WorldWideScience

Sample records for understanding important effects

  1. The importance of understanding military culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Lynn K

    2011-01-01

    Social workers can make a significant contribution to military service members and their families, but first it is essential that the worldview, the mindset, and the historical perspective of life in the military are understood. Unless we understand how the unique characteristics of the military impact the service members and their families, we cannot work effectively with them. In addition, unless we understand their language, their structure, why they join, their commitment to the mission, and the role of honor and sacrifice in military service, we will not be able to adequately intervene and offer care to these families.

  2. Understanding diversity: the importance of social acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jacqueline M; Hamilton, David L

    2015-04-01

    Two studies investigated how people define and perceive diversity in the historically majority-group dominated contexts of business and academia. We hypothesized that individuals construe diversity as both the numeric representation of racial minorities and the social acceptance of racial minorities within a group. In Study 1, undergraduates' (especially minorities') perceptions of campus diversity were predicted by perceived social acceptance on a college campus, above and beyond perceived minority representation. Study 2 showed that increases in a company's representation and social acceptance independently led to increases in perceived diversity of the company among Whites. Among non-Whites, representation and social acceptance only increased perceived diversity of the company when both qualities were high. Together these findings demonstrate the importance of both representation and social acceptance to the achievement of diversity in groups and that perceiver race influences the relative importance of these two components of diversity. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  3. On the importance of PURE - Public Understanding of Renewable Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broman, Lars; Kandpal, Tara C.

    2013-09-15

    Public understanding of science (PUS) is a central concept among science communicators. Public understanding of renewable energy (PURE) is proposed as an important sub-concept of PUS. The aim of this paper is to interest and invite renewable energy scientists to join a PURE research project. Four separate important questions for a PURE research project can be identified: (A) Is PURE important? (B) Which issues of PURE are the most important ones, according to renewable energy scientists? (C) What understanding of renewable energy has the general public today, worldwide? (D) How to achieve PURE?.

  4. Investigating the role of two types of understanding in relationship well-being: Understanding is more important than knowledge

    OpenAIRE

    Pollmann, M.M.H.; Finkenauer, C.

    2009-01-01

    Understanding is at the heart of intimate relationships. It is unclear, however, whether understanding-partners' subjective feeling that they understand each other-or knowledge-partners' accurate knowledge of each other-is more important for relationship well-being. The present article pits these two types of understanding against each other and investigates their effects on relationship well-being. In a prospective study among 199 newlywed couples, partners' self-reported and perceived under...

  5. Importance of isotopes for understanding the sedimentation processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manjunatha, B.R.

    2012-01-01

    Isotopes of either radioactive or stable depending upon radiation emitted or not respectively which have wide applications in understanding not only the history of sedimentation, but also provide information about paleoclimate. Stable isotope mass difference occurs due to changes in physicochemical conditions of the ambient environment, for instance temperature, evaporation, precipitation, redox processes, and changes in the mobility of elements during weathering processes, biological uptake, metabolism, re-mineralization of biogenic material, etc. In contrast, radionuclides emit radiation because of excess of neutrons present in the nucleus when compared to protons of an atom. The decay of radioactive isotopes is unaffected despite changes in physicochemical variations; hence, they are useful for determining ages of different types of materials on earth. The radioisotopes can be classified based on origin and half life into primordial or long-lived, cosmogenic and artificial radionuclides or fission products. In this study, the importance of 137 Cs artificial radionuclides will be highlighted to understand short-term sedimentation processes, particularly in estuaries, deltas/continental shelf of west coast of India. The distribution of 137 Cs in sediments of south-western continental margin of India indicates that coastal marginal environments are filters or sinks for fall-out radionuclides. The sparse of 137 Cs in the open continental shelf environment indicates that most of sediments are either older or sediments being diluted by components generated in the marine environment

  6. The enduring importance of animal models in understanding periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajishengallis, George; Lamont, Richard J; Graves, Dana T

    2015-01-01

    Whereas no single animal model can reproduce the complexity of periodontitis, different aspects of the disease can be addressed by distinct models. Despite their limitations, animal models are essential for testing the biological significance of in vitro findings and for establishing cause-and-effect relationships relevant to clinical observations, which are typically correlative. We provide evidence that animal-based studies have generated a durable framework for dissecting the mechanistic basis of periodontitis. These studies have solidified the etiologic role of bacteria in initiating the inflammatory response that leads to periodontal bone loss and have identified key mediators (IL-1, TNF, prostaglandins, complement, RANKL) that induce inflammatory breakdown. Moreover, animal studies suggest that dysbiosis, rather than individual bacterial species, are important in initiating periodontal bone loss and have introduced the concept that organisms previously considered commensals can play important roles as accessory pathogens or pathobionts. These studies have also provided insight as to how systemic conditions, such as diabetes or leukocyte adhesion deficiency, contribute to tissue destruction. In addition, animal studies have identified and been useful in testing therapeutic targets.

  7. Fraction Development in Children: Importance of Building Numerical Magnitude Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Nancy C.; Carrique, Jessica; Hansen, Nicole; Resnick, Ilyse

    2016-01-01

    This chapter situates fraction learning within the integrated theory of numerical development. We argue that the understanding of numerical magnitudes for whole numbers as well as for fractions is critical to fraction learning in particular and mathematics achievement more generally. Results from the Delaware Longitudinal Study, which examined…

  8. Understanding disability and the importance of design for all

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Barnes

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper will address recent debates surrounding the nature and cause of the complex process of disablement and their relevance to understanding calls for a universally accessible physical and cultural environment. It is divided into three main sections. The first part will explore changing perceptions of disability. Attention will centre on the traditional individualistic medical approach, the socio-political understanding or ‘social model of disability’ and the recent ‘biopsychosocial’ model of disability exemplified by the World Health Organisation’s International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. This will be followed by a discussion of the usefulness of the concept of ‘universal design’. The final section will discuss the significance of these developments in light of globalisation, associate economic, political and social crises, and the struggle for a fairer and just global society.

  9. The importance of understanding individual differences in Down syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmiloff-Smith, Annette; Al-Janabi, Tamara; D'Souza, Hana; Groet, Jurgen; Massand, Esha; Mok, Kin; Startin, Carla; Fisher, Elizabeth; Hardy, John; Nizetic, Dean; Tybulewicz, Victor; Strydom, Andre

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we first present a summary of the general assumptions about Down syndrome (DS) still to be found in the literature. We go on to show how new research has modified these assumptions, pointing to a wide range of individual differences at every level of description. We argue that, in the context of significant increases in DS life expectancy, a focus on individual differences in trisomy 21 at all levels—genetic, cellular, neural, cognitive, behavioral, and environmental—constitutes one of the best approaches for understanding genotype/phenotype relations in DS and for exploring risk and protective factors for Alzheimer’s disease in this high-risk population. PMID:27019699

  10. Understanding sleep disturbance in athletes prior to important competitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliff, Laura E; Halson, Shona L; Peiffer, Jeremiah J

    2015-01-01

    Anecdotally many athletes report worse sleep in the nights prior to important competitions. Despite sleep being acknowledged as an important factor for optimal athletic performance and overall health, little is understood about athlete sleep around competition. The aims of this study were to identify sleep complaints of athletes prior to competitions and determine whether complaints were confined to competition periods. Cross-sectional study. A sample of 283 elite Australian athletes (129 male, 157 female, age 24±5 y) completed two questionnaires; Competitive Sport and Sleep questionnaire and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. 64.0% of athletes indicated worse sleep on at least one occasion in the nights prior to an important competition over the past 12 months. The main sleep problem specified by athletes was problems falling asleep (82.1%) with the main reasons responsible for poor sleep indicated as thoughts about the competition (83.5%) and nervousness (43.8%). Overall 59.1% of team sport athletes reported having no strategy to overcome poor sleep compared with individual athletes (32.7%, p=0.002) who utilised relaxation and reading as strategies. Individual sport athletes had increased likelihood of poor sleep as they aged. The poor sleep reported by athletes prior to competition was situational rather than a global sleep problem. Poor sleep is common prior to major competitions in Australian athletes, yet most athletes are unaware of strategies to overcome the poor sleep experienced. It is essential coaches and scientists monitor and educate both individual and team sport athletes to facilitate sleep prior to important competitions. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Understanding extraverts' enjoyment of social situations: the importance of pleasantness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, R E; Diener, E

    2001-08-01

    Extraversion is a broad, multifaceted trait, yet researchers are still unsure of its defining characteristics. One possibility is that the essential feature of extraversion is the tendency to enjoy social situations. An alternative possibility is that extraversion represents sensitivity to rewards and the tendency to experience pleasant affect. In three studies, participants rated situations that varied on two dimensions: (a) whether they were social or nonsocial and (b) whether they were very pleasant, moderately pleasant, moderately unpleasant, or very unpleasant. Extraverts only rated social situations more positively than introverts did when the situations were pleasant, and extraverts also rated nonsocial situations more positively than introverts did if the situations were pleasant. Thus, the pleasantness of situations was more important than whether they were social or nonsocial in determining extraverts' and introverts' enjoyment.

  12. Understanding situation awareness and its importance in patient safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluyas, Heather; Harris, Sarah-Jane

    2016-04-20

    Situation awareness describes an individual's perception, comprehension and subsequent projection of what is going on in the environment around them. The concept of situation awareness sits within the group of non-technical skills that include teamwork, communication and managing hierarchical lines of communication. The importance of non-technical skills has been recognised in safety-critical industries such as aviation, the military, nuclear, and oil and gas. However, health care has been slow to embrace the role of non-technical skills such as situation awareness in improving outcomes and minimising the risk of error. This article explores the concept of situation awareness and the cognitive processes involved in maintaining it. In addition, factors that lead to a loss of situation awareness and strategies to improve situation awareness are discussed.

  13. Understanding bank runs: the importance of depositor-bank relationships and networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iyer, R.; Puri, M.

    2008-01-01

    We use a unique, new, database to examine micro depositor level data for a bank that faced a run. We use minute-by-minute depositor withdrawal data to understand the effectiveness of deposit insurance, the role of social networks, and the importance of bank-depositor relationships in influencing

  14. Understanding radiation and risk: the importance of primary and secondary education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tada, Junichiro

    1999-01-01

    In Japan's primary and secondary schools, radiation and radioactivity are taught as part of the curriculum dealing with social science subjects. Students learn much about the hazardous features of radiation, but lack the scientific understanding necessary to build a more balanced picture. Although the same point applies to education covering the harmful effects of volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, electrical storms and so on, public understanding of these events is relatively high and students are generally able to make informed judgments about the risks involved. By contrast, their limited understanding of radiation often contributes to fears that it is evil or even supernatural. To correct this distortion, it is important that primary and secondary education includes a scientific explanation of radiation. Like heat and light, radiation is fundamental to the history of the universe; and scientific education programs should give appropriate emphasis to this important subject. Students would then be able to make more objective judgments about the useful and hazardous aspects of radiation. (author)

  15. The Importance of Effective Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Bud

    1977-01-01

    In an address to the Canadian Guidance and Counselling Association, the Canadian Manpower and Immigration Minister emphasized the importance of vocational guidance for high school students. He cited the need for communication between the worlds of education and work, promotion of better cooperative programs, and subsidized job training for youth.…

  16. Cardiovascular effects of microgravity: evolution of understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, H. D.

    1998-01-01

    The understanding of cardiovascular effects of spaceflight has evolved throughout the course of the American manned spaceflight program. Originally descriptive in nature, the present understanding is based on empiric measurements of vascular volume, cardiac output, vascular reflexes, and peripheral and central autonomic control. More detailed understanding of cardiovascular effects has allowed us to separate those symptoms from symptoms caused by musculoskeletal or neurovestibular abnormalities.

  17. Understanding radiation and risk: the importance of primary and secondary education

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tada, Junichiro [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (SPring-8), Mikaduki, Hyogo (Japan)

    1999-09-01

    In Japan's primary and secondary schools, radiation and radioactivity are taught as part of the curriculum dealing with social science subjects. Students learn much about the hazardous features of radiation, but lack the scientific understanding necessary to build a more balanced picture. Although the same point applies to education covering the harmful effects of volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, electrical storms and so on, public understanding of these events is relatively high and students are generally able to make informed judgments about the risks involved. By contrast, their limited understanding of radiation often contributes to fears that it is evil or even supernatural. To correct this distortion, it is important that primary and secondary education includes a scientific explanation of radiation. Like heat and light, radiation is fundamental to the history of the universe; and scientific education programs should give appropriate emphasis to this important subject. Students would then be able to make more objective judgments about the useful and hazardous aspects of radiation. (author)

  18. Attitude Importance and the False Consensus Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabrigar, Leandre R.; Krosnick, Jon A.

    1995-01-01

    Explores the possibility that importance may regulate the magnitude of the false consensus effect. Analysis revealed a strong false consensus effect but no reliable relation between its magnitude and attitude importance. Results contradict assumptions that the false consensus effect arises from attitudes that directly or indirectly influence…

  19. The importance of social context in understanding and promoting low-income immigrant women's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jesus, Maria

    2009-02-01

    Understanding the social context and realities of Cape Verdean women in the U.S. as well as other immigrant and ethnic/racial groups is important to promote their overall health and well-being more effectively. The aim of this study was to gain a contextual understanding from the perspectives of health promoters who work with marginalized women. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with nine Cape Verdean women health promoters about their perspectives and experiences of health promotion practice with immigrant women in their community. Using a Glaserian grounded theory approach to analysis, six salient themes describing women's social context emerged: community and domestic violence, loss and isolation, economic injustice, immigration-related issues and abuse, unequal gender-based power relations, and cultural taboos. These findings challenge health researchers and practitioners to understand health problems and health promotion not only at an individual level, but at multiple levels of influence including interpersonal, family, neighborhood, and structural levels.

  20. Understanding the Effectiveness of Performance Management Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Stragetic human resource management at Praxair. Human Resources Management , 38 (4), 315-320. Heathfield, S. (2007). Performance appraisals. The...UNDERSTANDING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES THESIS Ross T. Johnston, Major...M07 UNDERSTANDING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES AFIT-GRD-ENV-10-M07 Presented to the Faculty

  1. Understanding Self-Effects in Social Media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valkenburg, P.M.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this article is to improve understanding of self-effects in social media, and to compare self-effects with reception effects. Self-effects are the effects of messages the cognitions, emotions, attitudes, and behaviors of the message creators/senders themselves. A total of 4 theories have

  2. Understanding United States Investigational Device Exemption Studies-Clinical Relevance and Importance for Healthcare Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ament, Jared D; Mollan, Scott; Greenan, Krista; Binyamin, Tamar; Kim, Kee D

    2017-06-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration allows a previously unapproved device to be used clinically to collect safety and effectiveness data under their Investigational Device Exemption (IDE) category. The process usually falls under 3 different trial categories: noninferiority, equivalency, and superiority. To confidently inform our patients, understanding the basic concepts of these trials is paramount. The purpose of this manuscript was to provide a comprehensive review of these topics using recently published IDE trials and economic analyses of cervical total disc replacement as illustrative examples. In 2006, an IDE was initiated to study the safety and effectiveness of total disc replacement controlled against the standard of care, anterior cervical discectomy, and fusion. Under the IDE, randomized controlled trials comparing both 1 and 2 level cervical disease were completed. The sponsor designed the initial trial as noninferiority; however, using adaptive methodology, superiority could be claimed in the 2-level investigation. Healthcare economics are critical in medical decision making and reimbursement practices. Once both cost- and quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) are known for each patient, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio is calculated. Willingness-to-pay is controversial, but a commonly cited guideline considers interventions costing below 20 000 $/QALY strongly cost effective and more than 100 000 $/QALY as not cost effective. While large Food and Drug Administration IDE studies are often besieged by complex statistical considerations and calculations, it is fundamentally important that clinicians understand at least the terminology and basic concepts on a practical level. Copyright © 2017 by the Congress of Neurological Surgeons

  3. The importance of understanding landscape evolution in studies of terraced agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro-Vazquez, Cruz; Lang, Carol; Kaal, Joeri; Stump, Daryl

    2017-04-01

    Before the invention of modern, large-scale engineering projects, terrace systems were rarely built in single phases of construction, but instead developed gradually, and could even be said to have evolved. Understanding this process of landscape change is therefore important in order to fully appreciate how terrace systems were built and functioned, and is also pivotal to understand how the communities that farmed these systems responded to changes; whether these are changes to the landscape brought about by the farming practices themselves, or changes to social, economic or climatic conditions. With this aim, we studied the historic and extensive terraced landscape at Konso, southwest Ethiopia, combining archaeological stratigraphy, soil micromorphology and geochemistry. Our results demonstrated that erosion has not only been the trigger for the inception of the Konso terraced system but also the foundation of its productivity: it was engineered for taking advantage of erosion by controlling it, first by harvesting soils that had washed into watercourses within irrigable riverside sediment traps, and then by effectively 'repopulating' the denuded hillsides with new soils through the construction of hillside terraces. From this new perspective, soil erosion has been a necessary enemy which, while managed, has constituted an agronomic resource, the system having initially relied on soil erosion to be productive, and the community having apparently only begun constructing terraces in order to protect the productive alluvial fields that were the legacy of that first phase of erosion. Research that takes into account how terrace systems change through time can thus provide important details of whether the function of the system has changed, and can help assess how the legacies of former practices impact current or future cultivation.

  4. Adaptability: An Important Capacity for Effective Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collie, Rebecca J.; Martin, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    A defining feature of teaching work is that it involves novelty, change, and uncertainty on a daily basis. Being able to respond effectively to this change is known as adaptability. In this article, we discuss the importance of adaptability for teachers and their healthy and effective functioning in the workplace. We discuss approaches for…

  5. Understanding the relationship between Kano model's customer satisfaction scores and self-stated requirements importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mkpojiogu, Emmanuel O C; Hashim, Nor Laily

    2016-01-01

    Customer satisfaction is the result of product quality and viability. The place of the perceived satisfaction of users/customers for a software product cannot be neglected especially in today competitive market environment as it drives the loyalty of customers and promotes high profitability and return on investment. Therefore understanding the importance of requirements as it is associated with the satisfaction of users/customers when their requirements are met is worth the pain considering. It is necessary to know the relationship between customer satisfactions when their requirements are met (or their dissatisfaction when their requirements are unmet) and the importance of such requirement. So many works have been carried out on customer satisfaction in connection with the importance of requirements but the relationship between customer satisfaction scores (coefficients) of the Kano model and users/customers self-stated requirements importance have not been sufficiently explored. In this study, an attempt is made to unravel the underlying relationship existing between Kano model's customer satisfaction indexes and users/customers self reported requirements importance. The results of the study indicate some interesting associations between these considered variables. These bivariate associations reveal that customer satisfaction index (SI), and average satisfaction coefficient (ASC) and customer dissatisfaction index (DI) and average satisfaction coefficient (ASC) are highly correlated (r = 96 %) and thus ASC can be used in place of either SI or DI in representing customer satisfaction scores. Also, these Kano model's customer satisfaction variables (SI, DI, and ASC) are each associated with self-stated requirements importance (IMP). Further analysis indicates that the value customers or users place on requirements that are met or on features that are incorporated into a product influences the level of satisfaction such customers derive from the product. The

  6. Understanding Biological Roles of Venoms Among the Caenophidia: The Importance of Rear-Fanged Snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackessy, Stephen P; Saviola, Anthony J

    2016-11-01

    Snake venoms represent an adaptive trophic response to the challenges confronting a limbless predator for overcoming combative prey, and this chemical means of subduing prey shows several dominant phenotypes. Many front-fanged snakes, particularly vipers, feed on various vertebrate and invertebrate prey species, and some of their venom components (e.g., metalloproteinases, cobratoxin) appear to have been selected for "broad-brush" incapacitation of different prey taxa. Using proteomic and genomic techniques, the compositional diversity of front-fanged snakes is becoming well characterized; however, this is not the case for most rear-fanged colubroid snakes. Because these species consume a high diversity of prey, and because venoms are primarily a trophic adaptation, important clues for understanding specific selective pressures favoring venom component composition will be found among rear-fanged snake venoms. Rear-fanged snakes typically (but not always) produce venoms with lower complexity than front-fanged snakes, and there are even fewer dominant (and, arguably, biologically most relevant) venom protein families. We have demonstrated taxon-specific toxic effects, where lizards and birds show high susceptibility while mammals are largely unaffected, for both Old World and New World rear-fanged snakes, strongly indicating a causal link between toxin evolution and prey preference. New data are presented on myotoxin a, showing that the extremely rapid paralysis induced by this rattlesnake toxin is specific for rodents, and that myotoxin a is ineffectual against lizards. Relatively few rear-fanged snake venoms have been characterized, and basic natural history data are largely lacking, but directed sampling of specialized species indicates that novel compounds are likely among these specialists, particularly among those species feeding on invertebrate prey such as scorpions and centipedes. Because many of the more than 2200 species of colubroid snakes are rear

  7. Effect of Linked Rules on Business Process Model Understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Wei; Indulska, Marta; Sadiq, Shazia

    2017-01-01

    of business processes has not been empirically evaluated. In this paper, we report on an experiment that investigates the effect of linked rules, a specific rule integration approach, on business process model understanding. Our results indicate that linked rules are associated with better time efficiency......Business process models are widely used in organizations by information systems analysts to represent complex business requirements and by business users to understand business operations and constraints. This understanding is extracted from graphical process models as well as business rules. Prior...... research advocated integrating business rules into business process models to improve the effectiveness of important organizational activities, such as developing shared understanding, effective communication, and process improvement. However, whether such integrated modeling can improve the understanding...

  8. The importance of understanding cognitive trajectories: the case of 22q11.2 deletion syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swillen, Ann

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of review 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (DS) (velocardiofacial syndrome or DiGeorge syndrome) is the most common known contiguous gene deletion syndrome and is associated with neurodevelopmental problems and diverse neuropsychiatric disorders across the life span. In this review, we discuss the wide variability in intelligence, the developmental phenotypic transitions regarding cognitive development (intelligence) from preschool to adolescence, and the importance of understanding these cognitive trajectories in 22q11.2 DS for care/management and research. Recent findings Longitudinal data on the cognitive development of children and adolescents with 22q11.2 DS reveal divergent cognitive trajectories. A decline in verbal IQ precedes the onset of psychosis in 22q11.2 DS. Summary Understanding these cognitive trajectories is important since it can guide clinicians to develop adequate support, tailored remediation, and psychiatric care and individualized follow-up. PMID:26779858

  9. From Headline to Hard Grind: The Importance of Understanding Public Administration in Achieving Health Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Flynn, Janine

    2016-01-01

    Many public policy programs fail to translate ambitious headlines to on-the-ground action. The reasons for this are many and varied, but for public administration and management scholars a large part of the gap between ambition and achievement is the challenge associated with the operation of the machinery of government itself, and how it relates to the other parties that it relies on to fulfill these outcomes. In their article, Carey and Friel set out key reasons why public health scholars should seek to better understand important ideas in public administration. In commenting on their contribution, I draw out two critical questions that are raised by this discussion: (i) what are boundaries and what forms do they take? and (ii) why work across boundaries? Expanding on these key questions extends the points made by Carey and Friel on the importance of understanding public administration and will better place public health scholars and practitioners to realise health outcomes. PMID:27694672

  10. Osteoporosis pharmacotherapy following bone densitometry: importance of patient beliefs and understanding of DXA results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brask-Lindemann, Dorthe; Cadarette, S M; Eskildsen, P

    2011-01-01

    Summary Persistence with osteoporosis therapy remains low and identification of factors associated with better persistence is essential in preventing osteoporosis and fractures. In this study, patient understanding of dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) results and beliefs in effects of treatm......Summary Persistence with osteoporosis therapy remains low and identification of factors associated with better persistence is essential in preventing osteoporosis and fractures. In this study, patient understanding of dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) results and beliefs in effects....... Self-reported DXA results reflect patient understanding of diagnosis and may influence acceptance of osteoporosis therapy. To improve patient understanding of DXA results, we provided written information to patients and their referring general practitioner (GP), and evaluated factors associated.......02), and greater beliefs in drug treatment benefits were associated with treatment initiation (OR 1.4, 95%CI 1.1–1.9, p=0.006) and persistence with therapy (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.2–2.7, p=0.006). Conclusion Our findings suggest that written information provides over 80% of patients with a basic understanding...

  11. Understanding the alphaviruses: recent research on important emerging pathogens and progress towards their control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, E A; Coutard, B; Malet, H; Morin, B; Jamal, S; Weaver, S; Gorbalenya, A; Moureau, G; Baronti, C; Delogu, I; Forrester, N; Khasnatinov, M; Gritsun, T; de Lamballerie, X; Canard, B

    2010-08-01

    The alphaviruses were amongst the first arboviruses to be isolated, characterized and assigned a taxonomic status. They are globally very widespread, infecting a large variety of terrestrial animals, insects and even fish, and circulate both in the sylvatic and urban/peri-urban environment, causing considerable human morbidity and mortality. Nevertheless, despite their obvious importance as pathogens, there are currently no effective antiviral drugs with which to treat humans or animals infected by any of these viruses. The EU-supported project-VIZIER (Comparative Structural Genomics of Viral Enzymes Involved in Replication, FP6 PROJECT: 2004-511960) was instigated with an ultimate view of contributing to the development of antiviral therapies for RNA viruses, including the alphaviruses [Coutard, B., Gorbalenya, A.E., Snijder, E.J., Leontovich, A.M., Poupon, A., De Lamballerie, X., Charrel, R., Gould, E.A., Gunther, S., Norder, H., Klempa, B., Bourhy, H., Rohayemj, J., L'hermite, E., Nordlund, P., Stuart, D.I., Owens, R.J., Grimes, J.M., Tuckerm, P.A., Bolognesi, M., Mattevi, A., Coll, M., Jones, T.A., Aqvist, J., Unger, T., Hilgenfeld, R., Bricogne, G., Neyts, J., La Colla, P., Puerstinger, G., Gonzalez, J.P., Leroy, E., Cambillau, C., Romette, J.L., Canard, B., 2008. The VIZIER project: preparedness against pathogenic RNA viruses. Antiviral Res. 78, 37-46]. This review highlights some of the major features of alphaviruses that have been investigated during recent years. After describing their classification, epidemiology and evolutionary history and the expanding geographic distribution of Chikungunya virus, we review progress in understanding the structure and function of alphavirus replicative enzymes achieved under the VIZIER programme and the development of new disease control strategies. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The Importance of Understanding MHC-I Diversity in Nonhuman Primate Models of Human Infectious Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maness, Nicholas J

    2017-01-01

    Decades of research, including the 1996 Nobel Prize in Medicine, confirm the evolutionary and immunological importance of CD8 T lymphocytes (TCD8+) that target peptides bound by the highly variable major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) proteins. However, their perceived importance has varied dramatically over the past decade. Regardless, there remains myriad reasons to consider the diversity of MHC-I alleles and the TCD8+ that target them as enormously important in infectious disease research. Thus, understanding these molecules in the best animal models of human disease could be a necessity for optimizing the translational potential of these models. Knowledge of macaque MHC has substantially improved their utility for modeling HIV and could aid in modeling other viruses as well, both in the context of distribution of alleles across treatment groups in vaccine trials and in deciphering mechanisms of immune control of pathogens for which specific MHC alleles demonstrate differential impacts on disease.

  13. The Importance of Understanding Cultural Awareness for Managers in the Hospitality Industry (in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hera Oktadiana

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Cultural awareness is a basic knowledge that each individuality must has. In hotel industry, there are positive advantages that could be reached if a manager could appreciate a cultural, value, attitude differences of each person. This paper adjusts how important the understanding of cultural diversity and pragmatic implementation from several cross cultural communication theory, especially for managers in hotel industry. This paper also describes examples of cultural attitude and habits from some countries that could be refferences in workforce diversity. 

  14. Toward understanding body image importance: individual differences in a Canadian sample of undergraduate students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegling, Alexander B; Delaney, Mary E

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between body image importance (BII) and perfectionism and body satisfaction in a Canadian sample of undergraduate students. Specifically, perfectionism was conceptualized as a common cause of BII and body satisfaction. Furthermore, gender-schematic processing was examined as a moderator of sex differences in BII, which have been inconsistently found. As hypothesized, there was no significant partial correlation between BII and body satisfaction, controlling for perfectionism. Also, a significant Sex × Gender Schematicity interaction indicated that gender schematicity moderates sex differences in BII. Implications for understanding individual differences in, and elevated levels of BII are discussed.

  15. Understanding Citizenship, Understanding Social Media? The effects of digital media on citizenship understanding and political participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohme, Jakob; Albæk, Erik

    Is there a connection between increased use of digital media and changing patterns of political participation? This study tests how use of online media for different purposes (social interaction, creative expression, online news use, social media news use) is related to three types of political...... online survey waves and a smartphone-based media diary that documents respondents’ social media use. Results indicate support for a new pathway to participation, but the relationship depends on whether citizens are socialized in a digital media environment....... participation. It examines whether mobilizing effects are partly indirect due to different understandings of citizenship (dutiful, optional, individual, collective) that may be fostered by digital media use. The study is based on a survey of a sample of the Danish population (n=1322), including data from two...

  16. Statistical Primer for Athletic Trainers: The Essentials of Understanding Measures of Reliability and Minimal Important Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riemann, Bryan L; Lininger, Monica R

    2018-01-01

      To describe the concepts of measurement reliability and minimal important change.   All measurements have some magnitude of error. Because clinical practice involves measurement, clinicians need to understand measurement reliability. The reliability of an instrument is integral in determining if a change in patient status is meaningful.   Measurement reliability is the extent to which a test result is consistent and free of error. Three perspectives of reliability-relative reliability, systematic bias, and absolute reliability-are often reported. However, absolute reliability statistics, such as the minimal detectable difference, are most relevant to clinicians because they provide an expected error estimate. The minimal important difference is the smallest change in a treatment outcome that the patient would identify as important.   Clinicians should use absolute reliability characteristics, preferably the minimal detectable difference, to determine the extent of error around a patient's measurement. The minimal detectable difference, coupled with an appropriately estimated minimal important difference, can assist the practitioner in identifying clinically meaningful changes in patients.

  17. ATOMIC PHYSICS PROCESSES IMPORTANT TO THE UNDERSTANDING OF THE SCRAPE-OFF LAYER OF TOKAMAKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WEST, W.P.; GOLDSMITH,; B. EVANS,T.E.; OLSON, R.J.

    2002-05-01

    The region between the well-confined plasma and the vessel walls of a magnetic confinement fusion research device, the scrape-off layer (SOL), is typically rich in atomic and molecular physics processes. The most advanced magnetic confinement device, the magnetically diverted tokamak, uses a magnetic separatrix to isolate the confinement zone (closed flux surfaces) from the edge plasma (open field lines). Over most of their length the open field lines run parallel to the separatrix, forming a thin magnetic barrier with the nearby vessel walls. In a poloidally-localized region, the open field lines are directed away from the separatrix and into the divertor, a region spatially separated from the separatrix where intense plasma wall interaction can occur relatively safely. Recent data from several tokamaks indicate that particle transport across the field lines of the SOL can be somewhat faster than previously thought. In these cases, the rate at which particles reach the vessel wall is comparable to the rate to the divertor from parallel transport. The SOL can be thin enough that the recycling neutrals and sputtered impurities from the wall may refuel or contaminate the confinement zone more efficiently than divertor plasma wall interaction. Just inside the SOL is a confinement barrier that produces a sharp pedestal in plasma density and temperature. Understanding neutral transport through the SOL and into the pedestal is key to understanding particle balance and particle and impurity exhaust. The SOL plasma is sufficiently hot and dense to excite and ionize neutrals. Ion and neutral temperatures are high enough that charge exchange between the neutrals and fuel and impurity ions is fast. Excitation of neutrals can be fast enough to lead to nonlinear behavior in charge exchange and ionization processes. In this paper the detailed atomic physics important to the understanding of the neutral transport through the SOL will be discussed.

  18. Understanding the Importance of Urban Amenities: A Case Study from Auckland

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, Natalie

    2015-01-01

    Along with many Pacific Rim cities in Australia and North America, Auckland, New Zealand has enacted an urban growth management strategy premised on two concepts: “liveability” and a “quality compact city”. The effective implementation of this strategy will, in part, require higher density housing typologies to be developed within the existing suburban fabric. The urban amenities in a neighbourhood play an important role in providing a sense of liveability for residents. This paper examines t...

  19. A network biology approach to understanding the importance of chameleon proteins in human physiology and pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahramali, Golnaz; Goliaei, Bahram; Minuchehr, Zarrin; Marashi, Sayed-Amir

    2017-02-01

    Chameleon proteins are proteins which include sequences that can adopt α-helix-β-strand (HE-chameleon) or α-helix-coil (HC-chameleon) or β-strand-coil (CE-chameleon) structures to operate their crucial biological functions. In this study, using a network-based approach, we examined the chameleon proteins to give a better knowledge on these proteins. We focused on proteins with identical chameleon sequences with more than or equal to seven residues long in different PDB entries, which adopt HE-chameleon, HC-chameleon, and CE-chameleon structures in the same protein. One hundred and ninety-one human chameleon proteins were identified via our in-house program. Then, protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks, Gene ontology (GO) enrichment, disease network, and pathway enrichment analyses were performed for our derived data set. We discovered that there are chameleon sequences which reside in protein-protein interaction regions between two proteins critical for their dual function. Analysis of the PPI networks for chameleon proteins introduced five hub proteins, namely TP53, EGFR, HSP90AA1, PPARA, and HIF1A, which were presented in four PPI clusters. The outcomes demonstrate that the chameleon regions are in critical domains of these proteins and are important in the development and treatment of human cancers. The present report is the first network-based functional study of chameleon proteins using computational approaches and might provide a new perspective for understanding the mechanisms of diseases helping us in developing new medical therapies along with discovering new proteins with chameleon properties which are highly important in cancer.

  20. Importance of fatalism in understanding mammography screening in rural elderly women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, R M; Ureda, J R; Parker, V G

    2001-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between demographic factors and other correlates of fatalism, and assessed the impact of fatalistic beliefs on the participation in breast cancer screening in rural women. The subjects were 220 women aged 50 and over recruited from 6 large rural counties in South Carolina. Data were collected using a demographic questionnaire and the revised Powe Fatalism Inventory. Results show significant associations between fatalism and increased age (p = 0.005), race (p = 0.0001), doctor recommendation (p = .0034) and decreased educational level (p = 0.001). Fatalism was associated with noncompliance with mammography screening in univariate analysis among African-American women (OR = .362; 95% CI: 1.11, 11.8). After adjusting for possible confounders (age, education, and doctor recommendation), fatalism was not significantly associated with noncompliance with screening. These results illustrate age, race, and education may be important predictors of fatalism and that fatalism may be one barrier that has previously gone unmeasured and unchallenged in understanding screening behavior in older women.

  1. IMPORTANCE OF FULL COULOMB INTERACTIONS FOR UNDERSTANDING THE ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE OF DELTA-Pu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorelov, E; Kolorenc, J; Wehling, T; Hafermann, H; Lichtenstein, A I; Shick, A B; Rubtsov, A N; Katsnelson, M I; Landa, A; McMahan, A K

    2010-04-01

    The solid-state properties of most elements are now well understood on the basis of quantum physics - with few exceptions, notably the element number 94, plutonium. Plutonium has six crystalline phases at ambient pressure, some of which are separated by unusual phase transitions with large discontinuities in volume, exhibit negative thermal expansion coefficients, or form exotic low-symmetry structures. The main challenge to explain these anomalous properties is that the characteristic ingredient of actinides, the 5f electronic states, are in the cross-over regime between the localized and delocalized (itinerant) behaviour in Pu. The early part of the actinide series with the 5f states being itinerant, i.e. part of the metallic bond, culminates with Pu; starting with Am (Z = 95), the 5f states are localized, nonbonding, and resemble the 4f states in lanthanides. Both itinerant and localized regimes are well covered by existing theories, but they cannot be simply interpolated due to the importance of dynamical electron-electron correlations. Here we present accurate quantum Monte Carlo calculations achieving previously inaccessible resolution. Obtained results demonstrate that interplay of the full Coulomb interaction vertex with spin-orbital coupling is crucial for understanding the experimentally observed spectral properties of plutonium near the Fermi level.

  2. Novel relativistic effect important in accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talman, R.

    1986-01-01

    It is shown that a bunch of charged particles following a curved path in a magnetic field is subject to a force due to its own electro-magnetic field. One aspect of this is a ''centrifugal'' force acting on individual particles in the bunch. A resonance mechanism, capable of disrupting the beam at modest currents, is given as an example of the importance of this force. The theory is tested with observations from the Cornell Electron Storage Ring. This force will cause important modifications to existing theories of accelerator stability

  3. The importance of trans-generational effects in Lepidoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woestmann, Luisa; Saastamoinen, Marjo

    2016-10-01

    The importance of trans-generational effects in shaping an individuals' phenotype and fitness, and consequently even impacting population dynamics is increasingly apparent. Most of the research on trans-generational effects still focuses on plants, mammals, and birds. In the past few years, however, increasing number of studies, especially on maternal effects, have highlighted their importance also in many insect systems. Lepidoptera, specifically butterflies, have been used as model systems for studying the role of phenotypic plasticity within generations. As ectotherms, they are highly sensitive to environmental variation, and indeed many butterflies show adaptive phenotypic plasticity in response to environmental conditions. Here, we synthesize what is known about trans-generational effects in Lepidoptera, compile evidence for different environmental cues that are important drivers of trans-generational effects, and point out which offspring traits are mainly impacted. Finally, we emphasize directions for future research that are needed for better understanding of the adaptive nature of trans-generational effects in Lepidoptera in particular, but potentially also in other organisms.

  4. Special Important Aspects of the Thomson Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashkevych, Igor; Velázquez, J. E.; Titov, Oleg Yu.; Gurevich, Yuri G.

    2018-03-01

    A comprehensive study of the mechanisms of heating and cooling originating from an electrical current in semiconductor devices is reported. The variation in temperature associated with the Peltier effect is not related to the presence of heat sources and sinks if the heat flux is correctly determined. The Thomson effect is commonly regarded as a heat source/sink proportional to the Thomson coefficient, which is added to the Joule heating. In the present work, we will show that this formulation of the Thomson effect is not sufficiently clear. When the heat flux is correctly defined, the Thomson heat source/sink is proportional to the Seebeck coefficient. In the conditions in which the Peltier effect takes place, the temperature gradient is created, and, consequently, the Thomson effect will occur naturally.

  5. Big Hitters: Important Factors Characterizing Team Effectiveness in Professional Cricket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Leonie V.; Hardy, James; Hardy, Lew

    2017-01-01

    While organizational psychology attests to the multidimensional nature of team effectiveness, insight regarding the most important factors contributing to the effectiveness of sports teams, especially elite teams, is lacking. An abductive method of qualitative enquiry was adopted to capture participants' construal of team effectiveness, drawing on the extant literature in both sport and organizational psychology. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 21 players, coaches, and psychologists involved in elite cricket, with resultant data analyzed inductively initially, before being reanalyzed deductively. Although, the narratives endorsed the value of many of the deductively derived factors, other constructs more prominent in organizational psychology (e.g., trust and intra-group conflict) appeared to be more important than traditional sport psychology group factors. The results revealed six broad themes; culture and environment, values, communication, understanding, leadership, and unique individuals, with some gender differences apparent throughout. Based on our elite sample's construal of team effectiveness, we propose a new model representing a practical, parsimonious, and novel conceptualization of the most important attributes of team effectiveness in cricket, with conceivable transferability to other team sports. PMID:28744235

  6. Big Hitters: Important Factors Characterizing Team Effectiveness in Professional Cricket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Leonie V; Hardy, James; Hardy, Lew

    2017-01-01

    While organizational psychology attests to the multidimensional nature of team effectiveness, insight regarding the most important factors contributing to the effectiveness of sports teams, especially elite teams, is lacking. An abductive method of qualitative enquiry was adopted to capture participants' construal of team effectiveness, drawing on the extant literature in both sport and organizational psychology. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 21 players, coaches, and psychologists involved in elite cricket, with resultant data analyzed inductively initially, before being reanalyzed deductively. Although, the narratives endorsed the value of many of the deductively derived factors, other constructs more prominent in organizational psychology (e.g., trust and intra-group conflict) appeared to be more important than traditional sport psychology group factors. The results revealed six broad themes; culture and environment, values, communication, understanding, leadership, and unique individuals, with some gender differences apparent throughout. Based on our elite sample's construal of team effectiveness, we propose a new model representing a practical, parsimonious, and novel conceptualization of the most important attributes of team effectiveness in cricket, with conceivable transferability to other team sports.

  7. Big Hitters: Important Factors Characterizing Team Effectiveness in Professional Cricket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonie V. Webster

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available While organizational psychology attests to the multidimensional nature of team effectiveness, insight regarding the most important factors contributing to the effectiveness of sports teams, especially elite teams, is lacking. An abductive method of qualitative enquiry was adopted to capture participants' construal of team effectiveness, drawing on the extant literature in both sport and organizational psychology. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 21 players, coaches, and psychologists involved in elite cricket, with resultant data analyzed inductively initially, before being reanalyzed deductively. Although, the narratives endorsed the value of many of the deductively derived factors, other constructs more prominent in organizational psychology (e.g., trust and intra-group conflict appeared to be more important than traditional sport psychology group factors. The results revealed six broad themes; culture and environment, values, communication, understanding, leadership, and unique individuals, with some gender differences apparent throughout. Based on our elite sample's construal of team effectiveness, we propose a new model representing a practical, parsimonious, and novel conceptualization of the most important attributes of team effectiveness in cricket, with conceivable transferability to other team sports.

  8. Use of a mock deposition program to improve resident understanding of the importance of documentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerges, Mina; Slama, Eliza; Zayadin, Yacoub; Kieninger, Alicia

    2017-05-01

    It has been estimated that the probability of a physician being involved in a medical litigation by 65 years of age ranges from 76 to 98% depending on specialty. We hypothesized that a mock deposition held by a medico-legal expert attorney could effectively increase awareness of the importance of accurate and complete medical documentation. Pre and post-lecture and mock deposition surveys were analyzed and the contents evaluated. Residents and attendings from the surgical, medical and OB-GYN departments participated. Results were analyzed through frequency distribution. A total of 62 participants attended, 42 completed the pre-survey, while 24 completed the post-survey. Majority had no prior experience in malpractice lawsuits. After the post-survey, 95.8% believed that incorporating the mock deposition may reduce documentation error. Based on the results of the surveys we concluded that a mock deposition exercise provides a means for education residents regarding the importance of medical documentation. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Understanding and controlling hot spots of crime: the importance of formal and informal social controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisburd, David; Groff, Elizabeth R; Yang, Sue-Ming

    2014-02-01

    Primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention programs that address opportunity or structural factors related to crime are usually delivered to entire cities, sections of cities or to specific neighborhoods, but our results indicate geographically targeting these programs to specific street segments may increase their efficacy. We link crime incidents to over 24,000 street segments (the two block faces on a street between two intersections) over a 16-year period, and identify distinct developmental patterns of crime at street segments using group-based trajectory analysis. One of these patterns, which we term chronic crime hot spots, includes just 1 % of street segments but is associated with 23 % of crime in the city during the study period. We then employ multinomial regression to identify the specific risk and protective factors that are associated with these crime hot spots. We find that both situational opportunities and social characteristics of places strongly distinguish chronic crime hot spots from areas with little crime. Our findings support recent efforts to decrease crime opportunities at crime hot spots through programs like hot spots policing, but they also suggest that social interventions directed at crime hot spots will be important if we are to do something about crime problems in the long run. We argue in concluding that micro level programs which focus crime prevention efforts on specific street segments have the potential to be less costly and more effective than those targeted at larger areas such as communities or neighborhoods.

  10. Understanding the Importance of Urban Amenities: A Case Study from Auckland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Allen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Along with many Pacific Rim cities in Australia and North America, Auckland, New Zealand has enacted an urban growth management strategy premised on two concepts: “liveability” and a “quality compact city”. The effective implementation of this strategy will, in part, require higher density housing typologies to be developed within the existing suburban fabric. The urban amenities in a neighbourhood play an important role in providing a sense of liveability for residents. This paper examines these issues by evaluating and reporting on key outcomes from 57 face-to-face qualitative interviews with residents who currently live in medium density housing in four Auckland suburbs; Takapuna, Kingsland, Botany Downs, and Te Atatu Peninsula. Findings consider the trade-offs residents make when choosing to live in medium density housing typologies, how they value the urban amenities in their neighbourhood and the role they think these amenities play in their location satisfaction. Conclusions are drawn around how the resident-derived information may inform the market on the supply side of housing, and comment is made about how these preferences may, or may not, respond to the objectives of the underlying urban management strategies involved.

  11. Male Partner Influence on Women's HIV Prevention Trial Participation and Use of Pre-exposure Prophylaxis: the Importance of "Understanding".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Elizabeth T; van der Straten, Ariane; Stadler, Jonathan; Hartmann, Miriam; Magazi, Busisiwe; Mathebula, Florence; Laborde, Nicole; Soto-Torres, Lydia

    2015-05-01

    There is widespread evidence that male partners influence women's ability and willingness to join HIV prevention trials and to use female-controlled prevention strategies such as microbicide gels. VOICE-C was an ancillary study to the Microbicide Trials Network's VOICE trial at the Johannesburg site that explored social and structural factors influencing women's use of study tablets and vaginal gel. Qualitative data were analyzed from 102 randomly-selected VOICE participants interviewed through in-depth interviews (IDI, n = 41); ethnographic interviews (n = 21) or focus group discussions (FGD, n = 40) and 22 male partners interviewed in 14 IDI and 2 FGD. Male partners' "understanding" pervaded as a central explanation for how male partners directly and indirectly influenced their female partners' trial participation and product use, irrespective of assignment to the gel or tablet study groups. The meaning behind "understanding" in this context was described by both men and women in two important and complementary ways: (1) "comprehension" of the study purpose including biological properties or effects of the products, and (2) "support/agreeability" for female partners being study participants or using products. During analysis a third dimension of "understanding" emerged as men's acceptance of larger shifts in gender roles and relationship power, and the potential implications of women's increased access to biomedical knowledge, services and prevention methods. Despite displays of some female agency to negotiate and use HIV prevention methods, male partners still have a critical influence on women's ability and willingness to do so. Efforts to increase their understanding of research goals, study design and products' mechanisms of action could ameliorate distrust, empower men to serve as product advocates, adherence buddies, and foster greater adherence support for women in situations where it is needed. Strategies to address gender norms and the broader

  12. Do Students Understand Our Course Structure? Implications for Important Classroom Attitudes and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elicker, Joelle D.; Foust, Michelle Singer; Perry, Jennifer L.

    2015-01-01

    The complexity of a course's structure may influence how well students understand what is expected of them. Using the foundation of the industrial/organizational (I/O) psychology literature, the authors modified a measure of "Perceived System Knowledge" (Williams & Levy, 1992) for employee performance appraisal to be appropriate for…

  13. Freire's reading to understand important aspects in South African context of change

    OpenAIRE

    Darlei de Paula; EST-PPG

    2013-01-01

    This article aims to demonstrate that Freire's pedagogy reading is useful way to help Brazilian theology students to understand better the South African change context. So we show common features that can be identified as in South African context as in Brazilian Freire's Pedagogy as tool to access the post-apartheid change.

  14. The Diagnosis and Understanding of Apraxia of Speech: Why Including Neurodegenerative Etiologies May Be Important

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Joseph R.; Josephs, Keith A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To discuss apraxia of speech (AOS) as it occurs in neurodegenerative disease (progressive AOS [PAOS]) and how its careful study may contribute to general concepts of AOS and help refine its diagnostic criteria. Method: The article summarizes our current understanding of the clinical features and neuroanatomical and pathologic correlates…

  15. The Importance of Understanding Hierarchical Relations between High Order Mental Functions in Clinical Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedetto Farina

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The state-of-the-art in studies on mentalization suggests that capacity to understand other minds (mindreading, self introspection and consciousness, mental time travel in the past and the present, linguistic communication, are different components of a hierarchical organization of several functions reflecting the evolutionary development of the specie and integrates increasingly complex, mutually coordinated brain levels. The understanding of the precise hierarchical relations between them, that reflect the phylo- and ontogenetic evolutionary pathway for adaptation to the complex interpersonal and socio-cultural environment, has an essential application in psychopathology and psychotherapy, in particular for those clinical conditions where the normal integration of high order mental functions is hampered by developmental relational trauma.

  16. Tacit coordination in social dilemmas: the importance of having a common understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Eric; de Kwaadsteniet, Erik W; De Cremer, David

    2009-03-01

    Previous research has indicated that in social dilemmas, people tacitly coordinate their decisions by using the equal division rule. In 3 experimental studies, the authors investigated the extent to which a common understanding about task and behavioral requirements is essential for the tacit coordination process. The results show that people are less likely to coordinate on the equal division rule when collective feedback on past performance (Study 1), the distribution of information within the group (Study 2), or expected behavioral variance (Study 3) suggests that a common understanding in the group is lacking. Moreover, the results indicate that under these conditions, rather than adhering to the equal division rule, people base their decisions on their own social value orientations. The findings support the view that if situations provide insufficient cues for tacit coordination, people are more likely to decide on the basis of their personal characteristics.

  17. The Importance of HRA in Human Space Flight: Understanding the Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlin, Teri

    2010-01-01

    Human performance is critical to crew safety during space missions. Humans interact with hardware and software during ground processing, normal flight, and in response to events. Human interactions with hardware and software can cause Loss of Crew and/or Vehicle (LOCV) through improper actions, or may prevent LOCV through recovery and control actions. Humans have the ability to deal with complex situations and system interactions beyond the capability of machines. Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) is a method used to qualitatively and quantitatively assess the occurrence of human failures that affect availability and reliability of complex systems. Modeling human actions with their corresponding failure probabilities in a Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) provides a more complete picture of system risks and risk contributions. A high-quality HRA can provide valuable information on potential areas for improvement, including training, procedures, human interfaces design, and the need for automation. Modeling human error has always been a challenge in part because performance data is not always readily available. For spaceflight, the challenge is amplified not only because of the small number of participants and limited amount of performance data available, but also due to the lack of definition of the unique factors influencing human performance in space. These factors, called performance shaping factors in HRA terminology, are used in HRA techniques to modify basic human error probabilities in order to capture the context of an analyzed task. Many of the human error modeling techniques were developed within the context of nuclear power plants and therefore the methodologies do not address spaceflight factors such as the effects of microgravity and longer duration missions. This presentation will describe the types of human error risks which have shown up as risk drivers in the Shuttle PRA which may be applicable to commercial space flight. As with other large PRAs

  18. Understanding the edge effect in wetting: a thermodynamic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Guoping; Amirfazli, A

    2012-06-26

    Edge effect is known to hinder spreading of a sessile drop. However, the underlying thermodynamic mechanisms responsible for the edge effect still is not well-understood. In this study, a free energy model has been developed to investigate the energetic state of drops on a single pillar (from upright frustum to inverted frustum geometries). An analysis of drop free energy levels before and after crossing the edge allows us to understand the thermodynamic origin of the edge effect. In particular, four wetting cases for a drop on a single pillar with different edge angles have been determined by understanding the characteristics of FE plots. A wetting map describing the four wetting cases is given in terms of edge angle and intrinsic contact angle. The results show that the free energy barrier observed near the edge plays an important role in determining the drop states, i.e., (1) stable or metastable drop states at the pillar's edge, and (2) drop collapse by liquid spilling over the edge completely or staying at an intermediate sidewall position of the pillar. This thermodynamic model presents an energetic framework to describe the functioning of the so-called "re-entrant" structures. Results show good consistency with the literature and expand the current understanding of Gibbs' inequality condition.

  19. Understanding the Effectiveness of Chargeout Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berghout, Egon; Schuurman, Peter; de Jong, T; Brown,

    2010-01-01

    Reinforced by the economic downturn and the accompanying need for increased transparency, the chargeout of IT costs has become an important factor in the management of IT. Organizations can have different objectives to employ or not to employ chargeout methodologies. The pros vary from cost recovery

  20. IMPORTANCE OF MARKET UNDERSTANDING AS A DEVELOPMENT ASSUMPTION OF FAMILY FARMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Zmaić

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The system of agricultural products must adjust to the numerous quality as well as quantity changes of the environment, and for such a successful adjustment, a certain knowledge of the market itself is absolutely necessary. The importance of agricultural products market is caused by the fact that it helps agricultural producers for a better sight of consumers’ requests with a purpose of meeting their needs. Defining of the basic characteristics of a market system and its importance are the primal points for the successful functioning of the agricultural activities related to the agricultural products sale. It means that aforesaid affects forming price which in turns affects the income height through the total sold agricultural products used by producers use as a motivation for increasing production. Development of agricultural production and importance of market facts are researched from the point of characteristic and specific market system, supply and demand, price trends and agriculture politics. The paper focused the fact which should be realized by agricultural producers. It comprises the importance of the adjustment to the needs of modern market, taking into account sizes and agricultural production program, as well as delivery time limit and the products sale on the market.

  1. The importance of Soil Science to understand and remediate Land Degradation and Desertification processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouma, Johan; Keesstra, Saskia; Cerdà, Artemi

    2017-04-01

    Documentation is abundantly available to demonstrate the devastating effect of Land degradation and desertification on sustainable development in many countries. This present a major barrier to achieving the UN Sustainable Development Goals by 2030, as agreed upon at the General Assembly of the UN in September 2015. Research has certainly been successful in reversing these two processes in many case studies but persistant problems remain not only in developing countries but also in developed countries where, for example, soil compaction and loss of soil organic matter due to the industrialization of agriculture, result in a structural decline of agricultural productivity and environmental quality. The problems are quite complex because not only technical matters play a role but also, and often quite prominantly, socio-economic factors. What turn out to be successful remediation procedures at a given location or region, based on the characterization of underlying soil processes, will most likely not work in other regions inhibiting the extrapolation of local research results to areas elsewhere. One important reason for location specificity of research is the variation of soil properties in combination with the location of soils in a given landscape which governs its water, energy and nutrient dynamics, also considering the climate. Different soils are characterized by different natural riks for degradation and , in arid regions, deserticification and their particular remediation potential differs widely as well. Such risks can sometimes be overcome by innovative soil management and knowing the soil type, the climate and landscape processes, extrapolation of such types of innovative management to comparable soils and landscapes elsewhere may be feasible and effective , provided that socio-economic conditions allow the required risk-reducing measures to be realized in practice. More cooperation between soil scientists and physical geographers, familiar with landscape

  2. Toward Better Understanding of Turbulence Effects on Bridge Aerodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuyang Cao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available With the trend of variable cross-sections for long-span bridges from truss-stiffened to quasi-streamlined, and then to multiple-box cross-section geometries, the importance of aeroelastic performance is becoming increasingly significant in wind-resistant design. This article shows that there is clearly insufficient qualitative as well as quantitative understanding of turbulence effects on bridge aerodynamics, particularly the mechanisms behind them. Although turbulence might help the stabilization of long-span bridges, and is thus not a conclusive parameter in wind-resistant design, turbulence effects on the aerodynamic and aeroelastic behaviors of a bridge need to be better understood because interaction between a bridge and turbulence always exists. This article also briefly introduces a newly developed multiple-fan wind tunnel that is designed to control turbulence to assist the study of turbulence effects.

  3. Understanding local residents of Korea using nuclear effective safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Yun Hyung; Lee, Gey Hwi; Hah, Yeonhee; Kim, Beom Jun

    2010-01-01

    The risk perception gap between experts and lay people is based on the use of different concept on risk. It is getting increasingly important for nuclear practitioners to understand the lay people's subjective perception on nuclear safety. We proposed the nuclear effective safety index (NESI) which is based on data of the public survey of local inhabitants. We extracted the four factors for effective safety indicators; communication, trust, plant emergency response capability, and personal emergency coping skills. The latest NESI was 41.54, which was increased from 38.22 but still low. The three-year data of NESI showed the differences between genders and between sites as well as trend. The survey of antecedents of effective safety showed some meaningful events and profound differences between plant employees and local inhabitants. The NESI can be utilized as useful communication tool between the local inhabitants and nuclear practitioners. (authors)

  4. The importance of understanding individual differences in Down syndrome [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette Karmiloff-Smith

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we first present a summary of the general assumptions about Down syndrome (DS still to be found in the literature. We go on to show how new research has modified these assumptions, pointing to a wide range of individual differences at every level of description. We argue that, in the context of significant increases in DS life expectancy, a focus on individual differences in trisomy 21 at all levels—genetic, cellular, neural, cognitive, behavioral, and environmental—constitutes one of the best approaches for understanding genotype/phenotype relations in DS and for exploring risk and protective factors for Alzheimer’s disease in this high-risk population.

  5. The Importance of Fossils in Understanding the Evolution of Parasites and Their Vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Baets, Kenneth; Littlewood, D Timothy J

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge concerning the diversity of parasitism and its reach across our current understanding of the tree of life has benefitted considerably from novel molecular phylogenetic methods. However, the timing of events and the resolution of the nature of the intimate relationships between parasites and their hosts in deep time remain problematic. Despite its vagaries, the fossil record provides the only direct evidence of parasites and parasitism in the fossil record of extant and extinct lineages. Here, we demonstrate the potential of the fossil record and other lines of geological evidence to calibrate the origin and evolution of parasitism by combining different kinds of dating evidence with novel molecular clock methodologies. Other novel methods promise to provide additional evidence for the presence or the life habit of pathogens and their vectors, including the discovery and analysis of ancient DNA and other biomolecules, as well as computed tomographic methods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Understanding dementia: effective information access from the Deaf community's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Alys; Ferguson-Coleman, Emma; Keady, John

    2016-01-01

    This study concerns older Deaf sign language users in the UK. Its aim was to explore how to enable effective information access and promote awareness and understanding of dementia from a culturally Deaf perspective. A purposive sample of 26 Deaf people without dementia participated in one of three focus groups facilitated directly in British Sign Language (BSL) without an intermediate interpreter. The sample was differentiated by age, role in the Deaf community, and diversity of educational attainment and professional experience. A phenomenological approach underpinned the thematic analysis of data. The findings demonstrate: (i) translation into (BSL) is a necessary but not sufficient condition to support understanding. Attention to culturally preferred means of engagement with information is vital; (ii) the content of information is best presented utilising structures and formats which cohere with Deaf people's visual cognitive strengths; and (iii) the importance of cultural values and cultural practices in raising awareness and building understanding of dementia. These include collective rather than individual responsibility for knowledge transfer and the pan-national nature of knowledge transfer among Deaf people(s). The discussion demonstrates how these specific features of effective information access and awareness building have universal implications relevant to public engagement and the promotion of general knowledge consistent with the National Dementia Strategy (England). © 2014 The Authors. Health and Social Care in the Community Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. The value of health professions education: the importance of understanding the learner perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandars, John; Walsh, Kieran

    2016-07-01

    The value of health professions education (HPE), with increasing demand for value resultant on financial constraint, has come under increasing scrutiny. An essential aspect for critical consideration is the extent to which the value ascribed by the learner differs from that of the HPE provider, especially in relation to the learning Methods and assessment of the HPE curriculum. The challenge of reconciling the tensions and differing perspectives of the learners and HPE providers can be met through co-production of the curriculum. The focus of the co-production approach is the recognition of the importance of diversity and social justice.

  8. Do we understand heavy-ion fusion reactions of importance in stellar evolution?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, C L; Back, B B; Esbensen, H; Janssens, R V F; Rehm, K E; Tang, X D

    2011-01-01

    Since the first observation of hindrance in heavy-ion fusion, many extrapolated cross sections for astrophysically interesting fusion reactions, such as 12 C + 12 C, 12 C + 16 O, 16 O + 16 O, 24 O etc. need to be reexamined. In this contribution, the effects of fusion hindrance at extreme low energies are discussed.

  9. Understanding a mentorship relationship and its effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušana Findeisen

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Mentorship relationship as a system of knowledge, reciprocal learning, acting and relationship-building After the introductory discussion on how to conceptualize mentoring, a process with many dimensions: teaching, counselling, guidance, animation, friendship and many other, the author deals with the mentoring relationship (edu-cation and communication within mentoring pairs. In a mentoring relationship there are two actors, a mentor and a mentee. There is also a »third, excluded partner« (company, educational organisation, etc. providing supportive organisational rules for the mentoring relationship. The author examines the transformation of the mentor, mentee and their social environment as well as the process of transmission of knowledge. She points out that the significance of a mentoring relationship lies less in the transmission of knowledge than in the mentor’s and mentee’s joint creation of new knowledge. She stresses the importance of action, the main drive for learning. A mentoring relationship includes communication and reciprocity as well as transmission of knowledge by means of predominantly non-informal edu- cational programmes, as well as learning and relationship building. It has several phases, some of which are more interactive than others, with more cognitive dissonance and with richer emotions.

  10. Effectiveness of CAM therapy: understanding the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staud, Roland

    2011-02-01

    By definition, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) attempts to diagnose and treat illnesses in unconventional ways. CAM has been classified as: (1) alternative medical systems (eg, traditional Chinese medicine [including acupuncture], naturopathic medicine, ayurvedic medicine, and homeopathy); (2) biologic-based therapies (eg, herbal, special dietary, and individual biologic treatments); (3) energy therapies (eg, Reiki, therapeutic touch, magnet therapy, Qi Gong, and intercessory prayer); (4) manipulative and body-based systems (eg, chiropractic, osteopathy, and massage); and (5) mind-body interventions (eg, meditation, biofeedback, hypnotherapy, and the relaxation response). This review focuses on how to assess the effectiveness of CAM therapies for chronic musculoskeletal pains, emphasizing the role of specific and nonspecific analgesic mechanisms, including placebo. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Quantum effects in the understanding of consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hameroff, Stuart R; Craddock, Travis J A; Tuszynski, Jack A

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents a historical perspective on the development and application of quantum physics methodology beyond physics, especially in biology and in the area of consciousness studies. Quantum physics provides a conceptual framework for the structural aspects of biological systems and processes via quantum chemistry. In recent years individual biological phenomena such as photosynthesis and bird navigation have been experimentally and theoretically analyzed using quantum methods building conceptual foundations for quantum biology. Since consciousness is attributed to human (and possibly animal) mind, quantum underpinnings of cognitive processes are a logical extension. Several proposals, especially the Orch OR hypothesis, have been put forth in an effort to introduce a scientific basis to the theory of consciousness. At the center of these approaches are microtubules as the substrate on which conscious processes in terms of quantum coherence and entanglement can be built. Additionally, Quantum Metabolism, quantum processes in ion channels and quantum effects in sensory stimulation are discussed in this connection. We discuss the challenges and merits related to quantum consciousness approaches as well as their potential extensions.

  12. Understanding Digital Learning and Its Variable Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Means, B.

    2016-12-01

    An increasing proportion of undergraduate courses use an online or blended learning format. This trend signals major changes in the kind of instruction students receive in their STEM courses, yet evidence about the effectiveness of these new approaches is sparse. Existing syntheses and meta-analyses summarize outcomes from experimental or quasi-experimental studies of online and blended courses and document how few studies incorporate proper controls for differences in student characteristics, instructor behaviors, and other course conditions. The evidence that is available suggests that on average blended courses are equal to or better than traditional face-to-face courses and that online courses are equivalent in terms of learning outcomes. But these averages conceal a tremendous underlying variability. Results vary markedly from course to course, even when the same technology is used in both. Some research suggests that online instruction puts lower-achieving students at a disadvantage. It is clear that introducing digital learning per se is no guarantee that student engagement and learning will be enhanced. Getting more consistently positive impacts out of learning technologies is going to require systematic characterization of the features of learning technologies and associated instructional practices as well as attention to context and student characteristics. This presentation will present a framework for characterizing essential features of digital learning resources, implementation practices, and conditions. It will also summarize the research evidence with respect to the learning impacts of specific technology features including spaced practice, immediate feedback, mastery learning based pacing, visualizations and simulations, gaming features, prompts for explanations and reflection, and tools for online collaboration.

  13. Understanding urban practitioners' perspectives on social-mix policies in Amsterdam: the importance of design and social space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lawton, P.

    2013-01-01

    Throughout recent decades, socially-mixed neighbourhoods have become a key element of urban policy and debate. This paper argues, with Amsterdam as an empirical case, that the design, layout and everyday use of social space—including public and private space—is of key importance in understanding the

  14. On the Importance of Comparative Research for the Understanding of Human Behavior and Development: A Reply to Gottlieb & Lickliter (2004)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestripieri, Dario

    2005-01-01

    Comparative behavioral research is important for a number of reasons and can contribute to the understanding of human behavior and development in many different ways. Research with animal models of human behavior and development can be a source not only of general principles and testable hypotheses but also of empirical information that may be…

  15. Improving the understanding and treatment of complex grief: an important issue for psychotraumatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A. Boelen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the Netherlands, every year 500,000 people are confronted with the death of a close relative. Many of these people experience little emotional distress. In some, bereavement precipitates severe grief, distress, and dysphoria. A small yet significant minority of bereaved individuals develops persistent and debilitating symptoms of persistent complex bereavement disorder (PCBD (also termed prolonged grief disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, and depression. Knowledge about early identification of, and preventive care for complex grief has increased. Moreover, in recent years there has been an increase in treatment options for people for whom loss leads to persistent psychological problems. That said, preventive and curative treatments are effective for some, but not all bereaved individuals experiencing distress and dysfunction following loss. This necessitates further research on the development, course, and treatment of various stages of complex grief, including PCBD. Highlights of the article:

  16. The importance of type, amount, and timing of internet use for understanding psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotten, Shelia R; Goldner, Melinda; Hale, Timothy M; Drentea, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Objective. Few social scientists have examined how Internet usage, including using the Internet for health purposes, may affect mental health. This study assesses whether the type or amount of online health activities and the timing of Internet use are associated with psychological distress.Methods. We use data from the National Cancer Institute's 2005 Health Information National Trends Survey.Results. When we compare Internet users to non-Internet users, using the Internet and using the Internet for health purposes are negatively associated with distress. However, among Internet users, the number of online health activities is positively associated with distress. Greater distress is also associated with using the Internet on weekdays and looking online for information on sun protection.Conclusions. Internet usage is not necessarily positively associated with psychological distress. The effects depend on the type, amount, and timing of Internet usage.

  17. The importance of the relationship between scale and process in understanding long-term DOC dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, J M; Bottrell, S H; Evans, C D; Monteith, D T; Bartlett, R; Rose, R; Newton, R J; Chapman, P J

    2010-06-01

    Concentrations of dissolved organic carbon have increased in many, but not all, surface waters across acid impacted areas of Europe and North America over the last two decades. Over the last eight years several hypotheses have been put forward to explain these increases, but none are yet accepted universally. Research in this area appears to have reached a stalemate between those favouring declining atmospheric deposition, climate change or land management as the key driver of long-term DOC trends. While it is clear that many of these factors influence DOC dynamics in soil and stream waters, their effect varies over different temporal and spatial scales. We argue that regional differences in acid deposition loading may account for the apparent discrepancies between studies. DOC has shown strong monotonic increases in areas which have experienced strong downward trends in pollutant sulphur and/or seasalt deposition. Elsewhere climatic factors, that strongly influence seasonality, have also dominated inter-annual variability, and here long-term monotonic DOC trends are often difficult to detect. Furthermore, in areas receiving similar acid loadings, different catchment characteristics could have affected the site specific sensitivity to changes in acidity and therefore the magnitude of DOC release in response to changes in sulphur deposition. We suggest that confusion over these temporal and spatial scales of investigation has contributed unnecessarily to the disagreement over the main regional driver(s) of DOC trends, and that the data behind the majority of these studies is more compatible than is often conveyed. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Dr. Congeniality: Understanding the Importance of Surgeons' Nontechnical Skills Through 360° Feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanz, Julie J; Gregory, Paul J; Menendez, Mariano E; Harmon, Larry

    2018-01-17

    Physician performance is a complex construct that is broadly defined by technical and nontechnical components. The primary aim of this study was to identify which Big Five personality traits (openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and emotional stability) in surgeons were related to patient satisfaction and teamwork performance in a surgical setting. A secondary aim of this study was to examine the specific perceptions of physician behavior related to patient satisfaction and teamwork performance. Orthopedic surgeons received anonymous multisource 360° feedback from managers, colleagues, nurses, technicians, and trainees. Personality traits were categorized with a modified Delphi Consensus technique using the Big Five framework. Patient satisfaction was measured using retrospective Clinician & Group-Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and System (CG-CAHPS) data. Teamwork performance was measured using the Quality PULSE 360 Teamwork Index. Research was performed at a large academic medical center in the northeastern United States. Participants in this study included a sample of 24 orthopedic surgeons. Backward stepwise regressions were used to determine which model with the most variance used the fewest explanatory variables. Personality traits acted as predictor variables in the regression models and patient satisfaction and teamwork performance were utilized as outcome variables. The higher the physicians' emotional stability, the higher patients' overall satisfaction (β = 0.41, p = 0.04) and willingness to recommend them to other patients (β = 0.45, p = 0.03). Furthermore, high emotional stability was related to effective surgical teams as rated by team members (β = -0.75, p = 0.00) such that the more emotionally stable physicians were, the higher their teamwork rating by colleagues. Both physicians-in-training and in-practice physicians may benefit from engaging in empathic and constructive behaviors with patients and team members

  19. Toward a new understanding of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder pathophysiology: an important role for prefrontal cortex dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnsten, Amy F T

    2009-01-01

    Recent advances in neurobiology have aided our understanding of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The higher-order association cortices in the temporal and parietal lobes and prefrontal cortex (PFC) interconnect to mediate aspects of attention. The parietal association cortices are important for orienting attentional resources in time/space, while the temporal association cortices analyse visual features critical for identifying objects/places. These posterior cortices are engaged by the salience of a stimulus (its physical characteristics such as movement and colour). Conversely, the PFC is critical for regulating attention based on relevance (i.e. its meaning). The PFC is important for screening distractions, sustaining attention and shifting/dividing attention in a task-appropriate manner. The PFC is critical for regulating behaviour/emotion, especially for inhibiting inappropriate emotions, impulses and habits. The PFC is needed for allocating/planning to achieve goals and organizing behaviour/thought. These regulatory abilities are often referred to as executive functions. In humans, the right hemisphere of the PFC is important for regulating distractions, inappropriate behaviour and emotional responses. Imaging studies of patients with ADHD indicate that these regions are underactive with weakened connections to other parts of the brain. The PFC regulates attention and behaviour through networks of interconnected pyramidal cells. These networks excite each other to store goals/rules to guide actions and are highly dependent on their neurochemical environment, as small changes in the catecholamines noradrenaline (NA) or dopamine (DA) can have marked effects on PFC function. NA and DA are released in the PFC according to our arousal state; too little (during fatigue or boredom) or too much (during stress) impairs PFC function. Optimal amounts are released when we are alert/interested. The beneficial effects of NA occur at postsynaptic alpha(2A

  20. The importance of trans-generational effects in Lepidoptera

    OpenAIRE

    Woestmann, Luisa; Saastamoinen, Marjo

    2016-01-01

    The importance of trans-generational effects in shaping an individuals' phenotype and fitness, and consequently even impacting population dynamics is increasingly apparent. Most of the research on trans-generational effects still focuses on plants, mammals, and birds. In the past few years, however, increasing number of studies, especially on maternal effects, have highlighted their importance also in many insect systems. Lepidoptera, specifically butterflies, have been used as model systems ...

  1. Improving Elementary School Students' Understanding of Historical Time: Effects of Teaching with "Timewise"

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot-Reuvekamp, Marjan; Ros, Anje; van Boxtel, Carla

    2018-01-01

    The teaching of historical time is an important aspect in elementary school curricula. This study focuses on the effects of a curriculum intervention with "Timewise," a teaching approach developed to improve students' understanding of historical time using timelines as a basis with which students can develop their understanding of…

  2. Importance of prenatal diagnosis in the effective management of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Importance of prenatal diagnosis in the effective management of the hydrocephalic fetus: a case report in the Douala General Hospital, Cameroon. ... Towards term, decisions will be made on the mode of delivery (vaginal or cesarean delivery) depending on the presentation of the fetus. Furthermore, it is important to avoid ...

  3. Importance of quantification of local site effects based on wave ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper presents the three most important aspects of seismic microzonation namely prediction of fundamental frequency (F0) of soil deposit, aggravation factor (aggravation factor is ... We recommend the use of analytical or numerical methods to predict such an important parameter based on wave propagation effects.

  4. When is a terrace not a terrace? The importance of understanding landscape evolution in studies of terraced agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro-Vázquez, C; Lang, C; Kaal, J; Stump, D

    2017-11-01

    Before the invention of modern, large-scale engineering projects, terrace systems were rarely built in single phases of construction, but instead developed gradually, and could even be said to have evolved. Understanding this process of landscape change is therefore important in order to fully appreciate how terrace systems were built and functioned, and is also pivotal to understanding how the communities that farmed these systems responded to changes; whether these are changes to the landscape brought about by the farming practices themselves, or changes to social, economic or climatic conditions. Combining archaeological stratigraphy, soil micromorphology and geochemistry, this paper presents a case-study from the historic and extensive terraced landscape at Konso, southwest Ethiopia, and demonstrates - in one important river valley at least - that the original topsoil and much of the subsoil was lost prior to the construction of hillside terraces. Moreover, the study shows that alluvial sediment traps that were built adjacent to rivers relied on widespread hillside soil erosion for their construction, and strongly suggests that these irrigated riverside fields were formerly a higher economic priority than the hillside terraces themselves; a possibility that was not recognised by numerous observational studies of farming in this landscape. Research that takes into account how terrace systems change through time can thus provide important details of whether the function of the system has changed, and can help assess how the legacies of former practices impact current or future cultivation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The current state of Contract Law in Australia and why it is important for rural managers to understand it

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Tony

    2011-01-01

    Farmers are business managers and as such they must understand the law or they are likely to fall foul of it. This especially applies to contract law, with which they deal constantly. Contract law is made up of the common law – as the courts have decided it – and statute law- as the state and federal parliaments have enacted statutes which modify the common law. The most important and most recent of the latter is the new Australian Consumer Law.

  6. Hearing voices and listening to what they say: the importance of voice content in understanding and working with distressing voices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beavan, Vanessa; Read, John

    2010-03-01

    The content of auditory hallucinations is sometimes dismissed as having little diagnostic/therapeutic importance. There is growing evidence that voice content may be crucial to understanding and working therapeutically with this experience. The aim of the present study is to explore, in a general population sample, the content and impact of voice-hearers' auditory hallucinations. A self-selected sample of 154 participants completed questionnaires about voice-hearing. A subsample of 50 participants completed semi-structured interviews. Participants experienced a range of voice content of high personal relevance, with most experiencing both positive and negative content. Voice content was the only significant predictor of emotional distress and the strongest predictor of contact with mental health services. These findings suggest that content is an important characteristic of auditory hallucinations and should be explored with voice-hearers who find themselves in clinical settings.

  7. Big Hitters: Important Factors Characterizing Team Effectiveness in Professional Cricket

    OpenAIRE

    Webster, Leonie V.; Hardy, James; Hardy, Lew

    2017-01-01

    While organizational psychology attests to the multidimensional nature of team effectiveness, insight regarding the most important factors contributing to the effectiveness of sports teams, especially elite teams, is lacking. An abductive method of qualitative enquiry was adopted to capture participants' construal of team effectiveness, drawing on the extant literature in both sport and organizational psychology. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 21 players, coaches, and psycholo...

  8. Understanding the Importance of Relationships: Perspective of Children with Intellectual Disabilities, Their Parents, and Nurses in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aston, Megan; Breau, Lynn; MacLeod, Emily

    2014-01-01

    Effective and therapeutic relationships between health care providers and clients are important elements for positive health outcomes. Children with intellectual disabilities (IDs) and their parents face unique challenges in establishing relationships with health care providers due to social and institutional stigma and stereotypes associated with…

  9. The elusive importance effect: more failure for the Jamesian perspective on the importance of importance in shaping self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Herbert W

    2008-10-01

    Following William James (1890/1963), many leading self-esteem researchers continue to support the Individual-importance hypothesis-that the relation between specific facets of self-concept and global self-esteem depends on the importance an individual places on each specific facet. However, empirical support for the hypothesis is surprisingly elusive, whether evaluated in terms of an importance-weighted average model, a generalized multiple regression approach for testing self-concept-by-importance interactions, or idiographic approaches. How can actual empirical support for such an intuitively appealing and widely cited psychological principle be so elusive? Hardy and Moriarty (2006), acknowledging this previous failure of the Individual-importance hypothesis, claim to have solved the conundrum, demonstrating an innovative idiographic approach that provides clear support for it. However, a critical evaluation of their new approach, coupled with a reanalysis of their data, undermines their claims. Indeed, their data provide compelling support against the Individual-importance hypothesis, which remains as elusive as ever.

  10. Discussion of the importance of the refraction effects for RHEED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitura, Zbigniew; Szczypiński, Michał M.; Mitura, Stanisław

    2017-11-01

    The preparation of nanostructured materials is quite often controlled with the help of reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED). However, the interpretation of RHEED results should be carried out with some care because electrons strongly interact with atoms. Here, the importance of the refraction effects is shown theoretically. Results of dynamical and kinematical calculations of RHEED rocking curves are compared for diamond and gallium arsenide. Dynamical calculations are carried by solving the Schrödinger equation. For kinematical calculations respective analytical formulas are used. RHEED intensities for growing surfaces are analyzed. In particular, it discussed why the refraction effects are very important for the appearance of RHEED oscillations.

  11. Is the in situ inflammatory reaction an important tool to understand the cellular immune response in American tegumentary leishmaniasis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgado, F N; Schubach, A; Rosalino, C M V; Quintella, L P; Santos, G; Salgueiro, M; Conceição-Silva, F

    2008-01-01

    The study of American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) lesions might contribute to the understanding of the dynamics of the infection. To examine the cellular infiltrate of cutaneous ATL lesions and to compare these results with the detection of the parasites and clinical data. Lesions of 19 patients with ATL were evaluated through immunohistochemical analysis. The lesions presented an inflammatory reaction mainly consisting of T cells and macrophages. Analysis of the expression of nitric oxide synthase type 2 (NOS2) showed that its intensity was directly correlated with the number of CD3+ T cells. We also observed an association between high NOS2 expression and low quantity of parasites, highlighting the importance of NOS2 in the elimination of parasites. The present results suggest that (i) the inflammatory process is intense in cutaneous ATL lesions and maintains a similar activity for several months; (ii) the dynamics of cell infiltration change during this period, with a gradual decrease in CD8+ T cells, probably correlated with a reduction in the parasite number; (iii) neutrophils may participate in the inflammatory process even during later stages of infection; (iv) the relative increase in the number of CD4+ T cells associated with the onset of fibrosis may suggest a participation of these cells in the control of the inflammatory process; and (v) late lesions with tendency for healing usually show focal inflammation. The study of healing lesions might contribute to the understanding of the late steps of the control of the inflammatory process in ATL lesions.

  12. Importance of quantification of local site effects based on wave ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper presents the three most important aspects of seismic microzonation namely prediction of fundamental frequency (F0) of soil deposit, aggravation factor (aggravation factor is simply the extra spectral amplification due to complex 2D site effects over the 1D response of the soil column) and the spatial variability of ...

  13. UNDERSTANDING THE IMPORTANCE OF HUMAN CAPITAL AND LABOR MARKET COMPETITIVENESS IN THE EU CANDIDATE COUNTRIES AND SELECTED EU MEMBERS

    OpenAIRE

    Andrijević Matovac, Vesna; Bilas, Vlatka; Franc, Sanja

    2010-01-01

    Human capital is considered to be an important factor of economic growth and development, as well as one of the sources of competitive advantages. In order to attain highly skilled human capital, countries should improve their labor market competitiveness and increase investments in education, science and technology. This paper analyzes the role and the significance of human capital. Furthermore, it researches motives, effects and trends of labor migration in Europe, with special emphasis ...

  14. The importance of effective communication in preventing litigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegan, T

    2003-03-01

    Good communication in all aspects of medical practice is essential. Effective communication with your patient not only enables you to take an accurate history but also helps the patient to understand their illness and no doubt assists the healing process. Communication with other health professionals allows the team approach to healthcare to succeed. It reduces the chances of a breakdown in continuity of care, builds relationships and understanding between different disciplines and specialties and helps professionals to learn from each other. In the medico-legal field poor communication is the underlying problem in the most of cases that MPS deals with. The majority of negligence cases are not related to the clinical quality of care but are triggered by inadequate communication. A breakdown in the doctor-patient often occurs before the incident that leads to a claim. It is as if the patient is just waiting for their moment to sue. In a busy clinic or GP surgery it is often easy to forget the human needs of the patient and concentrate on their medical needs. First impressions are vital not just with the doctor but also with other staff and even the clinic or hospital itself. During the consultation careful listening, giving sincere empathy early in the consultation and an expression of understanding of their concerns will go a long way to instill confidence in the patient and reduce the likelihood of a complaint should things go wrong.

  15. Understanding the Importance of Context: A Qualitative Study of a Location-Based Exergame to Enhance School Childrens Physical Activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy Robertson

    Full Text Available Many public health interventions are less effective than expected in 'real life settings', yet little work is undertaken to understand the reasons why. The effectiveness of complex public health interventions can often be traced back to a robust programme theory (how and why an intervention brings about a change in outcome(s and assumptions that are made about the context in which it is implemented. Understanding whether effectiveness (or lack thereof is due to the intervention or the context is hugely helpful in decisions about whether to a modify the intervention; b modify the context; c stop providing the intervention. Exergames-also known as Active Video Games or AVGS-are video games which use the player's bodily movements as input and have potential to increase physical activity in children. However, the results of a recent pilot randomised controlled trial (RCT of a location-based exergame (FitQuest in a school setting were inconclusive; no significant effect was detected for any of the outcome measures. The aim of this study was to explore whether the programme theory for FitQuest was correct with respect to how and why it would change children's perceptions of physical activity (PA and exercise self-efficacy in the school setting. A further aim was to investigate the features of the school setting (context that may impact on FitQuest's implementation and effectiveness. Qualitative data (gathered during the RCT were gathered from interviews with teachers and children, and observation of sessions using FitQuest. Thematic analysis indicated that whilst children enjoyed playing the game, engaged with goal setting within the game context and undertook low to vigorous physical activity, there were significant contextual factors that prevented it from being played as often as intended. These included environmental factors (e.g. size of the playground, school factors (cancellations due to other activities, school technology policy (rules

  16. Assessment of plutonium security effect using import premium method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohkubo, Hiroo; Aoyagi, Tadashi; Kikuchi, Masahiro; Suzuki, Atsuyuki.

    1994-01-01

    A mathematical formulation was developed to describe the concept of import premium method, which can quantify a security effect of demand reduction of imports by introducing the alternative before its supply disruption (or variation) may happen. Next, by using this formula, a security value of plutonium use (especially, fast breeder reactor), defined as a contributor to reduction of possibilities of disruption (or variation) of natural uranium supply was estimated. From these studies, it is concluded that although the formula proposed here is simplified, it may be available for assessing an energy security if only we prepare the data concerning future motions of supply and demand curves. (author)

  17. Understanding sex differences in form and function of bird song: The importance of studying song learning processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina eRiebel

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Birdsong is a culturally transmitted mating signal. Due to historical and geographical biases, song (learning has been predominantly studied in the temperate zones, where female song is rare. Consequently, mechanisms and function of song learning have been almost exclusively studied in male birds and under the premise that inter- and intrasexual selection favoured larger repertoires and complex songs in males. However, female song is not rare outside the temperate zones and song in both sexes probably is the ancestral state in songbirds. Some song dimorphisms seen today might therefore be manifestations of secondary losses of female song. What selection pressures have favoured such losses and other sexual dimorphisms in song? Combined mapping of phylogenetic and ecological correlates of sex differences in song structure and function might provide important clues to the evolution of male and female song. This requires parameterization of the degree of sexual dimorphism. Simple comparison of male-female song might not provide enough resolution, because the same magnitude of difference (e.g. repertoire overlap could result from different processes: the sexes could differ in how well they learn (‘copying fidelity’ or from whom they learn (‘model selection’. Different learning mechanisms might provide important pointers towards different selection pressures. Investigating sex-specific learning could therefore help to identify the social and ecological selection pressures contributing to sex differences in adult song. The study of female song learning in particular could be crucial to our understanding of i song function in males and females and ii the evolution of sex-specific song.

  18. Towards enhancing photocatalytic hydrogen generation: Which is more important, alloy synergistic effect or plasmonic effect?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Zhenhe; Kibria, Md Golam; AlOtaibi, Bandar; Duchesne, Paul N.; Besteiro, Lucas V.; Gao, Yu; Zhang, Qingzhe; Mi, Zetian; Zhang, Peng; Govorov, Alexander O.; Mai, Liqiang; Chaker, Mohamed; Ma, Dongling

    2018-02-01

    Synergistic effect in alloys and plasmonic effect have both been explored for increasing the efficiency of water splitting. In depth understanding and comparison of their respective contributions in certain promising systems is highly desired for catalyst development, yet rarely investigated so far. We report herein our thorough investigations on a series of highly interesting nanocomposites composed of Pt, Au and C3N4 nanocomponents, which are designed to benefit from both synergistic and plasmonic effects. Detailed analyses led to an important conclusion that the contribution from the synergistic effect was at least 3.5 times that from the plasmonic effect in the best performing sample, Pt50Au50 alloy decorated C3N4. It showed remarkable turnover frequency of >1.6 mmol h-1 g-1 at room temperature. Our work provides physical insights for catalyst development by rationally designing samples to compare long-known synergistic effect with recently emerging, attractive plasmonic effect and represents the first case study in the field.

  19. Human exposure monitoring and evaluation in the Arctic: the importance of understanding exposures to the development of public health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suk, William A; Avakian, Maureen D; Carpenter, David; Groopman, John D; Scammell, Madeleine; Wild, Christopher P

    2004-01-01

    Arctic indigenous peoples face significant challenges resulting from the contamination of Arctic air, water, and soil by persistent organic pollutants, heavy metals, and radionuclides. International cooperative efforts among governments and research institutions are under way to collect the information needed by environmental health scientists and public health officials to address environmental contamination in the Arctic. However, the climatic, political, and cultural conditions of the land and its native populations combine to present a unique set of scientific and logistic challenges to addressing this important public health issue. Public health officials have the responsibility to respect the cultural traditions of indigenous communities, while simultaneously designing strategies that will reduce their exposure to environmental contaminants and rates of disease and dysfunction. Researchers can better understand the link between environmental exposures and disease through monitoring programs for both the subsistence diets and health status of the indigenous populations. We suggest that the incorporation of community-based participatory research methods into programs designed to assess biomarkers of contaminant exposure in children and adults may be a valuable addition to ongoing and newly developed research programs. This approach could serve as a model for international environmental health initiatives, because it involves the participation of the local communities and seeks to builds trust between all stakeholders. PMID:14757538

  20. Trust-Building in Electronic Markets: Relative Importance and Interaction Effects of Trust-Building Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tams, Stefan

    We examine the relative and complementary effectiveness of trust-building strategies in online environments. While prior research has examined various antecedents to trust, we investigated two trust-building mechanisms more in depth: Web site trust and vendor reputation. We tried to understand the relative effectiveness of these two important mechanisms to provide online businesses with a clear recommendation of how to establish trust in an effective and efficient manner. Drawing from the literature on trust, we proposed vendor reputation to be more effective than Web site trust. Moreover, we examined a potential complementary effect of these mechanisms so as to provide online businesses with a deeper understanding of how to derive superior trust. We hypothesize a small such effect. The study proposes a laboratory experiment to test the model.

  1. Lay understandings of the effects of poverty: a Canadian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reutter, Linda I; Veenstra, Gerry; Stewart, Miriam J; Raphael, Dennis; Love, Rhonda; Makwarimba, Edward; McMurray, Susan

    2005-11-01

    Although there is a large body of research dedicated to exploring public attributions for poverty, considerably less attention has been directed to public understandings about the effects of poverty. In this paper, we describe lay understandings of the effects of poverty and the factors that potentially influence these perceptions, using data from a telephone survey conducted in 2002 on a random sample (n=1671) of adults from eight neighbourhoods in two large Canadian cities (Edmonton and Toronto). These data were supplemented with interview data obtained from 153 people living in these same neighbourhoods. Multivariate linear and logistic regressions were used to determine the effects of basic demographic variables, exposure to poverty and attribution for poverty on three dependent variables relating to the effects of poverty: participation in community life, the relationship between poverty and health and challenges facing low-income people. Ninety-one per cent of survey respondents agreed that poverty is linked to health, while 68% agreed that low-income people are less likely to participate in community life. Affordable housing was deemed especially difficult to obtain by 96%, but other resources (obtaining healthy food, giving children a good start in life, and engaging in healthy behaviours) were also viewed as challenging by at least 70% of respondents. The regression models revealed that when controlling for demographics, exposure to poverty explained some of the variance in recognising the effects of poverty. Media exposure positively influenced recognition of the poverty-health link, and attending formal talks was strongly related to understanding challenges of poverty. Attributions for poverty accounted for slightly more of the variance in the dependent variables. Specifically, structural and sociocultural attributions predicted greater recognition of the effects of poverty, in particular the challenges of poverty, while individualistic attributions

  2. Root cause analysis underscores the importance of understanding, addressing, and communicating cold chain equipment failures to improve equipment performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennon, Pat; Atuhaire, Brian; Yavari, Shahrzad; Sampath, Vidya; Mvundura, Mercy; Ramanathan, Nithya; Robertson, Joanie

    2017-04-19

    Vaccine cold chain equipment (CCE) in developing countries is often exposed to harsh environmental conditions, such as extreme temperatures and humidity, and is subject to many additional challenges, including intermittent power supply, insufficient maintenance capacity, and a scarcity of replacement parts. Together, these challenges lead to high failure rates for refrigerators, potentially damaging vaccines and adversely affecting immunization coverage. Providing a sustainable solution for improving CCE performance requires an understanding of the root causes of failure. Project teams conducted small-scale studies to determine the root causes of CCE failure in selected locations in Uganda and Mozambique. The evaluations covered 59 failed refrigerators and freezers in Uganda and 27 refrigerators in Mozambique. In Uganda, the vast majority of failures were due to a cooling unit fault in one widely used refrigerator model. In Mozambique, 11 of the 27 problems were attributable to solar refrigerators with batteries that were unable to hold a charge, and another eight problems were associated with a need to adjust thermostat settings. The studies showed that tracking and evaluation of equipment performance and failure can yield important, actionable information for a range of stakeholders, including local CCE technicians, the ministry of health, equipment manufacturers, and international partners such as the United Nations Children's Fund, World Health Organization, and Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance. Collaborative efforts to systematically collect and communicate data on CCE performance and causes of failure will help to improve the efficiency and reach of immunization programs in low- and middle-income countries. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. [Childhood sexual abuse: how important is the diagnosis to understand and manage sexual, anorectal and lower urinary tract symptoms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cour, F; Robain, G; Claudon, B; Chartier-Kästler, E

    2013-07-01

    To understand and manage the sequels of childhood sexual abuse on sexual, anorectal and lower urinary tract functions. Review of articles published in the Medline database, selected according to their scientific relevance and published guidelines on this subject together with our own experience. A history of sexual abuse is frequently found when assessing dysfunction or symptoms of the lower urinary tract. In this context, urinary stress incontinence is rarely involved but it can be linked by epidemiological factors. Dysuria with urgency is the most frequent expressed symptom. When associated with anorectal disorders and pelvic pain or a sexual disorder in particular dyspareunia, a sexual abuse should be evoked and specific questions asked to the patient. Although these symptoms are frequently encountered in 12 to 33% of women, and 8 to 16% of men, few practitioners, whatever their speciality ask about them as routine. It is important that the physician diagnose the existence of sexual abuse, in particular when the symptoms mentioned by the patient are not conclusive, in spite of thorough urological assessment. Patients finding the initial examination difficult and painful and the failure of the initial treatment should lead to questions concerning abuse, if neglected by the initial medical inquiry. Clinicians involved in perineal functional pathology are able to acquire standardized modalities of inquiry about child sexual abuse for a better time management and efficacy in the therapeutic approach. The interest of a multidisciplinary diagnostic and therapeutic approach is primordial, associating psychological therapy and if necessary perineal re-education. This can avoid unnecessary tests and out-patient visits. Directing patients towards a multidisciplinary approach is highly advisable. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Novel bone metabolism-associated hormones: the importance of the pre-analytical phase for understanding their physiological roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, Giovanni; Barbaro, Mosè; Locatelli, Massimo; Banfi, Giuseppe

    2017-06-01

    The endocrine function of bone is now a recognized feature of this tissue. Bone-derived hormones that modulate whole-body homeostasis, are being discovered as for the effects on bone of novel and classic hormones produced by other tissues become known. Often, however, the data regarding these last generation bone-derived or bone-targeting hormones do not give about a clear picture of their physiological roles or concentration ranges. A certain degree of uncertainty could stem from differences in the pre-analytical management of biological samples. The pre-analytical phase comprises a series of decisions and actions (i.e., choice of sample matrix, methods of collection, transportation, treatment and storage) preceding analysis. Errors arising in this phase will inevitably be carried over to the analytical phase where they can reduce the measurement accuracy, ultimately, leading discrepant results. While the pre-analytical phase is all important, in routine laboratory medicine, it is often not given due consideration in research and clinical trials. This is particularly true for novel molecules, such as the hormones regulating the endocrine function of bone. In this review we discuss the importance of the pre-analytical variables affecting the measurement of last generation bone-associated hormones and describe their, often debated and rarely clear physiological roles.

  5. Understanding Crowdsourcing: Effects of motivation and rewards on participation and performance in voluntary online activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.A.M. Borst (Irma)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractCompanies increasingly outsource activities to volunteers that they approach via an open call on the internet. The phenomenon is called ‘crowdsourcing’. For an effective use of crowdsourcing it is important to understand what motivated these online volunteers and what is the influence of

  6. Effectiveness of Understanding Relations between Community, Home, and School for Future Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta, Claudia; Galaviz, Sonia

    2013-01-01

    As educators committed to preparing teachers to teach effectively across differences and in ways that actively resist perpetuating injustices, we have found that designing opportunities that take teachers into the children's community is the best way to learn about the cultural wealth existing in homes and to understand the importance of including…

  7. Understanding the importance of attachment in shame traumatic memory relation to depression: the impact of emotion regulation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, Marcela; Pinto-Gouveia, José; Costa, Vânia

    2013-01-01

    Early relationships are crucial to human brain maturation, well-being, affect regulation and self-other schema. Shame traumatic memories are related to psychopathology, and recent research has shown that the quality and type of attachment relationships may be crucial in shame traumatic memories in relation to psychopathology. The current study explores a mediator model of emotion regulation processes (rumination, thought suppression and dissociation) on the association between shame traumatic memory, with attachment figures and with others, and depressive symptoms. Ninety subjects from the general community population completed the Shame Experiences Interview (SEI), assessing shame experiences from childhood and adolescence, and a battery of self-report scales measuring shame traumatic memory, rumination, thought suppression, dissociation and depression. Mediator analyses show that emotion regulation processes, such as brooding, thought suppression and dissociation, mediate the association between shame traumatic memory with others and depression. In contrast, shame traumatic memory with attachment figures has a direct effect on depression, not mediated by emotion regulation processes, with only brooding partially mediating this relation. The current findings shed light on the importance of attachment figures on the structuring of shame traumatic memories and on their impact on psychopathological symptoms, adding to recent neuroscience research and Gilbert's approach on shame and compassion. In addition, our results emphasize the relevance of addressing shame memories, mainly those that involve attachment figures, particularly when working with patients suffering from depressive symptoms and/or that find compassion difficult or scary. The quality of attachment relationships is important in how shame memories are structured and in their relation to psychopathology. The relationship between shame traumatic memory with attachment figures and depressive symptoms is not

  8. Towards an understanding of staggering effects in dissipative binary collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Agostino, M.; Bruno, M.; Gulminelli, F.; Morelli, L.; Baiocco, G.; Bardelli, L.; Barlini, S.; Cannata, F.; Casini, G.; Geraci, E.; Gramegna, F.; Kravchuk, V.L.; Marchi, T.; Moroni, A.; Ordine, A.; Raduta, Ad.R.

    2012-01-01

    The reactions 32 S+ 58,64 Ni are studied at 14.5 A MeV. Evidence is found for important odd–even effects in isotopic observables of selected peripheral collisions corresponding to the decay of a projectile-like source. The influence of secondary decays on the staggering is studied with a correlation function technique. It is shown that this method is a powerful tool to get experimental information on the evaporation chain, in order to constrain model calculations. Specifically, we show that odd–even effects are due to interplay between pairing effects in the nuclear masses and in the level densities.

  9. On the Conceptual Understanding of the Photoelectric Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foong, S. K.; Lee, P.; Wong, D.; Chee, Y. P.

    2010-07-01

    We attempt an in-depth literature review that focuses on some finer aspects of the photoelectric effect that will help build a more coherent understanding of the phenomenon. These include the angular distribution of photoelectrons, multi-photon photoelectron emission and the work function in the photoelectric equation as being that associated with the collector rather than the emitter. We attempt to explain the intricacies of the related concepts in a way that is accessible to teachers and students at the Singapore GCE A-level or pre-university level.

  10. Weapons for Strategic Effect How Important is Technology?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gray, Colin

    2001-01-01

    There is no doubt that technology is important in war. While it is difficult to identify major security issues for which technology is not important, determining just how important is another matter...

  11. Recombination An important effect in multigap resistive plate chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Doroud, K; Hatzifotiadou, D; Rahighi, J; Williams, M C S; Zichichi, A

    2009-01-01

    We have simulated the gas avalanche in a multigap resistive plate chamber (MRPC). The results were then compared with our data from the MRPC [1]. Up to now, the total amount of charge produced in a gas gap is considered to be given by the total number of positive ions generated by the gas avalanches. However, the total charge generated by the simulation program is much too large and is in conflict with our data. Our data indicate that nearly 100% of the negative ions recombine with the positive ions. The recombination effect dramatically reduces the amount of charge in the gas gap: a very important feature for MRPC technology especially for the rate capability.

  12. Recombination: An important effect in multigap resistive plate chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doroud, K.; Afarideh, H.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Rahighi, J.; Williams, M.C.S.; Zichichi, A.

    2009-01-01

    We have simulated the gas avalanche in a multigap resistive plate chamber (MRPC). The results were then compared with our data from the MRPC . Up to now, the total amount of charge produced in a gas gap is considered to be given by the total number of positive ions generated by the gas avalanches. However, the total charge generated by the simulation program is much too large and is in conflict with our data. Our data indicate that nearly 100% of the negative ions recombine with the positive ions. The recombination effect dramatically reduces the amount of charge in the gas gap: a very important feature for MRPC technology especially for the rate capability.

  13. The importance of socio-ecological system dynamics in understanding adaptation to global change in the forestry sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Victor; Brown, Calum; Holzhauer, Sascha; Vulturius, Gregor; Rounsevell, Mark D A

    2017-07-01

    Adaptation is necessary to cope with or take advantage of the effects of climate change on socio-ecological systems. This is especially important in the forestry sector, which is sensitive to the ecological and economic impacts of climate change, and where the adaptive decisions of owners play out over long periods of time. Relatively little is known about how successful these decisions are likely to be in meeting demands for ecosystem services in an uncertain future. We explore adaptation to global change in the forestry sector using CRAFTY-Sweden; an agent-based model that represents large-scale land-use dynamics, based on the demand and supply of ecosystem services. Future impacts and adaptation within the Swedish forestry sector were simulated for scenarios of socio-economic change (Shared Socio-economic Pathways) and climatic change (Representative Concentration Pathways, for three climate models), between 2010 and 2100. Substantial differences were found in the competitiveness and coping ability of land owners implementing different management strategies through time. Generally, multi-objective management was found to provide the best basis for adaptation. Across large regions, however, a combination of management strategies was better at meeting ecosystem service demands. Results also show that adaptive capacity evolves through time in response to external (global) drivers and interactions between individual actors. This suggests that process-based models are more appropriate for the study of autonomous adaptation and future adaptive and coping capacities than models based on indicators, discrete time snapshots or exogenous proxies. Nevertheless, a combination of planned and autonomous adaptation by institutions and forest owners is likely to be more successful than either group acting alone. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effectiveness of the Medical Emergency Team: the importance of dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Daryl; Bellomo, Rinaldo; DeVita, Michael A

    2009-01-01

    Up to 17% of hospital admissions are complicated by serious adverse events unrelated to the patients presenting medical condition. Rapid Response Teams (RRTs) review patients during early phase of deterioration to reduce patient morbidity and mortality. However, reports of the efficacy of these teams are varied. The aims of this article were to explore the concept of RRT dose, to assess whether RRT dose improves patient outcomes, and to assess whether there is evidence that inclusion of a physician in the team impacts on the effectiveness of the team. A review of available literature suggested that the method of reporting RRT utilization rate, (RRT dose) is calls per 1,000 admissions. Hospitals with mature RRTs that report improved patient outcome following RRT introduction have a RRT dose between 25.8 and 56.4 calls per 1,000 admissions. Four studies report an association between increasing RRT dose and reduced in-hospital cardiac arrest rates. Another reported that increasing RRT dose reduced in-hospital mortality for surgical but not medical patients. The MERIT study investigators reported a negative relationship between MET-like activity and the incidence of serious adverse events. Fourteen studies reported improved patient outcome in association with the introduction of a RRT, and 13/14 involved a Physician-led MET. These findings suggest that if the RRT is the major method for reviewing serious adverse events, the dose of RRT activation must be sufficient for the frequency and severity of the problem it is intended to treat. If the RRT dose is too low then it is unlikely to improve patient outcomes. Increasing RRT dose appears to be associated with reduction in cardiac arrests. The majority of studies reporting improved patient outcome in association with the introduction of an RRT involve a MET, suggesting that inclusion of a physician in the team is an important determinant of its effectiveness.

  15. Understanding noise suppression in heterojunction field-effect transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, F.

    1996-01-01

    Full text: The enhanced transport properties displayed by quantum-well-confined, two-dimensional, electron systems underpin the success of heterojunction, field-effect transistors. At cryogenic temperatures, these devices exhibit impressive mobilities and, as a result, high signal gain and low noise. Conventional wisdom has it that the same favourable conditions also hold for normal room-temperature operation. In that case, however, high mobilities are precluded by abundant electron-phonon scattering. Our recent study of nonequilibrium current noise shows that quantum confinement, not high mobility, is the principal source of noise in these devices; this opens up new and exciting opportunities in low-noise transistor design. As trends in millimetre-wave technology push frequencies beyond 100 GHz, it is essential to develop a genuine understanding of noise processes in heterojunction devices

  16. UNDERSTANDING PLANT DENSITY EFFECTS ON MAIZE GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT: AN IMPORTANT ISSUE TO MAXIMIZE GRAIN YIELD A COMPREENSÃO DOS EFEITOS DA DENSIDADE DE PLANTAS SOBRE O CRESCIMENTO E DESENVOLVIMENTO DO MILHO É IMPORTANTE PARA MAXIMIZAR O RENDIMENTO DE GRÃOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Sangoi

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Maize is the agronomic grass species that is most sensitive to variations in plant density. For each production system, there is a population that maximizes grain yield. This article presents an overview of the factors that affect optimum plant population, emphasizingthe effects of dense stands on ear development and discussing important changes in plant traits that have contributed to increase the tolerance of modern hybrids to high plant densities. Population for maize maximum economic grain yield varies from 30,000 to over 90,000pl.ha-1, depending on water availability, soil fertility, maturity rating, planting date and row spacing. When the number of individuals per area is increased beyond the optimum plant density, there is a series of consequences that are detrimental to ear ontogeny and result in barrenness. First, ear differentiation is delayed in relation to tassel differentiation. Later-initiated earshoots have a reduced growth rate, resulting in fewer spikelet primordia transformed into functional florets by the time of flowering. Functional florets extrude silks slowly, decreasing the number of fertilized spikelets due to the lack of synchrony between anthesis and silking. Limitations in carbon and nitrogen supply to the ear stimulate young kernel abortion immediately after fertilization. Availability of earlier hybrids, with shorter plant height, lower leaf number, upright leaves, smaller tassels and better synchrony between male and female flowering time has enhanced the ability of maize to face high plant populations without showing excessive barrenness. Improved endurance in high stands has allowed maize to intercept and use solar radiation more efficiently, contributing to the remarkable increase in grain yield potential experienced by this crop.O milho é a gramínea mais sensível a variações na densidade de plantas. Para cada sistema de produção, existe uma população que maximiza o rendimento de grãos. Este artigo

  17. Understanding the Effects of Marriage and Divorce on Financial Investments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Charlotte; Joensen, Juanna Schröter; Rangvid, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    We investigate how changes in marital status affect financial investments and how these effects vary with background risk. We use detailed register-based panel data and difference-in-differences estimators to benchmark common unobserved influences on financial investments. Women increase...... is important for financial risk taking and investment responses to marital transitions....... the fraction of wealth invested in stocks after marriage and decrease it after divorce, whereas men show the opposite behavior. Households whose joint labor income risk is reduced more by marriage have a higher increase in their exposure to risky assets in marriage. Thus income risk sharing in the household...

  18. The Placebo Effect in Cardiology: Understanding and Using It.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Robert; Opie-Moran, Morwenna

    2017-12-01

    The placebo effect is the clinical benefit caused by interaction with a caregiver and health care system in the absence of a biologically active intervention and has been used successfully for millennia. The placebo response results from the interaction of psychosocial mechanisms, human relationships, and preconceptions functioning in specific neuroanatomic locations with known genes and neurotransmitters. It occurs with or without the administration of an inactive substance to deliberately deceive patients. Our purpose is to review the history, benefits, and mechanisms of the placebo effect. The placebo response results from classic conditioning and positive expectations about outcome expressed by the caregiver. The outcomes are usually symptoms such as pain rather than biological outcomes such as death, and the powerful placebo may account for more than half the effect of treatment in many situations. The placebo effect results from activation of opioid, cannabinoid, and dopaminergic pathways involved in reward, expectancy, conditioning, and pain modulation. Eleven specific anatomic features in the brain identified by positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are involved. Polymorphisms in the structural genes for catecholamine O-methyltransferase and fatty acid amide oxidase significantly influence the placebo response. The placebo effect may be important in symptom suppression in angina, paroxysmal atrial fibrillation, and congestive heart failure. In the absence of deliberate deception, there are no ethical issues and given its potency, the time has come to consider how best to use the placebo in clinical practice. Copyright © 2017 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Compreendendo o Efeito Placebo / Understanding the Placebo Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elayne Vieira Dias

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Placebo é definido em termos farmacológicos como uma substância inerte, sem propriedades farmacológicas intrínsecas. No entanto, essa definição é superficial, visto que o placebo pode gerar efeitos terapêuticos que dependem de diversos fatores como palavras, rituais, símbolos e significados que acompanham seu uso. Assim, o efeito placebo não diz respeito apenas a uma substância, mas, envolve fatores cognitivos, genéticos e mecanismos de aprendizagem implícita e explícita. Nessa revisão nós abordamos os aspectos gerais do efeito placebo apoiados em diversos estudos com diferentes enfoques, visando uma melhor compreensão desse fenômeno que pode se somar ao tratamento ativo e otimizar os resultados na prática médica. Placebo is pharmacologically defined as an inert substance, with nointrinsic pharmacological properties. However, this is a superficial definition, since placebo may trigger therapeutic effects and its effectiveness depends on various factors such as words, rituals, symbols and meanings following its use. Thus, placebo effect does not refer just to the substance, but it also involves cognitive and genetic factors and learning mechanisms. Here, we review general aspects of the placebo effect supported by several studies with different approaches, to better understand this phenomenon which may contribute to active treatment as well as optimize the results in the clinical practice.

  20. Understanding why probiotic therapies can be effective in treating IBD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorak, Richard N

    2008-09-01

    Probiotics, for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease, are a group of specific nonpathogenic bacteria that are functionally and genetically defined by their ability to reduce inflammation in the intestine. Although probiotics also seem to have broad beneficial effects in humans, both as a food and as a therapeutic agent, there are specific identified mechanisms in some, but not all, of these bacteria that are important relative to the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease. Recently, studies relative to the mechanism of action of probiotics have identified that these organisms can have a direct effect on epithelial cell function and intestinal health, including enhancing epithelial barrier function, modulating epithelial cytokine secretion into an anti-inflammatory dominant profile, altering mucus production, changing bacterial luminal flora, modifying the innate and systemic immune system, and inducing regulatory T-cell effects. For probiotics to have a therapeutic role in the management of clinical inflammatory bowel disease, their therapeutic mechanism of action must be aligned with the pathogenic mechanism of action of the disease. In this regard, the role of probiotics for the clinical treatment of inflammatory bowel disease is emerging as the mechanisms and pathogenesis are being unraveled. It remains clear that probiotics are able to reduce gastrointestinal inflammation by exerting positive effects on epithelial cell and mucosal immune dysfunction.

  1. DOES EXPORT OR IMPORT MORE EFFECTIVE ON TURKISH GROWTH DYNAMICS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. SERDAR İSPİR

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the scope of export and import oriented growth hypothesis, export and imports’ contribution to the dynamic of the Turkish GDP Growth have been investigated during the period between 1989 and 2007. According to the diagnoses which are found, export plays a dominant role while the economy is shifting from ressesion mode to expanding period. In order to continue this process, export and import together provides a great amount of contribution, while the contributions of export and import tend to decrease during the expanding period.

  2. Importance of placebo effect in cough clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eccles, Ron

    2010-01-01

    Cough is a unique symptom because, unlike sneeze and other symptoms, it can be under voluntary control and this complicates clinical trials on cough medicines. All over-the-counter cough medicines (OTC) are very effective treatments because of their placebo effect. The placebo effect is enhanced by expectancy related to advertising, brand, packaging, and formulation. This placebo effect creates a problem for the conduct of clinical trials on OTC cough medicines that attempt to demonstrate the efficacy of a pharmacological agent above that of any placebo effect. Up to 85% of the efficacy of some cough medicines can be attributed to a placebo effect. The placebo effect apparent in clinical trials consists of several components: natural recovery, regression of cough response toward mean, demulcent effect, effect of sweetness, voluntary control, and effects related to expectancy and meaning of the treatment. The placebo effect has been studied most in the pain model, and placebo analgesia is reported to depend on the activation of endogenous opioid systems in the brain; this model may be applicable to cough. A balanced placebo design may help to control for the placebo effect, but this trial design may not be acceptable due to deception of patients. The placebo effect in clinical trials may be controlled by use of a crossover design, where feasible, and the changes in the magnitude of the placebo effect in this study design are discussed.

  3. Eisenhower’s Pursuit of Strategy: The Importance of Understanding the Influence of Leadership Styles on Strategic Decision Makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    Anthony Eden’s job to be concerned about the politics of international relations especially the delicate and volatile relations with France. Eden...engaged Marshall and members of the CCS, used subordinates to build consensus, signaled the importance of the strategy with outburst of anger and...American Attitudes and Policies.” Master’s Thesis, University of Constantine Algeria, 2008. Karsh, Efraim. “Why the Middle East is So Volatile

  4. Informing people about radiation risks: a review of obstacles to public understanding and effective risk communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Covello, V.T.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on informing people about radiation risks. The paper focuses on obstacles to public understanding and effective risk communication. The paper concludes with a set of guidelines for communicating information about radiation risks to the public. The paper also includes an appendix that reviews the literature on one of the most important tools for communicating information about radiation risks: risk comparisons

  5. To understand and manage the digestive radiation injuries: importance of the mucous reaction and new therapy orientations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francois, A.

    2007-09-01

    Actually the radiotherapy that concerns 50% of anti tumoral treatments is accompanied by side effects. The evolution of this therapy turns towards the limitation of the early effects but also the delayed effects in order to improve the quality of life of patients. The first answer was to reduce the radiation doses and the irradiated volume. Three directions are to be kept in mind concerning the digestive tissues: Fight against the break of the epithelial homeostasis by increasing the pool of cells before irradiation and by facilitating the processes of restoration and epithelial regeneration by the stimulation of the proliferation of the cells of progenitor compartments; Fight against the phenotype changes of the cells, and more globally against the cellular activation and its consequences: activation of the vascular endothelium and the initiation of the inflammatory and thrombosis processes; activation of the vascular smooth muscular cells and stenosis; oxidative stress and tissue hypoxia; recruitment and activation of the mesenchyme cells and matrix unbalance; to consider the global nature of the secondary effects, and become aware that there is, besides the physical twilight connected to the irradiation configuration, a biological twilight, that is to say a potential repercussion of the irradiation effects out of the field, on the global nature of an organ even an organism, and this in the therapy and accident configurations. (N.C.)

  6. Molecular Modeling of Enzyme Dynamics Towards Understanding Solvent Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wedberg, Nils Hejle Rasmus Ingemar

    ) in water and organic solvents. The effects of solvent on structural and dynamical enzyme properties are studied, and special attention is given to how enzyme properties in organic solvents are affected by the hydration level, which is shown to be related to the water activity. In experimental studies...... of enzyme kinetics in non-aqueous media, it has been a fruitful approach to fix the enzyme hydration level by controlling the water activity of the medium. In this work, a protocol is therefore developed for determining the water activity in non-aqueous protein simulations. The method relies on determining......This thesis describes the development of a molecular simulation methodology to study properties of enzymes in non-aqueous media at fixed thermodynamic water activities. The methodology is applied in a molecular dynamics study of the industrially important enzyme Candida antarctica lipase B (CALB...

  7. Effects of import tariff implementation policy of refined sugar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The competitiveness of sugar products in Indonesia was evaluated using the of East Java wet and dry farmlands and was found to be higher than similar products from overseas as shown by DRC value of less than 1. Keyword: Sugar, Welfare distribution, Domestic Resource Cost (DRC), import tariff, Indonesia ...

  8. Effect of Import Tariff Implementation Policy on Refined Sugar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... economic net loss in production, consumption and exchange gain economization, are influenced by the import tariff and elasticity price toward supply and demand, such that the welfare distribution value will be bigger; (b) sugar product competitiveness in Indonesia by knowing that cane field calculation in East Java in the ...

  9. Importance of quantification of local site effects based on wave ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper presents the three most important aspects of seismic microzonation namely prediction of fundamental frequency (F0) of soil deposit, aggravation factor (aggravation factor is simply the extra spectral ... Department of Earthquake Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee 247 667, India.

  10. Effect Of Import Tariff Implementation Policy On Refined Sugar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    economization, are influenced by the import tariff and elasticity price toward supply and demand. It also showed that sugar product competitiveness in Indonesia is higher than the same product from other countries as the value of DRC is less than one. Key word: Sugar, Welfare Distribution, Domestic Resource Cost (DRC), ...

  11. Wood-based bioenergy in western Montana: the importance of understanding path dependence and local context for resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyler A. Beeton

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of biomass for wood-based bioenergy (WBB has been argued as a mechanism to mitigate the impacts of climate change, reduce vulnerability to disturbance events such as fires, and to enhance rural socioeconomic development. Yet, WBB development is characterized by a multitude of feedstock sources, bioenergy pathways, scales, and end uses, the feasibility of which is contingent upon place-based and context-specific social and environmental factors. We present an exploratory case study that draws on key informant interviews among a cohort of diverse stakeholders in rural western Montana forest communities, which was informed by a social-ecological systems framework and resilience thinking from a social science lens. The purpose of this paper is the following: (a to document the ways in which key informants define the opportunities and constraints associated with WBB in local contexts; and (b to understand how, and under what contexts, WBB can contribute to forest and community resilience under change. Interviews were analyzed using a modified grounded theory approach, and supplemented by document analysis. Results illustrate the ways in which historical contingencies (i.e., path dependence, individual and group values, and social context can affect the capacity to implement WBB projects. Results also help identify multiple perspectives and trade-offs, which can provide a step toward identifying the most desirable and plausible options for WBB development. As such, these lessons can be used as a starting point to help determine WBB development pathways that contribute to the social and ecological resilience of local places and people under change.

  12. The Importance of Collaboration in Advancing Understanding of Rare Disorders: US/EU Joint Initiative on Silver-Russell Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Jennifer B; Netchine, Irène; Harbison, Madeleine D

    2017-11-01

    Patient-support organizations can facilitate a significant change in the way rare disorders are approached. Besides connecting families with each other and directing patients to experienced medical specialists, these groups, by collaborating with government initiatives like COST, can effect the direction and funding of rare disease research. By concentrating the rare disease patient population and funneling them to specific centers of excellence, these organizations help build specialists' experience and their study populations. It requires a basic spirit of collaboration, driven parent leaders, a well-organized support platform, sources of funding, supportive clinical and research professionals and finally an effective method of collecting and disseminating information. Silver-Russell Syndrome is an excellent example of a rare disorder that has become better recognized, understood and treated because patient-support organizations, using the internet as a critical tool, have worked together with clinical care/research specialists and public funding agencies to build collaboration. Copyright© of YS Medical Media ltd.

  13. Are gender differences important for the clinical effects of antidepressants?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hildebrandt, Malene Grubbe; Steyerberg, Ewout Willem; Stage, Kurt Bjerregaard

    2003-01-01

    and multiple linear and logistic regression models were used for statistical evaluations. RESULTS: Both genders had similar remission rates (Hamilton depression scale score ...OBJECTIVE: Gender differences in antidepressant treatment response, side effects, dropout rates, and plasma concentrations were examined in patients with major and predominantly melancholic depression. METHOD: The study included a subgroup of 292 inpatients (96 men, 196 women) from three Danish....... The plasma concentrations of clomipramine were significantly higher for female than for male patients. No gender differences were found in posttreatment Hamilton depression scale scores, nor did the therapeutic effects of treatment depend on gender. Rates of dropout and side effects were similar for men...

  14. The Importance of the Effective Utilization of Women at Arms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    and more subject to conflict related to sexual jealousy and sexual frustration.”154 The cases about harassment, bullying , and sexual abuse may be...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited THE IMPORTANCE OF...Kabanenko 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NA:i\\tiE(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORi\\tiiNG ORGANIZATION Naval Postgraduate School REPORT NUMBER Monterey, CA

  15. The importance of the ionic product for water to understand the physiology of the acid-base balance in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeva-Andany, María M; Carneiro-Freire, Natalia; Donapetry-García, Cristóbal; Rañal-Muíño, Eva; López-Pereiro, Yosua

    2014-01-01

    Human plasma is an aqueous solution that has to abide by chemical rules such as the principle of electrical neutrality and the constancy of the ionic product for water. These rules define the acid-base balance in the human body. According to the electroneutrality principle, plasma has to be electrically neutral and the sum of its cations equals the sum of its anions. In addition, the ionic product for water has to be constant. Therefore, the plasma concentration of hydrogen ions depends on the plasma ionic composition. Variations in the concentration of plasma ions that alter the relative proportion of anions and cations predictably lead to a change in the plasma concentration of hydrogen ions by driving adaptive adjustments in water ionization that allow plasma electroneutrality while maintaining constant the ionic product for water. The accumulation of plasma anions out of proportion of cations induces an electrical imbalance compensated by a fall of hydroxide ions that brings about a rise in hydrogen ions (acidosis). By contrast, the deficiency of chloride relative to sodium generates plasma alkalosis by increasing hydroxide ions. The adjustment of plasma bicarbonate concentration to these changes is an important compensatory mechanism that protects plasma pH from severe deviations.

  16. The Importance of the Ionic Product for Water to Understand the Physiology of the Acid-Base Balance in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María M. Adeva-Andany

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Human plasma is an aqueous solution that has to abide by chemical rules such as the principle of electrical neutrality and the constancy of the ionic product for water. These rules define the acid-base balance in the human body. According to the electroneutrality principle, plasma has to be electrically neutral and the sum of its cations equals the sum of its anions. In addition, the ionic product for water has to be constant. Therefore, the plasma concentration of hydrogen ions depends on the plasma ionic composition. Variations in the concentration of plasma ions that alter the relative proportion of anions and cations predictably lead to a change in the plasma concentration of hydrogen ions by driving adaptive adjustments in water ionization that allow plasma electroneutrality while maintaining constant the ionic product for water. The accumulation of plasma anions out of proportion of cations induces an electrical imbalance compensated by a fall of hydroxide ions that brings about a rise in hydrogen ions (acidosis. By contrast, the deficiency of chloride relative to sodium generates plasma alkalosis by increasing hydroxide ions. The adjustment of plasma bicarbonate concentration to these changes is an important compensatory mechanism that protects plasma pH from severe deviations.

  17. Evaluating Welfare Effects of Rice Import Quota in Japan: Based on Measuring Non-Tariff Barriers of SBS Rice Imports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianhui Gao

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The principal objective of this study is to analyze welfare effects of Japan’s rice import quota focusing on the simultaneous buy and sell (SBS of the rice importation minimum access (MA policy. Based on the utility function specified in this study, the constructed model is adopted to measure consumption patterns through estimating elasticity of substitution between imported rice and Japan’s domestic rice, and consumers’ preference parameters for different kinds of rice. The results showed that Japanese households prefer domestic rice to the imported rice. Besides, three scenarios of adjusting rice quota volumes were carried out to examine the changes in consumer prices of imported rice and Japanese consumers’ welfares. The results revealed that tariff equivalents of the SBS import quota almost doubled the scale of the mark-up, and the intervention by the Ministry of Agriculture of Japan did cause non-tariff barriers to trade (NTBs. Finally, if the SBS rice quota quantity was fixed at or larger than 180 thousand tons every fiscal year, the consumer prices of imported rice in Japan’s market would decrease to be less than the prices of Japan’s domestic rice, and therefore the imported rice would have more price advantages in this scenario.

  18. The importance of thermal behaviour and petrographic composition for understanding the characteristics of a Portuguese perhydrous Jurassic coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, A. [Centro de Geologia, Universidade do Porto (Portugal); Flores, D. [Centro de Geologia, Universidade do Porto (Portugal); Departamento de Geociencias, Ambiente e Ordenamento do Territorio, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade do Porto (Portugal); Suarez-Ruiz, I.; Pevida, C.; Rubiera, F. [Instituto Nacional del Carbon, (INCAR-CSIC), Oviedo (Spain); Iglesias, M.J. [Area de Quimica Organica, Universidad de Almeria (Spain)

    2010-12-01

    The perhydrous Batalha coal (Portugal) is found in the Cabacos and Montejunto Formation of the Oxfordian-Kimeridgian, Upper Jurassic age. From the macroscopic point of view, its appearance is similar to other perhydrous coals. Microscopically, the maceral group of huminite is the main organic component (96%), ulminite being the most important petrographic component, followed by textinite with resinite (4%) lumina filled. The huminite random reflectance is 0.33%. This coal is characterized by high H/C atomic ratio, and anomalous physical and chemical properties that are characteristic of perhydrous coals such as: (i) the absence of any correlation between reflectance and the chemical rank parameters; (ii) a lower real density than that of non-perhydrous coals; (iii) a high hydrogen content; and (iv) suppressed reflectance. Using its calorific value (moist, ash-free basis) as rank parameter, Batalha coal must be considered a subbituminous A coal. Hydrogen enrichment due to the presence of resinite has influenced the technological properties of this coal, namely: (i) reduction of the thermostability and decrease in the temperature of initial thermal decomposition due to, among other reasons, the existence of aliphatic structures with low dissociation energy bonds resulting from the presence of resinite; (ii) from the DTG profile, the volatile matter combustion and char combustion is not evident; (iii) development of chars made up of isotropic particles with angular edges, which is typical of a low rank coal; (iv) the evolution trend of gaseous compounds (CO, CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4}) during pyrolysis; and, (v) an increase in its calorific value due to its hydrogen content. The study of this coal which is interbedded in Jurassic formations in the Lusitanian Basin of Portugal is a new contribution to the assessment of the evolution of organic matter in this area. (author)

  19. Changes in Tibetan Plateau latitude as an important factor for understanding East Asian climate since the Eocene: A modeling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ran; Jiang, Dabang; Ramstein, Gilles; Zhang, Zhongshi; Lippert, Peter C.; Yu, Entao

    2018-02-01

    Previous climate modeling studies suggest that the surface uplift of the Himalaya-Tibetan plateau (TP) is a crucial parameter for the onset and intensification of the East Asian monsoon during the Cenozoic. Most of these studies have only considered the Himalaya-TP in its present location between ∼26°N and ∼40°N despite numerous recent geophysical studies that reconstruct the Himalaya-TP 10° or more of latitude to the south during the early Paleogene. We have designed a series of climate simulations to explore the sensitivity of East Asian climate to the latitude of the Himalaya-TP. Our simulations suggest that the East Asian climate strongly depends on the latitude of the Himalaya-TP. Surface uplift of a proto-Himalaya-TP in the subtropics intensifies aridity throughout inland Asia north of ∼40°N and enhances precipitation over East Asia. In contrast, the rise of a proto-Himalaya-TP in the tropics only slightly intensifies aridity in inland Asia north of ∼40°N, and slightly increases precipitation in East Asia. Importantly, this climate sensitivity to the latitudinal position of the Himalaya-TP is non-linear, particularly for precipitation across East Asia. The simulated precipitation patterns across East Asia are significantly different between our scenarios in which a proto-plateau is situated between ∼11°N and ∼25°N and between ∼20°N and ∼33°N, but they are similar when the plateau translates northward from between ∼20°N and ∼33°N to its modern position. Our simulations, when interpreted in the context of climate proxy data from Central Asia, support geophysically-based paleogeographic reconstructions in which the southern margin of a modern-elevation proto-Himalaya-TP was located at ∼20°N or further north in the Eocene.

  20. The Importance of Ecology-Based Nature Education Project in Terms of Nature Integration and Understanding the Human-Ecosystem Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meydan, Ali

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this project is to define the importance of 12-day ecology-based education training upon integration with nature and understanding the human-ecosystem relationship. In accordance with this purpose, there has been collected some survey data interviewing with the participants of "Lake Beysehir National Park and Ecology-based Nature…

  1. Importance of real gas effects in entry technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deiwert, George S.

    1995-01-01

    Critical issues concerning real gas effects in hypervelocity flows where the thermochemical nonequilibrium effects are pronounced, are described. Emphasis is on the development and validation of benchmark analysis tools. Approaches to develop and/or enhance phenomenological models, including test techniques to acquire databases, and incorporate them into computational flow field simulation codes are described. The performance characteristics of shock tubes, ballistic ranges and arc heated wind tunnels, state of the art diagnostics are included. The following aerothermodynamic phenomena are discussed: aerodynamic parameters, viscous interactions, turbulent transition, forebody heating/heat transfer, radiative heating, Lee-Base flows and low density real gas.

  2. Importance of pharmacological effects for radioprotective action. Chapter 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacq, Z.M.

    1975-01-01

    A revised approach is required if the mechanism of radioprotection by thiols is to be identified in whole mammals. Present experimental evidence suggests that a general sequence of events occurs when a mammalian organism is suddenly flooded with a large dose of a thiol or disulfide radioprotective agent. In the first few minutes, most of the substance is bound to protein and the intracellular equilibrium between free and bound -SH together with the regulation of redox potential is deeply disturbed. This binding then causes the discharge of other substances (enzymes, glutathione, etc.), and during the following hours the cells slowly recover. The heterogeneous nature of whole mammals makes extrapolation of mechanisms clearly identified in phages and isolated cells difficult. It is suggested that two independent mechanisms act synergistically, a physicochemical one (probably free-radical scavenging) operating on stationary cells and a biochemical one acting only on actively metabolizing cells. The former is of little importance in mammals since the intracellular concentration of protective agent is always too small to be significant. The biochemical mechanism is of greatest importance in mammals, but its exact nature remains to be identified. (U.K.)

  3. Did natural selection make the Dutch taller? A cautionary note on the importance of quantification in understanding evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarka, Maja; Bolstad, Geir H; Wacker, Sebastian; Räsänen, Katja; Hansen, Thomas F; Pélabon, Christophe

    2015-12-01

    One of the main achievements of the modern synthesis is a rigorous mathematical theory for evolution by natural selection. Combining this theory with statistical models makes it possible to estimate the relevant parameters so as to quantify selection and evolution in nature. Although quantification is a sign of a mature science, statistical models are unfortunately often interpreted independently of the motivating mathematical theory. Without a link to theory, numerical results do not represent proper quantifications, because they lack the connections that designate their biological meaning. Here, we want to raise awareness and exemplify this problem by examining a recent study on natural selection in a contemporary human population. Stulp et al. (2015) concluded that natural selection may partly explain the increasing stature of the Dutch population. This conclusion was based on a qualitative assessment of the presence of selection on height. Here, we provide a quantitative interpretation of these results using standard evolutionary theory to show that natural selection has had a minuscule effect. © 2015 The Author(s). Evolution © 2015 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  4. The Importance of Emotions for the Effectiveness of Social Punishment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reuben, Ernesto; Hopfensitz, Astrid

    that anger also triggers retaliatory behavior by the punished individuals. This makes the enforcement of a cooperative norm more costly. We show that in addition to anger, ‘social’ emotions like guilt need to be present for punishment to be an effective deterrent of uncooperative actions. They play a key...

  5. The Importance of Being a Complement: CED Effects Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurka, Johannes

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation revisits subject island effects (Ross 1967, Chomsky 1973) cross-linguistically. Controlled acceptability judgment studies in German, English, Japanese and Serbian show that extraction out of specifiers is consistently degraded compared to extraction out of complements, indicating that the Condition on Extraction domains (CED,…

  6. Importance of intervention timing in the effectiveness of antipsychotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yia-Ping; Yang, Yu-Yin; Wan, Fang-Jung; Tung, Che-Se

    2018-02-02

    The use of early pharmacological intervention in treating young patients with schizophrenia is a debating issue for psychiatrists. However, on the basis of developmental theory, early antipsychotic intervention can be beneficial in terms of protecting neurons from further deterioration. This study investigated whether the initiation of second-generation antipsychotic (SGA) treatment at a younger age can effectively reverse schizophrenia-relevant behavioral and neurochemical features, namely acoustic prepulse inhibition (PPI) and accumbal dopamine (DA) efflux, respectively. Risperidone (RIS, 1mg/kg/day) or olanzapine (OLA, 2.5mg/kg/day) was administered for 6weeks in rats subjected to isolation rearing (IR) in adolescence or young adulthood. Behavioral testing was performed at 3 and 5 (for locomotor activity) and 2 and 4 (for PPI) weeks after the initiation of the pharmacological regimen. An additional PPI test was performed 6weeks after the initiation of the pharmacological regimen to assess the acute add-on effect of RIS or OLA. Dopamine (DA) efflux of the nucleus accumbens was evaluated through in vivo microdialysis at the end of the study, for measuring both the baseline levels after the chronic regimen and the responsiveness to acute add-on RIS or OLA treatment. Our results demonstrated that the effects of SGAs on PPI and accumbal DA efflux were dissociated. Specifically, RIS intervention was more beneficial for adolescent than young adult IR rats in restoring their PPI deficit, whereas OLA was age-independently effective in stimulating the accumbal DA efflux. Both PPI and accumbal DA could be employed to reflect IR-induced abnormalities, in which accumbal DA appeared to be more suitable in depicting the long-term effect of IR, whereas PPI might be a more accurate biological index for revealing the advantages of early RIS intervention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Immunomodulating effect of blood transfusion: is storage time important?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mynster, T; Dybkjoer, E; Kronborg, Gitte

    1998-01-01

    -2 release was significantly reduced and related to storage time of both whole blood and SAGM blood. CONCLUSIONS: Recipient cytokine release induced by blood transfusion seems to be dependent on storage time. This may have implications in transfusion-induced immune modulation.......OBJECTIVES: TNF-alpha and IL-2 are important cytokines in macrophage and T-lymphocyte activity against infection and dissemination of malignant cells. We studied the influence of supernatants from stored whole blood and buffy-coat-depleted SAGM (saline, adenine, glucose and mannitol) blood...... in stimulating TNF-alpha and IL-2 release in an ex vivo assay. METHODS: Supernatants of 10 units of whole blood and 10 units of SAGM blood were collected after 1, 21 and 35 days of standard blood bank storage. Heparinized blood from 20 healthy volunteers (as 'recipients'), corresponding in ABO and Rh type...

  8. Immunomodulating effect of blood transfusion: is storage time important?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mynster, T; Dybkjoer, E; Kronborg, Gitte

    1998-01-01

    in stimulating TNF-alpha and IL-2 release in an ex vivo assay. METHODS: Supernatants of 10 units of whole blood and 10 units of SAGM blood were collected after 1, 21 and 35 days of standard blood bank storage. Heparinized blood from 20 healthy volunteers (as 'recipients'), corresponding in ABO and Rh type......-2 release was significantly reduced and related to storage time of both whole blood and SAGM blood. CONCLUSIONS: Recipient cytokine release induced by blood transfusion seems to be dependent on storage time. This may have implications in transfusion-induced immune modulation.......OBJECTIVES: TNF-alpha and IL-2 are important cytokines in macrophage and T-lymphocyte activity against infection and dissemination of malignant cells. We studied the influence of supernatants from stored whole blood and buffy-coat-depleted SAGM (saline, adenine, glucose and mannitol) blood...

  9. Tectonomagmatic evolution of the terrestrial planets: importance for understanding of processes of their formation and subsequent development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkov, E.; Bogatikov, O.

    2009-04-01

    Our knowledge about formation and evolution of the terrestrial planets (the Earth, Venus, Mars, Mercury and, possibly, the Moon) based on different physical and geochemical speculations and models. The main disadvantage of such hypotheses is their abstract character and ignoring any data on tectonomagmatic evolution of those planets. At the same time, just this type of data provide an important information, which is necessary for elaborating of a present-day theory of their formation and evolution. The Earth has been much better studied compared to the other planets, therefore we will discuss the main questions of planetary tectonomagmatic evolution using the Earth as example plus involve other data on the Moon and the terrestrial planets. Two dominating hypotheses about composition of the primordial Earth's crust exist now: (1) traditional implies that the primordial crust had basic composition, whereas the sialic crust resulted from a geosyncline process or, in modern terms, from processes at convergent plate margins, and (2) primordial crust was sialic; the plate tectonic mechanisms started in the Middle Paleoproterozoic and resulted in oceanic spreading and formation of the secondary oceanic crust. Both models require a global melting of a primary chondritic material to form the primordial crust. The final result depends on the degree of melt differentiation during solidification of a magmatic ocean. Such a solidification, due to differences between adiabatic and melting-points gradients had to proceed in bottom-top direction (Jeffries, 1929) and resulted in accumulation of low-temperature derivates in the primordial crust. Geological data, namely granite-dominated Archean crust, and results of studying of detrital zircon from Australia supports the primordial-sialic crust hypothesis. The Moon which is four times smaller than Earth has a basic primordial crust. Such a difference can be explained by different depths of their magmatic oceans. The Early

  10. Health literacy and its importance for effective communication. Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Veronica; Keogh, Deborah

    2014-05-01

    This is the second of two articles exploring the concept of health literacy, an often hidden barrier to effective healthcare communication. Part 1 was published in April ( Lambert and Keogh 2014 ). This article explains how to detect low levels of health literacy among parents and children, and outlines the challenges to assessing health literacy levels, including the stigma and discrimination some people experience. Some basic healthcare communication strategies for supporting health literacy in practice are suggested.

  11. Understanding the importance of "symbolic interaction stigma": How expectations about the reactions of others adds to the burden of mental illness stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, Bruce G; Wells, Jennifer; Phelan, Jo C; Yang, Lawrence

    2015-06-01

    Important components of stigma include imagining what others might think of a stigmatized status, anticipating what might transpire in an interaction with others, and rehearsing what one might do if something untoward occurs. These imagined relations are here called symbolic interaction stigma and can have an impact even if the internalization of negative stereotypes fails to occur. Concepts and measures that capture symbolic interaction stigma are introduced, and a preliminary assessment of their impact is provided. Four self-report measures of symbolic interaction stigma (perceived devaluation discrimination, anticipation of rejection, stigma consciousness, and concern with staying in) were developed or adapted and administered to a sample of individuals who have experienced mental illness (N = 65). Regression analyses examined whether forms of symbolic interaction stigma were associated with withdrawal, self-esteem, and isolation from relatives independent of measures of internalization of stigma and rejection experiences. As evidenced by scores on 4 distinct measures, symbolic interaction stigma was relatively common in the sample, somewhat more common than the internalization of stigma. In addition, measures of symbolic interaction stigma were significantly associated with withdrawal, self-esteem, and isolation from relatives even when a measure of the internalization of stigma was statistically controlled. The study suggests the potential importance of considering symbolic interaction forms of stigma in understanding and addressing stigma and its consequences. Being aware of symbolic interaction stigma could be useful in enhancing rehabilitation goals if an approach to counteracting the negative effects of these aspects of stigma can be developed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Understanding the Importance of “Symbolic Interaction Stigma:” How Expectations about the Reactions of Others Adds to the Burden of Mental illness Stigma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, Bruce G.; Wells, Jennifer; Phelan, Jo C.; Yang, Lawrence

    2017-01-01

    Objective Important components of stigma include imagining what others might think of a stigmatized status, anticipating what might transpire in an interaction with others, and rehearsing what one might do if something untoward occurs. These imagined relations are here called “symbolic interaction stigma” and can be impactful even if the internalization of negative stereotypes fails to occur. Concepts and measures that capture symbolic interaction stigma are introduced and a preliminary assessment of their impact provided. Methods Four self-report measures of symbolic interaction stigma (perceived devaluation discrimination, anticipation of rejection, stigma consciousness and concern with staying in) were developed or adapted and administered to a sample of individuals who have experienced mental illness (N=65). Regression analyses examined whether forms of symbolic interaction stigma were associated with withdrawal, self-esteem and isolation from relatives independent of measures of internalization of stigma and rejection experiences. Results As evidenced by scores on four distinct measures symbolic interaction stigma was relatively common in the sample, somewhat more common than the internalization of stigma. Additionally, measures of symbolic interaction stigma were significantly associated with withdrawal, self-esteem and isolation from relatives even when a measure of the internalization of stigma was statistically controlled. Conclusions and Implications for Practice The study suggests the potential importance of considering symbolic interaction forms of stigma in understanding and addressing stigma and its consequences. Being aware of symbolic interaction stigma could be useful in enhancing rehabilitation goals if an approach to counteracting the negative effects of these aspects of stigma can be developed. PMID:26075528

  13. A Life Course Approach to Understanding Neighbourhood Effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vuijst, E.; van Ham, M.; Kleinhans, R.J.

    2016-01-01

    Many theories on so-called neighbourhood effectseffects of the residential context on individual outcomes such as employment, education, and health – implicitly, or explicitly suggest lagged effects, duration effects, or for example, intergenerational effects of neighbourhoods. However, these

  14. Implementing Effective Educational Practices at Scales of Social Importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Robert H; Sugai, George; Fixsen, Dean L

    2017-03-01

    Implementing evidence-based practices is becoming both a goal and standard across medicine, psychology, and education. Initial successes, however, are now leading to questions about how successful demonstrations may be expanded to scales of social importance. In this paper, we review lessons learned about scaling up evidence-based practices gleaned from our experience implementing school-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports (PBIS) across more than 23,000 schools in the USA. We draw heavily from the work of Flay et al. (Prev Sci 6:151-175, 2005. doi: 10.1007/s11121-005-5553-y ) related to defining evidence-based practices, the significant contributions from the emerging "implementation science" movement (Fixsen et al. in Implementation research: a synthesis of the literature, University of South Florida, Louis de la Parte Florida Mental Health Institute, The National Implementation Research Network (FMHI Publication #231), Tampa 2005), and guidance we have received from teachers, family members, students, and administrators who have adopted PBIS.

  15. General extrapolation model for an important chemical dose-rate effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillen, K.T.; Clough, R.L.

    1984-12-01

    In order to extrapolate material accelerated aging data, methodologies must be developed based on sufficient understanding of the processes leading to material degradation. One of the most important mechanisms leading to chemical dose-rate effects in polymers involves the breakdown of intermediate hydroperoxide species. A general model for this mechanism is derived based on the underlying chemical steps. The results lead to a general formalism for understanding dose rate and sequential aging effects when hydroperoxide breakdown is important. We apply the model to combined radiation/temperature aging data for a PVC material and show that this data is consistent with the model and that model extrapolations are in excellent agreement with 12-year real-time aging results from an actual nuclear plant. This model and other techniques discussed in this report can aid in the selection of appropriate accelerated aging methods and can also be used to compare and select materials for use in safety-related components. This will result in increased assurance that equipment qualification procedures are adequate

  16. Economic importance of ticks and their effective control strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haranahalli Vasanthachar Manjunathachar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Role of livestock in improvement of a country ’s economy is inevitable. Livestock contributes a lion ’s share in agricultural sector of developing countries. Several developing countries have adopted the use of exotic germplasm to improve the productivity of their native breeds, which has brought down the disease resistance. Among various problems hindering the growth and productivity of livestock, parasite related problem plays a major role. Tick and tick borne diseases are prevalent in 80% of the cattle population around the globe. They cause various worries to the farmers by transmitting major disease causing pathogens and jeopardize animal health leading to poor production. Ticks transmit various pathogenic agents like virus, bacteria, protozoa and other parasites as well. Many of them are dangerous for the livestock health and some are also zoonotic hence, need to be checked at the initial stages. Control of ticks is the major concern in the present situation as the use of anti-parasitic drugs has led to the current trend of resistance development. Search for an effective alternative method has begun; vaccination will be a better alternative and promising tool for protecting livestock from the tick infestations and thereby tick borne diseases.

  17. Understanding ligand effects in gold clusters using mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Grant E.; Laskin, Julia

    2016-01-01

    This review summarizes recent research on the influence of phosphine ligands on the size, stability, and reactivity of gold clusters synthesized in solution. Sub-nanometer clusters exhibit size- and composition-dependent properties that are unique from those of larger nanoparticles. The highly tunable properties of clusters and their high surface-to-volume ratio make them promising candidates for a variety of technological applications. However, because “each-atom-counts” toward defining cluster properties it is critically important to develop robust synthesis methods to efficiently prepare clusters of predetermined size. For decades phosphines have been known to direct the size-selected synthesis of gold clusters. Despite the preparation of numerous species it is still not understood how different functional groups at phosphine centers affect the size and properties of gold clusters. Using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) it is possible to characterize the effect of ligand substitution on the distribution of clusters formed in solution at defined reaction conditions. In addition, ligand exchange reactions on preformed clusters may be monitored using ESI-MS. Collision induced dissociation (CID) may also be employed to obtain qualitative insight into the fragmentation of mixed ligand clusters and the relative binding energies of differently substituted phosphines. Quantitative ligand binding energies and cluster stability may be determined employing surface induced dissociation (SID) in a custom-built Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer (FT-ICR-MS). Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus (RRKM) based modeling of the SID data allows dissociation energies and entropy values to be extracted that may be compared with the results of high-level theoretical calculations. The charge reduction and reactivity of atomically precise gold clusters, including partially ligated species generated in the gas-phase by in source CID, on well

  18. Understanding ligand effects in gold clusters using mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Grant E; Laskin, Julia

    2016-06-21

    This review summarizes recent research on the influence of phosphine ligands on the size, stability, and reactivity of gold clusters synthesized in solution. Sub-nanometer clusters exhibit size- and composition-dependent properties that are unique from those of larger nanoparticles. The highly tunable properties of clusters and their high surface-to-volume ratio make them promising candidates for a variety of technological applications. However, because "each-atom-counts" toward defining cluster properties it is critically important to develop robust synthesis methods to efficiently prepare clusters of predetermined size. For decades phosphines have been known to direct the size-selected synthesis of gold clusters. Despite the preparation of numerous species it is still not understood how different functional groups at phosphine centers affect the size and properties of gold clusters. Using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) it is possible to characterize the effect of ligand substitution on the distribution of clusters formed in solution at defined reaction conditions. In addition, ligand exchange reactions on preformed clusters may be monitored using ESI-MS. Collision induced dissociation (CID) may also be employed to obtain qualitative insight into the fragmentation of mixed ligand clusters and the relative binding energies of differently substituted phosphines. Quantitative ligand binding energies and cluster stability may be determined employing surface induced dissociation (SID) in a custom-built Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer (FT-ICR-MS). Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus (RRKM) based modeling of the SID data allows dissociation energies and entropy values to be extracted. The charge reduction and reactivity of atomically precise gold clusters, including partially ligated species generated in the gas-phase by in source CID, on well-defined surfaces may be explored using ion soft landing (SL) in a custom

  19. Understanding effects of fire suppression, fuels treatment, and wildfire on bird communities in the Klamath-Siskiyou ecoregion

    Science.gov (United States)

    John D. Alexander; C. John Ralph; Bill Hogoboom; Nathaniel E. Seavy; Stewart Janes

    2004-01-01

    Although fire management is increasingly recognized as an important component of conservation in Klamath-Siskiyou ecosystems, empirical evidence on the ecological effects of fire in this region is limited. Here we describe a conceptual model as a framework for understanding the effects of fire and fire management on bird abundance. This model identifies three major...

  20. Understanding the inverse magnetocaloric effect in antiferro- and ferrimagnetic arrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Von Ranke, P J; De Oliveira, N A; Alho, B P; Plaza, E J R; De Sousa, V S R; Caron, L; Reis, M S

    2009-01-01

    The inverse magnetocaloric effect occurs when a magnetic material cools down under applied magnetic field in an adiabatic process. Although the existence of the inverse magnetocaloric effect was recently reported experimentally, a theoretical microscopic description is almost nonexistent. In this paper we theoretically describe the inverse magnetocaloric effect in antiferro- and ferrimagnetic systems. The inverse magnetocaloric effects were systematically investigated as a function of the model parameters. The influence of the Neel and the compensation temperature on the magnetocaloric effect is also analyzed using a microscopic model.

  1. Understanding the inverse magnetocaloric effect in antiferro- and ferrimagnetic arrangements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Von Ranke, P J; De Oliveira, N A; Alho, B P; Plaza, E J R; De Sousa, V S R [Instituto de Fisica ' Armando Dias Tavares' , Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro-UERJ, Rua Sao Francisco Xavier, 524, 20550-013, RJ (Brazil); Caron, L [Instituto de Fisica ' Gleb Wataghin' , Universidade Estadual de Campinas-UNICAMP, 13083-970 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Reis, M S [CICECO, Universidade de Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)], E-mail: von.ranke@uol.com.br

    2009-02-04

    The inverse magnetocaloric effect occurs when a magnetic material cools down under applied magnetic field in an adiabatic process. Although the existence of the inverse magnetocaloric effect was recently reported experimentally, a theoretical microscopic description is almost nonexistent. In this paper we theoretically describe the inverse magnetocaloric effect in antiferro- and ferrimagnetic systems. The inverse magnetocaloric effects were systematically investigated as a function of the model parameters. The influence of the Neel and the compensation temperature on the magnetocaloric effect is also analyzed using a microscopic model.

  2. Understanding and Utilizing the Effectiveness of e‐Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noesgaard, Signe Schack; Ørngreen, Rikke

    2014-01-01

    . At the same time, learning and development professionals within public and private organizations are increasingly met with a demand to prove the effectiveness of their learning and development initiatives. This paper investigates the concepts of effectiveness in e-Learning. It broadens the definition......A structured search of librarian databases revealed that the research into the effectiveness of e-Learning has heavily increased within the last 5 years. Taking a closer look at the search results, the authors discovered that researchers define and investigate effectiveness in multiple ways...... of effectiveness and qualifies certain measurements of same. Preliminary results from a literature study and an empirical investigation of ‘the effectiveness of e-Learning’ for science teachers (K12) are combined. The paper discusses the following research questions: How is the effectiveness of e-Learning defined...

  3. Effects of Alternative Framing on the Publics Perceived Importance of Environmental Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda E Sorensen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Effective communication of science to the general public is important for numerous reasons, including support for policy, funding, informed public decision making, among others. Prior research has found that scientists participating in public policy and public communication must frame their communication efforts in order to connect with audiences. A frame is the mechanism that individuals use to understand and interpret the world around them. Framing can encourage specific interpretations and reference points for a particular issue or event; especially when meaning is negotiated between the media and public audiences. In this study, we looked at the effect of framing within an environmental conservation context. To do this we had survey respondents rank common issues, among them being environmental conservation, from most important to least important for the government to address. We framed environmental conservation using three synonymous terms (environmental security, ecosystem services, and environmental quality to assess whether there was an effect on rankings dependent on how we framed environmental conservation. We also investigated the effect of individuals’ personality characteristics (identity frame on those environmental conservation rankings. We found that individuals who self-identified as environmentalist were positively associated with ranking highly (most important environmental conservation when it was framed as either environmental quality or ecosystem services, but not when it was framed as environmental security. Conversely, those individuals who did not rank themselves highly as self-identified environmentalists were positively associated with environmental conservation when it was framed as environmental security. This research suggests that framing audience specific messages can engender audience support in hot-button issues such as environmental conservation and climate change.

  4. Erosion and Accretion on a Mudflat: The Importance of Very Shallow-Water Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Benwei; Cooper, James R.; Pratolongo, Paula D.; Gao, Shu; Bouma, T. J.; Li, Gaocong; Li, Chunyan; Yang, S. L.; Wang, Ya Ping

    2017-12-01

    Understanding erosion and accretion dynamics during an entire tidal cycle is important for assessing their impacts on the habitats of biological communities and the long-term morphological evolution of intertidal mudflats. However, previous studies often omitted erosion and accretion during very shallow-water stages (VSWS, water depths erosion and accretion dynamics are likely to differ from those during deeper flows. In this study, we examine the contribution of very shallow-water effects to erosion and accretion of the entire tidal cycle, based on measured and modeled time-series of bed-level changes. Our field experiments revealed that the VSWS accounted for only 11% of the duration of the entire tidal cycle, but erosion and accretion during these stages accounted for 35% of the bed-level changes of the entire tidal cycle. Predicted cumulative bed-level changes agree much better with measured results when the entire tidal cycle is modeled than when only the conditions at water depths of >0.2 m (i.e., probe submerged) are considered. These findings suggest that the magnitude of bed-level changes during VSWS should not be neglected when modeling morphodynamic processes. Our results are useful in understanding the mechanisms of micro-topography formation and destruction that often occur at VSWS, and also improve our understanding and modeling ability of coastal morphological changes.

  5. Understanding the effects of slip pruning on pineapple fruit quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fassinou Hotegni, V.N.; Lommen, W.J.M.; Agbossou, E.K.; Struik, P.C.

    2016-01-01

    Pineapple fruit quality is important especially when fruits are exported to international markets. Fruits should meet minimum requirements such as a weight of at least 0.7 kg, a ratio between the crown length and infructescence (fruit without the crown) length ranging from 0.5 to 1.5, and a Brix

  6. Importance of being indexed in important databases--effect on the quantity of published articles in JBUON.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuckovic-Dekic, Ljiljana; Gavrilovic, Dusica

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the dynamics of indexing the Journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology (JBUON) in important biomedical databases, the effects on the quantity and type of published articles, and also the countries of the (co)authors of these papers. The process of the JBUON indexing started with EMBASE/Excerpta Medica, followed in 2006 (PUBMED/MEDLINE) and continued every second year in other important biomedical databases, until 2012 when JBUON became Open Access Journal (for even more information please visit www.jbuon.com). Including the next two years for monitoring the effect of the last indexing, we analyzed 9 volumes consisting of 36 issues that were published from January 2006 to December 2014, with regard to the number and category of articles, the contribution of authors from Balkan and non-Balkan countries, and the (co)authorship in the published articles. In the period 2006-2014, 1165 articles of different categories were published in J BUON. The indexing progress of JBUON immediately increased the submission rate, and enlarged the number of publications, original papers in particular, in every volume of JBUON. Authors from Balkan countries contributed in 80.7% of all articles. The average number of coauthors per original article grew slowly and was higher at the end of the investigated period than at the start (6.6 and 5.8, respectively). The progressing covering of JBUON in important biomedical databases and its visibility on international level attracted the attention of a large readership, and submission rate and the number of published articles grew significantly, particularly the number of original papers. This is the most important consequence of the editorial policy which will hopefully lead to even more progress of JBUON in the near future.

  7. Understanding and Applying the Cognitive Foundations of Effective Teamwork

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Noble, David

    2004-01-01

    .... It reviews a theory describing the knowledge that teams need to work together effectively and summarizing how teams use this knowledge when making decisions about collecting and sharing information...

  8. Understanding the inverse magnetocaloric effect through a simple theoretical model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranke, P.J. von, E-mail: von.ranke@uol.com.b [Instituto de Fisica Armando Dias Tavares-Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rua Sao Francisco Xavier, 524, Rio de Janeiro 20550-013 (Brazil); Alho, B.P.; Nobrega, E.P.; Oliveira, N.A. de [Instituto de Fisica Armando Dias Tavares-Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rua Sao Francisco Xavier, 524, Rio de Janeiro 20550-013 (Brazil)

    2009-10-15

    We investigated the inverse magnetocaloric effect using a theoretical magnetic model formed by two coupled magnetic lattices to describe a ferrimagnetic system. The influence of the compensation temperature, and the ferrimagnetic-paramagnetic phase transition on the magnetocaloric effect was analyzed. Also, a relation between the area under the magnetocaloric curve and the net magnetic moment of a ferrimagnetic system was established in this work.

  9. Understanding Graduate School Aspirations: The Effect of Good Teaching Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Jana M.; Paulsen, Michael B.; Pascarella, Ernest T.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of good teaching practices on post-baccalaureate degree aspirations using logistic regression techniques on a multi-institutional, longitudinal sample of students at 4-year colleges and universities in the USA. We examined whether eight good teaching practices (non-classroom interactions with faculty, prompt…

  10. Understanding the stabilizing effects of IT on organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boogaard, Martin; Huysman, Marleen H.

    1994-01-01

    In the literature, two distinct ways in which the application of IT stabilizes organizations are indicated. The first stabilizing effect concerns the difficult, time-consuming, and costly adjustments of existing ISs when changes to ISs have to be made. Consequently, when circumstances change

  11. Assessing Teacher Quality: Understanding Teacher Effects on Instruction and Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Sean, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    Recent educational reforms have promoted accountability systems which attempt to identify "teacher effects" on student outcomes and hold teachers accountable for producing learning gains. But in the complex world of classrooms, it may be difficult to attribute "success" or "failure" to teachers. In this timely…

  12. Understanding the Effects of Climate on Airfield Pavement Deterioration Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    eliminating frost susceptible materials frost heave effects can be minimized. Using properly designed asphalt binders that perform well in cold...processes that operate on or near the surface of our planet ” (de Smith, Goodchild, & Longley, 2007). Spatial interpolation is a spatial analysis

  13. Improving Food Production by Understanding the Effects of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper quantifies the effects of population density and intercropping on the development and growth of nitrogen fixing attributes of soybean and explains how these attributes influence food through yielding process. Information for this study was obtained from a field study conducted over two rainy seasons comprising of ...

  14. Understanding Effectiveness in School Administration: A Discourse Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büyükgöze, Hilal

    2016-01-01

    The current paper primarily aims to investigate and interpret the observations, perceptions, and experiences of an effective school's principal through a qualitative approach. The study was designed as a case study. The participant of the study was a primary science education teacher with 17 years of experience in the profession who has been a…

  15. Understanding electromagnetic effects using printed circuit board demos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buesink, Frederik Johannes Karel; Leferink, Frank Bernardus Johannes

    2009-01-01

    Electromagnetic fields are considered by many students as a difficult subject. Unwanted electromagnetic fields are even tougher for students. We have developed many experiments as demonstrations (demos) to show the effect of electromagnetic fields in real life products. This paper gives a brief

  16. Importance of Applying Condiments in a Commonly Consumed Food System for Understanding the Association Between Familiarity and Sensory Drivers of Liking: A Study Focused on Doenjang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Soo Hyun; Lee, Soh Min; Kim, Sang Sook; Kim, Kwang-Ok

    2018-02-01

    Doenjang, a Korean traditional fermented soybean paste, is one of the most essential condiments in Korean cuisine. Condiments are rarely consumed as it is, and are generally applied to other foods. The objective of this study was to understand how sensory drivers of liking of Doenjang would be affected according to food forms in which it is evaluated: the original paste form compared with a normally consumed soup form, and to understand the association of familiarity of evaluated food form. Descriptive analysis and consumer acceptability test was performed in 2 consumption forms: the original paste form and the Doenjang soup from. For consumer liking test, elderly consumers who have more experience to traditional Deonjang were compared to the young in their response to Doenjang paste and soup. The descriptive analysis results showed that the characteristic sensory features of the Deonjang samples were little affected based on the food system in which it was evaluated. However, when the paste was applied in soup, the intensities of the characteristic sensory features were reduced. Acceptability and familiarity of traditional type Doenjang samples for the young and for the elderly consumers were very similar in paste, but it differed when the samples were evaluated in soup. Thus, expectation difference between the young and the elderly was better revealed in soup, a more common food form consumed in practice. The results of this study indicate the importance of understanding sensory drivers of liking for a condiment such as Doenjang in their commonly consumed forms. Compared to the original condiment form, expectation difference between the young and the elderly were better revealed in Deonjang soup, a food form normally consumed in practice. Thus, the results of this study reinforced the importance of investigating sensory drivers of liking for a condiment in a food form that is normally consumed in practice for accurate understanding on consumer preference. © 2018

  17. Understanding the effects of end-loss on linear Fresnelcollectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jing; Chang, Zheng

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, the end loss effect of linear Fresnel collector was analyzed. The aim of this work was to investigate the seasonal effects of end losses on the linear Fresnel collectors deployed, and analyze the change of the month average for end loss at different locations. Furthermore, a end loss compensated approach is proposed, and the increased instantaneous thermal efficiency of the experimental system is measured. A two-meter long linear Fresnel collector experimental system with horizontal north-south axis is performed, The result that compensation of the end loss of the linear Fresnel reflector system stands a good improvement for thermal performance. Meanwhile, in comparison with the reflector field prior to the change, an instantaneous thermal efficiency has increased by approximately 50%, and it increased by almost 20% at the afternoon time. All this work can offer some valuable references to the further study on high-efficiency linear Fresnel concentrating system.

  18. Understanding substituent effects in noncovalent interactions involving aromatic rings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Steven E

    2013-04-16

    Noncovalent interactions involving aromatic rings such as π-stacking, cation/π, and anion/π interactions are central to many areas of modern chemistry. Decades of experimental studies have provided key insights into the impact of substituents on these interactions, leading to the development of simple intuitive models. However, gas-phase computational studies have raised some doubts about the physical underpinnings of these widespread models. In this Account we review our recent efforts to unravel the origin of substituent effects in π-stacking and ion/π interactions through computational studies of model noncovalent dimers. First, however, we dispel the notion that so-called aromatic interactions depend on the aromaticity of the interacting rings by studying model π-stacked dimers in which the aromaticity of one of the monomers can be "switched off". Somewhat surprisingly, the results show that not only is aromaticity unnecessary for π-stacking interactions, but it actually hinders these interactions to some extent. Consequently, when thinking about π-stacking interactions, researchers should consider broader classes of planar molecules, not just aromatic systems. Conventional models maintain that substituent effects in π-stacking interactions result from changes in the aryl π-system. This view suggests that π-stacking interactions are maximized when one ring is substituted with electron-withdrawing groups and the other with electron donors. In contrast to these prevailing models, we have shown that substituent effects in π-stacking interactions can be described in terms of direct, local interactions between the substituents and the nearby vertex of the other arene. As a result, in polysubstituted π-stacked dimers the substituents operate independently unless they are in each other's local environment. This means that in π-stacked dimers in which one arene is substituted with electron donors and the other with electron acceptors the interactions will

  19. Understanding the effects of violent video games on violent crime

    OpenAIRE

    Cunningham, A. Scott; Engelstätter, Benjamin; Ward, Michael R.

    2011-01-01

    Psychological studies invariably find a positive relationship between violent video game play and aggression. However, these studies cannot account for either aggressive effects of alternative activities video game playing substitutes for or the possible selection of relatively violent people into playing violent video games. That is, they lack external validity. We investigate the relationship between the prevalence of violent video games and violent crimes. Our results are consistent with t...

  20. Retention in STEM: Understanding the Effectiveness of Science Posse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godsoe, Kimberly

    One of the major areas of debate in higher education is how to best support underrepresented racial minority students in their study of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math. In 2008, Brandeis University began a new program in conjunction with the Posse Foundation for students interested in studying science at the college-level. The research used a mixed methods design. A detailed quantitative analysis was conducted to understand how being part of Science Posse impacted the probability of doing well in initial science classes, influenced perceptions of the difficulty of studying science, and predicted the probability of majoring in STEM at Brandeis. The qualitative data was drawn from 89 student interviews, including 38 Science Posse Scholars, 24 students from backgrounds similar to the Scholars, and 25 students from well-resourced families. The qualitative analysis demonstrated how students had been exposed to the sciences prior to enrollment, how they navigated the sciences at Brandeis, and how they demonstrated resilience when science becomes challenging. This research study had four key findings. The first was in the quantitative analysis which demonstrated that Science Posse Scholars experience strong feelings of doubt about their academic abilities; based on previous research, this should have resulted in their not declaring majors in STEM disciplines. Instead, Science Posse Scholars were more likely to earn a B+ or above in their entry level science courses and declare a major in a STEM discipline, even when factors such as math and verbal SAT scores were included in the analysis. The second finding was in the qualitative analysis, which demonstrated that the cohort model in which Science Posse Scholars participate was instrumental to their success. The third finding was that students who attended academically less rigorous high schools could succeed in the sciences at a highly selective research institution such as Brandeis without academic remediation

  1. Understanding cavity QED effects from cavity classical electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taddei, M.M.; Kort-Kamp, W.J.M.; Farina, C.

    2011-01-01

    Full text: Our work intends to show how cavity classical electrodynamics can be used for achieving results with direct quantum analogues. It is shown how the classical interaction between a real radiating electric dipole and a perfectly-conducting surface can be used to obtain information about some cavity quantum electrodynamics effects related to radiative properties of atomic systems. Based on the case of an oscillating electric dipole (a classical representation of an excited atom) in front of a perfectly-conducting sphere, two main physical quantities can be computed, the classical dipole frequency shift and the change in the rate of energy loss from radiation reaction, both due to the presence of the sphere. The link from classical to quantum can be made via interpreting, for example, the dipole frequency as the atom's dominant transition frequency. The frequency shift due to the sphere can be related through E = (h/2π) to the energy shift of the system, i.e., the dispersive interaction between the atom and the sphere; while the change in energy loss can be related to the alteration of the atom's spontaneous emission due to the sphere. The amazing result is that this classical method, once corresponded classical quantities to quantum ones such as exemplified above with frequency, can predict the two above-mentioned quantum effects analytically with the correct functional dependencies on all geometric and atomic parameters, being off only by a constant pre factor. (author)

  2. Understanding the "Weekend Effect" for Emergency General Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoehn, Richard S; Go, Derek E; Dhar, Vikrom K; Kim, Young; Hanseman, Dennis J; Wima, Koffi; Shah, Shimul A

    2018-02-01

    Several studies have identified a "weekend effect" for surgical outcomes, but definitions vary and the cause is unclear. Our aim was to better characterize the weekend effect for emergency general surgery using mortality as a primary endpoint. Using data from the University HealthSystem Consortium from 2009 to 2013, we identified urgent/emergent hospital admissions for seven procedures representing 80% of the national burden of emergency general surgery. Patient characteristics and surgical outcomes were compared between cases that were performed on weekdays vs weekends. Hospitals varied widely in the proportion of procedures performed on the weekend. Of the procedures examined, four had higher mortality for weekend cases (laparotomy, lysis of adhesions, partial colectomy, and small bowel resection; p surgery (p surgery procedures that incur higher mortality when performed on weekends. This may be due to acute changes in patient status that require weekend surgery or indications for urgent procedures (ischemia, obstruction) compared to those without a weekend mortality difference (infection). Hospitals that perform weekend surgery must acknowledge and identify ways to manage this increased risk.

  3. Current Understanding of the Health Effects of Electromagnetic Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, Tayaba; Kamat, Deepak

    2017-04-01

    There has been an exponential increase in the use of electronic devices over the past few decades. This has led to increased exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF). Electric fields result from differences in voltage, whereas magnetic fields result from the flow of electric current. Higher-frequency waves of EMF have more energy than lower-frequency waves, and thus generally tend to be more harmful. An EMF activates cellular stress response and also causes breaks in DNA strands. There are many methodological barriers to effectively measuring the associations of EMF and childhood cancers. The consensus from multiple studies is that there is no causal role of extremely low-frequency EMFs in childhood cancers, including brain cancer. A recent study showed a link between EMF radiation and the development of malignant tumors in rats. In light of that study, the American Academy of Pediatrics set out new recommendations to decrease the adverse effects of cellphone exposure on children. [Pediatr Ann. 2017;46(4):e172-e174.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  4. Understanding Soliton Spectral Tunneling as a Spectral Coupling Effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Hairun; Wang, Shaofei; Zeng, Xianglong

    2013-01-01

    Soliton eigenstate is found corresponding to a dispersive phase profile under which the soliton phase changes induced by the dispersion and nonlinearity are instantaneously counterbalanced. Much like a waveguide coupler relying on a spatial refractive index profile that supports mode coupling...... between channels, here we suggest that the soliton spectral tunneling effect can be understood supported by a spectral phase coupler. The dispersive wave number in the spectral domain must have a coupler-like symmetric profile for soliton spectral tunneling to occur. We show that such a spectral coupler...... exactly implies phase as well as group-velocity matching between the input soliton and tunneled soliton, namely a soliton phase matching condition. Examples in realistic photonic crystal fibers are also presented....

  5. From Headline to Hard Grind: The Importance of Understanding Public Administration in Achieving Health OutcomesComment on "Understanding the Role of Public Administration in Implementing Action on the Social Determinants of Health and Health Inequities".

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Flynn, Janine

    2016-04-30

    Many public policy programs fail to translate ambitious headlines to on-the-ground action. The reasons for this are many and varied, but for public administration and management scholars a large part of the gap between ambition and achievement is the challenge associated with the operation of the machinery of government itself, and how it relates to the other parties that it relies on to fulfill these outcomes. In their article, Carey and Friel set out key reasons why public health scholars should seek to better understand important ideas in public administration. In commenting on their contribution, I draw out two critical questions that are raised by this discussion: (i) what are boundaries and what forms do they take? and (ii) why work across boundaries? Expanding on these key questions extends the points made by Carey and Friel on the importance of understanding public administration and will better place public health scholars and practitioners to realise health outcomes. © 2016 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  6. Cortical and white matter mapping in the visual system- more than meets theeye: on the importance of functional imaging to understand visual systempathologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noa eRaz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Information transmission within the visual system is highly organized with the ultimate goal of accomplishing higher-order, complex visuo-spatial and object identity processing. Perception is dependent on the intactness of the entire system and damage at each stage – in the eye itself, the visual pathways, or within cortical processing - might result in perception disturbance.Herein we will review several examples of lesions along the visual system, from the retina, via the optic nerve and chiasm and through the occipital cortex. We will address their clinical manifestation and their cortical substrate. The latter will be studied via functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI and Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI, enabling cortical and white matter mapping of the human brain. In contrast to traditional signal recording, these procedures enable simultaneous evaluation of the entire brain network engaged when subjects undertake a particular task or evaluate the entirety of associated white matter pathways.These examples provided will highlight the importance of using advanced imaging methods to better understand visual pathologies. We will argue that clinical manifestation cannot always be explained solely by structural damage and a functional view is required to understand the clinical symptom. In such cases we recommend using advanced imaging methods to better understand the neurological basis of visual phenomena.

  7. The attitudes of medical students toward the importance of understanding classical Greek and Latin in the development of an anatomical and medical vocabulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Shiby; Moxham, Bernard John

    2016-09-01

    Students on entering medical school are faced with acquiring new, and voluminous, anatomical and medical terminologies. A reason why acquiring these terminologies may be problematic relates to the fact that many terms are derived from classical Greek and Latin; languages nowadays that are rarely taught at school. It might also be supposed that the often reported reduction in exposure to anatomy, and time spent in the dissection room, impairs the students' knowledge and understanding of anatomical relationships, and thus further complicates the acquisition of the terminologies. To date, there have been no studies that have quantified the attitudes of medical students toward the importance of understanding classical Greek and Latin during their medical training. In order to assess these attitudes, this study was undertaken for the newly-recruited (First Year) medical students and for the Final Year medical students at Cardiff University. They were provided with a brief questionnaire that was devised in accordance with Thurstone and Chave (1951) principles and with ethical approval. One hundred and eighty First Year students and one hundred and nineteen Final Year students responded. Our initial hypothesis was that students throughout the medical curriculum have an unfavorable attitude toward the importance of classical Greek and Latin. This hypothesis was supported by the attitudes of the Final Year students but not by the First Year medical students. While we would still advocate that First Year medical students should acquire some understanding of and have some formal or informal instruction in, classical Greek and Latin as they pertain to medical terminologies, we acknowledge that Final Year students are likely to have become reasonably well-versed in the origins of medical terminologies without formal instruction. Clin. Anat. 29:696-701, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Multiple stressor effects in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii--toward understanding mechanisms of interaction between effects of ultraviolet radiation and chemical pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkaric, Muris; Behra, Renata; Fischer, Beat B; Junghans, Marion; Eggen, Rik I L

    2015-05-01

    The effects of chemical pollutants and environmental stressors, such as ultraviolet radiation (UVR), can interact when organisms are simultaneously exposed, resulting in higher (synergistic) or lower (antagonistic) multiple stressor effects than expected based on the effects of single stressors. Current understanding of interactive effects is limited due to a lack of mechanism-based multiple stressor studies. It has been hypothesized that effect interactions may generally occur if chemical and non-chemical stressors cause similar physiological effects in the organism. To test this hypothesis, we exposed the model green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to combinations of UVR and single chemicals displaying modes of action (MOA) similar or dissimilar to the impact of UVR on photosynthesis. Stressor interactions were analyzed based on the independent action model. Effect interactions were found to depend on the MOA of the chemicals, and also on their concentrations, the exposure time and the measured endpoint. Indeed, only chemicals assumed to cause effects on photosynthesis similar to UVR showed interactions with UVR on photosynthetic yield: synergistic in case of Cd(II) and paraquat and antagonistic in case of diuron. No interaction on photosynthesis was observed for S-metolachlor, which acts dissimilarly to UVR. However, combined effects of S-metolachlor and UVR on algal reproduction were synergistic, highlighting the importance of considering additional MOA of UVR. Possible mechanisms of stressor effect interactions are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Physiological Roles and Adverse Effects of the Two Cystine Importers of Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chonoles Imlay, Karin R; Korshunov, Sergey; Imlay, James A

    2015-12-01

    When cystine is added to Escherichia coli, the bacterium becomes remarkably sensitive to hydrogen peroxide. This effect is due to enlarged intracellular pools of cysteine, which can drive Fenton chemistry. Genetic analysis linked the sensitivity to YdjN, a secondary transporter that along with the FliY-YecSC ABC system is responsible for cystine uptake. FliY-YecSC has a nanomolar Km and is essential for import of trace cystine, whereas YdjN has a micromolar Km and is the predominant importer when cystine is more abundant. Oddly, both systems are strongly induced by the CysB response to sulfur scarcity. The FliY-YecSC system can import a variety of biomolecules, including diaminopimelate; it is therefore vulnerable to competitive inhibition, presumably warranting YdjN induction under low-sulfur conditions. But the consequence is that if micromolar cystine then becomes available, the abundant YdjN massively overimports it, at >30 times the total sulfur demand of the cell. The imported cystine is rapidly reduced to cysteine in a glutathione-dependent process. This action avoids the hazard of disulfide stress, but it precludes feedback inhibition of YdjN by cystine. We conjecture that YdjN possesses no cysteine allosteric site because the isostructural amino acid serine might inappropriately bind in its place. Instead, the cell partially resolves the overaccumulation of cysteine by immediately excreting it, completing a futile import/reduction/export cycle that consumes a large amount of cellular energy. These unique, wasteful, and dangerous features of cystine metabolism are reproduced by other bacteria. We propose to rename ydjN as tcyP and fliY-yecSC as tcyJLN. In general, intracellular metabolite pools are kept at steady, nontoxic levels by a sophisticated combination of transcriptional and allosteric controls. Surprisingly, in E. coli allosteric control is utterly absent from the primary importer of cystine. This flaw allows massive overimport of cystine, which

  10. Effects of Error Messages on a Student's Ability to Understand and Fix Programming Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beejady Murthy Kadekar, Harsha Kadekar

    Assemblers and compilers provide feedback to a programmer in the form of error messages. These error messages become input to the debugging model of the programmer. For the programmer to fix an error, they should first locate the error in the program, understand what is causing that error, and finally resolve that error. Error messages play an important role in all three stages of fixing of errors. This thesis studies the effects of error messages in the context of teaching programming. Given an error message, this work investigates how it effects student's way of 1) understanding the error, and 2) fixing the error. As part of the study, three error message types were developed--Default, Link and Example, to better understand the effects of error messages. The Default type provides an assembler-centric single line error message, the Link type provides a program-centric detailed error description with a hyperlink for more information, and the Example type provides a program centric detailed error description with a relevant example. All these error message types were developed for assembly language programming. A think aloud programming exercise was conducted as part of the study to capture the student programmer's knowledge model. Different codes were developed to analyze the data collected as part of think aloud exercise. After transcribing, coding, and analyzing the data, it was found that the Link type of error message helped to fix the error in less time and with fewer steps. Among the three types, the Link type of error message also resulted in a significantly higher ratio of correct to incorrect steps taken by the programmer to fix the error.

  11. The importance of economic, social and cultural capital in understanding health inequalities: using a Bourdieu-based approach in research on physical and mental health perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinxten, Wouter; Lievens, John

    2014-09-01

    In this article we adopt a Bourdieu-based approach to study social inequalities in perceptions of mental and physical health. Most research takes into account the impact of economic or social capital on health inequalities. Bourdieu, however, distinguishes between three forms of capital that can determine peoples' social position: economic, social and cultural capital. Health research examining the effects of cultural capital is scarce. By simultaneously considering and modelling indicators of each of Bourdieu's forms of capital, we further the understanding of the dynamics of health inequalities. Using data from a large-scale representative survey (N = 1825) in Flanders, Belgium, we find that each of the forms of capital has a net effect on perceptions of physical and mental health, which persists after controlling for the other forms of capital and for the effects of other correlates of perceived health. The only exception is that the cultural capital indicators are not related to mental health. These results confirm the value of a Bourdieu-based approach and indicate the need to consider economic, social and cultural capital to obtain a better understanding of social inequality in health. © 2014 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2014 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Microbial effects on the development of forensically important blow fly species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crooks, Esther R; Bulling, Mark T; Barnes, Kate M

    2016-09-01

    Colonisation times and development rates of specific blow fly species are used to estimate the minimum Post Mortem Interval (mPMI). The presence or absence of bacteria on a corpse can potentially affect the development and survival of blow fly larvae. Therefore an understanding of microbial-insect interactions is important for improving the interpretation of mPMI estimations. In this study, the effect of two bacteria (Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus) on the growth rate and survival of three forensically important blow fly species (Lucilia sericata, Calliphora vicina and Calliphora vomitoria) was investigated. Sterile larvae were raised in a controlled environment (16:8h day: night light cycle, 23:21°C day: night temperature cycle and a constant 35% relative humidity) on four artificial diets prepared with 100μl of 10(5) CFU bacterial solutions as follows: (1) E. coli, (2) S. aureus, (3) a 50:50 E. coli:S. aureus mix and (4) a sterile bacteria-free control diet. Daily measurements (length, width and weight) were taken from first instar larvae through to the emergence of adult flies. Survival rates were also determined at pupation and adult emergence. Results indicate that bacteria were not essential for the development of any of the blow fly species. However, larval growth rates were affected by bacterial diet, with effects differing between blow fly species. Peak larval weights also varied according to species-diet combination; C. vomitoria had the largest weight on E. coli and mixed diets, C. vicina had the largest weight on S. aureus diets, and treatment had no significant effect on the peak larval weight of L. sericata. These results indicate the potential for the bacteria that larvae are exposed to during development on a corpse to alter both developmental rates and larval weight in some blow fly species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Understanding the Effects of Host Evolution and Skin Bacteria Composition on Disease Vector Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-14

    Distribution Unlimited UU UU UU UU 14-04-2016 1-Sep-2014 31-Dec-2015 Final Report: Understanding the effects of host evolution and skin bacteria...reviewed journals: Final Report: Understanding the effects of host evolution and skin bacteria composition on disease vector choices Report Title Here...SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: Here we sought to understand how host biology influences the composition of skin microbes, how skin microbes influence

  14. Understanding exercise uptake and adherence for people with chronic conditions: a new model demonstrating the importance of exercise identity, benefits of attending and support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentecost, C; Taket, A

    2011-10-01

    Understanding the factors influencing uptake and adherence to exercise for people with chronic conditions from different ages, genders and ethnicities is important for planning exercise services. This paper presents evidence supporting a new model of exercise uptake and adherence applicable to people with chronic conditions from diverse socio-demographic backgrounds. The study is based on 130 semi-structured interviews with people with chronic conditions, including both those who did and those who did not attend exercise services, and supporters of those who attended. Analysis followed the guidelines of 'framework analysis'. Results show that three factors were particularly important in influencing adherence behavior: (i) exercise identity, (ii) support and (iii) perceived benefits of attending. Social and cultural identities impacted on willingness to exercise, importance of exercise and perceived appropriateness of exercising. Having at least one supporter providing different types of support was associated with high levels of attendance. Those people who valued the social and psychological benefits of attending were more likely to be high attenders. The new model illustrates interaction between these three factors and discusses how these can be taken into account when planning exercise services for people with chronic conditions drawn from diverse socio-demographic groups.

  15. Neighborhood-resources for the development of a strong SOC and the importance of understanding why and how resources work: a grounded theory approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruca Maass

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Providing individuals with psychosocial resources such as sense of coherence (SOC seems a beneficial strategy for health promotion in the neighborhood. In order to become a supporting theory for health promotion, Salutogenesis should renew its focus on resources for health, and explore how the development of a strong SOC can be facilitated. Methods Relevant issues were explored using a Grounded Theory- approach. Three focus-group-sessions and three in-depth interviews were conducted with strategically sampled participants. The transcripts of the focus groups were initially analyzed line-by-line to ensure that insights emerged from the data. We then applied focused and systemic analyses to achieve axial coding, and to include insights into how social interactions during focus groups may reveal social processes in real-life-neighborhoods. The data from the in-depth interviews were used to validate and fill emerging categories, as well as to ensure data-saturation. Results Findings indicate the importance of repeated experiences with resources and every-day-challenges to develop a strong SOC. Active engagement with resources is a favorable condition for significant experiences, which enhance the internalization of resources. Core experiences are characterized by a re-organization of resources. Participation in intellectual meaning-making through equal power dialogue seems to broaden perspectives and promote the strengthening of SOC. A strong SOC can also be described as a deeper understanding of how and why resources work, which allows for a more flexible use of resources, including replacing missing resources. Conclusion A new understanding of SOC as an intuitive understanding of how, why and under which circumstances resources work, as well as a new focus on everyday life and repeated experiences might facilitate new approaches to a purposeful strengthening of SOC through the planning and implementation of public measures.

  16. Fundamental Causes of Colorectal Cancer Mortality in the United States: Understanding the Importance of Socioeconomic Status in Creating Inequality in Mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clouston, Sean A. P.; Rubin, Marcie S.; Colen, Cynthia G.; Link, Bruce G.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We used the fundamental cause hypothesis as a framework for understanding the creation of health disparities in colorectal cancer mortality in the United States from 1968 to 2005. Methods. We used negative binomial regression to analyze trends in county-level gender-, race-, and age-adjusted colorectal cancer mortality rates among individuals aged 35 years or older. Results. Prior to 1980, there was a stable gradient in colorectal cancer mortality, with people living in counties of higher socioeconomic status (SES) being at greater risk than people living in lower SES counties. Beginning in 1980, this gradient began to narrow and then reversed as people living in higher SES counties experienced greater reductions in colorectal cancer mortality than those in lower SES counties. Conclusions. Our findings support the fundamental cause hypothesis: once knowledge about prevention and treatment of colorectal cancer became available, social and economic resources became increasingly important in influencing mortality rates. PMID:23153135

  17. Streamflow depletion by wells--Understanding and managing the effects of groundwater pumping on streamflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Paul M.; Leake, Stanley A.

    2012-11-02

    Groundwater is an important source of water for many human needs, including public supply, agriculture, and industry. With the development of any natural resource, however, adverse consequences may be associated with its use. One of the primary concerns related to the development of groundwater resources is the effect of groundwater pumping on streamflow. Groundwater and surface-water systems are connected, and groundwater discharge is often a substantial component of the total flow of a stream. Groundwater pumping reduces the amount of groundwater that flows to streams and, in some cases, can draw streamflow into the underlying groundwater system. Streamflow reductions (or depletions) caused by pumping have become an important water-resource management issue because of the negative impacts that reduced flows can have on aquatic ecosystems, the availability of surface water, and the quality and aesthetic value of streams and rivers. Scientific research over the past seven decades has made important contributions to the basic understanding of the processes and factors that affect streamflow depletion by wells. Moreover, advances in methods for simulating groundwater systems with computer models provide powerful tools for estimating the rates, locations, and timing of streamflow depletion in response to groundwater pumping and for evaluating alternative approaches for managing streamflow depletion. The primary objective of this report is to summarize these scientific insights and to describe the various field methods and modeling approaches that can be used to understand and manage streamflow depletion. A secondary objective is to highlight several misconceptions concerning streamflow depletion and to explain why these misconceptions are incorrect.

  18. Effects of land use on lake nutrients: The importance of scale, hydrologic connectivity, and region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soranno, Patricia A.; Cheruvelil, Kendra Spence; Wagner, Tyler; Webster, Katherine E.; Bremigan, Mary Tate

    2015-01-01

    Catchment land uses, particularly agriculture and urban uses, have long been recognized as major drivers of nutrient concentrations in surface waters. However, few simple models have been developed that relate the amount of catchment land use to downstream freshwater nutrients. Nor are existing models applicable to large numbers of freshwaters across broad spatial extents such as regions or continents. This research aims to increase model performance by exploring three factors that affect the relationship between land use and downstream nutrients in freshwater: the spatial extent for measuring land use, hydrologic connectivity, and the regional differences in both the amount of nutrients and effects of land use on them. We quantified the effects of these three factors that relate land use to lake total phosphorus (TP) and total nitrogen (TN) in 346 north temperate lakes in 7 regions in Michigan, USA. We used a linear mixed modeling framework to examine the importance of spatial extent, lake hydrologic class, and region on models with individual lake nutrients as the response variable, and individual land use types as the predictor variables. Our modeling approach was chosen to avoid problems of multi-collinearity among predictor variables and a lack of independence of lakes within regions, both of which are common problems in broad-scale analyses of freshwaters. We found that all three factors influence land use-lake nutrient relationships. The strongest evidence was for the effect of lake hydrologic connectivity, followed by region, and finally, the spatial extent of land use measurements. Incorporating these three factors into relatively simple models of land use effects on lake nutrients should help to improve predictions and understanding of land use-lake nutrient interactions at broad scales.

  19. Multiple stressor effects in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii – Toward understanding mechanisms of interaction between effects of ultraviolet radiation and chemical pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korkaric, Muris [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Department of Environmental Toxicology, 8600, Duebendorf (Switzerland); ETH Zürich, Institute of Biogeochemistry and Pollutant Dynamics, 8092 Zürich (Switzerland); Behra, Renata; Fischer, Beat B. [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Department of Environmental Toxicology, 8600, Duebendorf (Switzerland); Junghans, Marion [Swiss Center for Applied Ecotoxicology Eawag-EPFL, 8600, Duebendorf (Switzerland); Eggen, Rik I.L., E-mail: rik.eggen@eawag.ch [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Department of Environmental Toxicology, 8600, Duebendorf (Switzerland); ETH Zürich, Institute of Biogeochemistry and Pollutant Dynamics, 8092 Zürich (Switzerland)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Systematic study of multiple stressor effects of UVR and chemicals in C. reinhardtii. • UVR and chemicals did not act independently on algal photosynthesis and reproduction. • Multiple stressor effects of UVR and chemicals depended on chemical MOA. • Synergistic effect interactions not limited to oxidative stress inducing chemicals. • Multiple MOAs of UVR may limit applicability of current prediction models. - Abstract: The effects of chemical pollutants and environmental stressors, such as ultraviolet radiation (UVR), can interact when organisms are simultaneously exposed, resulting in higher (synergistic) or lower (antagonistic) multiple stressor effects than expected based on the effects of single stressors. Current understanding of interactive effects is limited due to a lack of mechanism-based multiple stressor studies. It has been hypothesized that effect interactions may generally occur if chemical and non-chemical stressors cause similar physiological effects in the organism. To test this hypothesis, we exposed the model green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to combinations of UVR and single chemicals displaying modes of action (MOA) similar or dissimilar to the impact of UVR on photosynthesis. Stressor interactions were analyzed based on the independent action model. Effect interactions were found to depend on the MOA of the chemicals, and also on their concentrations, the exposure time and the measured endpoint. Indeed, only chemicals assumed to cause effects on photosynthesis similar to UVR showed interactions with UVR on photosynthetic yield: synergistic in case of Cd(II) and paraquat and antagonistic in case of diuron. No interaction on photosynthesis was observed for S-metolachlor, which acts dissimilarly to UVR. However, combined effects of S-metolachlor and UVR on algal reproduction were synergistic, highlighting the importance of considering additional MOA of UVR. Possible mechanisms of stressor effect interactions are

  20. Multiple stressor effects in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii – Toward understanding mechanisms of interaction between effects of ultraviolet radiation and chemical pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korkaric, Muris; Behra, Renata; Fischer, Beat B.; Junghans, Marion; Eggen, Rik I.L.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Systematic study of multiple stressor effects of UVR and chemicals in C. reinhardtii. • UVR and chemicals did not act independently on algal photosynthesis and reproduction. • Multiple stressor effects of UVR and chemicals depended on chemical MOA. • Synergistic effect interactions not limited to oxidative stress inducing chemicals. • Multiple MOAs of UVR may limit applicability of current prediction models. - Abstract: The effects of chemical pollutants and environmental stressors, such as ultraviolet radiation (UVR), can interact when organisms are simultaneously exposed, resulting in higher (synergistic) or lower (antagonistic) multiple stressor effects than expected based on the effects of single stressors. Current understanding of interactive effects is limited due to a lack of mechanism-based multiple stressor studies. It has been hypothesized that effect interactions may generally occur if chemical and non-chemical stressors cause similar physiological effects in the organism. To test this hypothesis, we exposed the model green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to combinations of UVR and single chemicals displaying modes of action (MOA) similar or dissimilar to the impact of UVR on photosynthesis. Stressor interactions were analyzed based on the independent action model. Effect interactions were found to depend on the MOA of the chemicals, and also on their concentrations, the exposure time and the measured endpoint. Indeed, only chemicals assumed to cause effects on photosynthesis similar to UVR showed interactions with UVR on photosynthetic yield: synergistic in case of Cd(II) and paraquat and antagonistic in case of diuron. No interaction on photosynthesis was observed for S-metolachlor, which acts dissimilarly to UVR. However, combined effects of S-metolachlor and UVR on algal reproduction were synergistic, highlighting the importance of considering additional MOA of UVR. Possible mechanisms of stressor effect interactions are

  1. The importance of stories in understanding people's relationship to food: narrative inquiry methodology has much to offer the public health nutrition researcher and practitioner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Kane, Gabrielle; Pamphilon, Barbara

    2016-03-01

    Despite the usefulness of quantitative research, qualitative research methodologies are equally needed to allow researchers to better understand the important social and environmental factors affecting food choice and eating habits. The present paper contributes insights from narrative inquiry, a well-established qualitative methodology, to a food-related doctoral research study. The connections between food shoppers and the producer, family, friends and others in the food system, between eaters and the earth, and how these connections affect people's meaning-making of food and pathways to food citizenship, were explored in the research. The research used narrative inquiry methodology and focus groups for data collection. Five different food-ways in the Canberra region of Australia were selected for the present research; that is, community gardens, community-supported agriculture, farmers' markets, fresh food markets and supermarkets. Fifty-two people voluntarily attended eight focus groups with four to nine participants in each. From a practical perspective, the present paper offers a guide to the way in which narrative inquiry has been applied to one research project. The paper describes the application of narrative inquiry methodology, revealing the important place of narratives in generating new knowledge. The paper further outlines how phased narrative analysis can lead to a defensible and rigorous interpretive framework grounded in the data generated from people's stories and meaning-making. We argue that individual, social and system change will not be possible without further rigorous qualitative studies to inform and complement the empirical basis of public health nutrition practice.

  2. Understanding Change for Effective School Improvement Initiatives: Critical Elements of School Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnautz, Dee Ann Piercy

    2012-01-01

    With the historical political and social changes, which ultimately affect education, it is easy to see why teachers sometimes balk at new initiatives and perceived new best practices. For change to occur it is important to understand how perception of critical elements of change impact student academic growth. It is also important to have a…

  3. Understanding perceived availability and importance of tobacco control interventions to inform European adoption of a UK economic model: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulchaitanaroaj, Puttarin; Kaló, Zoltán; West, Robert; Cheung, Kei Long; Evers, Silvia; Vokó, Zoltán; Hiligsmann, Mickael; de Vries, Hein; Owen, Lesley; Trapero-Bertran, Marta; Leidl, Reiner; Pokhrel, Subhash

    2018-02-14

    The evidence on the extent to which stakeholders in different European countries agree with availability and importance of tobacco-control interventions is limited. This study assessed and compared stakeholders' views from five European countries and compared the perceived ranking of interventions with evidence-based ranking using cost-effectiveness data. An interview survey (face-to-face, by phone or Skype) was conducted between April and July 2014 with five categories of stakeholders - decision makers, service purchasers, service providers, evidence generators and health promotion advocates - from Germany, Hungary, the Netherlands, Spain, and the United Kingdom. A list of potential stakeholders drawn from the research team's contacts and snowballing served as the sampling frame. An email invitation was sent to all stakeholders in this list and recruitment was based on positive replies. Respondents were asked to rate availability and importance of 30 tobacco control interventions. Kappa coefficients assessed agreement of stakeholders' views. A mean importance score for each intervention was used to rank the interventions. This ranking was compared with the ranking based on cost-effectiveness data from a published review. Ninety-three stakeholders (55.7% response rate) completed the survey: 18.3% were from Germany, 17.2% from Hungary, 30.1% from the Netherlands, 19.4% from Spain, and 15.1% from the UK. Of those, 31.2% were decision makers, 26.9% evidence generators, 19.4% service providers, 15.1% health-promotion advocates, and 7.5% purchasers of services/pharmaceutical products. Smoking restrictions in public areas were rated as the most important intervention (mean score = 1.89). The agreement on availability of interventions between the stakeholders was very low (kappa = 0.098; 95% CI = [0.085, 0.111] but the agreement on the importance of the interventions was fair (kappa = 0.239; 95% CI = [0.208, 0.253]). A correlation was found between

  4. Mediating team effectiveness in the context of collaborative learning: The importance of team and task awareness

    OpenAIRE

    Fransen, Jos; Erkens, Gijsbert; Kirschner, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Learning teams in higher education executing a collaborative assignment are not always effective. To remedy this, there is a need to determine and understand the variables that influence team effectiveness. This study aimed at developing a conceptual framework, based on research in various contexts on team effectiveness and specifically team and task awareness. Core aspects of the framework were tested to establish its value for future experiments on influencing team effectiveness. Results co...

  5. Erosion and Accretion on a Mudflat: The Importance of Very Shallow-Water Effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shi, B.; Cooper, J.R.; Pratolongo; Gao, S.; Bouma, T.J.; Li, G.; Li, C.; Yang, S.L.; Wang, Y.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding erosion and accretion dynamics during an entire tidal cycle is important for assessing their impacts on the habitats of biological communities and the long-term morphological evolution of intertidal mudflats. However, previous studies often omitted erosion and accretion during very

  6. Understanding the importance of therapeutic relationships in the development of self-management behaviours during cancer rehabilitation: a qualitative research protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Wendy M; Rance, Jaynie; Fitzsimmons, Deborah

    2017-01-17

    Cancer is a growing health, social and economic problem. 1 in 3 people in the UK will develop cancer in their lifetime. With survival rates rising to over 50%, the long-term needs of cancer survivors are of growing importance. Cancer rehabilitation is tailored to address the physical or psychosocial decline in ability to engage in daily activities. Its use is supported by high-quality international, multicentre research. Incorporating strategies for self-management behaviour development into rehabilitation can prepare individuals for cancer survivorship. However, healthcare professionals will need to adjust their therapeutic interactions accordingly. Research is yet to clarify the impact of the therapeutic relationship on rehabilitation outcomes in cancer. This study aims to explore the impact of therapeutic relationships on self-management behaviours after cancer. This qualitative study aims to understand cancer rehabilitation participants' beliefs regarding the importance of therapeutic relationships in developing self-management behaviours. A sample representative of a local cancer rehabilitation cohort will be asked to complete a semistructured interview to identify their perspectives on the importance of therapeutic relationships in cancer rehabilitation. Data obtained from the interviews will be analysed, coded and entered into a Delphi questionnaire for circulation to a local cancer rehabilitation population to determine if the views expressed by the interviewees are supported by group consensus. This study was approved by Wales Research Ethics Committee 6 (15/WA/0331) in April 2016. Findings will be disseminated through the first author's doctoral thesis; peer-reviewed journals; local, national and international conference presentations; and public events involving research participants and the general public. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  7. Mediating team effectiveness in the context of collaborative learning : The importance of team and task awareness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paul Kirschner; Gijsbert Erkens; Dr. Jos Fransen

    2011-01-01

    Learning teams in higher education executing a collaborative assignment are not always effective. To remedy this, there is a need to determine and understand the variables that influence team effectiveness. This study aimed at developing a conceptual framework, based on research in various contexts

  8. Understanding the effects of short-term international service-learning trips on medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedini, Nauzley C; Gruppen, Larry D; Kolars, Joseph C; Kumagai, Arno K

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to understand what meaning(s) preclinical students attributed to participation in one-week international service-learning trips (ISLTs) and what specific experiences during the trips accounted for such perspectives. Twenty-four first-year students who had participated in one-week ISLTs at the University of Michigan Medical School during February 2010 were invited to participate. Individual, semistructured interviews were conducted from March to August 2010 with 13 student participants. Using grounded theory analysis, several major themes were identified. Acquisition of clinical/language skills and knowledge of other health care systems were explicit benefits associated with student ISLT experiences. However, in-depth, reflective discussions revealed implicit insights and lessons, the most pervasive of which were student ambivalence concerning the value and effect of ISLTs on communities, issues of privilege and power, and ethical concerns when working with vulnerable populations. These implicit lessons stimulated new insights into future involvement in global health and emphasized the importance of reflection and discussion to enhance ISLT experiences. The current study suggests that one-week ISLTs may engender implicit insights and lessons regarding ethical and societal issues involved with global health and may stimulate the development of critical reflection on current and future professional roles for student participants. Furthermore, these activities should allow time and space for dialogue and reflection to ensure that this implicit understanding can be put to constructive educational and service-oriented uses.

  9. Primary Student-Teachers' Conceptual Understanding of the Greenhouse Effect: A mixed method study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratinen, Ilkka Johannes

    2013-04-01

    The greenhouse effect is a reasonably complex scientific phenomenon which can be used as a model to examine students' conceptual understanding in science. Primary student-teachers' understanding of global environmental problems, such as climate change and ozone depletion, indicates that they have many misconceptions. The present mixed method study examines Finnish primary student-teachers' understanding of the greenhouse effect based on the results obtained via open-ended and closed-form questionnaires. The open-ended questionnaire considers primary student-teachers' spontaneous ideas about the greenhouse effect depicted by concept maps. The present study also uses statistical analysis to reveal respondents' conceptualization of the greenhouse effect. The concept maps and statistical analysis reveal that the primary student-teachers' factual knowledge and their conceptual understanding of the greenhouse effect are incomplete and even misleading. In the light of the results of the present study, proposals for modifying the instruction of climate change in science, especially in geography, are presented.

  10. Bernoulli's Principle: The Effects of Instruction on Young Children's Understanding of Flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleege, Pamela O.; And Others

    This study examined the effects of hands-on instruction on young children's understanding of an aspect of flight, specifically Bernoulli's principle. First, 137 public school children, ages 5 through 8 years, were interviewed about their understanding of how an airplane flies. Two weeks later, the subjects participated in two hands-on…

  11. CALCULATING ROTATING HYDRODYNAMIC AND MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC WAVES TO UNDERSTAND MAGNETIC EFFECTS ON DYNAMICAL TIDES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Xing, E-mail: xing.wei@sjtu.edu.cn [Institute of Natural Sciences and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University (China); Princeton University Observatory, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2016-09-01

    To understand magnetic effects on dynamical tides, we study the rotating magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow driven by harmonic forcing. The linear responses are analytically derived in a periodic box under the local WKB approximation. Both the kinetic and Ohmic dissipations at the resonant frequencies are calculated, and the various parameters are investigated. Although magnetic pressure may be negligible compared to thermal pressure, the magnetic field can be important for the first-order perturbation, e.g., dynamical tides. It is found that the magnetic field splits the resonant frequency, namely the rotating hydrodynamic flow has only one resonant frequency, but the rotating MHD flow has two, one positive and the other negative. In the weak field regime the dissipations are asymmetric around the two resonant frequencies and this asymmetry is more striking with a weaker magnetic field. It is also found that both the kinetic and Ohmic dissipations at the resonant frequencies are inversely proportional to the Ekman number and the square of the wavenumber. The dissipation at the resonant frequency on small scales is almost equal to the dissipation at the non-resonant frequencies, namely the resonance takes its effect on the dissipation at intermediate length scales. Moreover, the waves with phase propagation that is perpendicular to the magnetic field are much more damped. It is also interesting to find that the frequency-averaged dissipation is constant. This result suggests that in compact objects, magnetic effects on tidal dissipation should be considered.

  12. Household structure vs. composition: Understanding gendered effects on educational progress in rural South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeetha Madhavan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Demographers have long been interested in the relationship between living arrangements and gendered outcomes for children in sub-Saharan Africa. Most research conflates household structure with composition and has revealed little about the pathways that link these components to gendered outcomes. Objective: We offer a conceptual approach that differentiates structure from composition with a focus on gendered processes that operate in the household in rural South Africa. Methods: We use data from the 2002 round of the Agincourt Health and Socio-Demographic Surveillance System. Our analytical sample includes 22,997 children aged 6‒18 who were neither parents themselves nor lived with a partner or partner's family. We employ ordinary least squares regression models to examine the effects of structure and composition on educational progress of girls and boys. Results: Non-nuclear structures are associated with similar negative effects for both boys and girls compared to children growing up in nuclear households. However, the presence of other kin in the absence of one or both parents results in gendered effects favouring boys. Conclusions: The absence of any gendered effects when using a household structure typology suggests that secular changes to attitudes about gender equity trump any specific gendered processes stemming from particular configurations. On the other hand, gendered effects that appear when one or both parents are absent show that traditional gender norms and/or resource constraints continue to favour boys. Contribution: We have shown the value of unpacking household structure to better understand how gender norms and gendered resource allocations are linked to an important outcome for children in sub-Saharan Africa.

  13. Understanding the effects of electronic polarization and delocalization on charge-transport levels in oligoacene systems

    KAUST Repository

    Sutton, Christopher

    2017-06-13

    Electronic polarization and charge delocalization are important aspects that affect the charge-transport levels in organic materials. Here, using a quantum mechanical/ embedded-charge (QM/EC) approach based on a combination of the long-range corrected omega B97X-D exchange-correlation functional (QM) and charge model 5 (CM5) point-charge model (EC), we evaluate the vertical detachment energies and polarization energies of various sizes of crystalline and amorphous anionic oligoacene clusters. Our results indicate that QM/EC calculations yield vertical detachment energies and polarization energies that compare well with the experimental values obtained from ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy measurements. In order to understand the effect of charge delocalization on the transport levels, we considered crystalline naphthalene systems with QM regions including one or five-molecules. The results for these systems show that the delocalization and polarization effects are additive; therefore, allowing for electron delocalization by increasing the size of the QM region leads to the additional stabilization of the transport levels. Published by AIP Publishing.

  14. The effect of Phet Simulation media for physics teacher candidate understanding on photoelectric effect concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supurwoko Supurwoko

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Indonesian new Curriculum for senior high school students required student-centered learning. One of the curriculum implementation constraint was the difficulty of providing learning media. PhET simulations media is one of the options that can help implementation of new curriculum on learning. However, the use of this media in Indonesia still needs to be studied comprehensively. The learning was conducted on students of physics education Study Program in sebelas maret university in 2013. The sample consisted of 62 students that was taking quantum physics course. The method that was used in the research was descriptive qualitative.  The method that was used in learning was demonstration’s method that used PhET media and accompanied by a question and answer and groups discussion. The data was collected using multiple choice test and interview through email. We found that any students still did not understand about photoelectric effect concept. They were confused when asked about the thick material and cross section of the targets as related with the regardless of electrons in the photoelectric effect event. Other than that, the concept of the waves as a particle and its relation with the kinetic energy of the electrons was not understood by most students.

  15. The Importance of Indirect Teaching Behaviour and Its Educational Effects in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hyunwoo; Choi, Euichang

    2016-01-01

    Background: Physical education teacher behaviour has been a subject of study in physical education including physical education teacher education for 30 years. However, the research on teacher behaviour has tended to focus on direct teaching behaviour (DTB) to demonstrate the benefits of effective teaching, centred on a technical understanding of…

  16. An efficient approach to understanding and predicting the effects of multiple task characteristics on performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Miles

    2017-04-01

    In ergonomics there is often a need to identify and predict the separate effects of multiple factors on performance. A cost-effective fractional factorial approach to understanding the relationship between task characteristics and task performance is presented. The method has been shown to provide sufficient independent variability to reveal and predict the effects of task characteristics on performance in two domains. The five steps outlined are: selection of performance measure, task characteristic identification, task design for user trials, data collection, regression model development and task characteristic analysis. The approach can be used for furthering knowledge of task performance, theoretical understanding, experimental control and prediction of task performance. Practitioner Summary: A cost-effective method to identify and predict the separate effects of multiple factors on performance is presented. The five steps allow a better understanding of task factors during the design process.

  17. Import price effects on retail prices in the US and abroad: two cases

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Feinberg

    2008-01-01

    I utilize the highly disaggregate EIU CityData and present some preliminary results looking at how retail prices of two goods almost exclusively imported, bananas and virgin olive oil, are affected by import prices of these goods from another perspective, I consider how distributor margins respond to changes in import prices. To avoid dealing with the effects of within-destination-country distance on consumer prices, I consider only prices in cities at or near the port of entry. The findings ...

  18. Quality of Life (QoL) Survey in Hong Kong: Understanding the Importance of Housing Environment and Needs of Residents from Different Housing Sectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Zhonghua; Xie, Xiaohuan; Lu, Yi; Khoshbakht, Maryam

    2018-01-27

    This study presents a Quality of Life (QoL) survey to understand the influence of the housing environment and needs of residents from different housing sectors. The research focuses on Hong Kong where living conditions have become the main affect for people's QoL. Through a household survey using a standard instrument "Word Health Organisation (WHO) Quality of Life-BREF", the article found that among the four WHO QoL domains (Physical Health, Psychological Health, Social Relations And Environment), Environment, particularly its constitute aspect housing environment was the most influential factor for overall quality of life for the public rental housing sector where low-income people live. This research also found that different groups of people have differing needs of their housing environments: the low-income group needs better location and privacy while the medium and high-income groups need better architectural quality. Based on differentiating their needs and wants, this research argues for prioritizing the low-income group's needs for effectively improving their QoL.

  19. Tree growth variation in the tropical forest: understanding effects of temperature, rainfall and CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schippers, Peter; Sterck, Frank; Vlam, Mart; Zuidema, Pieter A

    2015-01-28

    Tropical forest responses to climatic variability have important consequences for global carbon cycling, but are poorly understood. As empirical, correlative studies cannot disentangle the interactive effects of climatic variables on tree growth, we used a tree growth model (IBTREE) to unravel the climate effects on different physiological pathways and in turn on stem growth variation. We parameterized the model for canopy trees of Toona ciliata (Meliaceae) from a Thai monsoon forest and compared predicted and measured variation from a tree-ring study over a 30-year period. We used historical climatic variation of minimum and maximum day temperature, precipitation and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) in different combinations to estimate the contribution of each climate factor in explaining the inter-annual variation in stem growth. Running the model with only variation in maximum temperature and rainfall yielded stem growth patterns that explained almost 70% of the observed inter-annual variation in stem growth. Our results show that maximum temperature had a strong negative effect on the stem growth by increasing respiration, reducing stomatal conductance and thus mitigating a higher transpiration demand, and - to a lesser extent - by directly reducing photosynthesis. Although stem growth was rather weakly sensitive to rain, stem growth variation responded strongly and positively to rainfall variation owing to the strong inter-annual fluctuations in rainfall. Minimum temperature and atmospheric CO 2 concentration did not significantly contribute to explaining the inter-annual variation in stem growth. Our innovative approach - combining a simulation model with historical data on tree-ring growth and climate - allowed disentangling the effects of strongly correlated climate variables on growth through different physiological pathways. Similar studies on different species and in different forest types are needed to further improve our understanding of the sensitivity of

  20. Are biological effects of desert shrubs more important than physical effects on soil microorganisms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Naama; Steinberger, Yosef

    2010-01-01

    Vegetation cover plays a major role in providing organic matter and in acting as a physical barrier, with both together contributing to the formation of "fertile islands," which play an active role in prolonging biological activity in desert ecosystems. By undertaking this study, a longterm research, we designed an experiment to separate the two components-the physical and biotic parts of the perennial plants-and to identify the factor that contributes the most to the ecosystem. The study site was located in the northern Negev Desert, Israel, where 50 Hammada scoparia shrubs and 50 artificial plants were randomly marked. Soil samples were collected monthly over 3 years of research at three locations: under the canopy of H. scoparia shrubs, in the vicinity of the artificial plants, and between the shrubs (control). The contribution to microbial activity was measured by evaluation of the microbial community functions in soil. The functional aspects of the microbial community that were measured were CO2 evolution, microbial biomass, microbial functional diversity, and the physiological profile of the community. The results of this study are presented in two ways: (1) according to the three locations/treatments; and (2) according to the phenological situation of the vegetation (annual and perennial plants) in the research field: the growing phase, the drying process, and the absence of annual plants. The only parameters that were found to affect microbial activity were the contribution of the organic matter of perennial shrubs and the growth of vegetation (annual and perennial) during the growing seasons. The physical component was found to have no effect on soil microbial functional diversity, which elucidates the important contribution of the desert shrub in enhancing biological multiplicity and activity.

  1. The effect of glyphosate on import into a sink leaf of sugar beet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shieh, Wenjang; Geiger, D.R.

    1990-01-01

    The basis for glyphosate inducted limitation of carbon import into developing leaves was studied in sugar beet. To separate the effects of the herbicide on export from those on import, glyphosate was supplied to a developing leaf from two exporting source leaves which fed the sink leaf. Carbon import into the sink leaf was determined by supplying 14 CO 2 to a third source leaf which also supplies carbon to the monitored sink leaf. Import into the sink leaf decreased within 2 to 3 h after glyphosate application, even though photosynthesis and export in the source leaf supplying 14 C were unaffected. Reduced import into the sink leaf was accompanied by increased import by the tap root. Elongation of the sink leaf was only slightly decreased following arrival of glyphosate. Photosynthesis by the sink leaf was not inhibited. The results to data support the view that import is slowed by the inhibition of synthesis of structural or storage compounds in the developing leaves

  2. Understanding the Greenhouse Effect by Embodiment - Analysing and Using Students' and Scientists' Conceptual Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niebert, Kai; Gropengießer, Harald

    2014-01-01

    Over the last 20 years, science education studies have reported that there are very different understandings among students of science regarding the key aspects of climate change. We used the cognitive linguistic framework of experientialism to shed new light on this valuable pool of studies to identify the conceptual resources of understanding climate change. In our study, we interviewed 35 secondary school students on their understanding of the greenhouse effect and analysed the conceptions of climate scientists as drawn from textbooks and research reports. We analysed all data by metaphor analysis and qualitative content analysis to gain insight into students' and scientists' resources for understanding. In our analysis, we found that students and scientists refer to the same schemata to understand the greenhouse effect. We categorised their conceptions into three different principles the conceptions are based on: warming by more input, warming by less output, and warming by a new equilibrium. By interrelating students' and scientists' conceptions, we identified the students' learning demand: First, our students were afforded with experiences regarding the interactions of electromagnetic radiation and CO2. Second, our students reflected about the experience-based schemata they use as source domains for metaphorical understanding of the greenhouse effect. By uncovering the-mostly unconscious-deployed schemata, we gave students access to their source domains. We implemented these teaching guidelines in interventions and evaluated them in teaching experiments to develop evidence-based and theory-guided learning activities on the greenhouse effect.

  3. Effective Use of Discovery Learning to Improve Understanding of Factors That Affect Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Arup

    2015-01-01

    Undergraduate business majors are required to take a course in operations management. In this course, a great deal of emphasis is put on developing a good understanding of quality because this is likely to be the only required course that covers this important topic. Quality of output exhibits a great deal of variation. To produce high quality on…

  4. U.S. Policy and Canadian Lumber: Effects of the 1986 Memorandum of Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    David N. Wear; Karen J. Lee

    1993-01-01

    A 1986 Memorandum of Understanding on softwood lumber imports (MOU) between Canada and the United States required that provinvial governments levy export taxes on softwood lumber shipped to the United States. This agreement, with subsequent amendments, influenced trade from 1987 until it was abandoned by Canada in October of 1991. This paper investigates the market...

  5. Can an Understanding of Basic Research Facilitate the Effectiveness of Practitioners? Reflections and Personal Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidman, Murray

    2011-01-01

    I have written before about the importance of applied behavior analysis to basic researchers. That relationship is, however, reciprocal; it is also critical for practitioners to understand and even to participate in basic research. Although applied problems are rarely the same as those investigated in the laboratory, practitioners who understand…

  6. Understanding uncertainty in temperature effects on vector-borne disease: a Bayesian approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Leah R; Ben-Horin, Tal; Lafferty, Kevin D; McNally, Amy; Mordecai, Erin; Paaijmans, Krijn P; Pawar, Samraat; Ryan, Sadie J

    2015-01-01

    Extrinsic environmental factors influence the distribution and population dynamics of many organisms, including insects that are of concern for human health and agriculture. This is particularly true for vector-borne infectious diseases like malaria, which is a major source of morbidity and mortality in humans. Understanding the mechanistic links between environment and population processes for these diseases is key to predicting the consequences of climate change on transmission and for developing effective interventions. An important measure of the intensity of disease transmission is the reproductive number R0. However, understanding the mechanisms linking R0 and temperature, an environmental factor driving disease risk, can be challenging because the data available for parameterization are often poor. To address this, we show how a Bayesian approach can help identify critical uncertainties in components of R0 and how this uncertainty is propagated into the estimate of R0. Most notably, we find that different parameters dominate the uncertainty at different temperature regimes: bite rate from 15 degrees C to 25 degrees C; fecundity across all temperatures, but especially approximately 25-32 degrees C; mortality from 20 degrees C to 30 degrees C; parasite development rate at degrees 15-16 degrees C and again at approximately 33-35 degrees C. Focusing empirical studies on these parameters and corresponding temperature ranges would be the most efficient way to improve estimates of R0. While we focus on malaria, our methods apply to improving process-based models more generally, including epidemiological, physiological niche, and species distribution models.

  7. Understanding uncertainty in temperature effects on vector-borne disease: a Bayesian approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Leah R.; Ben-Horin, Tal; Lafferty, Kevin D.; McNally, Amy; Mordecai, Erin A.; Paaijmans, Krijn P.; Pawar, Samraat; Ryan, Sadie J.

    2015-01-01

    Extrinsic environmental factors influence the distribution and population dynamics of many organisms, including insects that are of concern for human health and agriculture. This is particularly true for vector-borne infectious diseases like malaria, which is a major source of morbidity and mortality in humans. Understanding the mechanistic links between environment and population processes for these diseases is key to predicting the consequences of climate change on transmission and for developing effective interventions. An important measure of the intensity of disease transmission is the reproductive number R0. However, understanding the mechanisms linking R0 and temperature, an environmental factor driving disease risk, can be challenging because the data available for parameterization are often poor. To address this, we show how a Bayesian approach can help identify critical uncertainties in components of R0 and how this uncertainty is propagated into the estimate of R0. Most notably, we find that different parameters dominate the uncertainty at different temperature regimes: bite rate from 15°C to 25°C; fecundity across all temperatures, but especially ~25–32°C; mortality from 20°C to 30°C; parasite development rate at ~15–16°C and again at ~33–35°C. Focusing empirical studies on these parameters and corresponding temperature ranges would be the most efficient way to improve estimates of R0. While we focus on malaria, our methods apply to improving process-based models more generally, including epidemiological, physiological niche, and species distribution models.

  8. Using Interactive Technology to Support Students' Understanding of the Greenhouse Effect and Global Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varma, Keisha; Linn, Marcia C.

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we examine middle school students' understanding of the greenhouse effect and global warming. We designed and refined a technology-enhanced curriculum module called "Global Warming: Virtual Earth". In the module activities, students conduct virtual experiments with a visualization of the greenhouse effect. They analyze data and draw…

  9. Effect of Technology Enhanced Conceptual Change Texts on Students' Understanding of Buoyant Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkan, Gulbin; Selcuk, Gamze Sezgin

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the effect of technology enhanced conceptual change texts on elementary school students' understanding of buoyant force was investigated. The conceptual change texts (written forms) used in this study are proven for effectiveness and are enriched by using technology support in this study. These texts were tried out on two groups. A…

  10. First step to understand the importance of new deep aquifer pumping regime in groundwater system in a developing country, Kwale, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Nuria; Folch, Albert; Lane, Mike; Thomas, Mike; Sasaka, Willie; Wara, Calvince; Banje, Said; Olago, Dan; Katuva, Jacob; Thomson, Patrick; Hope, Rob

    2016-04-01

    level and its quality either. So, in order to define the system and start to understand the different complex interactions, we present the initial results of the first complete water sampling field campaign (September 2015). Water isotope data and major ions were analyzed from 78 shallow and deep wells and surface water spread around study area. This field survey has been useful to understand the recharge, discharge areas and groundwater quality of deep aquifer system and which will have an important role for sustainable water management in the of Kwale area. Acknowledgements The research is primarily supported under the NERC/ESRC/DFID Unlocking the Potential of Groundwater for the Poor (UPGro) as a Catalyst Grant (NE/L001950/1) with work extending until 2019 as a Consortium Grant (NE/M008894/1), see http://www.upgro.org. Data for the paper will be publicly posted on the National Geoscience Data Centre and the UK Data Archive under the terms of the UPGro data management agreement.

  11. Understanding the visual resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd L. Newby

    1971-01-01

    Understanding our visual resources involves a complex interweaving of motivation and cognitive recesses; but, more important, it requires that we understand and can identify those characteristics of a landscape that influence the image formation process. From research conducted in Florida, three major variables were identified that appear to have significant effect...

  12. DISCUSSION: When and How did Plate Tectonics Begin, What Came Before, and Why is this Controversy important for Understanding the Earth and Exoplanets?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, R. J.; Gerya, T.; Sobolev, S. V.; Tackley, P.

    2015-12-01

    Because all 5 presentations in the Union session "When and How did Plate Tectonics Begin, What Came Before, and Why is this Controversy important for Understanding the Earth and Exoplanets?" will have 5 minute discussion periods, the scheduled 15 minute end-of-session discussion period is intended to allow other perspectives to be presented by the scientific community. We invite brief (2 powerpoint slides) comments from the community about any aspect of the topic at hand. We encourage anyone who has something pertinent or interesting to say to submit 2 powerpoint slides directly to any one of the four co-convenors listed on this abstract. The first slide should be a simple title with the name and affiliation of the commenter. The second slide should be the content of the comment. The convenors will compile all of these that are submitted up to the noon on the day before the session occurs, when we will upload the compiled files in the order that they were received (if we have received digital scans of signed waivers by that time, see below). During the discussion, we will call on those who have submitted 2 slides to the podium to make their points in 2 minutes or less (total time from being called to leaving the podium). Because this AGU Union session including the discussion period will be live-streamed and recorded, all Discussion Session commenters will be required to sign an AGU waiver acknowledging this and giving permission to be recorded. These will be sent via e-mail to those who submit 2 slide powerpoints. Commenters that do not sign and return the waiver will be scheduled after all commenters who have returned signed waivers and AGU will terminate live streaming and recording accordingly. If no one submits anything then we will have open discussion from the floor. We will also advertise the Monte Verita conference in Locarno Switzerland 17-22 July 2016. This conference will explore in greater detail the 5 key aspects of Plate Tectonic evolution briefly

  13. Effects of Message Framing on Influenza Vaccination: Understanding the Role of Risk Disclosure, Perceived Vaccine Efficacy, and Felt Ambivalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sungsu; Pjesivac, Ivanka; Jin, Yan

    2017-10-20

    The current study examined the effects of framing in promotional health messages on intention to vaccinate against seasonal influenza virus. The findings of an experimental study (N = 86) indicated that exposure to both benefits and side effects of vaccination (gain-framed with risk disclosure message) led to lower intention to receive the flu vaccine. This relationship was mediated by both perceived vaccine efficacy and felt ambivalence in a serial order, revealing the underlying psychological mechanisms important for understanding health-related behaviors. Theoretical implications of constructing sub-framed messages are discussed and the concept of second-order framing is introduced.

  14. Biosurfactant production by Aureobasidium pullulans in stirred tank bioreactor: New approach to understand the influence of important variables in the process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumano, Larissa Pereira; Antunes, Felipe Antonio Fernandes; Souto, Sara Galeno; Dos Santos, Júlio Cesar; Venus, Joachim; Schneider, Roland; da Silva, Silvio Silvério

    2017-11-01

    Surfactants are amphiphilic molecules with large industrial applications produced currently by chemical routes mainly derived from oil industry. However, biotechnological process, aimed to develop new sustainable process configurations by using favorable microorganisms, already requires investigations in more details. Thus, we present a novel approach for biosurfactant production using the promising yeast Aureobasidium pullulans LB 83, in stirred tank reactor. A central composite face-centered design was carried out to evaluate the effect of the aeration rate (0.1-1.1min -1 ) and sucrose concentration (20-80g.L -1 ) in the biosurfactant maximum tensoactivity and productivity. Statistical analysis showed that the use of variables at high levels enhanced tensoactivity, showing 8.05cm in the oil spread test and productivity of 0.0838cm.h -1 . Also, unprecedented investigation of aeration rate and sucrose concentration relevance in biosurfactant production by A. pullulans in stirred tank reactor was detailed, demonstrating the importance to establish adequate conditions in bioreactors, aimed to scale-up process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Risk-based maintenance modeling. Prioritization of maintenance importances and quantification of maintenance effectiveness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vesely, W.E.; Rezos, J.T. [Science Applications International Corp., Dublin, OH (United States)

    1995-09-01

    This report describes methods for prioritizing the risk importances of maintenances using a Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA). Approaches then are described for quantifying their reliability and risk effects. Two different PRA importance measures, minimal cutset importances and risk reduction importances, were used to prioritize maintenances; the findings show that both give similar results if appropriate criteria are used. The justifications for the particular importance measures also are developed. The methods developed to quantify the reliability and risk effects of maintenance actions are extensions of the usual reliability models now used in PRAs. These extended models consider degraded states of the component, and quantify the benefits of maintenance in correcting degradations and preventing failures. The negative effects of maintenance, including downtimes, also are included. These models are specific types of Markov models. The data for these models can be obtained from plant maintenance logs and from the Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System (NPRDS). To explore the potential usefulness of these models, the authors analyzed a range of postulated values of input data. These models were used to examine maintenance effects on a components reliability and performance for various maintenance programs and component data. Maintenance schedules were analyzed to optimize the component`s availability. In specific cases, the effects of maintenance were found to be large.

  16. Practical and effective management of libraries integrating case studies, general management theory and self-understanding

    CERN Document Server

    Moniz, Jr, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Aimed at library science students and librarians with newly assigned administrative duties the book is about improving one's thinking and decision making in a role as a library manager. Most librarians get very little exposure to management issues prior to finding themselves in a management role. Furthermore, most library science students do not expect that they will need to understand management yet they quickly find that there is a need to understand this perspective to be effective at almost any library job. Effective library management is about having some tools to make decisions (such as

  17. Estimating population density for disease risk assessment: The importance of understanding the area of influence of traps using wild pigs as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Amy J; Leland, Bruce; Bodenchuk, Michael; VerCauteren, Kurt C; Pepin, Kim M

    2017-06-01

    Population density is a key driver of disease dynamics in wildlife populations. Accurate disease risk assessment and determination of management impacts on wildlife populations requires an ability to estimate population density alongside management actions. A common management technique for controlling wildlife populations to monitor and mitigate disease transmission risk is trapping (e.g., box traps, corral traps, drop nets). Although abundance can be estimated from trapping actions using a variety of analytical approaches, inference is limited by the spatial extent to which a trap attracts animals on the landscape. If the "area of influence" were known, abundance estimates could be converted to densities. In addition to being an important predictor of contact rate and thus disease spread, density is more informative because it is comparable across sites of different sizes. The goal of our study is to demonstrate the importance of determining the area sampled by traps (area of influence) so that density can be estimated from management-based trapping designs which do not employ a trapping grid. To provide one example of how area of influence could be calculated alongside management, we conducted a small pilot study on wild pigs (Sus scrofa) using two removal methods 1) trapping followed by 2) aerial gunning, at three sites in northeast Texas in 2015. We estimated abundance from trapping data with a removal model. We calculated empirical densities as aerial counts divided by the area searched by air (based on aerial flight tracks). We inferred the area of influence of traps by assuming consistent densities across the larger spatial scale and then solving for area impacted by the traps. Based on our pilot study we estimated the area of influence for corral traps in late summer in Texas to be ∼8.6km 2 . Future work showing the effects of behavioral and environmental factors on area of influence will help mangers obtain estimates of density from management data, and

  18. Deconstructing the mammal species richness pattern in Europe - towards and understanding of the relative importance of climate, biogeographic history, habitat heterogeneity and humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fløjgaard, Camilla; Normand, Signe; Skov, Flemming

    2011-01-01

    Aim  We deconstructed the mammal species richness pattern in Europe to assess the importance of large-scale gradients in current macroclimate relative to biogeographic history, habitat heterogeneity and human influence (HHH variables) as richness determinants for total species, and for widespread...... variables (history, habitat heterogeneity and human influence) proved important predictors of species richness, but also difficult to disentangle. Notably, biogeographic history, in particular peninsular dynamics, is an important determinant of widespread and endemic species richness....

  19. Auditor Tenure and Accounting Conservatism: Testing Moderating Effect of Owner’s Importance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. Arabloo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Conservatism is one of the salient features of financial reporting that has attracted more attention in recent years because of financial scandals. Several recent studies have focused specifically on conservatism. This research tries to investigate the effect of auditor tenure and the importance of the client's accounting conservatism by using panel data model, multivariate regression, and data of 114 companies listed in Tehran Stock Exchange during the years 2011 to 2015. The results showed that there is an inverse relationship between auditor tenure and conservatism of auditees; moreover, the client’s importance has an additive effect on the inverse relationship between auditor tenure and conservatism of client.

  20. Effects of a Co-operative Learning Strategy on Ninth-Graders' Understanding of Human Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soyibo, Kola; Evans, Hermel G.

    2002-01-01

    Looks at the effect of teaching strategies on a group's attitude toward biology and understanding human nutrition. Used an experimental group that participated in co-operative learning and a control group taught using the lecture method. Involves ninth graders (n=156) from two high schools in Jamaica. (Author/YDS)

  1. Effects of Representation Sequences and Spatial Ability on Students' Scientific Understandings about the Mechanism of Breathing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hsin-Kai; Lin, Yu-Fen; Hsu, Ying-Shao

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of representation sequences and spatial ability on students' scientific understandings about the mechanism of breathing in human beings. 130 seventh graders were assigned to two groups with different sequential combinations of static and dynamic representations: SD group (i.e., viewing…

  2. The Effect of Modeling and Visualization Resources on Student Understanding of Physical Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Jilll A.; Castillo, Adam J.; Cardenas, M. Bayani

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effect of modeling and visualization resources on upper-division, undergraduate and graduate students' performance on an open-ended assessment of their understanding of physical hydrology. The students were enrolled in one of five sections of a physical hydrology course. In two of the sections, students completed homework…

  3. The Effect of Using the History of Sciences on Conceptual Understanding and Intrinsic Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blizak, Djanette

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of using the history of science in teaching geometrical optics on the motivation and conceptual understanding of first year university students. For this purpose, 54 students were randomly selected, then divided into two groups: the experimental group was taught by using history of science before traditional…

  4. Effect of Cooperative Learning Strategies on Students' Understanding of Concepts in Electrochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acar, Burcin; Tarhan, Leman

    2007-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the degree of effectiveness of cooperative learning instruction over a traditional approach on 11th grade students' understanding of electrochemistry. The study involved forty-one 11th grade students from two science classes with the same teacher. To determine students' misconceptions concerning…

  5. Effectiveness of Instruction Based on the Constructivist Approach on Understanding Chemical Equilibrium Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkus, Huseyin; Kadayifci, Hakki; Atasoy, Basri; Geban, Omer

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify misconceptions concerning chemical equilibrium concepts and to investigate the effectiveness of instruction based on the constructivist approach over traditional instruction on 10th grade students' understanding of chemical equilibrium concepts. The subjects of this study consisted of 71 10th grade…

  6. Effect of Conceptual Change Approach on Students' Understanding of Reaction Rate Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingir, Sevgi; Geban, Omer

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of conceptual change text oriented instruction compared to traditional instruction on 10th grade students' understanding of reaction rate concepts. 45 students from two classes of the same teacher in a public high school participated in this study. Students in the experimental group…

  7. Understanding the effectiveness of vegetated streamside management zones for protecting water quality (Chapter 5)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip Smethurst; Kevin Petrone; Daniel Neary

    2012-01-01

    We set out to improve understanding of the effectiveness of streamside management zones (SMZs) for protecting water quality in landscapes dominated by agriculture. We conducted a paired-catchment experiment that included water quality monitoring before and after the establishment of a forest plantation as an SMZ on cleared farmland that was used for extensive grazing....

  8. Student Teacher Understanding of the Greenhouse Effect, Ozone Layer Depletion, and Acid Rain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dove, Jane

    1996-01-01

    Describes the results of a survey designed to ascertain details of student teachers' knowledge and misconceptions about the greenhouse effect, acid rain, and ozone layer depletion. Results indicate familiarity with the issues but little understanding of the concepts involved and many commonly held misconceptions. (JRH)

  9. The Effects of Swedish Knife Model on Students' Understanding of the Digestive System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerrah Ozsevgec, Lale; Artun, Huseyin; Unal, Melike

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the effect of Swedish Knife Model on students' understanding of digestive system. A simple experimental design (pretest-treatment-posttest) was used in the study and internal comparison of the results of the one group was made. The sample consisted of 40 7th grade Turkish students whose ages range from 13 to 15.…

  10. Exploring the Effectiveness of a Measurement Error Tutorial in Helping Teachers Understand Score Report Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata-Rivera, Diego; Zwick, Rebecca; Vezzu, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to explore the effectiveness of a short web-based tutorial in helping teachers to better understand the portrayal of measurement error in test score reports. The short video tutorial included both verbal and graphical representations of measurement error. Results showed a significant difference in comprehension scores…

  11. Encouraging a "Romantic Understanding" of Science: The Effect of the Nikola Tesla Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadzigeorgiou, Yannis; Klassen, Stephen; Klassen, Cathrine Froese

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss and apply the notion of romantic understanding by outlining its features and its potential role in science education, to identify its features in the story of Nikola Tesla, and to describe an empirical study conducted to determine the effect of telling such a story to Grade 9 students. Elaborated features of…

  12. The Effect of Enriched Learning Environments on the Conceptual Understanding of Students: "The Erosion and Landslide"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çoruhlu, Tülay Senel; Bilgin, Arzu Kirman; Nas, Sibel Er

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research is to investigate the effect of enriched learning environments which have been developed in the framework of the "erosion and landslide" concepts on the conceptual understanding of students. A quasi-experimental method has been used in this research. The sample consists of 40 students. 5th grade students (aged…

  13. The Effect of a Conceptual Change Approach on Understanding of Students' Chemical Equilibrium Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atasoy, Basri; Akkus, Huseyin; Kadayifci, Hakki

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a conceptual change approach over traditional instruction on tenth-grade students' conceptual achievement in understanding chemical equilibrium. The study was conducted in two classes of the same teacher with participation of a total of 44 tenth-grade students. In this study, a…

  14. The Effect of Herrmann Whole Brain Teaching Method on Students' Understanding of Simple Electric Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bawaneh, Ali Khalid Ali; Nurulazam Md Zain, Ahmad; Salmiza, Saleh

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of Herrmann Whole Brain Teaching Method over conventional teaching method on eight graders in their understanding of simple electric circuits in Jordan. Participants (N = 273 students; M = 139, F = 134) were randomly selected from Bani Kenanah region-North of Jordan and randomly assigned to…

  15. Effect of science magic applied in interactive lecture demonstrations on conceptual understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taufiq, Muhammad; Suhandi, Andi; Liliawati, Winny

    2017-08-01

    Research about the application of science magic-assisting Interactive Lecture Demonstrations (ILD) has been conducted. This research is aimed at providing description about the comparison of the improvement of the conceptual understanding of lesson on pressure between students who receive physics lesson through science magic-assisting ILD and students who receive physics lesson through ILD without science magic. This research used a quasi-experiment methods with Control Group Pretest-Posttest Design. The subject of the research is all students of class VIII in one of MTs (Islamic junior high school) in Pekalongan. Research samples were selected using random sampling technique. Data about students' conceptual understanding was collected using test instrument of conceptual understanding in the form of multiple choices. N-gain average calculation was performed in order to determine the improvement of students' conceptual understanding. The result of the research shows that conceptual understanding of students on lesson about pressure who received lesson with ILD using science magic is higher than students who received lesson with ILD without science magic . Therefore, the conclusion is that the application of science magic ILD is more effective to improve the conceptual understanding of lesson on pressure.

  16. Understanding Teacher Effectiveness: Significant State Data Capacity Is Required to Measure and Improve Teacher Effectiveness. Data for Action 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data Quality Campaign, 2012

    2012-01-01

    States are increasingly focused on understanding and improving teacher effectiveness. There are several funding opportunities that incentivize states to use data to inform measurements of teacher effectiveness. Local, state, and federal efforts support using data to improve teacher preparation programs. Preparation programs seek "access to data…

  17. Mediating team effectiveness in the context of collaborative learning: The importance of team and task awareness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fransen, Jos; Kirschner, Paul A.; Erkens, Gijsbert

    2010-01-01

    Fransen, J., Kirschner, P. A., & Erkens, G. (2011). Mediating team effectiveness in the context of collaborative learning: The importance of team and task awareness. Computers in Human Behavior, 27(3), 1103-1113. doi:10.1016/j.chb.2010.05.017

  18. 15 CFR 705.4 - Criteria for determining effect of imports on the national security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Criteria for determining effect of imports on the national security. 705.4 Section 705.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NATIONAL...

  19. Non-specific effects of vaccines: plausible and potentially important, but implications uncertain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Andrew J; Finn, Adam; Curtis, Nigel

    2017-11-01

    Non-specific effects (NSE) or heterologous effects of vaccines are proposed to explain observations in some studies that certain vaccines have an impact beyond the direct protection against infection with the specific pathogen for which the vaccines were designed. The importance and implications of such effects remain controversial. There are several known immunological mechanisms which could lead to NSE, since it is widely recognised that the generation of specific immunity is initiated by non-specific innate immune mechanisms that may also have wider effects on adaptive immune function. However, there are no published studies that demonstrate a mechanistic link between such immunological phenomena and clinically relevant NSE in humans. While it is highly plausible that some vaccines do have NSE, their magnitude and duration, and thus importance, remain uncertain. Although the WHO recently concluded that current evidence does not justify changes to immunisation policy, further studies of sufficient size and quality are needed to assess the importance of NSE for all-cause mortality. This could provide insights into vaccine immunobiology with important implications for infant health and survival. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  20. The Effects of Media Reports on Disease Spread and Important Public Health Measurements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon Collinson

    Full Text Available Controlling the spread of influenza to reduce the effects of infection on a population is an important mandate of public health. Mass media reports on an epidemic or pandemic can provide important information to the public, and in turn, can induce positive healthy behaviour practices (i.e., handwashing, social distancing in the individuals, that will reduce the probability of contracting the disease. Mass media fatigue, however, can dampen these effects. Mathematical models can be used to study the effects of mass media reports on epidemic/pandemic outcomes. In this study we employ a stochastic agent based model to provide a quantification of mass media reports on the variability in important public health measurements. We also include mass media report data compiled by the Global Public Health Intelligence Network, to study the effects of mass media reports in the 2009 H1N1 pandemic. We find that the report rate and the rate at which individuals relax their healthy behaviours (media fatigue greatly affect the variability in important public health measurements. When the mass media reporting data is included in the model, two peaks of infection result.

  1. The Effects of Media Reports on Disease Spread and Important Public Health Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collinson, Shannon; Khan, Kamran; Heffernan, Jane M

    2015-01-01

    Controlling the spread of influenza to reduce the effects of infection on a population is an important mandate of public health. Mass media reports on an epidemic or pandemic can provide important information to the public, and in turn, can induce positive healthy behaviour practices (i.e., handwashing, social distancing) in the individuals, that will reduce the probability of contracting the disease. Mass media fatigue, however, can dampen these effects. Mathematical models can be used to study the effects of mass media reports on epidemic/pandemic outcomes. In this study we employ a stochastic agent based model to provide a quantification of mass media reports on the variability in important public health measurements. We also include mass media report data compiled by the Global Public Health Intelligence Network, to study the effects of mass media reports in the 2009 H1N1 pandemic. We find that the report rate and the rate at which individuals relax their healthy behaviours (media fatigue) greatly affect the variability in important public health measurements. When the mass media reporting data is included in the model, two peaks of infection result.

  2. Effect of imports of uranium on the national security. Critical technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-09-01

    The report gives results of an investigation to determine the effects of uranium imports on the national security. Uranium is essential to the operation of the Navy's nuclear-powered fleet, for nuclear weapon capability and for civilian nuclear energy generation. US utilities imported 43.8 percent of their uranium requirements in 1986 and 51.1 percent in 1987. The report finds that the domestic industry's competitiveness has deteriorated in recent years, due to the easily accessible and richer deposits available elsewhere. The report concludes, however, that in a national security emergency, defense requirements could be met through stockpiles of finished nuclear materials set aside for military needs. Furthermore, civilian requirements could be met through US production, reliable imports, inventories, and tails reprocessing. The report, therefore, finds that uranium is not being imported in such quantities or under such circumstances as to represent a threat to the national security

  3. Retrospective analysis of the Draize test for serious eye damage/eye irritation: importance of understanding the in vivo endpoints under UN GHS/EU CLP for the development and evaluation of in vitro test methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriaens, Els; Barroso, João; Eskes, Chantra; Hoffmann, Sebastian; McNamee, Pauline; Alépée, Nathalie; Bessou-Touya, Sandrine; De Smedt, Ann; De Wever, Bart; Pfannenbecker, Uwe; Tailhardat, Magalie; Zuang, Valérie

    2014-03-01

    For more than two decades, scientists have been trying to replace the regulatory in vivo Draize eye test by in vitro methods, but so far only partial replacement has been achieved. In order to better understand the reasons for this, historical in vivo rabbit data were analysed in detail and resampled with the purpose of (1) revealing which of the in vivo endpoints are most important in driving United Nations Globally Harmonized System/European Union Regulation on Classification, Labelling and Packaging (UN GHS/EU CLP) classification for serious eye damage/eye irritation and (2) evaluating the method's within-test variability for proposing acceptable and justifiable target values of sensitivity and specificity for alternative methods and their combinations in testing strategies. Among the Cat 1 chemicals evaluated, 36-65 % (depending on the database) were classified based only on persistence of effects, with the remaining being classified mostly based on severe corneal effects. Iritis was found to rarely drive the classification (Draize eye test could be equally identified as Cat 2 and of about 12 % for Cat 2 chemicals to be equally identified as No Cat. On the other hand, the over-classification error for No Cat and Cat 2 was negligible (Draize eye test. Moreover, our analyses of the classification drivers suggest a critical revision of the UN GHS/EU CLP decision criteria for the classification of chemicals based on Draize eye test data, in particular Cat 1 based only on persistence of conjunctiva effects or corneal opacity scores of 4. In order to successfully replace the regulatory in vivo Draize eye test, it will be important to recognise these uncertainties and to have in vitro tools to address the most important in vivo endpoints identified in this paper.

  4. The importance of counting cows: Social and economic effects of a high-level nuclear waste repository in Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleishman, J.; Brody, J.; Galavotti, C.

    1987-01-01

    Impact assessments that rely on existing records and extrapolation from broad geographic areas provide inadequate information about social and economic conditions important in siting a high-level nuclear waste repository. Texas has used an alternative approach, involving systematic surveys of representative samples of local residents, farm operators and businesses in the proposed site counties and comparison areas. Results show that this technique is useful in describing current economic conditions, including characteristics of key sectors of the economy, changes related to the siting process, and expectations that may influence investment. In addition, the surveys are useful in assessing the degree of consensus in local communities and in identifying possible differential effects of a repository on particular groups. They also provide a baseline for long-term monitoring of repository effects and contribute to their understanding of the underlying processes that shape public response to the nuclear waste program

  5. The effect of background music and song texts on the emotional understanding of children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katagiri, June

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of background music and song texts to teach emotional understanding to children with autism. Participants were 12 students (mean age 11.5 years) with a primary diagnosis of autism who were attending schools in Japan. Each participant was taught four emotions to decode and encode: happiness, sadness, anger, and fear by the counterbalanced treatment-order. The treatment consisted of the four conditions: (a) no contact control (NCC)--no purposeful teaching of the selected emotion, (b) contact control (CC)--teaching the selected emotion using verbal instructions alone, (c) background music (BM)--teaching the selected emotion by verbal instructions with background music representing the emotion, and singing songs (SS)--teaching the selected emotion by singing specially composed songs about the emotion. Participants were given a pretest and a posttest and received 8 individual sessions between these tests. The results indicated that all participants improved significantly in their understanding of the four selected emotions. Background music was significantly more effective than the other three conditions in improving participants' emotional understanding. The findings suggest that background music can be an effective tool to increase emotional understanding in children with autism, which is crucial to their social interactions.

  6. Biological effect of radiation. Basis for understanding the risk of Fukushima nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imaoka, Tatsuhiko

    2011-01-01

    The radionuclide release in the Fukushima Nuclear Accident has induced a tremendous anxiety on possible health effects of low dose radiation. When radiation hits a cell in an organism, it may induce DNA damages which, if not repaired properly, lead to either cell death or genetic mutation. If function of the tissue is lost as a result of cell death, various tissue responses including dysfunction of hematopoietic tissues, sterility and skin responses may occur; these responses are not manifested if the radiation dose is low enough. Genetic mutation is considered to occur, albeit at a low frequency, even if the radiation dose is very small. Cancer is a result of genetic mutation and its probability is considered to rise, albeit slightly, if radiation induces a small amount of additional mutations. These assumptions lead to a notion that there is no 'safety dose' below which radiation does not cause any cancer. On the other hand, the study of atomic bomb survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki provides the most reliable quantitative information on the relationship between radiation dose and accompanying increase in cancer risk. The analysis so far indicates that cancer risk increases by 0.5-fold, compared to a background level, if a human body is exposed to 1 sievert of radiation; at lower doses, the risk is proportional to the dose, but it is impossible to detect cancer risk associated with 100 milli sievert of exposure because of statistical limitations. Although exposure to atomic bomb radiation occurred in a very little instance, the current situation poses a prolonged (i.e., low dose rate) exposure, probably resulting in still lower cancer risk. Still, since current radiation exposure has no benefit, unlike that in medical situations, it is important to reduce it to a level as low as reasonably achievable. I will explain the biological effect of radiation, including its mechanistic basis and effects on the human body, and wish to help the audience to

  7. Understanding classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Subianto, M.

    2009-01-01

    In practical data analysis, the understandability of models plays an important role in their acceptance. In the data mining literature, however, understandability plays is hardly ever mentioned. If it is mentioned, it is interpreted as meaning that the models have to be simple. In this thesis we

  8. Is experience on a farm an effective approach to understanding animal products and the management of dairy farming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, Mariko; Osada, Masahiro; Ishioka, Katsumi; Matsubara, Takako; Momota, Yutaka; Yumoto, Norio; Sako, Toshinori; Kamiya, Shinji; Yoshimura, Itaru

    2014-03-01

    The understanding of animal products and dairy farming is important for the promotion of dairy farming. Thus, to examine the effects of farm experience on the understanding of animal products and the management of dairy farming, the interaction between students and dairy cows was investigated in groups of first-year veterinary nursing students in 2011 and 2012 (n = 201). These students included 181 women and 20 men. Nine items about dairy cows were presented in a questionnaire. The survey was performed before and after praxis on the educational farm attached to the authors' university. After praxis on the farm, increases occurred in the number of positive responses to the items involving the price of milk, dairy farming and the taste of milk. For these items, a significant difference (P animal products and dairy farming. © 2013 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  9. Effectiveness of Dry Cell Microscopic Simulation (DCMS) to Promote Conceptual Understanding about Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catur Wibowo, Firmanul; Suhandi, Andi; Rusdiana, Dadi; Samsudin, Achmad; Rahmi Darman, Dina; Faizin, M. Noor; Wiyanto; Supriyatman; Permanasari, Anna; Kaniawati, Ida; Setiawan, Wawan; Karyanto, Yudi; Linuwih, Suharto; Fatah, Abdul; Subali, Bambang; Hasani, Aceng; Hidayat, Sholeh

    2017-07-01

    Electricity is a concept that is abstract and difficult to see by eye directly, one example electric shock, but cannot see the movement of electric current so that students have difficulty by students. A computer simulation designed to improve the understanding of the concept of the workings of the dry cell (battery). This study was conducted to 82 students (aged 18-20 years) in the experimental group by learning to use the Dry Cell Microscopic Simulation (DCMS). The result shows the improving of students’ conceptual understanding scores from post test were statistically significantly of the workings of batteries. The implication using computer simulations designed to overcome the difficulties of conceptual understanding, can effectively help students in facilitating conceptual change.

  10. Photoelectric effect experiment for understanding the concept of quantization of radiation energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeimy Gerardine Berrios Saavedra

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study forms part of research on the teaching of physics. The question that directed it was: How a proposed classroom, based on the photoelectric effect experiment helps pres-service teachers of physics of the Universidad Pedagógica Nacional to expand their understanding of the concept of quantization energy of radiation? The construction of the theoretical framework developed on the one hand, with scientific ideas about the quantization of energy, and moreover, with the educational proposals of teaching for understanding. This pedagogical approach was guided by the investigative gaze of the study methodology based on design, taking as main element the use of learning tools such as the task to Predict, Experiment and Explain (PEE. It was found that these tasks fomented the initial understandings of students about the concept, while they enriched and transformed progressively their models and scientific ideas, promoting aspects of scientific work in developing curiosity, imagination and motivation.

  11. "As I deeply understand the importance and greatly admire the poetry of experiment..." (on the eve of P N Lebedev's anniversary)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherbakov, R. N.

    2016-02-01

    Whatever we think of the eminent Russian physicist P N Lebedev, whatever our understanding of how his work was affected by circumstances in and outside of Russia, whatever value is placed on the basic elements of his twenty-year career and personal life and of his great successes and, happily, not so great failures, and whatever the stories of his happy times and his countless misfortunes, one thing remains clear — P N Lebedev's skill and talent served well to foster the development of global science and to improve the reputation of Russia as a scientific nation.

  12. Physical models have gender‐specific effects on student understanding of protein structure–function relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Michelle A.; Chang, Wesley S.; Dent, Erik W.; Nordheim, Erik V.; Franzen, Margaret A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Understanding how basic structural units influence function is identified as a foundational/core concept for undergraduate biological and biochemical literacy. It is essential for students to understand this concept at all size scales, but it is often more difficult for students to understand structure–function relationships at the molecular level, which they cannot as effectively visualize. Students need to develop accurate, 3‐dimensional mental models of biomolecules to understand how biomolecular structure affects cellular functions at the molecular level, yet most traditional curricular tools such as textbooks include only 2‐dimensional representations. We used a controlled, backward design approach to investigate how hand‐held physical molecular model use affected students' ability to logically predict structure–function relationships. Brief (one class period) physical model use increased quiz score for females, whereas there was no significant increase in score for males using physical models. Females also self‐reported higher learning gains in their understanding of context‐specific protein function. Gender differences in spatial visualization may explain the gender‐specific benefits of physical model use observed. © 2016 The Authors Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 44(4):326–335, 2016. PMID:26923186

  13. Physical models have gender-specific effects on student understanding of protein structure-function relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes-Lorman, Robin M; Harris, Michelle A; Chang, Wesley S; Dent, Erik W; Nordheim, Erik V; Franzen, Margaret A

    2016-07-08

    Understanding how basic structural units influence function is identified as a foundational/core concept for undergraduate biological and biochemical literacy. It is essential for students to understand this concept at all size scales, but it is often more difficult for students to understand structure-function relationships at the molecular level, which they cannot as effectively visualize. Students need to develop accurate, 3-dimensional mental models of biomolecules to understand how biomolecular structure affects cellular functions at the molecular level, yet most traditional curricular tools such as textbooks include only 2-dimensional representations. We used a controlled, backward design approach to investigate how hand-held physical molecular model use affected students' ability to logically predict structure-function relationships. Brief (one class period) physical model use increased quiz score for females, whereas there was no significant increase in score for males using physical models. Females also self-reported higher learning gains in their understanding of context-specific protein function. Gender differences in spatial visualization may explain the gender-specific benefits of physical model use observed. © 2016 The Authors Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 44(4):326-335, 2016. © 2016 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  14. Effect of crude oil and refined petroleum product imports on the national security. Critical technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The report contains the results of an investigation requested under Section 232 of the Trade Expansion Act to study the effect of oil imports on the domestic petroleum industry and on United States energy security. It reviews previous energy security assessments and resulting initiatives, assesses current US energy security, and studies emergency petroleum requirements. The report finds that there have been substantial improvements in US energy security since the last Section 232 Petroleum finding in 1979. However, declining domestic oil production, rising oil imports, and growing dependence on potentially insecure sources of supply raise concerns of vulnerability to a major supply disruption

  15. To understand and manage the digestive radiation injuries: importance of the mucous reaction and new therapy orientations; Apprehender et gerer les lesions radiques digestives: importance de la reaction muqueuse et nouvelles orientations therapeutiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francois, A

    2007-09-15

    Actually the radiotherapy that concerns 50% of anti tumoral treatments is accompanied by side effects. The evolution of this therapy turns towards the limitation of the early effects but also the delayed effects in order to improve the quality of life of patients. The first answer was to reduce the radiation doses and the irradiated volume. Three directions are to be kept in mind concerning the digestive tissues: Fight against the break of the epithelial homeostasis by increasing the pool of cells before irradiation and by facilitating the processes of restoration and epithelial regeneration by the stimulation of the proliferation of the cells of progenitor compartments; Fight against the phenotype changes of the cells, and more globally against the cellular activation and its consequences: activation of the vascular endothelium and the initiation of the inflammatory and thrombosis processes; activation of the vascular smooth muscular cells and stenosis; oxidative stress and tissue hypoxia; recruitment and activation of the mesenchyme cells and matrix unbalance; to consider the global nature of the secondary effects, and become aware that there is, besides the physical twilight connected to the irradiation configuration, a biological twilight, that is to say a potential repercussion of the irradiation effects out of the field, on the global nature of an organ even an organism, and this in the therapy and accident configurations. (N.C.)

  16. Effect of a Diagram on Primary Students' Understanding About Electric Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Christine Margaret

    2017-09-01

    This article reports on the effect of using a diagram to develop primary students' conceptual understanding about electric circuits. Diagrammatic representations of electric circuits are used for teaching and assessment despite the absence of research on their pedagogical effectiveness with young learners. Individual interviews were used to closely analyse Years 3 and 5 (8-11-year-old) students' explanations about electric circuits. Data was collected from 20 students in the same school providing pre-, post- and delayed post-test dialogue. Students' thinking about electric circuits and changes in their explanations provide insights into the role of diagrams in understanding science concepts. Findings indicate that diagram interaction positively enhanced understanding, challenged non-scientific views and promoted scientific models of electric circuits. Differences in students' understanding about electric circuits were influenced by prior knowledge, meta-conceptual awareness and diagram conventions including a stylistic feature of the diagram used. A significant finding that students' conceptual models of electric circuits were energy rather than current based has implications for electricity instruction at the primary level.

  17. Understanding the effect of watershed characteristic on the runoff using SCS curve number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damayanti, Frieta; Schneider, Karl

    2015-04-01

    Runoff modeling is a key component in watershed management. The temporal course and amount of runoff is a complex function of a multitude of parameters such as climate, soil, topography, land use, and water management. Against the background of the current rapid environmental change, which is due to both i) man-made changes (e.g. urban development, land use change, water management) as well as ii) changes in the natural systems (e.g. climate change), understanding and predicting the impacts of these changes upon the runoff is very important and affects the wellbeing of many people living in the watershed. A main tool for predictions is hydrologic models. Particularly process based models are the method of choice to assess the impact of land use and climate change. However, many regions which experience large changes in the watersheds can be described as rather data poor, which limits the applicability of such models. This is particularly also true for the Telomoyo Watershed (545 km2) which is located in southern part of Central Java province. The average annual rainfall of the study area reaches 2971 mm. Irrigated paddy field are the dominating land use (35%), followed by built-up area and dry land agriculture. The only available soil map is the FAO soil digital map of the world, which provides rather general soil information. A field survey accompanied by a lab analysis 65 soil samples of was carried out to provide more detailed soil texture information. The soil texture map is a key input in the SCS method to define hydrological soil groups. In the frame of our study on 'Integrated Analysis on Flood Risk of Telomoyo Watershed in Response to the Climate and Land Use Change' funded by the German Academic Exchange service (DAAD) we analyzed the sensitivity of the modeled runoff upon the choice of the method to estimate the CN values using the SCS-CN method. The goal of this study is to analyze the impact of different data sources on the curve numbers and the

  18. Effects of transient soil waterlogging and its importance for rootstock selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Morales-Olmedo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Under transient waterlogging, a number of transformations in the soil are generated associated with lack of aeration, seriously affecting the root system. Significant progress has been reported on understanding the effects of lack of oxygen on the metabolism of the roots, although few studies have examined changes in the soil. Diverging conclusions about the degree of tolerance exhibited by plants exclude the effects of hypoxia and anoxia on physical-chemical soil properties under plant experiments. This review examines the main changes occurring in soil and roots due to transient soil waterlogging conditions. Parameters such as antioxidant capacity, nutrient uptake dynamics and regeneration and distribution of the root system are relevant for selecting rootstocks tolerant to soil waterlogging.

  19. The increasing importance of effective risk management in banking: Findings from Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukosavljević Dejan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the research presented in this paper is risk management, with a special study of banking sector. Research goals include determining the degree of importance and influence of risk management of internal and external risks to a more favorable environment for business success of banks in strategic terms, in the long run. In this sense, the key results of the empirical research on the territory of Serbia in 2015 on a sample of 34 financial institutions, of which 26 were banks, has been provided . The results were processed by statistical and mathematical methods and confirmed the validity of the defined hypotheses, that the importance of effective risk management in banking is growing, as well as the reporting system. The contribution of this research is in a scientific assessment of the importance of various risks, determination of the dominant theoretical and empirical knowledge supporting wider further research in this area in the banking industry.

  20. Understanding parent concerns about children's diet, activity and weight status: an important step towards effective obesity prevention interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Amy; Bowen, Jane; Corsini, Nadia; Gardner, Claire; Golley, Rebecca; Noakes, Manny

    2010-08-01

    To identify parents' concerns and attitudes towards children's diets, activity habits and weight status. Computer-assisted telephone interviewing administration of a 37-item survey. Data were weighted for parental education level. Descriptive results are presented, and comparisons are made by the age, gender and parental characteristics of the child. Online research panel of Australian parents. A total of 1202 randomly selected parents of children aged 2-16 years, broadly representative of the Australian population. Parents were concerned about their child's education (reported by 35 % of respondents), child's health and well-being (25 %), and violence, drugs and alcohol (20 %). Concern about nutrition was indicated by 14 % of respondents and concern about fitness/exercise was indicated by 3 % of the sample. Factors perceived as making a healthy diet difficult to achieve for their child were child resistance (89 %), the availability of healthy food (72 %), a busy lifestyle (67 %) and the influence of food advertising (63 %). Ninety-two per cent of parents thought that it was realistic for their child to be active for at least 1 h/d, with 75 % of parents feeling that it was realistic for their child to have less than 2 h recreational screen time per d. Despite this, common barriers to achieving the activity guidelines were lack of time, weather and keeping children occupied. Insights into parental concerns from the current study may be useful in guiding development of interventions to improve children's nutrition and physical activity habits by framing messages in a way that are most likely to resonate with parents.

  1. The Importance of Government Effectiveness for Transitions toward Greater Electrification in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohan Best

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Electricity is a vital factor underlying modern living standards, but there are many developing countries with low levels of electricity access and use. We seek to systematically identify the crucial elements underlying transitions toward greater electrification in developing countries. We use a cross-sectional regression approach with national-level data up to 2012 for 135 low- and middle-income countries. The paper finds that the effectiveness of governments is the most important governance attribute for encouraging the transition to increased electrification in developing countries, on average. The results add to the growing evidence on the importance of governance for development outcomes. Donors seeking to make more successful contributions to electrification may wish to target countries with more effective governments.

  2. Importance of Coulomb correlation on the quantum anomalous Hall effect in V-doped topological insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeongwoo; Wang, Hui; Wu, Ruqian

    2018-03-01

    The presence of the quantum anomalous Hall effect in a V-doped topological insulator (TI) has not yet been understood from band-structure studies. Here, we demonstrate the importance of including the correlation effect in density-functional-theory (DFT) calculations, in the format as simple as the Hubbard U , for the determination of the topological properties of these materials. Our results show that the correlation effect turns a V-doped TI thin film into a Mott insulator and facilitates it entering the quantum anomalous Hall phase. Even the ferromagnetic ordering is also strongly affected by the inclusion of the U term. This work satisfactorily explains recent experimental observations and highlights the essentialness of having the Coulomb correlation effect in DFT studies of magnetic TIs.

  3. The Importance of Taste for Food Demand and the Experienced Taste Effect of Healthy Labels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thunström, Linda; Nordström, Leif Jonas

    This paper quantitatively analyzes the importance of taste versus health in food demand, as well as the effect on consumers’ experienced taste of the non-intrinsic value of healthy labels. Our analysis is based on taste experiments and Vickrey second price auctions on potato chips and bread. Our...... be sizeable for subgroups of consumers. Our evidence suggests that a better nutritional content, as indicated by a healthy label, may also positively affect food demand, but the effect is small and not statistically significant. Finally, we find that consumers’ experienced taste of a food is unaffected...... by the food carrying a healthy label....

  4. Restriction of Variance Interaction Effects and Their Importance for International Business Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortina, Jose M.; Köhler, Tine; Nielsen, Bo Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    A recent Journal of International Business Studies editorial on interaction effects within and across levels highlighted the importance of and difficulty associated with justifying and reporting of such interaction effects. The purpose of this editorial is to describe a type of interaction...... hypothesis that is very common in international business (IB) research: the restricted variance (RV) hypothesis. Specifically, we describe the nature of an RV interaction and its evidentiary requirements. We also offer several IB examples involving interactions that could have been supported with RV...

  5. Relative importance of irradiation and transmutation in the lethal effect of incorporated radionuclide decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apelgot, S.

    1979-01-01

    In certain experimental conditions it is possible to distinguish the relative importance of transmutation as such and of irradiation from the particle or particles emitted. These studies have shown that the lethal effect following disintegration is a consequence of irradiation in the case of 3 H and of transmutation in the case of 14 C and 32 P. The case of 125 I has not been elucidated yet. These studies have also shown that the effect of transmutation is preponderant only if the radioactive atom disintegrates in DNA; in this event, the lethal efficiency of transmutations is greater than that of ionizations. (author)

  6. Understanding treatment effect mechanisms of the CAMBRA randomized trial in reducing caries increment

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, J; Chaffee, BW; Cheng, NF; Gansky, SA; Featherstone, JDB

    2015-01-01

    © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2014. The Caries Management By Risk Assessment (CAMBRA) randomized controlled trial showed that an intervention featuring combined antibacterial and fluoride therapy significantly reduced bacterial load and suggested reduced caries increment in adults with 1 to 7 baseline cavitated teeth. While trial results speak to the overall effectiveness of an intervention, insight can be gained from understanding the mechanism by which an int...

  7. Pseudomoniasis phytotherapy: A review on most important Iranian medicinal plants effective on Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmoud Bahmani; Mahmoud Rafieian-Kopaei; Hassan Hassanzadazar; Morovat Taherikalani

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative, aerobic bacterium found in water and soil. It is a normal flora in skin and gastrointestinal tract of human beings. P. aeruginosa as an opportunistic pathogen involved in nosocomial infections having multiple pathogenic factors and shows high rate of resistance to different antibiotics. The aim of this study was to identify the most important native medicinal plants of Iran effective on P. aeruginosa.Materials and Methods: ...

  8. The human factor: the critical importance of effective teamwork and communication in providing safe care

    OpenAIRE

    Leonard, M; Graham, S; Bonacum, D

    2004-01-01

    Effective communication and teamwork is essential for the delivery of high quality, safe patient care. Communication failures are an extremely common cause of inadvertent patient harm. The complexity of medical care, coupled with the inherent limitations of human performance, make it critically important that clinicians have standardised communication tools, create an environment in which individuals can speak up and express concerns, and share common "critical language" to alert team members...

  9. The effect of fasting on the important molecular mechanisms related to cancer treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Vahideh Keyvani; Mohammad Amin Kerachian

    2014-01-01

    Fasting does have remarkable benefits in the treatment of cancer and another diseases such as metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and a multitude of other chronic diseases. It has been determined that fasting could play an important role during cancer treatment and progression via the regulation of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) as well as other growth factors. Also, it has been shown that fasting would enhance the chemotherapy effect in cancer patients, selectively protects normal cells and ...

  10. Estimating the Effect of Health Insurance on Personal Prescription Drug Importation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zullo, Andrew R; Howe, Chanelle J; Galárraga, Omar

    2017-04-01

    Personal prescription drug importation occurs in the United States because of the high cost of U.S. medicines and lower cost of foreign equivalents. Importation carries a risk of exposure to counterfeit (i.e., falsified, fraudulent), adulterated, and substandard drugs. Inadequate health insurance may increase the risk of importation. We use inverse probability weighted marginal structural models and data on 87,494 individuals from the 2011-2013 National Health Interview Survey to estimate the marginal association between no health insurance and importation within U.S. subpopulations. The marginal prevalence difference [95% confidence limits] for those without (prevalence = 0.031) versus those with health insurance was 0.016 [0.011, 0.021]. The prevalence difference was higher among persons who were Hispanic, born in Latin America, Russia, or Europe, traveled to developing countries, and did not use the Internet to fill prescriptions or to find health information. Health insurance coverage may effectively reduce importation, especially among particular subpopulations.

  11. Middle-School Understanding of the Greenhouse Effect using a NetLogo Computer Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, L.; Koons, P. O.; Schauffler, M.

    2009-12-01

    We investigated the effectiveness of a freely available agent based, modeling program as a learning tool for seventh and eighth grade students to explore the greenhouse effect without added curriculum. The investigation was conducted at two Maine middle-schools with 136 seventh-grade students and 11 eighth-grade students in eight classes. Students were given a pre-test that consisted of a concept map, a free-response question, and multiple-choice questions about how the greenhouse effect influences the Earth's temperature. The computer model simulates the greenhouse effect and allows students to manipulate atmospheric and surface conditions to observe the effects on the Earth’s temperature. Students explored the Greenhouse Effect model for approximately twenty minutes with only two focus questions for guidance. After the exploration period, students were given a post-test that was identical to the pre-test. Parametric post-test analysis of the assessments indicated middle-school students gained in their understanding about how the greenhouse effect influences the Earth's temperature after exploring the computer model for approximately twenty minutes. The magnitude of the changes in pre- and post-test concept map and free-response scores were small (average free-response post-test score of 7.0) compared to an expert's score (48), indicating that students understood only a few of the system relationships. While students gained in their understanding about the greenhouse effect, there was evidence that students held onto their misconceptions that (1) carbon dioxide in the atmosphere deteriorates the ozone layer, (2) the greenhouse effect is a result of humans burning fossil fuels, and (3) infrared and visible light have similar behaviors with greenhouse gases. We recommend using the Greenhouse Effect computer model with guided inquiry to focus students’ investigations on the system relationships in the model.

  12. Positive indirect effects of reef fishes on kelp performance: the importance of mesograzers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Andrew C; Anderson, Todd W

    2007-06-01

    It has been suggested that microcarnivorous reef fishes may play an important role in giant kelp forest communities by preventing infestations of mesograzers that could severely impact or potentially destroy recovering kelp forests after extreme disturbance events. However, these trophic linkages, specifically the direct and indirect effects of fishes on the biomass of mesograzers, grazing intensity, and the performance of giant kelp, have not been sufficiently quantified and evaluated as to their importance and in the absence of such disturbance events. We examined experimentally the effects of mesograzers on the growth and performance of giant kelp in the presence and absence of their fish predators near Santa Catalina Island, California (U.S.A.). Mesograzer biomass and grazing intensity were significantly higher when fishes were excluded from giant kelp, which in turn, lowered kelp performance. This pattern was consistent both on experimental plots of kelp as habitat isolates, and on a continuous reef. Moreover, the abundance of mesograzers was inversely related to the abundance of kelp perch among several kelp-forested reefs, suggesting that these effects can occur at larger spatial scales. Because of differences in the diet and behavior of two microcarnivorous fishes, the kelp perch and señorita, we conducted an experiment manipulating each species and its density independently to determine their separate effects on mesograzers and kelp performance. Concurrently we examined the growth and mortality of juvenile kelp. Grazing intensity decreased, estimates of kelp performance increased, and the growth of juvenile kelp increased with increasing densities of fish but with no detectable effects between fishes. Our results demonstrate that these microcarnivorous fishes have positive indirect effects on kelp performance by reducing mesograzer biomass and grazing intensity, and the early life stages of other fishes also may be important. More specifically, these

  13. Understanding peer effects - On the nature, estimation and channels of peer effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feld, J.F.; Zölitz, U.N.

    2016-01-01

    This paper estimates peer effects in a university context where students are randomly assigned to sections. While students benefit from better peers on average, low-achieving students are harmed by high-achieving peers. Analyzing students’ course evaluations suggests that peer effects are driven by

  14. Understanding peer effects : on the nature, estimation and channels of peer effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feld, J.F.; Zölitz, U.N.

    2016-01-01

    This paper estimates peer effects in a university context where students are randomly assigned to sections. While students benefit from better peers on average, lowachieving students are harmed by high-achieving peers. Analyzing students’ course evaluations suggests that peer effects are driven by

  15. The Internet's effect on personality traits: An important casualty of the "Internet addiction" paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboujaoude, Elias

    2017-03-01

    Background and aims The "Internet addiction" paradigm has been criticized for several shortcomings, including inattention to specific online behaviors, not distinguishing the Internet from other media, insufficient focus on comorbidities, and definitions that do not take into account the constant access now possible. The paradigm's biggest casualty, however, may be that it has diverted attention away from subtle personality changes that seem to occur online, including in users who cannot be considered "addicted" under any definition. Methods A narrative assessment of the literature was conducted, focusing on the Internet's effects on personality traits as revealed in studies of Internet users. Results Impulsivity, narcissism, and aggression are some of the personality traits that seem to be nurtured by the Internet, with possible negative offline consequences. Discussion Ignoring the Internet's subtle effects on personality as we embrace an addiction model that implies severe pathology makes the majority of Internet users feel deceptively immune to the psychological effects of new technologies. It also limits our understanding of the big cultural shifts that are happening as a result. Conclusion The Internet's potentially negative effect on personality, and by extension on society at large, is a fundamental part of online psychology, one well worthy of further investigation.

  16. Analysis of the effect of specific vocabulary instruction on high school chemistry students' knowledge and understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrosse, Peggy

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of specific vocabulary instruction on high school chemistry students' knowledge and understanding. Students might be able to formally recite a definition for a term without actually having understood the meaning of the term and its connection to other terms or to related concepts. Researchers (Cassels & Johnstone, 1983; Gabel, 1999; Johnstone, 1991) have been studying the difficulty students have in learning science, particularly chemistry. Gabel (1999) suggests that, "while research into misconceptions (also known as alternative conceptions) and problem-solving has dominated the field for the past 25 years, we are no closer to a solution that would improve the teaching and learning of chemistry" (P. 549). Gabel (1999) relates the difficulty in learning chemistry to use of language. She refers to student difficulty both with words that have more than one meaning in English and with words that are used to mean one idea in chemistry and another idea in every day language. The Frayer Model, a research-based teaching strategy, is a graphic organizer which students use to create meaningful definitions for terms in context (Frayer, Frederick, & Klausmeier, 1969). It was used as the treatment---the specific vocabulary instruction---in this research study. The researcher collected and analyzed data to answer three research questions that focused on the effect of using the Frayer model (a graphic organizer) on high school students' knowledge and understanding of academic language used in chemistry. The research took place in a New England high school. Four intact chemistry classes provided the student participants; two classes were assigned to the treatment group (TG) and two classes were assigned to the control group (CG). The TG received vocabulary instruction on 14 chosen terms using the Frayer Model. The CG received traditional vocabulary instruction with no special attention to the 14 terms selected for this study

  17. Attachment Orientations, Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia, and Stress Are Important for Understanding the Link Between Childhood Socioeconomic Status and Adult Self-Reported Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdock, Kyle W; Fagundes, Christopher P

    2017-04-01

    Low childhood socioeconomic status (SES) is reliably associated with poor adult health. Social environments early in life and physiological stress responses are theorized to underlie this link; however, the role of attachment orientations is relatively unknown. In this study, we examined whether attachment orientations (i.e., attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance) and self-reported stress were mediators of the association between childhood SES and self-reported health in adulthood. Furthermore, we examined whether parasympathetic nervous system functioning was a moderator of associations between attachment orientations and self-reported stress. Participants (N = 213) provided self-reports of childhood SES, attachment orientations, general stress, and self-rated health. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) was measured at rest, as well as during an acute social stressor. Low childhood SES was associated with poor self-reported health via the serial pathway from attachment anxiety to general stress. Moreover, attachment avoidance was associated with self-reported health via general stress, but only among those with high stress-induced RSA. Findings were independent of participant age, sex, race, body mass index, baseline RSA, and adult SES. Attachment theory is useful for understanding why those from low SES backgrounds are at greater risk of negative health outcomes in adulthood. Findings extend our knowledge of how interpersonal relationships in childhood can shape emotional and physical health outcomes in adulthood.

  18. Life-span development of self-esteem and its effects on important life outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Ulrich; Robins, Richard W; Widaman, Keith F

    2012-06-01

    We examined the life-span development of self-esteem and tested whether self-esteem influences the development of important life outcomes, including relationship satisfaction, job satisfaction, occupational status, salary, positive and negative affect, depression, and physical health. Data came from the Longitudinal Study of Generations. Analyses were based on 5 assessments across a 12-year period of a sample of 1,824 individuals ages 16 to 97 years. First, growth curve analyses indicated that self-esteem increases from adolescence to middle adulthood, reaches a peak at about age 50 years, and then decreases in old age. Second, cross-lagged regression analyses indicated that self-esteem is best modeled as a cause rather than a consequence of life outcomes. Third, growth curve analyses, with self-esteem as a time-varying covariate, suggested that self-esteem has medium-sized effects on life-span trajectories of affect and depression, small to medium-sized effects on trajectories of relationship and job satisfaction, a very small effect on the trajectory of health, and no effect on the trajectory of occupational status. These findings replicated across 4 generations of participants--children, parents, grandparents, and their great-grandparents. Together, the results suggest that self-esteem has a significant prospective impact on real-world life experiences and that high and low self-esteem are not mere epiphenomena of success and failure in important life domains. 2012 APA, all rights reserved

  19. Towards a probabilistic definition of entropy: An investigation of the effects of a new curriculum on students' understanding of thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colon-Garcia, Evy B.

    Thermodynamics is a vital tool in understanding why reactions happen; nevertheless, it is often considered a difficult topic. Prior studies have shown that students struggle with fundamental thermodynamic concepts such as entropy, enthalpy and Gibbs energy even in upper level physical chemistry courses. Thermodynamics, as a general chemistry topic, can be more math-intensive than other topics such as bonding or intermolecular forces. As a result, it is possible for students to get lost in the algorithms and overlook the important underlying theoretical concepts. Students' difficulties in understanding thermodynamics may be contributing to their inability to explain phenomena such as phase changes and manipulations of equilibrium systems. Current chemistry curricula split the thermodynamic chapters over a span of two semesters as well as splitting it over different units. This division fails to make explicit the connection between Enthalpy, Entropy and Gibbs Energy and how they affect how and why every reaction or process happens. The reason for this division of topics is not based on any educational research rather than opinions as to what will not overwhelm the students. Additionally, students who take only one semester of General Chemistry will leave without being instructed in what is considered to be one of the most fundamental concepts in Chemistry, Thermodynamics. Chemistry, Life, the Universe and Everything (CLUE) is a general chemistry course developed with the explicit goal of addressing the major obstacles that inhibit students from acquiring an appreciation and mastery of the chemical principles upon which other sciences depend. Using a control and treatment group, the effectiveness of this new curriculum was evaluated for two main aspects: 1. What is students' understanding of entropy?, 2. Can an alternative instructional approach to teaching Thermodynamics (Chemistry, Life, the Universe and Everything - CLUE) improve students' understanding of Entropy

  20. Integrated Experimental and Computational Approach to Understand the Effects of Heavy Ion Radiation on Skin Homeostasis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    von Neubeck, Claere; Shankaran, Harish; Geniza, Matthew; Kauer, Paula M.; Robinson, Robert J.; Chrisler, William B.; Sowa, Marianne B.

    2013-08-08

    The effects of low dose high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation on human health are of concern for both space and clinical exposures. As epidemiological data for such radiation exposures are scarce for making relevant predictions, we need to understand the mechanism of response especially in normal tissues. Our objective here is to understand the effects of heavy ion radiation on tissue homeostasis in a realistic model system. Towards this end, we exposed an in vitro three dimensional skin equivalent to low fluences of Neon (Ne) ions (300 MeV/u), and determined the differentiation profile as a function of time following exposure using immunohistochemistry. We found that Ne ion exposures resulted in transient increases in the tissue regions expressing the differentiation markers keratin 10, and filaggrin, and more subtle time-dependent effects on the number of basal cells in the epidermis. We analyzed the data using a mathematical model of the skin equivalent, to quantify the effect of radiation on cell proliferation and differentiation. The agent-based mathematical model for the epidermal layer treats the epidermis as a collection of heterogeneous cell types with different proliferation/differentiation properties. We obtained model parameters from the literature where available, and calibrated the unknown parameters to match the observed properties in unirradiated skin. We then used the model to rigorously examine alternate hypotheses regarding the effects of high LET radiation on the tissue. Our analysis indicates that Ne ion exposures induce rapid, but transient, changes in cell division, differentiation and proliferation. We have validated the modeling results by histology and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The integrated approach presented here can be used as a general framework to understand the responses of multicellular systems, and can be adapted to other epithelial tissues.

  1. Understanding and tuning the quantum-confinement effect and edge magnetism in zigzag graphene nanoribbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Liang Feng; Zhang, Guo Ren; Zheng, Xiao Hong; Gong, Peng Lai; Cao, Teng Fei; Zeng, Zhi

    2013-02-06

    The electronic structure of zigzag graphene nanoribbon (ZGNR) is studied using density functional theory. The mechanisms underlying the quantum-confinement effect and edge magnetism in ZGNR are systematically investigated by combining the simulated results and some useful analytic models. The quantum-confinement effect and the inter-edge superexchange interaction can be tuned by varying the ribbon width, and the spin polarization and direct exchange splitting of the edge states can be tuned by varying their electronic occupations. The two edges of ZGNR can be equally or unequally tuned by charge doping or Li adsorption, respectively. The Li adatom has a site-selective adsorption on ZGNR, and it is a nondestructive and memorable approach to effectively modify the edge states in ZGNR. These systematic understanding and effective tuning of ZGNR electronics presented in this work are helpful for further investigation and application of ZGNR and other magnetic graphene systems.

  2. Importance of Interfacial Interactions to Access Shear Elasticity of Liquids and Understand Flow Induced Birefringence from Liquid Crystals to Worm-Like Micellar Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noirez Laurence

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This work points out the importance of the substrate boundary conditions to lower the dissipation in the dynamic measurement and access the closest dynamic characteristics of liquids, in particular to access the low frequency shear elasticity. The liquid/surface interface is a source of dissipation that enters and impacts the measurement. Examples of steady-state shear flows or flow birefringence are presented to highlight the non-universality of the behavior with respect to the nature of the substrate or the sheared thickness. Additionally the present development completes and extends the identification of low frequency shear elasticity made at sub-millimeter gaps in various one-component liquids to salt-free aqueous solutions (CTAB-water (Hexadecyl-TrimethylAmmonium Bromide.

  3. "There is a chain of connections": using syndemics theory to understand HIV treatment side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Marilou

    2018-03-12

    Side effects are central to the experience of living longer with HIV but rarely have they been studied alone. Unlike other aspects of that experience, like quality of life, treatment adherence, chronicity, episodic disability, aging, health, and viral load suppression, side effects have not benefited from the same level of empirical and theoretical engagement from qualitative researchers. In this paper, we draw on syndemics theory and 50 qualitative interviews to better understand the experience of HIV treatment side effects. Two main categories were identified in the data: side effects as a product and side effects as a risk factor. The first category suggests that side effects are not just the product of taking antiretroviral drugs. They are also the product of particular conditions and tend to cluster with other health problems. The second category puts forward the idea that side effects can act as a syndemic risk factor by exposing PLWH to a greater risk of developing health problems and creating conditions in which psychosocial issues are more likely to emerge. The paper concludes by calling for more research on the complex nature of side effects and for the development of comprehensive approaches for the assessment and management of side effects.

  4. The Effect of Brain Based Learning on Second Grade Junior Students’ Mathematics Conceptual Understanding on Polyhedron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Made Suarsana

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine the effect of Brain Based Learning on second grade junior high school students’ conceptual understanding on polyhedron. This study was conducted by using post-test only control group quasi-experimental design. The subjects of this study were 148 students that divided into three classes. Two classes were taken as sample by using cluster random sampling technique. One of the classes was randomly selected as an experimental group and the other as control group. There were 48 students in experimental group and 51 students in control group. The data were collected with post-test which contained mathematical conceptual understanding on fractions. The post-test consisted of 8 essay question types.  The normality and variance homogeny test result showed that the scores are normally distributed and have no difference in variance. The data were analyzed by using one tailed t-test with significance level of 5%. The result of data analysis revealed that the value of t-test = 6,7096 greater than t-table = 1,987, therefore; the null hypothesis is rejected. There is positive effect of of Brain Based Learning on second grade junior students’ conceptual understanding in polyhedron.

  5. Avaliando a comutatividade: importante requisito da qualidade para laboratórios clínicos Understanding commutability: important quality requirement for clinical laboratories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chams Bicalho Maluf

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Poucos laboratórios no Brasil realizam a avaliação da comutatividade dos resultados de exames, provavelmente por desconhecimento dos procedimentos para sua realização e também pela pouca importância dada a essa avaliação. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a comutatividade dos resultados de exames hematológicos realizados em três analisadores automatizados em um laboratório de um hospital público universitário, em Belo Horizonte, MG, Brasil, propondo procedimento prático, de baixa complexidade, factível de ser utilizado em laboratórios clínicos. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: As amostras foram selecionadas visando obter valores nos níveis de decisão terapêutica. Foram processadas seis amostras por dia, durante quatro dias, em duplicata em três analisadores, totalizando 48 replicatas em cada instrumento. Foi avaliada a correlação entre os resultados de 10 dos principais parâmetros hematológicos obtidos nos instrumentos-teste e aqueles obtidos com o instrumento-referência. Foram estimados os erros sistemáticos e totais, considerando as especificações da variação biológica como limite máximo aceitável. RESULTADOS: O coeficiente de correlação (r entre os equipamentos para os parâmetros investigados foi > 0,975. Os erros sistemático (médio e total, obtidos para os parâmetros analisados, quando se comparam os equipamentos de teste com o de referência, atenderam às especificações da qualidade definidos. Discussão: A comutatividade é um importante processo da gestão da qualidade do laboratório clínico e visa garantir a comparabilidade de resultados de exames realizados por diferentes sistemas. CONCLUSÃO: Utilizando procedimento padronizado internacionalmente, prático e de baixa complexidade, demonstrou-se que os exames realizados nos equipamentos avaliados são equivalentes, podendo ser usados indistintamente no acompanhamento de pacientes.INTRODUCTION: Few Brazilian laboratories evaluate the commutability of test

  6. Effective spacetime understanding emergence in effective field theory and quantum gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Crowther, Karen

    2016-01-01

    This book discusses the notion that quantum gravity may represent the "breakdown" of spacetime at extremely high energy scales. If spacetime does not exist at the fundamental level, then it has to be considered "emergent", in other words an effective structure, valid at low energy scales. The author develops a conception of emergence appropriate to effective theories in physics, and shows how it applies (or could apply) in various approaches to quantum gravity, including condensed matter approaches, discrete approaches, and loop quantum gravity.

  7. Determining Relative Importance and Effective Settings for Genetic Algorithm Control Parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, K L; Filliben, J J; Haines, A L

    2015-01-01

    Setting the control parameters of a genetic algorithm to obtain good results is a long-standing problem. We define an experiment design and analysis method to determine relative importance and effective settings for control parameters of any evolutionary algorithm, and we apply this method to a classic binary-encoded genetic algorithm (GA). Subsequently, as reported elsewhere, we applied the GA, with the control parameter settings determined here, to steer a population of cloud-computing simulators toward behaviors that reveal degraded performance and system collapse. GA-steered simulators could serve as a design tool, empowering system engineers to identify and mitigate low-probability, costly failure scenarios. In the existing GA literature, we uncovered conflicting opinions and evidence regarding key GA control parameters and effective settings to adopt. Consequently, we designed and executed an experiment to determine relative importance and effective settings for seven GA control parameters, when applied across a set of numerical optimization problems drawn from the literature. This paper describes our experiment design, analysis, and results. We found that crossover most significantly influenced GA success, followed by mutation rate and population size and then by rerandomization point and elite selection. Selection method and the precision used within the chromosome to represent numerical values had least influence. Our findings are robust over 60 numerical optimization problems.

  8. A Laboratory Exercise To Understand the Importance of Enzyme Technology in the Fruit-Processing Industry: Viscosity Decrease and Phenols Release from Apple Mash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinelo, Manuel; Nielsen, Michael Krogsgaard; Meyer, Anne S.

    2011-01-01

    In a 4-h laboratory exercise, students accomplish a series of enzymatic macerations of apple mash, assess the viscosity of the mash during the maceration, extract the juice by centrifugation, and measure the levels of antioxidant phenols extracted into the juice after different enzyme treatments....... The exercise shows the impact of enzyme-catalyzed plant cell-wall degradation on the viscosity of apple fruit mash and on the extraction of antioxidant phenols into experimentally prepared apple juice. The exercise also demonstrates that pectinolytic and cellulolytic enzymes have different effects...

  9. Tailoring biocontrol to maximize top-down effects: on the importance of underlying site fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovick, Stephen M; Carson, Walter P

    2015-01-01

    The degree to which biocontrol agents impact invasive plants varies widely across landscapes, often for unknown reasons. Understanding this variability can help optimize invasive species management while also informing our understanding of trophic linkages. To address these issues, we tested three hypotheses with contrasting predictions regarding the likelihood of biocontrol success. (1) The biocontrol effort hypothesis: invasive populations are regulated primarily by top-down effects, predicting that increased biocontrol efforts alone (e.g., more individuals of a given biocontrol agent or more time since agent release) will enhance biocontrol success. (2) The relative fertility hypothesis: invasive populations are regulated primarily by bottom-up effects, predicting that nutrient enrichment will increase dominance by invasives and thus reduce biocontrol success, regardless of biocontrol efforts. (3) The fertility-dependent biocontrol effort hypothesis: top-down effects will only regulate invasive populations if bottom-up effects are weak. It predicts that greater biocontrol efforts will increase biocontrol success, but only in low-nutrient sites. To test these hypotheses, we surveyed 46 sites across three states with prior releases of Galerucella beetles, the most common biocontrol agents used against invasive purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria). We found strong support for the fertility-dependent biocontrol effort hypothesis, as biocontrol success occurred most often with greater biocontrol efforts, but only in low-fertility sites. This result held for early stage metrics of biocontrol success (higher Galerucella abundance) and ultimate biocontrol outcomes (decreased loosestrife plant size and abundance). Presence of the invasive grass Phalaris arundinacea was also inversely related to loosestrife abundance, suggesting that biocontrol-based reductions in loosestrife made secondary invasion by P. arundinacea more likely. Our data suggest that low-nutrient sites

  10. Tree growth variation in the tropical forest: understanding effects of temperature, rainfall and CO2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schippers, P.; Sterck, F.J.; Vlam, M.; Zuidema, P.A.

    2015-01-01

    Tropical forest responses to climatic variability have important consequences for global carbon cycling, but are poorly understood. As empirical, correlative studies cannot disentangle the interactive effects of climatic variables on tree growth, we used a tree growth model (IBTREE) to unravel the

  11. Understanding of radiation effect on sink in aluminum base structure materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Sang Il; Kim, Ji Hyun

    2014-01-01

    In case of aluminum, a slightly different approach is needed for the evaluation of radiation damage. Unlikely other structure materials such as zirconium alloy and iron based alloy, aluminum generate not only matrix defect but also much transmutation. Quantitative analysis of radiation damage of aluminum have been done in two research method. First research method is calculation of radiation damage quantity in the matrix. In this research, quantity of transmutation and matrix damage are evaluated by KMC simulation from ENDF database of IAEA. Most recently, radiation damage such as defect and transmutation are calculated in the MNSR reactor environment. The second research method is evaluation of sink morphology change by irradiation, which research method focus on accumulating behavior of radiation defects. Matrix defect and transmutation are clustering or dissolved by thermal diffusion and energy statue. These clustering defect such as dislocation loop, void and bubble directly affect mechanical properties. In this research area, it is hard to using deterministic method because it should describe envious and various reaction module in detail. However, in case of probabilistic method, it could be explained without detail reaction module. Most recently, there was KMC modeling about vacancy and helium cluster. From this cluster modeling, transmutation is quantitatively analyzed. After that cluster effect on swelling are explained. Unfortunately, silicon, which is another transmutation of aluminum, effect are neglected. Also primary cluster, which is generated by cascade, effect are neglected. For the fundamental understanding of radiation effect on aluminum alloy, it is needed that more various parameter such as alloy element and primary cluster effect should be researched. However, until now there was not general modeling which include alloy element and primary cluster effect on aluminum. However, there was not specified KMC platform for the quantitative analysis of

  12. Understanding the life of a sandy beach polychaete of functional importance - Scolelepis squamata (Polychaeta: Spionidae) on Belgian sandy beaches (northeastern Atlantic, North Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speybroeck, Jeroen; Alsteens, Lotte; Vincx, Magda; Degraer, Steven

    2007-08-01

    The cosmopolitan sandy beach polychaete Scolelepis squamata constitutes an important food resource for juvenile flatfish and wading birds in the northeastern Atlantic, thus playing an important role in sandy beach ecosystem functioning. However, its population dynamics and life history in this part of the world have gone widely uninvestigated. Eight beach transects on Belgian sandy beaches were sampled monthly from October 2003 until October 2004, in order to investigate seasonal trends in the species' abundance, biomass, secondary production, and patterns in reproduction and zonation. Average density, modal density and modal biomass (ash-free dry weight) (mean average density = 169 ± 9 SE ind/m 2; mean modal density = 505 ± 38 SE ind/m 2; mean modal biomass = 0.25 ± 0.02 SE g/m 2) did not exhibit major seasonal changes, whereas average biomass (0.081 ± 0.005 SE g/m 2) and individuals and biomass per strip transect (IST = 16286 ± 1330 SE ind/m; BMST = 7.8 + 0.7 SE g/m) did, peaking in May 2004. Production was calculated at 1.9 g/(m 2*year) (size-frequency method, SFM) and 0.88 g/(m 2*year) (mass specific growth rate method, MSGR) and mean annual biomass was 0.797 g/m 2; resulting in a P/B ratio of 2.40/year (SFM) and 1.11/year (MSGR), which is intermediate to moderately low compared to other polychaete species. Gravid individuals were found from February until August and a single recruitment period was observed from July until September. An average sex ratio of 1.41 ± 0.08 SE was calculated, with a female predominance. Highest densities (>200 ind/m 2) were mostly found above 3 m above MLLWS and at a median grain size from 190 to 320 μm. Average modal or peak density along each transect was situated from 3.95 m up to 4.40 m above MLLWS, in contrast to some other studies where the species was restricted to mid-tidal levels. Significant differences in elevation of peak density were found between non-gravid (411 ± 4 SE cm) and gravid (402 ± 5 SE cm) animals

  13. ICRP and UNSCEAR: Their roles in defining the most important biomedical effects of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, G.C.

    The history of ICRP from its origin in the British X-ray and Radiation Protection Committee (1921) to the present is described. Particular attention is directed to the evolution of occupational dose limits, which show a gradual decline, and to the perceptions of the most important effects on human beings. Recent developments in derived (or secondary) dose limits are also described. Basic to the dose limits are the risk estimates. UNSCEAR, since its establishment in 1955, has provided leadership in estimating numerically the risks of genetic defects and malignancy from exposure to ionizing radiation. The usefulness of providing risk estimates for public education has severe limitations. (author)

  14. The Importance of Worker, Firm and Match Fixed Effects in the Formation of Wages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Torben; Vejlin, Rune Majlund

    provides wage information on the whole working population for a 24-year period. We find that the major part of wage dispersion in the Danish labor market can be explained by differences in worker characteristics. However, the relative contribution of the three components varies across subgroups of workers....... The match effect contributes a non-neglible part to the overall wage dispersion and, fur- thermore, corrects the estimated returns to experience. An analysis of inter-industry wage differentials shows that firm characteristics are more important at the industry level than at the worker level. Like- wise, we...

  15. The effects of magnetic perturbations on plasma transport or is magnetic turbulence important in tokamaks?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wootton, A.J.

    1993-01-01

    A test particle model is verified and then used to interpret estimates of fast electron diffusivities in terms of magnetic fluctuation levels. The implied fluctuation levels are themselves interpreted with another verified model to predict electron thermal diffusivities. If the fast electron diffusivities represent local values, then the implied associated thermal transport is too small to explain experimental values. That is, magnetic fluctuations are not important. However, if the fast electron diffusivities represent effective values across mixed good (i.e. with no magnetic fluctuations) and bad (with magnetic fluctuations) surfaces then the implied magnetic fluctuation levels can influence electron thermal transport. (author)

  16. The effect of fasting on the important molecular mechanisms related to cancer treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahideh Keyvani

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Fasting does have remarkable benefits in the treatment of cancer and another diseases such as metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and a multitude of other chronic diseases. It has been determined that fasting could play an important role during cancer treatment and progression via the regulation of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 as well as other growth factors. Also, it has been shown that fasting would enhance the chemotherapy effect in cancer patients, selectively protects normal cells and organisms from chemotherapy toxicity, while simultaneously sensitizing tumors. In this article, we discuss the benefits of fasting in the treatment of cancer through several different molecular pathways.

  17. Teaching Teaching & Understanding Understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    "Teaching Teaching & Understanding Understanding" is a 19-minute award-winning short-film about teaching at university and higher-level educational institutions. It is based on the "Constructive Alignment" theory developed by Prof. John Biggs. The film delivers a foundation for understanding what...

  18. Radiation-induced bystander effect: The important part of ionizing radiation response. Potential clinical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Wideł

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available It has long been a central radiobiological dogma that the damaging effects of ionizing radiation, such as cell death, cytogenetic changes, apoptosis, mutagenesis, and carcinogenesis, are the results of the direct ionization of cell structures, particularly DNA, or indirect damage via water radiolysis products. However, several years ago attention turned to a third mechanism of radiation, termed the “bystander effect” or “radiation-induced bystander effect” (RIBE. This is induced by agents and signals emitted by directly irradiated cells and manifests as a lowering of survival, cytogenetic damage, apoptosis enhancement, and biochemical changes in neighboring non-irradiated cells. The bystander effect is mainly observed in in vitro experiments using very low doses of alpha particles (range; mGy, cGy, but also after conventional irradiation (X-rays, gamma rays at low as well as conventional doses. The mechanisms responsible for the bystander effect are complex and still poorly understood. It is believed that molecular signals released from irradiated cells induce different signaling ways in non-irradiated neighboring cells, leading to the observed events. The molecular signals may be transmitted through gap junction intercellular communication and through a medium transfer mechanism. The nature of these transmitted factors are diverse, and still not defi nitely established. It seems that RIBE may have important clinical implications for health risk associated with radiation exposure. Potentially, this effectmay have important implications in the creation of whole-body or localized side effects in tissues beyond the irradiation fi eld and also in low-dose radiological and radioisotope diagnostics. Factors emitted by irradiated cells may result in the risk of genetic instability, mutations, and second primary cancer induction. They might also have their own part in inducing and extending post-radiation side effects in normal tissue. The

  19. Transporters and drug-drug interactions: important determinants of drug disposition and effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Jörg; Müller, Fabian; Fromm, Martin F

    2013-07-01

    Uptake and efflux transporters determine plasma and tissue concentrations of a broad variety of drugs. They are localized in organs such as small intestine, liver, and kidney, which are critical for drug absorption and elimination. Moreover, they can be found in important blood-tissue barriers such as the blood-brain barrier. Inhibition or induction of drug transporters by coadministered drugs can alter pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the victim drugs. This review will summarize in particular clinically observed drug-drug interactions attributable to inhibition or induction of intestinal export transporters [P-glycoprotein (P-gp), breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP)], to inhibition of hepatic uptake transporters [organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs)], or to inhibition of transporter-mediated [organic anion transporters (OATs), organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2), multidrug and toxin extrusion proteins (MATEs), P-gp] renal secretion of xenobiotics. Available data on the impact of nutrition on transport processes as well as genotype-dependent, transporter-mediated drug-drug interactions will be discussed. We will also present and discuss data on the variable extent to which information on the impact of transporters on drug disposition is included in summaries of product characteristics of selected countries (SPCs). Further work is required regarding a better understanding of the role of the drug metabolism-drug transport interplay for drug-drug interactions and on the extrapolation of in vitro findings to the in vivo (human) situation.

  20. Effects of resveratrol, an important component of red wine, on intestinal cancer development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoying Zhang

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Xiaoying Zhang1, Jan Anderson1, Radhey S Kaushik2,3, Chandradhar Dwivedi11Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences; 2Department of Veterinary Sciences; 3Department of Biology/Microbiology, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD, USAAbstract: Resveratrol, a natural product derived from grapes and an important component of red wine, has been shown to inhibit cyclooxygenase and prevent various cancers. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of dietary grape extract, a source of resveratrol on intestinal cancer development in rats and to determine effects of resveratrol on cell growth in human colonic adenocarcinoma (Caco-2 cells, thus elucidating possible mechanisms of action of resveratrol. Results showed that dietary grape extract (5%, about 7 μg resveratrol consumed daily significantly decreased the incidence and multiplicity of tumors in small intestine in rats and resveratrol significantly inhibited cell viability and cell proliferation in Caco-2 cells.Keywords: resveratrol, grapes, colonic adenocarcinoma, Caco-2 cells

  1. Understanding semantics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Torben

    1997-01-01

    Understanding natural language is a cognitive, information-driven process. Discussing some of the consequences of this fact, the paper offers a novel look at the semantic effect of lexical nouns and the identification of reference types....

  2. The effect of excess copper on growth and physiology of important food crops: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrees, Muhammad; Ali, Shafaqat; Rizwan, Muhammad; Ibrahim, Muhammad; Abbas, Farhat; Farid, Mujahid; Zia-Ur-Rehman, Muhammad; Irshad, Muhammad Kashif; Bharwana, Saima Aslam

    2015-06-01

    In recent years, copper (Cu) pollution in agricultural soils, due to arbitrary use of pesticides, fungicides, industrial effluent and wastewater irrigation, present a major concern for sustainable agrifood production especially in developing countries. The world's major food requirement is fulfilled through agricultural food crops. The Cu-induced losses in growth and yield of food crops probably exceeds from all other causes of food safety and security threats. Here, we review the adverse effects of Cu excess on growth and yield of essential food crops. Numerous studies reported the Cu-induced growth inhibition, oxidative damage and antioxidant response in agricultural food crops such as wheat, rice, maize, sunflower and cucumber. This article also describes the toxic levels of Cu in crops that decreased plant growth and yield due to alterations in mineral nutrition, photosynthesis, enzyme activities and decrease in chlorophyll biosynthesis. The response of various crops to elevated Cu concentrations varies depending upon nature of crop and cultivars used. This review could be helpful to understand the Cu toxicity and the mechanism of its tolerance in food crops. We recommend that Cu-tolerant crops should be grown on Cu-contaminated soils in order to ameliorate the toxic effects for sustainable farming systems and to meet the food demands of the intensively increasing population.

  3. [Evaluation of effect of prevention and control system for imported falciparum malaria in Hanjiang District].

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Guo-lin; Ma, Yu-Cai; Wang, Fu-biao

    2013-08-01

    To analyze the current situation of the comprehensive prevention and control system for imported falciparum malaria in Hanjiang District and evaluate its effect. According to the Management Scheme on Control of Imported Falciparum Malaria in Yangzhou City, the comprehensive prevention and control system for imported falciparum malaria was implemented, and the relevant malaria data were collected and analyzed statistically. The data included plasmodium blood test ratio of fever patients among exported labors and those returned, the ratio of laboratory-confirmed cases among all reported cases of falciparum malaria, the ratio of falciparum malaria patients who received the standard treatment within 24 hours after onset, etc from 2010 to 2012. After the implementation of the comprehensive prevention and control system, the confirmation ratio of falciparum malaria cases within 24 hours following first visit has reached 60.47%, the average time from first visit to confirmation has shortened to 1.8 d, and the average time from onset to confirmation has shortened to 3.7 d. The health education coverage ratio was 100%, the health knowledge awareness ratio was 95.56%, the ratio of patients seeking treatment on own initiative was 100%, the laboratory-confirmed ratio was 100%, and the ratio of standard treatment after malaria diagnosis was 100%. The comprehensive prevention and control system carried out by Hanjiang District has made remarkable achievements.

  4. Important parameters for optimized metal nanoparticles-aided electromagnetic field (EMF) effect on cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoo, Lawrence; Migwi, Charles; Okumu, John

    2018-01-01

    A number of experimental research findings for the metal nanoparticles (NPs)-mediated EMF photothermal therapy of cancer cells show an intriguing trend of the NPs' size-dependent efficacy. This is a phenomenon we find to trend with the light absorption bandwidth behavior (full width at half maximum) of the NPs and the accompanying electric field enhancement. We find that the nanoparticle sizes that have been reported to produce the optimized effect on cancer cells are of minimum absorption bandwidth and optimized electric field magnitude. While the death of cancer cells under the NPs-aided EMF effect has in the past attracted varied interpretations, either as a thermal or non-thermal effect, photothermal effect has gained a wide acceptance due to the exhibited hyperthermia. However, the exhibited trend of the NPs' size-dependent efficacy is beginning to feature as a possible manifestation of other overlooked underlying or synergistic phenomenal conditions. We present a theoretical model and analysis which reveal that the contribution and efficacy of the metal NPs in the destruction of cancer depend partly but significantly on the accompanying electric field intensity enhancement factor and partly on their absorption cross-section. This paper finds that, other than the expected hyperthermia, the metal NPs' sizes for the optimized therapy on cancer cells seem to fulfill other synergistic conditions which need to come to the fore. We find interplay between electric field and thermal effects as independent energy channels where balancing may be important for the optimized EMF effect, in the ratio of about 5:1. The required balancing depends on the absorption bandwidth and absorption cross-section of the NPs, the frequency of EMF used and the relative permittivity of the cancer cells. The NPs' size-dependent efficacy decreases away from the NPs' size of minimum absorption bandwidth, which is around 20 nm for Au NPs or other shapes of equivalent surface area

  5. Effects of Structural Transparency in System Dynamics Simulators on Performance and Understanding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit Kopainsky

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Prior exploration is an instructional strategy that has improved performance and understanding in system-dynamics-based simulators, but only to a limited degree. This study investigates whether model transparency, that is, showing users the internal structure of models, can extend the prior exploration strategy and improve learning even more. In an experimental study, participants in a web-based simulation learned about and managed a small developing nation. All participants were provided the prior exploration strategy but only half received prior exploration embedded in a structure-behavior diagram intended to make the underlying model’s structure more transparent. Participants provided with the more transparent strategy demonstrated better understanding of the underlying model. Their performance, however, was the equivalent to those in the less transparent condition. Combined with previous studies, our results suggest that while prior exploration is a beneficial strategy for both performance and understanding, making the model structure transparent with structure-behavior diagrams is more limited in its effect.

  6. Understanding and Predicting Effect of Sodium Exposure on Microstructure of Grade 91 Steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Meimei [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Natesan, K. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Chen, Wei-Ying [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-08-01

    This report provides an update on the understanding of the effect of sodium exposures on microstructure and tensile properties of Grade 91 (G91) steel in support of the design and operation of G91 components in sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFRs). The report is a Level 3 deliverable in FY17 (M3AT-17AN1602018), under the Work Package AT-17AN160201, “SFR Materials Testing” performed by the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), as part of the Advanced Reactor Technologies Program.

  7. PCI compliance understand and implement effective PCI data security standard compliance

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Branden R

    2012-01-01

    The credit card industry established the PCI Data Security Standards to provide a minimum standard for how vendors should protect data to ensure it is not stolen by fraudsters. PCI Compliance, 3e, provides the information readers need to understand the current PCI Data Security standards, which have recently been updated to version 2.0, and how to effectively implement security within your company to be compliant with the credit card industry guidelines and protect sensitive and personally identifiable information. Security breaches continue to occur on a regular basis, affecting millions of

  8. [Effect of management on imported malaria in Yangzhou City, 2012-2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yu-hui; Gao, Yang; Zuo, Yin-ping; He, Ri; Tang, Kai

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of the management on imported malaria in Yangzhou City, so as to provide a reference for formulating the strategy for the prevention and control of imported malaria. The data about the detection rate of Plasmodium of fever people in labor-exporting services and overseas returners, the proportion of laboratory confirmed cases in the whole malaria cases, the proportion of the cases with standardized treatment in the whole falciparum malaria cases within 24 hours, and the status of establishment of labor export platform were collected and analyzed in Yangzhou City from 2012 to 2013. There were 82 imported malaria cases in Yangzhou City from 2012 to 2013. The monitoring of labor-exporting services and overseas returners was carried out in the seven counties and districts of Yangzhou City, and the coverage rate was 100%. There were 5 808 persons of export labor service, and among them, 5 575 persons got the medical alert service (95.99%), and 9 525 persons accepted the healthy behavior (95.13%). Totally 410 medical professional persons received the malaria microscopic examination training in 153 malaria microscopy stations or medical institutions, and the training coverage rate was 100%. The average time from attack to the first visit to a doctor of 82 falciparum malaria patients was 2.5 days; the average time from attack to diagnosis confirmation was 2.75 days. All the patients were cured. In the first visit to a doctor, 78 patients were diagnosed with blood tests, and the newly diagnosed blood test rate was 95.12%, and all of them were detected with Plasmodium. Totally 69 falciparum malaria cases were confirmed by the laboratory, and 58 patients were treated with the standard treatment within 24 hours after the first visit (84.16%). The effect of the imported malaria control and management in Yangzhou City is obvious. However, it is still necessary to strengthen the health education and relevant medical personnel training to prevent and

  9. Human capital demand in Brazil: The effects of adjustment cost, economic growth, exports and imports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joilson Dias

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to learn about the effects of the adjustment costs, economic growth, imports and exports on human capital labor demand. The dynamic model proposed by Sargent (1978 was adjusted to consider three types of human capital: (a one with fundamental education (1–8 years of schooling; (b one with secondary education level (9–11 years of education; (c and one with tertiary education level (12 years or more of schooling. Using state level panel data, the dynamic econometrics estimates showed the following results: (i the labor market adjustment costs are very higher; (ii the adjustment cost for the human capital with intermediary education level is the highest one compared to the others; (iii the states’ economic growth favor those with superior education; (iv the imports seems to favor the demand for those with intermediate education levels; (v the degree of openness does show some weak effect on the demand for human capitals with intermediate education. In sum, the growing demand for human capital with some superior education seems to be more associated to its lower adjustment cost and economic growth; the non-significance of real wage elasticity and high adjustment cost seems to indicate that the human capital with intermediate knowledge is in short supply; hence, economic education policy that increases supply of such human capital are in need.

  10. Differential pollinator effectiveness and importance in a milkweed (Asclepias, Apocynaceae) hybrid zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoepler, Teresa M; Edge, Andrea; Steel, Anna; O'Quinn, Robin L; Fishbein, Mark

    2012-03-01

    Exceptions to the ideal of complete reproductive isolation between species are commonly encountered in diverse plant, animal, and fungal groups, but often the causative ecological processes are poorly understood. In flowering plants, the outcome of hybridization depends in part on the effectiveness of pollinators in interspecific pollen transport. In the Asclepias exaltata and A. syriaca (Apocynaceae) hybrid zone in Shenandoah National Park, Virginia, extensive introgression has been documented. The objectives of this study were to (1) determine the extent of pollinator overlap among A. exaltata, A. syriaca, and their hybrids and (2) identify the insect taxa responsible for hybridization and introgression. We observed focal plants of parental species and hybrids to measure visitation rate, visit duration, and per-visit pollinia removal and deposition, and we calculated pollinator effectiveness and importance. Visitation rates varied significantly between the 2 yr of the study. Overall, Apis mellifera, Bombus sp., and Epargyreus clarus were the most important pollinators. However, Bombus sp. was the only visitor that was observed to both remove and insert pollinia for both parent species as well as hybrids. We conclude that Bombus may be a key agent of hybridization and introgression in these sympatric milkweed populations, and hybrids are neither preferred nor selected against by pollinators. Thus, we have identified a potential mechanism for how hybrids act as bridges to gene flow between A. exaltata and A. syriaca. These results provide insights into the breakdown of prezygotic isolating mechanisms.

  11. The Effect of Simulated Interaural Frequency Mismatch on Speech Understanding and Spatial Release From Masking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goupell, Matthew J; Stoelb, Corey A; Kan, Alan; Litovsky, Ruth Y

    2018-01-15

    The binaural-hearing system interaurally compares inputs, which underlies the ability to localize sound sources and to better understand speech in complex acoustic environments. Cochlear implants (CIs) are provided in both ears to increase binaural-hearing benefits; however, bilateral CI users continue to struggle with understanding speech in the presence of interfering sounds and do not achieve the same level of spatial release from masking (SRM) as normal-hearing listeners. One reason for diminished SRM in CI users could be that the electrode arrays are inserted at different depths in each ear, which would cause an interaural frequency mismatch. Because interaural frequency mismatch diminishes the salience of interaural differences for relatively simple stimuli, it may also diminish binaural benefits for spectral-temporally complex stimuli like speech. This study evaluated the effect of simulated frequency-to-place mismatch on speech understanding and SRM. Eleven normal-hearing listeners were tested on a speech understanding task. There was a female target talker who spoke five-word sentences from a closed set of words. There were two interfering male talkers who spoke unrelated sentences. Nonindividualized head-related transfer functions were used to simulate a virtual auditory space. The target was presented from the front (0°), and the interfering speech was either presented from the front (colocated) or from 90° to the right (spatially separated). Stimuli were then processed by an eight-channel vocoder with tonal carriers to simulate aspects of listening through a CI. Frequency-to-place mismatch ("shift") was introduced by increasing the center frequency of the synthesis filters compared with the corresponding analysis filters. Speech understanding was measured for different shifts (0, 3, 4.5, and 6 mm) and target-to-masker ratios (TMRs: +10 to -10 dB). SRM was calculated as the difference in the percentage of correct words for the colocated and separated

  12. Situational Strength Cues from Social Sources at Work: Relative Importance and Mediated Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaybek, Balca; Dalal, Reeshad S; Sheng, Zitong; Morris, Alexander G; Tomassetti, Alan J; Holland, Samantha J

    2017-01-01

    Situational strength is considered one of the most important situational forces at work because it can attenuate the personality-performance relationship. Although organizational scholars have studied the consequences of situational strength, they have paid little attention to its antecedents. To address this gap, the current study focused on situational strength cues from different social sources as antecedents of overall situational strength at work. Specifically, we examined how employees combine situational strength cues emanating from three social sources (i.e., coworkers, the immediate supervisor, and top management). Based on field theory, we hypothesized that the effect of situational strength from coworkers and immediate supervisors (i.e., proximal sources of situational strength) on employees' perceptions of overall situational strength on the job would be greater than the effect of situational strength from the top management (i.e., the distal source of situational strength). We also hypothesized that the effect of situational strength from the distal source would be mediated by the effects of situational strength from the proximal sources. Data from 363 full-time employees were collected at two time points with a cross-lagged panel design. The former hypothesis was supported for one of the two situational strength facets studied. The latter hypothesis was fully supported.

  13. Situational Strength Cues from Social Sources at Work: Relative Importance and Mediated Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balca Alaybek

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Situational strength is considered one of the most important situational forces at work because it can attenuate the personality–performance relationship. Although organizational scholars have studied the consequences of situational strength, they have paid little attention to its antecedents. To address this gap, the current study focused on situational strength cues from different social sources as antecedents of overall situational strength at work. Specifically, we examined how employees combine situational strength cues emanating from three social sources (i.e., coworkers, the immediate supervisor, and top management. Based on field theory, we hypothesized that the effect of situational strength from coworkers and immediate supervisors (i.e., proximal sources of situational strength on employees' perceptions of overall situational strength on the job would be greater than the effect of situational strength from the top management (i.e., the distal source of situational strength. We also hypothesized that the effect of situational strength from the distal source would be mediated by the effects of situational strength from the proximal sources. Data from 363 full-time employees were collected at two time points with a cross-lagged panel design. The former hypothesis was supported for one of the two situational strength facets studied. The latter hypothesis was fully supported.

  14. The human factor: the critical importance of effective teamwork and communication in providing safe care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, M; Graham, S; Bonacum, D

    2004-10-01

    Effective communication and teamwork is essential for the delivery of high quality, safe patient care. Communication failures are an extremely common cause of inadvertent patient harm. The complexity of medical care, coupled with the inherent limitations of human performance, make it critically important that clinicians have standardised communication tools, create an environment in which individuals can speak up and express concerns, and share common "critical language" to alert team members to unsafe situations. All too frequently, effective communication is situation or personality dependent. Other high reliability domains, such as commercial aviation, have shown that the adoption of standardised tools and behaviours is a very effective strategy in enhancing teamwork and reducing risk. We describe our ongoing patient safety implementation using this approach within Kaiser Permanente, a non-profit American healthcare system providing care for 8.3 million patients. We describe specific clinical experience in the application of surgical briefings, properties of high reliability perinatal care, the value of critical event training and simulation, and benefits of a standardised communication process in the care of patients transferred from hospitals to skilled nursing facilities. Additionally, lessons learned as to effective techniques in achieving cultural change, evidence of improving the quality of the work environment, practice transfer strategies, critical success factors, and the evolving methods of demonstrating the benefit of such work are described.

  15. Quantifying the water balance of Mfabeni Mire (iSimangaliso Wetland Park, South Africa to understand its importance, functioning and vulnerability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Grundling

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Peatlands occurring in regions with high rates of total evaporation (ET, matching or exceeding precipitation (P during seasonal dry periods or longer-term dry spells, are dependent on sustained groundwater flows to ensure peat accumulation. The objective of this study was to quantify the water balance of Mfabeni Mire in South Africa over one year, and thereby define its contribution to downstream and adjacent ecosystems and identify risks and consequences likely to arise from future shifts in the water balance. P (1,031 mm and ET (1,053 mm dominated the water balance measured from May 2008 to April 2009. These were followed by groundwater inflows (14 mm, stream outflow (9 mm and storage change (-3 mm, a net loss in water stored in the mire with the smallest flux being groundwater outflow (0.3 mm. There were differences in the seasonal patterns of ET from the two dominant plant communities (swamp forest and sedge/reed fen, which probably resulted from their significantly different canopy structures. Limiting factors for ET were low vapour pressure deficit and cloud cover. Although the water balance of Mfabeni Mire was dominated by and equally split between ET and P, it still contributed a small efflux to downstream ecosystems by streamflow. Its value in a landscape where seasonality and long-term dry periods are major ecological drivers lies in its damping effect on climatic variability. This creates a more stable environment for adjacent aquatic ecosystems by contributing to a steady groundwater condition. Mires occurring in areas that experience dry periods, where water stress frequently threatens biodiversity, should be recognised as assets in natural resource management; and their potential to support adjacent ecosystems should be protected through planning and conservation practices. Management of the area should include careful consideration of any proposed changes in land use or encouragement of one plant community at the expense of

  16. Importance of elastic finite-size effects: Neutral defects in ionic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burr, P. A.; Cooper, M. W. D.

    2017-09-01

    Small system sizes are a well-known source of error in density functional theory (DFT) calculations, yet computational constraints frequently dictate the use of small supercells, often as small as 96 atoms in oxides and compound semiconductors. In ionic compounds, electrostatic finite-size effects have been well characterized, but self-interaction of charge-neutral defects is often discounted or assumed to follow an asymptotic behavior and thus easily corrected with linear elastic theory. Here we show that elastic effects are also important in the description of defects in ionic compounds and can lead to qualitatively incorrect conclusions if inadequately small supercells are used; moreover, the spurious self-interaction does not follow the behavior predicted by linear elastic theory. Considering the exemplar cases of metal oxides with fluorite structure, we show that numerous previous studies, employing 96-atom supercells, misidentify the ground-state structure of (charge-neutral) Schottky defects. We show that the error is eliminated by employing larger cells (324, 768, and 1500 atoms), and careful analysis determines that elastic, not electrostatic, effects are responsible. The spurious self-interaction was also observed in nonoxide ionic compounds irrespective of the computational method used, thereby resolving long-standing discrepancies between DFT and force-field methods, previously attributed to the level of theory. The surprising magnitude of the elastic effects is a cautionary tale for defect calculations in ionic materials, particularly when employing computationally expensive methods (e.g., hybrid functionals) or when modeling large defect clusters. We propose two computationally practicable methods to test the magnitude of the elastic self-interaction in any ionic system. In commonly studied oxides, where electrostatic effects would be expected to be dominant, it is the elastic effects that dictate the need for larger supercells: greater than 96 atoms.

  17. Edge effects are important in supporting beetle biodiversity in a gravel-bed river floodplain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhans, Simone D; Tockner, Klement

    2014-01-01

    Understanding complex, dynamic, and diverse ecosystems is essential for developing sound management and conservation strategies. Gravel-bed river floodplains are composed of an interlinked mosaic of aquatic and terrestrial habitats hosting a diverse, specialized, and endangered fauna. Therefore, they serve as excellent models to investigate the biodiversity of multiple ecotones and related edge effects. In this study, we investigated the abundance, composition, richness, and conservation status of beetle assemblages at varying sediment depth (0, 0.1, 0.6 and 1.1 m), distance from the channel (1, 5, 20, and 60-100 m, and 5 m within the riparian forest), and time of the year (February-November) across a 200 m-wide gravel bar at the near-natural Tagliamento River (Italy), to detect edge effects in four floodplain ecotones: aquatic-terrestrial, forest-active floodplain, sediment-air, and sediment-groundwater. We used conventional pitfall traps and novel tube traps to sample beetles comparably on the sediment surface and within the unsaturated sediments. We found a total of 308 beetle species (including 87 of conservation concern) that showed multiple, significant positive edge effects across the floodplain ecotones, mainly driven by spatial heterogeneity: Total and red list beetle abundance and richness peaked on the sediment surface, at channel margins, and at the edge of the riparian forest. All ecotones possessed edge/habitat specialists. Most red list species occurred on the sediment surface, including five species previously considered extinct--yet two of these species occurred in higher densities in the unsaturated sediments. Conservation and management efforts along gravel-bed rivers must therefore promote a dynamic flow and sediment regime to create and maintain habitat heterogeneity and ecotone diversity, which support a unique and high biodiversity.

  18. Is the rhizosphere priming effect an important mechanism for nitrogen mineralisation in soil?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Conor; Baggs, Elizabeth; Morley, Nicholas; Wall, David; Paterson, Eric

    2015-04-01

    In soil, nitrogen is mobilised from soil organic matter (SOM) to pools more readily available to plants (mineralisation), mediated by the microbial biomass. Multiple mechanisms underpin this process, including the priming effect (PE) which is increasingly recognised as an important driver of N mineralisation. The PE is where microbes utilize labile carbon from roots (root exudates or senescing plant material) for energy and subsequently mineralise SOM for nutrients, inevitably mobilising nutrients from SOM to plant available pools. However, the mechanism and regulators underpinning PE's are virtually unknown. This work investigates the importance of priming for N mineralisation. We hypothesized that 1) addition of labile C would increase gross N mineralisation and plant N uptake, and that this is soil-specific; 2) the stoichiometry of primed and basal mineralisation fluxes would be different, indicative of these processes being functionally distinct; and 3) the presence of fertilizer nitrogen and grazing would reduce primed and basal mineralisation and reduce plant uptake of SOM derived N. To do this we coupled continuous steady-state 13C labelling and 15N isotope dilution to measure specific gross C and N fluxes from two contrasting soils. Addition of carbon increased gross C and N fluxes from SOM, but the effect was soil-specific. The C-to-N ratio of the flux from 'primed' SOM was much lower than that of the basal flux indicating that the release of labile carbon from plant roots functions as a nutrient acquisition response, increasing mineralisation of SOM. Addition of N fertiliser resulted in negative priming of SOM, but overall and in both soils, the plant accessed more SOM-derived N. Grazing and priming were closely coupled, with grazing increasing SOM priming. Our results demonstrate that priming effects are an integral component of N mineralisation and should be incorporated into nitrogen cycling models.

  19. Imported palm oil for biofuels in the EU: Profitability, greenhouse gas emissions and social welfare effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saikkonen, Liisa; Ollikainen, Markku; Lankoski, Jussi

    2014-01-01

    We examine the social desirability of renewable diesel production from imported palm oil in the EU when greenhouse gas emissions are taken into account. Using a partial market equilibrium model, we also study the sectoral social welfare effects of a biofuel policy consisting of a blend mandate in a small EU country (Finland), when palm oil based diesel is used to meet the mandated quota for biofuels. We develop a market equilibrium model for three cases: i) no biofuel policy, ii) biofuel policy consisting of socially optimal emission-based biofuel tax credit and iii) actual EU biofuel policy. Our results for the EU biofuel market, Southeast Asia and Finland show very little evidence that a large scale use of imported palm oil in diesel production in the EU can be justified by lower greenhouse gas emission costs. Cuts in emission costs may justify extensive production only if low or negative land-use change emissions result from oil palm cultivation and if the estimated per unit social costs of emissions are high. In contrast, the actual biofuel policies in the EU encourage the production of palm oil based diesel. Our results indicate that the sectoral social welfare effects of the actual biofuel policy in Finland may be negative and that if emissions decrease under actual biofuel policy, the emission abatement costs can be high regardless of the land use change emissions. - Highlights: • We study the social desirability of renewable diesel production from palm oil in EU. • We also study sectoral social welfare impacts of actual biofuel policy in Finland. • Life cycle GHG emission costs of diesels are included in the economic analysis. • Extensive use of palm oil diesel in EU is difficult to justify by climate benefits. • The social welfare effects of the actual biofuel policy in Finland can be negative

  20. Potential effects of climate change on a marine invasion: The importance of current context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle M. CÔTÉ, Stephanie J. GREEN

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Species invasions threaten marine biodiversity globally. There is a concern that climate change is exacerbating this problem. Here, we examined some of the potential effects of warming water temperatures on the invasion of Western Atlantic habitats by a marine predator, the Indo-Pacific lionfish (Pterois volitans and P. miles. We focussed on two temperature-dependent aspects of lionfish life-history and behaviour: pelagic larval duration, because of its link to dispersal potential, and prey consumption rate, because it is an important determinant of the impacts of lionfish on native prey. Using models derived from fundamental metabolic theory, we predict that the length of time spent by lionfish in the plankton in early life should decrease with warming temperatures, with a concomitant reduction in potential dispersal distance. Although the uncertainty around change in dispersal distances is large, predicted reductions are, on average, more than an order of magnitude smaller than the current rate of range expansion of lionfish in the Caribbean. Nevertheless, because shorter pelagic larval duration has the potential to increase local retention of larvae, local lionfish management will become increasingly important under projected climate change. Increasing temperature is also expected to worsen the current imbalance between rates of prey consumption by lionfish and biomass production by their prey, leading to a heightened decline in native reef fish biomass. However, the magnitude of climate-induced decline is predicted to be minor compared to the effect of current rates of lionfish population increases (and hence overall prey consumption rates on invaded reefs. Placing the predicted effects of climate change in the current context thus reveals that, at least for the lionfish invasion, the threat is clear and present, rather than future [Current Zoology 58 (1: 1–8, 2012].

  1. Effects of Understanding the Problem Statement on Students' Mathematical Performance of Senior Secondary Schools in Borno State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banus, Abdullahi Audu; Dauda, Bala

    2015-01-01

    The study assessed the relative effectiveness of understanding the problem statement on students' mathematical behaviours in Borno State Secondary Schools. The study was guided by an objective: to determine the Understanding the problem statement on student's performance in senior secondary school and a null hypothesis: there was no effect of…

  2. Improving Students' Conceptual Understanding of the Greenhouse Effect Using Theory-Based Learning Materials that Promote Deep Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinfried, Sibylle; Aeschbacher, Urs; Rottermann, Benno

    2012-01-01

    Students' everyday ideas of the greenhouse effect are difficult to change. Environmental education faces the challenge of developing instructional settings that foster students' conceptual understanding concept of the greenhouse effect in order to understand global warming. To facilitate students' conceptual development with regard to the…

  3. Children's experiences of food insecurity can assist in understanding its effect on their well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Carol L; Lofton, Kristi L; Yadrick, Kathy; Rehner, Timothy A

    2005-07-01

    An understanding of the experience of food insecurity by children is essential for better measurement and assessment of its effect on children's nutritional, physical, and mental health. Our qualitative study explored children's perceptions of household food insecurity to identify these perceptions and to use them to establish components of children's food insecurity experience. Children (n = 32; 11-16 y old) from after school programs and a middle school in low-income areas participated in individual semistructured in-depth interviews. Children as young as 11 y could describe behaviors associated with food insecurity if they had experienced it directly or indirectly. Using the constant comparative method of qualitative data analysis, children's descriptions of behaviors associated with food insecurity were categorized into components of quantity of food, quality of food, psychological aspects, and social aspects described in the household food insecurity literature. Aspects of quantity included eating less than usual and eating more or eating fast when food was available. Aspects of quality included use of a few kinds of low-cost foods. Psychological aspects included worry/anxiety/sadness about the family food supply, feelings of having no choice in the foods eaten, shame/fear of being labeled as poor, and attempts to shield children. Social aspects of food insecurity centered on using social networks to acquire food or money and social exclusion. These results provide valuable information in understanding the effect of food insecurity on children's well-being especially relative to the social and emotional aspects of well-being.

  4. Understanding reliance on automation: effects of error type, error distribution, age and experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Julian; Rogers, Wendy A.; Fisk, Arthur D.; Rovira, Ericka

    2015-01-01

    An obstacle detection task supported by “imperfect” automation was used with the goal of understanding the effects of automation error types and age on automation reliance. Sixty younger and sixty older adults interacted with a multi-task simulation of an agricultural vehicle (i.e. a virtual harvesting combine). The simulator included an obstacle detection task and a fully manual tracking task. A micro-level analysis provided insight into the way reliance patterns change over time. The results indicated that there are distinct patterns of reliance that develop as a function of error type. A prevalence of automation false alarms led participants to under-rely on the automation during alarm states while over relying on it during non-alarms states. Conversely, a prevalence of automation misses led participants to over-rely on automated alarms and under-rely on the automation during non-alarm states. Older adults adjusted their behavior according to the characteristics of the automation similarly to younger adults, although it took them longer to do so. The results of this study suggest the relationship between automation reliability and reliance depends on the prevalence of specific errors and on the state of the system. Understanding the effects of automation detection criterion settings on human-automation interaction can help designers of automated systems make predictions about human behavior and system performance as a function of the characteristics of the automation. PMID:25642142

  5. Toward understanding the thermodynamics of TALSPEAK process. Medium effects on actinide complexation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter R Zalupski; Leigh R Martin; Ken Nash; Yoshinobu Nakamura; Masahiko Yamamoto

    2009-07-01

    The ingenious combination of lactate and diethylenetriamine-N,N,N’,N”,N”-pentaacetic acid (DTPA) as an aqueous actinide-complexing medium forms the basis of the successful separation of americium and curium from lanthanides known as the TALSPEAK process. While numerous reports in the prior literature have focused on the optimization of this solvent extraction system, considerably less attention has been devoted to the understanding of the basic thermodynamic features of the complex fluids responsible for the separation. The available thermochemical information of both lactate and DTPA protonation and metal complexation reactions are representative of the behavior of these ions under idealized conditions. Our previous studies of medium effects on lactate protonation suggest that significant departures from the speciation predicted based on reported thermodynamic values should be expected in the TALSPEAK aqueous environment. Thermodynamic parameters describing the separation chemistry of this process thus require further examination at conditions significantly removed from conventional ideal systems commonly employed in fundamental solution chemistry. Such thermodynamic characterization is the key to predictive modelling of TALSPEAK. Improved understanding will, in principle, allow process technologists to more efficiently respond to off-normal conditions during large scale process operation. In this report, the results of calorimetric and potentiometric investigations of the effects of aqueous electrolytes on the thermodynamic parameters for lactate protonation and lactate complexation of americium and neodymium will be presented. Studies on the lactate protonation equilibrium will clearly illustrate distinct thermodynamic variations between strong electrolyte aqueous systems and buffered lactate environment.

  6. The Effects of Conceptual Understanding Procedures (CUPs) Towards Critical Thinking Skills of Senior High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukaesih, S.; Sutrisno

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the study was to analyse the effect of the application of Conceptual Understanding Procedures (CUPs) learning to the students’ critical thinking skills in the matter of categorisaed in SMA Negeri 1 Larangan. This study was quasi-experimental design using nonequivalent control group design. The population in this study was entire class X. The samples that were taken by convenience sampling were class X MIA 1 and X MIA 2. Primary data in the study was the student’s critical thinking skills, which was supported by student activity, the level of adherence to the CUPs learning model, student opinion and teacher opinion. N-gain test results showed that the students’ critical thinking skills of experimental class increased by 89.32%, while the control group increased by 57.14%. Activity grade of experimental class with an average value of 72.37 was better than that of the control class with an average of only 22.69 student and teacher opinions to the learning were excellegoodnt. Based on this study concluded that the model of Conceptual Understanding Procedures (CUPs) had an effect on the student’s critical thinking skills in the matter of protest in SMA Negeri 1 Larangan.

  7. Understanding the Doppler effect by analysing spectrograms of the sound of a passing vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubyako, Dmitry; Martinez-Piedra, Gordon; Ushenin, Arthur; Denvir, Patrick; Dunlop, John; Hall, Alex; Le Roux, Gus; van Someren, Laurence; Weinberger, Harvey

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how the Doppler effect can be analysed to deduce information about a moving source of sound waves. Specifically, we find the speed of a car and the distance of its closest approach to an observer using sound recordings from smartphones. A key focus of this paper is how this can be achieved in a classroom, both theoretically and experimentally, to deepen students’ understanding of the Doppler effect. Included are our own experimental data (48 sound recordings) to allow others to reproduce the analysis, if they cannot repeat the whole experiment themselves. In addition to its educational purpose, this paper examines the percentage errors in our results. This enabled us to determine sources of error, allowing those conducting similar future investigations to optimize their accuracy.

  8. Understanding of latent tuberculosis, its treatment and treatment side effects in immigrant and refugee patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butcher, Katie; Biggs, Beverley-Ann; Leder, Karin; Lemoh, Chris; O'Brien, Daniel; Marshall, Caroline

    2013-08-29

    Isoniazid treatment of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is commonly prescribed in refugees and immigrants. We aimed to assess understanding of information provided about LTBI, its treatment and potential side effects. A questionnaire was administered in clinics at a tertiary hospital. Total Knowledge (TKS) and Total Side Effect Scores (TSES) were derived. Logistic regression analyses were employed to correlate socio-demographic factors with knowledge. Fifty-two participants were recruited, 20 at isoniazid commencement and 32 already on isoniazid. The average TKS were 5.04/9 and 6.23/9 respectively and were significantly associated with interpreter use. Approximately half did not know how tuberculosis was transmitted. The average TSES were 5.0/7 and 3.5/7 respectively, but were not influenced by socio-demographic factors. There was suboptimal knowledge about LTBI. Improvements in health messages delivered via interpreters and additional methods of distributing information need to be developed for this patient population.

  9. Inulin and Oligofructosis: a review about functional properties, prebiotic effects and importance for food industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Celia de Oliveira Hauly

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays consumers are more conscious about the relation between food and health. Therefore food industry has been looking for food that has a lot of benefits besides good flavor and appearance. Inulin and oligofructose are fructose polimers, vastly found in plants as storage carbohydrates. They present important functional for the food industry. Both inulin and oligofructose have been used as fiber bulk in food products. Differently from other fibers, they do not add flavor, allowing the food to be improved without changing its viscosity. Inulin and oligofructose have similar nutritional properties. Inulin is more indicated for obtaining products with a low fat content such as ice cream, cake and soup, while oligofructose is indicated for yogurt with a low caloric value and in order to mask the residual flavor from high intensity sweeteners used in food preparation. Research has shown that inulin and oligofructose have prebiotic effects because they are not digestible and they can develop bifidogenic effects, improving the intestinal microflora. The simultaneous use of inulin and oligofructose with probiotic agents in food is recommended for symbiotic effects.

  10. Adult hippocampal neurogenesis: an important target associated with antidepressant effects of exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lina; Sun, Qingshan; Qi, Jinshun

    2017-10-26

    Depression is a prevalent devastating mental disorder that affects the normal life of patients and brings a heavy burden to whole society. Although many efforts have been made to attenuate depressive/anxiety symptoms, the current clinic antidepressants have limited effects. Scientists have long been making attempts to find some new strategies that can be applied as the alternative antidepressant therapy. Exercise, a widely recognized healthy lifestyle, has been suggested as a therapy that can relieve psychiatric stress. However, how exercise improves the brain functions and reaches the antidepressant target needs systematic summarization due to the complexity and heterogeneous feature of depression. Brain plasticity, especially adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus, is an important neurophysiology to facilitate animals for neurogenesis can occur in not only humans. Many studies indicated that an appropriate level of exercise can promote neurogenesis in the adult brains. In this article, we provide information about the antidepressant effects of exercise and its implications in adult neurogenesis. From the neurogenesis perspective, we summarize evidence about the effects of exercise in enhancing neurogenesis in the hippocampus through regulating growth factors, neurotrophins, neurotransmitters and metabolism as well as inflammations. Taken together, a large number of published works indicate the multiple benefits of exercise in the brain functions of animals, particularly brain plasticity like neurogenesis and synaptogenesis. Therefore, a new treatment method for depression therapy can be developed by regulating the exercise activity.

  11. Individual differences in information order effects: the importance of right-hemisphere access in belief updating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasper, John D; Kunzler, J Scott; Prichard, Eric C; Christman, Stephen D

    2014-05-01

    The order in which information is received alters the evaluation of causal hypotheses. Specifically, research suggests that the last piece of information oftentimes has the greatest impact on the evaluation and that the difference in subjective value between two pieces of information is an important factor influencing the magnitude of this recency effect. The present paper extends this line of work by exploring individual differences in this phenomenon via one's degree of handedness. Two hundred and five participants were given two hypothetical scenarios and related causal hypotheses accompanied by two pieces of additional information and asked to revise their belief in each hypothesis as information accumulated. Results confirmed predictions that 1) inconsistent/mixed-handers (those who use their non-dominant hand for at least some activities) show a larger effect with two pieces of inconsistent weak or strong information, and 2) neither mixed-handers nor consistent/strong-handers (those who use their dominant hand for almost all activities) show an effect with strong and weak pieces of consistent information. Mixed-handers' susceptibility to persuasive arguments and Ramachandran's (1995; Ramachandran and Blakeslee, 1998) belief-updating theory centered around communication between the two halves of the brain and functional access to the right hemisphere are used to account for these data. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Radiation effects on oxide glasses: Importance of energy deposition and relaxation processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mir, Anamul-Haq

    2015-01-01

    that the ions with electronic stopping power greater than 3keVnm -1 can be used to simulate the radiation damage from recoil nuclei, whereas the ions with negligible nuclear stopping power and low electronic stopping power (below ion track threshold) can simulate the radiation damage from alpha particles. For a sodium borosilicate glass, the inelastic thermal spike model was able to reproduce the ion track data obtained from Raman spectroscopy with an electron-phonon coupling constant of 4 nm and a melting temperature corresponding to the glass Liquidus temperature (energy necessary to melt=0.38 eV). Matrix temperatures up to 300 C and stored energy values up to 200 J/g did not have any significant impact on the ion track threshold (only about 10% decrease in the threshold). During double ion beam irradiations, alpha particles were observed to induce partial recovery of the pre-existing heavy ion damage. The magnitude of the recovery was observed to depend on the ion irradiation scenario. The recovery was found to be maximum during heavy ion followed by the alpha particle sequential irradiation scenario. The extent of the recovery was lower during simultaneous irradiation with alpha particles and heavy ions. Using proper flux ratio of the two particles (which was calculated based on the damage cross sections obtained from the thermal spike model developed during this work), the results obtained during simultaneous ion beam irradiation were found to be in good agreement with the actinide doping studies already available in the literature. The study shows the importance and need of using multi beam irradiations to understand the long term radiation damage and mutual damage interaction during self irradiation of the waste matrices. Furthermore, it shows that the single ion beam irradiations performed in last three to four decades are not the best representatives of the irradiation scenario of the nuclear waste glass matrices. (author) [fr

  13. The importance of cultivating a preference for complexity in veterinarians for effective lifelong learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Vicki H M; Pierce, Stephanie E; May, Stephen A

    2010-01-01

    Much attention has been paid to the link between students' approaches to study and the quality of their learning. Less attention has been paid to the lifelong learner. We conceptualized a tripartite relationship between three measures of learning preference: conceptions of knowledge (construction and use vs. intake), need for cognition (high vs. low), and approach to study (deep vs. surface) and hypothesized that an individual's profile on these three measures-reconceptualized as a preference for complexity versus simplicity-would affect their attitude toward continuing professional development (CPD). A questionnaire was mailed to 2,000 randomly selected, home-practicing UK veterinarians to quantify their learning preferences, motivation to engage in CPD, and perception of barriers to participation and to assess the relationships between these constructs. Analysis of 775 responses (a 38.8% response rate) confirmed our tripartite model of learning and showed that a preference for complexity was negatively correlated with barriers and positively correlated with intrinsic, social, and extrinsic motivating factors, suggesting that all play a role in the continuing education of this group of professionals. A preference for simplicity was negatively correlated with social motivation and positively correlated with barriers. This study demonstrates that approach not only affects the quality of learning but crucially affects motivation to engage in CPD and perception of barriers to lifelong learning. This should emphasize to veterinary educators the importance of fostering a preference for complexity from an early age, both in terms of its immediate benefits (better understanding) and longer-term benefits (continued engagement with learning).

  14. Integrative relational machine-learning for understanding drug side-effect profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresso, Emmanuel; Grisoni, Renaud; Marchetti, Gino; Karaboga, Arnaud Sinan; Souchet, Michel; Devignes, Marie-Dominique; Smaïl-Tabbone, Malika

    2013-06-26

    Drug side effects represent a common reason for stopping drug development during clinical trials. Improving our ability to understand drug side effects is necessary to reduce attrition rates during drug development as well as the risk of discovering novel side effects in available drugs. Today, most investigations deal with isolated side effects and overlook possible redundancy and their frequent co-occurrence. In this work, drug annotations are collected from SIDER and DrugBank databases. Terms describing individual side effects reported in SIDER are clustered with a semantic similarity measure into term clusters (TCs). Maximal frequent itemsets are extracted from the resulting drug x TC binary table, leading to the identification of what we call side-effect profiles (SEPs). A SEP is defined as the longest combination of TCs which are shared by a significant number of drugs. Frequent SEPs are explored on the basis of integrated drug and target descriptors using two machine learning methods: decision-trees and inductive-logic programming. Although both methods yield explicit models, inductive-logic programming method performs relational learning and is able to exploit not only drug properties but also background knowledge. Learning efficiency is evaluated by cross-validation and direct testing with new molecules. Comparison of the two machine-learning methods shows that the inductive-logic-programming method displays a greater sensitivity than decision trees and successfully exploit background knowledge such as functional annotations and pathways of drug targets, thereby producing rich and expressive rules. All models and theories are available on a dedicated web site. Side effect profiles covering significant number of drugs have been extracted from a drug ×side-effect association table. Integration of background knowledge concerning both chemical and biological spaces has been combined with a relational learning method for discovering rules which explicitly

  15. IMPORTANT NOTIFICATION

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    Green plates, removals and importation of personal effects Please note that, as from 1 April 2009, formalities relating to K and CD special series French vehicle plates (green plates), removals and importation of personal effects into France and Switzerland will be dealt with by GS Department (Building 73/3-014, tel. 73683/74407). Importation and purchase of tax-free vehicles in Switzerland, as well as diplomatic privileges, will continue to be dealt with by the Installation Service of HR Department (Building 33/1-011, tel. 73962). HR and GS Departments

  16. [The importance of the process in evaluating the effectiveness of a childhood obesity campaign].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lineros-González, Carmen; Marcos-Marcos, Jorge; Ariza, Carles; Hernán-García, Mariano

    The prevention of childhood obesity is one of the greatest public health challenges of modern times. This has triggered the generation of a wealth of scientific evidence, culminating in a body of knowledge concerning the essential components of campaigns implemented in the school setting. In this regard, a growing trend towards the evaluation of research results in terms of effectiveness has become apparent, while the fieldwork itself very rarely comes under the spotlight. By considering the implementation process description of a multicomponent campaign designed to prevent childhood obesity in boys and girls in the 3 rd year of primary education in Spain (9-10 years of age), the aim of this paper is to influence the elements of this process by considering important aspects pertaining to its implementation, such as its plausibility and feasibility in the particular context. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Seasonal Effects on Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity of Six Economically Important Brassica Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo A.S. Rosa

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Research on natural and bioactive compounds is increasingly focused on their effects on human health, but there are unexpectedly few studies evaluating the relationship between climate and natural antioxidants. The aim of this study was analyze the biological role of six different Brassica vegetables (Brassica oleracea L. and Brassica rapa L. as a natural source of antioxidant compounds. The antioxidant activity may be assigned to high levels of L-ascorbic acid, total phenolics and total flavonoids of each sample. The climate seasons affected directly the concentration of bioactive components and the antioxidant activity. Broccoli inflorescences and Portuguese kale showed high antioxidant activity in Spring-Summer whilst turnip leaves did so in Summer-Winter. The Brassica vegetables can provide considerable amounts of bioactive compounds and thus may constitute an important natural source of dietary antioxidants.

  18. An Examination of the Importance of Strain in the Cannabis Gateway Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCutcheon, James C; Watts, Stephen J

    2017-09-01

    Gateway theory has been the source of much debate in both the research literature and public policy. Support for gateway sequencing has been mixed, especially in research that has considered the role of criminological variables in the etiology of substance use. For example, limited prior research has observed as important in gateway sequencing the effects of severe stressors. Data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health are utilized to test gateway theory and examine whether severe stressors affect the relationship between frequency of cannabis use and later use of other illicit drugs (OIDs). Findings suggest that while frequency of cannabis use does increase the likelihood of later use of OIDs, this relationship may be the result of the common cause of experiencing severe stress. Implications of the findings are discussed.

  19. The importance of vascular effects in the development of late radiation damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopewell, J.W.

    1979-01-01

    The severe late radiation damage to normal tissues may be an unacceptable consequence of the treatment of cancer patients by radiotherapy. The importance of vascular effects in the development of the late somatic lesions in most normal tissues has been indicated. Central nervous system has a parenchyma consisting of mostly post-mitotic cells, therefore it could be argued that this provides an ideal model with which primary vascular change is evaluated. Following the local irradiation of rat brains with single dose of 2000 rad, gross focal vascular lesions were found only after a latent period in excess of 12 months. The evidence of tissue hypoxia, over the period from 6 to 9 months after irradiation, was suggested by the fall of sialic acid content in brain. Sialic acid is an important constituent of gangliosides, therefore the reduction in its level might indicate a transient degenerative process. The presence of vasodilatory changes in central nervous system after local irradiation was suggested in brains and spinal cords. The indirect evidence of the transient impairment of functional vascular supply was suggested by the reduction in the ability of subcutaneous tissues to support tumor growth and that of the bone marrows to maintain colony-forming units. The reduction in blood flow was reported to be associated with the appearance of occlusive change in arterioles, and in the vasculatures of hearts, kidneys and mouse pinnas. Vascular function was improved as the vascular density increased. (Yamashita, S.)

  20. Individual variability in clinical effect and tolerability of opioid analgesics - Importance of drug interactions and pharmacogenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solhaug, Vigdis; Molden, Espen

    2017-10-01

    As pain is often a comorbid condition, many patients use opioid analgesics in combination with several other drugs. This implies a generally increased risk of drug interactions, which along with inherent pharmacogenetic variability and other factors may cause differences in therapeutic response of opioids. To provide an overview of interactions and pharmacogenetic variability of relevance for individual differences in effect and tolerability of opioid analgesics, which physicians and other healthcare professionals should be aware of in clinical practice. The article was based on unsystematic searches in PubMed to identify literature highlighting the clinical impact of drug interactions and pharmacogenetics as sources of variable response of opioid analgesics. Cytochrome P450 (CYP)-mediated metabolism is an important process for both clinically relevant interactions and pharmacogenetic variability of several opioids. Concomitant use of CYP inhibitors (e.g. paroxetine, fluoxetine and bupropion) or inducers (e.g. carbamazepine, phenobarbital and phenytoin) could counteract the clinical effect or trigger side effects of analgesics in the same manner as genetically determined differences in CYP2D6-mediated metabolism of many opioids. Moreover, combination treatment with drugs that inhibit or induce P-glycoprotein (ABCB1), a blood-brain barrier efflux transporter, may alter the amount ('dose') of opioids distributed to the brain. At the pharmacodynamic level, it is crucial to be aware of the potential risk of interaction causing serotonergic syndrome when combining opioids and serotonergic drugs, in particular antidepressants inhibiting serotonin reuptake (SSRIs and SNRIs). Regarding pharmacogenetics at the receptor level of pain treatment, the knowledge is currently scarce, but an allelic variant of the μ1 opioid receptor (OPRM1) gene has been associated with higher dosage requirement to achieve analgesia. Drug interactions and pharmacogenetic differences may lead to

  1. Explaining the contract terms of energy performance contracting in China: The importance of effective financing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yan; Qiu, Yueming; Wang, Yi David

    2014-01-01

    Energy service company (“ESCO”) uses Energy Performance Contracting (“EPC”) to provide energy-saving services to its clients. Under an EPC, both ESCO and the client invest in the energy efficiency measures, according to a negotiated share of investment. Within the length of the contract, the ESCO and its client divide up the saved energy bill according to a negotiated share. Once the contract expires, the client claims all of the saved energy bills if the energy efficiency measures still last. Different EPC projects have different contract terms, including total investment, share of investment and length of contract. These contract terms directly determine the resulted energy savings. Thus it is essential and important to look at how these contract terms are formed and what are the major influencing factors. This paper first builds a theoretical bargain model between ESCO and its client to find out the structural relationship among these contract terms. Then, using the information of about 140 EPC contracts in China in 2010 and 2011, the paper empirically estimates the impacts of various factors on the contract terms and the resulted energy savings. We find that cost of capitals for ESCOs and the clients, especially for ESCOs, is a major factor influencing contract terms and the resulted energy savings. Thus providing effective financing is critical for the development of EPC in China. - Highlights: • We build a theoretical bargain model between an ESCO and its client. • We empirically quantify the impacts of various factors on EPC contract terms. • Cost of capital is a key factor determining EPC contract terms. • Providing effective financing, especially for ESCOs is important

  2. 31 CFR 585.508 - Importation of household and personal effects from the FRY (S&M) authorized.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... effects from the FRY (S&M) authorized. 585.508 Section 585.508 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... Policy § 585.508 Importation of household and personal effects from the FRY (S&M) authorized. The importation of household and personal effects originating in the FRY (S&M), including baggage and articles for...

  3. Understanding treatment effect mechanisms of the CAMBRA randomized trial in reducing caries increment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, J; Chaffee, B W; Cheng, N F; Gansky, S A; Featherstone, J D B

    2015-01-01

    The Caries Management By Risk Assessment (CAMBRA) randomized controlled trial showed that an intervention featuring combined antibacterial and fluoride therapy significantly reduced bacterial load and suggested reduced caries increment in adults with 1 to 7 baseline cavitated teeth. While trial results speak to the overall effectiveness of an intervention, insight can be gained from understanding the mechanism by which an intervention acts on putative intermediate variables (mediators) to affect outcomes. This study conducted mediation analyses on 109 participants who completed the trial to understand whether the intervention reduced caries increment through its action on potential mediators (oral bacterial load, fluoride levels, and overall caries risk based on the composite of bacterial challenge and salivary fluoride) between the intervention and dental outcomes. The primary outcome was the increment from baseline in decayed, missing, and filled permanent surfaces (ΔDMFS) 24 mo after completing restorations for baseline cavitated lesions. Analyses adjusted for baseline overall risk, bacterial challenge, and fluoride values under a potential outcome framework using generalized linear models. Overall, the CAMBRA intervention was suggestive in reducing the 24-mo DMFS increment (reduction in ΔDMFS: -0.96; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -2.01 to 0.08; P = 0.07); the intervention significantly reduced the 12-mo overall risk (reduction in overall risk: -19%; 95% CI, -7 to -41%;], P = 0.005). Individual mediators, salivary log10 mutans streptococci, log10 lactobacilli, and fluoride level, did not represent statistically significant pathways alone through which the intervention effect was transmitted. However, 36% of the intervention effect on 24-mo DMFS increment was through a mediation effect on 12-mo overall risk (P = 0.03). These findings suggest a greater intervention effect carried through the combined action on multiple aspects of the caries process rather than

  4. Pseudomoniasis phytotherapy: a review on most important Iranian medicinal plants effective on Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahmani, Mahmoud; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Hassanzadazar, Hassan; Taherikalani, Morovat

    2016-10-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative, aerobic bacterium found in water and soil. It is a normal flora in skin and gastrointestinal tract of human beings. P. aeruginosa as an opportunistic pathogen involved in nosocomial infections having multiple pathogenic factors and shows high rate of resistance to different antibiotics. The aim of this study was to identify the most important native medicinal plants of Iran effective on P. aeruginosa. All required information was obtained by searching keywords such as P. aeruginosa , medicinal plant extracts or essential oils in published articles in authentic scientific databases such as Science Direct, Wiley-Blackwell, Springer, Google scholar, Scientific Information Database (SID) and Magiran. According to the literature review, our results showed 12 different native medicinal plants were effective against P. aeruginosa in Iran including Eucalyptus camadulensis, Marticaria chamomilla, Ferula gummosa Boiss, Lawsonia inermis, Ocimumgra tissimum, Allium sativum, Satureja hortensis L, Satureja bachtiarica Bunge, Satureja khuzestanica (Jamzad), Thymus daenensis Celak, Thymus carmanicus Jalals and Camellia sinensis. Phytochemical analysis has shown that bioactive compounds of medicinal plants with their antioxidant and antimicrobial properties can be good alternatives for the synthetic medicines in food and drug industry.

  5. HIV-Infected Adolescent, Young Adult and Pregnant Smokers: Important Targets for Effective Tobacco Control Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerome Escota

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco use is inextricably linked to a number of health risks both in the general and HIV-infected populations. There is, however, a dearth of research on effective tobacco control programs among people living with HIV, and especially among adolescents, young adults and pregnant women, groups with heightened or increased vulnerability secondary to tobacco use. Adolescents and young adults constitute a growing population of persons living with HIV infection. Early and continued tobacco use in this population living with a disease characterized by premature onset multimorbidity and chronic inflammation is of concern. Additionally, there is an increased acuity for tobacco control among HIV-infected pregnant women to reduce pregnancy morbidity and improve fetal outcome. This review will provide an important summary of current knowledge of tobacco use among HIV-infected adolescents, young adults and pregnant women. The effects of tobacco use in these specific populations will be presented and the current state of tobacco control within these populations, assessed.

  6. Role understanding and effective communication as core competencies for collaborative practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suter, Esther; Arndt, Julia; Arthur, Nancy; Parboosingh, John; Taylor, Elizabeth; Deutschlander, Siegrid

    2009-01-01

    The ability to work with professionals from other disciplines to deliver collaborative, patient-centred care is considered a critical element of professional practice requiring a specific set of competencies. However, a generally accepted framework for collaborative competencies is missing, which makes consistent preparation of students and staff challenging. Some authors have argued that there is a lack of conceptual clarity of the "active ingredients" of collaboration relating to quality of care and patient outcomes, which may be at the root of the competencies issue. As part of a large Health Canada funded study focused on interprofessional education and collaborative practice, our goal was to understand the competencies for collaborative practice that are considered most relevant by health professionals working at the front line. Interview participants comprised 60 health care providers from various disciplines. Understanding and appreciating professional roles and responsibilities and communicating effectively emerged as the two perceived core competencies for patient-centred collaborative practice. For both competencies there is evidence of a link to positive patient and provider outcomes. We suggest that these two competencies should be the primary focus of student and staff education aimed at increasing collaborative practice skills.

  7. Atomic-scale understanding of non-stoichiometry effects on the electrochemical performance of Ni-rich cathode materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Fantai; Liang, Chaoping; Longo, Roberto C.; Zheng, Yongping; Cho, Kyeongjae

    2018-02-01

    As the next-generation high energy capacity cathode materials for Li-ion batteries, Ni-rich oxides face the problem of obtaining near-stoichiometric phases due to excessive Ni occupying Li sites. These extra-Ni-defects drastically affect the electrochemical performance. Despite of its importance, the fundamental correlation between such defects and the key electrochemical properties is still poorly understood. In this work, using density-functional-theory, we report a comprehensive study on the effects of non-stoichiometric phases on properties of Ni-rich layered oxides. For instance, extra-Ni-defects trigger charge disproportionation reaction within the system, alleviating the Jahn-Teller distortion of Ni3+ ions, which constitutes an important reason for their low formation energies. Kinetic studies of these defects reveal their immobile nature, creating a "pillar effect" that increases the structural stability. Ab initio molecular dynamics revealed Li depletion regions surrounding extra-Ni-defects, which are ultimate responsible for the arduous Li diffusion and re-intercalation, resulting in poor rate performance and initial capacity loss. Finally, the method with combination of high valence cation doping and ion-exchange synthesis is regarded as the most promising way to obtain stoichiometric oxides. Overall, this work not only deepens our understanding of non-stoichiometric Ni-rich layered oxides, but also enables further optimizations of high energy density cathode materials.

  8. Understanding the determinants of the complex interplay between cost-effectiveness and equitable impact in maternal and child mortality reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, Mickey; Campbell, Harry; Rudan, Igor

    2012-06-01

    One of the most unexpected outcomes arising from the efforts towards maternal and child mortality reduction is that all too often the objective success has been coupled with increased inequity in the population. The aim of this study is to analyze the determinants of the complex interplay between cost-effectiveness and equity and suggest strategies that will promote an impact on mortality that reduce population child health inequities. We developed a conceptual framework that exposes the nature of the links between the five key determinants that need to be taken into account when planning equitable impact. These determinants are: (i) efficiency of intervention scale-up (requires knowledge of differential increase in cost of intervention scale-up by equity strata in the population); (ii) effectiveness of intervention (requires understanding of differential effectiveness of interventions by equity strata in the population); (iii) the impact on mortality (requires knowledge of differential mortality levels by equity strata, and understanding the differences in cause composition of overall mortality in different equity strata); (iv) cost-effectiveness (compares the initial cost and the resulting impact on mortality); (v) equity structure of the population. The framework is presented visually as a four-quadrant graph. We use the proposed framework to demonstrate why the relationship between cost-effectiveness and equitable impact of an intervention cannot be intuitively predicted or easily planned. The relationships between the five determinants are complex, often nonlinear, context-specific and intervention-specific. We demonstrate that there will be instances when an equity-promoting approach, ie, trying to reach for the poorest and excluded in the population with health interventions, will also be the most cost-effective approach. However, there will be cases in which this will be entirely unfeasible, and where equity-neutral or even inequity-promoting approaches may

  9. Retrospective analysis of the Draize test for serious eye damage/eye irritation: importance of understanding the in vivo endpoints under UN GHS/EU CLP for the development and evaluation of in vitro test methods

    OpenAIRE

    ADRIAENS Els; VIEGAS BARROSO JOAO FILIPE; ESKES Chantra; HOFFMANN Sebastian; MCNAMEE Pauline; ALEPEE Natalie; BESSOU-TOUYA Sandrine; DE SMEDT Ann; DE WEVER Bart; PFANNENBECKER Uwe; TAILHARDAT Magalie; ZUANG Valerie

    2013-01-01

    For more than two decades, scientists have been trying to replace the regulatory in vivo Draize eye test by in vitro methods, but so far only partial replacement has been achieved. In order to better understand the reasons for this, historical in vivo rabbit data were analysed in detail and resampled with the purpose of (1) revealing which of the in vivo endpoints are most important in driving United Nations Globally Harmonized System/European Union Regulation on Classification, Labelling and...

  10. Multiple intelligences and alternative teaching strategies: The effects on student academic achievement, conceptual understanding, and attitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baragona, Michelle

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the interactions between multiple intelligence strengths and alternative teaching methods on student academic achievement, conceptual understanding and attitudes. The design was a quasi-experimental study, in which students enrolled in Principles of Anatomy and Physiology, a developmental biology course, received lecture only, problem-based learning with lecture, or peer teaching with lecture. These students completed the Multiple Intelligence Inventory to determine their intelligence strengths, the Students' Motivation Toward Science Learning questionnaire to determine student attitudes towards learning in science, multiple choice tests to determine academic achievement, and open-ended questions to determine conceptual understanding. Effects of intelligence types and teaching methods on academic achievement and conceptual understanding were determined statistically by repeated measures ANOVAs. No significance occurred in academic achievement scores due to lab group or due to teaching method used; however, significant interactions between group and teaching method did occur in students with strengths in logical-mathematical, interpersonal, kinesthetic, and intrapersonal intelligences. Post-hoc analysis using Tukey HSD tests revealed students with strengths in logical-mathematical intelligence and enrolled in Group Three scored significantly higher when taught by problem-based learning (PBL) as compared to peer teaching (PT). No significance occurred in conceptual understanding scores due to lab group or due to teaching method used; however, significant interactions between group and teaching method did occur in students with strengths in musical, kinesthetic, intrapersonal, and spatial intelligences. Post-hoc analysis using Tukey HSD tests revealed students with strengths in logical-mathematical intelligence and enrolled in Group Three scored significantly higher when taught by lecture as compared to PBL. Students with

  11. Effects of prefrontal cortex damage on emotion understanding: EEG and behavioural evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Anat; Saunders, Samantha N; Stiso, Jennifer; Dewar, Callum; Lubell, Jamie; Meling, Torstein R; Solbakk, Anne-Kristin; Endestad, Tor; Knight, Robert T

    2017-04-01

    Humans are highly social beings that interact with each other on a daily basis. In these complex interactions, we get along by being able to identify others' actions and infer their intentions, thoughts and feelings. One of the major theories accounting for this critical ability assumes that the understanding of social signals is based on a primordial tendency to simulate observed actions by activating a mirror neuron system. If mirror neuron regions are important for action and emotion recognition, damage to regions in this network should lead to deficits in these domains. In the current behavioural and EEG study, we focused on the lateral prefrontal cortex including dorsal and ventral prefrontal cortex and utilized a series of task paradigms, each measuring a different aspect of recognizing others' actions or emotions from body cues. We examined 17 patients with lesions including (n = 8) or not including (n = 9) the inferior frontal gyrus, a core mirror neuron system region, and compared their performance to matched healthy control subjects (n = 18), in behavioural tasks and in an EEG observation-execution task measuring mu suppression. Our results provide support for the role of the lateral prefrontal cortex in understanding others' emotions, by showing that even unilateral lesions result in deficits in both accuracy and reaction time in tasks involving the recognition of others' emotions. In tasks involving the recognition of actions, patients showed a general increase in reaction time, but not a reduction in accuracy. Deficits in emotion recognition can be seen by either direct damage to the inferior frontal gyrus, or via damage to dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex regions, resulting in deteriorated performance and less EEG mu suppression over sensorimotor cortex. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Modeling and understanding of effects of randomness in arrays of resonant meta-atoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tretyakov, Sergei A.; Albooyeh, Mohammad; Alitalo, Pekka

    2013-01-01

    In this review presentation we will discuss approaches to modeling and understanding electromagnetic properties of 2D and 3D lattices of small resonant particles (meta-atoms) in transition from regular (periodic) to random (amorphous) states. Nanostructured metasurfaces (2D) and metamaterials (3D......) are arrangements of optically small but resonant particles (meta-atoms). We will present our results on analytical modeling of metasurfaces with periodical and random arrangements of electrically and magnetically resonant meta-atoms with identical or random sizes, both for the normal and oblique-angle excitations....... We show how the electromagnetic response of metasurfaces is related to the statistical parameters of the structure. Furthermore, we will discuss the phenomenon of anti-resonance in extracted effective parameters of metamaterials and clarify its relation to the periodicity (or amorphous nature...

  13. Current Understanding on Antihepatocarcinoma Effects of Xiao Chai Hu Tang and Its Constituents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ningning Zheng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Xiao Chai Hu Tang (XCHT, a compound formula originally recorded in an ancient Chinese medical book Shanghanlun, has been used to treat chronic liver diseases for a long period of time in China. Although extensive studies have been demonstrated the efficacy of this formula to treat chronic hepatitis, hepatic fibrosis, and hepatocarcinoma, how it works against these diseases still awaits full understanding. Here, we firstly present an overview arranging from the entire formula to mechanism studies of single herb in XCHT and their active components, from a new perspective of “separation study,” and we tried our best to both detailedly and systematically organize the antihepatocarcinoma effects of it, hoping that the review will facilitate the strive on elucidating how XCHT elicits its antihepatocarcinoma role.

  14. Recent Advances in Understanding and Mitigating Adipogenic and Metabolic Effects of Antipsychotic Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohlke, Julia M.; Dhurandhar, Emily J.; Correll, Christoph U.; Morrato, Elaine H.; Newcomer, John W.; Remington, Gary; Nasrallah, Henry A.; Crystal, Stephen; Nicol, Ginger; Allison, David B.

    2012-01-01

    Although offering many benefits for several psychiatric disorders, antipsychotic drugs (APDs) as a class have a major liability in their tendency to promote adiposity, obesity, and metabolic dysregulation in an already metabolically vulnerable population. The past decade has witnessed substantial research aimed at investigating the mechanisms of these adverse effects and mitigating them. On July 11 and 12, 2011, with support from 2 NIH institutes, leading experts convened to discuss current research findings and to consider future research strategies. Five areas where significant advances are being made emerged from the conference: (1) methodological issues in the study of APD effects; (2) unique characteristics and needs of pediatric patients; (3) genetic components underlying susceptibility to APD-induced metabolic effects; (4) APD effects on weight gain and adiposity in relation to their acute effects on glucose regulation and diabetes risk; and (5) the utility of behavioral, dietary, and pharmacological interventions in mitigating APD-induced metabolic side effects. This paper summarizes the major conclusions and important supporting data from the meeting. PMID:22754543

  15. Toward understanding the thermodynamics of TALSPEAK process. Medium effects on actinide complexation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zalupski, Peter R.; Martin, Leigh R.; Nash, Ken; Nakamura, Yoshinobu; Yamamoto, Masahiko

    2009-01-01

    The ingenious combination of lactate and diethylenetriamine-N,N,N',N(double p rime),N(double p rime)-pentaacetic acid (DTPA) as an aqueous actinide-complexing medium forms the basis of the successful separation of americium and curium from lanthanides known as the TALSPEAK process. While numerous reports in the prior literature have focused on the optimization of this solvent extraction system, considerably less attention has been devoted to the understanding of the basic thermodynamic features of the complex fluids responsible for the separation. The available thermochemical information of both lactate and DTPA protonation and metal complexation reactions are representative of the behavior of these ions under idealized conditions. Our previous studies of medium effects on lactate protonation suggest that significant departures from the speciation predicted based on reported thermodynamic values should be expected in the TALSPEAK aqueous environment. Thermodynamic parameters describing the separation chemistry of this process thus require further examination at conditions significantly removed from conventional ideal systems commonly employed in fundamental solution chemistry. Such thermodynamic characterization is the key to predictive modelling of TALSPEAK. Improved understanding will, in principle, allow process technologists to more efficiently respond to off-normal conditions during large scale process operation. In this report, the results of calorimetric and potentiometric investigations of the effects of aqueous electrolytes on the thermodynamic parameters for lactate protonation and lactate complexation of americium and neodymium will be presented. Studies on the lactate protonation equilibrium will clearly illustrate distinct thermodynamic variations between strong electrolyte aqueous systems and buffered lactate environment.

  16. The Effect of Three-Dimensional Simulations on the Understanding of Chemical Structures and Their Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urhahne, Detlef; Nick, Sabine; Schanze, Sascha

    2009-08-01

    In a series of three experimental studies, the effectiveness of three-dimensional computer simulations to aid the understanding of chemical structures and their properties was investigated. Arguments for the usefulness of three-dimensional simulations were derived from Mayer’s generative theory of multimedia learning. Simulations might lead to a decrease in cognitive load and thus support active learning. In our studies, the learning effectiveness of three-dimensional simulations was compared to two-dimensional illustrations by use of different versions of a computer programme concerning the modifications of carbon. The first and third study with freshman students of chemistry and biochemistry show that no more knowledge was acquired when participants learnt with three-dimensional simulations than with two-dimensional figures. In the second study with 16-year old secondary school students, use of simulations facilitated the acquisition of conceptual knowledge. It was concluded that three-dimensional simulations are more effective for younger students who lack the experience of learning with different visual representation formats in chemistry. In all three studies, a significant relationship between spatial ability and conceptual knowledge about the modifications of carbon was detected.

  17. Understanding the protective effects of wine components and their metabolites in the brain function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban-Fernández A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Moderate wine consumption has been suggested to exert a positive effect in prevention of neurodegenerative process and cognitive impairment. With the ultimate aim of achieving a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms behind this benefit, we have investigated the role of certain wine- derived phenolic metabolites and aroma compounds in the MAPK cascade (including ERK1/2, p38, one of the routes directly related to inflammation in neuronal cells. Some of the tested phenolic compounds, especially in the case of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, showed a significant neuroprotective effect against SIN-1-induced neuronal death. Regarding their effect over MAPK phosphorylation, inmunoblotting technique revealed a beneficial and significant decrease on the phosphorylation of p38 and ERK1/2 kinases after incubation with wine constituents. In addition, activity of caspase3-like protease, an executor of neuronal apoptosis and a downstream signal of MAPK, was significantly diminished by 3-(3-hydroxyphenyl propionic acid and linalool, counterbalancing the increase produced by SIN-1. Altogether, these results suggest that wine aroma, phenolic compounds and their gut metabolites could exert neuroprotective actions by modulating MAPK signalling and caspase-3 proteases activation, which are known to play a key role in oxidative/ nitrosative stress-induced response.

  18. Increasing the understanding of chemical concepts: The effectiveness of multiple exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bius, Janet H.

    Chemistry is difficult because it has multilevels of knowledge with each level presenting challenges in vocabulary, abstract thinking, and symbolic language. Students have to be able to transfer between levels to understand the concepts and the theoretical models of chemistry. The cognitive theories of constructivism and cognitive-load theory are used to explain the difficulties novice learners have with the subject of chemistry and methods to increase success for students. The relationship between external representations, misconceptions and topics on the success of students are addressed. If students do not know the formalisms associated with chemical diagrams and graphs, the representations will decrease student success. Misconceptions can be formed when new information is interpreted based on pre-existing knowledge that is faulty. Topics with large amount of interacting elements that must be processed simultaneously are considered difficult to understand. New variables were created to measure the number of times a student is exposed to a chemical concept. Each variable was coded according to topic and learning environment, which are the lecture and laboratory components of the course, homework assignments and textbook examples. The exposure variables are used to measure the success rate of students on similar exam questions. Question difficulty scales were adapted for this project from those found in the chemical education literature. The exposure variables were tested on each level of the difficulty scales to determine their effect at decreasing the cognitive demand of these questions. The subjects of this study were freshmen science majors at a large Midwest university. The effects of the difficulty scales and exposure variables were measured for those students whose exam scores were in the upper one-fourth percentile, for students whose test scores were in the middle one-half percentile, and the lower one-fourth percentile are those students that scored the

  19. Understanding the physics of a possible non-Abelian fractional quantum hall effect state.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Wei; Crawford, Matthew; Tallakulam, Madhu; Ross, Anthony Joseph, III

    2010-10-01

    We wish to present in this report experimental results from a one-year Senior Council Tier-1 LDRD project that focused on understanding the physics of a possible non-Abelian fractional quantum Hall effect state. We first give a general introduction to the quantum Hall effect, and then present the experimental results on the edge-state transport in a special fractional quantum Hall effect state at Landau level filling {nu} = 5/2 - a possible non-Abelian quantum Hall state. This state has been at the center of current basic research due to its potential applications in fault-resistant topological quantum computation. We will also describe the semiconductor 'Hall-bar' devices we used in this project. Electron physics in low dimensional systems has been one of the most exciting fields in condensed matter physics for many years. This is especially true of quantum Hall effect (QHE) physics, which has seen its intellectual wealth applied in and has influenced many seemingly unrelated fields, such as the black hole physics, where a fractional QHE-like phase has been identified. Two Nobel prizes have been awarded for discoveries of quantum Hall effects: in 1985 to von Klitzing for the discovery of integer QHE, and in 1998 to Tsui, Stormer, and Laughlin for the discovery of fractional QHE. Today, QH physics remains one of the most vibrant research fields, and many unexpected novel quantum states continue to be discovered and to surprise us, such as utilizing an exotic, non-Abelian FQHE state at {nu} = 5/2 for fault resistant topological computation. Below we give a briefly introduction of the quantum Hall physics.

  20. Understanding the factors that make public participation effective in health policy and planning: a realist synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagatpatan, Celso P; Ward, Paul R

    2017-06-23

    Although researchers argue for the importance of involving the public in developing health policy, there has been little focus on central research questions - such as what techniques of public participation work, in what circumstances, and why. This paper presents a realist synthesis which identifies and explains the underlying mechanisms and specific contextual factors that lead to effective public participation in health policy and planning. Peer-reviewed, English language literature was searched, which resulted in 77 articles for review and synthesis. This synthesis uncovered the underlying mechanism of 'political commitment' that generates public participation effectiveness. The other three possible underlying mechanisms, namely: 'partnership synergy', 'inclusiveness' and 'deliberativeness', were found to potentially provide further explanation on public participation effectiveness for health policy and planning. The findings of this review provide evidence that can be useful to health practitioners and decision-makers to actively involve the public when drafting public health policies and programs and, more importantly, guide them in deciding which strategies to best employ for which contexts.

  1. A cross-cultural, multilevel study of inquiry-based instruction effects on conceptual understanding and motivation in physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negishi, Meiko

    Student achievement and motivation to learn physics is highly valued in many industrialized countries including the United States and Japan. Science education curricula in these countries emphasize the importance and encourage classroom teachers to use an inquiry approach. This dissertation investigated high school students' motivational orientations and their understanding of physics concepts in a context of inquiry-based instruction. The goals were to explore the patterns of instructional effects on motivation and learning in each country and to examine cultural differences and similarities. Participants consisted of 108 students (55 females, 53 males) and 9 physics teachers in the United States and 616 students (203 females and 413 males) and 11 physics teachers in Japan. Students were administered (a) Force Concept Inventory measuring physics conceptual understanding and (b) Attitudes about Science Questionnaire measuring student motivational orientations. Teachers were given a survey regarding their use of inquiry teaching practices and background information. Additionally, three teachers in each country were interviewed and observed in their classrooms. For the data analysis, two-level hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) methods were used to examine individual student differences (i.e., learning, motivation, and gender) within each classroom (i.e., inquiry-based teaching, teaching experience, and class size) in the U.S. and Japan, separately. Descriptive statistical analyses were also conducted. The results indicated that there was a cultural similarity in that current teaching practices had minimal influence on conceptual understanding as well as motivation of high school students between the U.S. and Japan. In contrast, cultural differences were observed in classroom structures and instructional approaches. Furthermore, this study revealed gender inequity in Japanese students' conceptual understanding and self-efficacy. Limitations of the study, as well as

  2. Effects of social defeat on sleep and behaviour: importance of the confrontational behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinn Rød, Anne Marie; Murison, Robert; Mrdalj, Jelena; Milde, Anne Marita; Jellestad, Finn Konow; Øvernes, Leif Arvid; Grønli, Janne

    2014-03-29

    We studied the short- and long-term effects of a double social defeat (SD) on sleep parameters, EEG power, behaviour in the open field emergence test, corticosterone responsiveness, and acoustic startle responses. Pre-stress levels of corticosterone were assessed before all rats were surgically implanted with telemetric transmitters for sleep recording, and allowed 3weeks of recovery. Rats in the SD group (n=10) were exposed to 1hour SD on two consecutive days, while control rats (n=10) were left undisturbed. Telemetric sleep recordings were performed before SD (day -1), day 1 post SD, and once weekly for 3weeks thereafter. The open field emergence test was performed on day 9 and weekly for 2weeks thereafter. Blood samples for measures of corticosterone responsiveness were drawn after the last emergence test (day 23). Acoustic startle responses were tested on day 24 post SD. Overall, SD rats as a group were not affected by the social conflict. Effects of SD seemed, however, to vary according to the behaviours that the intruder displayed during the social confrontation with the resident. Compared to those SD rats showing quick submission (SDS, n=5), SD rats fighting the resident during one or both SD confrontations before defeat (SDF, n=5) showed more fragmented slow wave sleep, both in SWS1 and SWS2. They also showed longer latency to leave the start box and spent less time in the open field arena compared to SDS rats. In the startle test, SDF rats failed to show response decrement at the lowest sound level. Our results indicate that how animals behave during a social confrontation is more important than exposure to the SD procedure itself, and that rapid submission during a social confrontation might be more adaptive than fighting back. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The importance of context in delivering effective EIA: Case studies from East Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marara, Madeleine; Okello, Nick; Kuhanwa, Zainab; Douven, Wim; Beevers, Lindsay; Leentvaar, Jan

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews and compares the condition of the environmental impact assessment (EIA) system in three countries in the East Africa region: Kenya, Rwanda and Tanzania. The criteria used for the evaluation and the comparison of each system are based on the elements of the legal, administrative and procedural frameworks, as well as the context in which they operate. These criteria are adapted from the evaluation and quality control criteria derived from a number of literature sources. The study reveals that the EIA systems of Kenya and Tanzania are at a similar stage in their development. The two countries, the first to introduce the EIA concept into their jurisdiction in this part of Africa, therefore have more experience than Rwanda in the practice of environmental impact assessment, where the legislation and process requires more time to mature both from the governmental and societal perspective. The analysis of the administrative and procedural frameworks highlights the weakness in the autonomy of the competent authority, in all three countries. Finally a major finding of this study is that the contextual set up i.e. the socio-economic and political situation plays an important role in the performance of an EIA system. The context in developing countries is very different from developed countries where the EIA concept originates. Interpreting EIA conditions in countries like Kenya, Rwanda and Tanzania requires that the analysis for determining the effectiveness of their systems should be undertaken within a relevant framework, taking into account the specific requirements of those countries.

  4. The importance of effective communication in interprofessional practice: perspectives of maternity clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Bernadette M; Heatley, Michelle L; Gallois, Cindy; Kruske, Sue

    2016-01-01

    Midwives and doctors require effective information-sharing strategies to provide safe and evidence-based care for women and infants, but this can be difficult to achieve. This article describes maternity care professionals' perceptions of communication in their current workplace in Australia. We invoke social identity theory (SIT) to explore how these perceptions affect interprofessional practice. A survey was conducted with 337 participants (281 midwives and 56 doctors). Using exploratory factor analysis we developed three scales that measured interprofessional workplace practice collaboration. Results indicated an intergroup environment in maternity care in which the professionals found exchange of ideas difficult, and where differences with respect to decision making and professional skills were apparent. Although scores on some measures of collaboration were high, the two professions differed on their ratings of the importance of team behaviors, information sharing, and interprofessional socialization as indicators of collaborative practice. These results highlight the complexities among maternity care providers with different professional identities, and demonstrate the impact of professional identity on interprofessional communication.

  5. Perception of safety, importance, and effectiveness of vaccinations among urban school employees in Utah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luthy, Karlen E; Thompson, Kim E; Beckstrand, Renea L; Macintosh, Janelle L B; Eden, Lacey M

    2015-06-01

    School employees are in direct contact with children in confined areas, a setting in which communicable infection can quickly spread. Therefore, it is important for school employees to be fully vaccinated. The purpose of this study is to ascertain the current vaccination status and perceptions of school employees in an urban school district. The study employed a nonexperimental mixed-method design. School employee participants (N = 1400) completed a questionnaire to evaluate vaccination status, availability of vaccination records, and vaccination awareness. Participants were randomly selected from 85 schools within one urban school district. Two common perceptions about vaccines emerged from the questionnaire: (a) vaccines are only for children and (b) vaccinations received during childhood are still effective. School employees are unaware of their own vaccination status and the recommended vaccination schedule for adults. Additionally, accessibility to immunization records for adults is frequently inadequate. Healthcare providers (HCPs), including nurse practitioners (NPs), are the first line of defense to ensure adults are adequately vaccinated. When vaccinations are tracked and recommended by HCPs, vaccination uptake is improved. NPs who discuss recommended vaccinations with adult patients are instrumental in improving vaccination rates among school employees. ©2015 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  6. Inhibitory effect of Allium sativum and Zingiber officinale extracts on clinically important drug resistant pathogenic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gull, Iram; Saeed, Mariam; Shaukat, Halima; Aslam, Shahbaz M; Samra, Zahoor Qadir; Athar, Amin M

    2012-04-27

    Herbs and spices are very important and useful as therapeutic agent against many pathological infections. Increasing multidrug resistance of pathogens forces to find alternative compounds for treatment of infectious diseases. In the present study the antimicrobial potency of garlic and ginger has been investigated against eight local clinical bacterial isolates. Three types of extracts of each garlic and ginger including aqueous extract, methanol extract and ethanol extract had been assayed separately against drug resistant Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Shigella sonnei, Staphylococcusepidermidis and Salmonella typhi. The antibacterial activity was determined by disc diffusion method. All tested bacterial strains were most susceptible to the garlic aqueous extract and showed poor susceptibility to the ginger aqueous extract. The (minimum inhibitory concentration) MIC of different bacterial species varied from 0.05 mg/ml to 1.0 mg/ml. In the light of several socioeconomic factors of Pakistan mainly poverty and poor hygienic condition, present study encourages the use of spices as alternative or supplementary medicine to reduce the burden of high cost, side effects and progressively increasing drug resistance of pathogens.

  7. Inhibitory effect of Allium sativum and Zingiber officinale extracts on clinically important drug resistant pathogenic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gull Iram

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Herbs and spices are very important and useful as therapeutic agent against many pathological infections. Increasing multidrug resistance of pathogens forces to find alternative compounds for treatment of infectious diseases. Methods In the present study the antimicrobial potency of garlic and ginger has been investigated against eight local clinical bacterial isolates. Three types of extracts of each garlic and ginger including aqueous extract, methanol extract and ethanol extract had been assayed separately against drug resistant Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Shigella sonnei, Staphylococcusepidermidis and Salmonella typhi. The antibacterial activity was determined by disc diffusion method. Results All tested bacterial strains were most susceptible to the garlic aqueous extract and showed poor susceptibility to the ginger aqueous extract. The (minimum inhibitory concentration MIC of different bacterial species varied from 0.05 mg/ml to 1.0 mg/ml. Conclusion In the light of several socioeconomic factors of Pakistan mainly poverty and poor hygienic condition, present study encourages the use of spices as alternative or supplementary medicine to reduce the burden of high cost, side effects and progressively increasing drug resistance of pathogens.

  8. Alcohol Use Severity Among Hispanic Emerging Adults in Higher Education: Understanding the Effect of Cultural Congruity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, Miguel Ángel; Vaughan, Ellen L; de Dios, Marcel A; Castro, Yessenia; Roncancio, Angelica M; Ojeda, Lizette

    2015-01-01

    Identifying and understanding determinants of alcohol use behavior among Hispanic college students is an increasingly important public health issue, particularly during emerging adulthood. Studies examining ethnocultural determinants of alcohol use behavior among Hispanic college students have focused on direct associations with cultural orientation (e.g., acculturation and enculturation); yet there is a need for research that accounts for the complex interplay of other culturally relevant sociocultural factors. This study examined associations of behavioral acculturation, behavioral enculturation, and cultural congruity (perception of cultural fit between the values of the academic environment and the student's personal values) with alcohol use severity (AUS); and tested if gender moderated those associations. A hierarchical linear regression and moderation analysis were conducted on a sample of 167 Hispanic emerging adults (ages 18-25) enrolled in college. All predictor variables entered in the regression model accounted for 20.9% of the variance in AUS. After controlling for demographic variables and depressive symptoms, behavioral acculturation and enculturation did not have a statistically significant association with AUS. Further, gender did not moderate either of these associations. Conversely, greater cultural congruity was associated with lower reports of AUS. A moderation analysis suggested that cultural congruity predicted lower reports of AUS among men, but not among women. This was the first known study to examine the association of cultural congruity with alcohol use. Findings highlight the value of examining contextual factors of culture and moving beyond reductive measures of cultural orientation.

  9. Understanding the effect of secondary structure on molecular interactions of poly-L-lysine with different substrates by SFA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binazadeh, Mojtaba; Faghihnejad, Ali; Unsworth, Larry D; Zeng, Hongbo

    2013-10-14

    Nonspecific adsorption of proteins on biomaterial surfaces challenges the widespread application of engineered materials, and understanding the impact of secondary structure of proteins and peptides on their adsorption process is of both fundamental and practical importance in bioengineering. In this work, poly-L-lysine (PLL)-based α-helices and β-sheets were chosen as a model system to investigate the effect of secondary structure on peptide interactions with substrates of various surface chemistries. Circular dichroism (CD) was used to confirm the presence of both α-helix and β-sheet structured PLL in aqueous solutions and upon adsorption to quartz, where these secondary structures seemed to be preserved. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging showed different surface patterns for adsorbed α-helix and β-sheet PLL. Interactions between PLL of different secondary structures and various substrates (i.e., PLL, Au, mica, and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)) were directly measured using a surface forces apparatus (SFA). It was found that β-sheet PLL films showed higher adsorbed layer thicknesses in general. Adhesion energies of β-sheet versus Au and β-sheet versus β-sheet were considerably higher than that of α-helix versus Au and α-helix versus α-helix systems, respectively. Au and β-sheet PLL interactions seemed to be more dependent on the salt concentration than that of α-helix, while the presence of a grafted PEG layer greatly diminished any attraction with either PLL structure. The molecular interaction mechanism of peptide in different secondary structures is discussed in terms of Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory, Alexander-de Gennes (AdG) steric model and hydrogen bonding, which provides important insight into the fundamental understanding of the interaction mechanism between proteins and biomaterials.

  10. How to understand the radiation effects of small dose - some critical comments on ICRP recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuura, T.

    1997-01-01

    The widespread feeling of 'radiophobia' by the general public has its basis on the ICRP's 'linear no-threshold' hypothesis in dose-response relationship for low dose radiation from the standpoint of radiation protection. Although this common feeling served as a merit for constructing the 'safety culture' of society, it has now become a large obstacle for the development of peaceful uses of nuclear technology as a demerit. Recently many data have been accumulated for the radiation effects of low dose, both epidemiologically and experimentally. Although in general it is very difficult to obtain clear evidence of presence or absence of threshold, it seems to be true that the risk by radiation exposure at low level (the definition of which is below 0.2 Gy) is not so large as that of extrapolation from the high or medium dose range. In fact, many data suggest that some quite different mechanisms are working in low dose from high dose, such as 'adaptive response', and a new concept, 'radiation hormesis', has emerged, that the low level radiation is not only quite harmless but is rather necessary for living cells or beneficial for human health. In this paper, some critical comments on ICRP recommendations are given as a personal view by the author. These include: (1) a question of exact assessment of exposed dose by A-bomb survivors used for the epidemiological data, which are regarded to be the most authentic and important; (2) a brief summary of effects at the natural radiation level, including the high background area data; (3) the importance of dose rate effect, which reflects the living matter's repairability from radiation injury, and (4) the proposal of new paradigm by adopting the reasonable 'de minimis' level (below which there is no harm) both for low dose and at low dose rate. A simple mathematical analysis for representative data of dose rate effect was shown as an appendix

  11. Understanding the effects of pre-processing on extracted signal features from gait accelerometry signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millecamps, Alexandre; Lowry, Kristin A; Brach, Jennifer S; Perera, Subashan; Redfern, Mark S; Sejdić, Ervin

    2015-07-01

    Gait accelerometry is an important approach for gait assessment. Previous contributions have adopted various pre-processing approaches for gait accelerometry signals, but none have thoroughly investigated the effects of such pre-processing operations on the obtained results. Therefore, this paper investigated the influence of pre-processing operations on signal features extracted from gait accelerometry signals. These signals were collected from 35 participants aged over 65years: 14 of them were healthy controls (HC), 10 had Parkinson׳s disease (PD) and 11 had peripheral neuropathy (PN). The participants walked on a treadmill at preferred speed. Signal features in time, frequency and time-frequency domains were computed for both raw and pre-processed signals. The pre-processing stage consisted of applying tilt correction and denoising operations to acquired signals. We first examined the effects of these operations separately, followed by the investigation of their joint effects. Several important observations were made based on the obtained results. First, the denoising operation alone had almost no effects in comparison to the trends observed in the raw data. Second, the tilt correction affected the reported results to a certain degree, which could lead to a better discrimination between groups. Third, the combination of the two pre-processing operations yielded similar trends as the tilt correction alone. These results indicated that while gait accelerometry is a valuable approach for the gait assessment, one has to carefully adopt any pre-processing steps as they alter the observed findings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Composition-Effects of Context-based Learning Opportunities on Students' Understanding of Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podschuweit, Sören; Bernholt, Sascha

    2017-05-01

    Context-based learning has become a widespread approach in science education. While positive motivational effects of such approaches have been well established empirically, clear results regarding cognitive aspects of students' learning are still missing. In this article, we argue that this circumstance might be mainly rooted in the definition of context itself. Based on this argument, we shift from the issue of if contexts are cognitively beneficial to focus on the question of which composition of contexts is, at least by tendency, more effective than another. Based on theories of conceptual change, we therefore conducted a small-scale intervention study comparing two groups of students learning in different sets of contexts focusing on the same scientific concept—the cross-cutting concept of energy. Results suggest that learning in a more heterogeneous set of contexts eases transfer to new contexts in comparison to learning in a more homogeneous set of contexts. However, a more abstract understanding of the energy concept does not seem to be fostered by either of these approaches. Theoretical as well as practical implications of these finding are discussed.

  13. Effectiveness of the Wavelet Transform on the Surface EMG to Understand the Muscle Fatigue During Walk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, M. S.; Mamun, Md.

    2012-01-01

    Muscle fatigue is the decline in ability of a muscle to create force. Electromyography (EMG) is a medical technique for measuring muscle response to nervous stimulation. During a sustained muscle contraction, the power spectrum of the EMG shifts towards lower frequencies. These effects are due to muscle fatigue. Muscle fatigue is often a result of unhealthy work practice. In this research, the effectiveness of the wavelet transform applied to the surface EMG (SEMG) signal as a means of understanding muscle fatigue during walk is presented. Power spectrum and bispectrum analysis on the EMG signal getting from right rectus femoris muscle is executed utilizing various wavelet functions (WFs). It is possible to recognize muscle fatigue appreciably with the proper choice of the WF. The outcome proves that the most momentous changes in the EMG power spectrum are symbolized by WF Daubechies45. Moreover, this research has compared bispectrum properties to the other WFs. To determine muscle fatigue during gait, Daubechies45 is used in this research to analyze the SEMG signal.

  14. A transdisciplinary approach to understanding the health effects of wildfire and prescribed fire smoke regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, G. J.; Bowman, D. M. J. S.; Price, O. F.; Henderson, S. B.; Johnston, F. H.

    2016-12-01

    Prescribed burning is used to reduce the occurrence, extent and severity of uncontrolled fires in many flammable landscapes. However, epidemiologic evidence of the human health impacts of landscape fire smoke emissions is shaping fire management practice through increasingly stringent environmental regulation and public health policy. An unresolved question, critical for sustainable fire management, concerns the comparative human health effects of smoke from wild and prescribed fires. Here we review current knowledge of the health effects of landscape fire emissions and consider the similarities and differences in smoke from wild and prescribed fires with respect to the typical combustion conditions and fuel properties, the quality and magnitude of air pollution emissions, and the potential for dispersion to large populations. We further examine the interactions between these considerations, and how they may shape the longer term smoke regimes to which populations are exposed. We identify numerous knowledge gaps and propose a conceptual framework that describes pathways to better understanding of the health trade-offs of prescribed and wildfire smoke regimes.

  15. Individual differences in children's emotion understanding: Effects of age and language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pons, Francisco; Lawson, J.: Harris, P.; Rosnay, M. de

    2003-01-01

    Over the last two decades, it has been established that children's emotion understanding changes as they develop. Recent studies have also begun to address individual differences in children's emotion understanding. The first goal of this study was to examine the development of these individual...... differences across a wide age range with a test assessing nine different components of emotion understanding. The second goal was to examine the relation between language ability and individual differences in emotion understanding. Eighty children ranging in age from 4 to 11 years were tested. Children...... displayed a clear improvement with age in both their emotion understanding and language ability. In each age group, there were clear individual differences in emotion understanding and language ability. Age and language ability together explained 72% of emotion understanding variance; 20% of this variance...

  16. Effect on Public Policy from Macro to Nano Aspects of the Deadliest Illness of Mankind: Important Role of Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Arjun

    2013-04-01

    The effect on public policy of macro to nano aspects of the deadliest Illness known to mankind is given. The focus is on the important role of physics which has been ignored so far to solve its problems. It is now acknowledged that the deadliest illness is actually a group of illnesses which are lumped together as mental illnesses. They are the most widespread and damaging illnesses in the world. Their impact on the entire society globally is huge because they afflict majority of the people irrespective of race, religion, sex, age, education and economic status. In USA alone, the number afflicted according to the official count is about 80 million (out of a total population of 315 million), and it is projected to increase to about 25 to 30% of the population within two decades. A model is given in this paper to address some of the key issues from macro to nano aspects of the deadliest illness. The information given in this paper is scientific though easy to understand. It will help the elected policy makers, public, physicists, neuroscientists, doctors, and care giving personnel world wide. The model explains the missing links in the diagnosis and treatment of mental illnesses. Additional evidence from other recent studies shall also be given.

  17. Living with heterogeneities in bioreactors: understanding the effects of environmental gradients on cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Alvaro R; Galindo, Enrique; Ramírez, Octavio T; Palomares, Laura A

    2006-11-01

    The presence of spatial gradients in fundamental culture parameters, such as dissolved gases, pH, concentration of substrates, and shear rate, among others, is an important problem that frequently occurs in large-scale bioreactors. This problem is caused by a deficient mixing that results from limitations inherent to traditional scale-up methods and practical constraints during large-scale bioreactor design and operation. When cultured in a heterogeneous environment, cells are continuously exposed to fluctuating conditions as they travel through the various zones of a bioreactor. Such fluctuations can affect cell metabolism, yields, and quality of the products of interest. In this review, the theoretical analyses that predict the existence of environmental gradients in bioreactors and their experimental confirmation are reviewed. The origins of gradients in common culture parameters and their effects on various organisms of biotechnological importance are discussed. In particular, studies based on the scale-down methodology, a convenient tool for assessing the effect of environmental heterogeneities, are surveyed.

  18. Managing a new collaborative entity in business organizations: understanding organizational communities of practice effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkman, Bradley L; Mathieu, John E; Cordery, John L; Rosen, Benson; Kukenberger, Michael

    2011-11-01

    Companies worldwide are turning to organizational communities of practice (OCoPs) as vehicles to generate learning and enhance organizational performance. OCoPs are defined as groups of employees who share a concern, a set of problems, or a passion about a topic and who strengthen their knowledge and expertise by interacting on a consistent basis. To date, OCoP research has drawn almost exclusively from the community of practice (CoP) literature, even though the organizational form of CoPs shares attributes of traditional CoPs and of organizational teams. Drawing on Lave and Wenger's (1991) original theory of legitimate peripheral participation, we integrate theory and research from CoPs and organizational teams to develop and empirically examine a model of OCoP effectiveness that includes constructs such as leadership, empowerment, the structure of tasks, and OCoP relevance to organizational effectiveness. Using data from 32 OCoPs in a U.S.-based multinational mining and minerals processing firm, we found that external community leaders play an important role in enhancing OCoP empowerment, particularly to the extent that task interdependence is high. Empowerment, in turn, was positively related to OCoP effectiveness. We also found that OCoPs designated as "core" by the organization (e.g., working on critical issues) were more effective than those that were noncore. Task interdependence also was positively related to OCoP effectiveness. We provide scholars and practitioners with insights on how to effectively manage OCoPs in today's organizations. (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. Prospective memory in young and older adults: the effects of task importance and ongoing task load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Rebekah E; Hunt, R Reed

    2014-01-01

    Remembering to perform an action in the future, called prospective memory, often shows age-related differences in favor of young adults when tested in the laboratory. Recently Smith, Horn, and Bayen (2012; Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition, 19, 495) embedded a PM task in an ongoing color-matching task and manipulated the difficulty of the ongoing task by varying the number of colors on each trial of the task. Smith et al. found that age-related differences in PM performance (lower PM performance for older adults relative to young adults) persisted even when older adults could perform the ongoing task as well or better than the young adults. The current study investigates a possible explanation for the pattern of results reported by Smith et al. by including a manipulation of task emphasis: for half of the participants the prospective memory task was emphasize, while for the other half the ongoing color-matching task was emphasized. Older adults performed a 4-color version of the ongoing color-matching task, while young adults completed either the 4-color or a more difficult 6-color version of the ongoing task. Older adults failed to perform as well as the young adults on the prospective memory task regardless of task emphasis, even when older adults were performing as well or better than the young adults on the ongoing color-matching task. The current results indicate that the lack of an effect of ongoing task load on prospective memory task performance is not due to a perception that one or the other task is more important than the other.

  20. The importance and effects of BEPS multilateral convention in international tax law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Dejan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Multilateral Convention to Implement Tax Treaty Related Measures to Prevent Base Erosion and Profit Shifting is a result of the BEPS project carried out by the OECD and G20. The object and purpose of the BEPS Multilateral Convention is swift and consistent implementation of the agreed solutions aimed at preventing tax evasion or avoidance via modifications of the existing bilateral tax treaties, while providing for a high level of flexibility in the implementation. Signed on 7 June 2017, the Convention encompasses provisions on hybrid mismatches, treaty abuse, avoidance of permanent establishment status, improving dispute resolution and arbitration. The first four groups of norms have a bilateral impact on the relations between contracting jurisdictions regulated by their covered tax agreements; the effect of the optional provisions on arbitration is multilateral. The Convention contains two minimum standards each party is required to include in its covered tax agreements in an offered manner. The first one refers to the prevention of treaty shopping arrangements, while the second one concerns improvements in the dispute resolution. The flexibility is assured by granting each party the right to specify the tax treaties to which the Convention applies, to opt out of a wide range of provisions (apart from the minimum standards set out in the Convention as eligible for reservations, as well as to select an offered alternative. Serbia's position vis-à-vis the given choices has been elaborated. Serbia specified all its tax treaties as the 'covered tax agreements' but Germany, Switzerland and Sweden did not do the same with their respective treaties with Serbia. Serbia opted out of five articles of the Convention. While not contesting its importance, one may conclude that the Convention does not represent an announcement of a new multilateral tax order but rather a multilateral agreement of a number of states motivated by practical considerations.

  1. Impact hazard mitigation: understanding the effects of nuclear explosive outputs on comets and asteroids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clement, Ralph R C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Plesko, Catherine S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bradley, Paul A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Conlon, Leann M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The NASA 2007 white paper ''Near-Earth Object Survey and Deflection Analysis of Alternatives'' affirms deflection as the safest and most effective means of potentially hazardous object (PHO) impact prevention. It also calls for further studies of object deflection. In principle, deflection of a PHO may be accomplished by using kinetic impactors, chemical explosives, gravity tractors, solar sails, or nuclear munitions. Of the sudden impulse options, nuclear munitions are by far the most efficient in terms of yield-per-unit-mass launched and are technically mature. However, there are still significant questions about the response of a comet or asteroid to a nuclear burst. Recent and ongoing observational and experimental work is revolutionizing our understanding of the physical and chemical properties of these bodies (e.g ., Ryan (2000) Fujiwara et al. (2006), and Jedicke et al. (2006)). The combination of this improved understanding of small solar-system bodies combined with current state-of-the-art modeling and simulation capabilities, which have also improved dramatically in recent years, allow for a science-based, comprehensive study of PHO mitigation techniques. Here we present an examination of the effects of radiation from a nuclear explosion on potentially hazardous asteroids and comets through Monte Carlo N-Particle code (MCNP) simulation techniques. MCNP is a general-purpose particle transport code commonly used to model neutron, photon, and electron transport for medical physics reactor design and safety, accelerator target and detector design, and a variety of other applications including modeling the propagation of epithermal neutrons through the Martian regolith (Prettyman 2002). It is a massively parallel code that can conduct simulations in 1-3 dimensions, complicated geometries, and with extremely powerful variance reduction techniques. It uses current nuclear cross section data, where available, and fills in the gaps with

  2. Research Plans for Improving Understanding of Effects of Very Low-Frequency Noise of Heavy Lift Rotorcraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidell, Sanford; Horonieff, Richard D.; Schmitz, Fredric H.

    2010-01-01

    This report reviews the English-language technical literature on infrasonic and low-frequency noise effects; identifies the most salient effects of noise produced by a future large civil tiltrotor aircraft on crew, passengers, and communities near landing areas; and recommends research needed to improve understanding of the effects of such noise on passengers, crew, and residents of areas near landing pads.

  3. Understanding effects in reviews of implementation interventions using the Theoretical Domains Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Elizabeth A; Presseau, Justin; Eccles, Martin P

    2015-06-17

    Behavioural theory can be used to better understand the effects of behaviour change interventions targeting healthcare professional behaviour to improve quality of care. However, the explicit use of theory is rarely reported despite interventions inevitably involving at least an implicit idea of what factors to target to implement change. There is a quality of care gap in the post-fracture investigation (bone mineral density (BMD) scanning) and management (bisphosphonate prescription) of patients at risk of osteoporosis. We aimed to use the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) within a systematic review of interventions to improve quality of care in post-fracture investigation. Our objectives were to explore which theoretical factors the interventions in the review may have been targeting and how this might be related to the size of the effect on rates of BMD scanning and osteoporosis treatment with bisphosphonate medication. A behavioural scientist and a clinician independently coded TDF domains in intervention and control groups. Quantitative analyses explored the relationship between intervention effect size and total number of domains targeted, and as number of different domains targeted. Nine randomised controlled trials (RCTs) (10 interventions) were analysed. The five theoretical domains most frequently coded as being targeted by the interventions in the review included "memory, attention and decision processes", "knowledge", "environmental context and resources", "social influences" and "beliefs about consequences". Each intervention targeted a combination of at least four of these five domains. Analyses identified an inverse relationship between both number of times and number of different domains coded and the effect size for BMD scanning but not for bisphosphonate prescription, suggesting that the more domains the intervention targeted, the lower the observed effect size. When explicit use of theory to inform interventions is absent, it is possible to

  4. The Effect of Teaching Methodology on Accounting Students' Perceptions of Traits Important to Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Linda M.

    2018-01-01

    This study evolved from a previous study that examined the perceptions of the importance of specific traits to success in the accounting profession by both accounting professionals in the United States and internationally. That study found that the international subjects valued some soft skills, such as creativity, as being more important to…

  5. Tic Tac TOE: Effects of Predictability and Importance on Acoustic Prominence in Language Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Duane G.; Arnold, Jennifer E.; Tanenhaus, Michael K.

    2008-01-01

    Importance and predictability each have been argued to contribute to acoustic prominence. To investigate whether these factors are independent or two aspects of the same phenomenon, naive participants played a verbal variant of Tic Tac Toe. Both importance and predictability contributed independently to the acoustic prominence of a word, but in…

  6. Understanding the solid phase chemical fractionation of uranium in soil and effect of ageing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rout, Sabyasachi, E-mail: srout.barc@gmail.com [Health Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India); Kumar, Ajay [Health Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India); Ravi, P.M.; Tripathi, R.M. [Homi Bhabha National Institute Anushaktinagar, Mumbai (India)

    2016-11-05

    Highlights: • Apart of U(VI) converted to U(IV) during adsorption to soil. • Ageing leads to rearrangement of chemical fractionation of U in soil. • Organic matter and carbonate minerals responsible for Surface enrichment of U. • There occurs Occlusion of U-Fe-Oxides (Hydroxide) in to silica. - Abstract: The aim of the present work is to understand the solid phase chemical fractionation of Uranium (U) in soil and the mechanism involved. This study integrated batch experiments of U(VI) adsorption to soil, study of U in different soil fractions, ageing impact on fractionation of U and spectroscopic investigation of adsorbed U(VI) using X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). For the study three soils, pedogenically different (S1: Igneous, S2: Sedimentary and S3: Metamorphic) were amended with U(VI) and chemical fractionation of U was studied by sequential extraction after an interval of one month and 12 months. It was found that there occurs a significant rearrangement of U in different fractions with ageing and no correlation was observed between the U content in different fractions and the adsorbents of respective fractions such as soil organic matter (SOM), Fe/Mn oxides (hydroxides) carbonates, soil cation exchange capacity (CEC). XPS study revealed that surface enrichment of U mainly governed by the carbonate minerals and SOM, whereas bulk concentration was controlled by the oxides (hydroxides) of Si and Al. Occlusion of U-Fe-oxides (hydroxides) on silica was identified as an important mechanism for bulk enrichment (Increase in residual fraction) and depletion of U concentration in reducible fraction.

  7. Understanding E-Learning Adoption in Brazil: Major Determinants and Gender Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shintaro Okazaki

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to examine factors influencing e-learning adoption and the moderating role of gender. This study extends the technology acceptance model (TAM by adding attitude and social interaction. The new construct of social interaction is applied to the South American context. Gender effects on e-learning adoption from educators’ perspectives have seldom been explored. The data collection takes place in three major Brazilian universities. In total, 446 faculty members responded to the questionnaire. Our structural equation modeling reveals that ease of use and perceived usefulness are significant antecedents of attitude, which in turn affects intention. However, unlike the original TAM, perceived usefulness is not a direct driver of intention. In terms of moderation, gender affects three relationships: (1 ease of use –› perceived usefulness; (2 perceived usefulness –› attitude, and (3 intention –› actual behavior. The analysis is carried out in a single country; thus, caution should be taken in generalization of the results. The findings will help academics, educators, and policy makers to better understand the mechanism of e-learning adoption in Brazil.

  8. Challenging effective public outreach activities for increasing mutual understanding of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunji, Ikuko

    2006-01-01

    An outreach activity is two-way communication for communicating information. The public outreach activities of USA and Japan for increasing mutual understanding of nuclear energy, and the effective outreach activities are stated. On USA, many communicators in the member of ANS (American Nuclear Society) play an active part in the outreach activities for the policy makers, educators, students, and stakeholders. NEI (Nuclear Energy Institute, USA) provides people with useful information such as benefits and safety control system of nuclear energy, and it has carried out an attitude survey. FPL (Florida Power and Light Company) selected the communicators by ten evaluation items and they made a group and a clear grasp of the goal, needs, and plans and then communicated residents, and sent out questionnaires. Some examples of the special education program for training the communicators in USA are described. In Japan, JAEA gave lessons of nuclear energy, radiation and disaster prevention at the primary, junior high and high schools, friendly talks with local residents, preparing the teaching materials with residents and training of communicators. (S.Y.)

  9. Understanding the effects of stress and alcohol cues on motivation for alcohol via behavioral economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amlung, Michael; MacKillop, James

    2014-06-01

    Psychological stress and alcohol cues are common antecedents of both ongoing drinking and relapse. One candidate mechanism of risk from these factors is acute increases in craving, but experimental support for this hypothesis is mixed. Furthermore, the combination of stress and cues has been largely unstudied. The current study employed a behavioral economic approach to investigate the combined roles of psychosocial stress and alcohol cues on motivation for alcohol. In a sample of 84 adult heavy drinkers, we examined the effects of an acute laboratory stress induction and an alcohol cue exposure on subjective craving and stress, arousal, and behavioral economic decision making. Primary dependent measures included an intertemporal cross-commodity multiple-choice procedure (ICCMCP), incorporating both price and delay elements, an alcohol purchase task (APT), measuring alcohol demand, and a monetary delay discounting task, measuring intertemporal choice. The stress induction significantly increased stress, craving, and the incentive value of alcohol on the ICCMCP and APT. Stress-related increases in value on the ICCMCP were mediated by increased alcohol demand. Exposure to alcohol cues only significantly affected craving, APT breakpoint, and arousal. Delay discounting was not affected by either stress or cues. These results reveal unique behavioral economic dimensions of motivation for alcohol following acute stress and an alcohol cue exposure. More broadly, as the first application of this approach to understanding the role of stress in drug motivation, these findings support its utility and potential in future applications. Copyright © 2014 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  10. Understanding pH and ionic strength effects on aluminum sulfate-induced microalgae flocculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Y; Yuan, W; Cheng, J

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this study was to understand the effect of pH and ionic strength of aluminum sulfate on the flocculation of microalgae. It was found that changing pH and ionic strength influenced algal flocculation by changing the zeta potential of cells, which was described by the classical theory of Derjaguin, Landau, Verwey, and Overbeek (DLVO). For both algal species of Scenedesmus dimorphus and Nannochloropsis oculata, cells with lower total DLVO interaction energy had higher flocculation efficiency, indicating that the DLVO model was qualitatively accurate in predicting the flocculation of the two algae. However, the two algae responded differently to changing pH and ionic strength. The flocculation of N. oculata increased with increasing aluminum sulfate concentration and favored either low (pH 5) or high (pH 10) pH where cells had relatively low negative surface charges. For S. dimorphus, the highest flocculation was achieved at low ionic strength (1 μM) or moderate pH (pH 7.5) where cell surface charges were fully neutralized (zero zeta potential).

  11. Understanding the psychiatric effects of concussion on constructed identity in hockey players: Implications for health professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Ryan; Bhalerao, Shree; Soklaridis, Sophie; Cusimano, Michael D.

    2018-01-01

    Objective The following study was undertaken to investigate the effect of concussion and psychiatric illness on athletes and their caregivers. Methods Semi-structured interviews with 20 ice hockey stakeholders (17 men and 3 women) including minor and professional players, coaches, parents, and physicians were conducted over two years (2012–2014). These interviews were analyzed using grounded theory. Results From this analysis, a common biographical theme emerged whereby the subject’s identity as a hockey player, constructed early in life over many years, was disrupted by concussion. Furthermore, some players underwent a biographical deconstruction when they experienced post-concussive mental illness, which was amplified by isolation, stigma from peers, and lack of a clear life trajectory. Many players obtained support from family and peers and were able to recover, as evidenced by the biographical reconstruction of their identity post-hockey concussion. Conclusions and implications for practice Understanding the process of biographical deconstruction and reconstruction has significant psychosocial treatment implications for both healthcare professionals and caregivers of this population. Specifically, the authors suggest that interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) that focuses on role transitions may create opportunities to facilitate the process of biographical reconstruction and life transition. PMID:29466377

  12. Understanding effect of formulation and manufacturing variables on the critical quality attributes of warfarin sodium product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Ziyaur; Korang-Yeboah, Maxwell; Siddiqui, Akhtar; Mohammad, Adil; Khan, Mansoor A

    2015-11-10

    Warfarin sodium (WS) is a narrow therapeutic index drug and its product quality should be thoroughly understood and monitored in order to avoid clinical performance issues. This study was focused on understanding the effect of manufacturing and formulation variables on WS product critical quality attributes (CQAs). Eight formulations were developed with lactose monohydrate (LM) or lactose anhydrous (LA), and were either wet granulated or directly compressed. Formulations were granulated either with ethanol, isopropyl alcohol (IPA) and IPA-water mixture (50:50). Formulations were characterized for IPA, water content, hardness, disintegration time (DT), assay, dissolution and drug physical forms (scanning electron microscopy (SEM), near infrared chemical imaging (NIR-CI), X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (ssNMR)), and performed accelerated stability studies at 40°C/75% RH for three days. The DT and dissolution of directly compressed formulations were faster than wet granulated formulations. This was due to phase transformation of crystalline drug into its amorphous form as indicated by SEM, NIR-CI, XRPD and ssNMR data which itself act as a binder. Similarly, LM showed faster disintegration and dissolution than LA containing formulations. Stability results indicated an increase in hardness and DT, and a decrease in dissolution rate and extent. This was due to phase transformation of the drug and consolidation with particles' bonding. In conclusion, the CQAs of WS product were significantly affected by manufacturing and formulation variables. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Understanding Motivations for Abstinence among Adolescent Young Women: Insights into Effective Sexual Risk Reduction Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long-Middleton, Ellen R.; Burke, Pamela J.; Lawrence, Cheryl A. Cahill; Blanchard, Lauren B.; Amudala, Naomi H.; Rankin, Sally H.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections pose a significant threat to the health and wellbeing of adolescent young women. Abstinence when practiced provides the most effective means in preventing these problems, yet the perspective of abstinent young women is not well understood. The purpose of the investigation was to characterize female adolescents’ motivations for abstinence. Method As part of a larger, cross-sectional quantitative study investigating predictors of HIV risk reduction behaviors, qualitative responses from study participants who never had intercourse were analyzed in a consensus-based process using content analysis and frequency counts. An urban primary care site in a tertiary care center served as the setting, with adolescent young women ages 15–19 years included in the sample. Results Five broad topic categories emerged from the data that characterized motivations for abstinence in this sample: 1) Personal Readiness, 2) Fear, 3) Beliefs and Values, 4) Partner Worthiness and 5) Lack of Opportunity. Discussion A better understanding of the motivations for abstinence may serve to guide the development of interventions to delay intercourse. PMID:22525893

  14. Towards understanding addiction factors of mobile devices: An eye tracking study on effect of screen size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibirama, Sunu; Nugroho, Hanung A

    2017-07-01

    Mobile devices addiction has been an important research topic in cognitive science, mental health, and human-machine interaction. Previous works observed mobile device addiction by logging mobile devices activity. Although immersion has been linked as a significant predictor of video game addiction, investigation on addiction factors of mobile device with behavioral measurement has never been done before. In this research, we demonstrated the usage of eye tracking to observe effect of screen size on experience of immersion. We compared subjective judgment with eye movements analysis. Non-parametric analysis on immersion score shows that screen size affects experience of immersion (pmobile devices addiction. Our experimental results are also useful to develop a guideline as well as intervention strategy to deal with smartphone addiction.

  15. Understanding the role consumer involvement plays in the effectiveness of hospital advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Tammy; Dodge, H Robert

    2002-01-01

    Both intensified competition and greater consumer participation in the choice process for healthcare has increased the importance of advertising for health care providers and seriously challenged many of the preconceptions regarding advertising. This study investigates the effectiveness of advertising under conditions of high and low involvement using the Elaboration Likelihood Model to develop hypotheses that are tested in a 2 x 2 x 2 experimental design. The study findings provide insights into the influence of message content and message source on consumers categorized as high or low involvement. It was found that consumers classified as high-involvement are more influenced by a core service-relevant message than those consumers classified as low-involvement. Moreover, a non-physician spokesperson was found to have as much or more influence as a physician spokesperson regardless of the consumers' involvement level.

  16. The Effects of Poverty Simulation, an Experiential Learning Modality, on Students' Understanding of Life in Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandsburger, Etty; Duncan-Daston, Rana; Akerson, Emily; Dillon, Tom

    2010-01-01

    This research examines the impact of the Poverty Simulation Project, an experiential learning modality, on students' understanding of life in poverty. A total of 101 students representing 5 undergraduate majors in the College of Health and Human Services completed measures of critical thinking, understanding of others, and the active learning…

  17. Important sources and chemical species of ambient fine particles related to adverse health effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, J.

    2017-12-01

    Although many epidemiological studies have reported that exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) has been linked to increases in mortality and mobidity health outcomes, the key question of which chemical species and sources of PM2.5 are most harmful to public health remains unanswered in the air pollution research area. This study was designed to address the key question with evaluating the risks of exposure to chemical species and source-specific PM2.5 mass on morbidity. Hourly measurements of PM2.5 mass and its major chemical species, including organic carbon, elemental carbon, ions, and trace elements, were observed from January 1 to December 31, 2013 at four of the PM2.5 supersites in urban environments in Korea and the reuslts were used in a positive matrix factorization to estimate source contributions to PM2.5 mass. Nine sources, including secondary sulfate, secondary nitrate, mobile, biomass burning, roadway emission, industry, oil combustion, soil, and aged sea salt, were identified and secondary inorganic aerosol factors (i.e. secondary sulfalte, and secondary nitrate) were the dominant sources contributing to 40% of the total PM2.5 mass in the study region. In order to evaluate the risks of exposure to chemical species and sources of PM2.5 on morbidity, emergency room visits for cardivascular disease and respiratory disease were considered. Hourly health outcomes were compared with hourly measurments of the PM2.5 chemical species and sources using a poission generalized linear model incorporating natural splines, as well as time-stratified case-crossover design. The PM2.5 mass and speveral chemical components, such as organic carbon, elemetal carbon, zinc, and potassium, were strongly associated with morbidity. Source-apporitionmened PM2.5 mass derived from biomass burning, and mobile sources, was significantly associated with cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. The findings represent that local combustion may be particularly important

  18. Psychological Importance of the "Big Five": Impression Formation and Context Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, John E.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Personality's basic dimensions are: extraversion, agreeableness, emotional stability; conscientiousness, and openness. Rated items of Adjective Check List for psychological importance, then rated hypothetical applicants described with different combinations of personality dimensions. Applicants described with extraversion and agreeableness…

  19. Understanding the side effects of emission trading: implications for waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braschel, Nina; Posch, Alfred; Pierer, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    The trading of emission allowances is an important market instrument in climate policy. However, the inclusion of certain branches of industry in the trading system not only provides incentives for emission reduction, it also entails unwanted side effects. Thus, the objective of the present study is to identify such side effects-positive and negative-by examining the potential impact of waste management inclusion in the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS). Desk research was supplemented with qualitative and quantitative empirical analysis (based on expert interviews and a questionnaire) in order to analyse the related perceptions and expectations of actors and stakeholders. The impact of waste management inclusion in the EU ETS is analysed in terms of the following three areas: (i) costs and cost pass-through, (ii), competitiveness and market position, and (iii) carbon leakage. Concerning expectations in the area of costs, both the interviewed experts and the practitioners surveyed thought that costs were likely to increase or that they could be passed on to customers. However, experts and practitioners differed with respect to the possibility of carbon leakage. Clearly, increased knowledge of the possible impact arising from inclusion of the waste sector in the EU ETS would enable managers to become more proactive and to manage waste streams and treatment options more economically.

  20. Understanding Resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang eWu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Resilience is the ability to adapt successfully in the face of stress and adversity. Stressful life events, trauma and chronic adversity can have a substantial impact on brain function and structure, and can result in the development of PTSD, depression and other psychiatric disorders. However, most individuals do not develop such illnesses after experiencing stressful life events, and are thus thought to be resilient. Resilience as successful adaptation relies on effective responses to environmental challenges and ultimate resistance to the deleterious effects of stress, therefore a greater understanding of the factors that promote such effects is of great relevance. This review focuses on recent findings regarding genetic, epigenetic, developmental, psychosocial and neurochemical factors that are considered essential contributors to the development of resilience. Neural circuits and pathways involved in mediating resilience are also discussed. The growing understanding of resilience factors will hopefully lead to the development of new pharmacological and psychological interventions for enhancing resilience and mitigating the untoward consequences.

  1. The Effects of an Undergraduate Algebra Course on Prospective Middle School Teachers' Understanding of Functions, Especially Quadratic Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Jonathan T.

    2010-01-01

    Although current reform movements have stressed the importance of developing prospective middle school mathematics teachers' subject matter knowledge and understandings, there is a dearth of research studies with regard to prospective middle school teachers' confidence and knowledge with respect to quadratic functions. This study was intended to…

  2. The Role of a Sense of School Belonging in Understanding the Effectiveness of Inclusion of Children with Special Educational Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Emily Jane; Hadwin, Julie

    2013-01-01

    This review integrates theoretical perspectives and empirical evidence of a sense of school belonging (SOSB) to highlight its importance in understanding the inclusion efficacy research for pupils with special educational needs (SEN). Specifically, it examines the role of a SOSB on pupils' cognitive, affective, behavioural and social developmental…

  3. Woodland Ponds as an Important Habitat of Hippeutis Complanatus (Linnaeus 1758 Occurrence - Effect of Environmental Factors and Habitat Preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spyra Aneta

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Spyra A. Woodland ponds as an important habitat of Hippeutis complanatus (Linnaeus 1758 occurrence - effect of environmental factors and habitat preferences. Ekológia (Bratislava, Vol. 33, No. 2, p. 101-115, 2014.

  4. Estimating the Effect of Climate Change on Crop Yields and Farmland Values: The Importance of Extreme Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a presentation titled Estimating the Effect of Climate Change on Crop Yields and Farmland Values: The Importance of Extreme Temperatures that was given for the National Center for Environmental Economics

  5. Could the Coandă effect be called the Young effect? The understanding of fluid dynamics of a legendary polymath

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Arias, T.

    2012-03-01

    We discuss a brief part of a famous paper on sound and light written by Thomas Young in 1800. We show that the proverbial intuition of this famous polymath leads to the discussion of several important and complex fluid dynamics phenomena regarding the behaviour of streams of air. In particular, we show that Young had already explained the adhesion of jets of air to curved surfaces known today as the Coandă effect. This historical anecdote can be used in a didactic context to weave an interesting web between several crucial names in the history of aerodynamics.

  6. Evidence-Based Healthcare: The Importance of Effective Interprofessional Working for High Quality Veterinary Services, a UK Example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tierney Kinnison

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To highlight the importance of evidence-based research, not only for the consideration of clinical diseases and individual patient treatment, but also for investigating complex healthcare systems, as demonstrated through a focus on veterinary interprofessional working.Background:Evidence-Based Veterinary Medicine (EBVM was developed due to concerns over inconsistent approaches to therapy being delivered by individuals. However, a focus purely on diagnosis and treatment will miss other potential causes of substandard care including the holistic system. Veterinary services are provided by interprofessional teams; research on these teams is growing.Evidentiary value:This paper outlines results from four articles, written by the current authors, which are unique in their focus on interprofessional practice teams in the UK. Through mixed methods, the articles demonstrate an evidence base of the effects of interprofessional working on the quality of service delivery.Results:The articles explored demonstrate facilitators and challenges of the practice system on interprofessional working and the outcomes, including errors. The results encourage consideration of interprofessional relationships and activities in veterinary organisations. Interprofessional working is an example of one area which can affect the quality of veterinary services.Conclusion: The papers presented on veterinary interprofessional working are an example of the opportunities for future research on various topics within evidence-based healthcare.Application:The results are pertinent to members of veterinary teams seeking to improve their service delivery, to educators looking to enhance their students’ understanding of interprofessional working, and to researchers, who will hopefully be encouraged to consider evidence-based healthcare more holistically. 

  7. A framework for understanding semi-permeable barrier effects on migratory ungulates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Hall; Kauffman, Matthew J.; Middleton, Arthur D.; Morrison, Thomas A.; Nielson, Ryan M.; Wyckoff, Teal B.

    2013-01-01

    1. Impermeable barriers to migration can greatly constrain the set of possible routes and ranges used by migrating animals. For ungulates, however, many forms of development are semi-permeable, and making informed management decisions about their potential impacts to the persistence of migration routes is difficult because our knowledge of how semi-permeable barriers affect migratory behaviour and function is limited. 2. Here, we propose a general framework to advance the understanding of barrier effects on ungulate migration by emphasizing the need to (i) quantify potential barriers in terms that allow behavioural thresholds to be considered, (ii) identify and measure behavioural responses to semi-permeable barriers and (iii) consider the functional attributes of the migratory landscape (e.g. stopovers) and how the benefits of migration might be reduced by behavioural changes. 3. We used global position system (GPS) data collected from two subpopulations of mule deer Odocoileus hemionus to evaluate how different levels of gas development influenced migratory behaviour, including movement rates and stopover use at the individual level, and intensity of use and width of migration route at the population level. We then characterized the functional landscape of migration routes as either stopover habitat or movement corridors and examined how the observed behavioural changes affected the functionality of the migration route in terms of stopover use. 4. We found migratory behaviour to vary with development intensity. Our results suggest that mule deer can migrate through moderate levels of development without any noticeable effects on migratory behaviour. However, in areas with more intensive development, animals often detoured from established routes, increased their rate of movement and reduced stopover use, while the overall use and width of migration routes decreased. 5. Synthesis and applications. In contrast to impermeable barriers that impede animal movement

  8. The importance of agglomeration effects for distribution centres around Amsterdam Airport Schiphol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warffemius, P.; van der Hoorn, T.; Klaassen, H.

    2010-01-01

    Amsterdam Airport Schiphol is a main European airport and represents an important concentration of European distribution centres (EDCs). It is commonly assumed that distribution centres are attracted to the airport region because of its air transport services. However, if one considers economies of

  9. Range and nummer-of-levels effects in derived and stated attribute importances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verlegh, P.W.J.; Schifferstein, H.N.J.; Wittink, D.R.

    2002-01-01

    We study how the range of variation and the number of ttribute levels affect five measures of attribute importance: full profile conjoint estimates, ranges in attribute level attractiveness ratings. regression coefficients. graded paired comparisons. and self-reported ratings, We find that all

  10. Range and number-of-levels effects in derived and stated measures of attribute importance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verlegh, PWJ; Schifferstein, HNJ; Wittink, DR

    We study how the range of variation and the number of ttribute levels affect five measures of attribute importance: full profile conjoint estimates, ranges in attribute level attractiveness ratings. regression coefficients. graded paired comparisons. and self-reported ratings, We find that all

  11. Landscape and host plant effects on two important omnivorous arthropod taxa in field crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    The economically important brown stink bug, Euschistus servus (Say), is a native pest of many crops in southeastern USA and insecticide applications are the prevailing method of population suppression. To elucidate biological control of E. servus populations, we investigated two egg predators’ (red ...

  12. Effective Students and Families : The Importance of Individual Characteristics for Achievement in High School

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenstra, René; Kuyper, Hans

    2004-01-01

    The school careers in secondary education are influenced by individual and environmental characteristics. Using longitudinal data on 7,000 students from 450 classes in 150 schools in The Netherlands, we present results on the importance of student and family characteristics for achievement (text

  13. Tuning in to the right wavelength: The importance of culture for effective crisis negotiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giebels, Ellen; Taylor, Paul J

    2012-01-01

    Over the last decade, the cultural diversity of those who perpetrate hostage incidents has increased dramatically. In this chapter, we examine key cultural differences in communication behavior and the implications of such differences to negotiation practice. We begin by illustrating the importance

  14. Revealing Conceptual Understanding of International Business

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, Sue; Schaap, Harmen; de Bruijn, Elly

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to identify an adequate approach for revealing conceptual understanding in higher professional education. Revealing students' conceptual understanding is an important step towards developing effective curricula, assessment and aligned teaching strategies to enhance conceptual understanding in higher education. Essays and concept…

  15. The tunnel effect and their more important application: The microscope of quantum tunneling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez M, L.

    1999-01-01

    Thanks to a donation made by the Volunteered Japanese JICA Program, the University National Headquarters Manizales, in particular the group of Physics of the Plasma, it has acquired a equipment where it is possible to combine several microscopy techniques: STM (scanning tunneling microscopy), AFM (atomic forced microscopy), MFM (magnetic forced microscopy) and LFM (lateral forced microscopy). These techniques group under the generic name of probe microscopy (SPM). The objective of this article is to offer a basic understanding to the whole university community on one of the previously mentioned techniques, STM, with the goal of generating future collaborations among the diverse investigators of the Headquarters. In the first one it leaves it explains the physical phenomenon in which the STM is based, then it is exposed in a brief way the operation of the same one and finally some of its applications are mentioned

  16. Comprehensive evaluations of the adverse effects of drugs: importance of appropriate study selection and data sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loke, Yoon K; Golder, Su P; Vandenbroucke, Jan P

    2011-04-01

    While systematic reviews and meta-analyses are at the top of the evidence hierarchy, most of the methodology has focused on assessing treatment benefit. Hence, we propose a structured framework for the initial steps of searching and identifying relevant data sources so that adverse effects can be evaluated in a comprehensive, unbiased manner. The unique methodological challenges stem from the difficulties of addressing diverse outcomes encompassing common, mild symptoms to rare, fatal events. Retrieval of the most appropriate studies should be specifically tailored to fit the nature of the adverse effects, according to the primary objective and study question. In our framework, the structure of the review takes different forms depending on whether the main aim is on scoping/hypothesis generation, or evaluating statistically the magnitude of risk (hypothesis testing), or clarifying characteristics and risk factors of the adverse effect. The wide range of data sources covering adverse effects all have distinct strengths and limitations, and selection of appropriate sources depends on characteristics of the adverse effect (e.g. background incidence and effect size of the drug, clinical presentation, time of onset after drug exposure). Reviewers need to retrieve particular study designs that are most likely to yield robust data on the adverse effects of interest, rather than rely on studies that cannot reliably detect adverse effects, and may yield 'false negatives'. Type II errors (a particular problem when evaluating rare adverse effects) can lull us into a false sense of security (e.g. wrongly concluding that there was no significant difference in harm between drug and control, with the drug erroneously judged as safe). Given the rapid rate at which methodological improvements occur, this proposed framework is by no means definitive, but aims to stimulate further debate and discussion amongst the pharmacoepidemiological and systematic review communities to reach a

  17. Importance measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Cobo, A.

    1997-01-01

    The presentation discusses the following: general concepts of importance measures; example fault tree, used to illustrate importance measures; Birnbaum's structural importance; criticality importance; Fussel-Vesely importance; upgrading function; risk achievement worth; risk reduction worth

  18. The Effects of Color to the Eye and its Importance for Heliport Lighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Lighting Configurations Three types of lighting technology were used to evaluate the green-blue color. The helipad diagram in figure 9 shows the general...lighting configuration tested that utilized all three types of lighting technology . The point source lights were cold cathode ray type lights that...transmitted at approximately 530 nm. These panels were used to form the "H" in the center of the landing area. It is important to note that all the lighting

  19. Understanding the Psychosocial Effects of WES Test Results on Parents of Children with Rare Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krabbenborg, Lotte; Vissers, L E L M; Schieving, J; Kleefstra, T; Kamsteeg, E J; Veltman, J A; Willemsen, M A; Van der Burg, S

    2016-12-01

    The use of whole exome sequencing (WES) for diagnostics of children with rare genetic diseases raises questions about best practices in genetic counselling. While a lot of attention is now given to pre-test counselling procedures for WES, little is known about how parents experience the (positive, negative, or inconclusive) WES results in daily life. To fill this knowledge gap, data were gathered through in-depth interviews with parents of 15 children who underwent WES analysis. WES test results, like results from other genetic tests, evoked relief as well as worries, irrespective of the type of result. Advantages of obtaining a conclusive diagnosis included becoming more accepting towards the situation, being enabled to attune care to the needs of the child, and better coping with feelings of guilt. Disadvantages experienced included a loss of hope for recovery, and a loss by parents of their social network of peers and the effort necessary to re-establish that social network. While parents with conclusive diagnoses were able to re-establish a peer community with the help of social media, parents receiving a possible diagnosis experienced hurdles in seeking peer support, as peers still needed to be identified. These types of psychosocial effects of WES test results for parents are important to take into account for the development of successful genetic counselling strategies.

  20. Importance of levonorgestrel dose in oral contraceptives for effects on coagulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluft, C.; Maat, M.P.M. de; Heinemann, L.A.J.; Spannagl, M.; Schramm, W.

    1999-01-01

    Combined oral contraceptives show clear differences in effect on the tissue factor-initiated coagulation test of activated protein C resistance, which is dependent on the presence and dosage of levonorgestrel. Multiphasic levonorgestrol oral contraceptives differ from monophasic contraceptives and

  1. Critical importance of stimulus unawareness for the production of subliminal psychodynamic activation effects. An attributional model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, R F

    1992-02-01

    This paper describes a new theoretical model of subliminal psychodynamic activation (SPA) effects. The model conceptualizes subliminal-supraliminal differences in SPA effects as being due to differences in subjects' attributions for the changes in anxiety level that are produced by subliminal versus supraliminal SPA stimuli. Changes in anxiety level produced by supraliminal SPA stimuli can be attributed by subjects to the experimental procedures, diminishing the impact of these messages on subjects' responses. In contrast, subjects cannot attribute changes in anxiety level produced by subliminal SPA stimuli to the experimental procedures. Therefore, no "discounting" (i.e., situational) attributions for subliminally induced changes in anxiety levels are available to subjects, and subliminal SPA messages produce significantly stronger effects on responding than do supraliminal SPA messages. The attributional model of SPA effects is discussed in the context of other long-term research programs investigating subliminal phenomena. The implications of this model for clinical treatment and empirical research utilizing the SPA paradigm are discussed.

  2. Anticoagulant effects of phytotherapeutic drugs and their importance in surgical dental procedures

    OpenAIRE

    MACHADO, Ricardo; SILVA, Leopoldo COSME; CUBA, Leticia de Freitas; OLIVEIRA, Jonatas Rafael de; MARTINHO, Frederico Canato; FERRARI, Carlos Henrique

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Phytotherapeutic drugs are plant-derived products with medicinal properties. They are used for treating or preventing several diseases. However, patients who use these substances and even health professionals are unaware of their negative effects. One of the most common negative effects of phytotherapeutic drugs reported in the literature is the inhibition of natural coagulation factors in the human body. Therefore, the aim of this study was to perform a brief review of the literatur...

  3. Emission of carbon. A most important component for greenhouse effect in the atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milaev, V.B.; Kopp, I.Z.; Yasenski, A.N. [Scientific Research Inst. of Atmospheric Air Protection, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    Greenhouse effect is most often defined as the probabilities of atmospheric air quasiequilibrium temperature increase as a result of air pollution due to emission of anthropogenic gaseous substances which are usually called `greenhouse gases`. Among greenhouse gases are primarily considered several gaseous substances which contain carbon atoms: carbon oxide, carbon dioxide and methane (CO, CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4}), and chlorinated and fluorinated hydrocarbons (freons) spectra of which are transparent to solar radiation, but absorb and reradiate longwave radiation causing disturbance of quasistationary thermal regieme of the atmosphere. Qualitative estimates of the income and relative roles of different substances in occurrence of greenhouse effect differ considerable. At the modern state of knowledge the problem of greenhouse effect and greenhouse gases is considered in several aspects. The most widespread and investigated is climatic or meteorological aspect, it is discussed in a number of international works. Rather pressing is thermal physics aspect of the problem of estimating greenhouse effect, which consists in correct construction of a calculation model and usage of the most representative experimental data, since analytical methods require many assumptions, introduction of which may lead to results which differ very much. Bearing these uncertainties in mind the UNEP/WMO/ICSU conference has included into the number of the most urgent tasks in the study of greenhouse effect, the problem of determining the priority of factors which cause greenhouse effect, which in its turn predetermines the necessity to substantiate the methods of selection and criterion of comparative evaluation of such factors. (author)

  4. Compounds Released from Biomass Deconstruction: Understanding Their Effect on Cellulose Enzyme Hydrolysis and Their Biological Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djioleu, Angele Mezindjou

    The effect of compounds produced during biomass pretreatment on cellulolytic enzyme was investigated. Liquid prehydrolyzates were prepared by pretreating switchgrass using 24 combinations of temperature, time, and sulfuric acid concentration based on a full factorial design. Temperature was varied from 140°C to 180°C; time ranged from 10 to 40 min; and the sulfuric acid concentrations were 0.5% or 1% (v/v). Identified products in the prehydrolyzates included xylose, glucose, hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), furfural, acetic acid, formic acid, and phenolic compounds at concentration ranging from 0 to 21.4 g/L. Pretreatment conditions significantly affected the concentrations of compounds detected in prehydrolyzates. When assayed in the presence of switchgrass prehydrolyzates against model substrates, activities of cellulase, betaglucosidase, and exoglucanase, were significantly reduced by at least 16%, 31.8%, and 57.8%, respectively, as compared to the control. A strong positive correlation between inhibition of betaglucosidase and concentration of glucose, acetic acid, and furans in prehydrolyzate was established. Exoglucanase inhibition correlated with the presence of phenolic compounds and acetic acid. The prehydrolyzate, prepared at 160°C, 30 min, and 1% acid, was fractionated by centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC) into six fractions; the inhibition effect of these fractions on betaglucosidase and exoglucanase was determined. The initial hydrolysis rate of cellobiose by betaglucosidase was significantly reduced by the CPC sugar-rich fraction; however, exoglucanase was deactivated by the CPC phenolic-rich fraction. Finally, biological activities of water-extracted compounds from sweetgum bark and their effect on cellulase was investigated. It was determined that 12% of solid content of the bark extract could be accounted by phenolic compounds with gallic acid identified as the most concentrated phytochemical. Sweetgum bark extract inhibited Staphylococcus

  5. Importance of frequency dependent magnetoresistance measurements in analysing the intrinsicality of magnetodielectric effect: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Hari Mohan; Saxena, Shailendra K.; Mishra, Vikash; Kumar, Rajesh; Sagdeo, P. R.

    2017-08-01

    Magnetodielectric (MD) materials have attracted considerable attention due to their intriguing physics and potential future applications. However, the intrinsicality of the MD effect is always a major concern in such materials as the MD effect may arise also due to the MR (magnetoresistance) effect. In the present case study, we report an experimental approach to analyse and separate the intrinsic and MR dominated contributions of the MD phenomenon. For this purpose, polycrystalline samples of LaGa1-xAxO3 (A = Mn/Fe) have been prepared by solid state reaction method. The purity of their structural phase (orthorhombic) has been validated by refining the X-ray diffraction data. The RTMD (room temperature MD) response has been recorded over a frequency range of 20 Hz to 10 MHz. In order to analyse the intrinsicality of the MD effect, FDMR (frequency dependent MR) by means of IS (impedance spectroscopy) and dc MR measurements in four probe geometry have been carried out at RT. A significant RTMD effect has been observed in selected Mn/Fe doped LaGaO3 (LGO) compositions. The mechanism of MR free/intrinsic MD effect, observed in Mn/Fe doped LGO, has been understood speculatively in terms of modified cell volume associated with the reorientation/retransformation of spin-coupled Mn/Fe orbitals due to the application of magnetic field. The present analysis suggests that in order to justify the intrinsic/resistive origin of the MD phenomenon, FDMR measurements are more useful than measuring only dc MR or analysing the trends of magnetic field dependent change in the dielectric constant and tanδ. On the basis of the present case study, we propose that IS (FDMR) alone can be used as an effective experimental tool to detect and analyse the resistive and intrinsic parts contributing to the MD phenomenon.

  6. Evolution in response to social selection: the importance of interactive effects of traits on fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westneat, David F

    2012-03-01

    Social interactions have a powerful effect on the evolutionary process. Recent attempts to synthesize models of social selection with equations for indirect genetic effects (McGlothlin et al. 2010) provide a broad theoretical base from which to study selection and evolutionary response in the context of social interactions. However, this framework concludes that social selection will lead to evolution only if the traits carried by social partners are nonrandomly associated. I suggest this conclusion is incomplete, and that traits that do not covary between social partners can nevertheless lead to evolution via interactive effects on fitness. Such effects occur when there are functional interactions between traits, and as an example I use the interplay in water striders (Gerridae) between grasping appendages carried by males and spines by females. Functional interactive effects between traits can be incorporated into both the equations for social selection and the general model of social evolution proposed by McGlothlin et al. These expanded equations would accommodate adaptive coevolution in social interactions, integrate the quantitative genetic approach to social evolution with game theoretical approaches, and stimulate some new questions about the process of social evolution. © 2011 The Author. Evolution© 2011 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  7. The Effects of Case-Based Instruction on Undergraduate Biology Students' Understanding of the Nature of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burniston, Amy Lucinda

    Undergraduate science education is currently seeing a dramatic pedagogical push towards teaching the philosophies underpinning science as well as an increase in strategies that employ active learning. Many active learning strategies stem from constructivist ideals and have been shown to affect a student's understanding of how science operates and its impact on society- commonly referred to as the nature of science (NOS). One particular constructivist teaching strategy, case-based instruction (CBI), has been recommended by researchers and science education reformists as an effective instructional strategy for teaching NOS. Furthermore, when coupled with explicit-reflective instruction, CBI has been found to significantly increasing understanding of NOS in elementary and secondary students. However, few studies aimed their research on CBI and NOS towards higher education. Thus, this study uses a quasi-experimental, nonequivalent group design to study the effects of CBI on undergraduate science students understandings of NOS. Undergraduate biology student's understanding of NOS were assessed using the Views of Science Education (VOSE) instrument pre and post CBI intervention in Cellular and Molecular Biology and Human Anatomy and Physiology II. Data analysis indicated statistically significant differences between students NOS scores in experimental versus control sections for both courses, with experimental groups obtaining higher posttest scores. The results of this study indicate that undergraduate male and female students have similarly poor understandings of NOS and the use of historical case based instruction can be used as a means to increase undergraduate understanding of NOS.

  8. Disentangling social selection and social influence effects on adolescent smoking: the importance of reciprocity in friendships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercken, Liesbeth; Candel, Math; Willems, Paul; de Vries, Hein

    2007-09-01

    The goal of this study was to examine social selection and social influence within reciprocal and non-reciprocal friendships, and the role of parents and siblings, as factors explaining similarity of smoking behaviour among adolescent friends. A new social selection-social influence model is proposed. Longitudinal design with two measurements. Data were gathered among Dutch high school students in the control group of the European Smoking prevention Framework Approach (ESFA) study. The sample consisted of 1886 adolescents with a mean age of 12.7 years. The main outcome measures were the smoking behaviours of the respondents, best friends, parents and siblings. We tested the social selection-social influence model with structural equation modelling techniques. Social selection and social influence both played an important role in explaining similarity of smoking behaviour among friends. Within non-reciprocal friendships, only social selection explained similarity of smoking behaviour, whereas within reciprocal friendships, social influence and possibly also social selection explained similarity of smoking behaviour. Sibling smoking behaviour was a more important predictor of adolescent smoking behaviour than parental smoking behaviour. Social selection and social influence both promote similarity of smoking behaviour, and the impact of each process differs with the degree of reciprocity of friendships. These insights may contribute to further refinement of smoking prevention strategies.

  9. Effects of environmental temperature on oviposition behavior in three blow fly species of forensic importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ody, Helen; Bulling, Mark T; Barnes, Kate M

    2017-06-01

    A number of factors are known to affect blow fly behavior with respect to oviposition. Current research indicates that temperature is the most significant factor. However temperature thresholds for oviposition in forensically important blow flies have not been well studied. Here, the oviposition behavior of three species of forensically important blow fly species (Calliphora vicina, Calliphora vomitoria and Lucilia sericata,) was studied under controlled laboratory conditions over a range of temperatures (10-40°C). Lower temperature thresholds for oviposition of 16°C and 17.5°C were established for C. vomitoria and L. sericata respectively, whilst C. vicina continued to lay eggs at 10°C. C. vomitoria and L. sericata both continued to lay eggs at 40°C, whilst the highest temperature at which oviposition occurred in C. vicina was 35°C. Within these thresholds there was considerable variation in the number of surviving pupae, with a general pattern of a single peak within the range of temperatures at which eggs were laid, but with the pattern being much less distinct for L. sericata. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Entropic effects in formation of chromosome territories: towards understanding of radiation-induced gene translocation frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudowska-Nowak, Ewa; Ritter, Sylvia; Durante, Marco; Deperas-Standylo, Joanna; Ciesla, Michal

    2012-07-01

    A detailed understanding of structural organization of biological target, such as geometry of an inter-phase chromosome, is an essential prerequisite for gaining deeper insight into relationship between radiation track structure and radiation-induced biological damage [1]. In particular, coupling of biophysical models aimed to describe architecture of chromosomes and their positioning in a cell nucleus [2-4] with models of local distribution of ionizations caused by passing projectiles, are expected to result in more accurate estimates of aberration induction caused by radiation. There is abundant experimental evidence indicating that arrangements of chromosomes in eukaryotic cell nucleus is non-random and has been evolutionary conserved in specific cell types. Moreover, the radial position of a given chromosome territory (CT) within the cell nucleus has been shown to correlate with its size and gene density. Usually it is assumed that chromosomal geometry and positioning result from the action of specific forces acting locally, such as hydrogen bonds, electrostatic, Van der Waals or hydrophobic interactions operating between nucleosomes and within their interiors. However, it is both desirable and instructive to learn to what extend organization of inter-phase chromosomes is affected by nonspecific entropic forces. In this study we report results of a coarse-grained analysis of a chromatin structure modeled by two distinct approaches. In the first method, we adhere to purely statistical analysis of chromatin packing within a chromosome territory. On the basis of the polymer theory, the chromatin fiber of diameter 30nm is approximated by a chain of spheres, each corresponding to about 30 kbp. Random positioning of the center of the domain is repeated for 1000 spherical nuclei. Configuration of the domain is determined by a random packing of a polymer (a string of identical beads) in estimated fraction of space occupied by a chromosome of a given length and mass

  11. Are non-linearity effects of absorption important for MAX-DOAS observations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pukite, Janis; Wang, Yang; Wagner, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    For scattered light observations the absorption optical depth depends non-linearly on the trace gas concentrations if their absorption is strong. This is the case because the Beer-Lambert law is generally not applicable for scattered light measurements due to many (i.e. more than one) light paths contributing to the measurement. While in many cases a linear approximation can be made, for scenarios with strong absorption non-linear effects cannot always be neglected. This is especially the case for observation geometries with spatially extended and diffuse light paths, especially in satellite limb geometry but also for nadir measurements as well. Fortunately the effects of non-linear effects can be quantified by means of expanding the radiative transfer equation in a Taylor series with respect to the trace gas absorption coefficients. Herewith if necessary (1) the higher order absorption structures can be described as separate fit parameters in the DOAS fit and (2) the algorithm constraints of retrievals of VCDs and profiles can be improved by considering higher order sensitivity parameters. In this study we investigate the contribution of the higher order absorption structures for MAX-DOAS observation geometry for different atmospheric and ground properties (cloud and aerosol effects, trace gas amount, albedo) and geometry (different Sun and viewing angles).

  12. Effect of land use changes on some important soil properties in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Continuous and intensive cropping without restoration of soil fertility has depleted the nutrient base of most soils in the semi arid zone. A field survey was carried out in 2000 in Bala village in the cotton production zone of western Burkina Faso to assess the effect of land use changes on soil chemical and physical changes.

  13. Importance of thermal effects and sea surface roughness for offshore wind resource assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, B.; Larsen, Søren Ejling; Højstrup, Jørgen

    2004-01-01

    -Obukhov theory, a simple correction method to account for this effect has been developed and is tested in the same way. The models for the estimation of the sea surface roughness were found to lead only to small differences. For the purpose of wind resource assessment, even the assumption of a constant roughness...

  14. Life-Cycle Costing of Food Waste Management in Denmark: Importance of Indirect Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Sanchez, Veronica; Tonini, Davide; Møller, Flemming; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2016-04-19

    Prevention has been suggested as the preferred food waste management solution compared to alternatives such as conversion to animal fodder or to energy. In this study we used societal life-cycle costing, as a welfare economic assessment, and environmental life-cycle costing, as a financial assessment combined with life-cycle assessment, to evaluate food waste management. Both life-cycle costing assessments included direct and indirect effects. The latter are related to income effects, accounting for the marginal consumption induced when alternative scenarios lead to different household expenses, and the land-use-changes effect, associated with food production. The results highlighted that prevention, while providing the highest welfare gains as more services/goods could be consumed with the same income, could also incur the highest environmental impacts if the monetary savings from unpurchased food commodities were spent on goods/services with a more environmentally damaging production than that of the (prevented) food. This was not the case when savings were used, e.g., for health care, education, and insurances. This study demonstrates that income effects, although uncertain, should be included whenever alternative scenarios incur different financial costs. Furthermore, it highlights that food prevention measures should not only demote the purchase of unconsumed food but also promote a low-impact use of the savings generated.

  15. 31 CFR 545.510 - Importation of household and personal effects authorized.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TALIBAN (AFGHANISTAN... the territory of Afghanistan controlled by the Taliban, including baggage and articles for family use... controlled by the Taliban, is authorized; to qualify, articles included in such effects must actually have...

  16. Safe and effective pharmacotherapy in infants and preschool children : Importance of formulation aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Riet-Nales, Diana A.; Schobben, Alfred F A M; Vromans, Herman; Egberts, Toine C G; Rademaker, Carin M A

    2016-01-01

    Safe and effective paediatric pharmacotherapy requires careful evaluation of the type of drug substance, the necessary dose and the age-appropriateness of the formulation. Generally, the younger the child, the more the attention that is required. For decades, there has been a general lack of

  17. Priority setting for resources to improve the understanding of information about claims of treatment effects in the mass media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semakula, Daniel; Nsangi, Allen; Oxman, Andrew D; Sewankambo, Nelson K

    2015-05-01

    Claims about benefits and harms of treatments are common in the media. We engaged health journalists in prioritizing concepts of evidence-based medicine that we believe the public needs to understand to be able to assess claims about treatment effects; and which could improve how journalists report such information. We conducted a three-day workshop with a group of Ugandan journalists in which we presented and explained the concepts. We asked journalists to prioritize groups of related concepts using four pre-specified criteria i.e. relevance of the concepts to journalists and their audiences; ease of comprehension; feasibility of developing resources for teaching the concepts and, whether such resources would potentially have an impact. Using a modified Delphi technique, participants ranked each group of concepts using these criteria on a scale of one to six (one = lowest; 6 = highest). We analyzed the rankings in real time using STATA statistical software. All six groups of concepts were considered relevant and comprehensible with scores of five and six on a scale of one to six. Twenty two out of 25 participants reported having understood the concepts well, with subjective scores of above 75 on a scale of one to 100. Journalists in Uganda recognize the importance of evidence-based medicine concepts in assessing claims about benefits and harms of treatments to them and their audiences. They should be empowered to use these and similar concepts in order to improve how information about effects of treatments is relayed in the media. © 2015 Chinese Cochrane Center, West China Hospital of Sichuan University and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  18. Understanding the placebo effect in clinical trials for postural tachycardia syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwazue, Victor C; Arnold, Amy C; Raj, Vidya; Black, Bonnie K; Biaggioni, Italo; Paranjape, Sachin Y; Orozco, Carlos; Dupont, William D; Robertson, David; Raj, Satish R

    2014-05-01

    Postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS) is characterized by excessive increases in heart rate (HR) upon standing. Previous studies have shown that standing HR decreases over time in POTS patients given placebo. We hypothesized that this reduction is due to cardiovascular physiological alteration, as opposed to psychological benefit from perceived therapy. To prospectively test this hypothesis, we examined the effects of an open-label 'no treatment' intervention (NoRx) compared with a patient-blinded placebo on standing HR in POTS patients. Twenty-one POTS patients participated in a randomized cross-over trial with oral placebo versus NoRx administered at 0900 h. Seated blood pressure (BP) and HR were measured at baseline and every hour for 4 h. Similarly, BP and HR were measured while patients stood for 10 min at these time points. Standing HR decreased significantly over time with both NoRx (112±13 and 103±16 b.p.m. at baseline and 4 h, respectively) and placebo (112±14 and 102±16 b.p.m. at baseline and 4 h, respectively; Ptimeeffect was not different between interventions (Pdrug=0.771). Postural tachycardia syndrome patients have exaggerated orthostatic tachycardia in the morning that decreases over time with either placebo or NoRx interventions, suggesting this phenomenon is due to cardiovascular physiological variation. These data highlight the need for a placebo arm in haemodynamic clinical trials in POTS and may have important implications for the diagnosis of these patients. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  19. Examining the Effects of Model-Based Inquiry on Concepetual Understanding and Engagement in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baze, Christina L.

    Model-Based Inquiry (MBI) is an instructional model which engages students in the scientific practices of modeling, explanation, and argumentation while they work to construct explanations for natural phenomena. This instructional model has not been previously studied at the community college level. The purpose of this study is to better understand how MBI affects the development of community college students' conceptual understanding of evolution and engagement in the practices of science. Mixed-methods were employed to collect quantitative and qualitative data through the multiple-choice Concepts Inventory of Natural Selection, student artifacts, and semi-structured interviews. Participants were enrolled in Biology Concepts, an introductory class for non-science majors, at a small, rural community college in the southwestern United States. Preliminary data shows that conceptual understanding is not adversely affected by the implementation of MBI, and that students gain valuable insights into the practices of science. Specifically, students who participated in the MBI intervention group gained a better understanding of the role of models in explaining and predicting phenomena and experienced feeling ownership of their ideas, an appropriate depth of thinking, more opportunities for collaboration, and coherence and context within the unit. Implications of this study will be of interest to postsecondary science educators and researchers who seek to reform and improve science education.

  20. Students' Understanding of Genetics Concepts: The Effect of Reasoning Ability and Learning Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiliç, Didem; Saglam, Necdet

    2014-01-01

    Students tend to learn genetics by rote and may not realise the interrelationships in daily life. Because reasoning abilities are necessary to construct relationships between concepts and rote learning impedes the students' sound understanding, it was predicted that having high level of formal reasoning and adopting meaningful learning orientation…

  1. Students' Perceived Understanding Mediates the Effects of Teacher Clarity and Nonverbal Immediacy on Learner Empowerment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Amber N.; Schrodt, Paul

    2012-01-01

    This study examined students' perceived understanding as a mediator of the relationship between student perceptions of teacher clarity, nonverbal immediacy cues, and learner empowerment (i.e., meaningfulness, competence, and impact). Participants included 261 undergraduate students who completed survey instruments. Results of structural equation…

  2. Improved understanding of moisture effects on outdoor wood–adhesive bondlines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph E. Jakes; Nayomi Plaza-Rodriguez; Xavier Arzola Villegas; Charles R. Frihart

    2017-01-01

    The development of improved moisture-durable wood adhesives for outdoor applications, such as repairing historic covered bridges, is hindered by an incomplete mechanistic understanding of what makes a wood–adhesive bond moisture-durable. The wood–adhesive bondline is extraordinarily difficult to study because of the chemical, structural, and mechanical complexities and...

  3. Effects of Experimenting with Physical and Virtual Manipulatives on Students' Conceptual Understanding in Heat and Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacharia, Zacharias C.; Olympiou, Georgios; Papaevripidou, Marios

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the comparative value of experimenting with physical manipulatives (PM) in a sequential combination with virtual manipulatives (VM), with the use of PM preceding the use of VM, and of experimenting with PM alone, with respect to changes in students' conceptual understanding in the domain of heat and temperature. A…

  4. Maternal Behavior Modifications during Pretense and Their Long-Term Effects on Toddlers' Understanding of Pretense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamichi, Naoko

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies indicate the need to investigate the sources of toddlers' understanding of another person's pretense. The present study is a cultural and longitudinal extension of the work of Lillard and Witherington (2004), who claimed that mothers modify their behaviors during pretense and that the some of these behavior modifications help their…

  5. The Effect of Guided Note Taking during Lectures on Thai University Students' Understanding of Electromagnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narjaikaew, Pattawan; Emarat, Narumon; Cowie, Bronwen

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on the implementation of a guided note taking strategy to promote Thai students' understanding of electromagnetism during a lecture course. The aim of the study was to enhance student learning of electromagnetism concepts. The developed guided notes contain quotations, diagrams, pictures, problems, and blank spaces to encourage…

  6. Understanding the Greenhouse Effect by Embodiment--Analysing and Using Students' and Scientists' Conceptual Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niebert, Kai; Gropengießer, Harald

    2014-01-01

    Over the last 20 years, science education studies have reported that there are very different understandings among students of science regarding the key aspects of climate change. We used the cognitive linguistic framework of experientialism to shed new light on this valuable pool of studies to identify the conceptual resources of understanding…

  7. Understanding the effects of inter-particle contact friction on the elastic moduli of granular materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taghizadeh Bajgirani, Kianoosh; Kumar, Nishant; Magnanimo, Vanessa; Luding, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the mechanical stiffness of closely packed, dense granular systems is of interest in many fields, such as soil mechanics, material science and physics. The main difficulty arises due to discreteness and disorder in granular materials at the microscopic scale which requires a

  8. To Know, or Not to Know - Why it is Important to Understand Both What we Know, and What We Don't Know, When Studying Our Air and Sky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown-Steiner, B.

    2017-12-01

    I study the air and the sky, which can get really, really confusing. When you cup your hands and catch some air, you are holding many hundreds of hundreds of hundreds (do this about ten more times) of really tiny building blocks that keep hitting (and changing) one another every second of every day. We need some of these tiny building blocks to live and breathe, but there are many tiny building blocks that can hurt us - or even kill us. Right now, the way we live - how we make power, how we make food, how we get from place to place - adds a lot of bad building blocks to our air and our sky, and is changing our world in ways we do not really understand. As we learn more about the air and the sky, we get better at knowing how things are changing, but it is also really important to think about the things we do not know, and the things we do not understand. I study our air and our sky by thinking hard not only about the things that we know, but also about the things we do not know, and I try to use what I learn to help us make more sense out of the really confusing stuff. I want to share some of what I have learned with you.

  9. The relative importance of direct and indirect effects of hunting mortality on the population dynamics of brown bears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosselin, Jacinthe; Zedrosser, Andreas; Swenson, Jon E; Pelletier, Fanie

    2015-01-07

    There is increasing evidence of indirect effects of hunting on populations. In species with sexually selected infanticide (SSI), hunting may decrease juvenile survival by increasing male turnover. We aimed to evaluate the relative importance of direct and indirect effects of hunting via SSI on the population dynamics of the Scandinavian brown bear (Ursus arctos). We performed prospective and retrospective demographic perturbation analyses for periods with low and high hunting pressures. All demographic rates, except yearling survival, were lower under high hunting pressure, which led to a decline in population growth under high hunting pressure (λ = 0.975; 95% CI = 0.914-1.011). Hunting had negative indirect effects on the population through an increase in SSI, which lowered cub survival and possibly also fecundity rates. Our study suggests that SSI could explain 13.6% of the variation in population growth. Hunting also affected the relative importance of survival and fecundity of adult females for population growth, with fecundity being more important under low hunting pressure and survival more important under high hunting pressure. Our study sheds light on the importance of direct and indirect effects of hunting on population dynamics, and supports the contention that hunting can have indirect negative effects on populations through SSI. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  10. The Effect of Conceptual Change Model in the Senior High School Students’ Understanding and Character in Learning Physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santyasa I Wayan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Learning physics for senior high school (SMA students is often coloured by misconceptions that hinder students in achieving deep understanding. So a relevant learning model is needed. This study aims to examine the effect of conceptual change model (CCM compared with direct instruction model (DIM on the students’ conceptual understanding and character in the subject area of motion and force. This quasi-experimental research using a non-equivalence pre-test post-test control groups design. The population is 20 classes (738 students of grade X consisted of 8 classes (272 students of SMA 1 Amlapura, 8 classes (256 students of SMA 2 Amlapura, and 6 classes (210 students of SMA 1 Manggis in Karangasem regency in Bali. The random assignment technique is used to assign 6 classes (202 students, or 26.5% of the population. In each school there are set 2 classes each as a CCM group and DIM groups. The data of students’ conceptual understanding is collected by tests, while the characters by questionnaires. To analyse the data a one way MANCOVA statistics was used. The result of the analysis showed that there was a significant difference of effect between CCM group and DIM group on the students’ conceptual understanding and character. The effect of the CCM group is higher than the DIM group on the students’ conceptual understanding and character in learning subject area of motion and force.

  11. Wheat forecast economics effect study. [value of improved information on crop inventories, production, imports and exports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehra, R. K.; Rouhani, R.; Jones, S.; Schick, I.

    1980-01-01

    A model to assess the value of improved information regarding the inventories, productions, exports, and imports of crop on a worldwide basis is discussed. A previously proposed model is interpreted in a stochastic control setting and the underlying assumptions of the model are revealed. In solving the stochastic optimization problem, the Markov programming approach is much more powerful and exact as compared to the dynamic programming-simulation approach of the original model. The convergence of a dual variable Markov programming algorithm is shown to be fast and efficient. A computer program for the general model of multicountry-multiperiod is developed. As an example, the case of one country-two periods is treated and the results are presented in detail. A comparison with the original model results reveals certain interesting aspects of the algorithms and the dependence of the value of information on the incremental cost function.

  12. The important effect of dose assessment in radiation protection aspects of design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Guiling

    2010-01-01

    After executing of the basic safety standards for protection against ionizing radiation and for the safety of radiation sources(GB18871-2002), NNSA requires definitely that radiation protection aspects of design for nuclear power plants should be optimized and in that process dose assessment is a important means. In this paper some fundamental of design for radiation protection in earlier nuclear power plants is introduced and then some optimized measures of design for radiation protection in newer nuclear power plants are presented. In the first Stage design targets should be made and on the base of proven design the feedback of experience analyzed by adopting the measure of dose assessment. Finally we can confirm the aspect and require of next optimization design for radiation protection. (authors)

  13. The "lotus effect" explained: two reasons why two length scales of topography are important.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lichao; McCarthy, Thomas J

    2006-03-28

    Surfaces containing 4 x 8 x 40 microm staggered rhombus posts were hydrophobized using two methods. One, using a dimethyldichlorosilane reaction in the vapor phase, introduces a smooth modified layer, and the other, a solution reaction using methyltrichlorosilane, imparts a second (nanoscopic) length scale of topography. The smooth modified surface exhibits contact angles of thetaA/thetaR = 176 degrees /156 degrees . Arguments are made that the pinning of the receding contact line by the post tops (with thetaA/thetaR = 104 degrees /103 degrees ) is responsible for the hysteresis. The second level of topography raises the contact angles of the post tops and the macroscopic sample to theta(A)/theta(R) = >176 degrees />176 degrees and eliminates hysteresis. The increase in Laplace pressure due to the increase in the advancing contact angle of the post tops is a second reason that two length scales of topography are important.

  14. [Importance of wound irrigation solutions and fluids with antiseptic effects in therapy and prophylaxis : Update 2017].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willy, Christian; Scheuermann-Poley, Catharina; Stichling, Marcus; von Stein, Thomas; Kramer, Axel

    2017-07-01

    Despite the use of modern antibiotics as well as complex perioperative, intraoperative and postoperative prophylactic measures, the rate of surgical site infections (SSI) could not be significantly reduced. The introduction of biocompatible antiseptic drugs with a high microbiocidal effect provided a successful alternative for infection prevention and therapy, particularly in a time of increasing occurrence of multi-drug resistant pathogens. Hence, questions about the risk-benefit ratio of antiseptic wound irrigation solutions, the prophylactic use of wound irrigation solutions for the reduction of SSI and the effect of negative pressure wound therapy combined with instillation (NPWTi) need to be answered. Against the background of our own experiences with the use of antiseptic wound irrigation solutions, a literature analysis (e.g. computer-supported MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane database research as of April 2017) was performed. Antiseptic fluids can be used both prophylactically and therapeutically, in acute and chronic, clean, contaminated and infected wounds to reduce the posttraumatic and postoperative wound infection rates. The antiseptic solutions that are commonly used in orthopedic and trauma surgery (e.g. PVP-iodine, octenidine, polyhexanide, sodium hypochlorite/hypochlorous acid and acetic acid), have in common that no development of resistance has so far been shown and that when the contraindications are taken into account, the antiseptic effect can develop without any clinically significant local and systemic side effects. As a rule the biocompatibility index is higher than 1 for the substances mentioned. In addition, they show an antiseptic effect against biofilms and multi-drug resistant pathogens. These antiseptic solutions can also be used for NPWTi with some limitations for octenidine. As the basic equipment in trauma surgery, a selection of three different antiseptic wound irrigation solutions for the reduction of the rates of posttraumatic

  15. Understanding the Effect of Sugar and Sugar Replacement in Short Dough Biscuits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laguna, L.; Vallons, K.J.R.; Jurgens, A.; Sanz, T.

    2013-01-01

    Sucrose is the main sugar used in short dough biscuit formula, and it plays an important role in the biscuit manufacturing as well as in the biscuits final quality. However, for health reasons, high levels of sucrose are undesirable, making sucrose replacement an important issue to study. The

  16. The Importance of Stochastic Effects for Explaining Entrainment in the Zebrafish Circadian Clock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphaela Heussen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The circadian clock plays a pivotal role in modulating physiological processes and has been implicated, either directly or indirectly, in a range of pathological states including cancer. Here we investigate how the circadian clock is entrained by external cues such as light. Working with zebrafish cell lines and combining light pulse experiments with simulation efforts focused on the role of synchronization effects, we find that even very modest doses of light exposure are sufficient to trigger some entrainment, whereby a higher light intensity or duration correlates with strength of the circadian signal. Moreover, we observe in the simulations that stochastic effects may be considered an essential feature of the circadian clock in order to explain the circadian signal decay in prolonged darkness, as well as light initiated resynchronization as a strong component of entrainment.

  17. Importance of Variable Density and Non-Boussinesq Effects on the Drag of Spherical Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguli, Swetava; Lele, Sanjiva

    2017-11-01

    What are the forces that act on a particle as it moves in a fluid? How do they change in the presence of significant heat transfer from the particle, a variable density fluid or gravity? Last year, using particle-resolved simulations we quantified these effects on a single spherical particle and on particles in periodic lattices when O(10-3) 50%) in the absolute drag are observed as λ approaches unity. Oppenheimer, et al. (2016) [1] have proposed a theoretical formula for the drag of a heated sphere at extremely low Re. We show that when Re >O(10), inertial effects completely dominate the drag while when Re zero volumetric dilation rate. In the limit of λ approaching 0 (Stokes' limit), the drag modification can also be captured as a correction to Stokes' drag using a suitable scaling based on the dilation rate. Stanford University - Predictive Science Academic Alliance Program (PSSAP II).

  18. Importance of PGPR application and its effect on microbial activity in maize rhizosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrkovački Nastasija

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms are involved in the formation of soil fertility, both potential and effective. They facilitate the processes of humification and dehumification and play a key role in the cycling of nutrients - macro and microelements. Rhizosphere is the soil in direct contact with plant roots and influenced by plant exudates. Root exudates of maize significantly affect the composition and abundance of microorganisms in the rhizosphere. Bio-fertilizers are microbial fertilizers composed of highly effective strains of bacteria, algae and fungi isolated from soil. Their application activates microbial processes that secure a better and steadier supply of plants with nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and some micronutrients. The application of PGPR-containing biofertilizers reduces the need for expensive nitrogen fertilizers, facilitates phosphorus uptake by plants and affects the direction and dynamics of microbial processes.

  19. [Effects of air pollution on human health and their importance in Mexico City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallejo, Maite; Jáuregui-Renaud, Kathrine; Hermosillo, Antonio G; Márquez, Manlio F; Cárdenas, Manuel

    2003-01-01

    The impact of air pollution on human health is a complicated problem. In this review, we describe the main health effects of exposure to ozone, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, lead and particulate matter. Geographical characteristics of the metropolitan area of Mexico City that favor pollutant persistence with adverse effects on the population are described; the use of the Indice Metropolitano de la Calidad del Aire (IMECA), current norms, and present programs to diminish this problem are discussed. Evidence shows that through these actions, air quality has improved. However, some pollutants such as ozone and particulate matter, still exceed the standard. To further improve air quality in the city, existing programs should continue and multidisciplinary research, both basic and applied, is required.

  20. THE IMPORTANCE OF PSYCHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE PATIENT FOR THE EFFECTIVE TREATMENT OF METABOLIC SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Zavrazhnyh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim – the identification of hormonal and psychological characteristics of patients with metabolic syndrome (MS, determining the effectivenessof drug-free weight loss.Materials and methods. The study included 180 patients with MS (according to the criteria of ATP III, received dietary treatment and thermal bath at the spa. Anthropometric measures, the data of the daily blood pressure monitoring, blood levels of hormones (insulin, leptin, were assessed , following surveys were conducted – the definition of eating disorders (PP tests SANT (estimate well-being, activity, mood,anxiety and LOBI (diagnosis related to types of illness. According to the results of the course non-drug treatment, all patients were divided into 2 groups: group 1 – with a positive effect of therapy (n = 87 and 2nd – no effect (n = 93. The criterion for the division served as the simultaneous presence of four factors: decrease in body weight by 2 kg or more, reduction in waist circumference by 2 cm or more, decreasedlevels of triglycerides and blood glucose.Results. The group of patients therapy who proved to be ineffective, characterized by significantly higher levels of insulin and leptin, a predominance of emotiogenic PP, high self-esteem of his being. In relation to the state of neglect of the disease, its denial, indifference to the fate were prevailing. A correlation of levels of insulin and leptin levels with parameters of arterial pressure, PP, test results SANT.Conclusion. In patients with MS psychological and behavioral pattern that has adverse effects on weight loss and associated with the levels of leptin and insulin are diagnosed. Taking into account of these characteristics will increase the effectiveness of therapy.

  1. THE IMPORTANCE OF PSYCHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE PATIENT FOR THE EFFECTIVE TREATMENT OF METABOLIC SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Zavrazhnyh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim – the identification of hormonal and psychological characteristics of patients with metabolic syndrome (MS, determining the effectivenessof drug-free weight loss.Materials and methods. The study included 180 patients with MS (according to the criteria of ATP III, received dietary treatment and thermal bath at the spa. Anthropometric measures, the data of the daily blood pressure monitoring, blood levels of hormones (insulin, leptin, were assessed , following surveys were conducted – the definition of eating disorders (PP tests SANT (estimate well-being, activity, mood,anxiety and LOBI (diagnosis related to types of illness. According to the results of the course non-drug treatment, all patients were divided into 2 groups: group 1 – with a positive effect of therapy (n = 87 and 2nd – no effect (n = 93. The criterion for the division served as the simultaneous presence of four factors: decrease in body weight by 2 kg or more, reduction in waist circumference by 2 cm or more, decreasedlevels of triglycerides and blood glucose.Results. The group of patients therapy who proved to be ineffective, characterized by significantly higher levels of insulin and leptin, a predominance of emotiogenic PP, high self-esteem of his being. In relation to the state of neglect of the disease, its denial, indifference to the fate were prevailing. A correlation of levels of insulin and leptin levels with parameters of arterial pressure, PP, test results SANT.Conclusion. In patients with MS psychological and behavioral pattern that has adverse effects on weight loss and associated with the levels of leptin and insulin are diagnosed. Taking into account of these characteristics will increase the effectiveness of therapy.

  2. Baryonic effects in cosmic shear tomography: PCA parametrization and importance of extreme baryonic models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammed, Irshad [Fermilab; Gnedin, Nickolay Y. [Fermilab

    2017-07-07

    Baryonic effects are amongst the most severe systematics to the tomographic analysis of weak lensing data which is the principal probe in many future generations of cosmological surveys like LSST, Euclid etc.. Modeling or parameterizing these effects is essential in order to extract valuable constraints on cosmological parameters. In a recent paper, Eifler et al. (2015) suggested a reduction technique for baryonic effects by conducting a principal component analysis (PCA) and removing the largest baryonic eigenmodes from the data. In this article, we conducted the investigation further and addressed two critical aspects. Firstly, we performed the analysis by separating the simulations into training and test sets, computing a minimal set of principle components from the training set and examining the fits on the test set. We found that using only four parameters, corresponding to the four largest eigenmodes of the training set, the test sets can be fitted thoroughly with an RMS $\\sim 0.0011$. Secondly, we explored the significance of outliers, the most exotic/extreme baryonic scenarios, in this method. We found that excluding the outliers from the training set results in a relatively bad fit and degraded the RMS by nearly a factor of 3. Therefore, for a direct employment of this method to the tomographic analysis of the weak lensing data, the principle components should be derived from a training set that comprises adequately exotic but reasonable models such that the reality is included inside the parameter domain sampled by the training set. The baryonic effects can be parameterized as the coefficients of these principle components and should be marginalized over the cosmological parameter space.

  3. Investigations of several interference effects in high frequency plasmas of analytical importance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, G.F.

    1977-02-01

    Investigations of the extent to which certain inter-element or interference effects occur in a radiofrequency-excited inductively coupled plasma (ICP) are reported. Under conditions normally employed for analytical purposes, it is shown that: (a) two solute vaporization interferences often observed in flames are eliminated or reduced to negligible proportions in the plasma; (b) increasing concentrations of an easily ionizable element (Na) up to concentrations of 6900 ..mu..g/ml exerted an unusually low influence on the observed emission intensities of three selected elements (Ca, Cr, and Cd) of widely differing degrees of ionization. The high degree of freedom from interelement effects of this analytical technique is further documented by the observation that a variety of matrices did not affect the emission intensity of Mo to a significant extent. A comparison of the degree to which several interference effects are observed in a microwave-excited single electrode plasma (SEP) and in an ICP shows that the severe changes observed in the SEP are small or negligible in the ICP. The spectral interferences arising from stray light and from the wings of broadened emission lines in atomic emission spectrometry are discussed. Experimental evidence is presented showing various forms of stray light originating from defects in the optical components, design and engineering of optical spectrometers. Experimental evidence is also presented demonstrating that the wings of certain spectral lines emitted by high temperature sources may contribute a significant continuum at wavelengths as far removed as 10 nm or more from the line center.

  4. Importance of the effective atomic number (Zeff) of TL materials for radiation dosimetry in clinical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez M, P.R.

    2008-01-01

    The electric power generation, it has been one of the radiation applications of bigger weight, mainly in developed countries. Another sector of more impact is without a doubt that of the medicine. However, for a sure operation with radiations, those international organisms of radiological safety, exist every time more precise detection systems. The thermoluminescent dosimetry is one of the more reliable methods for this purpose, for that several groups of investigators from different parts of the world, they have guided its investigations in the development of new TL materials. However, to avoid underestimate or overestimation of the measured dose with the use of these materials, it should take into account it effective atomic number (Z eff ) it is well known that some TL materials considered as equivalent to the tissue, presents smaller TL intensity when being irradiated with low energy photons, while the TL material known as not equivalent to the tissue, they present the supra sensitivity effect for this radiation type. Nowadays, the estimate of the Z eff has not been clear, in this work the Z eff is determined by means of the traditional methods and an own method is presented for its determination. The results of the TL signal of different materials, when being irradiated with photons of effective energy between 24 keV and 1.25 MeV and their relationship with their calculated Z eff are also presented. (Author)

  5. Importance of Solcoseryl in infertility. 2. Effects of Solcoseryl with pathological spermiogram findings in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heise, H; Mattheus, A; Hofmann, R

    1980-01-01

    44 patients with different spermiogram findings were treated with Solcoseryl¿ (Messrs. Solco, Basel, Switzerland). Among the findings were 39 cases of oligozoospermia, 26 cases of asthenozoospermia and 7 cases of hypospermia. 20 subjects had already received other treatment without success. Treatment in these 20 cases had been terminted at least six months prior to our studies. All patients received 10 injections comprising 1 ampule each of Solcoseryl¿ at intervals of 1 day with breaks at the weekends. The spermiograms were analysed upon completion of treatment and two weeks, four weeks, three months and six months after completion of treatment. The effects of Solcoseryl¿ proved to be completely independent of previous treatment. The most noticeable improvement in he findings following Solcoseryl¿ application was the sperm count. This effect was observed already upon completion of treatment and reached a maximum two weeks later. The effect then decreased. In a few cases, however, sperm numbers continued to decline for up to two weeks after therapy before subsequently increasing. The findings for 44% of the patients with asthenozoospermia were at least temporarily normal after the treatment. In a few of these patients, however, the number of dead sperm also increased immeditely after therapy. Severe cases of asthenozoospermia were not influenced by Solcoseryl¿ treatment. Improvement was also found in the case of hypospermia. In view of the objective improvement of the parameters of the ejaculate and the fact that gravidity has so far occurred in 11 (25%) of the wives of the patients treated with Solcoseryl¿ (in some cases after the first three-monthly examination), attempted treatment with Solcoseryl¿ is recommended.

  6. The importance of propolis in alleviating the negative physiological effects of heat stress in quail chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehaisen, Gamal M K; Ibrahim, Rania M; Desoky, Adel A; Safaa, Hosam M; El-Sayed, Osama A; Abass, Ahmed O

    2017-01-01

    Heat stress is one of the most detrimental confrontations in tropical and subtropical regions of the world, causing considerable economic losses in poultry production. Propolis, a resinous product of worker honeybees, possesses several biological activities that could be used to alleviate the deleterious effects of high environmental temperature on poultry production. The current study was aimed at evaluating the effects of propolis supplementation to Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) diets on the production performance, intestinal histomorphology, relative physiological and immunological parameters, and selected gene expression under heat stress conditions. Three hundred one-day-old Japanese quail chicks were randomly distributed into 20 wired-cages. At 28 d of age, the birds were divided into 2 temperature treatment groups; a normal at 24°C (C group) and a heat stress at 35°C (HS group). The birds in each group were further assigned to 2 subgroups; one of them was fed on a basal diet without propolis supplementation (-Pr subgroup) while the other was supplemented with propolis (+Pr subgroup). Production performance including body weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio were measured. The intestinal histomorphological measurements were also performed for all treatment groups. Relative physiological parameters including body temperature, corticosterone hormone level, malondialdehyde (MDA) and free triiodothyronine hormone (fT3), as well as the relative immunological parameters including the total white blood cells count (TWBC's), heterophil/lymphocyte (H/L) ratio and lymphocyte proliferation index, were also measured. Furthermore, the mRNA expression for toll like receptor 5 (TLR5), cysteine-aspartic protease-6 (CASP6) and heat shock proteins 70 and 90 (Hsp70 and Hsp90) genes was quantified in this study. The quail production performance was significantly (Ppropolis significantly alleviated this negative effect. Moreover, quail of the HS

  7. Asymmetric Effect of Oil Price on the Terms of Trade: Evidence from Oil Exporting and Importing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmoud Mahmoudzadeh; Somaye Sadeghi; Soraya Sadeghi

    2012-01-01

    The oil price shocks are an important source that affect on TOT in both oil exporting and importing countries. Hence, this paper compares the effects of real oil price shock on TOT in both oil importing and exporting countries, using Panel Data technique and during 1980-2010. To the best of our knowledge, we applied the nonlinear approach in order to assess the asymmetric impact of the oil price shocks on TOT. The results show that the oil price shocks influenced the TOT in the oil exporting ...

  8. Effective follow-up consultations: the importance of patient-centered communication and shared decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Paul L P; Stiggelbout, Anne M

    2013-12-01

    Paediatricians spend a considerable proportion of their time performing follow-up visits for children with chronic conditions, but they rarely receive specific training on how best to perform such consultations. The traditional method of running a follow-up consultation is based on the doctor's agenda, and is problem-oriented. Patients and parents, however, prefer a patient-centered, and solution-focused approach. Although many physicians now recognize the importance of addressing the patient's perspective in a follow-up consultation, a number of barriers hamper its implementation in practice, including time constraints, lack of appropriate training, and a strong tradition of the biomedical, doctor-centered approach. Addressing the patient's perspective successfully can be achieved through shared decision making, clinicians and patients making decisions together based on the best clinical evidence. Research shows that shared decision making not only increases patient, parent, and physician satisfaction with the consultation, but also may improve health outcomes. Shared decision making involves building a physician-patient-parent partnership, agreeing on the problem at hand, laying out the available options with their benefits and risks, eliciting the patient's views and preferences on these options, and agreeing on a course of action. Shared decision making requires specific communication skills, which can be learned, and should be mastered through deliberate practice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The effect of sugar and processed food imports on the prevalence of overweight and obesity in 172 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tracy Kuo; Teymourian, Yasmin; Tursini, Maitri Shila

    2018-04-14

    Studies find that economic, political, and social globalization - as well as trade liberalization specifically - influence the prevalence of overweight and obesity in countries through increasing the availability and affordability of unhealthful food. However, what are the mechanisms that connect globalization, trade liberalization, and rising average body mass index (BMI)? We suggest that the various sub-components of globalization interact, leading individuals in countries that experience higher levels of globalization to prefer, import, and consume more imported sugar and processed food products than individuals in countries that experience lower levels of globalization. This study codes the amount of sugar and processed food imports in 172 countries from 1995 to 2010 using the United Nations Comtrade dataset. We employ country-specific fixed effects (FE) models, with robust standard errors, to examine the relationship between sugar and processed foods imports, globalization, and average BMI. To highlight further the relationship between the sugar and processed food import and average BMI, we employ a synthetic control method to calculate a counterfactual average BMI in Fiji. We find that sugar and processed food imports are part of the explanation to increasing average BMI in countries; after controlling for globalization and general imports and exports, sugar and processed food imports have a statistically and substantively significant effect in increasing average BMI. In the case of Fiji, the increased prevalence of obesity is associated with trade agreements and increased imports of sugar and processed food. The counterfactual estimates suggest that sugar and processed food imports are associated with a 0.5 increase in average BMI in Fiji.

  10. The importance of moral emotions for effective collaboration in culturally diverse healthcare teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Catherine; Brunton, Margaret

    2018-04-01

    Moral emotions shape the effectiveness of culturally diverse teams. However, these emotions, which are integral to determining ethically responsive patient care and team relationships, typically go unrecognised. The contribution of emotions to moral deliberation is subjugated within the technorational environment of healthcare decision-making. Contemporary healthcare organisations rely on a multicultural workforce charged with the ethical care of vulnerable people. Limited extant literature examines the role of moral emotions in ethical decision-making among culturally diverse healthcare teams. Moral emotions are evident in ethnocentric moral perspectives that construct some colleagues' practices as 'other'. This article examines how moral emotions are evoked when cultural dissonance influences nurses' moral perceptions. We use a qualitative investigation of teamwork within culturally diverse healthcare organisations. We use Haidt's () account of moral emotions to examine practice-based accounts of 36 internationally educated and 17 New Zealand educated nurses practising in New Zealand. The study provides evidence that moral emotions are frequently elicited by communication and care practices considered 'foreign'. The main implication is that although safe practice in healthcare organisations is reliant on highly functioning teams, collaboration is challenged by interprofessional power relations of contested culturally shaped values. We address practice-based strategies that enable engagement with moral emotions to enhance effective teamwork. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. The Community College Effect Revisited: The Importance of Attending to Heterogeneity and Complex Counterfactuals*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Jennie E.; Pfeffer, Fabian T.; Goldrick-Rab, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Community colleges are controversial educational institutions, often said to simultaneously expand college opportunities and diminish baccalaureate attainment. We assess the seemingly contradictory functions of community colleges by attending to effect heterogeneity and to alternative counterfactual conditions. Using data on postsecondary outcomes of high school graduates of Chicago Public Schools, we find that enrolling at a community college penalizes more advantaged students who otherwise would have attended four-year colleges, particularly highly selective schools; however, these students represent a relatively small portion of the community college population, and these estimates are almost certainly biased. On the other hand, enrolling at a community college has a modest positive effect on bachelor's degree completion for disadvantaged students who otherwise would not have attended college; these students represent the majority of community college goers. We conclude that discussions among scholars, policymakers, and practitioners should move beyond considering the pros and cons of community college attendance for students in general to attending to the implications of community college attendance for targeted groups of students. PMID:25825705

  12. p53 is important for the anti-proliferative effect of ibuprofen in colon carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janssen, Astrid; Schiffmann, Susanne; Birod, Kerstin; Maier, Thorsten J.; Wobst, Ivonne; Geisslinger, Gerd; Groesch, Sabine

    2008-01-01

    S-ibuprofen which inhibits the cyclooxygenase-1/-2 and R-ibuprofen which shows no COX-inhibition at therapeutic concentrations have anti-carcinogenic effects in human colon cancer cells; however, the molecular mechanisms for these effects are still unknown. Using HCT-116 colon carcinoma cell lines, expressing either the wild-type form of p53 (HCT-116 p53 wt ) or being p(HCT-116 p53 -/- ), we demonstrated that both induction of a cell cycle block and apoptosis after S- and R-ibuprofen treatment is in part dependent on p53. Also in the in vivo nude mice model HCT-116 p53 -/- xenografts were less sensitive for S- and R-ibuprofen treatment than HCT-116 p53 wt cells. Furthermore, results indicate that induction of apoptosis in HCT-116 p53 wt cells after ibuprofen treatment is in part dependent on a signalling pathway including the neutrophin receptor p75 NTR , p53 and Bax

  13. Selection effects in identifying magnetic clouds and the importance of the closest approach parameter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. P. Lepping

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This study is motivated by the unusually low number of magnetic clouds (MCs that are strictly identified within interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs, as observed at 1 AU; this is usually estimated to be around 30% or lower. But a looser definition of MCs may significantly increase this percentage. Another motivation is the unexpected shape of the occurrence distribution of the observers' "closest approach distances" (measured from a MC's axis, and called CA which drops off somewhat rapidly as |CA| (in % of MC radius approaches 100%, based on earlier studies. We suggest, for various geometrical and physical reasons, that the |CA|-distribution should be somewhere between a uniform one and the one actually observed, and therefore the 30% estimate should be higher. So we ask, When there is a failure to identify a MC within an ICME, is it occasionally due to a large |CA| passage, making MC identification more difficult, i.e., is it due to an event selection effect? In attempting to answer this question we examine WIND data to obtain an accurate distribution of the number of MCs vs. |CA| distance, whether the event is ICME-related or not, where initially a large number of cases (N=98 are considered. This gives a frequence distribution that is far from uniform, confirming earlier studies. This along with the fact that there are many ICME identification-parameters that do not depend on |CA| suggest that, indeed an MC event selection effect may explain at least part of the low ratio of (No. MCs/(No. ICMEs. We also show that there is an acceptable geometrical and physical consistency in the relationships for both average "normalized" magnetic field intensity change and field direction change vs. |CA| within a MC, suggesting that our estimates of |CA|, BO (magnetic field intensity on the axis, and choice of a proper "cloud coordinate" system (all needed in the analysis are acceptably accurate. Therefore, the MC fitting model (Lepping et al., 1990

  14. On the Understandability of Public Domain Icons: Effects of Gender and Age

    OpenAIRE

    Berget, Gerd; Sandnes, Frode Eika

    2015-01-01

    Icons and symbols are often deployed in graphical user interfaces. It is commonly believed that icons add to the user friendliness of products. Devel‐ opers have great trust in icon libraries and they are likely to use icons they under‐ stand themselves without verifying users’ understanding. Interfaces relying on icons that are misinterpreted can lead to erroneous operation. In this study a set of icons in the public domain was interpreted by 64 participants to assess how well general icons ...

  15. Field Independence and the Effect of Background Music on Film Understanding and Emotional Responses of American Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raburn, Josephine

    Fifty-five Indian students between the ages of 16 and 22 years were selected from the junior and senior English classes at the Fort Sill Indian School to examine the effects of background music in helping lower socio-economic American Indians understand film content and in manipulating their emotions. This study also looked at how cognitive style…

  16. Effect of Computer Simulations at the Particulate and Macroscopic Levels on Students' Understanding of the Particulate Nature of Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hui; Abraham, Michael R.

    2016-01-01

    Computer-based simulations can help students visualize chemical representations and understand chemistry concepts, but simulations at different levels of representation may vary in effectiveness on student learning. This study investigated the influence of computer activities that simulate chemical reactions at different levels of representation…

  17. The Effect of Using Virtual Laboratory on Grade 10 Students' Conceptual Understanding and Their Attitudes towards Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faour, Malak Abou; Ayoubi, Zalpha

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of using (VL) on grade 10 students' conceptual understanding of the direct current electric circuit and their attitudes towards physics. The research used a quantitative experimental approach. The sample of the study was formed of 50 students of the tenth grade, aged 14 to 16 years old, of an official secondary…

  18. The Effectiveness of the Brain Based Teaching Approach in Enhancing Scientific Understanding of Newtonian Physics among Form Four Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Salmiza

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of Brain Based Teaching Approach in enhancing students' scientific understanding of Newtonian Physics in the context of Form Four Physics instruction. The technique was implemented based on the Brain Based Learning Principles developed by Caine & Caine (1991, 2003). This brain compatible…

  19. Understanding the biophysical effects of transcranial magnetic stimulation on brain tissue: the bridge between brain stimulation and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neggers, Sebastiaan F W; Petrov, Petar I; Mandija, Stefano; Sommer, Iris E C; van den Berg, Nico A T

    2015-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is rapidly being adopted in neuroscience, medicine, psychology, and biology, for basic research purposes, diagnosis, and therapy. However, a coherent picture of how TMS affects neuronal processing, and especially how this in turn influences behavior, is still largely unavailable despite several studies that investigated aspects of the underlying neurophysiological effects of TMS. Perhaps as a result from this "black box approach," TMS studies show a large interindividual variability in applied paradigms and TMS treatment outcome can be quite variable, hampering its general efficacy and introduction into the clinic. A better insight into the biophysical, neuronal, and cognitive mechanisms underlying TMS is crucial in order to apply it effectively in the clinic and to increase our understanding of brain-behavior relationship. Therefore, computational and experimental efforts have been started recently to understand and control the effect TMS has on neuronal functioning. Especially, how the brain shapes magnetic fields induced by a TMS coil, how currents are generated locally in the cortical surface, and how they interact with complex functional neuronal circuits within and between brain areas are crucial to understand the observed behavioral changes and potential therapeutic effects resulting from TMS. Here, we review the current knowledge about the biophysical underpinnings of single-pulse TMS and argue how to move forward to fully understand and exploit the powerful technique that TMS can be. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of Intervention to Improve At-Risk Fourth Graders' Understanding, Calculations, and Word Problems with Fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Lynn S.; Schumacher, Robin F.; Long, Jessica; Namkung, Jessica; Malone, Amelia S.; Wang, Amber; Hamlett, Carol L.; Jordan, Nancy C.; Siegler, Robert S.; Changas, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to (a) investigate the efficacy of a core fraction intervention program on understanding and calculation skill and (b) isolate the effects of different forms of fraction word-problem (WP) intervention. At-risk fourth graders (n = 213) were randomly assigned to the school's business-as-usual program, or one of two…