutes later. Sleep deprivation increased the frequency of non-responses at encoding and impaired delayed recognition. No benefit of donepezil was evident when participants were well rested. When sleep deprived, individuals who showed greater performance decline improved with donepezil, whereas more resistant individuals did not benefit. Accompanying these behavioral effects, there was corresponding modulation of task-related activation in functionally relevant brain regions. Brain regions identified in relation to donepezil-induced alteration in non-response rates could be distinguished from regions relating to improved recognition memory. This suggests that donepezil can improve delayed recognition in sleep-deprived persons by improving attention as well as enhancing memory encoding. Donepezil reduced decline in recognition performance in individuals vulnerable to the effects of sleep deprivation. Additionally, our findings demonstrate the utility of combined fMRI-behavior evaluation in psychopharmacological studies.

  18. The importance of understanding individual differences in Down syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmiloff-Smith, Annette; Al-Janabi, Tamara; D'Souza, Hana; Groet, Jurgen; Massand, Esha; Mok, Kin; Startin, Carla; Fisher, Elizabeth; Hardy, John; Nizetic, Dean; Tybulewicz, Victor; Strydom, Andre

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we first present a summary of the general assumptions about Down syndrome (DS) still to be found in the literature. We go on to show how new research has modified these assumptions, pointing to a wide range of individual differences at every level of description. We argue that, in the context of significant increases in DS life expectancy, a focus on individual differences in trisomy 21 at all levels—genetic, cellular, neural, cognitive, behavioral, and environmental—constitutes one of the best approaches for understanding genotype/phenotype relations in DS and for exploring risk and protective factors for Alzheimer’s disease in this high-risk population. PMID:27019699

  19. Establishing the Human Firewall: Reducing an Individual’s Vulnerability to Social Engineering Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    1988) Bolstering attitudes by autobiographical recall: Attitude persistence and selective memory . Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 14...ESTABLISHING THE HUMAN FIREWALL: REDUCING AN INDIVIDUAL’S VULNERABILITY TO SOCIAL ENGINEERING ATTACKS...AFIT/GIR/ENG/08-04 ESTABLISHING THE HUMAN FIREWALL: REDUCING AN INDIVIDUAL’S VULNERABILITY TO SOCIAL ENGINEERING THESIS Presented to the

  20. Training Approach-Avoidance of Smiling Faces Affects Emotional Vulnerability in Socially Anxious Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike eRinck

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous research revealed an automatic behavioral bias in high socially anxious individuals (HSAs: Although their explicit evaluations of smiling faces are positive, they show automatic avoidance of these faces. This is reflected by faster pushing than pulling of smiling faces in an Approach-Avoidance Task (AAT; Heuer, Rinck, & Becker, 2007. The current study addressed the causal role of this avoidance bias for social anxiety. To this end, we used the AAT to train HSAs, either to approach smiling faces or to avoid them. We examined whether such an AAT training could change HSAs’ automatic avoidance tendencies, and if yes, whether AAT effects would generalize to a new approach task with new facial stimuli, and to mood and anxiety in a social threat situation (a video-recorded self-presentation. We found that HSAs trained to approach smiling faces did indeed approach female faces faster after the training than HSAs trained to avoid smiling faces. Moreover, approach-faces training reduced emotional vulnerability: It led to more positive mood and lower anxiety after the self-presentation than avoid-faces training. These results suggest that automatic approach-avoidance tendencies have a causal role in social anxiety, and that they can be modified by a simple computerized training. This may open new avenues in the therapy of social phobia.

  1. Training approach-avoidance of smiling faces affects emotional vulnerability in socially anxious individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinck, Mike; Telli, Sibel; Kampmann, Isabel L.; Woud, Marcella L.; Kerstholt, Merel; te Velthuis, Sarai; Wittkowski, Matthias; Becker, Eni S.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research revealed an automatic behavioral bias in high socially anxious individuals (HSAs): although their explicit evaluations of smiling faces are positive, they show automatic avoidance of these faces. This is reflected by faster pushing than pulling of smiling faces in an Approach-Avoidance Task (AAT; Heuer et al., 2007). The current study addressed the causal role of this avoidance bias for social anxiety. To this end, we used the AAT to train HSAs, either to approach smiling faces or to avoid them. We examined whether such an AAT training could change HSAs' automatic avoidance tendencies, and if yes, whether AAT effects would generalize to a new approach task with new facial stimuli, and to mood and anxiety in a social threat situation (a video-recorded self-presentation). We found that HSAs trained to approach smiling faces did indeed approach female faces faster after the training than HSAs trained to avoid smiling faces. Moreover, approach-faces training reduced emotional vulnerability: it led to more positive mood and lower anxiety after the self-presentation than avoid-faces training. These results suggest that automatic approach-avoidance tendencies have a causal role in social anxiety, and that they can be modified by a simple computerized training. This may open new avenues in the therapy of social phobia. PMID:23970862

  2. AGING AND INDIVIDUAL VULNERABILITY: A PANORAMA OF OLDER ADULTS ATTENDED BY THE FAMILY HEALTH STRATEGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keylla Talitha Fernandes Barbosa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: identificar las condiciones de vulnerabilidad individuales en los ancianos y investigar la relación con los indicadores de salud a través de una encuesta de hogares. Método: diseño descriptivo, transversal, realizado con 368 ancianos asistidos por la Estrategia Salud de la Familia. La recolección de datos se realizó a través de una entrevista estructurada, con el apoyo de instrumentos, incluyendo los indicadores sociodemográficos, de salud y Vulnerable Elderly Survey. También llevó a cabo el análisis descriptivo y la prueba de chi-cuadrado de Pearson. Resultados: existe una prevalencia de 52,2% de la vulnerabilidad individual entre los ancianos, así como una asociación con problemas de salud, la salud autopercepción negativa, dificultad en la movilidad y el desempeño de las actividades de la vida diaria. Conclusión: la vulnerabilidad de la identificación de los ancianos es una iniciativa importante para la adecuación de las políticas y programas de salud que se centran en la promoción del envejecimiento con el mantenimiento de la capacidad funcional.

  3. Air pollution and vulnerability of exposed individuals: the case of downtown Medellín

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel J. González

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The presence of respiratory problems in high level pollution areas is linked to factors such as exposure, susceptibility, and social coping. Objective: To present statistical evidence regarding the relationship between the probability of experiencing symptoms or contracting a respiratory disease and factors such as exposure to pollution, susceptibility, and social coping among people inhabiting areas with particulate matter pollution. Methodology: The study used unique information collected from a survey conducted on 1000 people in downtown Medellin who were exposed to this problem. This information was used to perform a descriptive statistic analysis and to build 27 probit models. The dependent variables were: the patient has a symptom or disease –emf-, the patient has a symptom –leve-, and the patient has a respiratory disease –grave-. Results: The results evidence that exposure is a key variable affecting the presence of respiratory symptoms or diseases (vulnerability; however, exposed individuals may also experience health problems not only due to air pollution per se, but also to implicit personal and social conditions.

  4. Specific vulnerability of face perception to noise: a similar effect in schizophrenia patients and healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yue; McBain, Ryan; Norton, Daniel

    2015-02-28

    Face perception plays a foundational role in the social world. This perceptual ability is deficient in schizophrenia. A noise-filtering mechanism is essential for perceptual processing. It remains unclear as to whether a specific noise-filtering mechanism is implicated in the face perception problem or a general noise-filtering mechanism is involved which also mediates non-face visual perception problems associated with this psychiatric disorder. This study examined and compared the effects of external noise on the performance of face discrimination and car discrimination in schizophrenia patients (n=25) and healthy controls (n=27). Superimposing the external visual noise on face or car stimuli elevated perceptual thresholds (i.e. degraded performance levels) for both face and car discrimination. However, the effect of noise was significantly larger on face than on car discrimination, both in patients and controls. This pattern of results suggests specific vulnerability of face processing to noise in healthy individuals and those with schizophrenia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Variability in vulnerability assessment of older people by individual general practitioners: a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne M Drewes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In clinical practice, GPs appeared to have an internalized concept of "vulnerability." This study investigates the variability between general practitioners (GPs in their vulnerability-assessment of older persons. METHODS: Seventy-seven GPs categorized their 75-plus patients (n = 11392 into non-vulnerable, possibly vulnerable, and vulnerable patients. GPs personal and practice characteristics were collected. From a sample of 2828 patients the following domains were recorded: sociodemographic, functional [instrumental activities in daily living (IADL, basic activities in daily living (BADL], somatic (number of diseases, polypharmacy, psychological (Mini-Mental State Examination, 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale; GDS-15 and social (De Jong-Gierveld Loneliness Scale; DJG. Variability in GPs' assessment of vulnerability was tested with mixed effects logistic regression. P-values for variability (pvar were calculated by the log-likelihood ratio test. RESULTS: Participating GPs assessed the vulnerability of 10,361 patients. The median percentage of vulnerable patients was 32.0% (IQR 19.5 to 40.1%. From the somatic and psychological domains, GPs uniformly took into account the patient characteristics 'total number of diseases' (OR 1.7, 90% range  = 0, p var = 1, 'polypharmacy' (OR 2.3, 90% range  = 0, p var = 1 and 'GDS-15' (OR 1.6, 90% range  = 0, p var = 1. GPs vary in the way they assessed their patients' vulnerability in the functional domain (IADL: median OR 2.8, 90% range 1.6, p var < 0.001, BADL: median OR 2.4, 90% range 2.9, p var < 0.001 and the social domain (DJG: median OR 1.2, 90% range  = 1.2, p var < 0.001. CONCLUSIONS: GPs seem to share a medical concept of vulnerability, since they take somatic and psychological characteristics uniformly into account in the vulnerability-assessment of older persons. In the functional and social domains, however, variability was found. Vulnerability assessment by GPs might be a

  6. Imaging genetics and the neurobiological basis of individual differences in vulnerability to addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweitzer, Maggie M; Donny, Eric C; Hariri, Ahmad R

    2012-06-01

    Addictive disorders are heritable, but the search for candidate functional polymorphisms playing an etiological role in addiction is hindered by complexity of the phenotype and the variety of factors interacting to impact behavior. Advances in human genome sequencing and neuroimaging technology provide an unprecedented opportunity to explore the impact of functional genetic variants on variability in behaviorally relevant neural circuitry. Here, we present a model for merging these technologies to trace the links between genes, brain, and addictive behavior. We describe imaging genetics and discuss the utility of its application to addiction. We then review data pertaining to impulsivity and reward circuitry as an example of how genetic variation may lead to variation in behavioral phenotype. Finally, we present preliminary data relating the neural basis of reward processing to individual differences in nicotine dependence. Complex human behaviors such as addiction can be traced to their basic genetic building blocks by identifying intermediate behavioral phenotypes, associated neural circuitry, and underlying molecular signaling pathways. Impulsivity has been linked with variation in reward-related activation in the ventral striatum (VS), altered dopamine signaling, and functional polymorphisms of DRD2 and DAT1 genes. In smokers, changes in reward-related VS activation induced by smoking abstinence may be associated with severity of nicotine dependence. Variation in genes related to dopamine signaling may contribute to heterogeneity in VS sensitivity to reward and, ultimately, to addiction. These findings illustrate the utility of the imaging genetics approach for investigating the neurobiological basis for vulnerability to addiction. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Imaging genetics and the neurobiological basis of individual differences in vulnerability to addiction*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweitzer, Maggie M.; Donny, Eric C.; Hariri, Ahmad R.

    2012-01-01

    Background Addictive disorders are heritable, but the search for candidate functional polymorphisms playing an etiological role in addiction is hindered by complexity of the phenotype and the variety of factors interacting to impact behavior. Advances in human genome sequencing and neuroimaging technology provide an unprecedented opportunity to explore the impact of functional genetic variants on variability in behaviorally relevant neural circuitry. Here, we present a model for merging these technologies to trace the links between genes, brain, and addictive behavior. Methods We describe imaging genetics and discuss the utility of its application to addiction. We then review data pertaining to impulsivity and reward circuitry as an example of how genetic variation may lead to variation in behavioral phenotype. Finally, we present preliminary data relating the neural basis of reward processing to individual differences in nicotine dependence. Results Complex human behaviors such as addiction can be traced to their basic genetic building blocks by identifying intermediate behavioral phenotypes, associated neural circuitry, and underlying molecular signaling pathways. Impulsivity has been linked with variation in reward-related activation in the ventral striatum (VS), altered dopamine signaling, and functional polymorphisms of DRD2 and DAT1 genes. In smokers, changes in reward-related VS activation induced by smoking abstinence may be associated with severity of nicotine dependence. Conclusions Variation in genes related to dopamine signaling may contribute to heterogeneity in VS sensitivity to reward and, ultimately, to addiction. These findings illustrate the utility of the imaging genetics approach for investigating the neurobiological basis for vulnerability to addiction. PMID:22342427

  8. Developmental and Individual Differences in Understanding of Fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, Robert S.; Pyke, Aryn A.

    2014-01-01

    We examined developmental and individual differences in 6th and 8th graders’ fraction arithmetic and overall mathematics achievement and related them to differences in understanding of fraction magnitudes, whole number division, executive functioning, and metacognitive judgments within a cross sectional design. Results indicated that the difference between low achieving and higher achieving children’s fraction arithmetic knowledge, already substantial in 6th grade, was much greater in 8th grade. The fraction arithmetic knowledge of low achieving children was similar in the two grades, whereas higher achieving children showed much greater knowledge in 8th than 6th grade, despite both groups having been in the same classrooms, using the same textbooks, and having the same teachers and classmates. Individual differences in both fraction arithmetic and mathematics achievement test scores were predicted by differences in fraction magnitude knowledge and whole number division, even after the contributions of reading achievement and executive functioning were statistically controlled. Instructional implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:23244401

  9. Community Resilience: Increasing Public Understanding of Risk and Vulnerability to Natural Hazards through Informal Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salna, E.

    2017-12-01

    The Extreme Events Institute's (EEI) International Hurricane Research Center (IHRC) at Florida International University (FIU) in Miami, Florida, as a NOAA Weather-Ready Nation Ambassador, is dedicated to make South Florida, Ready, Responsive and Resilient. IHRC with funding from the Florida Division of Emergency Management (FDEM) has developed several museum exhibits and events. This includes the hands-on FIU Wall of Wind exhibit for the National Building Museum in Washington, DC, the Frost Science Museum in Miami, Florida, and the Museum of Discovery and Science (MODS) in Fort Lauderdale, Florida. The exhibit teaches the public about hurricane wind engineering research, enhanced building codes, and the importance of protecting your home's windows and doors with code-approved shutters. In addition, IHRC and MODS facilitate Eye of the Storm, a free-of-charge, community event with interactive hurricane science, and preparedness activities, including the entertaining Owlie Skywarn live theater show and live air cannon missile impact demonstrations. This annual event includes many local, state and federal partners, including NOAA and NWS. The IHRC also developed the FIU Wall of Wind Mitigation Challenge. As the next generation of engineers to address natural hazards and extreme weather, this STEM education event features a competition between high school teams to develop innovative wind mitigation concepts and real-life human safety and property protection solutions. IHRC and MODS are also developing a new exhibit of a Hazard/Risk Equation that will "come to life," through virtual reality (VR) technology in a state-of-the art 7D theater. The exhibit will provide a better public understanding of how changes in exposures and vulnerabilities will determine whether a community experiences an emergency, disaster or catastrophe. It will raise public consciousness and drive home the point that communities need not passively accept natural hazard risks. Ultimately, if we raise

  10. Where Lies the Risk? An Ecological Approach to Understanding Child Mental Health Risk and Vulnerabilities in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atilola, Olayinka

    2014-01-01

    Efforts at improving child-health and development initiatives in sub-Saharan Africa had focused on the physical health of children due to the neglect of child and adolescent mental health (CAMH) policy initiatives. A thorough and broad-based understanding of the prevalent child mental-health risk and vulnerability factors is needed to successfully articulate CAMH policies. In this discourse, we present a narrative on the child mental-health risk and vulnerability factors in sub-Saharan Africa. Through an ecological point of view, we identified widespread family poverty, poor availability and uptake of childcare resources, inadequate community and institutional childcare systems, and inadequate framework for social protection for vulnerable children as among the risk and vulnerability factors for CAMH in the region. Others are poor workplace policy/practice that does not support work-family life balance, poor legislative framework for child protection, and some harmful traditional practices. We conclude that an ecological approach shows that child mental-health risks are diverse and cut across different layers of the care environment. The approach also provides a broad and holistic template from which appropriate CAMH policy direction in sub-Saharan Africa can be understood. PMID:24834431

  11. Where lies the risk? An ecological approach to understanding child mental health risk and vulnerabilities in sub-saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atilola, Olayinka

    2014-01-01

    Efforts at improving child-health and development initiatives in sub-Saharan Africa had focused on the physical health of children due to the neglect of child and adolescent mental health (CAMH) policy initiatives. A thorough and broad-based understanding of the prevalent child mental-health risk and vulnerability factors is needed to successfully articulate CAMH policies. In this discourse, we present a narrative on the child mental-health risk and vulnerability factors in sub-Saharan Africa. Through an ecological point of view, we identified widespread family poverty, poor availability and uptake of childcare resources, inadequate community and institutional childcare systems, and inadequate framework for social protection for vulnerable children as among the risk and vulnerability factors for CAMH in the region. Others are poor workplace policy/practice that does not support work-family life balance, poor legislative framework for child protection, and some harmful traditional practices. We conclude that an ecological approach shows that child mental-health risks are diverse and cut across different layers of the care environment. The approach also provides a broad and holistic template from which appropriate CAMH policy direction in sub-Saharan Africa can be understood.

  12. Where Lies the Risk? An Ecological Approach to Understanding Child Mental Health Risk and Vulnerabilities in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olayinka Atilola

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Efforts at improving child-health and development initiatives in sub-Saharan Africa had focused on the physical health of children due to the neglect of child and adolescent mental health (CAMH policy initiatives. A thorough and broad-based understanding of the prevalent child mental-health risk and vulnerability factors is needed to successfully articulate CAMH policies. In this discourse, we present a narrative on the child mental-health risk and vulnerability factors in sub-Saharan Africa. Through an ecological point of view, we identified widespread family poverty, poor availability and uptake of childcare resources, inadequate community and institutional childcare systems, and inadequate framework for social protection for vulnerable children as among the risk and vulnerability factors for CAMH in the region. Others are poor workplace policy/practice that does not support work-family life balance, poor legislative framework for child protection, and some harmful traditional practices. We conclude that an ecological approach shows that child mental-health risks are diverse and cut across different layers of the care environment. The approach also provides a broad and holistic template from which appropriate CAMH policy direction in sub-Saharan Africa can be understood.

  13. Understanding and Addressing Vulnerability Following the 2010 Haiti Earthquake: Applying a Feminist Lens to Examine Perspectives of Haitian and Expatriate Health Care Providers and Decision-Makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Ryoa; Rochon, Christiane; Hunt, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Vulnerability is a central concept in humanitarian aid. Discussions of vulnerability in disaster response literature and guidelines for humanitarian aid range from considerations of a universal human vulnerability, to more nuanced examinations of how particular characteristics render individuals more or less at risk. Despite its frequent use, there is a lack of clarity about how vulnerability is conceptualized and how it informs operational priorities in humanitarian assistance. Guided by interpretive description methodology, we draw on the feminist taxonomy of vulnerability presented by Mackenzie, Rogers and Dodds (2014) to examine perspectives of 24 expatriate and Haitian decision-makers and health professionals interviewed between May 2012 and March 2013. The analysis explores concepts of vulnerability and equity in relation to the humanitarian response following the 2010 earthquake in Haiti. Participants’ conceptualizations of vulnerability included consideration for inherent vulnerabilities related to individual characteristics (e.g. being a woman or disabled) and situational vulnerabilities related to particular circumstances such as having less access to health care resources or basic necessities. Participants recognized that vulnerabilities could be exacerbated by socio-political structures but felt ill-equipped to address these. The use of the taxonomy and a set of questions inspired by Hurst’s (2008) approach to identifying and reducing vulnerability can guide the analysis of varied sources of vulnerability and open discussions about how and by whom vulnerabilities should be addressed in humanitarian responses. More research is required to inform how humanitarian responders could balance addressing acute vulnerability with consideration of systemic and pre-existing circumstances that underlie much of the vulnerability experienced following an acute disaster. PMID:27617037

  14. Low control over palatable food intake in rats is associated with habitual behavior and relapse vulnerability: individual differences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes W de Jong

    Full Text Available The worldwide obesity epidemic poses an enormous and growing threat to public health. However, the neurobehavioral mechanisms of overeating and obesity are incompletely understood. It has been proposed that addiction-like processes may underlie certain forms of obesity, in particular those associated with binge eating disorder. To investigate the role of addiction-like processes in obesity, we adapted a model of cocaine addiction-like behavior in rats responding for highly palatable food. Here, we tested whether rats responding for highly palatable chocolate Ensure would come to show three criteria of addiction-like behavior, i.e., high motivation, continued seeking despite signaled non-availability and persistence of seeking despite aversive consequences. We also investigated whether exposure to a binge model (a diet consisting of alternating periods of limited food access and access to highly palatable food, promotes the appearance of food addiction-like behavior. Our data show substantial individual differences in control over palatable food seeking and taking, but no distinct subgroup of animals showing addiction-like behavior could be identified. Instead, we observed a wide range extending from low to very high control over palatable food intake. Exposure to the binge model did not affect control over palatable food seeking and taking, however. Animals that showed low control over palatable food intake (i.e., scored high on the three criteria for addiction-like behavior were less sensitive to devaluation of the food reward and more prone to food-induced reinstatement of extinguished responding, indicating that control over palatable food intake is associated with habitual food intake and vulnerability to relapse. In conclusion, we present an animal model to assess control over food seeking and taking. Since diminished control over food intake is a major factor in the development of obesity, understanding its behavioral and neural

  15. Understanding the needs of vulnerable prisoners: the role of social and emotional wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Yvonne; Day, Andrew; Casey, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    Social and emotional wellbeing (SEWB) is a term used to refer to the state of an individual's overall wellbeing. This review aims to consider the importance of understanding and assessing SEWB in prisoner populations, and identify potentially important differences between groups of prisoners, including those who identify as from minority cultural backgrounds (Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander in Australia), protective custody prisoners, remand prisoners, prisoners identified with an intellectual disability, and prisoners with an acquired brain injury. The paper is a general review of the published literature, with a specific focus on work conducted with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities in Australia. Eight domains of SEWB are identified across which Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander prisoners, along with those in protection units, remandees, and prisoners with intellectual disabilities or acquired brain injuries are likely to experience particularly low levels of functioning. Few programs have been developed to address these needs, although attending to low levels of SEWB has the potential to make a positive contribution to prisoner health, prison management, and offender rehabilitation. Relatively little literature has considered this topic previously and, as a result, the paper is necessarily descriptive. Nonetheless, issues of SEWB appear to warrant further consideration, particularly in relation to those prisoners who identify with minority cultural groups.

  16. Understanding the Everyday Practice of Individualized Education Program Team Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Elizabeth S.

    2016-01-01

    The Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004 states that individualized education program (IEP) teams are composed of members with distinct identities, roles, expertise, and histories. Although team members must work together to implement educational and related services for learners with special needs, little is known about…

  17. Hardships of the Great Recession and health: Understanding varieties of vulnerability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie A Kirsch

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Great Recession of 2007–2009 is regarded as the most severe economic downturn since World War II. This study examined relationships between reported recession hardships and physical health in a national survey of American adults ( N  = 1275. Furthermore, education and psychological resources (perceived control, purpose in life, and conscientiousness were tested as moderators of the health impacts of the recession. A greater number of hardships predicted poorer health, especially among the less educated. Psychological resources interacted with education and hardships to predict health outcomes. Although typically viewed as protective factors, such resources became vulnerabilities among educationally disadvantaged adults experiencing greater recession hardships.

  18. Hardships of the Great Recession and health: Understanding varieties of vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Julie A; Ryff, Carol D

    2016-01-01

    The Great Recession of 2007-2009 is regarded as the most severe economic downturn since World War II. This study examined relationships between reported recession hardships and physical health in a national survey of American adults ( N  = 1275). Furthermore, education and psychological resources (perceived control, purpose in life, and conscientiousness) were tested as moderators of the health impacts of the recession. A greater number of hardships predicted poorer health, especially among the less educated. Psychological resources interacted with education and hardships to predict health outcomes. Although typically viewed as protective factors, such resources became vulnerabilities among educationally disadvantaged adults experiencing greater recession hardships.

  19. Hardships of the Great Recession and health: Understanding varieties of vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Julie A; Ryff, Carol D

    2016-01-01

    The Great Recession of 2007–2009 is regarded as the most severe economic downturn since World War II. This study examined relationships between reported recession hardships and physical health in a national survey of American adults (N = 1275). Furthermore, education and psychological resources (perceived control, purpose in life, and conscientiousness) were tested as moderators of the health impacts of the recession. A greater number of hardships predicted poorer health, especially among the less educated. Psychological resources interacted with education and hardships to predict health outcomes. Although typically viewed as protective factors, such resources became vulnerabilities among educationally disadvantaged adults experiencing greater recession hardships. PMID:28070407

  20. Climate and Food Production: Understanding Vulnerability from Past Trends in Africa’s Sudan-Sahel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genesis T. Yengoh

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Just how influential is rainfall on agricultural production in the Sudan-Sahel of Africa? And, is there evidence that support for small-scale farming can reduce the vulnerability of crop yields to rainfall in these sensitive agro-ecological zones? These questions are explored based on a case study from Cameroon’s Sudan-Sahel region. Climate data for 20 years and crop production data for six major food crops for the same years are used to find patterns of correlation over this time period. Results show a distinction of three periods of climatic influence of agriculture: one period before 1989, another between 1990 and 1999 and the last from 2000 to 2004. The analysis reveals that, while important in setting the enabling biophysical environment for food crop cultivation, the influence of rainfall in agriculture can be diluted by proactive policies that support food production. Proactive policies also reduce the impact of agriculturally relevant climatic shocks, such as droughts on food crop yields over the time-series. These findings emphasize the extent of vulnerability of food crop production to rainfall variations among small-holder farmers in these agro-ecological zones and reinforce the call for the proactive engagement of relevant institutions and support services in assisting the efforts of small-scale food producers in Africa’s Sudan-Sahel. The implications of climate variability on agriculture are discussed within the context of food security with particular reference to Africa’s Sudan-Sahel.

  1. Applying cognitive learning theories to understanding of learning in vulnerable groups of adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Kuran

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In the mid-twentieth century cognitive learning theories appeared as a criticism of behaviourism, and were later replaced by constructivist and connectivist learning theories. In the last two decades psychological research into cognition experienced a revival thanks to new methodological possibilities. This article brings a selection of research studies related to adult edu- cation in various ways: post-formal cognitive development stage, cognitive ageing, the meaning of crystallized intelligence in adulthood, and research into learning styles. The article proceeds with an account of research of literacy in vulnerable social groups and ends with a final chapter, which brings useful findings for researchers and adult education practitioners. In this article, the author has drawn from two separate sources. The first source are the professional premises underlying conceptualization of multi-media contents, prepared by the Slovenian Institute for Adult Education within the framework of the project titled Literacy development, and Assessment and Acknowledgement of Non-formal Learning between 2009 – 2011. The theoretical part of the underlying professional premises dealt, among other, with cognitive aspects of adult learning, which represent the basis of this article. The second source is the authorØs personal involvement in the field of cognitive psychology, or rather, in the field of cognitive sciences, in which even today learning and education of vulnerable groups of adults is given only marginal consideration in research.

  2. Social rank-associated stress vulnerability predisposes individuals to cocaine attraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanovich, Chen; Kirby, Michael L; Michaelevski, Izhak; Yadid, Gal; Pinhasov, Albert

    2018-01-29

    Studies of personality have suggested that dissimilarities in ability to cope with stressful situations results in differing tendency to develop addictive behaviors. The present study used selectively bred stress-resilient, socially-dominant (Dom) and stress-vulnerable, socially-submissive (Sub) mice to investigate the interaction between environmental stress and inbred predisposition to develop addictive behavior to cocaine. In a Conditioned Place Preference (CPP) paradigm using cocaine, Sub mice displayed an aversion to drug, whereas Dom mice displayed drug attraction. Following a 4-week regimen of Chronic Mild Stress (CMS), Sub mice in CPP displayed a marked increase (>400%) in cocaine attraction, whereas Dom mice did not differ in attraction from their non-stressed state. Examination of hippocampal gene expression revealed in Sub mice, exposure to external stimuli, stress or cocaine, increased CRH expression (>100%), which was evoked in Dom mice only by cocaine exposure. Further, stress-induced decreases in DRD1 (>60%) and DRD2 (>50%) expression in Sub mice differed markedly from a complete lack of change in Dom mice. From our findings, we propose that social stratification dictates vulnerability to stress-induced attraction that may lead to addiction via differential regulation of hippocampal response to dopaminergic input, which in turn may influence differing tendency to develop addictive behaviors.

  3. Understanding Suicide in Socially Vulnerable Contexts: Psychological Autopsy in a Small Town in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez-Hernández, Ana-María; Macías-García, Luis-Fernando

    2016-02-01

    In Mexico, suicides are increasing in certain latitudes where local rates have grown to levels of alert; suicide is also the second most common cause of death for the group aged 15 to 19. The psychological autopsy method was utilized to uncover and analyze common factors in all of the registered suicides within 2011 and 2012 in a small town of the state of Guanajuato, located in the center of Mexico. A total of nine decedents were analyzed, and 22 interviews were conducted. The most salient factors were as follows: poverty, financial stress, substance abuse, low levels of education, conflictive relationships, and a poor handling of emotions. The concepts of social exclusion and vulnerability were employed to analyze suicides as symptoms of a much deeper problem of this country, suggesting that anomie and social malady are nowadays important suicidal factors, mostly for children and young people. © 2015 The American Association of Suicidology.

  4. Sustainability and vulnerability: Understanding the anomaly from disaster perspectives. Case study: Glagaharjo Village in Mount Merapi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depari, C. D. A.

    2017-06-01

    In its concern for human safety, the Government’s policy to relocate those living in disaster prone areas is twofold: it is perceptibly profound yet socially cataclysmic. This anomaly, created by the contradiction between the need for sustainability and the fact of vulnerability, could be found in the case of Mount Merapi. Communities living in the hazardous zone of Merapi, particularly those in Glagaharjo Village, are acknowledged for their persistent rejection of relocation programs despite their high exposure to the catastrophic impacts of eruptions. To mitigate the impacts, a safe and conducive dwelling place which considers the characteristics of these affected communities must be encouraged. This research adopts a consensus method towards responses obtained through a Likert scale-questionnaire and measured with a statistical program. Prior this process, theoretical reviews toward the concept of place attachment, place dependence and place identity was established in order to determine the research variables for the questionnaire.

  5. Time-on-task decrement in vigilance is modulated by inter-individual vulnerability to homeostatic sleep pressure manipulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micheline eMaire

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Under sleep loss, vigilance is reduced and attentional failures emerge progressively. It becomes difficult to maintain stable performance over time, leading to growing performance variability (i.e. state instability in an individual and among subjects. Task duration plays a major role in the maintenance of stable vigilance levels, such that the longer the task, the more likely state instability will be observed. Vulnerability to sleep-loss-dependent performance decrements is highly individual and is also modulated by a polymorphism in the human clock gene PERIOD3 (PER3. By combining two different protocols, we manipulated sleep-wake history by once extending wakefulness for 40 h (high sleep pressure condition and once by imposing a short sleep-wake cycle by alternating 160 min of wakefulness and 80 min naps (low sleep pressure condition in a within-subject design. We observed that homozygous carriers of the long repeat allele of PER3 (PER35/5 experienced a greater time-on-task dependent performance decrement (i.e., a steeper increase in the number of lapses in the Psychomotor Vigilance Task compared to the carriers of the short repeat allele (PER34/4. These genotype-dependent effects disappeared under low sleep pressure conditions, and neither motivation, nor perceived effort accounted for these differences. Our data thus suggest that greater sleep-loss related attentional vulnerability based on the PER3 polymorphism is mirrored by a greater state instability under extended wakefulness in the short compared to the long allele carriers. Our results undermine the importance of time-on-task related aspects when investigating inter-individual differences in sleep loss-induced behavioural vulnerability.

  6. Understanding the Role of Cultural Intelligence in Individual Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunlu, Dilek G.; Clapp-Smith, Rachel; Shaffer, Margaret

    2017-01-01

    Employing creative cognition theory, this study investigates the relationship between cultural intelligence (CQ) and creativity. Using data from 394 full-time employees, metacognitive, cognitive, and motivational forms of CQ were found to have positive relationships with individual creativity. In addition, the positive effect of cognitive CQ on…

  7. The Fantastical Body and the Vulnerability of Comfort: Alternative Models for Understanding Body Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springgay, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    Arguing for new models of inquiry that interrogate body image from the perspective of intercorporeality, this article explores a research study conducted in a secondary school art class. Shifting analysis from the representation of body image to a tactile, sensuous, and experiential understanding of body image, I highlight the contradictions and…

  8. Understanding individual differences in word recognition skills of ESL children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geva, E; Yaghoub-Zadeh, Z; Schuster, B

    2000-01-01

    This paper focuses on the extent to which the development of ESL (English as a Second Language) word recognition skills mimics similar trajectories in same-aged EL1 (English as a First Language) children, and the extent to which phonological processing skills and rapid naming can be used to predict word recognition performance in ESL children. Two cohorts of Grade 1 ESL and EL1 primary-level children were followed for two consecutive years. Results indicated that vocabulary knowledge, a measure of language proficiency, and nonverbal intelligence were not significant predictors of word recognition in either group. Yet, by considering individual differences in phonological awareness and rapid naming, it was possible to predict substantial amounts of variance on word recognition performance six months and one year later in both language groups. Commonality analyses indicated that phonological awareness and rapid naming contributed unique variance to word recognition performance. Moreover, the profiles of not at-risk children in the EL1 and ESL groups were similar on all but the oral language measure, where EL1 children had the advantage. In addition, EL1 and ESL profiles of children who had word-recognition difficulty were similar, with low performance on rapid naming and phonological awareness. Results indicate that these measures are reliable indicators of potential reading disability among ESL children.

  9. The effect of weather and its changes on emotional state - individual characteristics that make us vulnerable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spasova, Z.

    2011-03-01

    Given the proven effects of weather on the human organism, an attempt to examine its effects on a psychological and emotional level has been made. Emotions affect the bio tone, working ability, and concentration; hence their significance in various domains of economic life such as health care, education, transportation, and tourism. The present pilot study was conducted in Sofia, Bulgaria over a period of eight months, using five psychological methods: Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Test for Self-assessment of the emotional state, Test for evaluation of moods and Test ''Self-confidence-Activity-Mood''. The Fiodorov-Chubukov's complex-climatic method was used to characterize meteorological conditions in order to include a maximal number of meteorological elements in the analysis. Sixteen weather types are defined depending on the meteorological elements values according to this method. Abrupt weather changes from one day to another, defined by the same method, were also considered. The results obtained by t-test showed that the different categories of weather led to changes in the emotional status, which indicates a character either positive or negative for the organism. The abrupt weather changes, according to expectations, have negative effects on human emotions - but only when a transition to the cloudy weather or weather type, classified as ''unfavorable'', has been realized. The relationship between weather and human emotions is rather complicated since it depends on individual characteristics of people. One of these individual psychological characteristics, marked by the dimension ''neuroticism'', has a strong effect on emotional reactions in different weather conditions. Emotionally stable individuals are more ''resistant'' to the weather influence on their emotions, while those who are emotionally unstable have a stronger dependence on the impacts of weather.

  10. Animal models for addiction medicine: From vulnerable phenotypes to addicted individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nader, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    This chapter highlights the use of several animal models of abuse liability. The overall goal is to describe the most frequently used methods, unconditioned behaviors and conditioned behaviors, and how investigators can use these techniques to compare drugs and to understand the mechanisms of action mediating abuse liability. Thus, for each type of animal model described, research will be highlighted on three general features related to the use of the model: (1) determine abuse potential, (2) treatment efficacy, and (3) brain-related changes associated with drug administration. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. HIV/AIDS in mid-sized cities in Senegal: From individual to place-based vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drame, Fatou Maria; Foley, Ellen E

    2015-05-01

    In Senegal, recent data indicates that the HIV epidemic is increasingly driven by concurrent sexual partners among men and women in stable relationships. In order to respond to this changing epidemiological profile in Senegal, multi-lateral and national AIDS actors require information about these emerging trends in unstudied populations. To that end, this study has several objectives, first, to assess local dynamics of sexual behaviors among individuals at popular socializing venues in areas at increased risk of HIV transmission; and then to examine how particular venues may influence risks of HIV transmission. In 2013 we collected data at 314 venues in 10 cities in Senegal using PLACE methodology. These venues were listed with collaboration of 374 community informants. They are places where commercial sex workers, MSM, and individuals who are not part of any identified risk group socialize and meet new sexual partners. We conducted 2600 interviews at the 96 most popular venues. A significant portion of the sample reports buying or selling sex and the majority engaged in behavior considered high-risk for transmitting sexual infections. Almost a quarter of patrons interviewed in venues were young people aged 15-24 years. Types of venues described were very diverse. Half of them were venues (n = 156) where sex workers could be solicited and almost a third were venues where MSM could meet male partners (n = 90). The study showed existing pockets of vulnerability to HIV in Thies, Bignona or Saly that are not evident from aggregate HIV data. These early findings suggest links between risky behaviors and type of venue on the one hand and type of city on the other hand. Finally, these findings offer complementary insight to existing studies of HIV vulnerability in Senegal and support a case for venue-based interventions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. UNDERSTANDING THE DEVALUATION OF VULNERABLE GROUPS: A NOVEL APPLICATION OF INSTITUTIONAL ANOMIE THEORY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groß, Eva M.; Zick, Andreas; Messner, Steven F.

    2015-01-01

    Prejudices legitimize the discrimination against groups by declaring them to be of unequal, especially of less, worth. This legitimizing power is highly relevant in social conflicts of modern societies that are governed by market-oriented value systems. However, prejudice research has yet to be linked to sociological discourses on the marketization of society. We argue that Institutional Anomie Theory (IAT), a theory originally developed to explain crime rates, offers a fruitful macro-sociological framework for a better understanding of micro-social prejudices that emerge along with processes of marketization. Extending IAT to explain prejudices in a German study based on survey data offers a first attempt to underpin our theoretical hypotheses with empirical data. Although the results need to be interpreted with due caution, they suggest that the extended IAT model can be usefully applied to explain how a marketized mentality is related to different forms of institutional integration, and how it is conducive to specific prejudices that emerge in market-dominated societies against purported economically burdening social groups. PMID:26004470

  13. Understanding the devaluation of vulnerable groups: A novel application of Institutional Anomie Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hövermann, Andreas; Groß, Eva M; Zick, Andreas; Messner, Steven F

    2015-07-01

    Prejudices legitimize the discrimination against groups by declaring them to be of unequal, especially of less, worth. This legitimizing power is highly relevant in social conflicts of modern societies that are governed by market-oriented value systems. However, prejudice research has yet to be linked to sociological discourses on the marketization of society. We argue that Institutional Anomie Theory (IAT), a theory originally developed to explain crime rates, offers a fruitful macro-sociological framework for a better understanding of micro-social prejudices that emerge along with processes of marketization. Extending IAT to explain prejudices in a German study based on survey data offers a first attempt to underpin our theoretical hypotheses with empirical data. Although the results need to be interpreted with due caution, they suggest that the extended IAT model can be usefully applied to explain how a marketized mentality is related to different forms of institutional integration, and how it is conducive to specific prejudices that emerge in market-dominated societies against purported economically burdening social groups. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Integrated Sensor Networks for Monitoring the Health and Well-Being of Vulnerable Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heatley, D. J. T.; Kalawsky, R. S.; Neild, I.; Bowman, P. A.

    The inescapable fact that people are living longer today than ever before means that the number of elderly people needing care or medical treatment has never been higher. In response to this there is a growing trend to place the elderly and infirm in residential homes or in sheltered accommodation, where they live in a protective environment while retaining some independence. Current healthcare systems in residential, sheltered, and community settings generally operate on a reactive basis rather than a pre-emptive basis [1]. This means that the people being cared for (the 'clients') are often already clinically ill and in need of medical attention, sometimes urgently, by the time the healthcare system engages, whereupon the treatment and recovery regime can be protracted and costly [2]. Unfortunately, a significant majority of our ageing population do not have the benefit of this level of healthcare [3], despite the evidence that our ageing population are regarded to be at an increased risk of falls [4], malnutrition [5], and failure to take prescribed medication [6]. It is this self-neglect that is of great concern. A far better scheme for all parties is one that continuously monitors clients who, although in fine health at that time, are considered to be at risk and likely to need attention at a time in the future, particularly if they are elderly and live alone. By continually monitoring certain behavioural characteristics of an individual, it is feasible to ascertain their well-being or detect when things deviate from the norm.

  15. Inefficiency of emotion regulation as vulnerability marker for bipolar disorder: evidence from healthy individuals with hypomanic personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heissler, Janine; Kanske, Philipp; Schönfelder, Sandra; Wessa, Michèle

    2014-01-01

    Emotion regulation deficits are a key characteristic of bipolar disorder (BD). In the present study, we asked if deficits in emotion regulation are also a vulnerability marker for BD. To this end, we investigated a healthy group of participants at high-risk for developing BD, defined on the basis of a hypomanic personality trait. We examined the neural correlates of two emotion regulation strategies, reappraisal and distraction. Twenty-two individuals with higher risk for BD and twenty-four controls were investigated in a functional magnetic resonance imaging paradigm. Participants were presented with negative, positive and neutral pictures and were either required to passively view the images, to down-regulate the emotional response by reappraising the pictures' content, or to perform a distracting arithmetic task. High-risk individuals showed increased emotional reactivity to negative stimuli, indicated by heightened amygdala activation during passive viewing. High-risk participants were also less successful in down-regulating amygdala activity using reappraisal of negative stimuli. During distraction from positive stimuli, high-risk individuals showed heightened task-related activity in the inferior parietal cortex, suggesting increased distractibility by task-irrelevant positive background stimuli. There were no differences in habitual emotion regulation as assessed by a self-report questionnaire. Generalizability of the present results is limited by the age- and education-homogenous sample and the small sample size. This is the first study to report neural correlates of increased emotional reactivity and deficient emotion regulation in healthy individuals at risk for BD. These findings suggest inefficient emotion regulation through reappraisal and distraction in individuals with high hypomanic personality who are supposed to be at higher risk to develop bipolar disorder. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Social disadvantage and individual vulnerability: a longitudinal investigation of welfare receipt and mental health in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiely, Kim M; Butterworth, Peter

    2013-07-01

    To examine longitudinal associations between mental health and welfare receipt among working-age Australians. We analysed 9 years of data from 11,701 respondents (49% men) from the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) Survey. Mental health was assessed by the mental health subscale from the Short Form 36 questionnaire. Linear mixed models were used to examine the longitudinal associations between mental health and income support adjusting for the effects of demographic and socio-economic factors, physical health, lifestyle behaviours and financial stress. Within-person variation in welfare receipt over time was differentiated from between-person propensity to receive welfare payments. Random effect models tested the effects of income support transitions. Socio-demographic and financial variables explained the association between mental health and income support for those receiving student and parenting payments. Overall, recipients of disability, unemployment and mature age payments had poorer mental health regardless of their personal, social and financial circumstances. In addition, those receiving unemployment and disability payments had even poorer mental health at the times that they were receiving income support relative to the times when they were not. The greatest reductions in mental health were associated with transitions to disability payments and parenting payments for single parents. The poor mental health of welfare recipients may limit their opportunities to gain work and participate in community life. In part, this seems to reflect their adverse social and personal circumstances. However, there remains evidence of a direct link between welfare receipt and poor mental health that could be due to factors such as welfare stigma or other adverse life events coinciding with welfare receipt for those receiving unemployment or disability payments. Understanding these factors is critical to inform the next stage of welfare reform.

  17. Individual differences in children's emotion understanding: Effects of age and language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pons, Francisco; Lawson, J.: Harris, P.; Rosnay, M. de

    2003-01-01

    Over the last two decades, it has been established that children's emotion understanding changes as they develop. Recent studies have also begun to address individual differences in children's emotion understanding. The first goal of this study was to examine the development of these individual...... differences across a wide age range with a test assessing nine different components of emotion understanding. The second goal was to examine the relation between language ability and individual differences in emotion understanding. Eighty children ranging in age from 4 to 11 years were tested. Children...... displayed a clear improvement with age in both their emotion understanding and language ability. In each age group, there were clear individual differences in emotion understanding and language ability. Age and language ability together explained 72% of emotion understanding variance; 20% of this variance...

  18. Individual nutrition therapy and exercise regime: a controlled trial of injured, vulnerable elderly (INTERACTIVE trial).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Susie K; Humphreys, Karen J; Miller, Michelle D; Cameron, Ian D; Whitehead, Craig; Kurrle, Susan; Mackintosh, Shylie; Crotty, Maria

    2008-02-26

    Proximal femoral fractures are amongst the most devastating consequences of osteoporosis and injurious accidental falls with 25-35% of patients dying in the first year post-fracture. Effective rehabilitation strategies are evolving however, despite established associations between nutrition, mobility, strength and strength-related functional outcomes; there has been only one small study with older adults immediately following fragility fracture where a combination of both exercise and nutrition have been provided. The aim of the INTERACTIVE trial is to establish whether a six month, individualised exercise and nutrition program commencing within fourteen days of surgery for proximal femur fracture, results in clinically and statistically significant improvements in physical function, body composition and quality of life at an acceptable level of cost and resource use and without increasing the burden of caregivers. This randomised controlled trial will be performed across two sites, a 500 bed acute hospital in Adelaide, South Australia and a 250 bed acute hospital in Sydney, New South Wales. Four hundred and sixty community-dwelling older adults aged > 70 will be recruited after suffering a proximal femoral fracture and followed into the community over a 12-month period. Participants allocated to the intervention group will receive a six month individualised care plan combining resistance training and nutrition therapy commencing within 14 days post-surgery. Outcomes will be assessed by an individual masked to treatment allocation at six and 12 months. To determine differences between the groups at the primary end-point (six months), ANCOVA or logistic regression will be used with models adjusted according to potential confounders. The INTERACTIVE trial is among the first to combine nutrition and exercise therapy as an early intervention to address the serious consequence of rapid deconditioning and weight loss and subsequent ability to regain pre-morbid function

  19. Individual nutrition therapy and exercise regime: A controlled trial of injured, vulnerable elderly (INTERACTIVE trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whitehead Craig

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proximal femoral fractures are amongst the most devastating consequences of osteoporosis and injurious accidental falls with 25–35% of patients dying in the first year post-fracture. Effective rehabilitation strategies are evolving however, despite established associations between nutrition, mobility, strength and strength-related functional outcomes; there has been only one small study with older adults immediately following fragility fracture where a combination of both exercise and nutrition have been provided. The aim of the INTERACTIVE trial is to establish whether a six month, individualised exercise and nutrition program commencing within fourteen days of surgery for proximal femur fracture, results in clinically and statistically significant improvements in physical function, body composition and quality of life at an acceptable level of cost and resource use and without increasing the burden of caregivers. Methods and Design This randomised controlled trial will be performed across two sites, a 500 bed acute hospital in Adelaide, South Australia and a 250 bed acute hospital in Sydney, New South Wales. Four hundred and sixty community-dwelling older adults aged > 70 will be recruited after suffering a proximal femoral fracture and followed into the community over a 12-month period. Participants allocated to the intervention group will receive a six month individualised care plan combining resistance training and nutrition therapy commencing within 14 days post-surgery. Outcomes will be assessed by an individual masked to treatment allocation at six and 12 months. To determine differences between the groups at the primary end-point (six months, ANCOVA or logistic regression will be used with models adjusted according to potential confounders. Discussion The INTERACTIVE trial is among the first to combine nutrition and exercise therapy as an early intervention to address the serious consequence of rapid deconditioning

  20. Social defeat protocol and relevant biomarkers, implications for stress response physiology, drug abuse, mood disorders and individual stress vulnerability: a systematic review of the last decade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mailton Vasconcelos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Social defeat (SD in rats, which results from male intraspecific confrontations, is ethologically relevant and useful to understand stress effects on physiology and behavior.Methods: A systematic review of studies about biomarkers induced by the SD protocol and published from 2002 to 2013 was carried out in the electronic databases PubMed, Web of Knowledge and ScienceDirect. The search terms were: social defeat, rat, neurotrophins, neuroinflammatory markers, and transcriptional factors.Results: Classical and recently discovered biomarkers were found to be relevant in stress-induced states. Findings were summarized in accordance to the length of exposure to stress: single, repeated, intermittent and continuous SD. This review found that the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF is a distinct marker of stress adaptation. Along with glucocorticoids and catecholamines, BDNF seems to be important in understanding stress physiology.Conclusion: The SD model provides a relevant tool to study stress response features, development of addictive behaviors, clinic depression and anxiety, as well as individual differences in vulnerability and resilience to stress.

  1. Integrating Social Science, Environmental Science, and Engineering to Understand Vulnerability and Resilience to Environmental Hazards in the Bengal Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilligan, J. M.; Ackerly, B.; Goodbred, S. L.

    2013-12-01

    the delta. Assessing the impacts of climate change and other environmental stresses on delta populations and designing effective responses will require understanding interactions between the physical and human environments at multiple scales. As part of a multidisciplinary research project drawing on sedimentology, hydrology, remote-sensing, engineering, political science, sociology, psychology, and anthropology we are studying the interactions of human and natural systems in coastal Bangladesh to understand conditions that contribute to vulnerability and resilience at both the household and the community level. Building on Elinor Ostrom's socioecological systems approach, we have developed a theoretical framework for studying vulnerability and resilience when coupled human-natural systems are subject to significant changes and exogenous forcings. We will report on this framework using examples of successful and unsuccessful interventions to manage or mitigate exposure to environmental hazards, and we will also report on progress toward using our framework to identify and understand factors that contribute to the success or failure of such projects.

  2. Human vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Siqueira, José Eduardo; Segre, Marco

    2008-01-01

    We consider essential when addressing human vulnerability, to perceive it under two diverse prisms, therefore, complementary: the individual and the collective. The first part will present the human being as the protagonist isolated from this circumstance and it will be performed in the first person, in a nearly colloquial manner. One's vulnerability, while a part of a social network, will be addressed in the second part of the text. It will not be difficult to realize how the individual on the condition of autonomous being or integrated element in a wide social network dies of the same illness, which seems to be a strong characteristic of post-modernity.

  3. Encountering a bait is necessary but insufficient to explain individual variability in vulnerability to angling in two freshwater benthivorous fish in the wild

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, Christopher Thomas; Arlinghaus, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Fish personality traits, such as swimming activity, or personality related emergent behavioural properties, such as the degree of space use shown by an individual fish, should affect encounter rates between individual fish and fishing gear. Increased encounters should in turn drive vulnerability to capture by passively operated gears. However, empirical evidence documenting a relationship between activity-based behaviours and vulnerability to capture by passive fishing gear in the wild is limited. Using whole-lake acoustic telemetry, we first documented significant repeatabilities over several months in a suite of encounter rate-associated behaviours (swimming distance, activity space size, time on baited feeding sites, switching frequency among baited feeding sites, distance to the lake bottom) in two recreationally important benthivorous cyprinid species, the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and tench (Tinca tinca). We then experimentally targeted both species using stationary angling on baited feeding sites. Individual fish regularly visited the angling sites, documenting that the fishes encountered the angling baits. When attempting to explain individual variation in vulnerability as a function of repeatable behavioural traits, we found no evidence of a significant relationship among various encounter-based behaviours and vulnerability to angling for both species. There was also no evidence for size selection or for energetically less conditioned fish to be more vulnerable. The data cumulatively suggest that fine-scale behaviours after encountering a bait (e.g., frequency of bait intake) may be ultimately decisive for determining vulnerability to angling in benthivorous fish. Based on our work, fishing-induced selection on encounter-based behaviours in recreational angling for benthivorous fish in the wild appears unlikely. PMID:28301558

  4. Towards a mechanistic understanding of vulnerability to hook-and-line fishing: Boldness as the basic target of angling-induced selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klefoth, Thomas; Skov, Christian; Kuparinen, Anna

    2017-01-01

    In passively operated fishing gear, boldness-related behaviors should fundamentally affect the vulnerability of individual fish and thus be under fisheries selection. To test this hypothesis, we used juvenile common-garden reared carp (Cyprinus carpio) within a narrow size range to investigate th...

  5. The effect of incarceration on housing stability among homeless and vulnerably housed individuals in three Canadian cities: A prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, Matthew J; Palepu, Anita; Matheson, Flora I; Ecker, John; Farrell, Susan; Hwang, Stephen W; Werb, Dan

    2017-03-01

    The objective of the study is to characterize the associations between a history of incarceration and subsequent housing stability over a two-year follow-up period among a sample of homeless and vulnerably housed individuals. The study was a prospective cohort study of homeless and vulnerably housed adults in three Canadian cities. Between 2009 and 2012, data were collected using structured, in-person interviews at baseline and two follow-up interviews. Generalized estimating equations were employed to determine the association between reported incarceration within the past 12 months and being housed during the subsequent year over a two-year follow-up period. Baseline data were available for 1,189 homeless and vulnerably housed adults. Recent incarceration was reported by 337 (29%) individuals at baseline. In adjusted analyses, incarceration in the past 12 months was independently associated with a decreased likelihood of being housed during the subsequent year over the two-year follow-up period (adjusted odds ratio = 0.67, 95% confidence interval: 0.50-0.90). Homeless and vulnerably housed individuals reporting recent incarceration were less likely to be housed over a two-year follow-up period. These findings highlight the importance of assisting individuals experiencing incarceration with securing stable housing during discharge and post-release planning.

  6. Individual shareholders’ understanding of the content of interim reports of South African listed retail companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan GI Oberholster

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A number of studies conducted, and reports published, by international and local accounting bodies have found that the proliferation of disclosures in financial reports has hampered users’ understanding of these reports. The reports by accounting bodies also indicate that these users prefer more concise financial reports. These findings, in conjunction with a dearth of recent questionnaire-based research on whether individual shareholders understand the content of financial reports, resulted in this study on whether individual shareholders understand the content of interim reports. The study provides empirical proof that a sound knowledge of business, accounting and economic matters is a prerequisite for understanding interim reports in the case of individual shareholders. The results of the study indicate that individual shareholders have a limited understanding of the content of interim reports as a whole, and that a good knowledge of business and economic matters and of accounting results in an improved understanding of the content of interim reports. In particular, specialisation in accounting in undergraduate and postgraduate degrees, professional qualifications, and work experience in the financial field improve the understanding of individual shareholders.

  7. Loss of Sustained Activity in the Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex in Response to Repeated Stress in Individuals with Early-Life Emotional Abuse: Implications for Depression Vulnerability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihong eWang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Repeated psychosocial stress in early life has significant impact on both behavior and neural function which, together, increase vulnerability to depression. However, neural mechanisms related to repeated stress remain unclear. We hypothesize that early-life stress may result in a reduced capacity for cognitive control in response to a repeated stressor, particularly in individuals who developed maladaptive emotional processing strategies, namely trait rumination. Individuals who encountered early-life stress but have adaptive emotional processing, namely trait mindfulness, may demonstrate an opposite pattern. Using a mental arithmetic task to induce mild stress and a mindful breathing task to induce a mindful state, we tested this hypothesis by examining blood perfusion changes over time in healthy young men. We found that subjects with early-life stress, particularly emotional abuse, failed to sustain neural activation in the orbitofrontal and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC over time. Given that the vmPFC is known to regulate amygdala activity during emotional processing, we subsequently compared the perfusion in the vmPFC and the amygdala in depression-vulnerable (having early life stress and high in rumination and resilient (having early life stress and high in mindfulness subjects. We found that depression-vulnerable subjects had increased amygdala perfusion and reduced vmPFC perfusion during the later runs than that during the earlier stressful task runs. In contrast, depression resilient individuals showed the reverse pattern. Our results indicate that the vmPFC of depression-vulnerable subjects may have a limited capacity to inhibit amygdala activation to repeated stress over time, whereas the vmPFC in resilient individuals may adapt to stress quickly. This pilot study warrants future investigation to clarify the stress-related neural activity pattern dynamically to identify depression vulnerability at an individual level.

  8. Social risk, stigma and space: key concepts for understanding HIV vulnerability among black men who have sex with men in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Caroline M; Garcia, Jonathan; Philbin, Morgan M; Wilson, Patrick A; Parker, Richard G; Hirsch, Jennifer S

    2017-03-01

    Black men who have sex with men in the USA face disproportionate incidence rates of HIV. This paper presents findings from an ethnographic study conducted in New York City that explored the structural and socio-cultural factors shaping men's sexual relationships with the goal of furthering understandings of their HIV-related vulnerability. Methods included participant observation and in-depth interviews with 31 Black men who have sex with men (three times each) and 17 key informants. We found that HIV vulnerability is perceived as produced through structural inequalities including economic insecurity, housing instability, and stigma and discrimination. The theoretical concepts of social risk, intersectional stigma, and the social production of space are offered as lenses through which to analyse how structural inequalities shape HIV vulnerability. We found that social risk shaped HIV vulnerability by influencing men's decisions in four domains: 1) where to find sexual partners, 2) where to engage in sexual relationships, 3) what kinds of relationships to seek, and 4) whether to carry and to use condoms. Advancing conceptualisations of social risk, we show that intersectional stigma and the social production of space are key processes through which social risk generates HIV vulnerability among Black men who have sex with men.

  9. A pragmatic analysis of vulnerability in clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendler, David

    2017-09-01

    Identifying which subjects are vulnerable, and implementing safeguards to protect them, is widely regarded as essential to clinical research. Commentators have endorsed a number of responses to these challenges and have thereby made significant progress in understanding vulnerability in clinical research. At the same time, this literature points to a central contradiction which calls into question its potential to protect vulnerable subjects in practice. Specifically, analysis suggests that all human subjects are vulnerable and vulnerability in clinical research is comparative and context dependent, in the sense that individuals are vulnerable relative to others and in some contexts only. Yet, if everyone is vulnerable, there seems to be no point in citing the vulnerability of some individuals. Moreover, the conclusion that everyone is vulnerable seems inconsistent with the claims that vulnerability is comparative and context dependent, raising concern over whether it will be possible to develop a comprehensive account of vulnerability that is internally consistent. The solution to this dilemma lies in recognition of the fact that the practical significance of claims regarding vulnerability depends on the context in which they are used. The claims that appear to lead to the central contradiction are in fact accurate conclusions that follow from different uses of the term 'vulnerability'. The present manuscript describes this 'pragmatic' approach to vulnerability in clinical research and considers its implications for ensuring that subjects receive appropriate protection. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  10. Understanding predation risk and individual variation in risk avoidance for threatened boreal caribou.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumma, Matthew A; Gillingham, Michael P; Johnson, Chris J; Parker, Katherine L

    2017-12-01

    Predation risk is a driver of species' distributions. Animals can increase risk avoidance in response to fluctuations in predation risk, but questions remain regarding individual variability and the capacity to respond to changes in spatial risk across human-altered landscapes. In northeast British Columbia, Canada, boreal caribou populations declined as roads and seismic lines have increased, which are theorized to increase gray wolf predation. Our goal was to model risk and to evaluate individual variability and the development of risk perception by examining individual risk avoidance in response to reproductive status and age. We used locations from collared caribou and wolves to identify landscape features associated with the risk of a potential wolf-caribou encounter and risk of being killed given an encounter. We built resource selection functions to estimate individual responses to risk. We used general linear regressions to evaluate individual risk and linear feature avoidance as a function of age and reproductive status (calf or no calf). Linear features increased the risk of encounter. Older caribou and caribou with calves demonstrated stronger avoidance of the risk of encounter and roads, but weaker avoidance in late summer to the risk of being killed relative to younger and calf-less individuals. Mechanisms explaining the inverse relationships between the risk of encounter and risk of being killed are uncertain, but it is conceivable that caribou learn to avoid the risk of encounter and roads. Responses by females with vulnerable calves to the risk of encounter and risk of being killed might be explained by a trade-off between these two risk types and a prioritization on the risk of encounter. Despite the capacity to alter their responses to risk, the global decline in Rangifer populations (caribou and wild reindeer) suggests these behaviors are insufficient to mitigate the impacts of anthropogenic disturbances.

  11. Career Development Practitioners as Advocates for Transgender Individuals: Understanding Gender Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangganjanavanich, Varunee Faii

    2009-01-01

    Assisting transgender individuals is a concern for career development practitioners because there is a lack of knowledge on this topic. The complexity of gender reassignment surgery brings challenges and unique needs to this population, throughout gender transition, and requires career development practitioners to understand these challenges and…

  12. The Development of Children's Moral Sensibility: Individual Differences and Emotion Understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Judy; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Developmental changes and individual differences in children's conceptions of transgression were studied in 46 children from preschool through 1st grade. Differences in response to moral transgressions in kindergarten were related to mothers' control management and to siblings' friendly behavior in the preschool period, early understanding of…

  13. Individual Differences in Toddlers’ Social Understanding & Prosocial Behavior: Disposition or Socialization?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebekkah Lauren Gross

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We examined how individual differences in social understanding contribute to variability in early-appearing prosocial behavior. Moreover, potential sources of variability in social understanding were explored and examined as additional possible predictors of prosocial behavior. Using a multi-method approach with both observed and parent-report measures, 325 children aged 18 to 30 months were administered measures of social understanding (e.g. use of emotion words; self-understanding, prosocial behavior (in separate tasks measuring instrumental helping, empathic helping, and sharing, as well as parent-reported prosociality at home, temperament (fearfulness, shyness, and social fear, and parental socialization of prosocial behavior in the family. Individual differences in social understanding predicted variability in empathic helping and parent-reported prosociality, but not instrumental helping or sharing. Parental socialization of prosocial behavior was positively associated with toddlers’ social understanding, prosocial behavior at home, and instrumental helping in the lab, and negatively associated with sharing (possibly reflecting parents’ increased efforts to encourage children who were less likely to share. Further, socialization moderated the association between social understanding and prosocial behavior, such that social understanding was less predictive of prosocial behavior among children whose parents took a more active role in socializing their prosociality. None of the dimensions of temperament was associated with either social understanding or prosocial behavior. Parental socialization of prosocial behavior is thus an important source of variability in children’s early prosociality, acting in concert with early differences in social understanding, with different patterns of influence for different subtypes of prosocial behavior.

  14. Vulnerable Genders, Vulnerable Loves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schleicher, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    on gathering knowledge and its often unpremeditated effect of recognition and inclusion, and Judith Butler on cultural intelligibility and subversion from within. With these theories as a departing point for the analysis, the chapter links the vulnerability of complex identities with the vulnerability...... in the 20th and 21st century, including Judith Butler, who consider human vulnerability an ideal platform for co-existence. Given Butler’s own point that subversion has to come from within, a culture cannot acknowledge the vulnerability of others, if these others constitute a threat. Instead, and based...... on insights from the history of religion, I see hope for tolerance and respect of variant genders and loves on the verge of cultural intelligibility lying in the fact that cultural violence is reduced to a far larger extent by investing in the gathering of knowledge about complex identities inside and outside...

  15. Toward Understanding Dynamics in Shifting Biomes: An Individual Based Modeling Approach to Characterizing Drought and Mortality in Central Western Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, A. H.; Foster, A.; Rogers, B. M.; Hogg, T.; Michaelian, M.; Shuman, J. K.; Shugart, H. H., Jr.; Goetz, S. J.

    2017-12-01

    The Arctic-Boreal zone is known be warming at an accelerated rate relative to other biomes. Persistent warming has already affected the high northern latitudes, altering vegetation productivity, carbon sequestration, and many other ecosystem processes and services. The central-western Canadian boreal forests and aspen parkland are experiencing a decade long drought, and rainfall has been identified as a key factor controlling the location of the boundary between forest and prairie in this region. Shifting biome with related greening and browning trends are readily measureable with remote sensing, but the dynamics that create and result from them are not well understood. In this study, we use the University of Virginia Forest Model Enhanced (UVAFME), an individual-based forest model, to simulate the changes that are occurring across the southern boreal and parkland forests of west-central Canada. We present a parameterization of UVAFME for western central Canadian forests, validated with CIPHA data (Climate Change Impacts on the Productivity and Health of Aspen), and improved mortality. In order to gain a fine-scale understanding of how climate change and specifically drought will continue to affect the forests of this region, we simulated forest conditions following CMIP5 climate scenarios. UVAFME predictions were compared with statistical models and satellite observations of productivity across the landscape. Changes in forest cover, forest type, aboveground biomass, and mortality and recruitment dynamics are presented, highlighting the high vulnerability of this region to vegetation transitions associated with future droughts.

  16. Sources of Individual Differences in Children’s Understanding of Fractions

    OpenAIRE

    Vukovic, Rose K.; Fuchs, Lynn S.; Geary, David C.; Jordan, Nancy C.; Gersten, Russell; Siegler, Robert S.

    2014-01-01

    Longitudinal associations of domain-general and numerical competencies with individual differences in children’s understanding of fractions were investigated. Children (n = 163) were assessed at 6 years of age on domain-general (nonverbal reasoning, language, attentive behavior, executive control, visual-spatial memory) and numerical (number knowledge) competencies; at 7 years on whole-number arithmetic computations and number line estimation; and at 10 years on fraction concepts. Mediation a...

  17. Understanding physical activity in individuals with prediabetes: an application of social cognitive theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Lorian M; Raine, Kim D; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Vallance, Jeff K; Sharma, Arya M; Spence, John C

    2016-01-01

    Despite well-documented evidence implicating physical activity (PA) in the prevention of type 2 diabetes, the overwhelming majority of individuals with prediabetes are not physically active enough. The purpose of this study was to investigate the applicability of the social cognitive theory (SCT) in understanding PA behaviour in individuals with prediabetes. Individuals with prediabetes (N = 232) completed a mailed questionnaire assessing demographics, self-reported PA (MET.min/wk) and SCT constructs for PA MET.min/wk. For PA MET.min/wk, scheduling and task efficacy both had significant effects on PA (β = .30 and .22, respectively). Goal formation also had a direct effect on PA for scheduling, coping and task efficacy (β = .20, .34 and .30, respectively). Task, coping and scheduling efficacy explained a significant portion of the variance in PA behaviour. Overall, SCT appears to have merit as a model for understanding PA in individuals with prediabetes. Further evaluative inquiry is needed to establish support for the use of the SCT as a framework for developing, implementing and evaluating PA behaviour change interventions in this population.

  18. A neurogenetics approach to understanding individual differences in brain, behavior, and risk for psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdan, R; Hyde, L W; Hariri, A R

    2013-03-01

    Neurogenetics research has begun to advance our understanding of how genetic variation gives rise to individual differences in brain function, which, in turn, shapes behavior and risk for psychopathology. Despite these advancements, neurogenetics research is currently confronted by three major challenges: (1) conducting research on individual variables with small effects, (2) absence of detailed mechanisms, and (3) a need to translate findings toward greater clinical relevance. In this review, we showcase techniques and developments that address these challenges and highlight the benefits of a neurogenetics approach to understanding brain, behavior and psychopathology. To address the challenge of small effects, we explore approaches including incorporating the environment, modeling epistatic relationships and using multilocus profiles. To address the challenge of mechanism, we explore how non-human animal research, epigenetics research and genome-wide association studies can inform our mechanistic understanding of behaviorally relevant brain function. Finally, to address the challenge of clinical relevance, we examine how neurogenetics research can identify novel therapeutic targets and for whom treatments work best. By addressing these challenges, neurogenetics research is poised to exponentially increase our understanding of how genetic variation interacts with the environment to shape the brain, behavior and risk for psychopathology.

  19. Consumption, Vulnerability And Shocks In Rural Ethiopia, 1999-2004

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Improving our understanding of risk and vulnerability is an issue of increasing importance for Ethiopia as it is for much of Africa. A small, but growing, body of evidence, points to the role that risk, shocks and vulnerability in perpetuating poverty. Specifically, uninsured shocks – adverse events that are costly to individuals and ...

  20. Support for research towards understanding the population health vulnerabilities to vector-borne diseases: increasing resilience under climate change conditions in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Bernadette

    2017-12-12

    Diseases transmitted to humans by vectors account for 17% of all infectious diseases and remain significant public health problems. Through the years, great strides have been taken towards combatting vector-borne diseases (VBDs), most notably through large scale and coordinated control programmes, which have contributed to the decline of the global mortality attributed to VBDs. However, with environmental changes, including climate change, the impact on VBDs is anticipated to be significant, in terms of VBD-related hazards, vulnerabilities and exposure. While there is growing awareness on the vulnerability of the African continent to VBDs in the context of climate change, there is still a paucity of research being undertaken in this area, and impeding the formulation of evidence-based health policy change. One way in which the gap in knowledge and evidence can be filled is for donor institutions to support research in this area. The collaboration between the WHO Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR) and the International Centre for Research and Development (IDRC) builds on more than 10 years of partnership in research capacity-building in the field of tropical diseases. From this partnership was born yet another research initiative on VBDs and the impact of climate change in the Sahel and sub-Saharan Africa. This paper lists the projects supported under this research initiative and provides a brief on some of the policy and good practice recommendations emerging from the ongoing implementation of the research projects. Data generated from the research initiative are expected to be uptaken by stakeholders (including communities, policy makers, public health practitioners and other relevant partners) to contribute to a better understanding of the impacts of social, environmental and climate change on VBDs(i.e. the nature of the hazard, vulnerabilities, exposure), and improve the ability of African countries to adapt to and reduce the

  1. Understanding how individuals perceive carbon dioxide. Implications for acceptance of carbon dioxide capture and storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itaoka, K.; Saito, A. [Mizuho Information and Research Institute, Tokyo (Japan); Paukovic, M.; De Best-Waldhober, M. [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands); Dowd, A.M.; Jeanneret, T.; Ashworth, P.; James, M. [The Global CCS Institute, Canberra (Australia)

    2012-06-15

    Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) presents one potential technological solution for mitigating the atmospheric emission of carbon dioxide sources. However, CCS is a relatively new technology with associated uncertainties and perceived risks. For this reason, a growing body of research now focuses on public perceptions and potential for societal acceptance of CCS technology. Almost all explanations of CCS technology make reference to carbon dioxide, with an assumption that the general public understands CO2. It has become apparent that the general public’s knowledge and understanding of CO2’s properties influences how they engage with CO2 emitting industries and CCS technologies. However, surprisingly little research has investigated public perceptions, knowledge, and understanding of CO2. This investigation attempts to fill that gap. This report describes an investigation of how citizens of three countries (Japan, Australia, and the Netherlands) perceive CO2. Furthermore, it attempts to relate individual perceptions of CO2 to perceptions of CCS, and to determine how information provision about the underlying properties and characteristics of CO2 influences individual attitudes towards low carbon energy options, particularly CCS. In brief, the research had four ultimate aims. It aimed to: Explore the public’s knowledge and understanding of the properties of CO2; Examine the influence of that knowledge on their perceptions of CO2 and CCS; Investigate how information provision about the underlying properties and characteristics of CO2 influences individual attitudes towards CCS; and Identify if any differences between countries exist in relation to values and beliefs, knowledge of CO2’s properties, and CCS perceptions.

  2. Understanding the Self in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD: A Review of Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann X. Huang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available When the system of self is explored in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs, it is important to measure it via both their own perceptions of the self and their understanding of others’ perceptions on themselves at a multidimensional level. This paper reviews existing research in this area using a three-dimension approach. Researchers have found that impairments in the self-system are usually correlated with these individuals’ social and cognitive functioning levels: high functioning individuals with ASD who have higher IQ are found to have better awareness of their limitations in social and communication domains than those with lower IQ. Many researchers believe that there are impairments in the psychological (but not physical self in individuals with ASD, such as theory of mind deficits due to social and communicative impairments. On the other hand, some researchers argue that individuals with ASD have selective rather than global impairments in the self. In other words, the impairment usually lies in a specific aspect of functioning in individuals with ASD. Insights from the review of existing literature on this topic may be able to shed some lights on the development of effective intervention programs to improve social communication deficits in this population.

  3. Vulnerable Plaque

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Center > Vulnerable Plaque Menu Topics Topics FAQs Vulnerable Plaque Article Info En español Swelling (inflammation) is your ... aging, including coronary artery disease . What is vulnerable plaque? For many years, doctors have thought that the ...

  4. Behaviour as a Lever of Ecological Transition? Understanding and Acting on Individual Behaviour and Collective Dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Solange; Gaspard, Albane

    2017-01-01

    Beyond broad policy declarations, the implementation of ecological transition - which consists mainly in curbing consumption of energy and raw materials in our societies - requires substantial behavioural change at the collective, but also, quite obviously, the individual level. Yet, though there is general consensus around the principle of embarking on the path to transition, things get more complicated when it comes to changing our practices and habits. Can we act on individual behaviour and collective dynamics in respect of this particular aim of ecological transition, and, if so, how are we to go about it? Solange Martin and Albane Gaspard have examined this question for the French Environment and Energy Management Agency (ADEME) and offer us the fruit of their labours here. They show, for example, how the social and human sciences help to understand behaviour both at the individual level and in its collective dimensions, and they outline different possible lines of action to modify it. But, given the entanglement between various levels, it is essential, if we are to act effectively on behaviour, to combine approaches, tools and actors, and to analyse and understand social practices thoroughly before implementing political projects or measures

  5. The importance of understanding individual differences in Down syndrome [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette Karmiloff-Smith

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we first present a summary of the general assumptions about Down syndrome (DS still to be found in the literature. We go on to show how new research has modified these assumptions, pointing to a wide range of individual differences at every level of description. We argue that, in the context of significant increases in DS life expectancy, a focus on individual differences in trisomy 21 at all levels—genetic, cellular, neural, cognitive, behavioral, and environmental—constitutes one of the best approaches for understanding genotype/phenotype relations in DS and for exploring risk and protective factors for Alzheimer’s disease in this high-risk population.

  6. Auditory and Cognitive Factors Underlying Individual Differences in Aided Speech-Understanding among Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry E. Humes

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to address individual differences in aided speech understanding among a relatively large group of older adults. The group of older adults consisted of 98 adults (50 female and 48 male ranging in age from 60 to 86 (mean = 69.2. Hearing loss was typical for this age group and about 90% had not worn hearing aids. All subjects completed a battery of tests, including cognitive (6 measures, psychophysical (17 measures, and speech-understanding (9 measures, as well as the Speech, Spatial and Qualities of Hearing (SSQ self-report scale. Most of the speech-understanding measures made use of competing speech and the non-speech psychophysical measures were designed to tap phenomena thought to be relevant for the perception of speech in competing speech (e.g., stream segregation, modulation-detection interference. All measures of speech understanding were administered with spectral shaping applied to the speech stimuli to fully restore audibility through at least 4000 Hz. The measures used were demonstrated to be reliable in older adults and, when compared to a reference group of 28 young normal-hearing adults, age-group differences were observed on many of the measures. Principal-components factor analysis was applied successfully to reduce the number of independent and dependent (speech understanding measures for a multiple-regression analysis. Doing so yielded one global cognitive-processing factor and five non-speech psychoacoustic factors (hearing loss, dichotic signal detection, multi-burst masking, stream segregation, and modulation detection as potential predictors. To this set of six potential predictor variables were added subject age, Environmental Sound Identification (ESI, and performance on the text-recognition-threshold (TRT task (a visual analog of interrupted speech recognition. These variables were used to successfully predict one global aided speech-understanding factor, accounting for about 60% of the variance.

  7. Change in higher education: understanding and responding to individual and organizational resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, India F

    2007-01-01

    In many fields, the ability of educators and practitioners to cope with rapid change is essential to sustained success. In veterinary medical education, as in other scientific disciplines, meaningful change is challenging to achieve and subject to resistance from many individual and organizational norms. Individual concerns often relate to fears of instability or uncertainty, loss of current status, or effects on individual time and workload. Sources of organizational resistance may include a conservative culture, fierce protection of current practices, and prevalence of disciplinary or territorial viewpoints. In academia, especially in scientific or medical fields, individuals appear to be strongly independent and conservative in nature, and generally skeptical of educational change. In this environment, a highly participatory process, with regular communication strategies and demonstrations or evidence that supports proposed changes, can be useful in facilitating change. An understanding of the nature of complex change, as well as of the reasons underlying resistance to change, and some methods to overcome these barriers are highly valuable tools for educational leaders.

  8. Toward understanding body image importance: individual differences in a Canadian sample of undergraduate students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegling, Alexander B; Delaney, Mary E

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between body image importance (BII) and perfectionism and body satisfaction in a Canadian sample of undergraduate students. Specifically, perfectionism was conceptualized as a common cause of BII and body satisfaction. Furthermore, gender-schematic processing was examined as a moderator of sex differences in BII, which have been inconsistently found. As hypothesized, there was no significant partial correlation between BII and body satisfaction, controlling for perfectionism. Also, a significant Sex × Gender Schematicity interaction indicated that gender schematicity moderates sex differences in BII. Implications for understanding individual differences in, and elevated levels of BII are discussed.

  9. Obsessional and Eating Disorder-related Intrusive Thoughts: Differences and Similarities Within and Between Individuals Vulnerable to OCD or to EDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belloch, Amparo; Roncero, María; Perpiñá, Conxa

    2016-11-01

    Unwanted intrusive cognitions constitute the normal variant of clinically significant intrusive cognitions found in disorders such as obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and eating disorders (EDs). This study investigates whether individuals who are vulnerable to OCD or EDs experience more intrusions than people with no vulnerability to these disorders, and it examines the consequences of obsessional (OITs) and eating disorder (EDITs) intrusions in the same individuals, taking into account their susceptibility to OCD, EDs or neither of the two. From a sample of 922 participants, three groups were formed: risk of OCD (n = 92), risk of EDs (n = 41) and a no-risk group (n = 100). EDITs were more frequent than OITs in the two risk groups. Within-group comparisons showed that in the OCD-risk group, the OIT had more negative consequences (interference, emotional distress, dysfunctional appraisals and neutralizing strategies) than the EDIT, whereas in the ED-risk group, the OIT and the EDIT instigated similar negative consequences. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  10. The VULCAN Project: Toward a better understanding of the vulnerability of soil organic matter to climate change in permafrost ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaza, C.; Schuur, E.; Maestre, F. T.

    2015-12-01

    Despite much recent research, high uncertainty persists concerning the extent to which global warming influences the rate of permafrost soil organic matter loss and how this affects the functioning of permafrost ecosystems and the net transfer of C to the atmosphere. This uncertainty continues, at least in part, because the processes that protect soil organic matter from decomposition and stabilize fresh plant-derived organic materials entering the soil are largely unknown. The objective of the VULCAN (VULnerability of soil organic CArboN to climate change in permafrost and dryland ecosystems) project is to gain a deeper insight into these processes, especially at the molecular level, and to explore potential implications in terms of permafrost ecosystem functioning and feedback to climate change. We will capitalize on a globally unique ecosystem warming experiment in Alaska, the C in Permafrost Experimental Heating Research (CiPEHR) project, which is monitoring soil temperature and moisture, thaw depth, water table depth, plant productivity, phenology, and nutrient status, and soil CO2 and CH4 fluxes. Soil samples have been collected from the CiPEHR experiment from strategic depths, depending on thaw depth, and allow us to examine effects related to freeze/thaw, waterlogging, and organic matter relocation along the soil profile. We will use physical fractionation methods to separate soil organic matter pools characterized by different preservation mechanisms of aggregation and mineral interaction. We will determine organic C and total N content, transformation rates, turnovers, ages, and structural composition of soil organic matter fractions by elemental analysis, stable and radioactive isotope techniques, and nuclear magnetic resonance tools. Acknowledgements: This project has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under the Marie Skłodowska-Curie grant agreement No. 654132. Web site: http://vulcan.comule.com

  11. Loss of control over alcohol seeking in rats depends on individual vulnerability and duration of alcohol consumption experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoelder, M.; Pol, S. van der; Janssen, B.S.G.; Baars, A.M.; Vanderschuren, L.J.M.J.; Lesscher, H.M.

    2017-01-01

    Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is characterized by excessive alcohol use and persistent alcohol seeking despite knowledge of its negative consequences. Importantly, AUD typically develops after chronic excessive alcohol use in a subgroup of individuals who drink alcohol, suggesting that AUD results from

  12. Loss of control over alcohol seeking in rats depends on individual vulnerability and duration of alcohol consumption experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoelder, Marcia; Pol, Sylvana; Janssen, Boris S G; Baars, Annemarie M; Vanderschuren, Louk J M J; Lesscher, Heidi M B

    Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is characterized by excessive alcohol use and persistent alcohol seeking despite knowledge of its negative consequences. Importantly, AUD typically develops after chronic excessive alcohol use in a subgroup of individuals who drink alcohol, suggesting that AUD results from

  13. Toward a mechanistic understanding of vulnerability to hook-and-line fishing: Boldness as the basic target of angling-induced selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klefoth, Thomas; Skov, Christian; Kuparinen, Anna; Arlinghaus, Robert

    2017-12-01

    In passively operated fishing gear, boldness-related behaviors should fundamentally affect the vulnerability of individual fish and thus be under fisheries selection. To test this hypothesis, we used juvenile common-garden reared carp ( Cyprinus carpio ) within a narrow size range to investigate the mechanistic basis of behavioral selection caused by angling. We focused on one key personality trait (i.e., boldness), measured in groups within ponds, two morphological traits (body shape and head shape), and one life-history trait (juvenile growth capacity) and studied mean standardized selection gradients caused by angling. Carp behavior was highly repeatable within ponds. In the short term, over seven days of fishing, total length, not boldness, was the main predictor of angling vulnerability. However, after 20 days of fishing, boldness turned out to be the main trait under selection, followed by juvenile growth rate, while morphological traits were only weakly related to angling vulnerability. In addition, we found juvenile growth rate to be moderately correlated with boldness. Hence, direct selection on boldness will also induce indirect selection on juvenile growth and vice versa, but given that the two traits are not perfectly correlated, independent evolution of both traits is also possible. Our study is among the first to mechanistically reveal that energy-acquisition-related behaviors, and not growth rate per se, are key factors determining the probability of capture, and hence, behavioral traits appear to be the prime targets of angling selection. We predict an evolutionary response toward increased shyness in intensively angling-exploited fish stocks, possibly causing the emergence of a timidity syndrome.

  14. Individual differences in gene expression of vasopressin, D2 receptor, POMC and orexin: vulnerability to relapse to heroin-seeking in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yan; Leri, Francesco; Cummins, Erin; Kreek, Mary Jeanne

    2015-02-01

    Individual vulnerability to stress-induced relapse during abstinence from chronic heroin exposure is a key feature of opiate addiction, with limited studies on this topic. Arginine vasopressin (AVP) and its V1b receptor, components of the brain stress responsive systems, play a role in heroin-seeking behavior triggered by foot shock (FS) stress in rats. In this study, we tested whether individual differences in the FS-induced heroin-seeking were associated with alterations of AVP and V1b, as well as other stress responsive systems, including pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), orexin, plasma ACTH and corticosterone, as well as dopamine D2 receptor (D2) and plasma prolactin. Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 3-hour intravenous heroin self-administration (SA) and then tested in extinction, and FS-induced and heroin priming-induced reinstatements. The rats that self-administered heroin were divided into high and low reinstatement responders induced by FS (H-RI; L-RI). Over SA sessions, both the H-RI and L-RI displayed similar active lever responding, heroin infusion and total heroin intake. Compared to the L-RI, however, the H-RI showed greater active lever responses during stress-induced reinstatement, with higher AVP mRNA levels in medial/basolateral amygdala and lower D2 mRNA levels in caudate putamen. However, heroin priming resulted in similar reinstatement in both groups and produced similarly low POMC and high orexin mRNA levels in hypothalamus. Our results indicate that: 1) enhanced amygdalar AVP and reduced striatal D2 expression may be related to individual vulnerability to stress-induced reinstatement of heroin- seeking; and 2) heroin abstinence-associated alterations of hypothalamic orexin and POMC expression may be involved in drug priming-induced heroin-seeking. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. An intersectional approach for understanding the vulnerabilities of English-speaking heterosexual Caribbean youth to HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted infections: Prevention and intervention strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Elizabeth Sutherland

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Caribbean youth comprise about 30 percent of the English-speaking Caribbean population, and about 81,000 Caribbean and Latin American youth are HIV infected. AIDS is the leading cause of death for 15- to 24-year-old English-speaking Caribbean youth. This article relies on intersectionality theory in the assessment of the macro-level, or structural variables, and micro-level, or individual level, variables that influence the risk-taking sexual behaviors of heterosexual English-speaking Caribbean youth and increase their vulnerability to HIV/sexually transmitted infections. This article offers macro- and micro-level prevention/intervention strategies for reducing the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections in English-speaking Caribbean youth, including the promotion of condom use, voluntary male circumcision, and HIV testing and counseling. Suggestions are offered for future research investigations to explore the contributing factors to youth’s vulnerability to sexually transmitted infections and to empirically verify the relationship between and among variables that account for desired outcomes, including decreases in risky sexual behaviors.

  16. Individual Differences in Animal Stress Models: Considering Resilience, Vulnerability, and the Amygdala in Mediating the Effects of Stress and Conditioned Fear on Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellman, Laurie L; Fitzpatrick, Mairen E; Hallum, Olga Y; Sutton, Amy M; Williams, Brook L; Sanford, Larry D

    2016-06-01

    To examine the REM sleep response to stress and fearful memories as a potential marker of stress resilience and vulnerability and to assess the role of the basolateral amygdala (BLA) in mediating the effects of fear memory on sleep. Outbred Wistar rats were surgically implanted with electrodes for recording EEG and EMG and with bilateral guide cannulae directed at the BLA. Data loggers were placed intraperitoneally to record core body temperature. After recovery from surgery, the rats received shock training (ST: 20 footshocks, 0.8 mA, 0.5-s duration, 60-s interstimulus interval) and afterwards received microinjections of the GABAA agonist muscimol (MUS; 1.0 μM) to inactivate BLA or microinjections of vehicle (VEH) alone. Subsequently, the rats were separated into 4 groups (VEH-vulnerable (VEH-Vul; n = 14), VEH-resilient (VEH-Res; n = 13), MUS-vulnerable (MUS-Vul; n = 8), and MUS-resilient (MUS-Res; n = 11) based on whether or not REM was decreased, compared to baseline, during the first 4 h following ST. We then compared sleep, freezing, and the stress response (stress-induced hyperthermia, SIH) across groups to determine the effects of ST and fearful context re-exposure alone (CTX). REM was significantly reduced on the ST day in both VEH-Vul and MUS-Vul rats; however, post-ST MUS blocked the reduction in REM on the CTX day in the MUS-Vul group. The VEH-Res and MUS-Res rats showed similar levels of REM on both ST and CTX days. The effects of post-ST inactivation of BLA on freezing and SIH were minimal. Outbred Wistar rats can show significant individual differences in the effects of stress on REM that are mediated by BLA. These differences in REM can be independent of behavioral fear and the peripheral stress response, and may be an important biomarker of stress resilience and vulnerability. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  17. Towards a comprehensive understanding of lead userness – the search for individual creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faullant, Rita; Schwarz, Erich; Krajger, Ines

    2012-01-01

    which is rooted in creativity psychology in order to provide a more comprehensive understanding of who leading‐edge users are. It will allow for a systematic investigation and detection of innovative users. We conducted an empirical study in the field of small kitchen appliances in co......‐operation with Philips Consumer Lifestyle, a field which lacks some of the typical characteristics that have been emphasized in markets traditionally studied in lead user research. With our research we show that (1) lead userness is fundamentally linked to individual creativity; (2) particularly creativity‐ and domain......‐relevant skills (cognitive style, product knowledge and use experience) are related to lead userness; (3) creativity‐relevant skills can be explained by personal characteristics, such as education, gender and openness to experience....

  18. Sources of Individual Differences in Children’s Understanding of Fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukovic, Rose K.; Fuchs, Lynn S.; Geary, David C.; Jordan, Nancy C.; Gersten, Russell; Siegler, Robert S.

    2014-01-01

    Longitudinal associations of domain-general and numerical competencies with individual differences in children’s understanding of fractions were investigated. Children (n = 163) were assessed at 6 years of age on domain-general (nonverbal reasoning, language, attentive behavior, executive control, visual-spatial memory) and numerical (number knowledge) competencies; at 7 years on whole-number arithmetic computations and number line estimation; and at 10 years on fraction concepts. Mediation analyses controlling for general mathematics ability and general academic ability revealed that numerical and mathematical competencies were direct predictors of fraction concepts whereas domain-general competencies supported the acquisition of fraction concepts via whole-number arithmetic computations or number line estimation. Results indicate multiple pathways to fraction competence. PMID:24433246

  19. Individual vulnerability to escalated aggressive behavior by a low dose of alcohol: decreased serotonin receptor mRNA in the prefrontal cortex of male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiavegatto, S; Quadros, I M H; Ambar, G; Miczek, K A

    2010-02-01

    Low to moderate doses of alcohol consumption induce heightened aggressive behavior in some, but not all individuals. Individual vulnerability for this nonadaptive behavior may be determined by an interaction of genetic and environmental factors with the sensitivity of alcohol's effects on brain and behavior. We used a previously established protocol for alcohol oral self-administration and characterized alcohol-heightened aggressive (AHA) mice as compared with alcohol non-heightened (ANA) counterparts. A week later, we quantified mRNA steady state levels of several candidate genes in the serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)] system in different brain areas. We report a regionally selective and significant reduction of all 5-HT receptor subtype transcripts, except for 5-HT(3), in the prefrontal cortex of AHA mice. Comparable gene expression profile was previously observed in aggressive mice induced by social isolation or by an anabolic androgenic steroid. Additional change in the 5-HT(1B) receptor transcripts was seen in the amygdala and hypothalamus of AHA mice. In both these areas, 5-HT(1B) mRNA was elevated when compared with ANA mice. In the hypothalamus, AHA mice also showed increased transcripts for 5-HT(2A) receptor. In the midbrain, 5-HT synthetic enzyme, 5-HT transporter and 5-HT receptors mRNA levels were similar between groups. Our results emphasize a role for postsynaptic over presynaptic 5-HT receptors in mice which showed escalated aggression after the consumption of a moderate dose of alcohol. This gene expression profile of 5-HT neurotransmission components in the brain of mice may suggest a vulnerability trait for alcohol-heightened aggression.

  20. Minimal impact of response shift for SF-12 mental and physical health status in homeless and vulnerably housed individuals: an item-level multi-group analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadermann, Anne M; Sawatzky, Richard; Palepu, Anita; Hubley, Anita M; Zumbo, Bruno D; Aubry, Tim; Farrell, Susan; Hwang, Stephen W

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether homeless or vulnerably housed individuals experienced response shift over a 12-month time period in their self-reported physical and mental health status. Data were obtained from the Health and Housing in Transition study, a longitudinal multi-site cohort study in Canada (N = 1190 at baseline). Multi-group confirmatory factor analysis (MG-CFA) and methods for response shift detection at the item level, based on the approach by Oort, were used to test for reconceptualization, reprioritization, and recalibration response shift on the SF-12 in four groups of individuals who were homeless (n = 170), housed (n = 437), or who reported a change in their housing status [from homeless to housed (n = 285) or housed to homeless (n = 73)] over a 12-month time period. Mean and variance adjusted weighted-least squares estimation was used to accommodate the ordinal and binary distributions of the SF-12 items. Using MG-CFA, a strict invariance model showed that the measurement model was equivalent for the four groups at baseline. Although we found small but statistically significant response shift for several measurement model parameters, the impact on the predicted average mental and physical health scores within each of the groups was small. Response shift does not appear to be a significant concern when using the SF-12 to obtain change scores over a 12-month period in this population.

  1. Beyond 'vulnerable groups': contexts and dynamics of vulnerability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zarowsky, C.; Haddad, S.; Nguyen, V.K.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews approaches to vulnerability in public health, introducing a series of 10 papers addressing vulnerability in health in Africa. We understand vulnerability as simultaneously a condition and a process. Social inequalities are manifest in and exacerbate three key dimensions of

  2. Understanding Cyber Threats and Vulnerabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiijf, H.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    This chapter reviews current and anticipated cyber-related threats to the Critical Information Infrastructure (CII) and Critical Infrastructures (CI). The potential impact of cyber-terrorism to CII and CI has been coined many times since the term was first coined during the 1980s. Being the

  3. Identificação de indivíduos vulneráveis no entorno de um hospital universitário: conectando vulnerabilidade, solidariedade e saúde Identification of vulnerable individuals in the area surrounding a university hospital: connecting vulnerability, solidarity and healthcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hellen Cristina Sthal

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available No entorno de um hospital universitário do interior do estado de São Paulo há pessoas dormindo, se alimentando ou descansando nos gramados e arredores, permanecendo nestes locais durante horas. Este estudo objetivou identificar e caracterizar indivíduos vulneráveis em área externa deste hospital, oferecendo ajuda. A coleta dos dados foi realizada no período de novembro de 2007 a outubro de 2008, semanalmente, em dias e horários sorteados. Identificaram-se pessoas que permaneciam nesses locais, sendo entrevistados 52 sujeitos. Esses indivíduos são, predominantemente, do sexo feminino (67,3%, brancos (51,9%, casados (59,6%, com escolaridade de até quatro anos de estudo (44,2% e sem profissão definida (84,6%. A maioria aguardava o horário do ônibus da prefeitura de seu município de origem; o tempo médio de espera foi de aproximadamente 90 minutos e grande parte dos sujeitos apresentou necessidades durante os períodos de espera. Foi oferecida ajuda a 15 pessoas que referiram necessidades no momento da entrevista. Concluiu-se que esses indivíduos se encontram em situação de vulnerabilidade individual, social e programática, destacando-se a vulnerabilidade sócio-econômica, apresentam capacidade de autodeterminação reduzida, submetendo-se a condições desfavoráveis por dependerem dos serviços públicos.In the area around a university hospital in the interior of São Paulo state people are found sleeping, eating or resting on the lawns and surrounding areas, and they linger in such sites for hours. This study sought to identify and characterize vulnerable individuals in the area around the hospital by offering help. Data were collected from November 2007 to October 2008, on a weekly basis and on randomly selected days and times. The people found in these places were identified, and 52 subjects were interviewed. The individuals were, predominantly, females (67.3%, white (51.9%, married (59.6%, had attended school for up to

  4. On Cross-risk Vulnerability

    OpenAIRE

    Malevergne, Yannick; Beatrice, Rey

    2009-01-01

    International audience; We introduce the notion of cross-risk vulnerability to generalize the concept of risk vulnerability introduced by Gollier and Pratt [Gollier, C., Pratt, J.W. 1996. Risk vulnerability and the tempering effect of background risk. Econometrica 64, 1109–1124]. While risk vulnerability captures the idea that the presence of an unfair financial background risk should make risk-averse individuals behave in a more risk-averse way with respect to an independent financial risk, ...

  5. Understanding the Relationship between Moral Judgment Development and Individual Characteristics: The Role of Educational Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Yukiko; Thoma, Steve J.; Bebeau, Muriel J.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines variation in moral judgment level as measured by the Defining Issues Test 2 (DIT-2; J. R. Rest & D. Narvaez, 1998), based on individual demographic information and educational contexts. Individual DIT-2 scores and demographic information were obtained from the archived data sets housed at the Center for the Study of Ethical…

  6. Understanding Discrepancy in Perceptions of Values: Individuals with Mild to Moderate Dementia and Their Family Caregivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reamy, Allison M.; Kim, Kyungmin; Zarit, Steven H.; Whitlatch, Carol J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: We explore discrepancies in perceptions of values and care preferences between individuals with dementia (IWDs) and their family caregivers. Design and Methods: We interviewed 266 dyads consisting of an individual with mild to moderate dementia and his or her family caregiver to determine IWDs' beliefs for 5 values related to…

  7. Patterns of Individual Differences in Conceptual Understanding and Arithmetical Skill: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Camilla K.; Papadatou-Pastou, Marietta

    2009-01-01

    Some theories from cognitive psychology and mathematics education suggest that children's understanding of mathematical concepts develops together with their knowledge of mathematical procedures. However, previous research into children's understanding of the inverse relationship between addition and subtraction suggests that there are individual…

  8. Neuroendocrinology of coping styles : towards understanding the biology of individual variation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koolhaas, J M; de Boer, Sietse; Coppens, C M; Buwalda, B

    Individual variation in behavior and physiology is a widespread and ecologically functional phenomenon in nature in virtually all vertebrate species. Due to domestication of laboratory animals, studies may suffer from a strong selection bias. This paper summarizes behavioral, neuroendocrine and

  9. Understanding the individual to implement the ecosystem approach to fisheries management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Taylor D.; Algera, Dirk A.; Gallagher, Austin J.; Hawkins, Emily; Horodysky, Andrij; Jørgensen, Christian; Killen, Shaun S.; McKenzie, David J.; Metcalfe, Julian D.; Peck, Myron A.; Vu, Maria; Cooke, Steven J.

    2016-01-01

    Ecosystem-based approaches to fisheries management (EAFMs) have emerged as requisite for sustainable use of fisheries resources. At the same time, however, there is a growing recognition of the degree of variation among individuals within a population, as well as the ecological consequences of this variation. Managing resources at an ecosystem level calls on practitioners to consider evolutionary processes, and ample evidence from the realm of fisheries science indicates that anthropogenic disturbance can drive changes in predominant character traits (e.g. size at maturity). Eco-evolutionary theory suggests that human-induced trait change and the modification of selective regimens might contribute to ecosystem dynamics at a similar magnitude to species extirpation, extinction and ecological dysfunction. Given the dynamic interaction between fisheries and target species via harvest and subsequent ecosystem consequences, we argue that individual diversity in genetic, physiological and behavioural traits are important considerations under EAFMs. Here, we examine the role of individual variation in a number of contexts relevant to fisheries management, including the potential ecological effects of rapid trait change. Using select examples, we highlight the extent of phenotypic diversity of individuals, as well as the ecological constraints on such diversity. We conclude that individual phenotypic diversity is a complex phenomenon that needs to be considered in EAFMs, with the ultimate realization that maintaining or increasing individual trait diversity may afford not only species, but also entire ecosystems, with enhanced resilience to environmental perturbations. Put simply, individuals are the foundation from which population- and ecosystem-level traits emerge and are therefore of central importance for the ecosystem-based approaches to fisheries management. PMID:27293757

  10. Understanding Coastal Wetland Vulnerability to Sea-Level Rise Enhanced Inundation Using Real-Time Stage Monitoring, LiDAR, and Monte Carlo Simulation in Everglades National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, H.; Zhang, C.

    2017-12-01

    Coastal wetlands are one of the most productive ecological systems in the world, providing critical habitat area and valuable ecosystem services such as carbon sequestration. However, due to their location in low lying areas, coastal wetlands are particularly vulnerable to sea-level rise (SLR). Everglades National Park (ENP) encompasses the southern-most portion of the Greater Everglades Ecosystem, and is the largest subtropical wetland in the USA. Water depths have shown to have a significant relationship to vegetation community composition and organization while also playing a crucial role in vegetation health throughout the Everglades. Live plants play a vital role in maintaining soil structure (i.e. elevation), and decreases in vegetation health can cause peat collapse or wetland loss resulting in dramatic habitat, organic soil, and elevation loss posing concerns for Everglades management and restoration. One suspected mechanism for peat collapse is enhanced inundation due to SLR, thus mapping and modeling water depths is a critical component to understanding the potential impacts of future SLR. Previous research in the Everglades focused on a conventional Water Depth Model (WDM) approach where a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) is subtracted from a Water Table Elevation Model (WTEM). In this study, the conventional WDM approach is extended to a more rigorous WDM technique so that the accuracy and precision of the underlying data may be considered. Monte Carlo simulation is used to propagate probability distributions through our SLR depth model using our Random Forest-based LiDAR DEM, Empirical Bayesian Kriging-based WTEMs, uncertainties in vertical datums, soil accretion projections, and regional sea-level rise projections. Water depth maps were produced for the wet and dry seasons in April and October, which successfully revealed the potential spatial and temporal water depth variations due to future SLR. It is concluded that a more rigorous WDM technique helps

  11. Shifting Stakes: Understanding the Dynamic Roles of Individuals and Organizations in Social Media Protests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiro, Emma S; Monroy-Hernández, Andrés

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we examine two protests characterized by substantial social media presence and distributed participation frameworks via two core questions: what roles did organizations and individuals play, and how did participants' social interactions change over the course of the protests? To answer these questions, we analyzed a large Twitter activity dataset for the #YoSoy132 student uprising in Mexico and Brazil's "bus rebellion." Results indicate that individuals initially took prominence at the protests but faded in importance as the movements dwindled and organizations took over. Regarding the dynamics and structure of the interactions, we found that key time points with unique social structures often map to exogenous events such as coordinated protests in physical locations. Our results have important consequences for the visibility of such social movements and their ability to attract continued participation by individuals and organizations.

  12. The communication of expectations and individual understanding: redundancy as reduction of uncertainty, and the processing of meaning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leydesdorff, L.; Johnson, M.; Ivanova, I.A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to present the case for an analysis of communication at the supra-individual level as a means of rendering the understanding of learning and acting tractable. The paper introduces a method of analysis of redundancy to achieve this. Design/methodology/approach The

  13. Identification of individuals' value and norms: One missing link to understanding new product success factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harmsen, Hanne; Bove, Karsten

    and product and market characteristics to include aspects like individual and organisational skills, knowledge, values, and norms. We also argue that the focus on the mentioned aspects have limited the possibility of implementing the normative advice. Combining new product development literature with recent...

  14. The Individual-Practice Framework as a design tool to understand consumer behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piscicelli, L.; Moreno, Mariale; Cooper, Tim; Fisher, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Design for behaviour change is a growing research field which aims at providing methods and tools to foster pro-environmental and pro-social action through the application of diverse theories, models and approaches from the social sciences. This chapter presents the Individual-Practice Framework,

  15. Understanding the Friendship Processes of Individuals with Asperger's Syndrome: A Phenomenological Study of Reflective College Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kammie Bohlken

    2010-01-01

    This phenomenological study shed light on the reflective college experiences of 11 individuals with Asperger's Syndrome and High Functioning Autism from a competence rather than a deficit model of disability (Biklen, 2005). Using Goleman's model of Social Intelligence (2006) as a theoretical framework, the cognitive, behavioral, and affective…

  16. Supporting Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder in Understanding and Coping with Complex Social Emotional Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlers, Kaitlyn P.; Gabrielsen, Terisa P.; Lewis, Danielle; Brady, Anna M.; Litchford, April

    2017-01-01

    Core deficits in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) center around social communication and behavior. For those with ASD, these deficits complicate the task of learning how to cope with and manage complex social emotional issues. Although individuals with ASD may receive sufficient academic and basic behavioral support in school settings, supports for…

  17. The Four Personae of Racism: Educators' (Mis)Understanding of Individual vs. Systemic Racism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Evelyn Y.

    2011-01-01

    This study used CRT to engage educators in critical discourse regarding the persistence of racism in urban schooling. A combined method of action research and critical case study was employed to raise a group of educators' race consciousness through antiracist training. Findings revealed conflicting views of racism as an individual pathology vs. a…

  18. Workplace support after breast cancer treatment: recognition of vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiedtke, Corine; Dierckx de Casterlé, Bernadette; Donceel, Peter; de Rijk, Angelique

    2015-01-01

    Support from the workplace seems to be a key element in addressing the poor return-to-work (RTW) rate of employees with breast cancer. We aim to acquire an in-depth understanding of how Flemish employees experience their RTW after breast cancer and the support from the workplace. Fourteen in-depth interviews of women who experienced breast cancer and returned to work (high school graduates, age range 42-55 years, mean age 48 at time of surgery) were analysed using the Qualitative Analysis Guide of Leuven (QUAGOL), based on a Grounded Theory approach. The key experiences were feeling vulnerable, feeling able to work and need for support. Although little diversity in RTW experiences was found, the background of the vulnerability varied. Women experienced support (which could be emotional or practical) only as adequate if it addressed their specific vulnerability. Employees felt particularly vulnerable. Vulnerability is not the same as low-work ability and as such it should be added as theoretical concept in RTW research. Adequate workplace support addresses the specific vulnerability of an individual woman. Our study offers a nuanced insight into the RTW process of breast cancer survivors. Upon actual return-to-work (RTW) after breast cancer treatment, women feel vulnerable but able to work and, hence, have a high need for workplace support. Support from the workplace during RTW after breast cancer treatment is experienced as adequate when it expresses genuine recognition of the individual woman's vulnerability.

  19. Increasing Understanding and Social Acceptance of Individuals with Disabilities through Exploration of Comics Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrail, Ewa; Rieger, Alicja

    2016-01-01

    Research supports the inclusion of children with disabilities in general education classrooms as a way to boost academic and social development, not only for children with disabilities, but also for typically developing children. A wide variety of perspectives and abilities in the classroom builds empathy, understanding, and creativity--all…

  20. Understanding technology adoption through individual and context characteristics: the case of HDTV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baaren, Eva; van de Wijngaert, Lidwien; Huizer, E.

    2011-01-01

    Technology adoption research has a tradition of using and improving Davis' (1989) “Technology Acceptance Model” (TAM) and extended versions of it. This article suggests a break with this tradition by showing that the TAM is limited in its understanding of technology adoption. Two alternative

  1. Understanding preferences for disclosure of individual biomarker results among participants in a longitudinal birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Stephen E; Baker, Erin R; Leonard, Anthony C; Eckman, Mark H; Lanphear, Bruce P

    2010-12-01

    To describe the preferences for disclosure of individual biomarker results among mothers participating in a longitudinal birth cohort. We surveyed 343 mothers that participated in the Health Outcomes and Measures of the Environment Study about their biomarker disclosure preferences. Participants were told that the study was measuring pesticide metabolites in their biological specimens, and that the health effects of these low levels of exposure are unknown. Participants were asked whether they wanted to receive their results and their child's results. In addition, they were asked about their preferred method (letter vs in person) and format (more complex vs less complex) for disclosure of results. Almost all of the study participants wanted to receive their individual results (340/343) as well as their child's results (342/343). However, preferences for receiving results differed by education level. Mothers with less than a college degree preferred in-person disclosure of results more often than mothers with some college education or a college degree (34.3% vs 17.4% vs 7.9%, pcollege education preferred a less complex disclosure format than mothers with some college education or a college degree (59.7% vs 79.1% vs 86.3%, p<0.0001). While almost all study participants preferred to receive results of their individual biomarker tests, level of education was a key factor in predicting preferences for disclosure of biomarker results. To ensure effective communication of this information, disclosure of biomarker results should be tailored to the education level of the study participants.

  2. Coping Styles: A Better Understanding of Stress and Anxiety in Individuals With Autism Spectrum Conditions Through Sport and Exercise Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Roncaglia

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present an understanding of the coping mechanisms and coping styles adopted by individuals on the Autism Spectrum Conditions (ASC by looking to draw parallels with sports performance psychology and how different sources of stress and anxiety can lead to the adoption of different coping styles. Firstly, an overview of current understanding of what constitute a stressor and how this can affect an individual is presented from sport and exercise psychology literature. Secondly, a model of coping styles is illustrated with the aim to shed light at how different perceptions of levels of stress and anxiety are managed both on an individual and group level. Thirdly, within the context of this understanding, some examples about how to support individuals on the ASC will be illustrated. Finally, implications for future research and reflection will be presented by highlighting the importance of teaching and learning coping and tolerance skills as part of a comprehensive and holistic psycho-educational program.

  3. Gender Identity and Adjustment: Understanding the Impact of Individual and Normative Differences in Sex Typing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lurye, Leah E.; Zosuls, Kristina M.; Ruble, Diane N.

    2009-01-01

    The relationship among gender identity, sex typing, and adjustment has attracted the attention of social and developmental psychologists for many years. However, they have explored this issue with different assumptions and different approaches. Generally the approaches differ regarding whether sex typing is considered adaptive versus maladaptive, measured as an individual or normative difference, and whether gender identity is regarded as a unidimensional or multidimensional construct. In this chapter, we consider both perspectives and suggest that the developmental timing and degree of sex typing, as well as the multidimensionality of gender identity, be considered when examining their relationship to adjustment. PMID:18521861

  4. Gender identity and adjustment: understanding the impact of individual and normative differences in sex typing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lurye, Leah E; Zosuls, Kristina M; Ruble, Diane N

    2008-01-01

    The relationship among gender identity, sex typing, and adjustment has attracted the attention of social and developmental psychologists for many years. However, they have explored this issue with different assumptions and different approaches. Generally the approaches differ regarding whether sex typing is considered adaptive versus maladaptive, measured as an individual or normative difference, and whether gender identity is regarded as a unidimensional or multidimensional construct. In this chapter, we consider both perspectives and suggest that the developmental timing and degree of sex typing, as well as the multidimensionality of gender identity, be considered when examining their relationship to adjustment.

  5. Genetic Vulnerability as a Distal Risk Factor for Suicidal Behaviour: Historical Perspective and Current Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriessen, Karl; Videtic-Paska, Alja

    2015-09-01

    Suicide is a multidimensional problem. Observations of family history of suicide suggest the existence of a genetic vulnerability to suicidal behaviour. Starting with a historical perspective, the article reviews current knowledge of a genetic vulnerability to suicidal behaviour, distinct from the genetic vulnerability to psychiatric disorders, focused on clinical and population-based studies, and findings from recent molecular genetics association studies. The review includes peer-reviewed research articles and review papers from the professional literature in English language, retrieved from PubMed/Medline and PsycINFO. The research literature confirms a existence of a genetic vulnerability to suicidal behaviour. Even though the results of individual studies are difficult to compare, genetic influences could explain up to half of the variance of the occurrence of suicide. Genetic vulnerability could be a distal risk factor for suicide, which helps us to understand the occurrence of suicide among vulnerable people. Ethical implications of such vulnerability are highlighted.

  6. What Is the Addiction World Like? Understanding the Lived Experience of the Individuals' Illicit Drug Addiction in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Mei-Hui; Tsai, Shu-Ling; Tsai, Chang-Hsiung; Hsu, Yu-Chien; Hsu, Min-Tao

    2017-01-01

    This study focuses on the participants' lived experience of addiction. The study presents a qualitative method. The use of the fieldwork-based participant observation and in-depth interviews guided the data collection and analysis. Three major themes of addiction emerge from the analysis: incorrigible conduct, inexcusable compromise, and inevitable corruption. This study provides a better understanding of what the world is like for people struggling with addiction and also enhances the healthcare professionals' knowledge of the individual's experience of addiction. This knowledge is essential for clinicians to understand this experience as a framework for planning and implementing appropriate treatment. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Susceptibility to mountain hazards in Austria - paradigms of vulnerability revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Sven

    2010-05-01

    The concept of vulnerability is pillared by multiple disciplinary theories underpinning either a technical or a social origin of the concept and resulting in a range of paradigms for either a qualitative or quantitative assessment of vulnerability. However, efforts to reduce susceptibility to hazards and to create disaster-resilient communities require intersections among these theories, since human activity cannot be seen independently from the environmental setting. Acknowledging different roots of disciplinary paradigms, issues determining structural, economic, institutional and social vulnerability are discussed with respect to mountain hazards in Austria. The underlying idea of taking such an integrative viewpoint was the cognition that human action in mountain environments affects the state of vulnerability, and the state of vulnerability in turn shapes the possibilities of human action. It is argued that structural vulnerability as originator results in considerable economic vulnerability, generated by the institutional settings of dealing with natural hazards and shaped by the overall societal framework. Hence, the vulnerability of a specific location and within a considered point of time is triggered by the hazardous event and the related physical susceptibility of structures, such as buildings located on a torrent fan. Depending on the specific institutional settings, economic vulnerability of individuals or of the society results, above all with respect to imperfect loss compensation mechanisms in the areas under investigation. While this potential for harm can be addressed as social vulnerability, the concept of institutional vulnerability has been developed with respect to the overall political settings of governmental risk management. As a result, the concept of vulnerability, as being used in natural sciences, can be extended by integration of possible reasons why such physical susceptibility of structures exists, and by integration of compensation

  8. Understanding soaring bird migration through interactions and decisions at the individual level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Loon, E E; Shamoun-Baranes, J; Bouten, W; Davis, S L

    2011-02-07

    Many soaring bird species migrate southwards in autumn from their breeding grounds in Europe and Central Asia towards their wintering grounds. Our knowledge about interactions between migrating birds, thermal selection during migration and mechanisms that lead to flocking or convergent travel networks is still very limited. To start investigating these aspects we developed an individual-based simulation model that describes the local interactions between birds and their environment during their migratory flight, leading to emergent patterns at larger scales. The aim of our model is to identify likely decision rules with respect to thermal selection and navigation. After explaining the model, it is applied to analyse the migration of white storks (Ciconia ciconia) over part of its migration domain. A model base-run is accompanied by a sensitivity analysis. It appears that social interactions lead to the use of fewer thermals and slight increases in distance travelled. Possibilities for different model extensions and further model application are discussed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. An integrative review: understanding driving retirement decisions for individuals living with a dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Catherine; Traynor, Victoria; Iverson, Don

    2015-12-01

    To synthesise primary research exploring decision making practices used to determine the time to retire from driving for individuals living with a dementia. Driving requires complex cognitive and physical skills potentially compromised due to the progressive nature of dementia. Whilst on-road assessments are considered reliable indicators of driving capacity by clinicians, drivers with dementia disagree. Integrative literature review informed by Whittemore & Knafl (2005). Electronic database search of Medline, CINAHL, Web of Science, Google Scholar 1997-2012; and incremental hand search. Primary studies published in peer reviewed journals were appraised against quality assessment criteria using CASP methodological assessment tools. A total of 43 studies were retained for synthesis. Key findings were abstracted and a themes matrix was generated to identify patterns of meaning. Six themes emerged: (i) dementia may compromise the complex task of driving; (ii) defining onset and severity of dementia is problematic; (iii) symptom progression impacts on driving skills; (iv) assessment of fitness to drive remains subjective; (v) some drivers are reluctant to accept negative assessment outcomes; and (vi) the search for effective strategies to enhance acceptance of driver retirement continues. This integrative literature review identified a large body of knowledge exploring the issues of driving cessation for drivers with dementia. However a challenge remains for practitioners, drivers and their family carers regarding how best to address this highly emotive issue. Findings could inform a structured approach to address this sensitive topic in a timely manner. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Advanced Nursing published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Probabilistic Interval Forecasts: An Individual Differences Approach to Understanding Forecast Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret A. Grounds

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Predictive interval forecasts, showing a range of values with specified probability, have the potential to improve decisions compared to point estimates. The research reported here demonstrates that this advantage extends from college undergraduates to a wide user group and does not depend on education. In two experiments, participants made decisions based on predictive intervals or point estimates and answered questions about them. In Experiment 1, they also completed numeracy and working memory span tests. Those using predictive intervals were better able to identify situations requiring precautionary action. Nonetheless, two errors were noted: (1 misinterpreting predictive intervals as diurnal fluctuation (deterministic construal errors and (2 judging the probability of events within and beyond the interval, when asked about them separately, as greater than 100%. These errors were only partially explained by WMS and numeracy. Importantly, omitting visualizations eliminated deterministic construal errors and overestimation of percent chance was not consistently related to decision quality. Thus, there may be important benefits to predictive interval forecasts that are not dependent on a full understanding of the theoretical principles underlying them or an advanced education, making them appropriate for a broad range of users with diverse backgrounds, weather concerns, and risk tolerances.

  11. Understanding the effects of past flood events and perceived and estimated flood risks on individuals' voluntary flood insurance purchase behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Wanyun; Xian, Siyuan; Lin, Ning; Kunreuther, Howard; Jackson, Nida; Goidel, Kirby

    2017-01-01

    Over the past several decades, the economic damage from flooding in the coastal areas has greatly increased due to rapid coastal development coupled with possible climate change impacts. One effective way to mitigate excessive economic losses from flooding is to purchase flood insurance. Only a minority of coastal residents however have taken this preventive measure. Using original survey data for all coastal counties of the United States Gulf Coast merged with contextual data, this study examines the effects of external influences and perceptions of flood-related risks on individuals' voluntary behaviors to purchase flood insurance. It is found that the estimated flood hazard conveyed through the U.S. Federal Emergency Management Agency's (FEMA's) flood maps, the intensities and consequences of past storms and flooding events, and perceived flood-related risks significantly affect individual's voluntary purchase of flood insurance. This behavior is also influenced by home ownership, trust in local government, education, and income. These findings have several important policy implications. First, FEMA's flood maps have been effective in conveying local flood risks to coastal residents, and correspondingly influencing their decisions to voluntarily seek flood insurance in the U.S. Gulf Coast. Flood maps therefore should be updated frequently to reflect timely and accurate information about flood hazards. Second, policy makers should design strategies to increase homeowners' trust in the local government, to better communicate flood risks with residents, to address the affordability issue for the low-income, and better inform less educated homeowners through various educational programs. Future studies should examine the voluntary flood insurance behavior across countries that are vulnerable to flooding. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Redistributing vulnerabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seeberg, Jens; Padmawati, Retna Siwi

    2015-01-01

    Central Java earthquake, and we explore relations between citizens and the state during post-disaster house reconstruction. We argue that disastrous outcomes of catastrophic events do not follow pre-existing fault lines of vulnerability in a simple or predictable manner, and that the social process...

  13. Assessing vulnerability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellmuth, M.; Kabat, P.

    2003-01-01

    It is in the shantytowns and rural villages of the Third World that floods and droughts strike hardest and deepest. Vulnerability to the vagaries of climate depends not only on location, but, crucially, on the capacity of the victims to cope with the impacts of extreme weather. So, where are the

  14. Social Vulnerability to Climate Change and the Architecture of Entitlements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adger, W.N.; Kelly, P.M.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to outline a conceptual model of vulnerability to climate change as the first step in appraising and understanding the social and economic processes which facilitate and constrain adaptation. Vulnerability as defined here pertains to individuals and social groups. It is the state of individuals, of groups, of communities defined in terms of their ability to cope with and adapt to any external stress placed on their livelihoods and well-being. This proposed approach puts the social and economic well-being of society at the centre of the analysis, thereby reversing the central focus of approaches to climate impact assessment based on impacts on and the adaptability of natural resources or ecosystems and which only subsequently address consequences for human well-being. The vulnerability or security of any group is determined by the availability of resources and, crucially, by the entitlement of individuals and groups to call on these resources. This perspective extends the concept of entitlements developed within neoclassical and institutional economics. Within this conceptual framework, vulnerability can be seen as a socially-constructed phenomenon influenced by institutional and economic dynamics. The study develops proxy indicators of vulnerability related to the structure of economic relations and the entitlements which govern them, and shows how these can be applied to a District in coastal lowland Vietnam. This paper outlines the lessons of such an approach to social vulnerability for the assessment of climate change at the global scale. We argue that the socio-economic and biophysical processes that determine vulnerability are manifest at the local, national, regional and global level but the state of vulnerability itself is associated with a specific population. Aggregation one level to another is therefore not appropriate and global-scale analysis is meaningful only in so far as it deals with the vulnerability of the global

  15. The Contribution of Cognitive Factors to Individual Differences in Understanding Noise-Vocoded Speech in Young and Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Rosemann

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Noise-vocoded speech is commonly used to simulate the sensation after cochlear implantation as it consists of spectrally degraded speech. High individual variability exists in learning to understand both noise-vocoded speech and speech perceived through a cochlear implant (CI. This variability is partly ascribed to differing cognitive abilities like working memory, verbal skills or attention. Although clinically highly relevant, up to now, no consensus has been achieved about which cognitive factors exactly predict the intelligibility of speech in noise-vocoded situations in healthy subjects or in patients after cochlear implantation. We aimed to establish a test battery that can be used to predict speech understanding in patients prior to receiving a CI. Young and old healthy listeners completed a noise-vocoded speech test in addition to cognitive tests tapping on verbal memory, working memory, lexicon and retrieval skills as well as cognitive flexibility and attention. Partial-least-squares analysis revealed that six variables were important to significantly predict vocoded-speech performance. These were the ability to perceive visually degraded speech tested by the Text Reception Threshold, vocabulary size assessed with the Multiple Choice Word Test, working memory gauged with the Operation Span Test, verbal learning and recall of the Verbal Learning and Retention Test and task switching abilities tested by the Comprehensive Trail-Making Test. Thus, these cognitive abilities explain individual differences in noise-vocoded speech understanding and should be considered when aiming to predict hearing-aid outcome.

  16. AN EVALUATION OF THE USEFULNESS OF ACTOR NETWORK THEORY IN UNDERSTANDING THE COMPLEXITIES OF VULNERABILITY AND RESILIENCE IN POST-DISASTER RECONSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Brewer

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The literature is replete with accounts of the struggle to effectively target and deploy postdisaster aid so as to achieve maximum benefit to recipients, both direct and indirect, over the short- and longer-term. Generally these stories balance success with lessons learned from failure, in order to inform practice in future recovery and reconstruction events. They are often derived from the heroic accounts of key actors in case studies, on the understandable basis that these carefully selected individuals will have been pivotal in designing and directing the implementation of aid programmes. The influence of non-humans such as organisations, systems, processes, or elements of the constructed environment are considered only insofar as they impact upon the experiences of the raconteurs. However actor network theory, a technique originally developed to examine phenomena at the sociotechnological interface, ascribes human characteristics such as motives and behaviours equally to human and non-human actants, ultimately to better explain the worldly consequences of their interaction. This paper reports on the ex post application of ANT to data collected in an earlier actor-centric study, to both evaluate its usefulness in disaster research and to identify potential gaps in the disaster research agenda.

  17. Threats and vulnerabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahonen, Pasi; Alahuhta, Petteri; Daskala, Barbara; Delaitre, Sabine; Hert, Paul De; Lindner, Ralf; Maghiros, Ioannis; Moscibroda, Anna; Schreurs, Wim; Verlinden, Michiel

    In this chapter, we present a review of threats and vulnerabilities that could afflict society and individuals in the AmI world in the context of the key policy issues of privacy, identity, trust, security and digital divide. We define a threat as the potential for one or more unwanted consequences caused by a circumstance, capability, action or event that could be harmful to a system or person. Threats can be caused naturally, accidentally or intentionally. In essence, a threat is a ubiquitous phenomenon. A vulnerability is a flaw or weakness in a system's design, its implementation, operation or management that could be exploited to violate the system and, consequently, cause a threat. Vulnerabilities may have different dimensions: technical, functional or behavioural.1

  18. All for one and one for all: understanding health professionals' experience in individual versus collaborative online learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNeill, Heather; Telner, Deanna; Sparaggis-Agaliotis, Alexandra; Hanna, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) may facilitate continuing interprofessional education while overcoming barriers of time and place for busy health care professionals. The purpose of this study was to understand the experiences, advantages, and challenges of group versus individual online learning. Fifteen multidisciplinary health professionals participated in a 12-week online course on either diabetes or traumatic brain injury. This consisted of background e-modules and a longitudinal build-a-case exercise, done either individually or as a group. Focus group sessions exploring participants' experiences after course completion and at 4 months were conducted, transcribed, and analyzed for recurring themes. Participant reflection homework and video-recorded group sessions were used for triangulation of results. Individual learners appreciated the flexibility and control, but experienced decreased motivation. Group learners appreciated the immediate feedback from their co-learners and felt social pressure to come to the weekly sessions prepared but expressed challenges in determining group goal-setting for the session. Both groups felt they learned about interprofessional roles; however, group learners described a richer learning experience and understanding of interprofessional roles through the online collaboration exercise. The intense resources necessary for interprofessional CSCL, including time, faculty development, and technological issues, are described. CSCL is a valuable educational strategy in online learning. While individual online learning may be better suited for short and simple educational interventions such as knowledge acquisition, CSCL seems to allow for richer and deeper learning in complex and interprofessional educational experiences. However, strategies, resources, and faculty development required to enhance CSCL need to be addressed carefully. © 2014 The Alliance for Continuing Education in the Health Professions, the Society

  19. Network Vulnerability and Risk Assessment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alward, Randy G; Carley, Kathleen M; Madsen, Fredrik; Taylor, Vincent K; Vandenberghe, Grant

    2006-01-01

    To help understand a network and its ability to continue operating when under attack, the break out group discussed issues that need to be considered when presenting network vulnerability information...

  20. Groundwater vulnerability to pollution mapping of Ranchi district using GIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, R; Iqbal, J; Gorai, A K; Pathak, G; Tuluri, F; Tchounwou, P B

    2015-12-01

    Groundwater pollution due to anthropogenic activities is one of the major environmental problems in urban and industrial areas. The present study demonstrates the integrated approach with GIS and DRASTIC model to derive a groundwater vulnerability to pollution map. The model considers the seven hydrogeological factors [Depth to water table ( D ), net recharge ( R ), aquifer media ( A ), soil media ( S ), topography or slope ( T ), impact of vadose zone ( I ) and hydraulic Conductivity( C )] for generating the groundwater vulnerability to pollution map. The model was applied for assessing the groundwater vulnerability to pollution in Ranchi district, Jharkhand, India. The model was validated by comparing the model output (vulnerability indices) with the observed nitrate concentrations in groundwater in the study area. The reason behind the selection of nitrate is that the major sources of nitrate in groundwater are anthropogenic in nature. Groundwater samples were collected from 30 wells/tube wells distributed in the study area. The samples were analyzed in the laboratory for measuring the nitrate concentrations in groundwater. A sensitivity analysis of the integrated model was performed to evaluate the influence of single parameters on groundwater vulnerability index. New weights were computed for each input parameters to understand the influence of individual hydrogeological factors in vulnerability indices in the study area. Aquifer vulnerability maps generated in this study can be used for environmental planning and groundwater management.

  1. The making of vulnerabilities: understanding the differentiated effects of HIV and AIDS among street traders in Warwick Junction, Durban, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chazan, May; Whiteside, Alan

    2007-08-01

    The end of apartheid in South Africa has led to political-economic transition, the deregulation of cities, and increased population mobility, with growing numbers of people living and working in sub-standard and 'informal' urban conditions. These processes have created a fertile terrain for the rapid spread of HIV, especially in the province of KwaZulu-Natal. Few studies have considered how the HIV epidemic's outcomes are interacting with other societal processes, such as globalisation and urbanisation, or how these processes collectively converge with place-specific conditions to expose, drive and compound vulnerabilities to HIV and AIDS. This paper links an analysis of the political economy of South Africa's HIV epidemic with findings from an ethnographic case study with street traders in Warwick Junction, the largest trading hub in Durban, KwaZulu-Natal.

  2. Distinctive laterality of neural networks supporting action understanding in left- and right-handed individuals: An EEG coherence study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Rachel; Mizelle, J C; Wheaton, Lewis A

    2015-08-01

    Prior work has demonstrated that perspective and handedness of observed actions can affect action understanding differently in right and left-handed persons, suggesting potential differences in the neural networks underlying action understanding between right and left-handed individuals. We sought to evaluate potential differences in these neural networks using electroencephalography (EEG). Right- and left-handed participants observed images of tool-use actions from egocentric and allocentric perspectives, with right- and left-handed actors performing the actions. Participants judged the outcome of the observed actions, and response accuracy and latency were recorded. Behaviorally, the highest accuracy and shortest latency was found in the egocentric perspective for right- and left-handed observers. Handedness of subject showed an effect on accuracy and latency also, where right-handed observers were faster to respond than left-handed observers, but on average were less accurate. Mu band (8-10 Hz) cortico-cortical coherence analysis indicated that right-handed observers have coherence in the motor dominant left parietal-premotor networks when looking at an egocentric right or allocentric left hands. When looking in an egocentric perspective at a left hand or allocentric right hand, coherence was lateralized to right parietal-premotor areas. In left-handed observers, bilateral parietal-premotor coherence patterns were observed regardless of actor handedness. These findings suggest that the cortical networks involved in understanding action outcomes are dependent on hand dominance, and notably right handed participants seem to utilize motor systems based on the limb seen performing the action. The decreased accuracy for right-handed participants on allocentric images could be due to asymmetrical lateralization of encoding action and motoric dominance, which may interfere with translating allocentric limb action outcomes. Further neurophysiological studies will

  3. Impulsivity as a vulnerability factor for poor addiction treatment outcomes: a review of neurocognitive findings among individuals with substance use disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevens, Laura; Verdejo-García, Antonio; Goudriaan, Anna E.; Roeyers, Herbert; Dom, Geert; Vanderplasschen, Wouter

    2014-01-01

    With the current review, we explore the hypothesis that individual differences in neurocognitive aspects of impulsivity (i.e., cognitive and motor disinhibition, delay discounting and impulsive decision-making) among individuals with a substance use disorder are linked to unfavorable addiction

  4. Narratives with Robots: The Impact of Interaction Context and Individual Differences on Story Recall and Emotional Understanding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iolanda Leite

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Role-play scenarios have been considered a successful learning space for children to develop their social and emotional abilities. In this paper, we investigate whether socially assistive robots in role-playing settings are as effective with small groups of children as they are with a single child and whether individual factors such as gender, grade level (first vs. second, perception of the robots (peer vs. adult, and empathy level (low vs. high play a role in these two interaction contexts. We conducted a three-week repeated exposure experiment where 40 children interacted with socially assistive robotic characters that acted out interactive stories around words that contribute to expanding children’s emotional vocabulary. Our results showed that although participants who interacted alone with the robots recalled the stories better than participants in the group condition, no significant differences were found in children’s emotional interpretation of the narratives. With regard to individual differences, we found that a single child setting appeared more appropriate to first graders than a group setting, empathy level is an important predictor for emotional understanding of the narratives, and children’s performance varies depending on their perception of the robots (peer vs. adult in the two conditions.

  5. Individualized Physical 3-dimensional Kidney Tumor Models Constructed From 3-dimensional Printers Result in Improved Trainee Anatomic Understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoedler, Margaret; Feibus, Allison H; Lange, Andrew; Maddox, Michael M; Ledet, Elisa; Thomas, Raju; Silberstein, Jonathan L

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate the effect of 3-dimensionally (3D) printed physical renal models with enhancing masses on medical trainee characterization, localization, and understanding of renal malignancy. Proprietary software was used to import standard computed tomography (CT) cross-sectional imaging into 3D printers to create physical models of renal units with enhancing renal lesions in situ. Six different models were printed from a transparent plastic resin; the normal parenchyma was printed in a clear, translucent plastic, with a red hue delineating the suspicious renal lesion. Medical students, who had completed their first year of training, were given an overview and tasked with completion of RENAL nephrometry scores, separately using CT imaging and 3D models. Trainees were also asked to complete a questionnaire about their experience. Variability between trainees was assessed by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), and kappa statistics were used to compare the trainee to experts. Overall trainee nephrometry score accuracy was significantly improved with the 3D model vs CT scan (P <.01). Furthermore, 3 of the 4 components of the nephrometry score (radius, nearness to collecting system, and location) showed significant improvement (P <.001) using the models. There was also more consistent agreement among trainees when using the 3D models compared with CT scans to assess the nephrometry score (intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.28 for CT scan vs 0.72 for 3D models). Qualitative evaluation with questionnaires filled out by the trainees further confirmed that the 3D models improved their ability to understand and conceptualize the renal mass. Physical 3D models using readily available printing techniques improve trainees' understanding and characterization of individual patients' enhancing renal lesions. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Transforming vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Patricia S; Zhang, Xinwei Esther; Meleis, Afaf I

    2003-11-01

    Asian American immigrant women engaged in filial caregiving are at special risk for health problems due to complex contextual factors related to immigration, cultural traditions, and role transition. This study examines the experience of two groups of immigrant Asian American women who are caring for older parents. A total of 41 women (22 Chinese American and 19 Filipino American) were interviewed in a study based on Strauss and Corbin's grounded theory methodology. The women were determined to be loyal to their traditional culture, which included strong filial values, while adapting to a new culture. Through the struggle of meeting role expectations and coping with paradox, the women mobilized personal and family resources to transform vulnerability into strength and well-being.

  7. SCI Survey to Determine Pressure Ulcer Vulnerability in the Outpatient Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    factors that increase pressure ulcer vulnerability. The study identified body composition with or without spasticity and caregiver activity as two...This is particularly important when trying to understand the effect of BMI on PrU vulnerability, as 8     increased abdominal girth concurrent...with wasting of the buttock musculature has the potential to alter the pressure distribution in the seated individual. Although the impact of body

  8. Quantifying the water balance of Mfabeni Mire (iSimangaliso Wetland Park, South Africa to understand its importance, functioning and vulnerability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Grundling

    2015-12-01

    another, as such changes will alter the equilibrium of the water balance. Mfabeni Mire is particularly vulnerable through the impact of adjacent commercial forestry, which has impacted river and estuary management over the last 80 years and depleted groundwater levels in the surrounding aquifers.

  9. HandiVIH—A population-based survey to understand the vulnerability of people with disabilities to HIV and other sexual and reproductive health problems in Cameroon: protocol and methodological considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Beaudrap, Pierre; Pasquier, Estelle; Tchoumkeu, Alice; Touko, Adonis; Essomba, Frida; Brus, Aude; Desgrées du Loû, Annabel; Aderemi, Toyin Janet; Hanass-Hancock, Jill; Eide, Arne Henning; Mont, Daniel; Mac-Seing, Muriel; Beninguisse, Gervais

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In resource-limited countries, people with disabilities seem to be particularly vulnerable to HIV infection due to barriers to accessing information and services, frequent exposure to sexual violence and social exclusion. However, they have often been left behind in the HIV response, probably because of the lack of reliable epidemiological data measuring this vulnerability. Multiple challenges in conducting good quality epidemiological surveys on people with disabilities require innovative methods to better understand the link between disability and HIV. This paper describes how the design and methods of the HandiVIH study were adapted to document the vulnerability of people with disabilities to HIV, and to compare their situation with that of people without disabilities. Methods and analysis The HandiVIH project aims to combine quantitative and qualitative data. The quantitative component is a cross-sectional survey with a control group conducted in Yaoundé (Cameroon). A two-phase random sampling is used (1) to screen people with disabilities from the general population using the Washington Group questionnaire and, (2) to create a matched control group. An HIV test is proposed to each study participant. Additionally, a questionnaire including a life-event interview is used to collect data on respondents’ life-course history of social isolation, employment, sexual partnership, HIV risk factors and fertility. Before the cross-sectional survey, a qualitative exploratory study was implemented to identify challenges in conducting the survey and possible solutions. Information on people with disabilities begging in the streets and members of disabled people's organisations is collected separately. Ethics and dissemination This study has been approved by the two ethical committees. Special attention has been paid on how to adapt the consenting process to persons with intellectual disabilities. The methodological considerations discussed in this paper may

  10. LA INVESTIGACIÓN BIOMÉDICA Y EL CONSENTIMIENTO INFORMADO EN EL ÁMBITO DE LAS POBLACIONES E INDIVIDUOS VULNERABLES A PESQUISA BIOMÉDICA E O CONSENTIMENTO INFORMADO NO ÂMBITO DAS POPULAÇÕES E INDIVÍDUOS VULNERÁVEIS BIOMEDICAL INVESTIGATION AND INFORMED CONSENT IN VULNERABLE POPULATIONS AND INDIVIDUALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana la Rocca

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El contexto de transnacionalidad económica y política en el que se desarrollan las actuales investigaciones biomédicas favorece el fenómeno conocido como "medicalización" de la vida y promueve la vulnerabilidad tanto de países como de individuos. Si tenemos en cuenta que es responsabilidad asumida por la bioética la preocupación por proteger al sujeto de investigación y, de manera especial, a los más vulnerables, estos aspectos deben ser objeto de una atenta consideración y evaluación que tienda hacia la corrección de los mismos. El artículo plantea también una estrategia a través de la ética del discurso y presenta objeciones a su eficacia procedimentalO contexto de transnacionalidade econômica e política em que se desenvolvem as atuais pesquisas biomédicas, favorece o conhecido fenômeno denominado medicalização" da vida e promove a vulnerabilidade, tanto dos países como dos indivíduos. Se levarmos em conta, que é responsabilidade assumida pela bioética, proteger o sujeito da pesquisa, e de maneira especial os mais vulneráveis, estes aspectos devem ser objeto de uma atenta consideração e avaliação, que vise a correção dos mesmosThe economical and political transnationality context inside which today's biomedical investigations take place favours the phenomenon known as life's medicalization and raises both countries' and individuals' vulnerability. If we assume that the need to protect the subjects of investigation is bioethics' accepted responsibility, and, first of all, of the most vulnerable ones, these aspects should be taken into special consideration and evaluation in order to correct them, if needed

  11. Overactive bladder in the vulnerable elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolff GF

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Gillian F Wolff,1 George A Kuchel,2 Phillip P Smith1,21Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, 2UConn Center on Aging, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, CT, USAAbstract: Overactive bladder (OAB is a common problem that may occur in individuals of all ages. It has a considerable impact on patient quality of life, and although moderately effective management strategies do exist, this condition often remains undiagnosed and untreated. OAB needs to be viewed as a symptom complex. Its presentation and management are complicated in the vulnerable elderly by the presence of baseline frailty and multiple coexisting chronic conditions. Furthermore, and beyond a simple understanding of symptomatology, providers must address patient goals and motivations as well as the expectations of caretakers. These multiple levels of perception, function, expectations, and treatment efficacy/risks must be tailored to the individual patient. While the vulnerable elderly patient may often have evidence of urinary tract dysfunction, OAB and urge urinary incontinence in this population must be understood as a multifactorial geriatric syndrome and viewed in the context of medical and functional baseline and precipitating risk factors. Expectations and goals must be tailored to the resources of vulnerable elderly patients and their caregivers, and care must be coordinated with other medical care providers. The management of OAB in the vulnerable elderly often poses significant management challenges. Nonetheless, with a thoughtful approach and an aim towards future research specifically for this population, significant reductions in morbidity and mortality long with enhancement in health-related quality of life are possible.Keywords: urinary incontinence, urgency, antispasmodics, aging, frailty

  12. Relationship between Self-Administered Cues and Rehabilitation Outcomes in Individuals with Aphasia: Understanding Individual Responsiveness to a Technology-Based Rehabilitation Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Des Roches, Carrie A; Mitko, Annette; Kiran, Swathi

    2017-01-01

    An advantage of rehabilitation administered on computers or tablets is that the tasks can be self-administered and the cueing required to complete the tasks can be monitored. Though there are many types of cueing, few studies have examined how participants' response to rehabilitation is influenced by self-administered cueing, which is cueing that is always available but the individual decides when and which cue to administer. In this study, participants received a tablet-based rehabilitation where the tasks were selfpaced and remotely monitored by a clinician. The results of the effectiveness of this study were published previously (Des Roches et al., 2015). The current study looks at the effect of cues on accuracy and rehabilitation outcomes. Fifty-one individuals with aphasia completed a 10-week program using Constant Therapy on an iPad targeted at improving language and cognitive deficits. Three questions were examined. The first examined the effect of cues on accuracy collapsed across time. Results showed a trend where the greater the cue use, the lower the accuracy, although some participants showed the opposite effect. This analysis divided participants into profiles based on cue use and accuracy. The second question examined how each profile differed in percent cue use and on standardized measures at baseline. Results showed that the four profiles were significantly different in frequency of cues and scores on WAB-R, CLQT, BNT, and ASHA-FACS, indicating that participants with lower scores on the standardized tests used a higher percentage of cues, which were not beneficial, while participants with higher scores on the standardized tests used a lower frequency of cues, which were beneficial. The third question examined how the relationship between cues and accuracy was affected by the course of treatment. Results showed that both more and less severe participants showed a decrease in cue use and an increase in accuracy over time, though more severe

  13. Vulnerability in homeless adolescents: concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsen, Caroline

    2010-12-01

    This paper is a report of an analysis of the concept of vulnerability in homeless adolescents. Caring for vulnerable populations and reduction of health inequities are top international healthcare priorities. Homeless adolescents experience health disparities as compared to their housed counterparts and are among the most vulnerable of all populations. Understanding the concept of vulnerability as it relates to the homeless adolescent population will assist nurses in addressing the health and social concerns of this population. The PubMed, Medline, Cochrane and CINAHL electronic databases were used to search for research papers published between 1980 and 2009. The keywords 'vulnerable', 'vulnerability' and 'homeless', 'adolescent', 'street' and 'youth' were used. Twenty-three papers from multiple disciplines were reviewed in an effort to arrive at a global definition of homeless adolescents' vulnerability. Rodgers' evolutionary method of concept analysis was used for the analysis. Based on this analysis, vulnerability in homeless adolescents is defined as the constellation of past, present and future risk, perceived or real, because of the common human experience of risk, the increased vulnerability of the adolescent period, the consequences of family disruption, and the increased risks of life on the street. There was agreement in the literature regarding the antecedents, attributes, consequences and surrogate terms of the concept. However, differentiation between the concepts of risk and vulnerability, as suggested by seminal nurse researchers, was not supported. More research is needed into self-perceptions of vulnerability and vulnerability in subgroups of homeless adolescents. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Medical Students' Empathy for Vulnerable Groups: Results From a Survey and Reflective Writing Assignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellbery, Caroline; Saunders, Pamela A; Kureshi, Sarah; Visconti, Adam

    2017-12-01

    As medical education curricula increasingly acknowledge the contributions of the social determinants of health to individual health, new methods of engaging students in the care of vulnerable groups are needed. Empathy is one way to connect students with patients, but little is known about how to nurture students' empathy on behalf of populations. This study examined the relationship between individual and social empathy as groundwork for cultivating students' empathy for vulnerable groups. In 2014-2015, first-year medical students completed the Social Empathy Index at the start and end of a two-semester population health course, and they completed a reflective writing assignment exploring the challenges of caring for vulnerable patients. Pre- and posttest mean survey scores were compared, and reflective writing assignments were analyzed for themes concerning social empathy. Data from 130 students were analyzed. Scores for the contextual understanding of systemic barriers domain increased significantly. There was a trend toward increased cumulative social empathy scores that did not reach statistical significance. Students' essays revealed three themes relating to individual empathy as the foundation for social empathy; civic and moral obligations; and the role of institutional practices in caring for vulnerable groups. This study extends understanding of empathy beyond care for the individual to include care for vulnerable groups. Thus, social empathy may function as a valuable concept in developing curricula to support students' commitment to care for the underserved. Educators first need to address the many barriers students cited that impede both individual and social empathy.

  15. Can Children Construct Inverse Relations in Arithmetic? Evidence for Individual Differences in the Development of Conceptual Understanding and Computational Skill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Camilla K.; Bryant, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Understanding conceptual relationships is an important aspect of learning arithmetic. Most studies of arithmetic, however, do not distinguish between children's understanding of a concept and their ability to identify situations in which it might be relevant. We compared 8- to 9-year-old children's use of a computational shortcut based on the…

  16. Autonomy, Vulnerability, Recognition, and Justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderson, J.H.; Honneth, A.

    2005-01-01

    One of liberalism’s core commitments is to safeguarding individuals’ autonomy. And a central aspect of liberal social justice is the commitment to protecting the vulnerable. Taken together, and combined with an understanding of autonomy as an acquired set of capacities to lead one’s own life,

  17. Declining vulnerability to river floods and the global benefits of adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongman, Brenden; Winsemius, Hessel C; Aerts, Jeroen C J H; Coughlan de Perez, Erin; van Aalst, Maarten K; Kron, Wolfgang; Ward, Philip J

    2015-05-05

    The global impacts of river floods are substantial and rising. Effective adaptation to the increasing risks requires an in-depth understanding of the physical and socioeconomic drivers of risk. Whereas the modeling of flood hazard and exposure has improved greatly, compelling evidence on spatiotemporal patterns in vulnerability of societies around the world is still lacking. Due to this knowledge gap, the effects of vulnerability on global flood risk are not fully understood, and future projections of fatalities and losses available today are based on simplistic assumptions or do not include vulnerability. We show for the first time (to our knowledge) that trends and fluctuations in vulnerability to river floods around the world can be estimated by dynamic high-resolution modeling of flood hazard and exposure. We find that rising per-capita income coincided with a global decline in vulnerability between 1980 and 2010, which is reflected in decreasing mortality and losses as a share of the people and gross domestic product exposed to inundation. The results also demonstrate that vulnerability levels in low- and high-income countries have been converging, due to a relatively strong trend of vulnerability reduction in developing countries. Finally, we present projections of flood losses and fatalities under 100 individual scenario and model combinations, and three possible global vulnerability scenarios. The projections emphasize that materialized flood risk largely results from human behavior and that future risk increases can be largely contained using effective disaster risk reduction strategies.

  18. Vulnerability curves vs. vulnerability indicators: application of an indicator-based methodology for debris-flow hazards

    OpenAIRE

    M. Papathoma-Köhle

    2016-01-01

    The assessment of the physical vulnerability of elements at risk as part of the risk analysis is an essential aspect for the development of strategies and structural measures for risk reduction. Understanding, analysing and, if possible, quantifying physical vulnerability is a prerequisite for designing strategies and adopting tools for its reduction. The most common methods for assessing physical vulnerability are vulnerability matrices, vulnerability curves and vulnerab...

  19. Edgeware Security Risk Management: A Three Essay Thesis on Cloud, Virtualization and Wireless Grid Vulnerabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Tyson T.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis identifies three essays which contribute to the foundational understanding of the vulnerabilities and risk towards potentially implementing wireless grid Edgeware technology in a virtualized cloud environment. Since communication networks and devices are subject to becoming the target of exploitation by hackers (e.g. individuals who…

  20. Vulnerability in patients and nurses and the mutual vulnerability in the patient-nurse relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel, Sanne; Vatne, Solfrid

    2017-05-01

    To examine the mutual vulnerability of patients and nurses, anticipating that an enhanced understanding of the phenomenon may help reduce vulnerability. Patient vulnerability is a key issue in nursing, aimed at protecting the patient from harm. In the literature, vulnerability is described both from a risk perspective and a subjective perspective. This implies that the objective dimension of patient vulnerability does not necessarily reflect the patient's own perception of being vulnerable. However, external judgment may influence internal perception. Adding to this complexity, attention has also been drawn to the vulnerability of the nurse. A definition deduced from central literature on vulnerability captures the complexity of objective versus subjective vulnerability. Based on the perspective of vulnerability in general, vulnerability in healthcare services shows how dependency may increase patient vulnerability. Further, despite education, training and supportive settings, patients may increase nurse vulnerability. The core of this mutuality is explored in the light of Martin Heidegger's philosophy of being. The patient's need for help from the nurse opens the patient to engage in supportive and/or harmful encounters. Thus, dependency adds to the vulnerability related to health issues. The nurse's vulnerability lies in her engagement in caring for the patient. If failing to provide proper care, the nurse's existence as 'a good nurse' is threatened. This is exacerbated if the patient turns against the nurse. Therefore, the core of vulnerability seems to lie in the fact that the patient and the nurse are both striving to be the persons they want to be, and the persons they have not yet become. Recognition of the mutual vulnerability in the patient-nurse relationship calls for collective acknowledgement of the demanding nature of caring relationships, for support and for a strengthening of professional skills. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Aging and depression vulnerability interaction results in decreased serotonin innervation associated with reduced BDNF levels in hippocampus of rats bred for learned helplessness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aznar, Susana; Klein, Anders B; Santini, Martin A

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have revealed a strong genetic contribution to the risk for depression. Both reduced hippocampal serotonin neurotransmission and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels have been associated with increased depression vulnerability and are also regulated during aging....... These observations indicate that aging should be taken into account when studying the neurobiological factors behind the vulnerability for depression and that understanding the effect of aging on genetically predisposed individuals may contribute to a better understanding of the pathophysiology behind depression...

  2. Managing a network vulnerability assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Peltier, Thomas R; Blackley, John A

    2003-01-01

    Managing a Network Vulnerability Assessment provides a formal framework for finding and eliminating network security threats, ensuring that no vulnerabilities are overlooked. This thorough overview focuses on the steps necessary to successfully manage an assessment, including the development of a scope statement, the understanding and proper use of assessment methodology, the creation of an expert assessment team, and the production of a valuable response report. The book also details what commercial, freeware, and shareware tools are available, how they work, and how to use them.

  3. Looking Back, Looking Forward, Living in the Moment: Understanding the Individual Temporal Perspectives of Secondary School EFL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begic, Ines; Mercer, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Every individual has a different perspective on time, known as "temporal perspective". A person's orientation and attitude towards time can have a profound effect on their behaviour and motivation. In Second Language Acquisition, a variety of work has considered learners and their behaviours from various temporal perspectives. However,…

  4. Understanding the experiences and needs of individuals with Spinal Muscular Atrophy and their parents: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Ying; McGraw, Sarah; Henne, Jeff; Jarecki, Jill; Hobby, Kenneth; Yeh, Wei-Shi

    2015-10-24

    The clinical features of SMA, which range along a spectrum of severity, are relatively well described. In contrast, the literature on how individuals with SMA and their families experience this condition is limited. To address this gap, we undertook a qualitative study with individuals affected by SMA Types I, II and III, parents of those affected, and clinicians. We completed 16 focus group sessions and 37 interviews in the US with 96 participants including: 21 with individuals with SMA; 64 parents of individuals affected by SMA; and 11 clinicians who specialize in the care of SMA patients. The Diagnostic Journey: Families reported substantial diagnostic delays owing to: 1) lack of awareness and knowledge about SMA; 2) the difficulty of distinguishing normal from abnormal development; and 3) the challenge of differential diagnosis. Lack of sensitivity in how clinicians communicated this potentially devastating diagnosis compounded parents' negative impressions. Newborn Screening: Parents generally held positive views about adding SMA to newborn screening panels. For example, it would: 1) enable earlier access to care; 2) shorten the diagnostic journey; and 3) give families more time to prepare to care for a disabled child. Some noted negative outcomes such as prematurely affecting a parent's relationship with a child before symptoms are evident. The Psychosocial Impact of Living with SMA: Ten thematic areas characterized the impact: 1) confronting premature death; 2) making difficult treatment choices; 3) fearing the loss of functional ability; 4) coming to terms with lost expectations; 5) loss of sleep and stress; 6) stigma; 7) limitations on social activities; 8) independence; 9) uncertainty and helplessness; and 10) family finances. The results of this study suggest high levels of burden experienced by individuals with SMA and their families. The difficulties of living with SMA begin with the long and often arduous process of finding a diagnosis for their child

  5. Fuzzing and Vulnerabilities Search

    OpenAIRE

    Stanislav Evgenyevich Kirillov; Nikolai Petrovich Lavrentiev

    2013-01-01

    Fuzzing for vulnerabilities can be very effective if we know the input data format. This work contains description of network message format recovery algorithm and the usage of restored data model in fuzzing and vulnerabilities search.

  6. Fuzzing and Vulnerabilities Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Evgenyevich Kirillov

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Fuzzing for vulnerabilities can be very effective if we know the input data format. This work contains description of network message format recovery algorithm and the usage of restored data model in fuzzing and vulnerabilities search.

  7. Mean Variance Vulnerability

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Eichner

    2008-01-01

    This paper transfers the concept of Gollier and Pratt's (Gollier, C., J. W. Pratt. 1996. Risk vulnerability and the tempering effect of background risk. Econometrica 64 1109-1123) risk vulnerability into mean variance preferences. Risk vulnerability is shown to be equivalent to the slope of the mean variance indifference curve being decreasing in mean and increasing in variance. Next, we introduce the notion of mean variance vulnerability to link the concepts of decreasing absolute risk avers...

  8. What Does Vulnerability Mean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parley, Fiona F

    2011-01-01

    Protection of those deemed vulnerable has received increasing attention since 2000. This article reports on care staff views of vulnerability using original data from a research study (Parley. "Vulnerability and abuse: an exploration of views of care staff working with people who have learning disabilities," PhD Thesis, 2007) in which care staff…

  9. Understanding the social effects of emotion regulation: the mediating role of authenticity for individual differences in suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Tammy; John, Oliver P

    2013-04-01

    Individuals differ in the strategies they use to regulate their emotions (e.g., suppression, reappraisal), and these regulatory strategies can differentially influence social outcomes. However, the mechanisms underlying these social effects remain to be specified. We examined one potential mediator that arises directly from emotion-regulatory effort (expression of positive emotion), and another mediator that does not involve emotion processes per se, but instead results from the link between regulation and self-processes (subjective inauthenticity). Across three studies, only inauthenticity mediated the link between habitual use of suppression and poor social functioning (lower relationship satisfaction, lower social support). These findings replicated across individuals socialized in Western and East Asian cultural contexts, younger and older adults, when predicting social functioning concurrently and a decade later, and even when broader adjustment was controlled. Thus, the social costs of suppression do not seem to be due to reduced positive emotion expression but rather the incongruence between inner-self and outer-behavior. Reappraisal was not consistently related to social functioning. Implications of these findings for emotion processes, self processes, and interpersonal relationships are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. Vulnerability, Health Agency and Capability to Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straehle, Christine

    2016-01-01

    One of the defining features of the capability approach (CA) to health, as developed in Venkatapuram's book Health Justice, is its aim to enable individual health agency. Furthermore, the CA to health hopes to provide a strong guideline for assessing the health-enabling content of social and political conditions. In this article, I employ the recent literature on the liberal concept of vulnerability to assess the CA. I distinguish two kinds of vulnerability. Considering circumstantial vulnerability, I argue that liberal accounts of vulnerability concerned with individual autonomy, align with the CA to health. Individuals should, as far as possible, be able to make health-enabling decisions about their lives, and their capability to do so should certainly not be hindered by public policy. The CA to health and a vulnerability-based analysis then work alongside to define moral responsibilities and designate those who hold them. Both approaches demand social policy to address circumstances that hinder individuals from taking health-enabling decisions. A background condition of vulnerability, on the other hand, even though it hampers the capability for health, does not warrant the strong moral claim proposed by the CA to health to define health as a meta-capability that should guide social policy. Nothing in our designing social policy could change the challenge to health agency when we deal with background conditions of vulnerability. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Assessing understanding of individual risk and symptoms of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in patients prescribed natalizumab for multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, Louise; Vijiaratnam, Nirosen; Skibina, Olga

    2017-02-01

    Natalizumab, a monoclonal antibody directed against α4 integrin, is a highly efficacious treatment commonly used in relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis. Natalizumab is associated with the potentially fatal, rare, demyelinating, opportunistic brain infection, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). Prognosis and disability from PML are determined by early diagnosis. Written tools are mandated in Australia and other prescribing countries with the aim to help patients understand the risks associated with treatment and ensure familiarity with the early symptoms of PML. We aimed to assess if these tools achieve such an outcome. A cross-sectional survey was conducted using a convenience sample of multiple sclerosis patients prescribed natalizumab presenting to the infusion centre at a major tertiary hospital. Patients were offered a multi-choice questionnaire to assess their knowledge on the treatment risks and surveillance requirements of their therapy. Three specific questions were highlighted by the researchers as crucial to patient understanding of PML and defined as basic knowledge. A total of 48 patients in our hospital was prescribed natalizumab; 37 responded. A total of 16 (43.2%) patients answered all three basic knowledge questions correctly. There was no difference in the ability to answer these questions based on length of treatment or co-ownership knowledge between patients with base knowledge and without. Natalizumab is associated with an increased risk of PML. Early detection and treatment of PML results in improved patient outcomes. Patient knowledge and co-partnership in the utilisation of PML risk tools is relevant in ensuring early detection. Our findings question the ability of currently sanctioned tools to inform patients of basic knowledge of PML and their risk of developing PML. A future study with a repetitive education approach and repeating the questionnaire at multiple time points would be of interest. © 2016 Royal Australasian

  12. Assessing the Understanding of Pharmaceutical Pictograms among Cultural Minorities: The Example of Hindu Individuals Communicating in European Portuguese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanji, Lakhan; Xu, Sensen; Cavaco, Afonso

    2018-03-05

    One of the sources of poor health outcomes is the lack of compliance with the prescribed treatment plans, often due to communication barriers between healthcare professionals and patients. Pictograms are a form of communication that conveys meaning through its pictorial resemblance to a physical object or an action. Pharmaceutical pictograms are often associated with a better comprehension of treatment regimens, although their use is still subject to limitations. The main goal of this study was to examine the potential understanding of pharmaceutical pictograms by a cultural minority when providing patient information while comparing the effectiveness of two reference systems (United States Pharmacopeia USP and International Pharmacy Federation FIP) for this purpose. A self-administered questionnaire was developed comprising 30 pictograms, 15 selected from the United States Pharmacopeia Dispensing Information and the equivalent from the International Pharmaceutical Federation. The questionnaire comprised plain instructions, socio-demographic data, self-reported language fluency and pictogram labels in Portuguese presented to conveniently selected members of the Hindu community of Lisbon (Portugal) until reaching a quota of 50. Participants showed difficulties in understanding some pictograms, which was related to the self-reported reduced fluency in Portuguese. Overall, the interpretation of USP pictograms was better than FIP ones, as well as for pictograms composed of multiple images, presenting a negative reading, or when conveying information unrelated to medication instructions. Even using internationally validated pictograms, added care should be taken when community pharmacists use such communication resources with cultural minorities. It is important not to disregard other forms of patient communication and information, considering pictograms as a complement to other forms of patient counselling.

  13. Understanding the Relationship between Social Cognition and Word Difficulty. A Language Based Analysis of Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aramaki, E; Shikata, S; Miyabe, M; Usuda, Y; Asada, K; Ayaya, S; Kumagaya, S

    2015-01-01

    Few quantitative studies have been conducted on the relationship between society and its languages. Individuals with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) are known to experience social hardships, and a wide range of clinical information about their quality of life has been provided through numerous narrative analyses. However, the narratives of ASD patients have thus far been examined mainly through qualitative approaches. In this study, we analyzed adults with ASD to quantitatively examine the relationship between language abilities and ASD severity scores. We generated phonetic transcriptions of speeches by 16 ASD adults at an ASD workshop, and divided the participants into 2 groups according to their Social Responsiveness Scale(TM), 2nd Edition (SRS(TM)-2) scores (where higher scores represent more severe ASD): Group A comprised high-scoring ASD adults (SRS(TM)-2 score: ≥ 76) and Group B comprised low- and intermediate-scoring ASD adults (SRS(TM)-2 score: relationships between the language ability scores and ASD severity scores were compared. Group A showed a marginally negative correlation with the level of Japanese word difficulty (p applications of these findings may be available in the near future, and there is a need for further detailed study on language metrics designed for ASD adults.

  14. Identifying and Understanding the Health Information Experiences and Preferences of Individuals With TBI, SCI, and Burn Injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan T Coffey MPH

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Traumatic brain injury, spinal cord injury, and burn injury can cause lifelong disability and changes in quality of life. In order to meet the challenges of postinjury life, various types of health information are needed. We sought to identify preferred sources of health information and services for persons with these injuries and discover how accessibility could be improved. Methods: Thirty-three persons with injury participated in semistructured interviews. Responses to interview questions were coded using NVivo. Results: Participants’ difficulties accessing health information varied by injury type and individually. The majority of respondents found information via the Internet and advocated its use when asked to describe their ideal health information system. Nearly all participants supported the development of a comprehensive care website. When searching for health information, participants sought doctor and support group networks, long-term health outcomes, and treatments specific to their injury. Conclusion: To optimize the quality of health information resources, Internet-based health-care platforms should add or highlight access points to connect patients to medical professionals and support networks while aggregating specialized, injury-specific research and treatment information.

  15. Modelling farm vulnerability to flooding: A step toward vulnerability mitigation policies appraisal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brémond, P.; Abrami, G.; Blanc, C.; Grelot, F.

    2009-04-01

    flood. In the case of farm activities, vulnerability mitigation consists in implementing measures which can be: physical (equipment or electric power system elevation), organizational (emergency or recovery plan) or financial (insurance). These measures aim at decreasing the total damage incurred by farmers in case of flooding. For instance, if equipment is elevated, it will not suffer direct damage such as degradation. As a consequence, equipment will be available to continue production or recovery tasks, thus, avoiding indirect damage such as delays, indebtedness… The effects of these policies on farms, in particular vulnerability mitigation cannot be appraised using current methodologies mainly because they do not consider farm as a whole and focus on direct damage at the land plot scale (loss of yield). Moreover, since vulnerability mitigation policies are quite recent, few examples of implementation exist and no feedback experience can be processed. Meanwhile, decision makers and financial actors require more justification of the efficiency of public fund by economic appraisal of the projects. On the Rhône River, decision makers asked for an economic evaluation of the program of farm vulnerability mitigation they plan to implement. This implies to identify the effects of the measures to mitigate farm vulnerability, and to classify them by comparing their efficacy (avoided damage) and their cost of implementation. In this presentation, we propose and discuss a conceptual model of vulnerability at the farm scale. The modelling, in Unified Modelling Language, enabled to represent the ties between spatial, organizational and temporal dimensions, which are central to understanding of farm vulnerability and resilience to flooding. Through this modelling, we encompass three goals: To improve the comprehension of farm vulnerability and create a framework that allow discussion with experts of different disciplines as well as with local farmers; To identify data which

  16. Crianças e adolescentes em situação de rua: contribuições para a compreensão dos processos de vulnerabilidade e desfiliação social Children and adolescents in street situation: contributions to an understanding of vulnerability and disaffiliation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Tavares Gontijo

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available O conceito de vulnerabilidade vem sendo discutido no campo da saúde coletiva como um potencial instrumento para transformação nas práticas de saúde, uma vez que possibilita uma articulação entre indivíduo-coletivo. Entendendo a saúde como um processo de subjetivação determinada por contextos sociais, culturais e históricos, o presente artigo pretende abordar o tema crianças e adolescentes em situação de rua, a partir do conceito de vulnerabilidade, com base nas lentes teóricas apresentadas por Robert Castel. Castel entende a situação de marginalidade vivenciada por diferentes indivíduos e grupos sociais de forma dinâmica, através dos eixos do trabalho e da inserção relacional. No que se refere às crianças e adolescentes em situação de rua, acreditamos que elas refletem um processo de intensificação da vulnerabilidade (que culmina na desfiliação a que estão submetidas milhares de famílias brasileiras, em virtude do quadro de extrema desigualdade social vivenciado em nosso país. Esperamos que nossas reflexões contribuam para a construção de um referencial teórico em saúde coletiva que forneça subsídios para o planejamento e implementação de ações de saúde direcionadas a esta população.The concept of vulnerability is being discussed in the public health area as a potential tool toward the transformation of the health practices for allowing an articulation individual-community. Understanding health as a process of subjectivation determined by social, cultural and historical contexts, this article aims to approach the question children and adolescents in street situation on the basis of the concept of civil vulnerability, using the theoretical background presented by Robert Castel. This author understands the social marginalization lived by different individuals and social groups in a dynamic form, determined by the association of work and social insertion. As refers to children and adolescents in

  17. Multiple perspective vulnerability analysis of the power network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuliang; Zhang, Jianhua; Duan, Na

    2018-02-01

    To understand the vulnerability of the power network from multiple perspectives, multi-angle and multi-dimensional vulnerability analysis as well as community based vulnerability analysis are proposed in this paper. Taking into account of central China power grid as an example, correlation analysis of different vulnerability models is discussed. Then, vulnerabilities produced by different vulnerability metrics under the given vulnerability models and failure scenarios are analyzed. At last, applying the community detecting approach, critical areas of central China power grid are identified, Vulnerable and robust communities on both topological and functional perspective are acquired and analyzed. The approach introduced in this paper can be used to help decision makers develop optimal protection strategies. It will be also useful to give a multiple vulnerability analysis of the other infrastructure systems.

  18. VULNERABILITY OF COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARMEAN ANDREEA

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In present, the study of vulnerability of companies is increasing in every field due to the unstable economic environment influences. The object of this research is to define and identify vulnerabilities of companies and the establishment of evaluation methods at their level. This article emphasizes the importance and usefulness of one of the best known model in this way, from our point of view, namely Băileşteanu, Negrila Pattern. This pattern covers both external factors and internal ones, that increase vulnerabilities of companies, and fit the companies in which the state of vulnerability are (vitality, viability, vulnerability, high vulnerability, difficulty and high difficulty, with a matrix. The result of the research is that any company belonging to any field, can be analyzed using this model, and assigned to one of the conditions defined within.

  19. Incremental Risk Vulnerability

    OpenAIRE

    Günter Franke; Richard C. Stapleton; Marti G. Subrahmanyam

    2005-01-01

    We present a necessary and sufficient condition on an agent's utility function for a simple mean preserving spread in an independent background risk to increase the agent's risk aversion (incremental risk vulnerability). Gollier and Pratt (1996) have shown that declining and convex risk aversion as well as standard risk aversion are sufficient for risk vulnerability. We show that these conditions are also sufficient for incremental risk vulnerability. In addition, we present sufficient condit...

  20. Vulnerability of ground water to contamination, northern Bexar County, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Amy R.

    2003-01-01

    The Trinity aquifer, composed of Lower Cretaceous carbonate rocks, largely controls the ground-water hydrology in the study area of northern Bexar County, Texas. Discharge from the Trinity aquifer recharges the downgradient, hydraulically connected Edwards aquifer one of the most permeable and productive aquifers in the Nation and the sole source of water for more than a million people in south-central Texas. The unconfined, karstic outcrop of the Edwards aquifer makes it particularly vulnerable to contamination resulting from urbanization that is spreading rapidly northward across an "environmentally sensitive" recharge zone of the Edwards aquifer and its upgradient "catchment area," composed mostly of the less permeable Trinity aquifer.A better understanding of the Trinity aquifer is needed to evaluate water-management decisions affecting the quality of water in both the Trinity and Edwards aquifers. A study was made, therefore, in cooperation with the San Antonio Water System to assess northern Bexar County's vulnerability to ground-water contamination. The vulnerability of ground water to contamination in this area varies with the effects of five categories of natural features (hydrogeologic units, faults, caves and (or) sinkholes, slopes, and soils) that occur on the outcrop and in the shallow subcrop of the Glen Rose Limestone.Where faults affect the rates of recharge or discharge or the patterns of ground-water flow in the Glen Rose Limestone, they likewise affect the risk of water-quality degradation. Caves and sinkholes generally increase the vulnerability of ground water to contamination, especially where their occurrences are concentrated. The slope of land surface can affect the vulnerability of ground water by controlling where and how long a potential contaminant remains on the surface. Disregarding the exception of steep slopes which are assumed to have no soil cover the greater the slope, the less the risk of ground-water contamination. Because most

  1. Selective vulnerabilities and biomarkers in neurocognitive aging [version 1; referees: 4 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachariah Reagh

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available As the world’s population continues to age, an understanding of the aging brain becomes increasingly crucial. This review focuses on several recent ideas and findings in the study of neurocognitive aging, specifically focusing on episodic memory, and discusses how they can be considered and used to guide us moving forward. Topics include dysfunction in neural circuits, the roles of neurogenesis and inhibitory signaling, vulnerability in the entorhinal cortex, individual differences, and comorbidities. These avenues of study provide a brief overview of promising themes in the field and together provide a snapshot of what we believe will be important emerging topics in selective vulnerabilities in the aging brain.

  2. The Vulnerable Subject of Negligence Law

    OpenAIRE

    Stychin, C.

    2012-01-01

    The approach taken by English courts to the duty of care question in negligence has been subject to harsh criticism in recent years. This article examines this fundamental issue in tort law, drawing upon Canadian and Australian jurisprudence by way of comparison. From this analysis, the concept of vulnerability is developed as a productive means of understanding the duty of care. Vulnerability is of increasing interest in legal and political theory and it is of particular relevance to the law...

  3. Ecosystems Vulnerability Challenge and Prize Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. H.; Frame, M. T.; Ferriter, O.; Recker, J.

    2014-12-01

    Stimulating innovation and private sector entrepreneurship is an important way to advance the preparedness of communities, businesses and individuals for the impacts of climate change on certain aspects of ecosystems, such as: fire regimes; water availability; carbon sequestration; biodiversity conservation; weather-related hazards, and the spread of invasive species. The creation of tools is critical to help communities and natural resource managers better understand the impacts of climate change on ecosystems and the potential resulting implications for ecosystem services and conservation efforts. The Department of the Interior is leading an interagency effort to develop the Ecosystems Vulnerability theme as part of the President's Climate Action Plan. This effort will provide seamless access to relevant datasets that can help address such issues as: risk of wildfires to local communities and federal lands; water sensitivity to climate change; and understanding the role of ecosystems in a changing climate. This session will provide an overview of the proposed Ecosystem Vulnerability Challenge and Prize Competition, outlining the intended audience, scope, goals, and overall timeline. The session will provide an opportunity for participants to offer new ideas. Through the Challenge, access will be made available to critical datasets for software developers, engineers, scientists, students, and researchers to develop and submit applications addressing critical science issues facing our Nation today. Application submission criteria and guidelines will also be discussed. The Challenge will be open to all sectors and organizations (i.e. federal, non-federal, private sector, non-profits, and universities) within the United States. It is anticipated the Challenge will run from early January 2015 until spring of 2015.

  4. Intensifying Insecurities: The impact of climate change on vulnerability to human trafficking in the Indian Sundarbans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Molinari

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite an enormous amount of attention paid to the factors that shape vulnerability to human trafficking, such as poverty and a lack of economic opportunity, the debate of evidence for what enables these factors to exist in the first place is relatively less explored. Presently, discussions of the relationship between climate change and human insecurity have been marginal to broader debates about vulnerability to trafficking. This paper argues that this signifies a gap in our understanding of the underlying drivers that push individuals and communities into situations where vulnerability to trafficking amplifies, but also that increase the pull of risky migration pathways and exploitative work situations. This paper proceeds by examining and problematising dominant conceptualisations of vulnerability in human trafficking and climate change discourses. Next, it presents a case study of the Sundarbans region of India to highlight how climate change impacts compound and exacerbate the same factors that shape vulnerability to human trafficking—including environmental degradation, loss of livelihood, destitution, and forced migration. Lastly, it argues for enhanced attention to climate change-related insecurity as evidence of vulnerability to trafficking and outlines what such insights can bring to anti-trafficking efforts.

  5. Assessing European wild fire vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehler, F.; Oliveira, S.; Barredo, J. I.; Camia, A.; Ayanz, J. San Miguel; Pettenella, D.; Mavsar, R.

    2012-04-01

    Wild fire vulnerability is a measure of potential socio-economic damage caused by a fire in a specific area. As such it is an important component of long-term fire risk management, helping policy-makers take informed decisions about adequate expenditures for fire prevention and suppression, and to target those regions at highest risk. This paper presents a first approach to assess wild fire vulnerability at the European level. A conservative approach was chosen that assesses the cost of restoring the previous land cover after a potential fire. Based on the CORINE Land Cover, a restoration cost was established for each land cover class at country level, and an average restoration time was assigned according to the recovery capacity of the land cover. The damage caused by fire was then assessed by discounting the cost of restoring the previous land cover over the restoration period. Three different vulnerability scenarios were considered assuming low, medium and high fire severity causing different levels of damage. Over Europe, the potential damage of wild land fires ranges from 10 - 13, 732 Euro*ha-1*yr-1 for low fire severity, 32 - 45,772 Euro*ha-1*yr-1 for medium fire severity and 54 - 77,812 Euro*ha-1*yr-1 for high fire severity. The least vulnerable are natural grasslands, moors and heathland and sclerophyllous vegetation, while the highest cost occurs for restoring broad-leaved forest. Preliminary validation comparing these estimates with official damage assessments for past fires shows reasonable results. The restoration cost approach allows for a straightforward, data extensive assessment of fire vulnerability at European level. A disadvantage is the inherent simplification of the evaluation procedure with the underestimation of non-markets goods and services. Thus, a second approach has been developed, valuing individual wild land goods and services and assessing their annual flow which is lost for a certain period of time in case of a fire event. However

  6. County Population Vulnerability

    Data.gov (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — This layer summarizes the social vulnerability index for populations within each county in the United States at scales 1:3m and below. It answers the question...

  7. Seismic vulnerability of Yazd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Rashidinia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Occurring earthquake in Iran plateau is common due to that Iran is on seismic belt and having a large number of faults. Studying of Yazd’s vulnerability in Iranian’s seismic code earthquake is the goal of this research. In this study vulnerability of structures depending on the type of soil obtained by HAZUS method and on the basis of the vulnerability of building structures in different regions will be investigated. On the basis of structural damage, levels of damage and loss of life calculated separately for each region. The results showed that in region 1 and 2 because of population density and having most of the old buildings, they have the greatest loss of life and region 3 have a greatest financial and structural damages and it is very vulnerable.

  8. Selective vulnerability in brain hypoxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cervos-Navarro, J.; Diemer, Nils Henrik

    1991-01-01

    Neuropathology, selective vulnerability, brain hypoxia, vascular factors, excitotoxicity, ion homeostasis......Neuropathology, selective vulnerability, brain hypoxia, vascular factors, excitotoxicity, ion homeostasis...

  9. Spatially Representing Vulnerability to Extreme Rain Events Using Midwestern Farmers' Objective and Perceived Attributes of Adaptive Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardezi, Maaz; Arbuckle, J Gordon

    2017-11-29

    Potential climate-change-related impacts to agriculture in the upper Midwest pose serious economic and ecological risks to the U.S. and the global economy. On a local level, farmers are at the forefront of responding to the impacts of climate change. Hence, it is important to understand how farmers and their farm operations may be more or less vulnerable to changes in the climate. A vulnerability index is a tool commonly used by researchers and practitioners to represent the geographical distribution of vulnerability in response to global change. Most vulnerability assessments measure objective adaptive capacity using secondary data collected by governmental agencies. However, other scholarship on human behavior has noted that sociocultural and cognitive factors, such as risk perceptions and perceived capacity, are consequential for modulating people's actual vulnerability. Thus, traditional assessments can potentially overlook people's subjective perceptions of changes in climate and extreme weather events and the extent to which people feel prepared to take necessary steps to cope with and respond to the negative effects of climate change. This article addresses this knowledge gap by: (1) incorporating perceived adaptive capacity into a vulnerability assessment; (2) using spatial smoothing to aggregate individual-level vulnerabilities to the county level; and (3) evaluating the relationships among different dimensions of adaptive capacity to examine whether perceived capacity should be integrated into vulnerability assessments. The result suggests that vulnerability assessments that rely only on objective measures might miss important sociocognitive dimensions of capacity. Vulnerability indices and maps presented in this article can inform engagement strategies for improving environmental sustainability in the region. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  10. Understanding Social Situations (USS): A proof-of-concept social-cognitive intervention targeting theory of mind and attributional bias in individuals with psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiszdon, Joanna M; Roberts, David L; Penn, David L; Choi, Kee-Hong; Tek, Cenk; Choi, Jimmy; Bell, Morris D

    2017-03-01

    In this proof-of-concept trial, we examined the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of Understanding Social Situations (USS), a new social-cognitive intervention that targets higher level social-cognitive skills using methods common to neurocognitive remediation, including drill and practice and hierarchically structured training, which may compensate for the negative effects of cognitive impairment on learning. Thirty-eight individuals with schizophrenia spectrum disorders completed the same baseline assessment of cognitive and social-cognitive functioning twice over a 1-month period to minimize later practice effects, then received 7-10 sessions of USS training, and then completed the same assessment again at posttreatment. USS training was well tolerated and received high treatment satisfaction ratings. Large improvements on the USS Skills Test, which contained items similar to but not identical to training stimuli, suggest that we were effective in teaching specific training content. Content gains generalized to improvements on some of the social-cognitive tasks, including select measures of attributional bias and theory of mind. Importantly, baseline neurocognition did not impact the amount of learning during USS (as indexed by the USS Skills Test) or the amount of improvement on social-cognitive measures. USS shows promise as a treatment for higher level social-cognitive skills. Given the lack of relationship between baseline cognition and treatment effects, it may be particularly appropriate for individuals with lower range cognitive function. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Shaping vulnerability to addiction - the contribution of behavior, neural circuits and molecular mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egervari, Gabor; Ciccocioppo, Roberto; Jentsch, J David; Hurd, Yasmin L

    2018-02-01

    Substance use disorders continue to impose increasing medical, financial and emotional burdens on society in the form of morbidity and overdose, family disintegration, loss of employment and crime, while advances in prevention and treatment options remain limited. Importantly, not all individuals exposed to abused substances effectively develop the disease. Genetic factors play a significant role in determining addiction vulnerability and interactions between innate predisposition, environmental factors and personal experiences are also critical. Thus, understanding individual differences that contribute to the initiation of substance use as well as on long-term maladaptations driving compulsive drug use and relapse propensity is of critical importance to reduce this devastating disorder. In this paper, we discuss current topics in the field of addiction regarding individual vulnerability related to behavioral endophenotypes, neural circuits, as well as genetics and epigenetic mechanisms. Expanded knowledge of these factors is of importance to improve and personalize prevention and treatment interventions in the future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Old age and vulnerability between first, second and third person perspectives. Ethnographic explorations of aging in contemporary Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grøn, Lone

    2016-12-01

    This paper is based on an ethnographic fieldwork aimed at exploring ethnographically how vulnerability in old age is perceived and experienced in contemporary Denmark. The fieldwork showed remarkable differences between two phases of the fieldwork: the first addressing vulnerability from the "outside" through group interviews with professionals, leaders and older people who were not (yet) vulnerable; and the second from the "inside" through more in depth fieldwork with older people who in diverse ways could be seen as vulnerable. After a short introduction to anthropological and social gerontological literature on characteristics of "Western" aging: medicalization, successful, healthy and active aging, I present findings from both phases of this ethnographic fieldwork arguing that the ethnographic approach reveals the composite and complex nature of vulnerability in old age and the constant interactions between first, second and third person perspectives. Through these methodological and analytical moves a complex and empirically tenable understanding of vulnerability in old age has emerged which 1. moves beyond rigid dichotomies that have characterized the study of old age, 2. integrates individual experience, social interaction and the structural and discursive context into the analysis, and 3. reveals the complex interplay between vulnerability and agency in diverse situations and settings of old age. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Abused women's vulnerability in daily life and in contact with psychiatric care: In the light of a caring science perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Örmon, Karin; Hörberg, Ulrica

    2017-08-01

    The aim of the study is to deepen the understanding of abused women's vulnerability in relation to how the abuse and encounters with health care professionals affect life. A further aim is to highlight abused women's vulnerability with a caring science perspective. Experience of abuse has consequences for the mental health of women and girls. Abused women may experience health care as unsupportive, and as a result, often chose not to disclose their experiences of abuse. The results of two qualitative empirical studies were analysed along with a phenomenological meaning analysis in accordance with the methodological principles of Reflective Lifeworld Research. Living one's life with experiences of abuse implies vulnerability, which can prevent abused women from achieving good health. This vulnerability results from insecurity regarding identity, along with the sense that one could have been a different individual if it were not for the abuse and thereby have a more fair chance in life. Being cared for within general psychiatric care could further increase this vulnerability. The healthcare professional's ability to care for the women who have experienced abuse leads to either an encounter of trust or else further suffering for the women. A lifeworld-oriented caring science perspective as a foundation for care can contribute to care for abused women which reaches the existential dimensions of their vulnerability and vulnerable life situation. It is evident that healthcare professionals should deepen their understanding of how abused women live, within a general psychiatric context. This study enables a deeper understanding of abused women's vulnerability in relation to how the abuse and encounters with healthcare professionals affect life. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Finding behavioral and network indicators of brain vulnerability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nava eLevit Binnun

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Resilience research has usually focused on identifying protective factors associated with specific stress conditions (e.g., war, trauma or psychopathologies (e.g., post-traumatic stress disorder. Implicit in this research is the concept that resilience is a global construct, invariant to the unfavorable circumstances or the psychopathologies that may develop (i.e., the mechanisms underlying the resilience of an individual in all cases are expected to be similar. Here we contribute to the understanding of resilience—and its counterpart, vulnerability—by employing an approach that makes use of this invariant quality. We outline two main characteristics that we would expect from indicators of a vulnerable state: that they should appear across disorders regardless of specific circumstances, and that they should appear much before the disorder is evident. Next, we identify two sets of factors that exhibit this pattern of association with psychopathological states. The first was a set of low-level sensory, motor and regulatory irregularities that have been reported across the clinical literature; we suggest that these can serve as behavioral indicators of a vulnerable state. The second was the set of aberrations in network metrics that have been reported in the field of systems neuroscience; we suggest that these can serve as network indicators of a vulnerable state. Finally, we explore how behavioral indicators may be related to network indicators and discuss the clinical and research-related implications of our work.

  15. [Vulnerability factors to depression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugán, Antal; Margitics, Ferenc; Pauwlik, Zsuzsa

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study is to reveal in their complexity the biological and cognitive vulnerability factors, as well as the environmental and socialisation predisposing factors playing a role in the development of depression in non-clinical sample of subjects (college students). Biological vulnerability was examined through temperament and character features, cognitive vulnerability was examined through dysfunctional attitudes, attributional style and coping strategies, and environmental, socialization predisposing factors were observed through certain family socialisation effects (type of family atmosphere, educational objectives, educational and rearing attitudes and style) and parental rearing behaviour. 681 college students were involved in this study (465 females, 216 males). Students were assigned to the study group if they fell in the fourth quartile of the sample based on the results obtained by the Beck's Depression Inventory: 170 persons (128 females, 42 males). Students who fell in the first quartile of the sample on the basis of their results obtained by the mentioned Inventory formed the control group: 204 persons (118 females, 86 males). The results of our study have demonstrated that in a sub-clinical sample the lack of parental care was observed to be a socialization predisposing factor in the development of depression, while certain dysfunctional attitudes and pessimistic interpretation styles were detected to be cognitive vulnerability factors, and harm avoidance proved to be a biological vulnerability factor. We also managed to reveal the effects of certain background factors, which produce their influence indirectly through mediating factors.

  16. Air pollution and vulnerability: solving the puzzle of prioritization

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wright, CY

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available , or individuals within a community may not be equally vulnerable (Makri & Stilianakos, 2008; 3 O’Brien, Quinlan & Ziervogel, 2009). Vulnerability is strongly linked to the complex make-up of society, including socio-economic gender and age characteristics... demographics including average age, sex and household income in 1996 and 2001 (Statistics South Africa, 2007). Certain population demographics may be used to measure vulnerability to health hazards, specifically exposure to excess air pollution, since...

  17. [Family vulnerability: concept development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettengill, Myriam Aparecida Mandetta; Angelo, Margareth

    2005-01-01

    This study aimed to develop the concept of family vulnerability. Data were collected through Qualitative Concept Analysis, which involves two phases. In the first, theoretical phase, data from literature were used for identification of the theoretical attributes of the concept. In the second, field phase, data were collected by means of observations and interviews with twelve families going through the experience of a child's disease and hospitalization. Symbolic Interactionism was used as a theoretical framework, which supported Grounded Theory, applied to guide data collection and analysis in the field phase. As a result of phase II, a theoretical model was built, whose central category defines family vulnerability as FEELING THREATENED IN THEIR AUTONOMY, due to the interactions between family members, illness and health team. The comparison between the two analyses allowed for a theoretical proposition of family vulnerability and advances in terms of theoretical knowledge on family nursing.

  18. Energy vulnerability relationships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, B.R.; Boesen, J.L.

    1998-02-01

    The US consumption of crude oil resources has been a steadily growing indicator of the vitality and strength of the US economy. At the same time import diversity has also been a rapidly developing dimension of the import picture. In the early 1970`s, embargoes of crude oil from Organization of Producing and Exporting Countries (OPEC) created economic and political havoc due to a significant lack of diversity and a unique set of economic, political and domestic regulatory circumstances. The continued rise of imports has again led to concerns over the security of our crude oil resource but threats to this system must be considered in light of the diversity and current setting of imported oil. This report develops several important issues concerning vulnerability to the disruption of oil imports: (1) The Middle East is not the major supplier of oil to the United States, (2) The US is not vulnerable to having its entire import stream disrupted, (3) Even in stable countries, there exist vulnerabilities to disruption of the export stream of oil, (4) Vulnerability reduction requires a focus on international solutions, and (5) DOE program and policy development must reflect the requirements of the diverse supply. Does this increasing proportion of imported oil create a {open_quotes}dependence{close_quotes}? Does this increasing proportion of imported oil present a vulnerability to {open_quotes}price shocks{close_quotes} and the tremendous dislocations experienced during the 1970`s? Finally, what is the vulnerability of supply disruptions from the current sources of imported oil? If oil is considered to be a finite, rapidly depleting resource, then the answers to these questions must be {open_quotes}yes.{close_quotes} However, if the supply of oil is expanding, and not limited, then dependence is relative to regional supply sources.

  19. Social Vulnerability and Ebola Virus Disease in Rural Liberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanturf, John A; Goodrick, Scott L; Warren, Melvin L; Charnley, Susan; Stegall, Christie M

    2015-01-01

    The Ebola virus disease (EVD) epidemic that has stricken thousands of people in the three West African countries of Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Guinea highlights the lack of adaptive capacity in post-conflict countries. The scarcity of health services in particular renders these populations vulnerable to multiple interacting stressors including food insecurity, climate change, and the cascading effects of disease epidemics such as EVD. However, the spatial distribution of vulnerable rural populations and the individual stressors contributing to their vulnerability are unknown. We developed a Social Vulnerability Classification using census indicators and mapped it at the district scale for Liberia. According to the Classification, we estimate that districts having the highest social vulnerability lie in the north and west of Liberia in Lofa, Bong, Grand Cape Mount, and Bomi Counties. Three of these counties together with the capital Monrovia and surrounding Montserrado and Margibi counties experienced the highest levels of EVD infections in Liberia. Vulnerability has multiple dimensions and a classification developed from multiple variables provides a more holistic view of vulnerability than single indicators such as food insecurity or scarcity of health care facilities. Few rural Liberians are food secure and many cannot reach a medical clinic in vulnerable households and populations. Our results can be used to identify vulnerability hotspots where development strategies and allocation of resources to address the underlying causes of vulnerability in Liberia may be warranted. We demonstrate how social vulnerability index approaches can be applied in the context of disease outbreaks, and our methods are relevant elsewhere.

  20. A flood vulnerability index for coastal cities and its use in assessing climate change impacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balica, S.F.; Wright, N.G.; Van der Meulen, F.

    2012-01-01

    Worldwide, there is a need to enhance our understanding of vulnerability and to develop methodologies and tools to assess vulnerability. One of the most important goals of assessing coastal flood vulnerability, in particular, is to create a readily understandable link between the theoretical

  1. Climate Vulnerability and Human Migration in Global Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Grecequet

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between climate change and human migration is not homogenous and depends critically on the differential vulnerability of population and places. If places and populations are not vulnerable, or susceptible, to climate change, then the climate–migration relationship may not materialize. The key to understanding and, from a policy perspective, planning for whether and how climate change will impact future migration patterns is therefore knowledge of the link between climate vulnerability and migration. However, beyond specific case studies, little is known about this association in global perspective. We therefore provide a descriptive, country-level portrait of this relationship. We show that the negative association between climate vulnerability and international migration holds only for countries least vulnerable to climate change, which suggests the potential for trapped populations in more vulnerable countries. However, when analyzed separately by life supporting sector (food, water, health, ecosystem services, human habitat, and infrastructure and vulnerability dimension (exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity, we detect evidence of a relationship among more, but not the most, vulnerable countries. The bilateral (i.e., country-to-country migration show that, on average, people move from countries of higher vulnerability to lower vulnerability, reducing global risk by 15%. This finding is consistent with the idea that migration is a climate adaptation strategy. Still, ~6% of bilateral migration is maladaptive with respect to climate change, with some movement toward countries with greater climate change vulnerability.

  2. Interrogation and false confessions: vulnerability factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudjonsson, G H

    This paper reviews the psychological factors that make some individuals susceptible to making a false confession of having committed a criminal offence. A number of 'vulnerability factors' are highlighted and it is emphasized that these need to be interpreted within the context of all circumstances surrounding the case.

  3. Vulnerability and Adaptation to Climate Change : Agricultural ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    10 juin 2007 ... to facilitate a dialogue between decision-makers and researchers at the national, regional and local level;; to produce spatial information on the factors affecting vulnerability to climate change on the whole island of Madagascar;; to better understand existing and possible adaptation strategies;; to explore ...

  4. Vulnerability and Adaptation to Climate Change : Agricultural ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Unfortunately, they are far from understanding the spatial dimension of vulnerability to climate change, and lack the information, tools and skills to set priorities. This project will allow the University of ... Special journal issue highlights IDRC-supported findings on women's paid work. Policy in Focus publishes a special issue ...

  5. spatially identifying vulnerable areas

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    System (SMDSS) to identify factors that make forest and game reserves vulnerable to rampant human induced ... Commission Act, 1999 (Act 571); and Wildlife Resources (Amendment) (Declaration of Game Reserves). Regulations, 1976 ..... A dynamic simulation model of land-use changes in Sudano-sahelian countries of ...

  6. Vulnerable road users.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2010-01-01

    A group of road users can be defined as ‘vulnerable’ in a number of ways, such as by the amount of protection in traffic (e.g. pedestrians and cyclists) or by the amount of task capability (e.g. the young and the elderly). Vulnerable road users do not usually have a protective 'shell', and also the

  7. Anaphylaxis vulnerable groups

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ehab

    Professor of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt. Age groups vulnerable to serious attacks of anaphylaxis include infants, teenagers, pregnant women, and the elderly. Concomitant diseases, such as severe or uncontrolled asthma, cardiovascular disease, mastocytosis or clonal mast cell ...

  8. Modelling self-assessed vulnerability to HIV and its associated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Globally, individuals' self-assessment of vulnerability to HIV infection is important to maintain safer sexual behaviour and reduce risky behaviours. However, determinants of self-perceived risk of HIV infection are not well documented and differ. We assessed the level of self-perceived vulnerability to HIV ...

  9. Agency and Vulnerability: Reconfiguring the Female Characters in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article recognizes the pressures on an individual's agency and vulnerability to societal containment as constant interplay that accounts for creative dimensions and responses intensified within a love relationship. It locates agency and vulnerability as mutually inclusive within the philosophical nexus of self-actualization ...

  10. Combining demographic and genetic factors to assess population vulnerability in stream species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erin L, Landguth; Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Jones, Leslie W.; Waples, Robin S.; Whited, Diane; Lowe, Winsor H.; Lucotch, John; Neville, Helen; Luikart, Gordon

    2014-01-01

    Accelerating climate change and other cumulative stressors create an urgent need to understand the influence of environmental variation and landscape features on the connectivity and vulnerability of freshwater species. Here, we introduce a novel modeling framework for aquatic systems that integrates spatially explicit, individual-based, demographic and genetic (demogenetic) assessments with environmental variables. To show its potential utility, we simulated a hypothetical network of 19 migratory riverine populations (e.g., salmonids) using a riverscape connectivity and demogenetic model (CDFISH). We assessed how stream resistance to movement (a function of water temperature, fluvial distance, and physical barriers) might influence demogenetic connectivity, and hence, population vulnerability. We present demographic metrics (abundance, immigration, and change in abundance) and genetic metrics (diversity, differentiation, and change in differentiation), and combine them into a single vulnerability index for identifying populations at risk of extirpation. We considered four realistic scenarios that illustrate the relative sensitivity of these metrics for early detection of reduced connectivity: (1) maximum resistance due to high water temperatures throughout the network, (2) minimum resistance due to low water temperatures throughout the network, (3) increased resistance at a tributary junction caused by a partial barrier, and (4) complete isolation of a tributary, leaving resident individuals only. We then applied this demogenetic framework using empirical data for a bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) metapopulation in the upper Flathead River system, Canada and USA, to assess how current and predicted future stream warming may influence population vulnerability. Results suggest that warmer water temperatures and associated barriers to movement (e.g., low flows, dewatering) are predicted to fragment suitable habitat for migratory salmonids, resulting in the loss

  11. The right to health care and vulnerability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Loureiro

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The article seeks to clarify the concept of vulnerability, by taking structural and epochal frailty into account. To understand the right to health care, the author reflects about the fundamental goods, and he then examines how that same right is present in the Portuguese and the Spanish constitutions. The association between vulnerability and the law is also tackled, with a special reference –in dialogue with Herbert Hart– to its fundamental level and to other links between both terms in the field of health. The article closes with a few remarks on posthumanist attempts at saying goodbye to human frailty.

  12. Harnessing Reddit to Understand the Written-Communication Challenges Experienced by Individuals With Mental Health Disorders: Analysis of Texts From Mental Health Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Albert; Conway, Mike

    2018-04-10

    online health communities. Our results also suggest that participating in these platforms has the potential to improve members' written communication. For example, members of all three mental health communities showed statistically significant improvement in both lexical diversity and readability compared with members of the OHC focusing on positive emotion. We provide new insights into the written communication challenges faced by individuals suffering from depression, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia. A comparison with three other online health communities suggests that written communication in mental health communities is significantly more difficult to read, while also consisting of a significantly less diverse lexicon. We contribute practical suggestions for utilizing our findings in Web-based communication settings to enhance members' communicative experience. We consider these findings to be an important step toward understanding and addressing everyday written communication challenges among individuals suffering from mental disorders. ©Albert Park, Mike Conway. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 10.04.2018.

  13. Mangrove vulnerability index using GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunus, Mohd Zulkifli Mohd; Ahmad, Fatimah Shafinaz; Ibrahim, Nuremira

    2018-02-01

    Climate change, particularly its associated sea level rise, is major threat to mangrove coastal areas, and it is essential to develop ways to reduce vulnerability through strategic management planning. Environmental vulnerability can be understood as a function of exposure to impacts and the sensitivity and adaptive capacity of ecological systems towards environmental tensors. Mangrove vulnerability ranking using up to 14 parameters found in study area, which is in Pulau Kukup and Sg Pulai, where 1 is low vulnerability and 5 is very high vulnerability. Mangrove Vulnerability Index (MVI) is divided into 3 main categories Physical Mangrove Index (PMI), Biological Mangrove Index (BMI) and Hazard Mangrove Index (HMI).

  14. Human Rights and Vulnerability. Examples of Sexism and Ageism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª DEL CARMEN BARRANCO AVILÉS

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A human rights based approach applied to the idea of ‘vulnerable group’ connects vulnerability and structural discrimination. The Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disability provides some elements that allow to state that we are facing a new paradigm in the International Human Rights Law. One of the keys for the understanding of this new framework is the assumption of the disadvantage related to vulnerability as, at least in a part, socially built and ideologically justified. Sexism and ageism are examples of how ideologies reinforce vulnerability of women, children and aged persons transforming them in groups which members are in risk of discrimination.

  15. Cotidianos de famílias de crianças convivendo com doenças crônicas: microssistemas em intersecção com vulnerabilidades individuais Diario de vida de las familias de los niños que viven con enfermedades crónicas: microsistemas en la intersección con la vulnerabilidad individual Daily life of children living with chronic diseases: microsystems in the intersection with individual vulnerability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Lourdes Rodrigues Pedroso

    2010-12-01

    familiar como objeto de la construcción del componente individual de la vulnerabilidad. La búsqueda de una intersección muestra que un componente individual de la vulnerabilidad tiene reflejos en la constitución del microsistema, lo que reafirma la importancia de visualizar el individuo como el objeto de la construcción y también como el constructor del ambiente donde transcurre su existencia.Vulnerability situations the environment where a child and its family are inserted may be translated into life and development conditions. This study aimed to learn the perceptions by the family of vulnerability situations and its components, related to the ecological environment, in children who face chronic diseases, hospitalized in a Hospital School in the city of Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. It is a quantitative research from the perspective of a descriptive exploratory study. Data was collected from nine participants, by using dynamic activities of creativity and sensibility, analyzed according to the Content Analysis referential. Three categories of analysis emerged, and here the familiar micro-system was explored as construct of the individual component of vulnerability. The search for an intersection demonstrates that an individual component of vulnerability has reflexes on the micro-system constitution, which reinforces the importance of envisioning the individual as construct and constructor of the environment where his/her existence takes place.

  16. Dynamics of immune system vulnerabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stromberg, Sean P.

    The adaptive immune system can be viewed as a complex system, which adapts, over time, to reflect the history of infections experienced by the organism. Understanding its operation requires viewing it in terms of tradeoffs under constraints and evolutionary history. It typically displays "robust, yet fragile" behavior, meaning common tasks are robust to small changes but novel threats or changes in environment can have dire consequences. In this dissertation we use mechanistic models to study several biological processes: the immune response, the homeostasis of cells in the lymphatic system, and the process that normally prevents autoreactive cells from entering the lymphatic system. Using these models we then study the effects of these processes interacting. We show that the mechanisms that regulate the numbers of cells in the immune system, in conjunction with the immune response, can act to suppress autoreactive cells from proliferating, thus showing quantitatively how pathogenic infections can suppress autoimmune disease. We also show that over long periods of time this same effect can thin the repertoire of cells that defend against novel threats, leading to an age correlated vulnerability. This vulnerability is shown to be a consequence of system dynamics, not due to degradation of immune system components with age. Finally, modeling a specific tolerance mechanism that normally prevents autoimmune disease, in conjunction with models of the immune response and homeostasis we look at the consequences of the immune system mistakenly incorporating pathogenic molecules into its tolerizing mechanisms. The signature of this dynamic matches closely that of the dengue virus system.

  17. Vulnerability of network of networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havlin, S.; Kenett, D. Y.; Bashan, A.; Gao, J.; Stanley, H. E.

    2014-10-01

    Our dependence on networks - be they infrastructure, economic, social or others - leaves us prone to crises caused by the vulnerabilities of these networks. There is a great need to develop new methods to protect infrastructure networks and prevent cascade of failures (especially in cases of coupled networks). Terrorist attacks on transportation networks have traumatized modern societies. With a single blast, it has become possible to paralyze airline traffic, electric power supply, ground transportation or Internet communication. How, and at which cost can one restructure the network such that it will become more robust against malicious attacks? The gradual increase in attacks on the networks society depends on - Internet, mobile phone, transportation, air travel, banking, etc. - emphasize the need to develop new strategies to protect and defend these crucial networks of communication and infrastructure networks. One example is the threat of liquid explosives a few years ago, which completely shut down air travel for days, and has created extreme changes in regulations. Such threats and dangers warrant the need for new tools and strategies to defend critical infrastructure. In this paper we review recent advances in the theoretical understanding of the vulnerabilities of interdependent networks with and without spatial embedding, attack strategies and their affect on such networks of networks as well as recently developed strategies to optimize and repair failures caused by such attacks.

  18. Understanding balance differences in individuals with multiple sclerosis with mild disability: An investigation of differences in sensory feedback on postural and dynamic balance control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denomme, Luke T.

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease that affects the central nervous system (CNS) and causes a broad range of neurological symptoms. One of the most common symptoms experienced by individuals with MS is poor balance control during standing and walking. The main mechanism underlying impaired balance control in MS appears to result from slowed somatosensory conduction and impaired central integration. The current thesis assessed postural and dynamic control of balance of 'individuals with MS with mild disability' (IwMS). IwMS were compared to 'healthy age-matched individuals' (HAMI) and community-dwelling 'older adults' (OA). The purpose of this thesis was to quantify differences in postural and dynamic control of balance in IwMS to the two populations who display balance control differences across the lifespan and represent two extreme ends of the balance control continuum due to natural aging. IwMS (n = 12, x¯age: 44 +/- 9.4 years), HAMI (n = 12, x¯age: 45 +/- 9.9 years) and community-dwelling OA (n = 12, x¯ age: 68.1 +/- 4.5 years) postural and dynamic balance control were evaluated during a Romberg task as well as a dynamic steering task. The Romberg task required participants to stand with their feet together and hands by their sides for 45 seconds with either their eyes open or closed. The dynamic steering task required participants to walk and change direction along the M-L plane towards a visual goal. Results from these two tasks reveal that IwMS display differences in postural control when compared to HAMI when vision was removed as well as differences in dynamic stability margin during steering situations. During the postural control task IwMS displayed faster A-P and M-L COP velocities when vision was removed and their COP position was closer to their self-selected maximum stability limits compared to HAMI. Assessment of dynamic stability during the steering task revealed that IwMS displayed reduced walking speed and cadence during the

  19. Perspectives on contextual vulnerability in discourses of climate conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okpara, U. T.; Stringer, L. C.; Dougill, A. J.

    2016-02-01

    The science of climate security and conflict is replete with controversies. Yet the increasing vulnerability of politically fragile countries to the security consequences of climate change is widely acknowledged. Although climate conflict reflects a continuum of conditional forces that coalesce around the notion of vulnerability, how different portrayals of vulnerability influence the discursive formation of climate conflict relations remains an exceptional but under-researched issue. This paper combines a systematic discourse analysis with a vulnerability interpretation diagnostic tool to explore (i) how discourses of climate conflict are constructed and represented, (ii) how vulnerability is communicated across discourse lines, and (iii) the strength of contextual vulnerability against a deterministic narrative of scarcity-induced conflict, such as that pertaining to land. Systematically characterising climate conflict discourses based on the central issues constructed, assumptions about mechanistic relationships, implicit normative judgements and vulnerability portrayals, provides a useful way of understanding where discourses differ. While discourses show a wide range of opinions "for" and "against" climate conflict relations, engagement with vulnerability has been less pronounced - except for the dominant context centrism discourse concerned about human security (particularly in Africa). In exploring this discourse, we observe an increasing sense of contextual vulnerability that is oriented towards a concern for complexity rather than predictability. The article concludes by illustrating that a turn towards contextual vulnerability thinking will help advance a constructivist theory-informed climate conflict scholarship that recognises historicity, specificity, and variability as crucial elements of contextual totalities of any area affected by climate conflict.

  20. Drought vulnerability assesssment and mapping in Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imani, Yasmina; Lahlou, Ouiam; Bennasser Alaoui, Si; Naumann, Gustavo; Barbosa, Paulo; Vogt, Juergen

    2014-05-01

    Drought vulnerability assessment and mapping in Morocco Authors: Yasmina Imani 1, Ouiam Lahlou 1, Si Bennasser Alaoui 1 Paulo Barbosa 2, Jurgen Vogt 2, Gustavo Naumann 2 1: Institut Agronomique et Vétérinaire Hassan II (IAV Hassan II), Rabat Morocco. 2: European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC), Institute for Environment and Sustainability (IES), Ispra, Italy. In Morocco, nearly 50% of the population lives in rural areas. They are mostly small subsistent farmers whose production depends almost entirely on rainfall. They are therefore very sensitive to drought episodes that may dramatically affect their incomes. Although, as a consequence of the increasing frequency, length and severity of drought episodes in the late 90's, the Moroccan government decided, to move on from a crisis to a risk management approach, drought management remains in practice mainly reactive and often ineffective. The lack of effectiveness of public policy is in part a consequence of the poor understanding of drought vulnerability at the rural community level, which prevents the development of efficient mitigation actions and adaptation strategies, tailored to the needs and specificities of each rural community. Thus, the aim of this study is to assess and map drought vulnerability at the rural commune level in the Oum Er-Rbia basin which is a very heterogeneous basin, showing a big variability of climates, landscapes, cropping systems and social habits. Agricultural data collected from the provincial and local administrations of Agriculture and socio-economic data from the National Department of Statistics were used to compute a composite vulnerability index (DVI) integrating four different components: (i) the renewable natural capacity, (ii) the economic capacity, (iii) human and civic resources, and (iv) infrastructure and technology. The drought vulnerability maps that were derived from the computation of the DVI shows that except very specific areas, most of the Oum er Rbia

  1. Fuzzy vulnerability matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baron, Jorge H.; Rivera, S.S.

    2000-01-01

    The so-called vulnerability matrix is used in the evaluation part of the probabilistic safety assessment for a nuclear power plant, during the containment event trees calculations. This matrix is established from what is knows as Numerical Categories for Engineering Judgement. This matrix is usually established with numerical values obtained with traditional arithmetic using the set theory. The representation of this matrix with fuzzy numbers is much more adequate, due to the fact that the Numerical Categories for Engineering Judgement are better represented with linguistic variables, such as 'highly probable', 'probable', 'impossible', etc. In the present paper a methodology to obtain a Fuzzy Vulnerability Matrix is presented, starting from the recommendations on the Numerical Categories for Engineering Judgement. (author)

  2. The space of vulnerability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Sgarbi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Archi-tecture has lost the reference to its prop “Archi” to develop mostly its “Tecture”: a deceitful form of nihilism, which has given full credit to a hurricane of instruments for which we know no purpose. Any distinction between city and architecture is purely contingent. Contingency is relevant but only in so far as it makes one lose any sense of scale. Many of our cities do not work because our style of life eradicates the sense of hospitality. The city becomes the place where we un-learn how to live together. Hospitality is vulnerability – the construction of vulnerability is the true beauty, the only deterrent against stupidity. Learn to live with the others, to approximate the alterity and its unpredictability. The basic tools of conviviality are the common goods of inter-disciplinarity. Learn to cultivate and educate yourself to phenomenal incompleteness.

  3. VT - Vermont Social Vulnerability Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Social vulnerability refers to the resilience of communities when responding to or recovering from threats to public health. The Vermont Social Vulnerability Index...

  4. Ransomware - Threats Vulnerabilities And Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadeem Shah

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Attack methodologies transform with the transforming dynamics of technology. Consequently it becomes imperative that individuals and organization implement the highest levels of security within their devices and infrastructure for optimal protection against these rapidly evolving attacks. Ransomware is one such attack that never fails to surprise in terms of its ability to identify vulnerabilities and loopholes in technology. This paper discusses the categories of ransomware its common attack vectors and provides a threat landscape with the aim to highlight the true potential and destructive nature of such malware based attacks. In this paper we also present the most current ransomware attack that is still a potential threat and also provide recommendations and strategies for prevention and protection against these attacks. A novel solution is also discussed that could be further worked upon in the future by other researchers and vendors of security devices.

  5. Oil vulnerability index of oil-importing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Eshita

    2008-01-01

    This paper assesses the relative oil vulnerability of 26 net oil-importing countries for the year 2004 on the basis of various indicators - the ratio of value of oil imports to gross domestic product (GDP), oil consumption per unit of GDP, GDP per capita and oil share in total energy supply, ratio of domestic reserves to oil consumption, exposure to geopolitical oil market concentration risks as measured by net oil import dependence, diversification of supply sources, political risk in oil-supplying countries, and market liquidity. The approach using the principal component technique has been adopted to combine these individual indicators into a composite index of oil vulnerability. Such an index captures the relative sensitivity of various economies towards developments of the international oil market, with a higher index indicating higher vulnerability. The results show that there are considerable differences in the values of individual indicators of oil vulnerability and overall oil vulnerability index among the countries (both inter and intraregional). (author)

  6. Human Security and Mutual Vulnerability: The Global Political ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    -Cold War era: the search for an analytical framework that will help us understand this turbulent and chaotic period in human history. His lucid and visionary analysis rests on the concept of mutual vulnerability: that in an increasingly ...

  7. Vulnerability-specific stress generation: An examination of negative cognitive and interpersonal styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Richard T.; Alloy, Lauren B.; Mastin, Becky M.; Choi, Jimmy Y.; Boland, Elaine M.; Jenkins, Abby L.

    2014-01-01

    Although there is substantial evidence documenting the stress generation effect in depression (i.e., the tendency for depression-prone individuals to experience higher rates of life stress to which they contribute), additional research is required to advance current understanding of the specific types of dependent stress (i.e., events influenced by characteristics and attendant behaviors of the individual) relevant to this effect. The present study tested an extension of the stress generation hypothesis, in which the content of dependent stress that is produced by depression-prone individuals is contingent upon, and matches, the nature of their particular vulnerabilities. This extension was tested within the context of two cognitive models (i.e., hopelessness theory [Abramson, Metalsky, & Alloy, 1989] and Cole’s [1990, 1991] competency-based model) and two interpersonal models (i.e., Swann’s [1987] self-verification theory and Coyne’s [1976] interpersonal theory) of depression. Overall, support was obtained for vulnerability-specific stress generation. Specifically, in analyses across vulnerability domains, evidence of stress-generation specificity was found for all domain-specific cognitive vulnerabilities except self-perceived social competence. The within-domain analyses for cognitive vulnerabilities produced more mixed results, but were largely supportive. Additionally, excessive reassurance-seeking was specifically predictive of dependent stress in the social domain, and moderated, but did not mediate, the relation between negative inferential styles overall and in the interpersonal domain and their corresponding generated stress. Finally, no evidence was found for a stress generation effect with negative feedback-seeking. PMID:24679143

  8. Vulnerability survival analysis: a novel approach to vulnerability management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Katheryn A.; Sullivan, John; Cybenko, George

    2017-05-01

    Computer security vulnerabilities span across large, enterprise networks and have to be mitigated by security engineers on a routine basis. Presently, security engineers will assess their "risk posture" through quantifying the number of vulnerabilities with a high Common Vulnerability Severity Score (CVSS). Yet, little to no attention is given to the length of time by which vulnerabilities persist and survive on the network. In this paper, we review a novel approach to quantifying the length of time a vulnerability persists on the network, its time-to-death, and predictors of lower vulnerability survival rates. Our contribution is unique in that we apply the cox proportional hazards regression model to real data from an operational IT environment. This paper provides a mathematical overview of the theory behind survival analysis methods, a description of our vulnerability data, and an interpretation of the results.

  9. [Vulnerability to depression in children and adolescents: update and perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purper-Ouakil, D; Michel, G; Mouren-Siméoni, M-C

    2002-01-01

    their predictive value for the onset of clinical depressive episodes needs further investigation. Familial and individual vulnerability is likely to heighten the depressogenic impact of life events and psycho-social adversity. Prevention interventions have been developed in the United States for children and adolescents at-risk for depression. In France, clinicians witness growing demands from families with affective illness concerned with risk of parent-child transmission of depressive vulnerability, prevention and early identification of symptoms. To meet this kind of emerging needs and to prevent family dysfunction, a preventive program targets offspring of depressed parents and uses clinician-based family approaches. Family and individual sessions aim a better understanding of illness experience and encourage the parents to identify and foster resilience in their children. Another type of preventive intervention focuses on children and adolescents with subclinical depressive symptoms, eventually associated with behavioral problems ou high level of parental conflict, recruited in school settings. These school-based interventions combine cognitive and social problem-solving techniques. Both familial and school-based preventive interventions have proven applicable and promising in high-risk children and adolescents. Perspectives are more systematic identification of risk groups, including youngsters with past or current non affective symptoms who might benefit from depression prevention, long-term evaluation and cross-cultural applications of prevention programs.

  10. HEPA Filter Vulnerability Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GUSTAVSON, R.D.

    2000-01-01

    This assessment of High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filter vulnerability was requested by the USDOE Office of River Protection (ORP) to satisfy a DOE-HQ directive to evaluate the effect of filter degradation on the facility authorization basis assumptions. Within the scope of this assessment are ventilation system HEPA filters that are classified as Safety-Class (SC) or Safety-Significant (SS) components that perform an accident mitigation function. The objective of the assessment is to verify whether HEPA filters that perform a safety function during an accident are likely to perform as intended to limit release of hazardous or radioactive materials, considering factors that could degrade the filters. Filter degradation factors considered include aging, wetting of filters, exposure to high temperature, exposure to corrosive or reactive chemicals, and exposure to radiation. Screening and evaluation criteria were developed by a site-wide group of HVAC engineers and HEPA filter experts from published empirical data. For River Protection Project (RPP) filters, the only degradation factor that exceeded the screening threshold was for filter aging. Subsequent evaluation of the effect of filter aging on the filter strength was conducted, and the results were compared with required performance to meet the conditions assumed in the RPP Authorization Basis (AB). It was found that the reduction in filter strength due to aging does not affect the filter performance requirements as specified in the AB. A portion of the HEPA filter vulnerability assessment is being conducted by the ORP and is not part of the scope of this study. The ORP is conducting an assessment of the existing policies and programs relating to maintenance, testing, and change-out of HEPA filters used for SC/SS service. This document presents the results of a HEPA filter vulnerability assessment conducted for the River protection project as requested by the DOE Office of River Protection

  11. Reducing natural disaster vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinski, Sarah

    2006-04-01

    Because poor countries are vulnerable to the impact of natural disasters, the U.K. Department for International Development (DFID) launched on 30 March a new policy to better integrate natural disaster risk reduction into development and humanitarian activities. Gareth Thomas, U.K. development minister, said, ``There is nothing we can do to stop hurricanes, tsunamis, and earthquakes from striking. But what we can do is help put simple measures in place, such as better built houses, schools, and hospitals alongside more high-tech early warning systems to reduce the loss of life.''

  12. Vulnerability and Cosusceptibility Determine the Size of Network Cascades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Nishikawa, Takashi; Motter, Adilson E.

    2017-01-01

    In a network, a local disturbance can propagate and eventually cause a substantial part of the system to fail in cascade events that are easy to conceptualize but extraordinarily difficult to predict. Here, we develop a statistical framework that can predict cascade size distributions by incorporating two ingredients only: the vulnerability of individual components and the cosusceptibility of groups of components (i.e., their tendency to fail together). Using cascades in power grids as a representative example, we show that correlations between component failures define structured and often surprisingly large groups of cosusceptible components. Aside from their implications for blackout studies, these results provide insights and a new modeling framework for understanding cascades in financial systems, food webs, and complex networks in general.

  13. Spatiotemporal heterogeneity in prey abundance and vulnerability shapes the foraging tactics of an omnivore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayl, Nathaniel; Bastille-Rousseau, Guillaume; Organ, John F.; Mumma, Matthew; Mahoney, Shane P.; Soulliere, Colleen; Lewis, Keith; Otto, Robert; Murray, Dennis; Waits, Lisette; Fuller, Todd

    2018-01-01

    Prey abundance and prey vulnerability vary across space and time, but we know little about how they mediate predator–prey interactions and predator foraging tactics. To evaluate the interplay between prey abundance, prey vulnerability and predator space use, we examined patterns of black bear (Ursus americanus) predation of caribou (Rangifer tarandus) neonates in Newfoundland, Canada using data from 317 collared individuals (9 bears, 34 adult female caribou, 274 caribou calves).During the caribou calving season, we predicted that landscape features would influence calf vulnerability to bear predation, and that bears would actively hunt calves by selecting areas associated with increased calf vulnerability. Further, we hypothesized that bears would dynamically adjust their foraging tactics in response to spatiotemporal changes in calf abundance and vulnerability (collectively, calf availability). Accordingly, we expected bears to actively hunt calves when they were most abundant and vulnerable, but switch to foraging on other resources as calf availability declined.As predicted, landscape heterogeneity influenced risk of mortality, and bears displayed the strongest selection for areas where they were most likely to kill calves, which suggested they were actively hunting caribou. Initially, the per‐capita rate at which bears killed calves followed a type‐I functional response, but as the calving season progressed and calf vulnerability declined, kill rates dissociated from calf abundance. In support of our hypothesis, bears adjusted their foraging tactics when they were less efficient at catching calves, highlighting the influence that predation phenology may have on predator space use. Contrary to our expectations, however, bears appeared to continue to hunt caribou as calf availability declined, but switched from a tactic of selecting areas of increased calf vulnerability to a tactic that maximized encounter rates with calves.Our results reveal that

  14. Spatiotemporal heterogeneity in prey abundance and vulnerability shapes the foraging tactics of an omnivore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayl, Nathaniel D; Bastille-Rousseau, Guillaume; Organ, John F; Mumma, Matthew A; Mahoney, Shane P; Soulliere, Colleen E; Lewis, Keith P; Otto, Robert D; Murray, Dennis L; Waits, Lisette P; Fuller, Todd K

    2018-05-01

    Prey abundance and prey vulnerability vary across space and time, but we know little about how they mediate predator-prey interactions and predator foraging tactics. To evaluate the interplay between prey abundance, prey vulnerability and predator space use, we examined patterns of black bear (Ursus americanus) predation of caribou (Rangifer tarandus) neonates in Newfoundland, Canada using data from 317 collared individuals (9 bears, 34 adult female caribou, 274 caribou calves). During the caribou calving season, we predicted that landscape features would influence calf vulnerability to bear predation, and that bears would actively hunt calves by selecting areas associated with increased calf vulnerability. Further, we hypothesized that bears would dynamically adjust their foraging tactics in response to spatiotemporal changes in calf abundance and vulnerability (collectively, calf availability). Accordingly, we expected bears to actively hunt calves when they were most abundant and vulnerable, but switch to foraging on other resources as calf availability declined. As predicted, landscape heterogeneity influenced risk of mortality, and bears displayed the strongest selection for areas where they were most likely to kill calves, which suggested they were actively hunting caribou. Initially, the per-capita rate at which bears killed calves followed a type-I functional response, but as the calving season progressed and calf vulnerability declined, kill rates dissociated from calf abundance. In support of our hypothesis, bears adjusted their foraging tactics when they were less efficient at catching calves, highlighting the influence that predation phenology may have on predator space use. Contrary to our expectations, however, bears appeared to continue to hunt caribou as calf availability declined, but switched from a tactic of selecting areas of increased calf vulnerability to a tactic that maximized encounter rates with calves. Our results reveal that generalist

  15. Vulnerability and risk perception in the management of HIV/AIDS: Public priorities in a global pandemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Tsasis

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Peter Tsasis1,2, N. Nirupama21School of Health Policy and Management, 2School of Administrative Studies, York University, Toronto, Ontario, CanadaAbstract: Understanding the way perception of risk is shaped and constructed is crucial in understanding why it has been so difficult to mitigate the spread of HIV/AIDS. This paper uses the Pressure and Release (PAR model, used to predict the onset of natural disasters as the conceptual framework. It substitutes vulnerability and risk perception as the trigger factors in the model, in making the case that HIV/AIDS can be characterized as a slow onset disaster. The implications are that vulnerability must be managed and reduced by addressing root causes, dynamic pressures, and unsafe conditions that contribute to the HIV/AIDS pandemic. HIV/AIDS programs must be culturally appropriate and work toward influencing risk perception, while addressing social norms and values that negatively impact vulnerable populations. By impacting cultural and social expectations, individuals will be able to more readily adopt safer sex behaviors. The development of policies and programs addressing the issues in context, as opposed to individual behaviors alone, allows for effective public health intervention. This may have implications for public health measures implemented for combating the spread of HIV/AIDS.Keywords: vulnerability, risk perception, HIV/AIDS, public health intervention

  16. Respect for Human Vulnerability: The Emergence of a New Principle in Bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Have, Henk

    2015-09-01

    Vulnerability has become a popular though controversial topic in bioethics, notably since 2000. As a result, a common body of knowledge has emerged (1) distinguishing between different types of vulnerability, (2) criticizing the categorization of populations as vulnerable, and (3) questioning the practical implications. It is argued that two perspectives on vulnerability, i.e., the philosophical and political, pose challenges to contemporary bioethics discourse: they re-examine the significance of human agency, the primacy of the individual person, and the negativity of vulnerability. As a phenomenon of globalization, vulnerability can only be properly addressed in a global bioethics that takes the social dimension of human existence seriously.

  17. Assessment of social support and its association to depression, self-perceived health and chronic diseases in elderly individuals residing in an area of poverty and social vulnerability in rio de janeiro city, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria T S Lino

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Social support (SS influences the elderly ability to cope with the losses of ageing process. This study was aimed at assessing SS among elderly users of a primary healthcare unit in a poor and violent area of Rio de Janeiro City, and at verifying its association with depression, self-perceived health (SPH, marital status and chronic illnesses. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed based on a convenience sample of 180 individuals aged 60 years or older. SS was measured with part of the Brazilian version of Medical Outcomes Study's SS scale, and SPH and depression were assessed, respectively, through one question and the Brazilian version of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders. SS medians were calculated for the categories of SPH, depression, marital status and chronic illnesses variables, and differences were evaluated with the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. Additionally, Pearson's chi-square test and logistic regression were employed to identify unadjusted and adjusted associations between SS and those variables. RESULTS: The participant's mean age was 73 years old, and level of education was 3 years of school education on average. They were predominantly females (73.3%, and non-married (55.0%. Among them, 74.4% perceived their SS as satisfactory, 55.0% perceived their health as good, 27.8% were diagnosed with major depression and 83.3% had hypertension. Especially for those depressed and with bad SPH, the medians of SS measure were much lower than for others, reaching an unsatisfactory level. Moreover, controlling for other factors, non-depressed individuals were more likely (OR = 2.32 to have satisfactory SS. CONCLUSION: in the violent and poor area explored in this research low SS is highly prevalent in the elderly. Depressed individuals are more likely to have low SS and this condition should be investigated in depressed elderly. The reduced scale is useful for low education

  18. Neighborhood effects on heat deaths: social and environmental predictors of vulnerability in Maricopa County, Arizona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlan, Sharon L; Declet-Barreto, Juan H; Stefanov, William L; Petitti, Diana B

    2013-02-01

    Most heat-related deaths occur in cities, and future trends in global climate change and urbanization may amplify this trend. Understanding how neighborhoods affect heat mortality fills an important gap between studies of individual susceptibility to heat and broadly comparative studies of temperature-mortality relationships in cities. We estimated neighborhood effects of population characteristics and built and natural environments on deaths due to heat exposure in Maricopa County, Arizona (2000-2008). We used 2000 U.S. Census data and remotely sensed vegetation and land surface temperature to construct indicators of neighborhood vulnerability and a geographic information system to map vulnerability and residential addresses of persons who died from heat exposure in 2,081 census block groups. Binary logistic regression and spatial analysis were used to associate deaths with neighborhoods. Neighborhood scores on three factors-socioeconomic vulnerability, elderly/isolation, and unvegetated area-varied widely throughout the study area. The preferred model (based on fit and parsimony) for predicting the odds of one or more deaths from heat exposure within a census block group included the first two factors and surface temperature in residential neighborhoods, holding population size constant. Spatial analysis identified clusters of neighborhoods with the highest heat vulnerability scores. A large proportion of deaths occurred among people, including homeless persons, who lived in the inner cores of the largest cities and along an industrial corridor. Place-based indicators of vulnerability complement analyses of person-level heat risk factors. Surface temperature might be used in Maricopa County to identify the most heat-vulnerable neighborhoods, but more attention to the socioecological complexities of climate adaptation is needed.

  19. Social vulnerability indicators as a sustainable planning tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yung-Jaan

    2014-01-01

    In the face of global warming and environmental change, the conventional strategy of resource centralization will not be able to cope with a future of increasingly extreme climate events and related disasters. It may even contribute to inter-regional disparities as a result of these events. To promote sustainable development, this study offers a case study of developmental planning in Chiayi, Taiwan and a review of the relevant literature to propose a framework of social vulnerability indicators at the township level. The proposed framework can not only be used to measure the social vulnerability of individual townships in Chiayi, but also be used to capture the spatial developmental of Chiayi. Seventeen social vulnerability indicators provide information in five dimensions. Owing to limited access to relevant data, the values of only 13 indicators were calculated. By simply summarizing indicators without using weightings and by using zero-mean normalization to standardize the indicators, this study calculates social vulnerability scores for each township. To make social vulnerability indicators more useful, this study performs an overlay analysis of social vulnerability and patterns of risk associated with national disasters. The social vulnerability analysis draws on secondary data for 2012 from Taiwan's National Geographic Information System. The second layer of analysis consists of the flood potential ratings of the Taiwan Water Resources Agency as an index of biophysical vulnerability. The third layer consists of township-level administrative boundaries. Analytical results reveal that four out of the 18 townships in Chiayi not only are vulnerable to large-scale flooding during serious flood events, but also have the highest degree of social vulnerability. Administrative boundaries, on which social vulnerability is based, do not correspond precisely to “cross-administrative boundaries,” which are characteristics of the natural environment. This study adopts

  20. Regionalisation of global insights into dryland vulnerability: Better reflecting smallholders' vulnerability in Northeast Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sietz, D.

    2014-01-01

    Global analyses of vulnerability reveal generic insights into the relation between socio-ecological systems and the stress impacting upon them including climate and market variability. They thus provide a valuable basis for better understanding and comparing the evolution of socio-ecological systems

  1. Social vulnerability assessment: a growing practice in Europe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapsell, S.; McC arthy, S.

    2012-04-01

    This paper builds upon work on social vulnerability from the CapHaz-Net consortium, an ongoing research project funded by the European Commission in its 7th Framework Programme. The project focuses on the social dimensions of natural hazards, as well as on regional practices of risk prevention and management, and aims at improving the resilience of European societies to natural hazards, paying particular attention to social capacity building. The topic of social vulnerability is one of seven themes being addressed in the project. There are various rationales for examining the relevance of social vulnerability to natural hazards. Vulnerability assessment has now been accepted as a requirement for the effective development of emergency management capability, and assessment of social vulnerability has been recognised as being integral to understanding the risk to natural hazards. The aim of our research was to examine social vulnerability, how it might be understood in the context of natural hazards in Europe, and how social vulnerability can be addressed to increase social capacity. The work comprised a review of research on social vulnerability to different natural hazards within Europe and included concepts and definitions of social vulnerability (and related concepts), the purpose of vulnerability assessment and who decides who is vulnerable, different approaches to assessing or measuring social vulnerability (such as the use of 'classical' quantitative vulnerability indicators and qualitative community-based approaches, along with the advantages and disadvantages of both), conceptual frameworks for assessing social vulnerability and three case studies of social vulnerability studies within Europe: flash floods in the Italian Alps, fluvial flooding in Germany and heat waves in Spain. The review reveals variable application of social vulnerability analysis across Europe and there are indications why this might be the case. Reasons could range from the scale of

  2. Vulnerabilities of national parks in the American Midwest to climate and land use changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroh, Esther D.; Struckhoff, Matthew A.; Shaver, David; Karstensen, Krista A.

    2016-06-08

    Many national parks in the American Midwest are surrounded by agricultural or urban areas or are in highly fragmented or rapidly changing landscapes. An environmental stressor is a physical, chemical, or biological condition that affects the functioning or productivity of species or ecosystems. Climate change is just one of many stressors on park natural resources; others include urbanization, land use change, air and water pollution, and so on. Understanding and comparing the relative vulnerability of a suite of parks to projected climate and land use changes is important for region-wide planning. A vulnerability assessment of 60 units in the 13-state U.S. National Park Service Midwestern administrative region to climate and land use change used existing data from multiple sources. Assessment included three components: individual park exposure (5 metrics), sensitivity (5 metrics), and constraints to adaptive capacity (8 metrics) under 2 future climate scenarios. The three components were combined into an overall vulnerability score. Metrics were measures of existing or projected conditions within park boundaries, within 10-kilometer buffers surrounding parks, and within ecoregions that contain or intersect them. Data were normalized within the range of values for all assessed parks, resulting in high, medium, and low relative rankings for exposure, sensitivity, constraints to adaptive capacity, and overall vulnerability. Results are consistent with assessments regarding patterns and rates of climate change nationwide but provide greater detail and relative risk for Midwestern parks. Park overall relative vulnerability did not differ between climate scenarios. Rankings for exposure, sensitivity, and constraints to adaptive capacity varied geographically and indicate regional conservation planning opportunities. The most important stressors for the most vulnerable Midwestern parks are those related to sensitivity (intrinsic characteristics of the park) and

  3. Mapping human vulnerability to climate change in the Brazilian Amazon: The construction of a municipal vulnerability index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Júlia Alves; Confalonieri, Ulisses; Madureira, Ana Paula; Duval, Isabela de Brito; Santos, Rhavena Barbosa Dos; Margonari, Carina

    2018-01-01

    Vulnerability, understood as the propensity to be adversely affected, has attained importance in the context of climate change by helping to understand what makes populations and territories predisposed to its impacts. Conditions of vulnerability may vary depending on the characteristics of each territory studied-social, environmental, infrastructural, public policies, among others. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate what makes the municipalities of the state of Amazonas, Brazil, vulnerable to climate change in the context of the largest tropical forest in the world, and which regions of the State are the most susceptible. A Municipal Vulnerability Index was developed, which was used to associate current socio-environmental characteristics of municipalities with climate change scenarios in order to identify those that may be most affected by climate change. The results showed that poor adaptive capacity and poverty had the most influence on current vulnerability of the municipalities of Amazonas with the most vulnerable areas being the southern, northern, and eastern regions of the state. When current vulnerability was related to future climate change projections, the most vulnerable areas were the northern, northeastern, extreme southern, and southwestern regions. From a socio-environmental and climatic point of view, these regions should be a priority for public policy efforts to reduce their vulnerability and prepare them to cope with the adverse aspects of climate change.

  4. Mapping human vulnerability to climate change in the Brazilian Amazon: The construction of a municipal vulnerability index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Confalonieri, Ulisses; Madureira, Ana Paula; Duval, Isabela de Brito; dos Santos, Rhavena Barbosa; Margonari, Carina

    2018-01-01

    Vulnerability, understood as the propensity to be adversely affected, has attained importance in the context of climate change by helping to understand what makes populations and territories predisposed to its impacts. Conditions of vulnerability may vary depending on the characteristics of each territory studied—social, environmental, infrastructural, public policies, among others. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate what makes the municipalities of the state of Amazonas, Brazil, vulnerable to climate change in the context of the largest tropical forest in the world, and which regions of the State are the most susceptible. A Municipal Vulnerability Index was developed, which was used to associate current socio-environmental characteristics of municipalities with climate change scenarios in order to identify those that may be most affected by climate change. The results showed that poor adaptive capacity and poverty had the most influence on current vulnerability of the municipalities of Amazonas with the most vulnerable areas being the southern, northern, and eastern regions of the state. When current vulnerability was related to future climate change projections, the most vulnerable areas were the northern, northeastern, extreme southern, and southwestern regions. From a socio-environmental and climatic point of view, these regions should be a priority for public policy efforts to reduce their vulnerability and prepare them to cope with the adverse aspects of climate change. PMID:29444086

  5. Which Stratum of Urban Elderly Is Most Vulnerable for Dementia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Many factors associated with a patient's lifestyle may disrupt timely access to dementia diagnosis and management. The aim of this study was to compare characteristics of lifestyle factors at the time of initial evaluation for dementia across degrees of dementia, and to identify risk factors relating to late detection of dementia, in order to understand the various lifestyle barriers to timely recognition of the disease. We reviewed medical records of 1,409 subjects who were diagnosed as dementia among 35,723 inhabitants of Gwangjin-gu. Dementia severity was divided into three degrees. Age, sex, education, income, smoking, heavy drinking, physical activity, religion, and living conditions were evaluated. There was a significantly greater proportion of individuals who were old age, female, less educated, who had never smoked or drank heavily, without physical activity, with no religious activity and living with family other than spouse in the severe dementia group. The lifestyle risks of late detection were old age, lower education, less social interactions, less physical activity or living with family. We can define this group of patients as the vulnerable stratum to dementia evaluation. Health policy or community health services might find ways to better engage patients in this vulnerable stratum to dementia. PMID:27550494

  6. The strength and vulnerability of school-age children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svenn-Erik Mamelund

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Children between the ages of 5 and 14 appear to have a lower risk of dying than both younger and older individuals. Objective: We looked for possible factors influencing the mortality rates of school-age children in Norway during the German occupation from 1940 to 1945, i.e., at a time of poverty and moderate food shortage - and before the general use of vaccines. Methods: We used Norwegian mortality data by age and sex, during the period of 1930-1954, from the Human Mortality Database and obtained the main causes of death, as well as age-specific data from different regions of Norway, from Statistics Norway. Results: Boys and girls aged 5-14 years had lower mortality rates than any other age group below 40, even during the German occupation. However, 5-14-year-old boys as well as 5-9-year-old girls had significantly increased mortality during 1941-1945 as compared to the previous decade. Mortality as a result of diphtheria, pertussis, scarlet fever, and measles increased more than five-fold, surpassing mortality as a result of accidents, whereas mortality from these infections only doubled in adults up to 39 years. During that same period, the body weight of schoolchildren aged 8-13 years dropped slightly. Conclusions: Proper nourishment, being of the utmost importance for a functioning immune system, is key to understanding the potential vulnerability of children at any age. Our study shows how vulnerable even the most resistant children can be. Contribution: The vulnerability of children 5-14 years old may not have been properly taken into account, as was also shown in the recent upward UN revision of 5-14 age mortality in low- and middle-income countries.

  7. [The vulnerability of women Francophone parent at risk of homelessness in a community in Northern Ontario].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, Monique; Lavoie, Anne Marise; Muray, Kalum; Watson, Shelley; Beaudoin, Monique

    2013-06-13

    This study aimed to examine the vulnerability of Francophone single mothers at risk of homelessness in Northern Ontario. The project also endeavoured to document the quest for autonomy of these women in a minority context. Employing a qualitative approach, eleven life stories were obtained from five women. Although none were homeless at the time of the interviews, in terms of living on the street, two were living with friends and the others were at risk of becoming homeless. All of the participants were between 20 and 59 years old and had completed their secondary education. Taking into account their economic and social situation, as well as the participants' health and cultural resources, vulnerabilities throughout the life course were analyzed. The life trajectory of these women showed us that their significant vulnerabilities are relative to the amount of autonomy they are able to secure through the services provided by supporting agencies, particularly in a linguistic minority context. In addition, the triple stigmatization (economic, linguistic and gender relations) requires a broader understanding of the resilience of these women in their journey from poverty (economic) to social (and linguistic) exclusion, and vulnerability. Despite these challenges, each of the individuals interviewed in this study, for whom the quest for autonomy is a continual struggle, demonstrated resilience.

  8. POLITICS, JUSTICE AND THE VULNERABLE SUBJECT: THE CONTRIBUTION OF FEMINIST THOUGHT

    OpenAIRE

    Casalini, Brunella

    2016-01-01

    The present article argues that the main contribution of contemporary feminist theory on vulnerability stems from the distinction of two possible kinds of vulnerability: an ontological vulnerability and a vulnerability linked to various processes (social, cultural, economic and juridical) of vulnerabilisation. This contribution is not limited to the critical and deconstructive level. As a positive proposal, it advances in the direction of an individual which, recovering its own relational, em...

  9. MAPPING REGIONAL DROUGHT VULNERABILITY: A CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Karamouz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Drought is among the natural disaster that causes damages and affects many people’s life in many part of the world including in Iran. Recently, some factors such as climate variability and the impact of climate change have influenced drought frequency and intensity in many parts of the world. Drought can be divided into four categories of meteorological, hydrological, agricultural and social-economic. In meteorological the important feature is lack of rainfall. In hydrological drought river flows and dam storage are considered. Lack of soil moisture is the key factor in agricultural droughts while in social-economic type of drought the relation between supply and demand and social-economic damages due to water deficiency is studied. While the first three types relates to the lack of some hydrological characteristics, social-economic type of drought is actually the consequence of other types expressed in monetary values. Many indices are used in assessing drought; each has its own advantages and disadvantages and can be used for specific types of drought. Therefore knowing the types of drought can provide a better understanding of shortages and their characteristics. Drought vulnerability is a concept which shows the likelihood of damages from hazard in a particular place by focusing on the system status prior to the disaster. Drought vulnerability has been viewed as a potential for losses in the region due to water deficiency at the time of drought. In this study the application of vulnerability concept in drought management in East Azarbaijan province in Iran is investigated by providing vulnerability maps which demonstrates spatial characteristics of drought vulnerability. In the first step, certain governing parameters in drought analysis such as precipitation, temperature, land use, topography, solar radiation and ground water elevation have been investigated in the region. They are described in details and calculated in suitable time

  10. Mapping Regional Drought Vulnerability: a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamouz, M.; Zeynolabedin, A.; Olyaei, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    Drought is among the natural disaster that causes damages and affects many people's life in many part of the world including in Iran. Recently, some factors such as climate variability and the impact of climate change have influenced drought frequency and intensity in many parts of the world. Drought can be divided into four categories of meteorological, hydrological, agricultural and social-economic. In meteorological the important feature is lack of rainfall. In hydrological drought river flows and dam storage are considered. Lack of soil moisture is the key factor in agricultural droughts while in social-economic type of drought the relation between supply and demand and social-economic damages due to water deficiency is studied. While the first three types relates to the lack of some hydrological characteristics, social-economic type of drought is actually the consequence of other types expressed in monetary values. Many indices are used in assessing drought; each has its own advantages and disadvantages and can be used for specific types of drought. Therefore knowing the types of drought can provide a better understanding of shortages and their characteristics. Drought vulnerability is a concept which shows the likelihood of damages from hazard in a particular place by focusing on the system status prior to the disaster. Drought vulnerability has been viewed as a potential for losses in the region due to water deficiency at the time of drought. In this study the application of vulnerability concept in drought management in East Azarbaijan province in Iran is investigated by providing vulnerability maps which demonstrates spatial characteristics of drought vulnerability. In the first step, certain governing parameters in drought analysis such as precipitation, temperature, land use, topography, solar radiation and ground water elevation have been investigated in the region. They are described in details and calculated in suitable time series. Vulnerabilities

  11. Defining and measuring vulnerability in young people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilpa Khanna Arora

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Adolescents and youth, together addressed as "young people", form the future building blocks of any society. They being most energetic and dynamic, tend to get involved in high-risk behaviors making themselves susceptible to criminal offences, accidents, physical injuries, emotional trauma, and medical problems - some of them extremely serious like transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. The concept of vulnerability is applicable to all the people who are more exposed to risks than their peers like the young people. In order to deal with social evils like criminal offences, domestic violence, sexual abuse, HIV, etc. we need to define vulnerability and understand the factors that influence it. This review also attempts to summarize the indicators of vulnerability and the data currently available to estimate its burden in India. Measuring the magnitude of vulnerability by means of certain indicators/variables might help us in devising tools to assess this poorly defined entity. This may also evolve a conceptual framework on which targeted remedial interventions can be devised and implemented.

  12. Open Source Vulnerability Database Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jake Kouns

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This article introduces the Open Source Vulnerability Database (OSVDB project which manages a global collection of computer security vulnerabilities, available for free use by the information security community. This collection contains information on known security weaknesses in operating systems, software products, protocols, hardware devices, and other infrastructure elements of information technology. The OSVDB project is intended to be the centralized global open source vulnerability collection on the Internet.

  13. "It's One of the Hardest Jobs in the World": The Experience and Understanding of Qualified Nurses Who Work with Individuals Diagnosed with Both Learning Disability and Personality Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Amy; Kiemle, Gundi

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study examines the experiences of qualified nurses working with individuals diagnosed with both intellectual disability and personality disorder (PD) in a medium-secure forensic intellectual disability setting. Potential training needs are highlighted, as well as other ways in which services could better support staff to work…

  14. Prediction of total fatty acid parameters and individual fatty acids in pork backfat using Raman spectroscopy and chemometrics: Understanding the cage of covariance between highly correlated fat parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berhe, Daniel T; Eskildsen, Carl Emil; Lametsch, René; Hviid, Marchen S; van den Berg, Frans; Engelsen, Søren B

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates how Partial Least Squares regression models for predicting individual fatty acids (FAs) and total FA parameters depend on Raman spectral variation associated with the iodine value in pork backfat. The backfat was sampled from pigs, which were fed with different dietary fat sources and levels. Good correlations between the Raman spectra and the total FA composition parameters and most individual FAs were obtained (R(CV)(2)=0.78-0.90). However, the predictions of the individual FAs are indirect and to a high degree depend on co-variance with the total FA parameters. A new procedure was demonstrated for identifying and characterizing such indirect or non-targeted calibrations. This information is very useful when Raman spectroscopy or other vibrational spectroscopic techniques are used to predict non-targeted quality parameters such as individual FAs as they may lead to inaccurate predictions of future sample if the underlying covariance structure is changed e.g. by new dietary regimes or genotypes. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. The Influence of Supporting Ions on the Electrochemical Detection of Individual Silver Nanoparticles : Understanding the Shape and Frequency of Current Transients in Nano-impacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krause, Kay J.; Brings, Fabian; Schnitker, Jan; Kätelhön, Enno; Rinklin, Philipp; Mayer, Dirk; Compton, Richard G.; Lemay, Serge G.; Offenhäusser, Andreas; Wolfrum, Bernhard

    2017-01-01

    We report the influence of electrolyte composition and concentration on the stochastic amperometric detection of individual silver nanoparticles at microelectrode arrays and show that the sensor response at certain electrode potentials is dependent on both the conductivity of the electrolyte and the

  16. The Unique Relation of Silent Reading Fluency to End-of-Year Reading Comprehension: Understanding Individual Differences at the Student, Classroom, School, and District Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Suk; Petscher, Yaacov; Foorman, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Despite many previous studies on reading fluency (measured by a maze task) as a screening measure, our understanding is limited about the utility of silent reading fluency in predicting later reading comprehension and contextual influences (e.g., schools and districts) on reading comprehension achievement. In the present study we examined: (1) How…

  17. Vulnerabilities Under the Surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, Todd M.; Benjamin, Jacob S.; Wright, Virginia L.; Gold, Bryan H.

    2017-04-01

    This paper will describe a practical methodology for understanding the cyber risk of a digital asset. This research attempts to gain a greater understanding of the cyber risk posed by a hardware-based computer asset by considering it as a sum of its hardware and software based sub-components.

  18. Effective vulnerability assessments for physical security devices, systems, and programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, R.G.; Garcia, A.R.E.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The efficacy of devices, systems, and programs used for physical security depend critically on having periodic and effective vulnerability assessments. Effective vulnerability assessments, in turn, require certain conditions and attributes. These include: a proper understanding of their purpose; not confusing vulnerability assessments with other kinds of metrics, analyses, tests, and security exercises; the view that vulnerabilities are inevitable, and that finding them is good news (since they can then be mitigated), not bad news; rejection of findings of no vulnerabilities; avoidance of mere 'compliance mode' rubber stamping; the use of the proper outside, independent, imaginative personnel; psychologically predisposed to finding and demonstrating problems; the absence of conflicts of interest; no unrealistic constraints on the possible attack tools, procedures, personnel, or strategies; efforts to not just find and demonstrate vulnerabilities, but also to suggest possible countermeasures; proper context; input and buy-in from ALL facility security personnel, especially low-level personnel; emphasis on the simplest, most relevant attacks first; no underestimation of potential adversaries; consideration of fault analysis attacks; awareness of Rohrbach's Maxim and Shannon's Maxim. In addition to these factors, we will cover some of the complex issues and problems associated with the design of vulnerability assessments. There will also be suggestions on how to conduct effective vulnerability assessments on a severely limited budget. We will conclude with a discussion of both conventional and unconventional ways of reporting results. (author)

  19. Assessing local vulnerability to climate change in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Mario Andres; Bucaram, Santiago J; Renteria, Willington

    2015-01-01

    Vulnerability assessments have become necessary to increase the understanding of climate-sensitive systems and inform resource allocation in developing countries. Challenges arise when poor economic and social development combines with heterogeneous climatic conditions. Thus, finding and harmonizing good-quality data at local scale may be a significant hurdle for vulnerability research. In this paper we assess vulnerability to climate change at a local level in Ecuador. We take Ecuador as a case study as socioeconomic data are readily available. To incorporate the spatial and temporal pattern of the climatic variables we use reanalysis datasets and empirical orthogonal functions. Our assessment strategy relies on the statistical behavior of climatic and socioeconomic indicators for the weighting and aggregation mechanism into a composite vulnerability indicator. Rather than assuming equal contribution to the formation of the composite indicator, we assume that the weights of the indicators vary inversely as the variance over the cantons (administrative division of Ecuador). This approach captures the multi-dimensionality of vulnerability in a comprehensive form. We find that the least vulnerable cantons concentrate around Ecuador's largest cities (e.g. Quito and Guayaquil); however, approximately 20 % of the national population lives in other cantons that are categorized as highly and very highly vulnerable to climate change. Results also show that the main determinants of high vulnerability are the lack of land tenure in agricultural areas and the nonexistence of government-funded programs directed to environmental and climate change management.

  20. Scenario-based Storm Surge Vulnerability Assessment of Catanduanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, J. K. B.

    2015-12-01

    After the devastating storm surge effect of Typhoon Haiyan, the public recognized an improved communication about risks, vulnerabilities and what is threatened by storm surge. This can be provided by vulnerability maps which allow better visual presentations and understanding of the risks and vulnerabilities. Local implementers can direct the resources needed for protection of these areas. Moreover, vulnerability and hazard maps are relevant in all phases of disaster management designed by the National Disaster Risk Reduction Council (NDRRMC) - disaster preparedness, prevention and mitigation and response and recovery and rehabilitation. This paper aims to analyze the vulnerability of Catanduanes, a coastal province in the Philippines, to storm surges in terms of four parameters: population, built environment, natural environment and agricultural production. The vulnerability study relies on the storm surge inundation maps based on the Department of Science and Technology Nationwide Operational Assessment of Hazards' (DOST-Project NOAH) proposed four Storm Surge Advisory (SSA) scenarios (1-2, 3, 4, and 5 meters) for predicting storm surge heights. To determine total percent affected for each parameter elements, an overlay analysis was performed in ArcGIS Desktop. Moreover, vulnerability and hazard maps are generated as a final output and a tool for visualizing the impacts of storm surge event at different surge heights. The result of this study would help the selected province to know their present condition and adapt strategies to strengthen areas where they are found to be most vulnerable in order to prepare better for the future.

  1. The vulnerability of family caregivers in relation to vulnerability as understood by nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarvimäki, Anneli; Stenbock-Hult, Bettina; Sundell, Eija; Oesch-Börman, Christine

    2017-03-01

    In Finland, the care of older persons is shifting from institutional care to family care. Research shows that family caregivers experience their situation much in the same way as professional nurses. The nurses' experiences have been studied in terms of vulnerability, and the same perspective could deepen our understanding of family caregivers' experiences. The aim of this study was to gain knowledge of the vulnerability of older caregivers taking care of an ageing family member. The research questions were as follows: How do family caregivers experience vulnerability? How do their experiences relate to vulnerability as understood by nurses? The study was done as a secondary analysis of focus group interviews on the experiences and daily life of older family caregivers. Four caregivers had taken part in monthly interviews during a period of 10 months. The interviews were analysed by deductive and inductive content analysis. The results showed that the caregivers saw caregiving as part of being human. They experienced a variety of feelings and moral agony and were harmed physically, mentally and socially. They showed courage, protected themselves and recognised that being a caregiver also was a source of maturing and developing. These results corresponded with the nurses' understanding of vulnerability. Shame, the experience of duty as a burden, worry and loneliness were themes that were found only among the family caregivers. The use of a matrix may have restricted the analysis, but using it in an unconstrained way allowed for new themes to be created. The results indicate a common humanness and vulnerability in professional and family caregiving. They also show that family caregivers need more support both from society and professionals. © 2016 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  2. A test of the vulnerability model : Temperament and temperament change as predictors of future mental disorders - The TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laceulle, Odilia M.; Ormel, Johan; Vollebergh, Wilma A M; Van Aken, Marcel A G; Nederhof, Esther

    2014-01-01

    Background This study aimed to test the vulnerability model of the relationship between temperament and mental disorders using a large sample of adolescents from the TRacking Adolescents Individual Lives' Survey (TRAILS). The vulnerability model argues that particular temperaments can place

  3. The Vulnerability of Elderly Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGhee, Jerrie L.

    1983-01-01

    Reviews research on the vulnerability of the elderly to consumer fraud. Patterns of consumption, situational characteristics, education and product knowledge, psychological losses, social isolation, and psychosocial transitions influence the elderly's vulnerability and ability to cope with consumer abuse. Higher educational attainment and greater…

  4. Oxytocin and vulnerable romantic relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebe, Nicholas M; Kristoffersen, Andreas Aarseth; Grøntvedt, Trond Viggo; Emery Thompson, Melissa; Kennair, Leif Edward Ottesen; Gangestad, Steven W

    2017-04-01

    Oxytocin (OT) has been implicated in the formation and maintenance of various social relationships, including human romantic relationships. Competing models predict, alternatively, positive or negative associations between naturally-occurring OT levels and romantic relationship quality. Empirical tests of these models have been equivocal. We propose a novel hypothesis ('Identify and Invest') that frames OT as an allocator of psychological investment toward valued, vulnerable relationships, and test this proposal in two studies. In one sample of 75 couples, and a second sample of 148 romantically involved individuals, we assess facets of relationships predicting changes in OT across a thought-writing task regarding one's partner. In both studies, participants' OT change across the task corresponded positively with multiple dimensions of high relationship involvement. However, increases in participants' OT also corresponded to their partners reporting lower relationship involvement. OT increases, then, reflected discrepancies between assessments of self and partner relationship involvement. These findings are robust in a combined analysis of both studies, and do not significantly differ between samples. Collectively, our findings support the 'Identify and Invest' hypothesis in romantic couples, and we argue for its relevance across other types of social bonds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Teaching Teaching & Understanding Understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    "Teaching Teaching & Understanding Understanding" is a 19-minute award-winning short-film about teaching at university and higher-level educational institutions. It is based on the "Constructive Alignment" theory developed by Prof. John Biggs. The film delivers a foundation for understanding what...

  6. Vulnerable participants in health research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Helle Merete; Nanna, Kappel

    2011-01-01

    . The guidelines appear to be instrumental and over simplistic representations of the often ´messy´ realities surrounding the research process which is often guided by relational and local negotiations of ethical solutions. Vulnerable participants, for instance, challenge both professional and research ethics...... and problems of vulnerable patients and - at the same time - respect their integrity without exposing them unnecessarily? The article illuminates the interactional construction of roles and relationships and how they affect the contextual construction of vulnerability. In this respect we demonstrate...... that not only patients but also researchers are at risk of being vulnerable. In conclusion, we outline and advocate for a more contextualized approach and empirically informed ethics to informed consent in research with potentially vulnerable participants....

  7. Rare species support vulnerable functions in high-diversity ecosystems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Mouillot

    Full Text Available Around the world, the human-induced collapses of populations and species have triggered a sixth mass extinction crisis, with rare species often being the first to disappear. Although the role of species diversity in the maintenance of ecosystem processes has been widely investigated, the role of rare species remains controversial. A critical issue is whether common species insure against the loss of functions supported by rare species. This issue is even more critical in species-rich ecosystems where high functional redundancy among species is likely and where it is thus often assumed that ecosystem functioning is buffered against species loss. Here, using extensive datasets of species occurrences and functional traits from three highly diverse ecosystems (846 coral reef fishes, 2,979 alpine plants, and 662 tropical trees, we demonstrate that the most distinct combinations of traits are supported predominantly by rare species both in terms of local abundance and regional occupancy. Moreover, species that have low functional redundancy and are likely to support the most vulnerable functions, with no other species carrying similar combinations of traits, are rarer than expected by chance in all three ecosystems. For instance, 63% and 98% of fish species that are likely to support highly vulnerable functions in coral reef ecosystems are locally and regionally rare, respectively. For alpine plants, 32% and 89% of such species are locally and regionally rare, respectively. Remarkably, 47% of fish species and 55% of tropical tree species that are likely to support highly vulnerable functions have only one individual per sample on average. Our results emphasize the importance of rare species conservation, even in highly diverse ecosystems, which are thought to exhibit high functional redundancy. Rare species offer more than aesthetic, cultural, or taxonomic diversity value; they disproportionately increase the potential breadth of functions provided by

  8. Rare species support vulnerable functions in high-diversity ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouillot, David; Bellwood, David R; Baraloto, Christopher; Chave, Jerome; Galzin, Rene; Harmelin-Vivien, Mireille; Kulbicki, Michel; Lavergne, Sebastien; Lavorel, Sandra; Mouquet, Nicolas; Paine, C E Timothy; Renaud, Julien; Thuiller, Wilfried

    2013-01-01

    Around the world, the human-induced collapses of populations and species have triggered a sixth mass extinction crisis, with rare species often being the first to disappear. Although the role of species diversity in the maintenance of ecosystem processes has been widely investigated, the role of rare species remains controversial. A critical issue is whether common species insure against the loss of functions supported by rare species. This issue is even more critical in species-rich ecosystems where high functional redundancy among species is likely and where it is thus often assumed that ecosystem functioning is buffered against species loss. Here, using extensive datasets of species occurrences and functional traits from three highly diverse ecosystems (846 coral reef fishes, 2,979 alpine plants, and 662 tropical trees), we demonstrate that the most distinct combinations of traits are supported predominantly by rare species both in terms of local abundance and regional occupancy. Moreover, species that have low functional redundancy and are likely to support the most vulnerable functions, with no other species carrying similar combinations of traits, are rarer than expected by chance in all three ecosystems. For instance, 63% and 98% of fish species that are likely to support highly vulnerable functions in coral reef ecosystems are locally and regionally rare, respectively. For alpine plants, 32% and 89% of such species are locally and regionally rare, respectively. Remarkably, 47% of fish species and 55% of tropical tree species that are likely to support highly vulnerable functions have only one individual per sample on average. Our results emphasize the importance of rare species conservation, even in highly diverse ecosystems, which are thought to exhibit high functional redundancy. Rare species offer more than aesthetic, cultural, or taxonomic diversity value; they disproportionately increase the potential breadth of functions provided by ecosystems across

  9. Vulnerability of community businesses to environmental disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Lindell, Michael K; Prater, Carla S

    2009-03-01

    Business plays important roles in community functioning. However, disaster research has been disproportionately focused on units of analysis such as families, households and government agencies. This paper synthesises the major findings within the business development research field and the disaster research field. It constructs a framework for evaluating business vulnerability to natural disasters. Our theoretical integration of the research conducted to date addresses five major issues. First, it defines the ways in which businesses are subject to the impacts of natural disasters. Second, it identifies the factors that determine the magnitude of business impacts after a disaster. Third, it identifies how and when businesses return to their pre-disaster level in the disaster stricken community. Fourth, it describes measures that can be taken by individual firms and community planners to reduce the impacts of environmental disasters. Fifth, it identifies needs for public policy and future research to reduce business vulnerability to environmental disasters.

  10. Vulnerable populations: cultural and spiritual direction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quest, Tammie E; Franks, Nicole M

    2006-08-01

    Cultural, spiritual, and religious diversity of emergency department patients is increasing while that of emergency physicians in particular remains predominantly homogeneous. With a discordance of cultural, race, and ethnicity exist, in the case of ethical conflict -resolution becomes that much more difficult. Patients may feel vulnerable when their emergency care provider does not understand his or her cultural, spiritual, and religious uniqueness as it relates to the patient-doctor interaction and health care decision making. This review will examine (1) language differences; (2) cultural, religious, and spiritual differences between patient and provider; (3) differing explanatory models of disease between patient and provider; and (4) diverse bioethical models of decision making of differing cultures in an effort to reduce vulnerabilities.

  11. How Should We Treat the Vulnerable?: Qualitative Study of Authoritative Ethics Documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagorac, Ivana

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore what actual guidance is provided by authoritative ethics documents regarding the recognition and protection of the vulnerable. The documents included in this analysis are the Belmont Report, the Declaration of Helsinki, The Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences (CIOMS) Guidelines, and the UNESCO Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights, including its supplementary report on vulnerability. A qualitative analysis of these documents was conducted in light of three questions: what is vulnerability, who are the vulnerable, and how should the vulnerable be protected? The results show significant differences among the documents regarding the first two questions. None of the documents provides any guidance on the third question (how to protect the vulnerable). These results suggest a great discrepancy between the acknowledged importance of the concept of vulnerability and a general understanding of the scope, content, and practical implications of vulnerability.

  12. 'It's one of the hardest jobs in the world': the experience and understanding of qualified nurses who work with individuals diagnosed with both learning disability and personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Amy; Kiemle, Gundi

    2015-05-01

    This study examines the experiences of qualified nurses working with individuals diagnosed with both intellectual disability and personality disorder (PD) in a medium-secure forensic intellectual disability setting. Potential training needs are highlighted, as well as other ways in which services could better support staff to work effectively with this client group. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were used to explore the nine participants' experiences; the narratives were analysed with interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA). Four master themes emerged from (i) disorder overriding disability; (ii) resilience; (iii) ambivalence towards label and (iv) knowledge. The findings highlight that for these participants, the clients' intellectual disability appeared to be lost under the complexity of the PD diagnosis. The clinical implications are discussed in terms of developing training, supervision and support. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Individualizing Services, Individualizing Responsibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garsten, Christina; Hollertz, Katarina; Jacobsson, Kerstin

    possibilities for individual voice, autonomy and self-determination in the local delivery of activation policy? What barriers do specific organisational models and practices imply for clients to choose, determine and access tailor-made programmes and services? What policy technologies are at work in governing......-oriented, and the normative demands placed on individuals appear increasingly totalizing, concerning the whole individual rather than the job-related aspects only. The paper is based on 23 in-depth interviews with individual clients as well as individual caseworkers and other professionals engaged in client-related work...

  14. Mapping social-ecological vulnerability to inform local decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiault, Lauric; Marshall, Paul; Gelcich, Stefan; Collin, Antoine; Chlous, Frédérique; Claudet, Joachim

    2018-04-01

    An overarching challenge of natural resource management and biodiversity conservation is that relationships between people and nature are difficult to integrate into tools that can effectively guide decision making. Social-ecological vulnerability offers a valuable framework for identifying and understanding important social-ecological linkages, and the implications of dependencies and other feedback loops in the system. Unfortunately, its implementation at local scales has hitherto been limited due at least in part to the lack of operational tools for spatial representation of social-ecological vulnerability. We developed a method to map social-ecological vulnerability based on information on human-nature dependencies and ecosystem services at local scales. We applied our method to the small-scale fishery of Moorea, French Polynesia, by combining spatially explicit indicators of exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity of both the resource (i.e., vulnerability of reef fish assemblages to fishing) and resource users (i.e., vulnerability of fishing households to the loss of fishing opportunity). Our results revealed that both social and ecological vulnerabilities varied considerably through space and highlighted areas where sources of vulnerability were high for both social and ecological subsystems (i.e., social-ecological vulnerability hotspots) and thus of high priority for management intervention. Our approach can be used to inform decisions about where biodiversity conservation strategies are likely to be more effective and how social impacts from policy decisions can be minimized. It provides a new perspective on human-nature linkages that can help guide sustainability management at local scales; delivers insights distinct from those provided by emphasis on a single vulnerability component (e.g., exposure); and demonstrates the feasibility and value of operationalizing the social-ecological vulnerability framework for policy, planning, and participatory

  15. Social class variation in risk: a comparative analysis of the dynamics of economic vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, Christopher T; Maître, Bertrand

    2008-12-01

    A joint concern with multidimensionality and dynamics is a defining feature of the pervasive use of the terminology of social exclusion in the European Union. The notion of social exclusion focuses attention on economic vulnerability in the sense of exposure to risk and uncertainty. Sociological concern with these issues has been associated with the thesis that risk and uncertainty have become more pervasive and extend substantially beyond the working class. This paper combines features of recent approaches to statistical modelling of poverty dynamics and multidimensional deprivation in order to develop our understanding of the dynamics of economic vulnerability. An analysis involving nine countries and covering the first five waves of the European Community Household Panel shows that, across nations and time, it is possible to identify an economically vulnerable class. This class is characterized by heightened risk of falling below a critical resource level, exposure to material deprivation and experience of subjective economic stress. Cross-national differentials in persistence of vulnerability are wider than in the case of income poverty and less affected by measurement error. Economic vulnerability profiles vary across welfare regimes in a manner broadly consistent with our expectations. Variation in the impact of social class within and across countries provides no support for the argument that its role in structuring such risk has become much less important. Our findings suggest that it is possible to accept the importance of the emergence of new forms of social risk and acknowledge the significance of efforts to develop welfare states policies involving a shift of opportunities and decision making on to individuals without accepting the 'death of social class' thesis.

  16. Development of a heat vulnerability index for New York State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, S G; Shrestha, S; Kinney, P L; Ross, Z; Sheridan, S C; Pantea, C I; Hsu, W H; Muscatiello, N; Hwang, S A

    2017-12-01

    The frequency and intensity of extreme heat events are increasing in New York State (NYS) and have been linked with increased heat-related morbidity and mortality. But these effects are not uniform across the state and can vary across large regions due to regional sociodemographic and environmental factors which impact an individual's response or adaptive capacity to heat and in turn contribute to vulnerability among certain populations. We developed a heat vulnerability index (HVI) to identify heat-vulnerable populations and regions in NYS. Census tract level environmental and sociodemographic heat-vulnerability variables were used to develop the HVI to identify heat-vulnerable populations and areas. Variables were identified from a comprehensive literature review and climate-health research in NYS. We obtained data from 2010 US Census Bureau and 2011 National Land Cover Database. We used principal component analysis to reduce correlated variables to fewer uncorrelated components, and then calculated the cumulative HVI for each census tract by summing up the scores across the components. The HVI was then mapped across NYS (excluding New York City) to display spatial vulnerability. The prevalence rates of heat stress were compared across HVI score categories. Thirteen variables were reduced to four meaningful components representing 1) social/language vulnerability; 2) socioeconomic vulnerability; 3) environmental/urban vulnerability; and 4) elderly/ social isolation. Vulnerability to heat varied spatially in NYS with the HVI showing that metropolitan areas were most vulnerable, with language barriers and socioeconomic disadvantage contributing to the most vulnerability. Reliability of the HVI was supported by preliminary results where higher rates of heat stress were collocated in the regions with the highest HVI. The NYS HVI showed spatial variability in heat vulnerability across the state. Mapping the HVI allows quick identification of regions in NYS that could

  17. Northeast and Midwest regional species and habitats at greatest risk and most vulnerable to climate impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staudinger, Michelle D.; Hilberg, Laura; Janowiak, Maria; Swanton, C.O.

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this Chapter are to describe climate change vulnerability, it’s components, the range of assessment methods being implemented regionally, and examples of training resources and tools. Climate Change Vulnerability Assessments (CCVAs) have already been conducted for numerous Regional Species of Greatest Conservation Need and their dependent 5 habitats across the Northeast and Midwest. This chapter provides a synthesis of different assessment frameworks, information on the locations (e.g., States) where vulnerability assessments were conducted, lists of individual species and habitats with their respective vulnerability rankings, and a comparison of how vulnerability rankings were determined among studies.

  18. Understanding the links between gender, vulnerability, and violence ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-11-17

    Nov 17, 2016 ... This report by the Institute for Business Administration Karachi is the culmination of three years of research on gender roles and how they contribute to violence in 12 working class neighborhoods in two of Pakistan's largest cities: Karachi and Rawalpindi-Islamabad. It highlights the role of frustrated ...

  19. Understanding the links between gender, vulnerability, and violence ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    17 nov. 2016 ... This report by the Institute for Business Administration Karachi is the culmination of three years of research on gender roles and how they contribute to violence in 12 working class neighborhoods in two of Pakistan's largest cities: Karachi and Rawalpindi-Islamabad. It highlights the role of frustrated ...

  20. Creativity for people in vulnerable life situations: Emerging understandings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Bodil Winther; la Cour, Karen; Pedersen, Helle Andrea

    perspectives To look at different positions from pragmatism to phenomenology and social practice theory in relation with the everyday life demands on people and societies we draw on studies of creativity in regard to: - Immigrants and the potentials of transformation through creative theater - The productive...... to merely productive occupations (2000).” 18. Howell, D; Pierce, D (2000). "Exploring the forgotten restorative dimension of occupation: Quilting and quilt use". Journal of Occupational Science. 7 (2): 68–72. 19. Dickie VA.From drunkard’s path to Kansas cyclones: discovering creativity in¬side the blocks......From an occupational science perspective human life and existence takes place though the doing of activity such creative activity. According to Schmid creativity involves “the capacity to think and act in original ways, to be inventive, to be imagina¬tive and to find new and original solutions...

  1. Assessing the vulnerability of buildings to tsunami in Sydney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Dall'Osso

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Australia is vulnerable to the impacts of tsunamis and exposure along the SE coast of New South Wales is especially high. Significantly, this is the same area reported to have been affected by repeated large magnitude tsunamis during the Holocene. Efforts are under way to complete probabilistic risk assessments for the region but local government planners and emergency risk managers need information now about building vulnerability in order to develop appropriate risk management strategies. We use the newly revised PTVA-3 Model (Dall'Osso et al., 2009 to assess the relative vulnerability of buildings to damage from a "worst case tsunami" defined by our latest understanding of regional risk – something never before undertaken in Australia. We present selected results from an investigation of building vulnerability within the local government area of Manly – an iconic coastal area of Sydney. We show that a significant proportion of buildings (in particular, residential structures are classified as having "High" and "Very High" Relative Vulnerability Index scores. Furthermore, other important buildings (e.g., schools, nursing homes and transport structures are also vulnerable to damage. Our results have serious implications for immediate emergency risk management, longer-term land-use zoning and development, and building design and construction standards. Based on the work undertaken here, we recommend further detailed assessment of the vulnerability of coastal buildings in at risk areas, development of appropriate risk management strategies and a detailed program of community engagement to increase overall resilience.

  2. Variations in population vulnerability to tectonic and landslide-related tsunami hazards in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Nathan J.; Peters, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    Effective tsunami risk reduction requires an understanding of how at-risk populations are specifically vulnerable to tsunami threats. Vulnerability assessments primarily have been based on single hazard zones, even though a coastal community may be threatened by multiple tsunami sources that vary locally in terms of inundation extents and wave arrival times. We use the Alaskan coastal communities of Cordova, Kodiak, Seward, Valdez, and Whittier (USA), as a case study to explore population vulnerability to multiple tsunami threats. We use anisotropic pedestrian evacuation models to assess variations in population exposure as a function of travel time out of hazard zones associated with tectonic and landslide-related tsunamis (based on scenarios similar to the 1964 M w9.2 Good Friday earthquake and tsunami disaster). Results demonstrate that there are thousands of residents, employees, and business customers in tsunami hazard zones associated with tectonically generated waves, but that at-risk individuals will likely have sufficient time to evacuate to high ground before waves are estimated to arrive 30–60 min after generation. Tsunami hazard zones associated with submarine landslides initiated by a subduction zone earthquake are smaller and contain fewer people, but many at-risk individuals may not have enough time to evacuate as waves are estimated to arrive in 1–2 min and evacuations may need to occur during earthquake ground shaking. For all hazard zones, employees and customers at businesses far outnumber residents at their homes and evacuation travel times are highest on docks and along waterfronts. Results suggest that population vulnerability studies related to tsunami hazards should recognize non-residential populations and differences in wave arrival times if emergency managers are to develop realistic preparedness and outreach efforts.

  3. Genomic factors that shape craniofacial outcome and neural crest vulnerability in FASD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan M. Smith

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE causes distinctive facial characteristics in some pregnancies and not others; genetic factors may contribute to this differential vulnerability. Ethanol disrupts multiple events of neural crest development including induction, survival, migration, and differentiation. Animal models and genomic approaches have substantially advanced our understanding of the mechanisms underlying these facial changes. PAE during gastrulation produces craniofacial changes corresponding with human fetal alcohol syndrome. These result because PAE reduces prechordal plate extension and suppresses sonic hedgehog, leading to holoprosencephaly and malpositioned facial primordia. Haploinsufficiency in sonic hedgehog signaling increases vulnerability to facial deficits and may influence some PAE pregnancies. In contrast, PAE during early neurogenesis produces facial hypoplasia, preceded by neural crest reductions due to significant apoptosis. Factors mediating this apoptosis include intracellular calcium mobilization, elevated reactive oxygen species, and loss of trophic support from β-catenin/calcium, sonic hedgehog, and mTOR signaling. Genomewide SNP analysis links PDGF receptor genes with facial outcomes in human PAE. Multiple genomic-level comparisons of ethanol-sensitive and –resistant early embryos, in both mouse and chick, independently identify common candidate genes that may potentially modify craniofacial vulnerability, including ribosomal proteins, proteosome, RNA splicing, and focal adhesion. In summary, research using animal models with genome-level differences in ethanol vulnerability, as well as targeted loss- and gain-of-function mutants, has clarified the mechanisms mediating craniofacial change in PAE. The findings additionally suggest that craniofacial deficits may represent a gene-ethanol interaction for some affected individuals. Genetic-level changes may prime individuals toward greater sensitivity or resistance to

  4. Poverty and Vulnerability - An Interdisciplinary Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Makoka, Donald; Kaplan, Marcus

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the concepts of poverty and vulnerability as well as the interconnections and differences between them using an interdisciplinary approach. While poverty is a static concept, vulnerability has a forward-looking dimension. We, therefore, review the methodologies that different disciplines use to measure poverty and vulnerability. In particular, the differences between vulnerability to natural disasters, vulnerability to climate change, as well as vulnerability to poverty a...

  5. Vulnerability and tuberculosis in Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oriana Cátia Rainho Brás

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at understanding social causality of Tuberculosis in Rio de Janeiro. This is one of the Brazilian states with the highest incidence of this disease. We follow the story of Paulo, a patient who received care at the outpatient clinic for multi-drug resistant Tuberculosis, in Rio de Janeiro. To make sense of his story, we will look at it through the concept of vulnerability in life conditions. Along with Sabroza (2006, we argue that this vulnerability is a collective expression of the economic insertion of a growing segment of Rio’s population in the current technical-scientific-informational capitalism (Santos, 2002 [1979]. Limitations in the health services add directly to vulnerability in life conditions of patients making treatment a hard endeavour. We propose to think and act on Tuberculosis at the collective level of reality, through intersectoral actions. We aim at contributing to the current debates on the social determination of Tuberculosis, to inform actions that can significantly reduce the suffering associated to this and other similarly caused diseases.

  6. Individualized 3D Reconstruction of Normal Tissue Dose for Patients With Long-term Follow-up: A Step Toward Understanding Dose Risk for Late Toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, Angela [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Brock, Kristy K.; Sharpe, Michael B. [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Moseley, Joanne L. [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Craig, Tim [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Hodgson, David C., E-mail: David.Hodgson@rmp.uhn.on.ca [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: Understanding the relationship between normal tissue dose and delayed radiation toxicity is an important component of developing more effective radiation therapy. Late outcome data are generally available only for patients who have undergone 2-dimensional (2D) treatment plans. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of 3D normal tissue dosimetry derived from reconstructed 2D treatment plans in Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) patients. Methods and Materials: Three-dimensional lung, heart, and breast volumes were reconstructed from 2D planning radiographs for HL patients who received mediastinal radiation therapy. For each organ, a reference 3D organ was modified with patient-specific structural information, using deformable image processing software. Radiation therapy plans were reconstructed by applying treatment parameters obtained from patient records to the reconstructed 3D volumes. For each reconstructed organ mean dose (D{sub mean}) and volumes covered by at least 5 Gy (V{sub 5}) and 20Gy (V{sub 20}) were calculated. This process was performed for 15 patients who had both 2D and 3D planning data available to compare the reconstructed normal tissue doses with those derived from the primary CT planning data and also for 10 historically treated patients with only 2D imaging available. Results: For patients with 3D planning data, the normal tissue doses could be reconstructed accurately using 2D planning data. Median differences in D{sub mean} between reconstructed and actual plans were 0.18 Gy (lungs), -0.15 Gy (heart), and 0.30 Gy (breasts). Median difference in V{sub 5} and V{sub 20} were less than 2% for each organ. Reconstructed 3D dosimetry was substantially higher in historical mantle-field treatments than contemporary involved-field mediastinal treatments: average D{sub mean} values were 15.2 Gy vs 10.6 Gy (lungs), 27.0 Gy vs 14.3 Gy (heart), and 8.0 Gy vs 3.2 Gy (breasts). Conclusions: Three-dimensional reconstruction of absorbed dose

  7. VT - Vermont Heat Vulnerability Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This map shows: The overall vulnerability of each town to heat related illness. This index is a composite of the following themes: Population Theme, Socioeconomic...

  8. CDC's Social Vulnerability Index (SVI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Social vulnerability refers to the resilience of communities when confronted by external stresses on human health, stresses such as natural or human-caused...

  9. Stress Tests and Vulnerability Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallner, A.; Lorenz, P.

    2012-01-01

    After the accident in Fukushima, nuclear safety as topic in anti-nuclear work has gained importance within the Joint Project countries. Therefore, nuclear safety and in particular the activities of the European stress tests were chosen to be the main focus of the Joint Project 2011/2012 as well as the common theme of the national projects. This brochure describes: A) Vulnerability Assessment A critical review of the EU Nuclear Stress Tests in Bulgaria, Hungary, Romania and Ukraine is presented in chapter 1. The review details the main weaknesses identified within the stress tests. Important shortcomings not mentioned in the stress tests reports are also discussed. These evaluations do not claim to be exhaustive, but the findings contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of safety and risk of nuclear power plants in Europe. B) Transparency of the stress tests In chapter 2 the experience of the Joint Project NGOs concerning transparency of the stress tests is presented. The information is not meant to be an evaluation of the transparency of the stress tests in general – such an evaluation is not possible within the scope of this brochure. The evaluation aims to show activities concerning stress tests and how they were conceived by the JP NGOs. Some recommendations for improvement are given. C) Safety focus Within the main topic “nuclear safety” of the Joint Project 2011/2012 the NGOs of each JP country selected a special safety relevant topic, which is/was of particular interest in their country: Bulgaria: The short story of Belene NPP – The victory – Key points of the campaign against the nuclear power plant Romania: Risks of the CANDU reactor design Czech Republic: Results of the conference “Power Plant Load Testing: Safety Inspection or Propaganda?“ Slovakia: Safety deficits of the NPP Mochovce These safety relevant issues are discussed in separate sections within the brochure at hand. (author)

  10. The Gulf Coast Vulnerability Assessment: Mangrove, Tidal Emergent Marsh, Barrier Islands, and Oyster Reef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Amanda; Reece, Joshua S.; Tirpak, Blair; Edwards, Cynthia Kallio; Geselbracht, Laura; Woodrey, Mark; LaPeyre, Megan K.; Dalyander, P. Soupy

    2015-01-01

    Climate, sea level rise, and urbanization are undergoing unprecedented levels of combined change and are expected to have large effects on natural resources—particularly along the Gulf of Mexico coastline (Gulf Coast). Management decisions to address these effects (i.e., adaptation) require an understanding of the relative vulnerability of various resources to these stressors. To meet this need, the four Landscape Conservation Cooperatives along the Gulf partnered with the Gulf of Mexico Alliance to conduct this Gulf Coast Vulnerability Assessment (GCVA). Vulnerability in this context incorporates the aspects of exposure and sensitivity to threats, coupled with the adaptive capacity to mitigate those threats. Potential impact and adaptive capacity reflect natural history features of target species and ecosystems. The GCVA used an expert opinion approach to qualitatively assess the vulnerability of four ecosystems: mangrove, oyster reef, tidal emergent marsh, and barrier islands, and a suite of wildlife species that depend on them. More than 50 individuals participated in the completion of the GCVA, facilitated via Ecosystem and Species Expert Teams. Of the species assessed, Kemp’s ridley sea turtle was identified as the most vulnerable species across the Gulf Coast. Experts identified the main threats as loss of nesting habitat to sea level rise, erosion, and urbanization. Kemp’s ridley also had an overall low adaptive capacity score due to their low genetic diversity, and higher nest site fidelity as compared to other assessed species. Tidal emergent marsh was the most vulnerable ecosystem, due in part to sea level rise and erosion. In general, avian species were more vulnerable than fish because of nesting habitat loss to sea level rise, erosion, and potential increases in storm surge. Assessors commonly indicated a lack of information regarding impacts due to projected changes in the disturbance regime, biotic interactions, and synergistic effects in both

  11. Caracterização de idosos internados em enfermaria de pronto-socorro quanto à vulnerabilidade social e programática Caracterización de los ancianos internados en enfermería de urgencias sobre la vulnerabilidad social y programática Characterization of older individuals hospitalized in an emergency ward as regards social and programmatic vulnerability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hellen Cristina Sthal

    2010-12-01

    en la enfermedad, atendiendo a sus vulnerabilidades y respetando su autonomía y dignidad.The increase in elderly population will result in major socioeconomic changes, which will directly affect the health care sector. The study aimed characterizes hospitalized older individuals as regards social and programmatic vulnerability. It is a quantitative study performed at the Ward for Adult Patients at the Emergency Unit of the Botucatu University Hospital - UNESP. Data were collected from May to October, 2009 by means of interviews and information from patients' charts. The sample consisted of 71 individuals whose mean age was 74.30 years. Most of them lived with a relative and were assisted by a health care service, but only eight were members of a community association or participated in other forms of social leisure. Integrated care to older persons must urgently become a reality, and an individual approach focused on the person rather than on one's disease must be utilized, paying attention to older patients' vulnerabilities and respecting their autonomy and dignity.

  12. Ruptures of vulnerability: Linda Stein's Knight Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bible, Ann Vollmann

    2010-01-01

    Drawing on the work of Monique Wittig, this article understands Linda Stein's Knight Series as a lacunary writing communicating both her challenges to come to representation and her creative registration of subjectivity. The argument is grounded in an exploration of the rich interplay of power and vulnerability across the series as against the discourse of escapist fashion. Specifically, Stein's critical contradictions of inside and outside, conflated temporality, disjunctions between decoration and abstraction, and fluidity of sex and gender are examined. The discussion is elaborated through consideration of the work of Julia Kristeva, Elizabeth Grosz, and Hayao Miyazaki.

  13. Vulnerability analysis in terms of food insecurity and poverty using GIS and remote sensing technology applied to Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahriar, Pervez M.; Ramachandran, Mahadevan; Mutuwatte, Lal

    2003-03-01

    It is becoming increasingly recognized that computer methods such as models and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) can be valuable tools for analyzing a geographical area in terms of it's hazards vulnerability, Vulnerability is an important aspect of households' experience of poverty. The measurement and analysis of poverty, inequality and vulnerability are crucial for cognitive purposes (to know what the situation is), for analytical purposes (to understand the factors determining this situation), for policy making purposes (to design interventions best adapted to the issues), and for monitoring and evaluation purposes (to assess whether current policies are effective, and whether the situation is changing). Here vulnerability defined as the probability or risk today of being in poverty - or falling deeper into poverty - in the future. Vulnerability is a key dimension of well being since it affects individuals' behavior (in terms of investment, production patterns, coping strategies) and their perception of their own situation. This study has been conducted with the joint collaboration of World Food Programme (WFP) and International Water Management Institute (IWMI) in Sri Lanka for identifying regions and population which are food insecure, for analyzing the reasons for vulnerability to food insecurity in order to provide decision-makers with information to identify possible sectors of intervention and for identifying where and for whom food aid can be best utilized in Sri Lanka. This new approach integrates GIS and Remote sensing with other statistical packages to allow consideration of more spatial/physical parameters like accessibility to economic resources, particularly land and the assets of the built environment, creating employment, and attracting investment in order to improve the quality and quantity of goods and services for the analysis which leads the analysis to represent the real scenario. For this study a detailed topographic data are being used

  14. Assessing the Agricultural Vulnerability for India under Changing Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Tarul; Vardhan Murari, Harsha; Karmakar, Subhankar; Ghosh, Subimal; Singh, Jitendra

    2016-04-01

    Global climate change has proven to show majorly negative impacts for the far future. These negative impacts adversely affect almost all the fields including agriculture, water resources, tourism, and marine ecosystem. Among these, the effects on agriculture are considered to be of prime importance since its regional impacts can directly affect the global food security. Under such lines, it becomes essential to understand how climate change directs agricultural production for a region along with its vulnerability. In India, rice and wheat are considered as major staple diet and hence understanding its production loss/gain due to regional vulnerability to climate change becomes necessary. Here, an attempt has been made to understand the agricultural vulnerability for rice and wheat, considering yield as a function of temperature and precipitation during growing period. In order to accomplish this objective, the ratio of actual to potential evapo-transpiration has been considered which serves as a reliable indicator; with more this ratio towards unity, less vulnerable will be the region. The current objective needs an integration of climatic, hydrological and agricultural parameters; that can be achieved by simulating a climate data driven hydrologic (Variable Infiltration Capacity, VIC) model and a crop (Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer, DSSAT) model. The proposed framework is an attempt to derive a crop vulnerability map that can facilitate in strategizing adaption practices which can reduce the adverse impacts of climate change in future.

  15. Maintaining dignity in vulnerability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høy, Bente

    2016-01-01

    Background. Older people, living in nursing homes, are exposed to diverse situations, which may be associated with loss of dignity. To help them maintain their dignity, it is important to explore, how dignity is preserved in such context. Views of dignity and factors influencing dignity have been...... studied from both the residents´ and the care pro-viders´ perspective. However, most of these studies pertain to experiences in the dying or the illness context. Knowledge is scarce about how older people experience their dig-nity within their everyday lives in nursing homes. Aim To illuminate the meaning...... of maintaining dignity from the perspective of older people living in nursing homes Method. This qualitative study is based on individual interviews. Twenty-eight nursing home residents were included from six nursing homes in Scandinavia. A phenomenolog-ical-hermeneutic approach, inspired by Ricoeur was used...

  16. Understanding Resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang eWu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Resilience is the ability to adapt successfully in the face of stress and adversity. Stressful life events, trauma and chronic adversity can have a substantial impact on brain function and structure, and can result in the development of PTSD, depression and other psychiatric disorders. However, most individuals do not develop such illnesses after experiencing stressful life events, and are thus thought to be resilient. Resilience as successful adaptation relies on effective responses to environmental challenges and ultimate resistance to the deleterious effects of stress, therefore a greater understanding of the factors that promote such effects is of great relevance. This review focuses on recent findings regarding genetic, epigenetic, developmental, psychosocial and neurochemical factors that are considered essential contributors to the development of resilience. Neural circuits and pathways involved in mediating resilience are also discussed. The growing understanding of resilience factors will hopefully lead to the development of new pharmacological and psychological interventions for enhancing resilience and mitigating the untoward consequences.

  17. Comparison and Evaluation of Global Scale Studies of Vulnerability and Risks to Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muccione, Veruska; Allen, Simon K.; Huggel, Christian; Birkmann, Joern

    2015-04-01

    Understanding the present and future distribution of different climate change impacts and vulnerability to climate change is a central subject in the context of climate justice and international climate policy. Commonly, it is claimed that poor countries that contributed little to anthropogenic climate change are those most affected and most vulnerable to climate change. Such statements are backed by a number of global-scale vulnerability studies, which identified poor countries as most vulnerable. However, some studies have challenged this view, likewise highlighting the high vulnerability of richer countries. Overall, no consensus has been reached so far about which concept of vulnerability should be applied and what type of indicators should be considered. Furthermore, there is little agreement which specific countries are most vulnerable. This is a major concern in view of the need to inform international climate policy, all the more if such assessments should contribute to allocate climate adaptation funds as was invoked at some instances. We argue that next to the analysis of who is most vulnerable, it is also important to better understand and compare different vulnerability profiles assessed in present global studies. We perform a systematic literature review of global vulnerability assessments with the scope to highlight vulnerability distribution patterns. We then compare these distributions with global risk distributions in line with revised and adopted concepts by most recent IPCC reports. It emerges that improved differentiation of key drivers of risk and the understanding of different vulnerability profiles are important contributions, which can inform future adaptation policies at the regional and national level. This can change the perspective on, and basis for distributional issues in view of climate burden share, and therefore can have implications for UNFCCC financing instruments (e.g. Green Climate Fund). However, in order to better compare

  18. Individualizing Services, Individualizing Responsibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garsten, Christina; Hollertz, Katarina; Jacobsson, Kerstin

    and responsibilising the unemployed individual? The paper finds that the individualisation that is taking place occurs as an individualisation of responsibility, more than as an individualisation of interventions. A related finding is that the social rights perspective is becoming performance......The paper focuses on the unemployed individual and her position in local activation practice. The overall aim is to analyse the role of individualisation of local activation policy in the construction of social citizenship in Sweden. More specifically, we ask: To what extent do clients have...... at local level in one Swedish municipality....

  19. Predictors of homelessness among vulnerably housed adults in 3 Canadian cities: a prospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    To, Matthew J.; Palepu, Anita; Aubry, Tim; Nisenbaum, Rosane; Gogosis, Evie; Gadermann, Anne; Cherner, Rebecca; Farrell, Susan; Misir, Vachan; Hwang, Stephen W.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Homelessness is a major concern in many urban communities across North America. Since vulnerably housed individuals are at risk of experiencing homelessness, it is important to identify predictive factors linked to subsequent homelessness in this population. The objectives of this study were to determine the probability of experiencing homelessness among vulnerably housed adults over three years and factors associated with higher risk of homelessness. Methods Vulnerably ho...

  20. New approach to analyzing vulnerability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Callaghan, P.B.; Carlson, R.L.; Riedeman, G.W.

    1986-01-01

    The Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) has recently completed construction of the Fuel Cycle Plant (FCP) at Richland, Washington. At start-up the facility will fabricate driver fuel for the Fast Flux Test Facility in the Secure Automated Fabrication line. After construction completion, but before facility certification, the Department of Energy (DOE) Richland Operation Office requested that a vulnerability analysis be performed which assumed multiple insiders as a threat to the security system. A unique method of analyzing facility vulnerabilities was developed at the Security Applications Center (SAC), which is managed by WHC for DOE. The method that was developed verifies a previous vulnerability assessment, as well as introducing a modeling technique which analyzes security alarms in relation to delaying factors and possible insider activities. With this information it is possible to assess the relative strength or weakness of various possible routes to and from a target within a facility

  1. Are Vulnerability Disclosure Deadlines Justified?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miles McQueen; Jason L. Wright; Lawrence Wellman

    2011-09-01

    Vulnerability research organizations Rapid7, Google Security team, and Zero Day Initiative recently imposed grace periods for public disclosure of vulnerabilities. The grace periods ranged from 45 to 182 days, after which disclosure might occur with or without an effective mitigation from the affected software vendor. At this time there is indirect evidence that the shorter grace periods of 45 and 60 days may not be practical. However, there is strong evidence that the recently announced Zero Day Initiative grace period of 182 days yields benefit in speeding up the patch creation process, and may be practical for many software products. Unfortunately, there is also evidence that the 182 day grace period results in more vulnerability announcements without an available patch.

  2. Land tenure, disasters and vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reale, Andreana; Handmer, John

    2011-01-01

    Although often overlooked, land tenure is an important variable impacting on vulnerability to disaster. Vulnerability can occur either where land tenure is perceived to be insecure, or where insecure tenure results in the loss of land, especially when alternative livelihood and housing options are limited. Disasters often provide the catalyst for such loss. This paper avoids making generalisations about the security of particular types of tenure, but instead explores factors that mediate tenure security, particularly in the wake of a disaster. The paper identifies five mediating factors: (1) the local legal system; (2) government administrative authority; (3) the economy; (4) evidence of tenure, and; (5) custom and dominant social attitudes. It is shown that some mediating factors are more salient for particular types of tenure than others. The paper will highlight the importance of land tenure in any assessment of vulnerability, and conclude with suggestions for further research. © 2011 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2011.

  3. Malware Sandbox Analysis for Secure Observation of Vulnerability Exploitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, Katsunari; Inoue, Daisuke; Eto, Masashi; Hoshizawa, Yuji; Nogawa, Hiroki; Nakao, Koji

    Exploiting vulnerabilities of remote systems is one of the fundamental behaviors of malware that determines their potential hazards. Understanding what kind of propagation tactics each malware uses is essential in incident response because such information directly links with countermeasures such as writing a signature for IDS. Although recently malware sandbox analysis has been studied intensively, little work is done on securely observing the vulnerability exploitation by malware. In this paper, we propose a novel sandbox analysis method for securely observing malware's vulnerability exploitation in a totally isolated environment. In our sandbox, we prepare two victim hosts. We first execute the sample malware on one of these hosts and then let it attack the other host which is running multiple vulnerable services. As a simple realization of the proposed method, we have implemented a sandbox using Nepenthes, a low-interaction honeypot, as the second victim. Because Nepenthes can emulate a variety of vulnerable services, we can efficiently observe the propagation of sample malware. In the experiments, among 382 samples whose scan capabilities are confirmed, 381 samples successfully started exploiting vulnerabilities of the second victim. This indicates the certain level of feasibility of the proposed method.

  4. Tsunami vulnerability assessment in the western coastal belt in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranagalage, M. M.

    2017-12-01

    26th December 2004 tsunami disaster has caused massive loss of life, damage to coastal infrastructures and disruption to economic activities in the coastal belt of Sri Lanka. Tsunami vulnerability assessment is a requirement for disaster risk and vulnerability reduction. It plays a major role in identifying the extent and level of vulnerabilities to disasters within the communities. There is a need for a clearer understanding of the disaster risk patterns and factors contributing to it in different parts of the coastal belt. The main objective of this study is to investigate tsunami vulnerability assessment of Moratuwa Municipal council area in Sri Lanka. We have selected Moratuwa area due to considering urbanization pattern and Tsunami hazards of the country. Different data sets such as one-meter resolution LiDAR data, orthophoto, population, housing data and road layer were employed in this study. We employed tsunami vulnerability model for 1796 housing units located there, for a tsunami scenario with a maximum run-up 8 meters. 86% of the total land area affected by the tsunami in 8 meters scenarios. Additionally, building population has been used to estimate population in different vulnerability levels. The result shows that 32% of the buildings have extremely critical vulnerability level, 46% have critical vulnerability level, 22% have high vulnerability level, and 1% have a moderate vulnerability. According to the population estimation model results, 18% reside building with extremely critical vulnerability, 43% with critical vulnerability, 36% with high vulnerability and 3% belong to moderate vulnerability level. The results of the study provide a clear picture of tsunami vulnerability. Outcomes of this analysis can use as a valuable tool for urban planners to assess the risk and extent of disaster risk reduction which could be achieved via suitable mitigation measures to manage the coastal belt in Sri Lanka.

  5. Social vulnerability, age and resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanda Pereira Patrocinio

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to present a conceptual exposition on social vulnerability and its implications for the aging process. We conducted a survey of theme in Latin American literature, considering the social reality of Latin America closer to the Brazilian social reality, with a higher probability of relationships and approaches to the issue at hand. The second part of the article discusses the situation of old age amid the existence of social vulnerability to, third party, presenting the importance of community resilience to overcome adversity in this way. With this, we hope that our reflections will contribute to the field of research and practice in the field of social gerontology.

  6. Vulnerability in north- central Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casse, Thorkil; Milhøj, Anders; Nguyen, Thao Phuong

    2015-01-01

    a long term negative effect of floods. The research showed that a high impact of natural disasters is correlated with decreases in income over time. As the disaster relief offered by the authorities is marginal compared to economic losses, some households react by increasing off-farm incomes (including...... the impact of flooding in the provinces. The article ends by looking at the vulnerability-resilience debate concluding that the poorer households could enter a vulnerability loop, unless new strategies to cope with natural hazards are suggested....

  7. Higher-order risk vulnerability

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Xiaoping; Stapleton, Richard Christopher

    2017-01-01

    We add an independent unfair background risk to higher-order risk-taking models in the current literature and examine its interaction with the main risk under consideration. Parallel to the well-known concept of risk vulnerability, which is defined by Gollier and Pratt (Econometrica 64:1109–1123, 1996), an agent is said to have a type of higher-order risk vulnerability if adding an independent unfair background risk to wealth raises his level of this type of higher-order risk aversion. We der...

  8. Review Article: A comparison of flood and earthquake vulnerability assessment indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. de Ruiter

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In a cross-disciplinary study, we carried out an extensive literature review to increase understanding of vulnerability indicators used in the disciplines of earthquake- and flood vulnerability assessments. We provide insights into potential improvements in both fields by identifying and comparing quantitative vulnerability indicators grouped into physical and social categories. Next, a selection of index- and curve-based vulnerability models that use these indicators are described, comparing several characteristics such as temporal and spatial aspects. Earthquake vulnerability methods traditionally have a strong focus on object-based physical attributes used in vulnerability curve-based models, while flood vulnerability studies focus more on indicators applied to aggregated land-use classes in curve-based models. In assessing the differences and similarities between indicators used in earthquake and flood vulnerability models, we only include models that separately assess either of the two hazard types. Flood vulnerability studies could be improved using approaches from earthquake studies, such as developing object-based physical vulnerability curve assessments and incorporating time-of-the-day-based building occupation patterns. Likewise, earthquake assessments could learn from flood studies by refining their selection of social vulnerability indicators. Based on the lessons obtained in this study, we recommend future studies for exploring risk assessment methodologies across different hazard types.

  9. Review Article: A comparison of flood and earthquake vulnerability assessment indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ruiter, Marleen C.; Ward, Philip J.; Daniell, James E.; Aerts, Jeroen C. J. H.

    2017-07-01

    In a cross-disciplinary study, we carried out an extensive literature review to increase understanding of vulnerability indicators used in the disciplines of earthquake- and flood vulnerability assessments. We provide insights into potential improvements in both fields by identifying and comparing quantitative vulnerability indicators grouped into physical and social categories. Next, a selection of index- and curve-based vulnerability models that use these indicators are described, comparing several characteristics such as temporal and spatial aspects. Earthquake vulnerability methods traditionally have a strong focus on object-based physical attributes used in vulnerability curve-based models, while flood vulnerability studies focus more on indicators applied to aggregated land-use classes in curve-based models. In assessing the differences and similarities between indicators used in earthquake and flood vulnerability models, we only include models that separately assess either of the two hazard types. Flood vulnerability studies could be improved using approaches from earthquake studies, such as developing object-based physical vulnerability curve assessments and incorporating time-of-the-day-based building occupation patterns. Likewise, earthquake assessments could learn from flood studies by refining their selection of social vulnerability indicators. Based on the lessons obtained in this study, we recommend future studies for exploring risk assessment methodologies across different hazard types.

  10. Trauma, resilience and vulnerability to PTSD: A review and clinical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A literature review examines the proportion of individuals who develop PTSD following trauma and the factors associated with vulnerability and resilience. These include gender, developmental factors, social support and personality factors. Psychological factors associated with maintenance of chronic PTSD are also briefly ...

  11. 221 Agency and Vulnerability: Reconfiguring the Female Characters ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    an individual's agency and vulnerability to societal containment as ... sought to impact and mould, is akin to a search for psychological .... his illness. His younger wives did that. When he died this morning, one of these women went to Ozoemena's hut and told her. She rose from her mat, took her stick and walked over to.

  12. Conservation genetics of the vulnerable Treur River barb, Barbus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    At present there are only two populations of the vulnerable Treur River barb, Barbus treurensis, in existence; a founder population in the upper Blyde River and a translocated population in the Treur River where the species became extinct. The translocated population was derived from individuals from the upper Blyde River ...

  13. Vulnerability for cocaine dependence / Involvement of µ-opioid receptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lesscher, Heidi Maria Bonifacio

    2004-01-01

    Drug dependence is a major health issue worldwide, which is characterised by its persistence and high rates of relapse. Individual differences exist in the vulnerability for drug dependence after first exposure to drugs of abuse like cocaine. A likely risk factor for drug dependence is the

  14. International Student-Workers in Australia: A New Vulnerable Workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyland, Chris; Forbes-Mewett, Helen; Marginson, Simon; Ramia, Gaby; Sawir, Erlenawati; Smith, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    In the period immediately preceding the 2007 Australian election, much attention was accorded to the impact of the nation's labour laws on vulnerable employees. This debate centred on specific groups including women, youth, migrants and workers on individual employment contracts. International students, by contrast, were ignored in the debate.…

  15. A qualitative study of vulnerability to HIV infection: Places and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: HIV continues to differentially affect specific population group and geographic locations in the world. Often individual risk behaviors are associated with vulnerability to HIV infection. However, such notion often overlooks the broader context of social determinants of the infection. Such determinant is broader ...

  16. Assessing intrinsic and specific vulnerability models ability to indicate groundwater vulnerability to groups of similar pesticides: A comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Steven; Dixon, Barnali; Griffin, Dale W.

    2018-01-01

    With continued population growth and increasing use of fresh groundwater resources, protection of this valuable resource is critical. A cost effective means to assess risk of groundwater contamination potential will provide a useful tool to protect these resources. Integrating geospatial methods offers a means to quantify the risk of contaminant potential in cost effective and spatially explicit ways. This research was designed to compare the ability of intrinsic (DRASTIC) and specific (Attenuation Factor; AF) vulnerability models to indicate groundwater vulnerability areas by comparing model results to the presence of pesticides from groundwater sample datasets. A logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between the environmental variables and the presence or absence of pesticides within regions of varying vulnerability. According to the DRASTIC model, more than 20% of the study area is very highly vulnerable. Approximately 30% is very highly vulnerable according to the AF model. When groundwater concentrations of individual pesticides were compared to model predictions, the results were mixed. Model predictability improved when concentrations of the group of similar pesticides were compared to model results. Compared to the DRASTIC model, the AF model more accurately predicts the distribution of the number of contaminated wells within each vulnerability class.

  17. Vulnerability, Coping and Adaptation in the context of Climate ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Climate change and HIV/AIDS are widely recognized as major contributors to chronic impoverishment in sub-Saharan Africa. This project aims to gain a more nuanced understanding of how multiple interacting stressors such as climate variability and HIV/AIDS influence capital stocks, livelihood choices, vulnerability and ...

  18. Vulnerability of wastewater infrastructure of coastal cities to sea level ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sea-level rise is one of the consequences of global warming that has the potential to affect the infrastructure of coastal urban areas. In this context, it is important to perform vulnerability assessments in order to understand how this infrastruc- ture may be at risk, and, if necessary, adapt and maintain functionality of ...

  19. Vulnerability of Nigerian Secondary School to Human Sex ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim is to assess in-school students' knowledge and awareness of, and attitude toward sex trafficking as a way to understanding their personal vulnerability to trafficking. A semi-structured questionnaire was administered in 2004-2005 to a classroom random sample of 689 adolescents in the age range of 16-20 years.

  20. How useful are Swiss flood insurance data for flood vulnerability assessments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röthlisberger, Veronika; Bernet, Daniel; Zischg, Andreas; Keiler, Margreth

    2015-04-01

    The databases of Swiss flood insurance companies build a valuable but to date rarely used source of information on physical flood vulnerability. Detailed insights into the Swiss flood insurance system are crucial for using the full potential of the different databases for research on flood vulnerability. Insurance against floods in Switzerland is a federal system, the modalities are manly regulated on cantonal level. However there are some common principles that apply throughout Switzerland. First of all coverage against floods (and other particular natural hazards) is an integral part of every fire insurance policy for buildings or contents. This coupling of insurance as well as the statutory obligation to insure buildings in most of the cantons and movables in some of the cantons lead to a very high penetration. Second, in case of damage, the reinstatement costs (value as new) are compensated and third there are no (or little) deductible and co-pay. High penetration and the fact that the compensations represent a large share of the direct, tangible losses of the individual policy holders make the databases of the flood insurance companies a comprehensive and therefore valuable data source for flood vulnerability research. Insurance companies not only store electronically data about losses (typically date, amount of claims payment, cause of damage, identity of the insured object or policyholder) but also about insured objects. For insured objects the (insured) value and the details on the policy and its holder are the main feature to record. On buildings the insurance companies usually computerize additional information such as location, volume, year of construction or purpose of use. For the 19 (of total 26) cantons with a cantonal monopoly insurer the data of these insurance establishments have the additional value to represent (almost) the entire building stock of the respective canton. Spatial referenced insurance data can be used for many aspects of

  1. Cognitive vulnerability and dental fear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spencer A John

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Cognitive Vulnerability Model proposes that perceptions of certain characteristics of a situation are critical determinants of fear. Although the model is applicable to all animal, natural environment and situational fears, it has not yet been applied specifically to dental fear. This study therefore aimed to examine the association between dental fear and perceptions of dental visits as uncontrollable, unpredictable and dangerous. Methods The study used a clustered, stratified national sample of Australians aged 15 years and over. All participants were asked in a telephone interview survey to indicate their level of dental fear. Participants who received an oral examination were subsequently provided with a self-complete questionnaire in which they rated their perceptions of uncontrollability, unpredictability and dangerousness associated with dental visiting. Results 3937 participants were recruited. Each of the three vulnerability-related perceptions was strongly associated with the prevalence of high dental fear. In a logistic regression analysis, uncontrollability and dangerousness perceptions were significantly associated with high dental fear after controlling for age and sex. However, unpredictability perceptions did not have a statistically significant independent association with dental fear after controlling for all other variables. Conclusion Results are mostly consistent with the Cognitive Vulnerability Model of the etiology of fear, with perceptions of uncontrollability, unpredictability and dangerousness each showing a strong bivariate relationship with high dental fear prevalence. However, more extensive measures of vulnerability perceptions would be valuable in future investigations.

  2. 1C software vulnerabilities description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanov Oleg

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the vulnerability of the application solution based on the “1C: Enterprise 8” platform, which can be used by only built-in tools of the platform. Possible threats and attack algorithm are described.

  3. Multiple stressors in Southern Africa: the link between HIV/AIDS, food insecurity, poverty and children's vulnerability now and in the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drimie, Scott; Casale, Marisa

    2009-01-01

    Several countries in Southern Africa now see large numbers of their population barely subsisting at poverty levels in years without shocks, and highly vulnerable to the vagaries of the weather, the economy and government policy. The combination of HIV/AIDS, food insecurity and a weakened capacity for governments to deliver basic social services has led to the region experiencing an acute phase of a long-term emergency. "Vulnerability" is a term commonly used by scientists and practitioners to describe these deteriorating conditions. There is particular concern about the "vulnerability" of children in this context and implications for children's future security. Through a review of literature and recent case studies, and using a widely accepted conceptualisation of vulnerability as a lens, we reflect on what the regional livelihoods crisis could mean for children's future wellbeing. We argue that an increase in factors determining the vulnerability of households - both through greater intensity and frequency of shocks and stresses ("external" vulnerability) and undermined resilience or ability to cope ("internal" vulnerability) - are threatening not only current welfare of children, but also their longer-term security. The two specific pathways we explore are (1) erosive coping strategies employed by families and individuals; and (2) their inability to plan for the future. We conclude that understanding and responding to this crisis requires looking at the complexity of these multiple stressors, to try to comprehend their interconnections and causal links. Policy and programme responses have, to date, largely failed to take into account the complex and multi-dimensional nature of this crisis. There is a misfit between the problem and the institutional response, as responses from national and international players have remained relatively static. Decisive, well-informed and holistic interventions are needed to break the potential negative cycle that threatens the

  4. Vulnerability before, during, and after a major depressive episode - A 3-wave population-based study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ormel, J; Oldehinkel, AJ; Vollebergh, W

    2004-01-01

    Background: Vulnerability as defined by high levels of neuroticism, low self-esteem, and poor coping skills characterizes individuals with a history of major depressive episodes (MDEs). Objective: To separate postmorbid vulnerability into (1) trait effects (ie, the continuation of premorbid

  5. Vulnerability Before, During, and After a Major Depressive Episode : A 3-Wave Population-Based Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ormel, J.; Oldehinkel, A.J.; Vollebergh, W.A.M.

    2004-01-01

    Background Vulnerability as defined by high levels of neuroticism, low self-esteem, and poor coping skills characterizes individuals with a history of major depressive episodes (MDEs). Objective To separate postmorbid vulnerability into (1) trait effects (ie, the continuation of premorbid

  6. Quantifying the vulnerability of well fields towards anthropogenic pollution: The Netherlands as an example

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mendizabal, I.; Stuijfzand, P.J.; Wiersma, A.

    2011-01-01

    A new method is presented to asses the vulnerability of public supply well fields (PSWFs), other well fields or individual wells. The Intrinsic Vulnerability Index towards Pollution (VIP) is based on the age, redox level, alkalinity (or acidity), and surface water fraction of the pumped water,

  7. Assessing the Vulnerability of Private and Public College Campuses in New Jersey to Domestic Terrorist Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, Christopher James

    2016-01-01

    Colleges and universities are among the United States of America's most vulnerable and exploitable targets for individuals and organizations seeking to cause harm and fear. This study specifically addressed the various vulnerabilities identified by those in charge of college campus public safety in New Jersey. The information gathered was very…

  8. A qualitative exploration of work-related head injury: vulnerability at the intersection of workers' decision making and organizational values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontos, P; Grigorovich, A; Nowrouzi, B; Sharma, B; Lewko, J; Mollayeva, T; Colantonio, A

    2017-10-18

    Work-related head injury is a critical public health issue due to its rising prevalence; the association with profound disruption of workers' lives; and significant economic burdens in terms of medical costs and lost wages. Efforts to understand and prevent these types of injuries have largely been dominated by epidemiological research and safety science, which has focused on identifying risk at the level of the individual worker, population group, or organizational sector. Limited research has focused on the perspectives of the workers, a key stakeholder group for informing understanding of vulnerability to work-related head injury. This study explored workers' perspectives to better understand their decision-making and how and why their injuries occurred. We conducted a qualitative study using in-depth semi-structured interviews with thirty-two adult workers who had sustained a work-related head injury. Workers were recruited from an urban clinic in central Ontario, Canada. Labour Process Theory informed the thematic analysis. Three hazardous work conditions were identified: insufficient training; inadequate staffing; and inattention to the physical environment. In addition, professional and organizational norms were implicated in vulnerability to head injury including putting the client before the worker and the pressure to work unsafely. The findings also highlight a complex interrelationship between workers' decision-making and professional and organizational norms that produces vulnerability to head injury, a vulnerability which oftentimes is reproduced by workers' decisions to work despite hazardous conditions. Our findings suggest that, beyond the need to redress the inattention to hazards in the physical environment, there is a need to address norms that influence worker decision-making to improve the safety of workers. Using Labour Process Theory highlights an important social dynamic within workplace sectors that could inform future development and

  9. Leveraging social capital: multilevel stigma, associated HIV vulnerabilities, and social resilience strategies among transgender women in Lima, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Brumer, Amaya G; Reisner, Sari L; McLean, Sarah A; Silva-Santisteban, Alfonso; Huerta, Leyla; Mayer, Kenneth H; Sanchez, Jorge; Clark, Jesse L; Mimiaga, Matthew J; Lama, Javier R

    2017-02-28

    In Peru, transgender women (TW) experience unique vulnerabilities for HIV infection due to factors that limit access to, and quality of, HIV prevention, treatment and care services. Yet, despite recent advances in understanding factors associated with HIV vulnerability among TW globally, limited scholarship has examined how Peruvian TW cope with this reality and how existing community-level resilience strategies are enacted despite pervasive social and economic exclusion facing the community. Addressing this need, our study applies the understanding of social capital as a social determinant of health and examines its relationship to HIV vulnerabilities to TW in Peru. Using qualitative methodology to provide an in-depth portrait, we assessed (1) intersections between social marginalization, social capital and HIV vulnerabilities; and (2) community-level resilience strategies employed by TW to buffer against social marginalization and to link to needed HIV-related services in Peru. Between January and February 2015, 48 TW participated (mean age = 29, range = 18-44) in this study that included focus group discussions and demographic surveys. Analyses were guided by an immersion crystallization approach and all coding was conducted using Dedoose Version 6.1.18. Themes associated with HIV vulnerability included experiences of multilevel stigma and limited occupational opportunities that placed TW at risk for, and limited their engagement with, existing HIV services. Emergent resiliency-based strategies included peer-to-peer and intergenerational knowledge sharing, supportive clinical services (e.g. group-based clinic attendance) and emotional support through social cohesion (i.e. feeling part of a community). This study highlights the importance of TW communities as support structures that create and deploy social resiliency-based strategies aimed at deterring and mitigating the impact of social vulnerabilities to discrimination, marginalization and HIV risk for

  10. Risk and vulnerability to global and climate change in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mambo, Julia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of risk and vulnerability is widely used in relation to climate and global change. Understanding the meaning of these terns as well as how they are interpretation will have an impact on how vulnerability assessment are conducted as well...

  11. Perceived Vulnerability to Heart Disease in Patients with Familial Hypercholesterolemia: A Qualitative Interview Study

    OpenAIRE

    Frich, Jan C.; Ose, Leiv; Malterud, Kirsti; Fugelli, Per

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE Knowledge about the ways patients perceive their vulnerability to disease is important for communication with patients about risk and preventive health measures. This interview study aimed to explore how patients with a diagnosis of heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia understand and perceive their vulnerability to coronary heart disease.

  12. Review Article: A Comparison of Flood and Earthquake Vulnerability Assessment Indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ruiter, Marleen C.; Ward, Philip J.; Daniell, James E.; Aerts, Jeroen C. J. H.

    2017-01-01

    In a cross-discipline study, we carried out an extensive literature review to increase understanding of vulnerability indicators used in both earthquake- and flood vulnerability assessments. We provide insights into potential improvements in both fields by identifying and comparing quantitative

  13. Review Article : A comparison of flood and earthquake vulnerability assessment indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Ruiter, Marleen C.; Ward, Philip J.; Daniell, James E.; Aerts, Jeroen C.J.H.

    2017-01-01

    In a cross-disciplinary study, we carried out an extensive literature review to increase understanding of vulnerability indicators used in the disciplines of earthquake- and flood vulnerability assessments. We provide insights into potential improvements in both fields by identifying and comparing

  14. Culture, but more than culture: an exploratory study of the HIV vulnerability of Indian immigrants in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yanqiu Rachel; Majumdar, Basanti; Vattikonda, Natasha

    2016-09-01

    Explanations of immigrant health that ascribe to culture a fundamental causal role neglect the broader structural and contextual factors with which culture intersects. Based on a qualitative study of Indian immigrants' vulnerability to HIV in Canada, this paper presents a contextualised understanding of these individuals' understanding of, perceptions about, and responses to the HIV risk in their post-immigration lives. The study reveals that although culture - both traditional values and the norms of the diaspora community - appears to have constrained Indian immigrants' capacities to respond to the risk, this effect can be properly understood only by situating such constraint in the context of the settlement process that has shaped participants' living conditions, including their relationship with the diasporic community in Canada. We argue that HIV vulnerability should be conceptualised as a health inequality associated with broader systems of power relations (eg socio-economic marginalisation, gender inequality, discrimination, and racism). This more holistic conceptualisation of the intersection of culture, integration, and HIV vulnerability will facilitate exploration of HIV prevention strategies, through which interconnected inequalities of gender, race, and access to knowledge and resources can be challenged.

  15. Cue-evoked positive affect, depression vulnerability and smoking years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McChargue, Dennis E; Doran, Neal

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate whether cue-evoked affective response would moderate the relationship between depression-proneness and smoking years. Depression-proneness profiles were derived using clinician diagnosed personal and family histories of major depression, recurrent depression, trait-anhedonia, and ruminative coping styles (n=70). Affective distress was produced by idiographic, guided negative mood imageries in the presence of an in vivo cigarette exposure. Contrary to expectations, results showed that individuals less vulnerable to depression reported longer smoking histories. Stress-induced decreases in positive affect bolstered the association between depression vulnerability and smoking years. Depression-proneness assumptions are challenged and implications to affective influences on smoking behavior are discussed.

  16. Vulnerability of the Built Environment to Tsunamis - an Overview of Where We Are in 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petroff, C. M.

    2012-12-01

    The last twenty years have seen great strides in the understanding and prediction of tsunami behavior. Though study of these disasters has always been motivated by the need to reduce casualties and damage, early work focused primarily on predicting magnitude, propagation and inundation from tsunami waves. Investigations have expanded to include a burgeoning field concentrated on the landward effects of tsunamis on communities: examining building and infrastructure vulnerability, assessing the probabilities of varying levels of damage and applying these findings to planning of land-use, development, evacuation and response. Catastrophic events of the last decade in the Indian Ocean and Japan have brought these issues to the fore and raise the question: Where are we in our understanding of vulnerability to tsunamis? What have we learned? What are the lessons that the most recent events teach us? This overview summarizes recent investigations of the vulnerability of engineered structures to damage from tsunamis - from individual buildings of various uses to larger facilities and structural systems. Examples are provided of both successes and failures in design for tsunami resistance. Vulnerability of critical infrastructure and lifelines is discussed in the context of tsunamis in Sumatra, Chile and Japan. This includes the ability of critical systems to function during and immediately after a disaster as well as the short and long term resilience of utilities, services and coastal facilities after tsunamis. Recent work on probabilistic prediction of damage and development of fragility functions is summarized for the Chile 2010 and Japan 2011 tsunamis. Finally, a commentary is presented on building vulnerability issues as they relate to land use planning, building design and codes and vertical evacuation planning.; Three views of the Oya Train Station in Miyagi Prefecture: Prior to (top), two months after (middle), and one year after (bottom) the March 11, 2011 Tohoku

  17. The Association Between Disaster Vulnerability and Post-disaster Psychosocial Service Delivery Across Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dückers, Michel L A; Witteveen, Anke B; Bisson, Jonathan I; Olff, Miranda

    2017-07-01

    This study confirms that the developmental stage of post-disaster psychosocial support planning and delivery systems in Europe is associated with countries' level of disaster vulnerability. Lower vulnerability is accompanied by more evolved planning and delivery systems. Countries in north, west and central regions have more developed planning and delivery systems and lower vulnerability levels than those in the south, southeast and east. The highest proportion of variance in vulnerability is located at the regional level, most of the variance in planning and delivery systems is at the individual level. Possible implications and chances for the optimization of psychosocial services are discussed.

  18. Oral health, the perspective of the inmate and the context of vulnerability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Berger FADEL

    Full Text Available AbstractIntroductionThe increase in prison populations is a phenomenon which is systematically rising throughout the world, leading to overcrowding of prisons, which has direct consequences on the health conditions of the individuals.ObjectiveTo explore the relationship among oral health, the life path and the perception of subjects in a vulnerability context.Material and methodThis is a qualitative study, developed with inmates in a State Penitentiary. To obtain and process the data, individual interviews and the Thematic Content Analysis technique were used.ResultThe interviewees showed limited perception of the process of oral health and disease fostered by the experiences of relatives and by knowledge acquired in the street or from the media. The life path in prison seemed to have little influence on this understanding. However, the prison experience influenced the oral condition of the inmates by facilitating access to dental service, oral hygiene materials and the improvement in their health knowledge and habits. The oral health results presented were, generally, in agreement with so-called common sense and with studies developed in socially similar populations.ConclusionThus, considering the limitations imposed by the way data were collected, in prison and in a vulnerability context; a non-harmful influence on the condition studied regarding the oral health of inmates is suggested.

  19. Addressing the vulnerabilities of pass-thoughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Gabriel C.; Danko, Amanda S.

    2016-05-01

    As biometrics become increasingly pervasive, consumer electronics are reaping the benefits of improved authentication methods. Leveraging the physical characteristics of a user reduces the burden of setting and remembering complex passwords, while enabling stronger security. Multi-factor systems lend further credence to this model, increasing security via multiple passive data points. In recent years, brainwaves have been shown to be another feasible source for biometric authentication. Physically unique to an individual in certain circumstances, the signals can also be changed by the user at will, making them more robust than static physical characteristics. No paradigm is impervious however, and even well-established medical technologies have deficiencies. In this work, a system for biometric authentication via brainwaves is constructed with electroencephalography (EEG). The efficacy of EEG biometrics via existing consumer electronics is evaluated, and vulnerabilities of such a system are enumerated. Impersonation attacks are performed to expose the extent to which the system is vulnerable. Finally, a multimodal system combining EEG with additional factors is recommended and outlined.

  20. Syndemic vulnerability and the right to health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willen, Sarah S; Knipper, Michael; Abadía-Barrero, César E; Davidovitch, Nadav

    2017-03-04

    Investigators working both in syndemics, a field of applied health research with roots in medical anthropology, and in the field of health and human rights recognise that upstream social, political, and structural determinants contribute more to health inequities than do biological factors or personal choices. Syndemics investigates synergistic, often deleterious interactions among comorbid health conditions, especially under circumstances of structural and political adversity. Health and human rights research draws on international law to argue that all people deserve access not only to health care, but also to the underlying determinants of good health. Taking the urgent matter of migrant health as an empirical focus, we juxtapose the fields of syndemics and health and human rights, identify their complementarities, and advocate for a combined approach. By melding insights from these fields, the combined syndemics/health and human rights approach advanced here can provide clinicians and other key stakeholders with concrete insights, tools, and strategies to tackle the health inequities that affect migrants and other vulnerable groups by: (1) mapping the effect of social, political, and structural determinants on health; (2) identifying opportunities for upstream intervention; and (3) working collaboratively to tackle the structures, institutions, and processes that cause and exacerbate health inequities. Undergirding this approach is an egalitarian interpretation of the right to health that differs from narrow legalistic and individual interpretations by insisting that all people are equal in worth and, as a result, equally deserving of protection from syndemic vulnerability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Modeling the Connectedness Between best Management Practices and Vulnerability Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anandhi, A.; Bailey, N.; Thomas, M.; Bartnick, B.

    2015-12-01

    The overall goal of this study is to better understand the connectedness between Best management practices (BMPs) and vulnerability assessments (VA) in a changing landuse. Developing this connectedness will help understand key vulnerabilities and improve adaptive capacity important for ecosystem sustainability. BMPs are practical management practices or systems designed and installed in watersheds to provide a wide range of effects to protect or restore the physical, chemical, and biological condition of waterbodies (e.g. changing hydrology; improving vegetative habitat; mitigate adverse environmental change). VAs can be defined as "the degree to which the system is susceptible to and is unable to cope with adverse effects of change" and are often characterized as a function of exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity. There are many variables and factors used in calculating the impact of BMPs and VAs. The event mean concentration or load (e.g. nutrient, sediment,) associated with the specific landuse is an important variable. There is much data that predicts the loads associated with the major landuses (urban, agricultural). Loads greatly vary with region; rainfall characteristics (e.g. rainfall intensity, rainfall frequency); soil characteristics (e.g. soil type, hydrologic soil groups); hydrologic characteristics (e.g. runoff potential). A concern also exists that possibly all of the variables associated with changes in an individual land use have not been identified and distinguished for their impact on land use. For example, the loads associated with a high density residential with much green space may be more similar to medium density than loads associated with high rise apartment buildings. Other factors may include age of construction, % of families with children, % of families with pets, level of transiency, and construction activity The objective of our study is to develop an initial framework using multiple variables and factors to represent the

  2. Coastal vulnerability assessment using Fuzzy Logic and Bayesian Belief Network approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentini, Emiliana; Nguyen Xuan, Alessandra; Filipponi, Federico; Taramelli, Andrea

    2017-04-01

    Natural hazards such as sea surge are threatening low-lying coastal plains. In order to deal with disturbances a deeper understanding of benefits deriving from ecosystem services assessment, management and planning can contribute to enhance the resilience of coastal systems. In this frame assessing current and future vulnerability is a key concern of many Systems Of Systems SOS (social, ecological, institutional) that deals with several challenges like the definition of Essential Variables (EVs) able to synthesize the required information, the assignment of different weight to be attributed to each considered variable, the selection of method for combining the relevant variables. It is widely recognized that ecosystems contribute to human wellbeing and then their conservation increases the resilience capacities and could play a key role in reducing climate related risk and thus physical and economic losses. A way to fully exploit ecosystems potential, i.e. their so called ecopotential (see H2020 EU funded project "ECOPOTENTIAL"), is the Ecosystem based Adaptation (EbA): the use of ecosystem services as part of an adaptation strategy. In order to provide insight in understanding regulating ecosystem services to surge and which variables influence them and to make the best use of available data and information (EO products, in situ data and modelling), we propose a multi-component surge vulnerability assessment, focusing on coastal sandy dunes as natural barriers. The aim is to combine together eco-geomorphological and socio-economic variables with the hazard component on the base of different approaches: 1) Fuzzy Logic; 2) Bayesian Belief Networks (BBN). The Fuzzy Logic approach is very useful to get a spatialized information and it can easily combine variables coming from different sources. It provides information on vulnerability moving along-shore and across-shore (beach-dune transect), highlighting the variability of vulnerability conditions in the spatial

  3. Savannah River Site management response plan for chemical safety vulnerability field assessment. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahal, E.J.; Murphy, S.L.; Salaymeh, S.R.

    1994-09-01

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) initiative to identify potential chemical safety vulnerabilities in the DOE complex, the Chemical Safety Vulnerability Core Working Group issued a field verification assessment report. While the report concluded that Savannah River Site (SRS) is moving in a positive direction, the report also identified five chemical safety vulnerabilities with broad programmatic impact that are not easily nor quickly remedied. The May 1994 SRS Management Response Plan addressed the five SRS vulnerabilities identified in the field assessment report. The SRS response plan listed observations supporting the vulnerabilities and any actions taken or planned toward resolution. Many of the observations were resolved by simple explanations, such as the existence of implementation plans for Safety Analysis Report updates. Recognizing that correcting individual observations does not suffice in remedying the vulnerabilities, a task team was assembled to address the broader programmatic issues and to recommend corrective actions

  4. Nrf2-dependent persistent oxidative stress results in stress-induced vulnerability to depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouvier, E; Brouillard, F; Molet, J; Claverie, D; Cabungcal, J-H; Cresto, N; Doligez, N; Rivat, C; Do, K Q; Bernard, C; Benoliel, J-J; Becker, C

    2017-12-01

    Stressful life events produce a state of vulnerability to depression in some individuals. The mechanisms that contribute to vulnerability to depression remain poorly understood. A rat model of intense stress (social defeat (SD), first hit) produced vulnerability to depression in 40% of animals. Only vulnerable animals developed a depression-like phenotype after a second stressful hit (chronic mild stress). We found that this vulnerability to depression resulted from a persistent state of oxidative stress, which was reversed by treatment with antioxidants. This persistent state of oxidative stress was due to low brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels, which characterized the vulnerable animals. We found that BDNF constitutively controlled the nuclear translocation of the master redox-sensitive transcription factor Nrf2, which activates antioxidant defenses. Low BDNF levels in vulnerable animals prevented Nrf2 translocation and consequently prevented the activation of detoxifying/antioxidant enzymes, ultimately resulting in the generation of sustained oxidative stress. Activating Nrf2 translocation restored redox homeostasis and reversed vulnerability to depression. This mechanism was confirmed in Nrf2-null mice. The mice displayed high levels of oxidative stress and were inherently vulnerable to depression, but this phenotype was reversed by treatment with antioxidants. Our data reveal a novel role for BDNF in controlling redox homeostasis and provide a mechanistic explanation for post-stress vulnerability to depression while suggesting ways to reverse it. Because numerous enzymatic reactions produce reactive oxygen species that must then be cleared, the finding that BDNF controls endogenous redox homeostasis opens new avenues for investigation.

  5. Applying a Comprehensive Contextual Climate Change Vulnerability Framework to New Zealand's Tourism Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Debbie

    2015-03-01

    Conceptualisations of 'vulnerability' vary amongst scholarly communities, contributing to a wide variety of applications. Research investigating vulnerability to climate change has often excluded non-climatic changes which may contribute to degrees of vulnerability perceived or experienced. This paper introduces a comprehensive contextual vulnerability framework which incorporates physical, social, economic and political factors which could amplify or reduce vulnerability. The framework is applied to New Zealand's tourism industry to explore its value in interpreting a complex, human-natural environment system with multiple competing vulnerabilities. The comprehensive contextual framework can inform government policy and industry decision making, integrating understandings of climate change within the broader context of internal and external social, physical, economic, and institutional stressors.

  6. Recognizing Risk and Vulnerability in Research Ethics: Imagining the "What Ifs?"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Elizabeth; Friedland, Judith

    2017-04-01

    Research ethics committees (RECs) may misunderstand the vulnerability of participants, given their distance from the field. What RECs identify as the vulnerabilities that were not adequately recognized in protocols and how they attempt to protect the perceived vulnerability of participants and mitigate risks were examined using the response letters sent to researchers by three university-based RECs. Using a critical qualitative method informed by feminist ethics, we identified an overarching theme of recognizing and responding to cascading vulnerabilities and four subthemes: identifying vulnerable groups, recognizing potentially risky research, imagining the "what ifs," and mitigating perceived risks. An ethics approach that is up-close, as opposed to distant, is needed to foster closer relationships among participants, researchers, and RECs and to understand participant vulnerability and strength better.

  7. Importance of biometrics to addressing vulnerabilities of the U.S. infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, Craig M.; Hall, Nathaniel A.

    2004-08-01

    Human identification technologies are important threat countermeasures in minimizing select infrastructure vulnerabilities. Properly targeted countermeasures should be selected and integrated into an overall security solution based on disciplined analysis and modeling. Available data on infrastructure value, threat intelligence, and system vulnerabilities are carefully organized, analyzed and modeled. Prior to design and deployment of an effective countermeasure; the proper role and appropriateness of technology in addressing the overall set of vulnerabilities is established. Deployment of biometrics systems, as with other countermeasures, introduces potentially heightened vulnerabilities into the system. Heightened vulnerabilities may arise from both the newly introduced system complexities and an unfocused understanding of the set of vulnerabilities impacted by the new countermeasure. The countermeasure's own inherent vulnerabilities and those introduced by the system's integration with the existing system are analyzed and modeled to determine the overall vulnerability impact. The United States infrastructure is composed of government and private assets. The infrastructure is valued by their potential impact on several components: human physical safety, physical/information replacement/repair cost, potential contribution to future loss (criticality in weapons production), direct productivity output, national macro-economic output/productivity, and information integrity. These components must be considered in determining the overall impact of an infrastructure security breach. Cost/benefit analysis is then incorporated in the security technology deployment decision process. Overall security risks based on system vulnerabilities and threat intelligence determines areas of potential benefit. Biometric countermeasures are often considered when additional security at intended points of entry would minimize vulnerabilities.

  8. Mobile population dynamics and malaria vulnerability: a modelling study in the China-Myanmar border region of Yunnan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tian-Mu; Zhang, Shao-Sen; Feng, Jun; Xia, Zhi-Gui; Luo, Chun-Hai; Zeng, Xu-Can; Guo, Xiang-Rui; Lin, Zu-Rui; Zhou, Hong-Ning; Zhou, Shui-Sen

    2018-04-29

    The China-Myanmar border region presents a great challenge in malaria elimination in China, and it is essential to understand the relationship between malaria vulnerability and population mobility in this region. A community-based, cross-sectional survey was performed in five villages of Yingjiang county during September 2016. Finger-prick blood samples were obtained to identify asymptomatic infections, and imported cases were identified in each village (between January 2013 and September 2016). A stochastic simulation model (SSM) was used to test the relationship between population mobility and malaria vulnerability, according to the mechanisms of malaria importation. Thirty-two imported cases were identified in the five villages, with a 4-year average of 1 case/year (range: 0-5 cases/year). No parasites were detected in the 353 blood samples from 2016. The median density of malaria vulnerability was 0.012 (range: 0.000-0.033). The average proportion of mobile members of the study population was 32.56% (range: 28.38-71.95%). Most mobile individuals lived indoors at night with mosquito protection. The SSM model fit the investigated data (χ 2  = 0.487, P = 0.485). The average probability of infection in the members of the population that moved to Myanmar was 0.011 (range: 0.0048-0.1585). The values for simulated vulnerability increased with greater population mobility in each village. A high proportion of population mobility was associated with greater malaria vulnerability in the China-Myanmar border region. Mobile population-specific measures should be used to decrease the risk of malaria re-establishment in China.

  9. Paternal genetic contribution influences fetal vulnerability to maternal alcohol consumption in a rat model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura J Sittig

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Fetal alcohol exposure causes in the offspring a collection of permanent physiological and neuropsychological deficits collectively termed Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD. The timing and amount of exposure cannot fully explain the substantial variability among affected individuals, pointing to genetic influences that mediate fetal vulnerability. However, the aspects of vulnerability that depend on the mother, the father, or both, are not known.Using the outbred Sprague-Dawley (SD and inbred Brown Norway (BN rat strains as well as their reciprocal crosses, we administered ethanol (E, pair-fed (PF, or control (C diets to the pregnant dams. The dams' plasma levels of free thyroxine (fT4, triiodothyronine (T3, free T3 (fT3, and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH were measured to elucidate potential differences in maternal thyroid hormonal environment, which affects specific aspects of FASD. We then compared alcohol-exposed, pair fed, and control offspring of each fetal strain on gestational day 21 (G21 to identify maternal and paternal genetic effects on bodyweight and placental weight of male and female fetuses.SD and BN dams exhibited different baseline hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid function. Moreover, the thyroid function of SD dams was more severely affected by alcohol consumption while that of BN dams was relatively resistant. This novel finding suggests that genetic differences in maternal thyroid function are one source of maternal genetic effects on fetal vulnerability to FASD. The fetal vulnerability to decreased bodyweight after alcohol exposure depended on the genetic contribution of both parents, not only maternal contribution as previously thought. In contrast, the effect of maternal alcohol consumption on placental weight was consistent and not strain-dependent. Interestingly, placental weight in fetuses with different paternal genetic contributions exhibited opposite responses to caloric restriction (pair feeding. In summary

  10. Climate volatility deepens poverty vulnerability in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Syud A; Diffenbaugh, Noah S; Hertel, Thomas W

    2009-01-01

    Extreme climate events could influence poverty by affecting agricultural productivity and raising prices of staple foods that are important to poor households in developing countries. With the frequency and intensity of extreme climate events predicted to change in the future, informed policy design and analysis requires an understanding of which countries and groups are going to be most vulnerable to increasing poverty. Using a novel economic-climate analysis framework, we assess the poverty impacts of climate volatility for seven socio-economic groups in 16 developing countries. We find that extremes under present climate volatility increase poverty across our developing country sample-particularly in Bangladesh, Mexico, Indonesia, and Africa-with urban wage earners the most vulnerable group. We also find that global warming exacerbates poverty vulnerability in many nations.

  11. Preventive practices in the elderly and vulnerability to HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Peixoto Bezerra

    Full Text Available Objective: To know the vulnerability of the elderly to the HIV infection in the context of preventive practices. Method: Exploratory qualitative study, lead from December 2012 to May 2013, with 37 nursing Coexistence Groups in João Pessoa - Paraiba. The Focus Group was elected as the research technique, and the empirical material obtained was subjected to a Content Analysis Technique, thematic modality. Results: The elderly recognize the importance of preventive practices, but they face difficulties in its use when their emotional relationships with their partners do not favor preventive behavior, resulting in vulnerability. The elderly showed the population groups most vulnerable to HIV and do not recognize themselves as such. Conclusion: The complexity of the various contexts experienced by the elderlies of this study indicate the need for more research that allows advances in the understanding of subjectivity imposed in relations that underlie the aging process and the experience of sexuality in this age group.

  12. Climate volatility deepens poverty vulnerability in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Syud A.; Diffenbaugh, Noah S.; Hertel, Thomas W.

    2009-07-01

    Extreme climate events could influence poverty by affecting agricultural productivity and raising prices of staple foods that are important to poor households in developing countries. With the frequency and intensity of extreme climate events predicted to change in the future, informed policy design and analysis requires an understanding of which countries and groups are going to be most vulnerable to increasing poverty. Using a novel economic-climate analysis framework, we assess the poverty impacts of climate volatility for seven socio-economic groups in 16 developing countries. We find that extremes under present climate volatility increase poverty across our developing country sample—particularly in Bangladesh, Mexico, Indonesia, and Africa—with urban wage earners the most vulnerable group. We also find that global warming exacerbates poverty vulnerability in many nations.

  13. Urban vulnerability and climate change in Africa a multidisciplinary approach

    CERN Document Server

    Coly, Adrien; Fohlmeister, Sandra; Gasparini, Paolo; Jørgensen, Gertrud; Kabisch, Sigrun; Kombe, Wilbard; Lindley, Sarah; Simonis, Ingo; Yeshitela, Kumelachew

    2015-01-01

    The book presents results of CLUVA (CLimate Change and Urban Vulnerability in Africa), a large European Commission funded research project (2010-2013). The project aimed to develop a better understanding of the risks and impacts of climate change related hazards to African cities, assess their vulnerability to these risks, and identify innovative strategies for planning and governance to increase their resilience. For the first time, a systematic and groundbreaking study of this kind was applied in an inter- and trans-disciplinary approach. CLUVA was unique in that it combined: a top-down perspective of climate change modeling with a bottom-up perspective of vulnerability assessment; quantitative approaches from engineering sciences and qualitative approaches of the social sciences; a novel multi-risk modeling methodology; strategic approaches to urban and green infrastructure planning with neighborhood perspectives of adaptation. The book broadly follows the approach taken in the CLUVA project. First, the co...

  14. Understanding Victimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barslund, Mikkel; Rand, John; Tarp, Finn

    2007-01-01

    that the probability of being victimized is increasing in income, but at a diminishing rate. The effect of income is dependent on the type of crime, and poorer households are vulnerable. While less at risk of victimization, they suffer relatively greater losses when such shocks occur. Lower inequality and increased...... community level employment emerge as effective avenues to less crime....

  15. VULNERABILITY OF PART TIME EMPLOYEES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Dimitriu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The employee who concluded a part-time contract is the employee whose normal working hours, calculated weekly or as monthly average, is lower than the number of normal working hours of a comparable full-time employee. Part-time workers generally have the same legal status as full time workers. In fact, the vulnerability of this category of workers is not necessarily legal but rather economic: income - in proportion to the work performed, may be insufficient to cover the needs of living. However, such vulnerability may also have a certain cultural component: in some societies, professional identity is determined by the length of working hours. Also, part time work may hide many types of indirect discrimination.As a result, the part-time contract requires more than a protective legislation: it requires a strategy. This paper proposes a number of milestones of such a strategy, as well as some concrete de lege ferenda proposals.

  16. Motherhood, Marketization, and Consumer Vulnerability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Andrea; Prothero, Andrea; Sørensen, Elin

    2010-01-01

    This article explores consumer vulnerability and the role of public policy by focusing on new mothers. Developing the consumer vulnerability model of Baker, Gentry, and Rittenburg, the authors consider how medical contexts, political and legal factors, economic resources, societal prescriptions......, media representations, and the presence or absence of appropriate policy all contribute to the social construction of motherhood ideologies. These ideologies are adopted and amplified in the marketplace and used to encourage consumption as a means of coping with this particular role transition during...... in the immediate and in the longer term. The authors assess public policy implications and conclude that the market does not always provide the best answers to uncertainties people may experience and that macromarketers and public policy makers have a particular responsibility to identify alternative solutions....

  17. Climate change & extreme weather vulnerability assessment framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    The Federal Highway Administrations (FHWAs) Climate Change and Extreme Weather Vulnerability : Assessment Framework is a guide for transportation agencies interested in assessing their vulnerability : to climate change and extreme weather event...

  18. Community vulnerability to health impacts of wildland fire ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Identifying communities vulnerable to adverse health effects from exposure to wildfire smoke may help prepare responses, increase the resilience to smoke and improve public health outcomes during smoke days. We developed a Community Health-Vulnerability Index (CHVI) based on factors known to increase the risks of health effects from air pollution and wildfire smoke exposures. These factors included county prevalence rates for asthma in children and adults, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, hypertension, diabetes, obesity, percent of population 65 years of age and older, and indicators of socioeconomic status including poverty, education, income and unemployment. Using air quality simulated for the period between 2008 and 2012 over the continental U.S. we also characterized the population size at risk with respect to the level and duration of exposure to fire-originated fine particulate matter (fire-PM2.5) and CHVI. We estimate that 10% of the population (30.5 million) lived in the areas where the contribution of fire-PM2.5 to annual average ambient PM2.5 was high (>1.5 µg m3) and that 10.3 million individuals experienced unhealthy air quality levels for more than 10 days due to smoke. Using CHVI we identified the most vulnerable counties and determined that these communities experience more smoke exposures in comparison to less vulnerable communities. We describe the development of an index of community vulnerability for the health effects of smoke based o

  19. Participatory flood vulnerability assessment: a multi-criteria approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madruga de Brito, Mariana; Evers, Mariele; Delos Santos Almoradie, Adrian

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a participatory multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) approach for flood vulnerability assessment while considering the relationships between vulnerability criteria. The applicability of the proposed framework is demonstrated in the municipalities of Lajeado and Estrela, Brazil. The model was co-constructed by 101 experts from governmental organizations, universities, research institutes, NGOs, and private companies. Participatory methods such as the Delphi survey, focus groups, and workshops were applied. A participatory problem structuration, in which the modellers work closely with end users, was used to establish the structure of the vulnerability index. The preferences of each participant regarding the criteria importance were spatially modelled through the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) and analytical network process (ANP) multi-criteria methods. Experts were also involved at the end of the modelling exercise for validation. The final product is a set of individual and group flood vulnerability maps. Both AHP and ANP proved to be effective for flood vulnerability assessment; however, ANP is preferred as it considers the dependences among criteria. The participatory approach enabled experts to learn from each other and acknowledge different perspectives towards social learning. The findings highlight that to enhance the credibility and deployment of model results, multiple viewpoints should be integrated without forcing consensus.

  20. Participatory flood vulnerability assessment: a multi-criteria approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. de Brito

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a participatory multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM approach for flood vulnerability assessment while considering the relationships between vulnerability criteria. The applicability of the proposed framework is demonstrated in the municipalities of Lajeado and Estrela, Brazil. The model was co-constructed by 101 experts from governmental organizations, universities, research institutes, NGOs, and private companies. Participatory methods such as the Delphi survey, focus groups, and workshops were applied. A participatory problem structuration, in which the modellers work closely with end users, was used to establish the structure of the vulnerability index. The preferences of each participant regarding the criteria importance were spatially modelled through the analytical hierarchy process (AHP and analytical network process (ANP multi-criteria methods. Experts were also involved at the end of the modelling exercise for validation. The final product is a set of individual and group flood vulnerability maps. Both AHP and ANP proved to be effective for flood vulnerability assessment; however, ANP is preferred as it considers the dependences among criteria. The participatory approach enabled experts to learn from each other and acknowledge different perspectives towards social learning. The findings highlight that to enhance the credibility and deployment of model results, multiple viewpoints should be integrated without forcing consensus.

  1. Legislative vulnerability of minority groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula, Carlos Eduardo Artiaga; Silva, Ana Paula da; Bittar, Cléria Maria Lôbo

    2017-12-01

    Minorities are in an inferior position in society and therefore vulnerable in many aspects. This study analyzes legislative vulnerability and aims to categorize as "weak" or "strong" the protection conferred by law to the following minorities: elderly, disabled, LGBT, Indians, women, children/ adolescents and black people. In order to do so, it was developed a documental research in 30 federal laws in which legal provisions were searched to protect minorities. Next, the articles were organized in the following categories: civil, criminal, administrative, labor and procedural, to be analyzed afterwards. Legal protection was considered "strong" when there were legal provisions that observed the five categories and "weak" when it did not meet this criterion. It was noted that six groups have "strong" legislative protection, which elides the assertion that minorities are outside the law. The exception is the LGBT group, whose legislative protection is weak. In addition, consecrating rights through laws strengthens the institutional channels for minorities to demand their rights. Finally, it was observed that the legislative protection granted tominorities is not homogeneous but rather discriminatory, and there is an interference by the majority group in the rights regulation of vulnerable groups.

  2. Urban Vulnerability Assessment Using AHP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Rezaei

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Physical expansion of urban areas and cities is of great importance nowadays. Irreparable damages will thus be caused by lack of proper planning against natural disasters. Crisis management will therefore guide through prevention, preparedness, disaster relief, and recovery by planning an appropriate program. Methodology. Principal processes of crisis management against earthquake in Iran were evaluated and discussed. Multicriteria earthquake crisis management was then proposed by means of Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP. Vulnerability of 19 urban areas in Qazvin city was studied and analyzed as a case study. Three main criteria were considered as “physical dimensions and physical vulnerability texture,” “the amount of urban texture responsibility to aid after crisis,” and “possibility of city reversibility after the crisis.” These criteria were divided into 20 subcriteria which were prioritized by a questionnaire survey. Findings. “High population density,” “urban texture of old and repairable buildings,” “lack of relief and medical services,” “a few organic texture areas,” “sidewalks with less than 6 meters width in the region,” and “lack of open spaces in the area” were concluded to be the most important reasons causing high vulnerability of urban texture in Qazvin city.

  3. Enhancing protection for vulnerable waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creed, Irena F.; Lane, Charles R.; Serran, Jacqueline N.; Alexander, Laurie C.; Basu, Nandita B.; Calhoun, Aram J. K.; Christensen, Jay R.; Cohen, Matthew J.; Craft, Christopher; D'Amico, Ellen; Dekeyser, Edward; Fowler, Laurie; Golden, Heather E.; Jawitz, James W.; Kalla, Peter; Kirkman, L. Katherine; Lang, Megan; Leibowitz, Scott G.; Lewis, David B.; Marton, John; McLaughlin, Daniel L.; Raanan-Kiperwas, Hadas; Rains, Mark C.; Rains, Kai C.; Smith, Lora

    2017-11-01

    Governments worldwide do not adequately protect their limited freshwater systems and therefore place freshwater functions and attendant ecosystem services at risk. The best available scientific evidence compels enhanced protections for freshwater systems, especially for impermanent streams and wetlands outside of floodplains that are particularly vulnerable to alteration or destruction. New approaches to freshwater sustainability -- implemented through scientifically informed adaptive management -- are required to protect freshwater systems through periods of changing societal needs. One such approach introduced in the US in 2015 is the Clean Water Rule, which clarified the jurisdictional scope for federally protected waters. However, within hours of its implementation litigants convinced the US Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit to stay the rule, and the subsequently elected administration has now placed it under review for potential revision or rescission. Regardless of its outcome at the federal level, policy and management discussions initiated by the propagation of this rare rulemaking event have potential far-reaching implications at all levels of government across the US and worldwide. At this timely juncture, we provide a scientific rationale and three policy options for all levels of government to meaningfully enhance protection of these vulnerable waters. A fourth option, a 'do-nothing' approach, is wholly inconsistent with the well-established scientific evidence of the importance of these vulnerable waters.

  4. Subjectivity and vulnerability: reflections on the foundation of ethical sensibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nortvedt, Per

    2003-10-01

    This paper investigates the possibility of understanding the rudimentary elements of clinical sensitivity by investigating the works of Edmund Husserl and Emmanuel Levinas on sensibility. Husserl's theory of intentionality offers significant reflections on the role of pre-reflective and affective intuition as a condition for intentionality and reflective consciousness. These early works of Husserl, in particular his works on the constitution of phenomenological time and subjective time-consciousness, prove to be an important basis for Levinas' works on an ethics of alterity and infinite responsibility for the other person. In fact, it is difficult to understand the core of Levinasian ethics, of vulnerability as proximity, of ethical sensitivity as passivity and a suffering for the suffering of another, without understanding the influence from Husserl's work. Crucially, the paper will, on the basis of Levinasian ethics, establish an understanding of sensibility as vulnerability and receptivity that is fundamental also for understanding significant intuitions in clinical nursing. Clinical sensitivity and carefulness in nursing are shaped by the concrete and also bodily expressions of vulnerabilities in a receptivity that is pre-reflective and pre-ontological.

  5. Measuring Vulnerability in the Food System

    OpenAIRE

    Paloviita, Ari; Puupponen, Antti; Kortetmäki, Teea; Silvasti, Tiina

    2015-01-01

    Food system vulnerability is an emerging concept for food security policies and food supply chain management. Hence, measuring food system vulnerability is necessary for developing appropriate food security policies and managing food supply chain vulnerabilities. In this paper, we aim to clarify the development process of food system vulnerability indicators. We conducted an abducted qualitative content analysis based on public documents of various Finnish organizations, including mi...

  6. Measurement of traffic network vulnerability for Mississippi coastal region : final research report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-15

    Natural disasters such as a hurricane can cause great damages to the transportation networks and significantly affect the evacuation trip operations. An accurate understanding and measurement of the network vulnerability can enhance the evacuees p...

  7. Cotton genetic resources and crop vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    A report on the genetic vulnerability of cotton was provided to the National Genetic Resources Advisory Council. The report discussed crop vulnerabilities associated with emerging diseases, emerging pests, and a narrowing genetic base. To address these crop vulnerabilities, the report discussed the ...

  8. Differential strain vulnerability to binge eating behaviors in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Britny A; Klump, Kelly L; Racine, Sarah E; Sisk, Cheryl L

    2014-03-29

    Binge eating is a significantly heritable phenotype, but efforts to detect specific risk genes have fallen short. Identification of animal strain differences in risk for binge eating could highlight genetic differences across individuals of the same species that can be exploited in future animal and molecular genetic research. The current study aimed to explore strain differences in risk for binge eating in Sprague-Dawley versus Wistar female rats using the Binge Eating Resistant/Binge Eating Prone model. A sample of male Sprague-Dawley rats, a known low-risk group for binge eating, was included as a comparison group. A total of 83 rats (23 Wistar females, 30 Sprague-Dawley females, 30 Sprague-Dawley males) completed a protocol of intermittently administered, palatable food. Binge eating prone (BEP) and binge eating resistant (BER) rats were identified using a tertile approach. Sprague-Dawley female rats consumed the highest amount of palatable food and were more likely to be classified as BEP compared to Wistar female and Sprague-Dawley male rats. Wistar female rats were not significantly different from Sprague-Dawley male rats in their palatable food intake and tendency to be classified as BER rather than BEP. Sprague-Dawley female rats appear to be a particularly vulnerable genotype for binge eating. Comparisons between this group and others could help identify specific genetic/biological factors that differentiate it from lower risk groups. The reward system, linked to binge eating in humans, is a possible candidate to explore. Strain differences in the reward system could help increase understanding of individual differences in risk for binge eating in humans. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Vulnerability Is Dynamic! Conceptualising a Dynamic Approach to Coastal Tourism Destinations’ Vulnerability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Student, J.R.; Amelung, B.; Lamers, M.A.J.

    2016-01-01

    Coastal regions and islands are among the most popular tourist destinations.
    They are also highly vulnerable to climate change. Much of the literature on
    vulnerability, including IPCC reports, states that vulnerability is dynamic. However,
    vulnerability conceptualisations in the tourism

  10. The double tragedy of agriculture vulnerability to climate variability in Africa: How vulnerable is smallholder agriculture to rainfall variability in Ghana?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel K. Derbile

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article analysed vulnerability of smallholder agriculture to climate variability, particularly the alternating incidences of drought and heavy precipitation events in Ghana. Although there is an unmet need for understanding the linkages between climate change and livelihoods, the urgent need for climate change adaptation planning (CCAP in response to climate change makes vulnerability assessment even more compelling in development research. The data for analysis were collected from two complementary studies. These included a regional survey in the Upper West Region and an in-depth study in three selected communities in the Sissala East District. The results showed that smallholder agriculture is significantly vulnerable to climate variability in the region and that three layers of vulnerability can be identified in a ladder of vulnerability. Firstly, farmers are confronted with the double tragedy of droughts and heavy precipitation events, which adversely affect both crops and livestock. Secondly, farmers have to decide on crops for adaptation, but each option – whether indigenous crops, new early-maturing crops or genetically modified crops – predisposes farmers to a different set of risks. Finally, the overall impact is a higher-level vulnerability, namely the risk of total livelihood failure and food insecurity. The article recommended CCAP and an endogenous development (ED approach to addressing agriculture vulnerability to climate variability within the framework of decentralisation and local governance in Ghana. Keywords: Climate variability; agriculture; vulnerability; endogenous development; Ghana

  11. How to simulate pedestrian behaviors in seismic evacuation for vulnerability reduction of existing buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quagliarini, Enrico; Bernardini, Gabriele; D'Orazio, Marco

    2017-07-01

    Understanding and representing how individuals behave in earthquake emergencies would be essentially to assess the impact of vulnerability reduction strategies on existing buildings in seismic areas. In fact, interactions between individuals and the scenario (modified by the earthquake occurrence) are really important in order to understand the possible additional risks for people, especially during the evacuation phase. The current approach is based on "qualitative" aspects, in order to define best practice guidelines for Civil Protection and populations. On the contrary, a "quantitative" description of human response and evacuation motion in similar conditions is urgently needed. Hence, this work defines the rules for pedestrians' earthquake evacuation in urban scenarios, by taking advantages of previous results of real-world evacuation analyses. In particular, motion laws for pedestrians is defined by modifying the Social Force model equation. The proposed model could be used for evaluating individuals' evacuation process and so for defining operative strategies for interferences reduction in critical urban fabric parts (e.g.: interventions on particular buildings, evacuation strategies definition, city parts projects).

  12. Accounting for vulnerable populations in rural hazard mitigation plans: results of a survey of emergency managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horney, Jennifer A; Nguyen, Mai; Cooper, John; Simon, Matthew; Ricchetti-Masterson, Kristen; Grabich, Shannon; Salvesen, David; Berke, Philip

    2013-01-01

    Rural areas of the United States are uniquely vulnerable to the impacts of natural disasters. One possible way to mitigate vulnerability to disasters in rural communities is to have a high-quality hazard mitigation plan in place. To understand the resources available for hazard mitigation planning and determine how well hazard mitigation plans in rural counties meet the needs of vulnerable populations, we surveyed the lead planning or emergency management official responsible for hazard mitigation plans in 96 rural counties in eight states in the Southeastern United States. In most counties, emergency management was responsible for implementing the county's hazard mitigation plan and the majority of counties had experienced a presidentially declared disaster in the last 5 years. Our research findings demonstrated that there were differences in subjective measures of vulnerability (as reported by survey respondents) and objective measures of vulnerability (as determined by US Census data). In addition, although few counties surveyed included outreach to vulnerable groups as a part of their hazard mitigation planning process, a majority felt that their hazard mitigation plan addressed the needs of vulnerable populations "well" or "very well." These differences could result in increased vulnerabilities in rural areas, particularly for certain vulnerable groups.

  13. Conceptual framework and quantification of population vulnerability for effective emergency response planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramisetty-Mikler, Suhasini; Mikler, Armin R; O'Neill, Martin; Komatz, Jared

    2015-01-01

    The study focused on the methodological advancement and analytical approach of using multilevel data to define population vulnerability and risk in bioemergency disaster planning. The authors considered two types of vulnerabilities, transportation vulnerability that stems from lack of access to transportation (public or private) and communication vulnerability that stems from unavailability of needed language-specific communication resources. The authors used Transit Authority general transit feed data and the American Community Survey 5-year estimate data (2006-2010 summary files) to quantify these vulnerabilities. These data were integrated with Topologically Integrated Geographic Encoding and Referencing (TIGER) data for spatial analysis. A response plan was generated for Tarrant County, TX, and deemed feasible before consideration of vulnerable populations. The results point to the importance of integrating geographical and population demographic features that represent potential barriers to the optimum distribution and utilization of resources into the analysis of response plans. An examination of transportation vulnerabilities indicate that, of those vulnerable in Tarrant County, nearly 23,000 individuals will be at-risk of not being able to reach the Point Of Dispensing (POD) to obtain services as they are beyond walking distance to the POD and lack access to transportation resources. The analysis of language vulnerability depicts an uneven distribution resulting in nonuniform demand at PODs for translation resources. There are more than 11,000 at-risk households in the South East region of Tarrant County alone that are truly in need of translation services. The authors demonstrated that multiple vulnerabilities at each POD can be quantified by aggregating the vulnerability at the available granularity (ie, all blocks or block groups) in a given service area. The quantification of vulnerability at each service area facilitates a POD-based at-risk analysis

  14. Research on vulnerability assessments of the Huanghe (Yellow River) delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    qiao, shuqing; shi, xuefa

    2014-05-01

    Coastal zone located at the juncture of the sea, river and land, and under the influence of both land and ocean (including atmosphere), especially the sea-level rise and human activities, are vulnerable to environment and ecology. At highest risk are coastal zone of South, Southeast and East Asia with dense populations, low elevations and inadequate adaptive capacity. In China, more than 40% of the population live on the 15% of the land in coastal area and more than 70% cities located around the coastal area. The Chinese coastal region, especially river delta area has been experienced erosion, seawater intrusion and decrease in biodiversity under the combined influence of sea-level rise, tectonic subsidence and flooding. Furthermore, some kinds of human activity, such as land use, building, dam construction, reclamation from the sea and waste dumping strengthen the vulnerability of environment and ecosystem in coastal region. The coastal hazards (e.g. coastal erosion, seawater intrusion, land subsidence) and vulnerability of the Huanghe (Yelllow River) delta area are studied during the past several years. A systematic coastal assessment index is built and an evaluation model is developed using the development platform of Visual studio.Net 2005. The assessment index system includes two parts, inherent (sea level rise rate, elevation, morphology, water and sediment discharge, mean tidal range, mean wave height etc) and specific vulnerability index (population density, GDP, land utilization, protection structures etc). The assessment index are determined the weight using Analytic hierarchy process (AHP) method. Based on the research results, we better understand the current status and future change of coastal vulnerability and hazards, discuss the impact of the natural possess and human activities. Furthermore, we provide defending strategies for coastal zone vulnerability and typical coastal hazards.

  15. Selective neuronal vulnerability to oxidative stress in the brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinkun Wang

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress (OS, caused by the imbalance between the generation and detoxification of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS, plays an important role in brain aging, neurodegenerative diseases, and other related adverse conditions, such as ischemia. While ROS/RNS serve as signaling molecules at physiological levels, an excessive amount of these molecules leads to oxidative modification and, therefore, dysfunction of proteins, nucleic acids, and lipids. The response of neurons to this pervasive stress, however, is not uniform in the brain. While many brain neurons can cope with a rise in OS, there are select populations of neurons in the brain that are vulnerable. Because of their selective vulnerability, these neurons are usually the first to exhibit functional decline and cell death during normal aging, or in age-associated neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease. Understanding the molecular and cellular mechanisms of selective neuronal vulnerability (SNV to OS is important in the development of future intervention approaches to protect such vulnerable neurons from the stresses of the aging process and the pathological states that lead to neurodegeneration. In this review, the currently known molecular and cellular factors that contribute to SNV to OS are summarized. Included among the major underlying factors are high intrinsic OS, high demand for ROS/RNS-based signaling, low ATP production, mitochondrial dysfunction, and high inflammatory response in vulnerable neurons. The contribution to the selective vulnerability of neurons to OS by other intrinsic or extrinsic factors, such as deficient DNA damage repair, low calcium-buffering capacity, and glutamate excitotoxicity, are also discussed.

  16. How Diet Modification Challenges Are Magnified in Vulnerable or Marginalized People With Diabetes and Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanstone, M; Giacomini, M; Smith, A; Brundisini, F; DeJean, D; Winsor, S

    2013-01-01

    specific) population. This evidence must be interpreted and applied carefully, in light of expertise and the experiences of the relevant community. Conclusions Diet modification is not simply a matter of knowing what to eat and making the rational choice to change dietary practices. Rather, diet and eating practices should be considered as part of the situated lives of patients, requiring an individualized approach that is responsive to the conditions in which each patient is attempting to make a change. Common challenges include self-discipline, knowledge, coping with everyday stress, negotiating with family members, and managing the social significance of food. An individualized approach is particularly important when working with patients who have vulnerabilities. Plain Language Summary Health care providers often encourage people with diabetes and/or heart disease to change their diet. They advise people with diabetes to eat less sugar, starch, and fat. They advise people with heart disease to eat less fat and salt. However, many patients find it difficult to change what they eat. This report examines the challenges people may face when making such changes. It also examines the special challenges faced by people who are vulnerable due to other factors, such as poverty, lack of education, and difficulty speaking English. Five themes were common to all people who make diet changes: self-discipline, knowledge, coping with stress, negotiating with family members, and managing the social aspect of food. Members of vulnerable groups also reported other challenges, such as affording fresh fruit and vegetables or understanding English instructions. This report may help health care providers work with patients more effectively to make diet changes. PMID:24228077

  17. Bayesian spatial models of the association between interpersonal violence, animal abuse and social vulnerability in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baquero, Oswaldo Santos; Ferreira, Fernando; Robis, Marcelo; Neto, José Soares Ferreira; Onell, Jason Ardila

    2018-04-01

    Animal abuse adversely affects animal health and welfare and has been associated with interpersonal violence in studies of individuals. However, if that association also depends on sociocultural contexts and can be detected on a geographic scale, a wider source of data can be used to identify risk areas to support the surveillance of both types of violence. In this study, we evaluated the association between interpersonal violence notifications, animal abuse notifications and an index of social vulnerability in São Paulo City, on a geographic scale, using Bayesian spatial models. The social vulnerability index was a risk factor for the number of interpersonal violence notifications and presented a dose-response pattern. The number of animal abuse notifications was also a risk factor for the number of interpersonal violence notifications, even after controlling for the social vulnerability index. The incorporation of spatial effects produced marked improvements in model performance metrics and allowed the identification of excess risk clusters. Geographical data on notifications on either animal abuse or interpersonal violence should be considered incitement for investigations and interventions of both types of violence. We suggest that notifications of animal abuse be based on an explicit definition and classification, as well as on objective measurements that allow a better understanding of the species and type of abuse involved, the animal health consequences, and the context in which they occurred. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Students' vulnerability in educational research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykes, L M; Dullabh, H

    2012-06-01

    Dental teaching institutions in South Africa recently implemented "learner-centred" curricula and expected educators to alter their teaching styles accordingly, but perhaps without providing adequate training in this paedagogical philosophy. At the same time, the lecturers were required to conduct evidence-based research to evaluate the outcomes. Thus, clinicians/lecturers also became researchers, using their own students or student material for assessment purposes. Previously, this form of educational research, which was carried out in normal academic settings, was not subject to review by Institutional Review Boards (IRB). However, concerns have risen that learners may be a vulnerable population due to their position in the academic institution, and the power and knowledge differentials that exist between them and the lecturer/researcher. This raises ethical concerns regarding their autonomy and ability to provide free, voluntary, informed consent to be research participants. This paper questions whether educational research may lead to student vulnerability, and proposes some recommendations for educators and institutions involved in educational research.

  19. Modulation of the Genome and Epigenome of Individuals Susceptible to Autism by Environmental Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costas Koufaris

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Diverse environmental factors have been implicated with the development of autism spectrum disorders (ASD. Genetic factors also underlie the differential vulnerability to environmental risk factors of susceptible individuals. Currently the way in which environmental risk factors interact with genetic factors to increase the incidence of ASD is not well understood. A greater understanding of the metabolic, cellular, and biochemical events involved in gene x environment interactions in ASD would have important implications for the prevention and possible treatment of the disorder. In this review we discuss various established and more alternative processes through which environmental factors implicated in ASD can modulate the genome and epigenome of genetically-susceptible individuals.

  20. Climate Volatility Deepens Poverty Vulnerability in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Hertel, T. W.; Ahmed, S. A.; Diffenbaugh, N. S.

    2009-01-01

    Extreme climate events could influence poverty by affecting agricultural productivity and raising prices of staple foods that are important to poor households in developing countries. With the frequency and intensity of extreme climate events predicted to change in the future, informed policy design and analysis requires an understanding of which countries and groups are going to be most vulnerable to increasing poverty. Using a novel economic-climate analysis framework, we assess the poverty...

  1. Family Obligation Values as a Protective and Vulnerability Factor among Low-Income Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milan, Stephanie; Wortel, Sanne

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents’ beliefs about family obligation often reflect cultural variations in their family context, and thus are important for understanding development among diverse youth. In this study, we test hypotheses about the role of family obligation values in risk behavior and mental health in a sample of 194 low-income adolescent girls (Mean age = 15.2; 58% Latina, 28% African-American/Black). We hypothesized that family obligation values can be both a protective and vulnerability factor, depending on the type of outcome and the presence of other risk factors. Across the sample, higher family obligation values tended to occur with indicators of positive family functioning (e.g., more frequent communication, less maternal hostility) based on mother and adolescent reports. As hypothesized, family obligation values moderated the relationship between established risk factors and adjustment in distinct ways, such that high family obligation values decreased risk in some domains (i.e., a protective factor) but increased risk in other domains (i.e., a vulnerability factor). Specifically, high family obligation values diminished the relationship between peer norms for risky behavior (sex and substance use) and individual engagement in those behaviors. At the same time, high family obligation values magnified the relationship between exposure to negative life events and poor mental health (PTSD and depressive symptoms). The results suggest that family obligation is an important but complex aspect of development among diverse adolescent girls. PMID:25351163

  2. From the streets to assisted living: perceptions of a vulnerable population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Susan; Cary, Patricia; Krautscheid, Lorretta

    2006-06-01

    The rapid growth of assisted-living facilities is paralleled by the necessity to understand the needs of the people living in them. A hallmark challenge for individuals who are poor and disabled, and often marginalized from mainstream society, is maintaining integrity and being a whole person, rather than a sum of broken parts. A key to maintaining this integrity is the ability to find stable housing and support systems. The inner-city assisted-living facility in this study is unique in that all of its residents are funded by Medicaid. The residents have complex needs related to histories of homelessness, mental illness, drug and/or alcohol addiction, and chronic illness. The purpose of this study was to explore the needs of this vulnerable population as they adapt to a new home and a new concept of assisted, yet independent, living. Structured interviews with key informants and oral survey questionnaires with residents provided quantitative and qualitative data about physical and mental health status, social support, perception of control, psychological wellbeing, and life satisfaction. This study provided valuable insights into the challenges inherent in providing a high quality of life in assisted living for a vulnerable population with diverse needs.

  3. Targeting the vulnerable in emergency situations: who is vulnerable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, A P

    1996-09-28

    Emergencies such as wars and natural disasters increase the vulnerability of affected populations and expose these populations to risks such as disease, violence, and hunger. Emergency public health interventions aim to mitigate these effects by providing basic minimum requirements, reducing vulnerability, and reducing exposure to risk. Targeted services are generally aimed at children under 5. Mortality rates among young children are higher than the crude mortality rate (CMR) among the whole population in emergency settings, so attention is focused on this age group. However, even under normal conditions mortality is higher in young children. This analysis compared the relative risk of death for young children with that for older children and adults under normal conditions and in emergency settings. Mortality data from refugee camps set up in response to three different emergencies were examined. Baseline mortality rates in the refugees' countries of origin were calculated from published data. Relative risks between normal and emergency conditions were calculated and compared. Mortality rates were higher among children under 5 than among older children and adults both under normal circumstances and in the emergency setting in camps in Tanzania, Uganda, and Zaire. However, the relative risk for under-5 versus over-5 mortality was smaller under emergency conditions than under normal circumstances. Thus, children over 5 and adults are disproportionately more affected by exposure to emergency risks than are younger children. If the objective of intervention, to reduce mortality, is to be achieved, the population over the age of 5 cannot be ignored. Emergency public health needs to develop specific tools to investigate risk in other age groups (as well as children under 5), to identify causes, and to design programmes to address such needs.

  4. Assessing human vulnerability: Daytime residential distribution as a vulnerability indicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokesch, Karin; Promper, Catrin; Papathoma-Köhle, Maria; Glade, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Natural hazard risk management is based on detailed information on potential impacts of natural hazards. Especially concerning fast onset hazards such as flash floods, earthquakes but also debris flows and landslides, knowing potential hotspots of impact to both, assets and human lives is essential. This information is important for emergency management and decision making in the response phase of the disaster management cycle. Emergency managers are in need of information regarding not only the number of humans being potentially affected but also the respective vulnerability of the group affected based on characteristics such as age, income, health condition, mobility, etc. regarding a certain hazard. The analysis presented focuses on the distribution of the population, assuming a certain pattern of people in a certain radius of action. The method applied is based on a regular pattern of movement of different groups of people and a pattern of presence in certain units, e.g. schools, businesses or residential buildings. The distribution is calculated on a minimum of available data including the average household size, as well as information on building types. The study area is located in the Southwest of Lower Austria, Austria. The city of Waidhofen/Ybbs can be regarded as a regional center providing basic infrastructure, shops and schools. The high concentration of buildings combining shops and residential units leads to a high damage potential throughout the whole study area. The presented results indicate the population distribution within the study area on an average working day. It is clear that explicitly high numbers of people are located in specific buildings (e.g. schools and hospitals) which also include highly vulnerable groups especially to fast onset hazards. The results provide emergency services with the information that they need in order to intervene directly where large numbers of victims or people that need to be evacuated are located. In this

  5. Developing a Comprehensive and Integrated Vulnerability Assessment Methodology for the Defense Department's Critical Infrastructure Protection (CIP) Program. A Report Supporting CIP Program Outread and Education

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2003-01-01

    ...) strategy for Outreach, Education, and Training. It seeks to help those interested in understanding the Defense Department's current concepts and plans for developing CIP-specific vulnerability assessments...

  6. An holistic view on aquifer vulnerability based on a distinction of different types of vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, Domenico Antonio; Lasagna, Manuela; Franchino, Elisa

    2016-04-01

    AN HOLISTIC VIEW ON AQUIFER VULNERABILITY BASED ON A DISTINCTION OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF VULNERABILITY D.A. De Luca1 , M. Lasagna1, E. Franchino1 1Department of Earth Sciences, University of Turin The concept of vulnerability is certainly useful in the field of groundwater protection. Nevertheless, within the scientific community, the definition of groundwater vulnerability is still debatable and not clear and conclusive. This is probably due to the fact that researchers often have very different experiences and education. A positive effect of it is a constant exchange of ideas, but there are also negative consequences and difficulties in deepening the issue. The different approaches are very important but they are usable only if the concept of vulnerability is standardized: thus, for the sake of clarity, a number of definitions should be laid down, based on the different types of vulnerability. These definitions can then provide the necessary holistic view for the aquifer vulnerability assessment. Nowadays vulnerability methods focus on the degree of vulnerability and the parameters needed for its evaluation, often neglecting to clarify what is the type of vulnerability the proposed methods are referred. The type of vulnerability, indeed, is both logically and hierarchically superior to the degree of vulnerability. More specifically the type of vulnerability represents the evaluation of the hydrogeological conditions considered in the vulnerability assessment and able to influence the way in which the contamination can take place. Currently the only distinction, based on of the type of vulnerability, is referred to intrinsic and specific vulnerability. Intrinsic vulnerability assesses the susceptibility of the receptor based on the natural properties of the land and subsurface; specific vulnerability also includes properties of the analyzed contaminant. This distinction is useful but not exhaustive. In addition to this, e.g., a distinction of vertical vulnerability

  7. Assessing the Security Vulnerabilities of Correctional Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, G.S.; Spencer, D.S.

    1998-10-27

    The National Institute of Justice has tasked their Satellite Facility at Sandia National Laboratories and their Southeast Regional Technology Center in Charleston, South Carolina to devise new procedures and tools for helping correctional facilities to assess their security vulnerabilities. Thus, a team is visiting selected correctional facilities and performing vulnerability assessments. A vulnerability assessment helps to identi~ the easiest paths for inmate escape, for introduction of contraband such as drugs or weapons, for unexpected intrusion fi-om outside of the facility, and for the perpetration of violent acts on other inmates and correctional employees, In addition, the vulnerability assessment helps to quantify the security risks for the facility. From these initial assessments will come better procedures for performing vulnerability assessments in general at other correctional facilities, as well as the development of tools to assist with the performance of such vulnerability assessments.

  8. Vulnerability and resilience: a critical nexus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotz, Mianna

    2016-02-01

    Not all forms of human fragility or vulnerability are unavoidable. Sometimes we knowingly and intentionally impose conditions of vulnerability on others; and sometimes we knowingly and intentionally enter into and assume conditions of vulnerability for ourselves (for example, when we decide to trust or forgive, enter into intimate relationships with others, become a parent, become a subject of medical or psychotherapeutic treatment, and the like). In this article, I propose a presently overlooked basis on which one might evaluate whether the imposition or assumption of vulnerability is acceptable, and on which one might ground a significant class of vulnerability-related obligations. Distinct from existing accounts of the importance of promoting autonomy in conditions of vulnerability, this article offers a preliminary exploration of the nature, role, and importance of resilience promotion, its relationship to autonomy promotion, and its prospects for improving human wellbeing in autonomy inhibiting conditions.

  9. Methodology for the identification of vulnerable asylum seekers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visentin, Sindi; Pelletti, Guido; Bajanowski, Thomas; Ferrara, Santo Davide

    2017-11-01

    Asylum seekers often experience situations of vulnerability, being frequently exposed to a heightened risk of harm, and thus require special care, support and protection. The categories of "vulnerable persons", identified by International Legislation, and an individual's classification as a "vulnerable asylum seeker", have important implications in the reception procedures, in the decision-making phase and in the definition of therapeutic needs and rehabilitation. The Istanbul Protocol, the first international guideline approved by the United Nations and applied in different contexts, is not applicable for the assessment of the totality of the conditions (medical and otherwise), and therefore, the identification and assessment of conditions of vulnerability is largely delegated to questionnaires administered by non-medical personnel. The proposed methodology, based on the modificatory reworking of the Guidelines of the International Academy of Legal Medicine concerning the "medicolegal ascertainment of personal injury and damage on the living person", takes into consideration all the medical issues relevant for the decision concerning the applicant, both in the reception procedures and in the outcome of the asylum application.

  10. Perspectives on social vulnerability and ways to improve community resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chicoș Alina

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Scientific recognition of the resilience concept is becoming compelling in extending the way contemporary spatial systems are analysed as well as in defining a new approach in establishing spatial planning principles and policies. In this view, our study emphasises the issue of spatial development in areas prone to earthquakes, floods and landslides. Therefore, resilience requires the assessment of vulnerable spatial components. Local governance interventions are more or less focused on risk management measures. Moreover, building safer communities through risk governance relies on different variables. Making a distinction between risk components and the predictors of increased resilience could shed light on the local decision-making process. In this paper, vulnerability addresses the lack of safety in terms of individual, household and community wellbeing when the issue of environmental restrictions emerge. In order to reduce the vulnerability of communities living in natural risk prone areas, spatial planning often turns to interdisciplinary analysis methods that allow an in-depth perspective on the interplay between social and natural elements. As such, spatial planning stands as the first step in reducing social vulnerability and should approach the less explored advantages of participatory mapping and local knowledge systems.

  11. An Assessment of the radiological vulnerability for Spanish soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trueba, C.; Millan, R.; Schimid, T.; Lago, C.; Gutierrez, J.

    2000-01-01

    A methodology is presented to assess the radiological vulnerability of soils, based exclusively on their pedagogical properties. The radiological vulnerability defined as the potential capacity of soils to fix or transfer deposited radiocaesium and radiostrontium to plants, is represented in terms of vulnerability indexes. Two pathways are considered, the external irradiation and their transfer through the food chain, where the top horizon and a critical depth of 60 cm is taken into account, respectively, Partial vulnerability indexes are considered for each pathway, which allows a qualitative prediction of the behaviour of the contaminants in soils Global indexes have been obtained as the sum of the partial indexes. The methodology has been applied and validated using a data base consisting of more than 2000 soil profiles selected from all over Spain. This included a pedagogical characterisation and normalisation of the different soil profiles. Results have been obtained for individual soil profiles and with the aid of a GIS, the distribution of the partial and global indexes have been presented for the most representative soil types. (Author)

  12. Sex-driven vulnerability in stress and drug abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Alessandra; Raggi, Carla; Borgi, Marta; Cirulli, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    A growing body of literature shows that a link exists between substance abuse and stress and that the crosstalk of sex hormones with the neuroendocrine system might differently prime vulnerability to drug addiction in male and female subjects. Thus, understanding the neurobiological mechanisms of addiction and the identification of sex-driven determinants in vulnerability to drug abuse may help to better devise and/or implement strategic (pharmacological, behavioural, social) interventions to prevent or face the issue of addiction. Differences between sexes can be found at all stages of life (in both the animal model and human studies) and may account for genetic, epigenetic and environmental/hormonal factors that in turn affect the functionality of the whole organism leading also to a sex-driven differential vulnerability or resilience to non-communicable pathologies. These include the onset and precipitation of stress-related psychiatric disorders as well as "substance-related and addictive disorders" (as defined in the DSM-V). This paper reviews the scientific literature highlighting significant differences in male and female subjects in stress and neuroendocrine function and the implications for sex-dependent differential vulnerability to drug addiction.

  13. Does Aquaculture Support the Needs of Nutritionally Vulnerable Nations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher D. Golden

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Aquaculture now supplies half of the fish consumed directly by humans. We evaluate whether aquaculture, given current patterns of production and distribution, supports the needs of poor and food-insecure populations throughout the world. We begin by identifying 41 seafood-reliant nutritionally vulnerable nations (NVNs, and ask whether aquaculture meets human nutritional demand directly via domestic production or trade, or indirectly via purchase of nutritionally rich dietary substitutes. We find that a limited number of NVNs have domestically farmed seafood, and of those, only specific aquaculture approaches (e.g., freshwater in some locations have the potential to benefit nutritionally vulnerable populations. While assessment of aquaculture's direct contribution via trade is constrained by data limitations, we find that it is unlikely to contribute substantially to human nutrition in vulnerable groups, as most exported aquaculture consists of high-value species for international markets. We also determine that subpopulations who benefit from aquaculture profits are likely not the same subpopulations who are nutritionally vulnerable, and more research is needed to understand the impacts of aquaculture income gains. Finally, we discuss the relationship of aquaculture to existing trends in capture fisheries in NVNs, and suggest strategies to create lasting solutions to nutritional security, without exacerbating existing challenges in access to food and land resources.

  14. Mapping community determinants of heat vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Colleen E; O'Neill, Marie S; Gronlund, Carina J; Brines, Shannon J; Brown, Daniel G; Diez-Roux, Ana V; Schwartz, Joel

    2009-11-01

    The evidence that heat waves can result in both increased deaths and illness is substantial, and concern over this issue is rising because of climate change. Adverse health impacts from heat waves can be avoided, and epidemiologic studies have identified specific population and community characteristics that mark vulnerability to heat waves. We situated vulnerability to heat in geographic space and identified potential areas for intervention and further research. We mapped and analyzed 10 vulnerability factors for heat-related morbidity/mortality in the United States: six demographic characteristics and two household air conditioning variables from the U.S. Census Bureau, vegetation cover from satellite images, and diabetes prevalence from a national survey. We performed a factor analysis of these 10 variables and assigned values of increasing vulnerability for the four resulting factors to each of 39,794 census tracts. We added the four factor scores to obtain a cumulative heat vulnerability index value. Four factors explained > 75% of the total variance in the original 10 vulnerability variables: a) social/environmental vulnerability (combined education/poverty/race/green space), b) social isolation, c) air conditioning prevalence, and d) proportion elderly/diabetes. We found substantial spatial variability of heat vulnerability nationally, with generally higher vulnerability in the Northeast and Pacific Coast and the lowest in the Southeast. In urban areas, inner cities showed the highest vulnerability to heat. These methods provide a template for making local and regional heat vulnerability maps. After validation using health outcome data, interventions can be targeted at the most vulnerable populations.

  15. A Framework for Assessing Fiscal Vulnerability

    OpenAIRE

    Murray Petrie; Richard Hemming

    2000-01-01

    Fiscal vulnerability describes a situation where a government is exposed to the possibility of failure to meet its aggregate fiscal policy objectives. The suggested framework for assessing vulnerability highlights four macro-fiscal aspects of vulnerability: incorrect specification of the initial fiscal position; sensitivity of short-term fiscal outcomes to risk; threats to longer-term fiscal sustainability; and structural or institutional weaknesses affecting the design and implementation of ...

  16. Proliferation Vulnerability Red Team report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinton, J.P.; Barnard, R.W.; Bennett, D.E. [and others

    1996-10-01

    This report is the product of a four-month independent technical assessment of potential proliferation vulnerabilities associated with the plutonium disposition alternatives currently under review by DOE/MD. The scope of this MD-chartered/Sandia-led study was limited to technical considerations that could reduce proliferation resistance during various stages of the disposition processes below the Stored Weapon/Spent Fuel standards. Both overt and covert threats from host nation and unauthorized parties were considered. The results of this study will be integrated with complementary work by others into an overall Nonproliferation and Arms Control Assessment in support of a Secretarial Record of Decision later this year for disposition of surplus U.S. weapons plutonium.

  17. Vulnerability assessment to Drought in Various Provinces, approach towards risk management in the country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Nasrnia

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The water crisis is one of the main challenges of the current century. Drought is one of the most costly natural disasters in Iran. During the past 40 years, our country has experienced 27 droughts. It seems a necessary step to deal with the consequences of drought and reducing its effects, thorough understanding and knowledge of each region's vulnerability, which is neglected in our country, unfortunately. It is necessary to study the influencing factors in determining vulnerability and makes it visible. On the other hand, due to the continuing drought conditions intensified in recent years and its impact on different economic sectors, especially the agricultural sector in the country need to assess vulnerability to drought in the country will double. Materials and Methods: Fuzzy AHP method based on the concept of fuzzy sets introduced by LotfeiZadeh. There are several ways to use fuzzy theory and hierarchical structure proposed merger. Cheng in 1996 suggested a new approach to solve problems using Fuzzy AHP calibration values within the membership and (TFNs. Extent Analysis Method proposed by Chang is one of the common ways to solve problems. In this study, we developed a method based on fuzzy analytic hierarchy Chang that has been developed by Zhu et al. and Van Alhag. Results and Discussion: Vulnerability to drought conditions is determined by factors such as economic, social and physical sensitivity to the damaging effects of drought increases. This study is designed in the hierarchy. The purpose of this study is assessing the vulnerability of the country to drought. Vulnerability of this study includes economic vulnerability, social vulnerability and physical vulnerability. Economic vulnerability to drought indicates that the economy is vulnerable to external shocks due to drought and the inability of the economy to withstand the effects of the event and recover the situation. Social vulnerability determines the capacity to

  18. Understanding Carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Size: A A A Listen En Español Understanding Carbohydrates How much and what type of carbohydrate foods ... glucose levels in your target range. Explore: Understanding Carbohydrates Glycemic Index and Diabetes Learn about the glycemic ...

  19. Immigrants and health care: sources of vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derose, Kathryn Pitkin; Escarce, José J; Lurie, Nicole

    2007-01-01

    Immigrants have been identified as a vulnerable population, but there is heterogeneity in the degree to which they are vulnerable to inadequate health care. Here we examine the factors that affect immigrants' vulnerability, including socioeconomic background; immigration status; limited English proficiency; federal, state, and local policies on access to publicly funded health care; residential location; and stigma and marginalization. We find that, overall, immigrants have lower rates of health insurance, use less health care, and receive lower quality of care than U.S.-born populations; however, there are differences among subgroups. We conclude with policy options for addressing immigrants' vulnerabilities.

  20. Assessing vulnerability of urban African communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson Nyed, Patrik; Jean-Baptiste, Nathalie; Herslund, Lise Byskov

    2014-01-01

    East African cities are in the process of assessing their vulnerabilities to climate change, but face difficulties in capturing the complexity of the various facets of vulnerability. This holistic approach, captures four different dimensions of vulnerability to flooding - Assets, Institutions......, Attitudes and the Physical environment, with Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, as a case city. The methodology is actively involving the expertise of the stakeholders, and uses GIS to analyze and compile the data. The final output is presented as a comprehensible map, delineating the varying vulnerability...

  1. Mining Bug Databases for Unidentified Software Vulnerabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumidu Wijayasekara; Milos Manic; Jason Wright; Miles McQueen

    2012-06-01

    Identifying software vulnerabilities is becoming more important as critical and sensitive systems increasingly rely on complex software systems. It has been suggested in previous work that some bugs are only identified as vulnerabilities long after the bug has been made public. These vulnerabilities are known as hidden impact vulnerabilities. This paper discusses the feasibility and necessity to mine common publicly available bug databases for vulnerabilities that are yet to be identified. We present bug database analysis of two well known and frequently used software packages, namely Linux kernel and MySQL. It is shown that for both Linux and MySQL, a significant portion of vulnerabilities that were discovered for the time period from January 2006 to April 2011 were hidden impact vulnerabilities. It is also shown that the percentage of hidden impact vulnerabilities has increased in the last two years, for both software packages. We then propose an improved hidden impact vulnerability identification methodology based on text mining bug databases, and conclude by discussing a few potential problems faced by such a classifier.

  2. ICMPv6 RA Flooding Vulnerability Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linas Jočys

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ICMPv6 is the newest version of internet control message protocol, whose main purpose is to send error message indicating packet processing failure. It is know that ICMPv6 is technologically vulnerable. One of those vulnerabilities is the ICMPv6 RA flooding vulnerability, which can lead to systems in Local Area Network slow down or full stop. This paper will discuss Windows (XP, 7, 8.1 and Linux Ubuntu 14 operating systems resistance to RA flooding attack research and countermeasures to minimize this vulnerability.

  3. The maternal adversity, vulnerability and neurodevelopment project: theory and methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Katherine A; Gaudreau, Hélène; Colalillo, Sara; Steiner, Meir; Atkinson, Leslie; Moss, Ellen; Goldberg, Susan; Karama, Sherif; Matthews, Stephen G; Lydon, John E; Silveira, Patricia P; Wazana, Ashley D; Levitan, Robert D; Sokolowski, Marla B; Kennedy, James L; Fleming, Alison; Meaney, Michael J

    2014-09-01

    To describe the theory and methodology of the multi-wave, prospective Maternal Adversity, Vulnerability and Neurodevelopment (MAVAN) study. The goal of MAVAN is to examine the pre- and postnatal influences, and their interaction, in determining individual differences in mental health. MAVAN is a community-based, birth cohort study of pregnant Canadian mothers and their offspring. Dyads are assessed longitudinally, with multiple assessments of both mother and child in home and laboratory across the child's development. Study measures, including assessments of cognitive and emotional function, are described. The study uses a candidate gene approach to examine gene-environment interdependence in specific developmental outcomes. Finally, the study includes measures of both brain-based phenotypes and metabolism to explore comorbidities associated with child obesity. One of the unique features of the MAVAN protocol is the extensive measures of the mother-child interaction. The relation between these measures will be discussed. Evidence from the MAVAN project shows interesting results about maternal care, families, and child outcomes. In our review, preliminary analyses showing the correlations between measures of maternal care are reported. As predicted, early evidence suggests that maternal care measures are positively correlated, over time. This review provides evidence for the feasibility and value of laboratory-based measures embedded within a longitudinal birth cohort study. Though retention of the samples has been a challenge of MAVAN, they are within a comparable range to other studies of this nature. Indeed, the trade-off of somewhat greater participant burden has allowed for a rich database. The results yielded from the MAVAN project will not only describe typical development but also possible targets for intervention. Understanding certain endophenotypes will shed light on the pathogenesis of various mental and physical disorders, as well as their interrelation.

  4. Balance impairment in individuals with Wolfram syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickett, Kristen A.; Duncan, Ryan P.; Paciorkowski, Alex R.; Permutt, Alan; Marshall, Bess; Hershey, Tamara; Earhart, Gammon M.

    2012-01-01

    AIM Wolfram syndrome (WFS), a rare neurodegenerative disorder, is characterized by early onset insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy, deafness, diabetes insipidus, and neurological abnormalities. Although previously unreported, we hypothesized that neurological complications may be detectable in relatively early stages of the disease. As the cerebellum and brainstem seem particularly vulnerable in WFS, we focused on balance functions critically dependent on these regions. The primary goal of this investigation was to compare balance in young individuals with WFS, in relatively early stages of the disease, to an age-matched cohort using a clinically applicable test. METHOD Balance was assessed via the mini-BESTest in 13 children, adolescents and young adults with WFS and 30 typically developing age-matched individuals. RESULTS A significant difference was observed between groups in balance as well as in three of four subcomponents of the mini-BESTest and in two timed tasks related to balance. Mini-BESTest scores were correlated with age (p < 0.001, rs = 0.59) among typically developing individuals. In the WFS group, mini-BESTest scores were related to overall motor dysfunction, but not age. INTERPRETATION Impairments in balance in WFS may occur earlier in the disease process than previously recognized and appear to be related to overall neurological progression rather than chronological age. Recognizing balance impairments and understanding which balance systems contribute to balance deficits in those with WFS may allow for development of effective patient-centered treatment paradigms. PMID:22771154

  5. Balance impairment in individuals with Wolfram syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickett, Kristen A; Duncan, Ryan P; Paciorkowski, Alex R; Permutt, M Alan; Marshall, Bess; Hershey, Tamara; Earhart, Gammon M

    2012-07-01

    Wolfram syndrome (WFS), a rare neurodegenerative disorder, is characterized by early onset insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy, deafness, diabetes insipidus, and neurological abnormalities. Although previously unreported, we hypothesized that neurological complications may be detectable in relatively early stages of the disease. As the cerebellum and brainstem seem particularly vulnerable in WFS, we focused on balance functions critically dependent on these regions. The primary goal of this investigation was to compare balance in young individuals with WFS, in relatively early stages of the disease, to an age-matched cohort using a clinically applicable test. Balance was assessed via the mini-BESTest in 13 children, adolescents and young adults with WFS and 30 typically developing age-matched individuals. A significant difference was observed between groups in balance as well as in three of four subcomponents of the mini-BESTest and in two timed tasks related to balance. Mini-BESTest scores were correlated with age among typically developing individuals. In the WFS group, mini-BESTest scores were related to overall motor dysfunction, but not age. Impairments in balance in WFS may occur earlier in the disease process than previously recognized and appear to be related to overall neurological progression rather than chronological age. Recognizing balance impairments and understanding which balance systems contribute to balance deficits in those with WFS may allow for development of effective patient-centered treatment paradigms. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Economic development and declining vulnerability to climate-related disasters in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jidong; Han, Guoyi; Zhou, Hongjian; Li, Ning

    2018-03-01

    Exposure and vulnerability are the main contributing factors of growing impact from climate-related disasters globally. Understanding the spatiotemporal dynamic patterns of vulnerability is important for designing effective disaster risk mitigation and adaptation measures. At national scale, most cross-country studies have suggested that economic vulnerability to disasters decreases as income increases, especially for developing countries. Research covering sub-national climate-related natural disasters is indispensable to obtaining a comprehensive understanding of the effect of regional economic growth on vulnerability reduction. Taking China as a case, this subnational scale study shows that economic development is correlated with the significant reduction in human fatalities but increase in direct economic losses (DELs) from climate-related disasters since 1949. The long-term trend in climate-related disaster vulnerability, reflected by mortality (1978-2015) and DELs (1990-2015) as a share of the total population and Gross Domestic Product, has seen significant decline among all economic regions in China. While notable differences remain among its West, Central and East economic regions, the temporal vulnerability change has been converging. The study further demonstrated that economic development level is correlated with human and economic vulnerability to climate-related disasters, and this vulnerability decreased with the increase of per-capita income. This study suggested that economic development can have nuanced effects on overall human and economic vulnerability to climate-related disasters. We argue that climate change science needs to acknowledge and examine the different pathways of vulnerability effects related to economic development.

  7. A GIS Approach to Identifying Socially and Medically Vulnerable Older Adult Populations in South Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hames, Elizabeth; Stoler, Justin; Emrich, Christopher T; Tewary, Sweta; Pandya, Naushira

    2017-11-10

    We define, map, and analyze geodemographic patterns of socially and medically vulnerable older adults within the tri-county region of South Florida. We apply principal components analysis (PCA) to a set of previously identified indicators of social and medical vulnerability at the census tract level. We create and map age-stratified vulnerability scores using a geographic information system (GIS), and use spatial analysis techniques to identify patterns and interactions between social and medical vulnerability. Key factors contributing to social vulnerability in areas with higher numbers of older adults include age, large household size, and Hispanic ethnicity. Medical vulnerability in these same areas is driven by disease burden, access to emergency cardiac services, availability of nursing home and hospice beds, access to home health care, and available mental health services. Age-dependent areas of social vulnerability emerge in Broward County, whereas age-dependent areas of medical vulnerability emerge in Palm Beach County. Older-adult social and medical vulnerability interact differently throughout the study area. Spatial analysis of older adult social and medical vulnerability using PCA and GIS can help identify age-dependent pockets of vulnerability that are not easily identifiable in a populationwide analysis; improve our understanding of the dynamic spatial organization of health care, health care needs, access to care, and outcomes; and ultimately serve as a tool for health care planning. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Health and vulnerability to poverty in Ghana: evidence from the Ghana Living Standards Survey Round 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novignon, Jacob; Nonvignon, Justice; Mussa, Richard; Chiwaula, Levison S

    2012-05-06

    An understanding of the complex relationship between health status and welfare is crucial for critical policy interventions. However, the focus of most policies in developing regions has been on current welfare to the neglect of forward-looking welfare analysis. The absence of adequate research in the area of future poverty or vulnerability to poverty has also contributed to the focus on current welfare. The objectives of this study were to estimate vulnerability to poverty among households in Ghana and examine the relationship between health status and vulnerability to poverty. The study used cross section data from the Fifth Round of the Ghana Living Standards Survey (GLSS 5) with a nationally representative sample of 8,687 households from all administrative regions in Ghana. A three-step Feasible Generalized Least Squares (FGLS) estimation procedure was employed to estimate vulnerability to poverty and to model the effect of health status on expected future consumption and variations in future consumption. Vulnerability to poverty estimates were also examined against various household characteristics. Using an upper poverty line, the estimates of vulnerability show that about 56% of households in Ghana are vulnerable to poverty in the future and this is higher than the currently observed poverty level of about 29%. Households with ill members were vulnerable to poverty. Moreover, households with poor hygiene conditions were also vulnerable to future poverty. The vulnerability to poverty estimates were, however, sensitive to the poverty line used and varied with household characteristics. The results imply that policies directed towards poverty reduction need to take into account the vulnerability of households to future poverty. Also, hygienic conditions and health status of households need not be overlooked in poverty reduction strategies.

  9. The ethics and regulatory landscape of including vulnerable populations in pragmatic clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Mary Jane; Lally, Rachel; Miller, Jennifer E; Pittman, Stephanie; Brodsky, Lynda; Caplan, Arthur L; Uhlenbrauck, Gina; Louzao, Darcy M; Fischer, James H; Wilfond, Benjamin

    2015-10-01

    Policies have been developed to protect vulnerable populations in clinical research, including the US federal research regulations (45 Code of Federal Regulations 46 Subparts B, C, and D). These policies generally recognize vulnerable populations to include pregnant women, fetuses, neonates, children, prisoners, persons with physical handicaps or mental disabilities, and disadvantaged persons. The aim has been to protect these populations from harm, often by creating regulatory and ethical checks that may limit their participation in many clinical trials. The recent increase in pragmatic clinical trials raises at least two questions about this approach. First, is exclusion itself a harm to vulnerable populations, as these groups may be denied access to understanding how health interventions work for them in clinical settings? Second, are groups considered vulnerable in traditional clinical trials also vulnerable in pragmatic clinical trials? We argue first that excluding vulnerable subjects from participation in pragmatic clinical trials can be harmful by preventing acquisition of data to meaningfully inform clinical decision-making in the future. Second, we argue that protections for vulnerable subjects in traditional clinical trial settings may not be translatable, feasible, or even ethical to apply in pragmatic clinical trials. We conclude by offering specific recommendations for appropriately protecting vulnerable research subjects in pragmatic clinical trials, focusing on pregnant women, fetuses, neonates, children, prisoners, persons with physical handicaps or mental disabilities, and disadvantaged persons. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. An atmospheric vulnerability assessment framework for environment management and protection based on CAMx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Shen, Jing; Li, Yu

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents an atmospheric vulnerability assessment framework based on CAMx that should be helpful to assess potential impacts of changes in human, atmospheric environment, and social economic elements of atmospheric vulnerability. It is also a useful and effective tool that can provide policy-guidance for environmental protection and management to reduce the atmospheric vulnerability. The developed framework was applied to evaluate the atmospheric environment vulnerability of 13 cities in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region for verification. The results indicated that regional disparity of the atmospheric vulnerability existed in the study site. More specifically, the central and southern regions show more atmospheric environment vulnerability than the northern regions. The impact factors of atmospheric environment vulnerability in the BTH region mainly derived from increasing population press, frequently unfavorable meteorological conditions, extensive economic growth of secondary industry, increased environmental pollution, and accelerating population aging. The framework shown in this paper is an interpretative and heuristic tool for a better understanding of atmospheric vulnerability. This framework can also be replicated at different spatial and temporal scales using context-specific datasets to straightly support environmental managers with decision-making. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Climate change vulnerabilities- an integrated assessment in Pyramid Lake Paiute Indian Reservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, M. R.; Chief, K.; Wilde, K.; Smith, W.

    2011-12-01

    There are increasing concerns of potential climate change impacts that may place the Truckee River Basin in Nevada under unprecedented stress. We hypothesized that Pyramid Lake, a terminal lake of Truckee River, is prone to climatic as well as non-climatic stressors stemming from cumulative impacts from upstream urban areas and activities. Thus climate change may impair the ability of a major downstream water user, the Pyramid Lake Paiute Tribe (PLPT), to cope and adapt. The conventional approach in assessing vulnerability primarily focuses on hazards or biophysical vulnerabilities, such as water availability, floods, and drought impact. However, we found it inadequate to address the overall vulnerability of the PLPT. Thus in addition to biophysical vulnerabilities, intrinsic and external vulnerabilities were considered such as socio-economic variables (e.g. adaptive capacity) and policy and legal drivers (e.g. water rights). We proposed an elaborate framework for an integrated vulnerability assessment by adapting IPCC framework for vulnerability assessment, the Exposure-Sensitivity-Adaptive Capacity, and applied it to PLPT. Analysis of projected climate change dataset pointed towards increased incidences of floods and droughts and a warming trend over the whole basin with a higher rate at the lower basin in the future. In effort to understand how climatic trends trigger the vulnerability of PLPT, a multi-pronged approach was employed to understand key tribal livelihood assets including an in-depth analysis of the adaptive capacity of PLPT, a climate change survey, and a historical analysis of water conflict and negotiation. Results of the survey identified key natural assets as the lake, endangered fish, rangeland, and wetlands. The framework of a casual-loop diagram was developed in a system dynamic model that incorporated opinions of tribal stakeholders and other experts to evaluate how potential future climate changes might impact the endangered Cui ui fish

  12. Modeling Coastal Vulnerability through Space and Time.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Hopper

    Full Text Available Coastal ecosystems experience a wide range of stressors including wave forces, storm surge, sea-level rise, and anthropogenic modification and are thus vulnerable to erosion. Urban coastal ecosystems are especially important due to the large populations these limited ecosystems serve. However, few studies have addressed the issue of urban coastal vulnerability at the landscape scale with spatial data that are finely resolved. The purpose of this study was to model and map coastal vulnerability and the role of natural habitats in reducing vulnerability in Jamaica Bay, New York, in terms of nine coastal vulnerability metrics (relief, wave exposure, geomorphology, natural habitats, exposure, exposure with no habitat, habitat role, erodible shoreline, and surge under past (1609, current (2015, and future (2080 scenarios using InVEST 3.2.0. We analyzed vulnerability results both spatially and across all time periods, by stakeholder (ownership and by distance to damage from Hurricane Sandy. We found significant differences in vulnerability metrics between past, current and future scenarios for all nine metrics except relief and wave exposure. The marsh islands in the center of the bay are currently vulnerable. In the future, these islands will likely be inundated, placing additional areas of the shoreline increasingly at risk. Significant differences in vulnerability exist between stakeholders; the Breezy Point Cooperative and Gateway National Recreation Area had the largest erodible shoreline segments. Significant correlations exist for all vulnerability (exposure/surge and storm damage combinations except for exposure and distance to artificial debris. Coastal protective features, ranging from storm surge barriers and levees to natural features (e.g. wetlands, have been promoted to decrease future flood risk to communities in coastal areas around the world. Our methods of combining coastal vulnerability results with additional data and across

  13. Modeling Coastal Vulnerability through Space and Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, Thomas; Meixler, Marcia S

    2016-01-01

    Coastal ecosystems experience a wide range of stressors including wave forces, storm surge, sea-level rise, and anthropogenic modification and are thus vulnerable to erosion. Urban coastal ecosystems are especially important due to the large populations these limited ecosystems serve. However, few studies have addressed the issue of urban coastal vulnerability at the landscape scale with spatial data that are finely resolved. The purpose of this study was to model and map coastal vulnerability and the role of natural habitats in reducing vulnerability in Jamaica Bay, New York, in terms of nine coastal vulnerability metrics (relief, wave exposure, geomorphology, natural habitats, exposure, exposure with no habitat, habitat role, erodible shoreline, and surge) under past (1609), current (2015), and future (2080) scenarios using InVEST 3.2.0. We analyzed vulnerability results both spatially and across all time periods, by stakeholder (ownership) and by distance to damage from Hurricane Sandy. We found significant differences in vulnerability metrics between past, current and future scenarios for all nine metrics except relief and wave exposure. The marsh islands in the center of the bay are currently vulnerable. In the future, these islands will likely be inundated, placing additional areas of the shoreline increasingly at risk. Significant differences in vulnerability exist between stakeholders; the Breezy Point Cooperative and Gateway National Recreation Area had the largest erodible shoreline segments. Significant correlations exist for all vulnerability (exposure/surge) and storm damage combinations except for exposure and distance to artificial debris. Coastal protective features, ranging from storm surge barriers and levees to natural features (e.g. wetlands), have been promoted to decrease future flood risk to communities in coastal areas around the world. Our methods of combining coastal vulnerability results with additional data and across multiple time

  14. Assessing Vulnerabilities, Risks, and Consequences of Damage to Critical Infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suski, N.; Wuest, C.

    2011-01-01

    -Assessment Phase brings together infrastructure owners and operators to identify critical assets and help the team create a structured information request. During this phase, we gain information about the critical assets from those who are most familiar with operations and interdependencies, making the time we spend on the ground conducting the assessment much more productive and enabling the team to make actionable recommendations. The Assessment Phase analyzes 10 areas: Threat environment, cyber architecture, cyber penetration, physical security, physical penetration, operations security, policies and procedures, interdependencies, consequence analysis, and risk characterization. Each of these individual tasks uses direct and indirect data collection, site inspections, and structured and facilitated workshops to gather data. Because of the importance of understanding the cyber threat, LLNL has built both fixed and mobile cyber penetration, wireless penetration and supporting tools that can be tailored to fit customer needs. The Post-Assessment Phase brings vulnerability and risk assessments to the customer in a format that facilitates implementation of mitigation options. Often the assessment findings and recommendations are briefed and discussed with several levels of management and, if appropriate, across jurisdictional boundaries. The end result is enhanced awareness and informed protective measures. Over the last 15 years, we have continued to refine our methodology and capture lessons learned and best practices. The resulting risk and decision framework thus takes into consideration real-world constraints, including regulatory, operational, and economic realities. In addition to 'on the ground' assessments focused on mitigating vulnerabilities, we have integrated our computational and atmospheric dispersion capability with easy-to-use geo-referenced visualization tools to support emergency planning and response operations. LLNL is home to the National Atmospheric Release

  15. Vulnerability assessments, identity and spatial scale challenges in disaster-risk reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward R. Carr

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Current approaches to vulnerability assessment for disaster-risk reduction (DRR commonly apply generalised, a priori determinants of vulnerability to particular hazards in particular places. Although they may allow for policy-level legibility at high levels of spatial scale, these approaches suffer from attribution problems that become more acute as the level of analysis is localised and the population under investigation experiences greater vulnerability. In this article, we locate the source of this problem in a spatial scale mismatch between the essentialist framings of identity behind these generalised determinants of vulnerability and the intersectional, situational character of identity in the places where DRR interventions are designed and implemented. Using the Livelihoods as Intimate Government (LIG approach to identify and understand different vulnerabilities to flooding in a community in southern Zambia, we empirically demonstrate how essentialist framings of identity produce this mismatch. Further, we illustrate a means of operationalising intersectional, situational framings of identity to achieve greater and more productive understandings of hazard vulnerability than available through the application of general determinants of vulnerability to specific places and cases.

  16. Vulnerability assessment of the Toluca Valley aquifer combining a parametric approach and advective transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gárfias, J.; Llanos, H.; Franco, R.; Martel, R.

    2017-01-01

    Groundwater vulnerability assessment is an important task in water resources and land management. Depending on the availability of data and the complexity of the hydrogeological conditions, different approaches can be adopted. As an alternative, this study involves the use of a combined approach based on vulnerability methods and advective particle tracking to better understand the susceptibility to contamination in the Toluca valley aquifer. An intrinsic vulnerability map (DRASTIC) was used to identify areas that are more susceptible to ground water contamination. To estimate advective particle tracking, we developed a 3D flow model using VisualModflow and MODPATH to describe the regional flow of groundwater. The vulnerability map demonstrates the problematic application and interpretation of qualitative the vulnerability method of the parametric system group, which indicates a difference of approximately 23% when compared with the modified vulnerability map. Potential contamination sources based on landfill sites were comparatively high; approximately 76% are located in areas that could be susceptible to contamination through vertical infiltration, especially those that are located along the Lerma system of wells. Industrial parks located in the centre of the valley (83%), where continuous extraction of groundwater and land subsidence occurs, have been classified as high vulnerability zones, increasing the risk of contaminants from surface sources reaching the groundwater. In order to understand the susceptibility to contamination in the aquifer, various delineation approaches should be adopted and all the results that validate each other should be considered, thus making a good strategy for implementing different degrees of protection measures. [es

  17. Vulnerability assessments, identity and spatial scale challenges in disaster-risk reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward R. Carr

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Current approaches to vulnerability assessment for disaster-risk reduction (DRR commonly apply generalised, a priori determinants of vulnerability to particular hazards in particular places. Although they may allow for policy-level legibility at high levels of spatial scale, these approaches suffer from attribution problems that become more acute as the level of analysis is localised and the population under investigation experiences greater vulnerability. In this article, we locate the source of this problem in a spatial scale mismatch between the essentialist framings of identity behind these generalised determinants of vulnerability and the intersectional, situational character of identity in the places where DRR interventions are designed and implemented. Using the Livelihoods as Intimate Government (LIG approach to identify and understand different vulnerabilities to flooding in a community in southern Zambia, we empirically demonstrate how essentialist framings of identity produce this mismatch. Further, we illustrate a means of operationalising intersectional, situational framings of identity to achieve greater and more productive understandings of hazard vulnerability than available through the application of general determinants of vulnerability to specific places and cases.

  18. Individual Differences in Adolescents' Emotional Reactivity across Relationship Contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Emily C; Blair, Bethany L; Buehler, Cheryl

    2018-02-01

    Understanding individual differences in adolescents' ability to regulate emotions within interpersonal relationships is paramount for healthy development. Thus, the effect of individual vulnerabilities (depressive affect, social anxiety, self-blame, and coping efficacy problems) on the transmission of emotional reactivity in response to conflict from family to peers (friends and romantic partners) was prospectively examined across six waves of data in a community-based sample of 416 adolescents (M age Wave 1 = 11.90, 51% girls). Multiple-group models estimated in structural equation modeling suggested that youth who were higher in social anxiety or coping efficacy problems were more likely to transmit emotional reactivity developed in the family-of-origin to emotional reactivity in response to conflict in close friendships. Additionally, those youth higher in self-blame and depressive affect were more likely to transmit emotional reactivity from friendships to romantic relationships.

  19. Identifying Population Vulnerable to Extreme Heat Events in San Jose, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, A. L.

    2016-12-01

    The extreme heat days not only make cities less comfortable for living but also they are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Mapping studies have demonstrated spatial variability in heat vulnerability. A study conducted between 2000 and 2011 in New York City shows that deaths during heat waves was more likely to occur in black individuals, at home in census tracts which received greater public assistance. This map project intends to portray areas in San Jose California that are vulnerable to extreme heat events. The variables considered to build a vulnerability index are: land surface temperature, vegetated areas (NDVI), and people exposed to these area (population density).

  20. Design Vulnerability Assessments for Safeguards Sealing Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brockman, Linda; Johnston, Roger; Kravtchenko, Victor; Undem, Halvor A.; Wishard, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (the 'Agency') engages in a rigorous equipment authorization process prior to deploying Safeguards instrumentation, including Safeguards sealing systems, for world-wide use. A positive result from a vulnerability assessment is one of the many requirements that must be met prior to instrumentation deployment. Given the long time period in the Safeguards instrumentation development cycle, the substantial Member State investments made, and the significant Agency staff time required, a negative result for the vulnerability assessment can result in the loss of time, considerable additional expense, or even the failure to deploy an instrument or sealing system at all. First suggested in 1998 by the General Physics Institute in Moscow, an approach that incorporates a design vulnerability assessment minimizes the risk of deployment failure by teaming a public sector vulnerability assessment team with the instrument or sealing system design team in order to identify, at the earliest possible design stage, inherent vulnerabilities. Involving the vulnerability assessors early and often in the design and development process avoids many of the problems inherent in evaluating security vulnerabilities only after the design is finalized. The disadvantages include increased costs and time to deployment. An improved pressure-sensitive adhesive label seal, called the 'VOID-3 seal' was developed for the Agency using this design vulnerability assessment process.

  1. Vulnerability, Borderline Personality Disorders. Clinical and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Borderline personality disorder and vulnerability are difficult to assess and are rather elusive to define. A case study material is presented from a cognitive analytical model. An attempt of the dominant features of cognitive analytical therapy and discussion of vulnerability in relation to personality disorder is provided.

  2. Predicting Vulnerability Risks Using Software Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roumani, Yaman

    2012-01-01

    Software vulnerabilities have been regarded as one of the key reasons for computer security breaches that have resulted in billions of dollars in losses per year (Telang and Wattal 2005). With the growth of the software industry and the Internet, the number of vulnerability attacks and the ease with which an attack can be made have increased. From…

  3. Managing Risk, Reducing Vulnerability and Enhancing Productivity ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Managing Risk, Reducing Vulnerability and Enhancing Productivity under a Changing Climate. The countries of the Greater Horn of Africa are particularly vulnerable to drought, exacerbated by widespread poverty and dependence on rainfed agriculture. Even with normal rainfall, the region does not produce enough food to ...

  4. IT Security Vulnerability and Incident Response Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hafkamp, W.H.M.; Paulus, S.; Pohlman, N.; Reimer, H.

    2006-01-01

    This paper summarises the results of a Dutch PhD research project on IT security vulnerability and incident response management, which is supervised by the University of Twente in the Netherlands and which is currently in its final stage. Vulnerabilities are ‘failures or weaknesses in computer

  5. Climate change vulnerability assessment in Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binita KC; J. Marshall Shepherd; Cassandra Johnson Gaither

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is occurring in the Southeastern United States, and one manifestation is changes in frequency and intensity of extreme events. A vulnerability assessment is performed in the state of Georgia (United States) at the county level from 1975 to 2012 in decadal increments. Climate change vulnerability is typically measured as a function of exposure to physical...

  6. Vulnerability in a Stochastic Dynamic Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbers, Chris; Gunning, Jan Willem

    2003-01-01

    Most measures of vulnerability are a-theoretic and essentially static. In this paper we use a stochastic Ramsey model to find a household's optimal welfare and we measure vulnerability as the shortfall from the welfare attained if the household consumed permanently at the poverty line. The results

  7. Vulnerability assessments as a political creation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pronk, Maartje; Maat, Harro; Crane, Todd A.

    2017-01-01

    Vulnerability assessments are a cornerstone of contemporary disaster research. This paper shows how research procedures and the presentation of results of vulnerability assessments are politically filtered. Using data from a study of tsunami risk assessment in Portugal, the paper demonstrates

  8. The politics of vulnerability and resilience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frerks, G.E.; Warner, J.F.; Weijs, B.

    2011-01-01

    Much conceptual confusion exists over the concepts of vulnerability and (social) resilience, reinforced by the different paradigms (the article identifies four) and disciplinary traditions underlying their use. While since the 1980s the social construction of "vulnerability" as a driver for disaster

  9. Method of Pentest Synthesis and Vulnerability Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Hahanova Irina Vitalyevna

    2012-01-01

    The structural method for penetration test generation and vulnerability simulation for infrastructure of telecommunication hardwaresoftware information cybernetic systems (CS), focused to protect against unauthorized access the services defined in the system specification by means of penetrating through legal interfaces of component interaction, which have vulnerabilities, is proposed. A protection service infrastructure is created with cybersystem and maintains it during the life cycle, serv...

  10. South African risk and vulnerability atlas

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Archer van Garderen, Emma RM

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The South African Risk and Vulnerability Atlas was conceived and designed with the intent of providing up to date information for key sectors to support strategy development in the areas of risk and vulnerability. This volume presents a selection...

  11. ANALYSIS OF THE VULNERABILITY OF THE CITY OF BATNA (ALGERIA) TO FLOODING

    OpenAIRE

    Dridi HADDA; Guellouh SAMI; Kalla MAHDI

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this research paper is to estimate the vulnerability of the city of Batna to flooding. A multi-criteria analysis has been performed in a geographic information system (GIS) by integrating several features relating to socio-economic stakes with the aim of better understanding, assessing and spatializing the level of vulnerability in the city. Therefore, we have used a customised index approach where each parameter is a numerical index indicating the importance of the stakes, r...

  12. Tracking Nile Delta vulnerability to Holocene change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marriner, Nick; Flaux, Clément; Morhange, Christophe; Stanley, Jean-Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Understanding deltaic resilience in the face of Holocene climate change and human impacts is an important challenge for the earth sciences in characterizing the full range of present and future wetland responses to global warming. Here, we report an 8000-year mass balance record from the Nile Delta to reconstruct when and how this sedimentary basin has responded to past hydrological shifts. In a global Holocene context, the long-term decrease in Nile Delta accretion rates is consistent with insolation-driven changes in the 'monsoon pacemaker', attested throughout the mid-latitude tropics. Following the early to mid-Holocene growth of the Nile's deltaic plain, sediment losses and pronounced erosion are first recorded after ~4000 years ago, the corollaries of falling sediment supply and an intensification of anthropogenic impacts from the Pharaonic period onwards. Against the backcloth of the Saharan 'depeopling', reduced river flow underpinned by a weakening of monsoonal precipitation appears to have been particularly conducive to the expansion of human activities on the delta by exposing productive floodplain lands for occupation and irrigation agriculture. The reconstruction suggests that the Nile Delta has a particularly long history of vulnerability to extreme events (e.g. floods and storms) and sea-level rise, although the present sediment-starved system does not have a direct Holocene analogue. This study highlights the importance of the world's deltas as sensitive archives to investigate Holocene geosystem responses to climate change, risks and hazards, and societal interaction.

  13. Tracking Nile Delta vulnerability to Holocene change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Marriner

    Full Text Available Understanding deltaic resilience in the face of Holocene climate change and human impacts is an important challenge for the earth sciences in characterizing the full range of present and future wetland responses to global warming. Here, we report an 8000-year mass balance record from the Nile Delta to reconstruct when and how this sedimentary basin has responded to past hydrological shifts. In a global Holocene context, the long-term decrease in Nile Delta accretion rates is consistent with insolation-driven changes in the 'monsoon pacemaker', attested throughout the mid-latitude tropics. Following the early to mid-Holocene growth of the Nile's deltaic plain, sediment losses and pronounced erosion are first recorded after ~4000 years ago, the corollaries of falling sediment supply and an intensification of anthropogenic impacts from the Pharaonic period onwards. Against the backcloth of the Saharan 'depeopling', reduced river flow underpinned by a weakening of monsoonal precipitation appears to have been particularly conducive to the expansion of human activities on the delta by exposing productive floodplain lands for occupation and irrigation agriculture. The reconstruction suggests that the Nile Delta has a particularly long history of vulnerability to extreme events (e.g. floods and storms and sea-level rise, although the present sediment-starved system does not have a direct Holocene analogue. This study highlights the importance of the world's deltas as sensitive archives to investigate Holocene geosystem responses to climate change, risks and hazards, and societal interaction.

  14. Adaptation to climate change and industrial vulnerability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garnaud, Benjamin; Ferret, Celine

    2010-06-01

    In today's societies, the production base made up by the industrial fabric acts as an important link between the climate and its variations and our lifestyle. However, several decades of experience have often enabled us to minimise the impact of the weather and its fluctuations on activities, making the industrial sector out to be purely artificial and protected from climate impacts. Yet climate change leads us to challenge this assumption: if the industrial base is supposed to be impervious to the current climate, is this still the case in a context of climate change? In an attempt to answer this question, the Invulnerable project was launched, led by the Institute for Sustainable Development and International Relations (IDDRI) and bringing together scientific and industrial partners (Meteo-France, IPSL, CERFACS). Observing the availability of scientific resources on climate change, partly resulting from the modeling research coordinated by the IPCC, the idea was to work with industries to identify their vulnerabilities and to use these to define indicators for climatologists. These indicators are not chosen by scientists without consulting industries, but are in fact defined by these industries to ensure they correspond to their needs as closely as possible. The challenge is therefore to bring together scientists and industries and to catalyse a mutual understanding to ensure this discussion results in one or several indicators that are relevant to the activity in question and on which climatologists can work

  15. Societal Vulnerability to Climate Change and Variability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Handmer, J.W.; Dovers, S.; Downing, T.E.

    1999-01-01

    Institutions in many wealthy industrialised countries are robust and their societies appear to be relatively well insulated against the impacts of climate variability, economic problems elsewhere and so on. However, many countries are not in this position, and there is a growing group of humanity which is not benefiting from the apparent global adaptive trends. Worst case scenarios reinforce the impact of this uneven distribution of adaptive capacity, both between and within countries. Nevertheless, at the broad global scale human societies are strongly adaptive and not threatened by climate change for many decades. At the local level the picture is quite different and the survival of some populations at their present locations is in doubt. In the absence of abatement, the longer term outlook is highly uncertain. Adaptation research needs to begin with an understanding of social and economic vulnerability. It requires a different approach to the traditional IPCC impacts assessment, as human behaviour, institutional capacity and culture are more important than biophysical impacts. This is consistent with the intellectual history of the IPCC which has gradually embraced an increasing range of disciplines. 32 refs

  16. The essence of care in health vulnerability: a Heideggerian construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cestari, Virna Ribeiro Feitosa; Moreira, Thereza Maria Magalhães; Pessoa, Vera Lúcia Mendes de Paula; Florêncio, Raquel Sampaio; Silva, Maria Rocineide Ferreira da; Torres, Raimundo Augusto Martins

    2017-01-01

    Reflect on the essence of care in health vulnerability from the phenomenological perspective of Martin Heidegger. Theoretical-reflexive study, anchored in three essential parts: 1) Care in Heidegger; 2) The essence of care in health vulnerability; And 3) Nursing care actions on health vulnerability. Vulnerability must be recognized as an indelible trait of the human condition and has its constituents in the human being, co-presence and care. Caring is an interactive process that reveals itself in the relationship with the other. Respecting the integrity of the Being in vulnerability must be a priority in nursing care, through behaviors that privilege the Being. Understanding ontological care and its relation to vulnerability under Heidegger's phenomenological view allowed us to uncover the facets of care in health vulnerability by adding to the nursing knowledge body a comprehensive and reflective perspective. Refletir sobre a essência do cuidado na vulnerabilidade em saúde sob a perspectiva fenomenológica de Martin Heidegger. Estudo teórico-reflexivo, ancorado em três partes essenciais: 1) O cuidado em Heidegger; 2) A essência do cuidado na vulnerabilidade em saúde; e 3) As ações do cuidar em enfermagem na vulnerabilidade em saúde. A vulnerabilidade deve ser reconhecida como traço indelével da condição humana e tem seus constituintes na pessoa humana, co-presenças e cuidado. O cuidar é um processo interativo que se desvela na relação com o outro. Respeitar a integridade do Ser em vulnerabilidade deve ser prioridade no cuidar em enfermagem, por meio de comportamentos que privilegiem o Ser. Compreender ontologicamente o cuidado e a sua relação com a vulnerabilidade sob o olhar fenomenológico de Heidegger permitiu desvelar as facetas do cuidado na vulnerabilidade em saúde, agregando ao corpo de conhecimento da Enfermagem uma perspectiva compreensiva e reflexiva.

  17. Nicotine addiction: studies about vulnerability, epigenesis and animal models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernabeu, Ramon

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This article is a summary about the current research of nicotine effects on the nervous system and its relationship to the generation of an addictive behavior. Like other drugs of abuse, nicotine activates the reward pathway, which in turn is involved in certain psychiatric diseases. There are individuals who have a high vulnerability to nicotine addiction. This may be due to genetic and epigenetic factors and/or the environment. In this review, we described some epigenetic factors that may be involved in those phenomena. The two animal models most widely used for studying the reinforcing effects of nicotine are: self-administration and conditioning place preference (CPP. Here, we emphasized the CPP, due to its potential application in humans. In addition, we described the locomotor activity model (as a measure of psychostimulant effects to study vulnerability to drugs of abuse

  18. [Human vulnerability under cosmetic surgery. A bioethic analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Rocha de Viesca, Mariablanca

    2012-01-01

    Cosmetic surgery is one of the best examples of the current health empowerment. Aesthetic surgical interventions have been criticized because they expose the healthy individual to an unnecessary risk. In modern society the body has turned into a beauty depository with a commercial value. In published bioethics papers, analyses of the cosmetic problem pointed their attention on the freedom, autonomy and distributive justice. Mexico occupies fifth place in the world of cosmetic surgeries. Vulnerability is an inherent condition of man's existence and marks the limit of human dignity. UNESCO agrees that some populations are more inclined to vulnerability. The aim of this work is to demonstrate that those who wish to make a physical change had given up to social coercion and psychological problems.

  19. Vulnerability of a killer whale social network to disease outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Paulo R., Jr.; de Menezes, Márcio Argollo; Baird, Robin W.; Lusseau, David; Guimarães, Paulo; Dos Reis, Sérgio F.

    2007-10-01

    Emerging infectious diseases are among the main threats to conservation of biological diversity. A crucial task facing epidemiologists is to predict the vulnerability of populations of endangered animals to disease outbreaks. In this context, the network structure of social interactions within animal populations may affect disease spreading. However, endangered animal populations are often small and to investigate the dynamics of small networks is a difficult task. Using network theory, we show that the social structure of an endangered population of mammal-eating killer whales is vulnerable to disease outbreaks. This feature was found to be a consequence of the combined effects of the topology and strength of social links among individuals. Our results uncover a serious challenge for conservation of the species and its ecosystem. In addition, this study shows that the network approach can be useful to study dynamical processes in very small networks.

  20. Indicator-based model to assess vulnerability to landslides in urban areas. Case study of Husi city (Eastern Romania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grozavu, Adrian; Ciprian Margarint, Mihai; Catalin Stanga, Iulian

    2013-04-01

    In the last three or four decades, vulnerability evolved from physical fragility meanings to a more complex concept, being a key element of risk assessment. In landslide risk assessment, there are a large series of studies regarding landslide hazard, but far fewer researches focusing on vulnerability measurement. Furthermore, there is still no unitary understanding on the methodological framework, neither any internationally agreed standard for landslide vulnerability measurements. The omnipresent common element is the existence of elements at risk, but while some approaches are limited to exposure, other focus on the degree of losses (human injuries, material damages and monetary losses, structural dysfunctions etc.). These losses are differently assessed using both absolute and relative values on qualitative or quantitative scales and they are differently integrated to provide a final vulnerability value. This study aims to assess vulnerability to landslides at local level using an indicator-based model applied to urban areas and tested for Husi town (Eastern Romania). The study region is characterized by permeable and impermeable alternating sedimentary rocks, monoclinal geological structure and hilly relief with impressive cuestas, continental temperate climate, and precipitation of about 500 mm/year, rising to 700 m and even more in some rainy years. The town is a middle size one (25000 inhabitants) and it had an ascending evolution in the last centuries, followed by an increasing human pressure on lands. Methodologically, the first step was to assess the landslide susceptibility and to identify in this way those regions within which any asset would be exposed to landslide hazards. Landslide susceptibility was assessed using the logistic regression approach, taking into account several quantitative and qualitative factors (elements of geology, morphometry, rainfall, land use etc.). The spatial background consisted in the Digital Elevation Model and all derived

  1. Vulnerability of pension fund balances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ólafur Ísleifsson

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Although the Icelandic general labour market pension funds are built on the proviso that pension schemes are fully funded these funds are still grappling with the devastating financial effects of the 2008 economic collapse that rendered most of them in a significant actuarial deficit. The public sector pension funds are based on an employer guarantee that makes up for any lack of funding that historically has been quite significant. We identify the relatively high actuarial discount rate and increasing longevity as two factors that add to the vulnerability of the Icelandic pension system. We present a stochastic model in order to obtain reasonably sound estimates of the effect of revising such key parameters of the actuarial assessments of the pension funds and thus obtain a view of the viability of the Icelandic pension system when confronted with the potential necessity of such parameter shifts. We present results of stochastic simulations of this models made to assess effects of changes in these major financial and demographic assumptions in actuarial evaluations of pension fund balances. Our results suggest that the Icelandic pension funds may be significantly less well funded than is generally perceived.

  2. Dynamic vulnerability assessment and intelligent control for sustainable power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez-Longatt, Francisco

    2018-01-01

    Identifying, assessing, and mitigating electric power grid vulnerabilities is a growing focus in short-term operational planning of power systems. Through illustrated application, this important guide surveys state-of-the-art methodologies for the assessment and enhancement of power system security in short-term operational planning and real-time operation. The methodologies employ advanced methods from probabilistic theory, data mining, artificial intelligence, and optimization, to provide knowledge-based support for monitoring, control (preventive and corrective), and decision making tasks. Key features: Introduces behavioural recognition in wide-area monitoring and security constrained optimal power flow for intelligent control and protection and optimal grid management. Provides in-depth understanding of risk-based reliability and security assessment, dynamic vulnerability as essment methods, supported by the underpinning mathematics. Develops expertise in mitigation techniques using intelligent protect...

  3. CARVE: The Carbon in Arctic Reservoirs Vulnerability Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Charles E.; Dinardo, Steven J.

    2012-01-01

    The Carbon in Arctic Reservoirs Vulnerability Experiment (CARVE) is a NASA Earth Ventures (EV-1) investigation designed to quantify correlations between atmospheric and surface state variables for the Alaskan terrestrial ecosystems through intensive seasonal aircraft campaigns, ground-based observations, and analysis sustained over a 5-year mission. CARVE bridges critical gaps in our knowledge and understanding of Arctic ecosystems, linkages between the Arctic hydrologic and terrestrial carbon cycles, and the feedbacks from fires and thawing permafrost. CARVE's objectives are to: (1) Directly test hypotheses attributing the mobilization of vulnerable Arctic carbon reservoirs to climate warming; (2) Deliver the first direct measurements and detailed maps of CO2 and CH4 sources on regional scales in the Alaskan Arctic; and (3) Demonstrate new remote sensing and modeling capabilities to quantify feedbacks between carbon fluxes and carbon cycle-climate processes in the Arctic (Figure 1). We describe the investigation design and results from 2011 test flights in Alaska.

  4. ANALYSIS OF ANDROID VULNERABILITIES AND MODERN EXPLOITATION TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himanshu Shewale

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Android is an operating system based on the Linux kernel. It is the most widely used and popular operating system among Smartphones and portable devices. Its programmable and open nature attracts attackers to take undue advantage. Android platform allows developers to freely access and modify source code. But at the same time it increases the security issue. A user is likely to download and install malicious applications written by software hackers. This paper focuses on understanding and analyzing the vulnerabilities present in android platform. In this paper firstly we study the android architecture; analyze the existing threats and security weaknesses. Then we identify various exploit mitigation techniques to mitigate known vulnerabilities. A detailed analysis will help us to identify the existing loopholes and it will give strategic direction to make android operating system more secure.

  5. Health literacy on tuberculosis amongst vulnerable segment of population: special reference to Saharia tribe in central India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muniyandi, M; Rao, V G; Bhat, J; Yadav, R; Sharma, R K; Bhondeley, M K

    2015-05-01

    Health literacy on tuberculosis (TB) is an understanding about TB to perform activities with regard to prevention, diagnosis and treatment. We undertook a study to assess the health literacy on TB among one of the vulnerable tribal groups (Saharia) in central India. In this cross-sectional study, 2721 individuals aged >15 yr from two districts of Madhya Pradesh State of India were interviewed at their residence during December 2012-July 2013. By using a short-form questionnaire, health literacy on cause, symptoms, mode of transmission, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of TB was assessed. Of the 2721 (Gwalior 1381; Shivpuri 1340) individuals interviewed; 76 per cent were aged 7 members in a house. Of the 2721 respondents participated, 52 per cent had never heard of TB; among them 8 per cent mentioned cough as a symptom, 64 per cent mentioned coughing up blood, and 91 per cent knew that TB diagnosis, and treatment facilities were available in both government and private hospitals. Health literacy score among participants who had heard of TB was 60 per cent among 8 per cent of respondents. The finding that nearly half of the respondents had not heard of TB indicated an important gap in education regarding TB in this vulnerable population. There is an urgent need to implement targeted interventions to educate this group for better TB control.

  6. Reflections on attitudes, experiences, and vulnerability of intimate partner violence among Southeast Asian college women living in United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thongpriwan, Vipavee; Buseh, Aaron; Arunothong, Wachiraporn

    2015-12-01

    To provide culturally sensitive intimate partner violence (IPV) prevention programs for ethnic groups, a basic foundational understanding of Southeast Asian (SEA) women living in the United States is vital. The purpose of this study was to describe SEA college women's perceptions of IPV and how the women recognize their vulnerability to such violent situations. Qualitative methods using focus group discussions were employed to elicit participants' perceptions. Participants included 18 SEA college women, ages 18-34 (Mean=22; SD=7.22). Transcriptions were analyzed using a content analysis approach. Five themes emerged: recognition of IPV; perception of individual vulnerability to IPV; experience and responses to IPV; help seeking and support system; and strategies used for prevention of IPV. Findings yielded an understanding of intertwined issues of cultural norms associated with IPV, social and economic disparities, and challenges for IPV prevention in SEA communities. Culturally sensitive prevention programs will be more effective by reforming cultural values, while at the same time promoting non-violent relationships and increasing access to services. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Improving the role of vulnerability assessments In decision support for effective climate adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linda A. Joyce; Constance I. Millar

    2014-01-01

    Vulnerability assessments (VA) have been proposed as an initial step in a process to develop and implement adaptation management for climate change in forest ecosystems. Scientific understanding of the effects of climate change is an ever-accumulating knowledge base. Synthesizing information from this knowledge base in the context of our understanding of ecosystem...

  8. Understanding classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Subianto, M.

    2009-01-01

    In practical data analysis, the understandability of models plays an important role in their acceptance. In the data mining literature, however, understandability plays is hardly ever mentioned. If it is mentioned, it is interpreted as meaning that the models have to be simple. In this thesis we

  9. What if quality of damage data is poor: an Entity-Vulnerability approach for flood vulnerability assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naso, Susanna; Chen, Albert S.; Djordjević, Slobodan; Aronica, Giuseppe T.

    2015-04-01

    for inundations of both short and long duration. At the same time we defined the classes of the variable Entity in function of both buildings' asset value and their importance for society. Once the buildings of different typologies are grouped, a GIS-based tool (using hazard information obtained from hydraulic modelling, building parcels, vulnerability curves and entity classes) is used to collocate each element at risk inside an Entity-Vulnerability matrix. The construction of a E-V matrix allow both to understand the actual situation of flood-prone area (and the possible consequences of a flood event) and to study the effectiveness of non-structural measures, just studying how their implementation modifies the distribution of elements at risk inside it. The proposed approach can be useful for authorities responsible for development and periodical review of adaptive flood risk management plans.

  10. Embodied understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Western culture has inherited a view of understanding as an intellectual cognitive operation of grasping of concepts and their relations. However, cognitive science research has shown that this received intellectualist conception is substantially out of touch with how humans actually make and experience meaning. The view emerging from the mind sciences recognizes that understanding is profoundly embodied, insofar as our conceptualization and reasoning recruit sensory, motor, and affective patterns and processes to structure our understanding of, and engagement with, our world. A psychologically realistic account of understanding must begin with the patterns of ongoing interaction between an organism and its physical and cultural environments and must include both our emotional responses to changes in our body and environment, and also the actions by which we continuously transform our experience. Consequently, embodied understanding is not merely a conceptual/propositional activity of thought, but rather constitutes our most basic way of being in, and engaging with, our surroundings in a deep visceral manner.

  11. Mapping the Drivers of Climate Change Vulnerability for Australia's Threatened Species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmine R Lee

    Full Text Available Effective conservation management for climate adaptation rests on understanding the factors driving species' vulnerability in a spatially explicit manner so as to direct on-ground action. However, there have been only few attempts to map the spatial distribution of the factors driving vulnerability to climate change. Here we conduct a species-level assessment of climate change vulnerability for a sample of Australia's threatened species and map the distribution of species affected by each factor driving climate change vulnerability across the continent. Almost half of the threatened species assessed were considered vulnerable to the impacts of climate change: amphibians being the most vulnerable group, followed by plants, reptiles, mammals and birds. Species with more restricted distributions were more likely to show high climate change vulnerability than widespread species. The main factors driving climate change vulnerability were low genetic variation, dependence on a particular disturbance regime and reliance on a particular moisture regime or habitat. The geographic distribution of the species impacted by each driver varies markedly across the continent, for example species impacted by low genetic variation are prevalent across the human-dominated south-east of the country, while reliance on particular moisture regimes is prevalent across northern Australia. Our results show that actions to address climate adaptation will need to be spatially appropriate, and that in some regions a complex suite of factors driving climate change vulnerability will need to be addressed. Taxonomic and geographic variation in the factors driving climate change vulnerability highlights an urgent need for a spatial prioritisation of climate adaptation actions for threatened species.

  12. Mapping the Drivers of Climate Change Vulnerability for Australia’s Threatened Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jasmine R.; Maggini, Ramona; Taylor, Martin F. J.; Fuller, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    Effective conservation management for climate adaptation rests on understanding the factors driving species’ vulnerability in a spatially explicit manner so as to direct on-ground action. However, there have been only few attempts to map the spatial distribution of the factors driving vulnerability to climate change. Here we conduct a species-level assessment of climate change vulnerability for a sample of Australia’s threatened species and map the distribution of species affected by each factor driving climate change vulnerability across the continent. Almost half of the threatened species assessed were considered vulnerable to the impacts of climate change: amphibians being the most vulnerable group, followed by plants, reptiles, mammals and birds. Species with more restricted distributions were more likely to show high climate change vulnerability than widespread species. The main factors driving climate change vulnerability were low genetic variation, dependence on a particular disturbance regime and reliance on a particular moisture regime or habitat. The geographic distribution of the species impacted by each driver varies markedly across the continent, for example species impacted by low genetic variation are prevalent across the human-dominated south-east of the country, while reliance on particular moisture regimes is prevalent across northern Australia. Our results show that actions to address climate adaptation will need to be spatially appropriate, and that in some regions a complex suite of factors driving climate change vulnerability will need to be addressed. Taxonomic and geographic variation in the factors driving climate change vulnerability highlights an urgent need for a spatial prioritisation of climate adaptation actions for threatened species. PMID:26017785

  13. Mapping the Drivers of Climate Change Vulnerability for Australia's Threatened Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jasmine R; Maggini, Ramona; Taylor, Martin F J; Fuller, Richard A

    2015-01-01

    Effective conservation management for climate adaptation rests on understanding the factors driving species' vulnerability in a spatially explicit manner so as to direct on-ground action. However, there have been only few attempts to map the spatial distribution of the factors driving vulnerability to climate change. Here we conduct a species-level assessment of climate change vulnerability for a sample of Australia's threatened species and map the distribution of species affected by each factor driving climate change vulnerability across the continent. Almost half of the threatened species assessed were considered vulnerable to the impacts of climate change: amphibians being the most vulnerable group, followed by plants, reptiles, mammals and birds. Species with more restricted distributions were more likely to show high climate change vulnerability than widespread species. The main factors driving climate change vulnerability were low genetic variation, dependence on a particular disturbance regime and reliance on a particular moisture regime or habitat. The geographic distribution of the species impacted by each driver varies markedly across the continent, for example species impacted by low genetic variation are prevalent across the human-dominated south-east of the country, while reliance on particular moisture regimes is prevalent across northern Australia. Our results show that actions to address climate adaptation will need to be spatially appropriate, and that in some regions a complex suite of factors driving climate change vulnerability will need to be addressed. Taxonomic and geographic variation in the factors driving climate change vulnerability highlights an urgent need for a spatial prioritisation of climate adaptation actions for threatened species.

  14. Development and assessment of indices to determine stream fish vulnerability to climate change and habitat alteration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sievert, Nicholas A.; Paukert, Craig P.; Tsang, Yin-Phan; Infante, Dana M.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the future impacts of climate and land use change are critical for long-term biodiversity conservation. We developed and compared two indices to assess the vulnerability of stream fish in Missouri, USA based on species environmental tolerances, rarity, range size, dispersal ability and on the average connectivity of the streams occupied by each species. These two indices differed in how environmental tolerance was classified (i.e., vulnerability to habitat alteration, changes in stream temperature, and changes to flow regimes). Environmental tolerance was classified based on measured species responses to habitat alteration, and extremes in stream temperatures and flow conditions for one index, while environmental tolerance for the second index was based on species’ traits. The indices were compared to determine if vulnerability scores differed by index or state listing status. We also evaluated the spatial distribution of species classified as vulnerable to habitat alteration, changes in stream temperature, and change in flow regimes. Vulnerability scores were calculated for all 133 species with the trait association index, while only 101 species were evaluated using the species response index, because 32 species lacked data to analyze for a response. Scores from the trait association index were greater than the species response index. This is likely due to the species response index's inability to evaluate many rare species, which generally had high vulnerability scores for the trait association index. The indices were consistent in classifying vulnerability to habitat alteration, but varied in their classification of vulnerability due to increases in stream temperature and alterations to flow regimes, likely because extremes in current climate may not fully capture future conditions and their influence on stream fish communities. Both indices showed higher mean vulnerability scores for listed species than unlisted species, which provided a coarse

  15. Individual Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsini, Raymond

    1981-01-01

    Paper presented at the 66th Convention of the International Association of Pupil Personnel Workers, October 20, 1980, Baltimore, Maryland, describes individual education based on the principles of Alfred Adler. Defines six advantages of individual education, emphasizing student responsibility, mutual respect, and allowing students to progress at…

  16. Vulnerability of intertropical littoral areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manighetti, Isabelle; De Wit, Rutger; Duvail, Stéphanie; Seyler, Patrick

    2017-10-01

    The coastal zone is of very high importance for human development and human wellbeing. Half of the global urban population lives in the coastal zone, where it has access to both continental and marine ecosystem services and to maritime transport. These urban populations coexist with rural and traditional coastal populations, some of which still possess good traditional ecological knowledge of the coastal ecosystems. Marine biodiversity and favourable environmental conditions sustain fisheries and aquaculture, represent a source of inspiration for humankind and provide numerous opportunities for recreation and tourism. In addition, coastal areas provide nursery functions for juvenile fish and invertebrates, which is important for the fish and crayfish stocks exploited offshore. Located at the interface between marine energy and continental processes, the coastal landscapes are dynamic environments. Nevertheless, the destruction of habitats and the increasing exploitation of the coastal zone represent serious threats to the ecosystems. Moreover, human land use and modifications in the watersheds have strong impacts on the coastal zone primarily by contributing to their pollution and nutrient over-enrichment. Damming and creation of reservoirs upstream also heavily modify the hydrology of the watersheds and often dramatically reduce the delivery of sediments to the coastal zone. In addition to these regional and local anthropogenic impacts, the coastal zone is vulnerable to global change among which sea level rise and climate change are particularly important drivers. Many coastal zones extend along giant faults and subduction zones, which makes them particularly exposed to earthquakes and tsunami hazards. Other forms of natural hazards are caused by hurricanes and cyclones that develop at sea and whose trajectories often hit the coastlines.

  17. Heat Wave Vulnerability Mapping for India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhar, Gulrez; Saha, Shubhayu; Ganguly, Partha; Mavalankar, Dileep; Madrigano, Jaime

    2017-03-30

    Assessing geographic variability in heat wave vulnerability forms the basis for planning appropriate targeted adaptation strategies. Given several recent deadly heatwaves in India, heat is increasingly being recognized as a public health problem. However, to date there has not been a country-wide assessment of heat vulnerability in India. We evaluated demographic, socioeconomic, and environmental vulnerability factors and combined district level data from several sources including the most recent census, health reports, and satellite remote sensing data. We then applied principal component analysis (PCA) on 17 normalized variables for each of the 640 districts to create a composite Heat Vulnerability Index (HVI) for India. Of the total 640 districts, our analysis identified 10 and 97 districts in the very high and high risk categories (> 2SD and 2-1SD HVI) respectively. Mapping showed that the districts with higher heat vulnerability are located in the central parts of the country. On examination, these are less urbanized and have low rates of literacy, access to water and sanitation, and presence of household amenities. Therefore, we concluded that creating and mapping a heat vulnerability index is a useful first step in protecting the public from the health burden of heat. Future work should incorporate heat exposure and health outcome data to validate the index, as well as examine sub-district levels of vulnerability.

  18. Understanding quantum physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spillner, Vera

    2011-01-01

    This thesis presents a bundle definition for 'scientific understanding' through which the empirically equivalent interpretations of quantum mechanics can be evaluated with respect to the understanding they generate. The definition of understanding is based on a sufficient and necessary criterion, as well as a bundle of conditions - where a theory can be called most understandable whenever it fulfills the highest number of bundle criteria. Thereby the definition of understanding is based on the one hand on the objective number of criteria a theory fulfills, as well as, on the other hand, on the individual's preference of bundle criteria. Applying the definition onto three interpretations of quantum mechanics, the interpretation of David Bohm appears as most understandable, followed by the interpretation of Tim Maudlin and the Kopenhagen interpretation. These three interpretations are discussed in length in my thesis. (orig.)

  19. Determining Vulnerability Importance in Environmental Impact Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toro, Javier; Duarte, Oscar; Requena, Ignacio; Zamorano, Montserrat

    2012-01-01

    The concept of vulnerability has been used to describe the susceptibility of physical, biotic, and social systems to harm or hazard. In this sense, it is a tool that reduces the uncertainties of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) since it does not depend exclusively on the value assessments of the evaluator, but rather is based on the environmental state indicators of the site where the projects or activities are being carried out. The concept of vulnerability thus reduces the possibility that evaluators will subjectively interpret results, and be influenced by outside interests and pressures during projects. However, up until now, EIA has been hindered by a lack of effective methods. This research study analyzes the concept of vulnerability, defines Vulnerability Importance and proposes its inclusion in qualitative EIA methodology. The method used to quantify Vulnerability Importance is based on a set of environmental factors and indicators that provide a comprehensive overview of the environmental state. The results obtained in Colombia highlight the usefulness and objectivity of this method since there is a direct relation between this value and the environmental state of the departments analyzed. - Research Highlights: ► The concept of vulnerability could be considered defining Vulnerability Importance included in qualitative EIA methodology. ► The use of the concept of environmental vulnerability could reduce the subjectivity of qualitative methods of EIA. ► A method to quantify the Vulnerability Importance proposed provides a comprehensive overview of the environmental state. ► Results in Colombia highlight the usefulness and objectivity of this method.

  20. Fact Sheet: Vulnerable Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Evelyn, Comp.; Goode, Sue, Comp.

    2008-01-01

    This fact sheet provides data on infants, toddlers and young children who are experiencing high stress as a result of a number of risk factors specifically identified in the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004 (IDEA 2004), including substantiated abuse or neglect, foster care placement, homelessness, exposure to family…

  1. Nuclear material production cycle vulnerability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bott, T.F.

    1996-01-01

    This paper discusses a method for rapidly and systematically identifying vulnerable equipment in a nuclear material or similar production process and ranking that equipment according to its attractiveness to a malevolent attacker. A multistep approach was used in the analysis. First, the entire production cycle was modeled as a flow diagram. This flow diagram was analyzed using graph theoretical methods to identify processes in the production cycle and their locations. Models of processes that were judged to be particularly vulnerable based on the cycle analysis then were developed in greater detail to identify equipment in that process that is vulnerable to intentional damage

  2. Defining energy vulnerability in mobility. Measuring energy vulnerability in mobility. Acting against energy vulnerability in mobility. Discussing energy vulnerability in mobility. Task no. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jouffe, Yves; Massot, Marie-Helene; Noble, Cyprien

    2015-01-01

    Extensive expansion of urban areas generates transportation needs and energy expenses for mobility. Households already impacted by fuel poverty also suffer from energy vulnerability in their mobility. This report was prepared in the framework of the study of fuel poverty in France in the light of several indicators from existing inquiries, databases and modeling tools. The report is organised in 4 parts dealing with: the definition of energy vulnerability in mobility, its measurement, the possible remedial actions, and the discussions about energy vulnerability in mobility through working group meetings, respectively

  3. TRADE VULNERABILITY OF THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mircea DIAVOR

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades we have witnessed an unparalleled level of economic openness and trade liberalization, the effects of which have been largely positive. But economic openness has also made countries more vulnerable to shocks that occur outside its economy. With exports representing a substantial portion of GDP, especially for developing and transitioning economies, countries have become dependent on exports. Therefore external economic shocks can have a big impact on economies, but not all countries are equally vulnerable. Export concentration and diversification indexes help us determine which countries are most vulnerable to shocks.

  4. DOE contractor vulnerability analysis: DPA or MAIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Six, D.E.; Nichols, D.H.

    1980-01-01

    Two vulnerability analysis techniques, Diversion Path Analysis (DPA) and Matrix Analysis of the Insider Threat (MAIT), were applied by EG and G Idaho, Inc. Safeguards and Security to the same item accountable SNM storage area at INEL. Technical and cost data for each methodology were collected and compared. A recommendation that MAIT be utilized for future vulnerability analyses of item accountable SNM storage and use areas operated by EG and G Idaho for DOE-ID resulted. Unclassified results of the two techniques and MAIT/DPA technical and cost comparisons will be presented which show that MAIT can be used for vulnerability analyses to comply with Department of Energy (DOE) requirements

  5. Understanding Constipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Constipation Basics } Constipation has different definitions, and individuals define it based on family and cultural influence and ... as a way of creating a dialogue and partnership about your condition and your treatment. 375-057IND_ ...

  6. Understanding semantics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Torben

    1997-01-01

    Understanding natural language is a cognitive, information-driven process. Discussing some of the consequences of this fact, the paper offers a novel look at the semantic effect of lexical nouns and the identification of reference types....

  7. Understanding Alzheimer's

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Understanding Alzheimer's Past Issues / Fall 2007 Table of Contents For ... and brain scans. No treatment so far stops Alzheimer's. However, for some in the disease's early and ...

  8. Understanding homelessness

    OpenAIRE

    Somerville, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on understanding homelessness. It criticizes approaches that ignore, distort or diminish the humanity of homeless people, or else, add little to our understanding of that humanity. In particular, it rejects what it calls “epidemiological” approaches, which deny the possibility of agency for homeless people, insofar as those approaches view the situation of those people largely as a “social fact”, to be explained in terms of causal variables or “risk factors” ...

  9. Social vulnerability assessment using spatial multi-criteria analysis (SEVI model and the Social Vulnerability Index (SoVI model – a case study for Bucharest, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Armaș

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, the development of vulnerability frameworks has enlarged the research in the natural hazards field. Despite progress in developing the vulnerability studies, there is more to investigate regarding the quantitative approach and clarification of the conceptual explanation of the social component. At the same time, some disaster-prone areas register limited attention. Among these, Romania's capital city, Bucharest, is the most earthquake-prone capital in Europe and the tenth in the world. The location is used to assess two multi-criteria methods for aggregating complex indicators: the social vulnerability index (SoVI model and the spatial multi-criteria social vulnerability index (SEVI model. Using the data of the 2002 census we reduce the indicators through a factor analytical approach to create the indices and examine if they bear any resemblance to the known vulnerability of Bucharest city through an exploratory spatial data analysis (ESDA. This is a critical issue that may provide better understanding of the social vulnerability in the city and appropriate information for authorities and stakeholders to consider in their decision making. The study emphasizes that social vulnerability is an urban process that increased in a post-communist Bucharest, raising the concern that the population at risk lacks the capacity to cope with disasters. The assessment of the indices indicates a significant and similar clustering pattern of the census administrative units, with an overlap between the clustering areas affected by high social vulnerability. Our proposed SEVI model suggests adjustment sensitivity, useful in the expert-opinion accuracy.

  10. Grandiose and vulnerable narcissism: a nomological network analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joshua D; Hoffman, Brian J; Gaughan, Eric T; Gentile, Brittany; Maples, Jessica; Keith Campbell, W

    2011-10-01

    Evidence has accrued to suggest that there are 2 distinct dimensions of narcissism, which are often labeled grandiose and vulnerable narcissism. Although individuals high on either of these dimensions interact with others in an antagonistic manner, they differ on other central constructs (e.g., Neuroticism, Extraversion). In the current study, we conducted an exploratory factor analysis of 3 prominent self-report measures of narcissism (N=858) to examine the convergent and discriminant validity of the resultant factors. A 2-factor structure was found, which supported the notion that these scales include content consistent with 2 relatively distinct constructs: grandiose and vulnerable narcissism. We then compared the similarity of the nomological networks of these dimensions in relation to indices of personality, interpersonal behavior, and psychopathology in a sample of undergraduates (n=238). Overall, the nomological networks of vulnerable and grandiose narcissism were unrelated. The current results support the need for a more explicit parsing of the narcissism construct at the level of conceptualization and assessment. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Personality © 2011, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Vulnerability for Alcohol Use Disorder and Rate of Alcohol Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowin, Joshua L; Sloan, Matthew E; Stangl, Bethany L; Vatsalya, Vatsalya; Ramchandani, Vijay A

    2017-11-01

    Although several risk factors have been identified for alcohol use disorder, many individuals with these factors do not go on to develop the disorder. Identifying early phenotypic differences between vulnerable individuals and healthy control subjects could help identify those at higher risk. Binge drinking, defined as reaching a blood alcohol level of 80 mg%, carries a risk of negative legal and health outcomes and may be an early marker of vulnerability. Using a carefully controlled experimental paradigm, the authors tested the hypothesis that risk factors for alcohol use disorder, including family history of alcoholism, male sex, impulsivity, and low level of response to alcohol, would predict rate of binging during an individual alcohol consumption session. This cross-sectional study included 159 young social drinkers who completed a laboratory session in which they self-administered alcohol intravenously. Cox proportional hazards models were used to determine whether risk factors for alcohol use disorder were associated with the rate of achieving a binge-level exposure. A greater percentage of relatives with alcoholism (hazard ratio: 1.04, 95% CI=1.02-1.07), male sex (hazard ratio: 1.74, 95% CI=1.03-2.93), and higher impulsivity (hazard ratio: 1.17, 95% CI=1.00 to 1.37) were associated with a higher rate of binging throughout the session. Participants with all three risk factors had the highest rate of binging throughout the session compared with the lowest risk group (hazard ratio: 5.27, 95% CI=1.81-15.30). Binge drinking may be an early indicator of vulnerability to alcohol use disorder and should be carefully assessed as part of a thorough clinical evaluation.

  12. Investigating vulnerability to eating disorders: biases in emotional processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringle, A; Harmer, C J; Cooper, M J

    2010-04-01

    Biases in emotional processing and cognitions about the self are thought to play a role in the maintenance of eating disorders (EDs). However, little is known about whether these difficulties exist pre-morbidly and how they might contribute to risk. Female dieters (n=82) completed a battery of tasks designed to assess the processing of social cues (facial emotion recognition), cognitions about the self [Self-Schema Processing Task (SSPT)] and ED-specific cognitions about eating, weight and shape (emotional Stroop). The 26-item Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26; Garner et al. 1982) was used to assess subclinical ED symptoms; this was used as an index of vulnerability within this at-risk group. Regression analyses showed that biases in the processing of both neutral and angry faces were predictive of our measure of vulnerability (EAT-26). In the self-schema task, biases in the processing of negative self descriptors previously found to be common in EDs predicted vulnerability. Biases in the processing of shape-related words on the Stroop task were also predictive; however, these biases were more important in dieters who also displayed biases in the self-schema task. We were also able to demonstrate that these biases are specific and separable from more general negative biases that could be attributed to depressive symptoms. These results suggest that specific biases in the processing of social cues, cognitions about the self, and also about eating, weight and shape information, may be important in understanding risk and preventing relapse in EDs.

  13. Are flowers vulnerable to xylem cavitation during drought?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng-Ping; Brodribb, Timothy J

    2017-05-17

    Water stress is known to cause xylem cavitation in the leaves, roots and stems of plants, but little is known about the vulnerability of flowers to xylem damage during drought. This is an important gap in our understanding of how and when plants become damaged by water stress. Here we address fundamental questions about if and when flowers suffer cavitation damage, using a new technique of cavitation imaging to resolve the timing of cavitation in water-stressed flower petals compared with neighbouring leaves. Leaves and flowers from a sample of two herbaceous and two woody eudicots were exposed to a severe water stress while the spatial and temporal propagation of embolism through veins was recorded. Although in most cases water potentials inducing 50% embolism of herbaceous flower veins were more negative than neighbouring leaves, there was no significant difference between the average vulnerability of leaves and petals of herbaceous species. In both woody species, petals were more vulnerable to cavitation than leaves, in one case by more than 3 MPa. Early cavitation and subsequent damage of flowers in the two woody species would thus be expected to precede leaf damage during drought. Similar cavitation thresholds of flowers and leaves in the herb sample suggest that cavitation during water shortage in these species will occur simultaneously among aerial tissues. Species-specific differences in the cavitation thresholds of petals provide a new axis of variation that may explain contrasting flowering ecology among plant species. © 2017 The Author(s).

  14. Complexity and Vulnerability Analysis of Critical Infrastructures: A Methodological Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongliang Deng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Vulnerability analysis of network models has been widely adopted to explore the potential impacts of random disturbances, deliberate attacks, and natural disasters. However, almost all these models are based on a fixed topological structure, in which the physical properties of infrastructure components and their interrelationships are not well captured. In this paper, a new research framework is put forward to quantitatively explore and assess the complexity and vulnerability of critical infrastructure systems. Then, a case study is presented to prove the feasibility and validity of the proposed framework. After constructing metro physical network (MPN, Pajek is employed to analyze its corresponding topological properties, including degree, betweenness, average path length, network diameter, and clustering coefficient. With a comprehensive understanding of the complexity of MPN, it would be beneficial for metro system to restrain original near-miss or accidents and support decision-making in emergency situations. Moreover, through the analysis of two simulation protocols for system component failure, it is found that the MPN turned to be vulnerable under the condition that the high-degree nodes or high-betweenness edges are attacked. These findings will be conductive to offer recommendations and proposals for robust design, risk-based decision-making, and prioritization of risk reduction investment.

  15. Livelihoods, vulnerability and adaptation to climate change in Morogoro, Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paavola, Jouni

    2008-01-01

    This article examines farmers' livelihood responses and vulnerability to climate variability and other stressors in Morogoro, Tanzania, to understand their implications for adaptation to climate change by agricultural households in developing world more generally. In Morogoro, agricultural households have extended cultivation, intensified agriculture, diversified livelihoods and migrated to gain access to land, markets and employment as a response to climatic and other stressors. Some of these responses have depleted and degraded natural resources such as forest, soil and water resources, which will complicate their living with climate change in the future. This will be particularly problematic to vulnerable groups such as women, children and pastoralists who have limited access to employment, markets and public services. In this light, fair adaptation to climate change by agricultural households in Morogoro and elsewhere in developing countries requires several complementary responses. Adaptation efforts should involve effective governance of natural resources because they function as safety nets to vulnerable groups. In addition, strengthening of national markets by infrastructure investments and institutional reforms is needed to give incentives to intensification and diversification in agriculture. Market participation also demands enhancement of human capital by public programs on health, education and wellbeing

  16. A stakeholder dialogue on European vulnerability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vega-Leinert, de la A.C.; Schröter, D.; Leemans, R.; Fritsch, U.; Pluimers, J.C.

    2008-01-01

    A stakeholder dialogue was embedded in the ATEAM project to facilitate the development and dissemination of its European-wide vulnerability assessment of global change impacts. Participating stakeholders were primarily ecosystem managers and policy advisers interested in potential impacts on

  17. From vulnerability to resilience: improving humanitarian response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Pearce

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Lessons from responses to the Syrian displacement crisis can inform broader discussions on how to build responses that better address vulnerability, support resilience and include displaced women, children and young people in all their diversity.

  18. Social protection initiatives for Zimbabwe's vulnerable groups ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Saharan African region. ... especially for vulnerable groups. At independence in 1980, Zimbabwe pledged to promote a viable social protection system that would be predicated on the principles of social justice and equality of opportunity.

  19. Distributed Generation to Counter Grid Vulnerability

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nerad, Anton H

    2007-01-01

    In this paper I examine how the United States can best defend against the interruption of critical electrical energy by hostile acts, identify and examine some of the vulnerabilities to our nation's...

  20. Computed Tomography Biomarkers of Vulnerable Coronary Plaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyulas Tiberiu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available An unstable plaque has a high risk of thrombosis and at the same time for a fast progression of the stenosis degree. Also, “high-risk plaque” and “thrombosis-prone plaque” are used as synonym terms for characterization of a vulnerable plaque. The imaging biomarkers for vulnerable coronary plaques are considered to be spotty calcifications, active remodeling, low-density atheroma and the presence of a ring-like attenuation pattern, also known as the napkin-ring sign. Computed cardiac tomography can determine the plaque composition by assessing the plaque density, which is measured in Hounsfield units (HU. The aim of this manuscript was to provide an update about the most frequently used biomarkers of vulnerability in a vulnerable plaque with the help of computed cardiac tomography.