WorldWideScience

Sample records for understanding age-related differences

  1. An Investigation of Age-Related Differences in Understanding of Empathy and Emotions

    OpenAIRE

    Kuske, Hannah

    2010-01-01

    The current study investigated age-related differences in social cognition, emotional understanding, Theory of Mind (ToM) and empathy. A new task assessing different aspects of social cognition (ToM, emotional understanding, knowledge/understanding of social rules) using cartoon-strip stories was applied in conjunction with established measures of emotion recognition (‘the faces task’, or FEEST), ToM (‘Reading the mind in the eyes task’), empathy (IRI) and executive functions (Bri...

  2. Neuroimaging explanations of age-related differences in task performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffener, Jason; Barulli, Daniel; Habeck, Christian; Stern, Yaakov

    2014-01-01

    Advancing age affects both cognitive performance and functional brain activity and interpretation of these effects has led to a variety of conceptual research models without always explicitly linking the two effects. However, to best understand the multifaceted effects of advancing age, age differences in functional brain activity need to be explicitly tied to the cognitive task performance. This work hypothesized that age-related differences in task performance are partially explained by age-related differences in functional brain activity and formally tested these causal relationships. Functional MRI data was from groups of young and old adults engaged in an executive task-switching experiment. Analyses were voxel-wise testing of moderated-mediation and simple mediation statistical path models to determine whether age group, brain activity and their interaction explained task performance in regions demonstrating an effect of age group. Results identified brain regions whose age-related differences in functional brain activity significantly explained age-related differences in task performance. In all identified locations, significant moderated-mediation relationships resulted from increasing brain activity predicting worse (slower) task performance in older but not younger adults. Findings suggest that advancing age links task performance to the level of brain activity. The overall message of this work is that in order to understand the role of functional brain activity on cognitive performance, analysis methods should respect theoretical relationships. Namely, that age affects brain activity and brain activity is related to task performance. PMID:24672481

  3. Neuroimaging explanations of age-related differences in task performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason eSteffener

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Advancing age affects both cognitive performance and functional brain activity and interpretation of these effects has led to a variety of conceptual research models without always explicitly linking the two effects. However, to best understand the multifaceted effects of advancing age, age differences in functional brain activity need to be explicitly tied to the cognitive task performance. This work hypothesized that age-related differences in task performance are partially explained by age-related differences in functional brain activity and formally tested these causal relationships. Functional MRI data was from groups of young and old adults engaged in an executive task-switching experiment. Analyses were voxel-wise testing of moderated-mediation and simple mediation statistical path models to determine whether age group, brain activity and their interaction explained task performance in regions demonstrating an effect of age group. Results identified brain regions whose age-related differences in functional brain activity significantly explained age-related differences in task performance. In all identified locations, significant moderated-mediation relationships resulted from increasing brain activity predicting worse (slower task performance in older but not younger adults. Findings suggest that advancing age links task performance to the level of brain activity. The overall message of this work is that in order to understand the role of functional brain activity on cognitive performance, analysis methods should respect theoretical relationships. Namely, that age affects brain activity and brain activity is related to task performance.

  4. Age-related differences in women's foot shape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ansuategui Echeita, Jone; Hijmans, Juha M.; Smits, Sharon; Van der Woude, Lucas H. V.; Postema, Klaas

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Describe age-related differences in women's foot shape using a wide range of measurements and ages. Study design: Cross-sectional, observational study. Main outcome measurements: Six foot-shape measurements of each foot: foot lengths, ball widths, ball circumferences, low instep

  5. Age-related differences in working memory updating components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, Rocío; Bajo, M Teresa; Pelegrina, Santiago

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate possible age-related changes throughout childhood and adolescence in different component processes of working memory updating (WMU): retrieval, transformation, and substitution. A set of numerical WMU tasks was administered to four age groups (8-, 11-, 14-, and 21-year-olds). To isolate the effect of each of the WMU components, participants performed different versions of a task that included different combinations of the WMU components. The results showed an expected overall decrease in response times and an increase in accuracy performance with age. Most important, specific age-related changes in the retrieval component were found, demonstrating that the effect of retrieval on accuracy was larger in children than in adolescents or young adults. These findings indicate that the availability of representations from outside the focus of attention may change with age. Thus, the retrieval component of updating could contribute to the age-related changes observed in the performance of many updating tasks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Age-related differences in multiple task monitoring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Todorov

    Full Text Available Coordinating multiple tasks with narrow deadlines is particularly challenging for older adults because of age related decline in cognitive control functions. We tested the hypothesis that multiple task performance reflects age- and gender-related differences in executive functioning and spatial ability. Young and older adults completed a multitasking session with four monitoring tasks as well as separate tasks measuring executive functioning and spatial ability. For both age groups, men exceeded women in multitasking, measured as monitoring accuracy. Individual differences in executive functioning and spatial ability were independent predictors of young adults' monitoring accuracy, but only spatial ability was related to sex differences. For older adults, age and executive functioning, but not spatial ability, predicted multitasking performance. These results suggest that executive functions contribute to multiple task performance across the adult life span and that reliance on spatial skills for coordinating deadlines is modulated by age.

  7. Age-related differences in multiple task monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorov, Ivo; Del Missier, Fabio; Mäntylä, Timo

    2014-01-01

    Coordinating multiple tasks with narrow deadlines is particularly challenging for older adults because of age related decline in cognitive control functions. We tested the hypothesis that multiple task performance reflects age- and gender-related differences in executive functioning and spatial ability. Young and older adults completed a multitasking session with four monitoring tasks as well as separate tasks measuring executive functioning and spatial ability. For both age groups, men exceeded women in multitasking, measured as monitoring accuracy. Individual differences in executive functioning and spatial ability were independent predictors of young adults' monitoring accuracy, but only spatial ability was related to sex differences. For older adults, age and executive functioning, but not spatial ability, predicted multitasking performance. These results suggest that executive functions contribute to multiple task performance across the adult life span and that reliance on spatial skills for coordinating deadlines is modulated by age.

  8. Age-related differences in muscular capacity among workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamberg-van Reenen, H.H.; Beek, A.J. van der; Blatter, B.M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify the age-related changes in muscular capacity in a working population, and to investigate whether these changes are dependent on sports participation. Methods: Data were used from the longitudinal study on musculoskeletal disorders, absenteeism, stress and health (n = 1,800). At

  9. Rapid Assessment of Age-Related Differences in Standing Balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Kalisch

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available As life expectancy continues to rise, in the future there will be an increasing number of older people prone to falling. Accordingly, there is an urgent need for comprehensive testing of older individuals to collect data and to identify possible risk factors for falling. Here we use a low-cost force platform to rapidly assess deficits in balance under various conditions. We tested 21 healthy older adults and 24 young adults during static stance, unidirectional and rotational displacement of their centre of pressure (COP. We found an age-related increase in postural sway during quiet standing and a reduction of maximal COP displacement in unidirectional and rotational displacement tests. Our data show that even low-cost computerized assessment tools allow for the comprehensive testing of balance performance in older subjects.

  10. Age-Related Differences in Quality of Standing Balance Using a Composite Score

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasma, J.H.; Bijlsma, A.Y.; van der Bij, M.D.W.; Arendzen, J.H.; Meskers, C.G.M.; Maier, A.B.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Age-related differences in standing balance are not detected by testing the ability to maintain balance. Quality of standing balance might be more sensitive to detect age-related differences. Objective: To study age-related differences in quality of standing balance, center of pressure

  11. Sex and age related differences in postmyelographic adverse reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maly, P.

    1989-01-01

    Differences in frequency of postmyelographic adverse reactions were analyzed with respect to sex and age in a prospective study including 1026 patients injected with metrizamide and 739 injected with iohexol. Regardless of the type of contrast medium or myelography, all types of adverse reactions were 1.4-3.8 times as frequent in women as in men. Most of the differences were statistically significant. Headache was more frequent, while vomiting and dizziness were less frequent in both women and men aged 26-50 years compared with those over 50 years of age. Dizziness and increased low back pain were consistently reported spontaneously by the patients less frequently than emerged via formal interview. The large differences between the sexes suggest that further research on contrast media toxicity would be best performed with separation of the data by gender. (orig.)

  12. Walking while memorizing: age-related differences in compensatory behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, K Z; Lindenberger, U; Freund, A M; Baltes, P B

    2001-05-01

    This study investigated predictions of the life-span theory of selection, optimization, and compensation, focusing on different patterns of task priority during dual-task performance in younger and older adults. Cognitive (memorizing) and sensorimotor (walking a narrow track) performance were measured singly, concurrently, and when task difficulty was manipulated. Use of external aids was measured to provide another index of task priority. Before dual-task testing, participants received extensive training with each component task and external aid. Age differences in dual-task costs were greater in memory performance than walking, suggesting that older adults prioritized walking over memory. Further, when given a choice of compensatory external aids to use, older adults optimized walking, whereas younger adults optimized memory performance. The results have broad implications for systemic theories of cognitive and sensorimotor aging, and the costs and benefits of assistive devices and environmental support for older populations.

  13. Semiology of psychogenic nonepileptic seizures: age-related differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessi, Rudá; Vincentiis, Silvia; Rzezak, Patricia; Valente, Kette D

    2013-05-01

    The few studies addressing semiology of psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) in children showed that this group differs from adults, considering the classical signs described. Our study with systematic assessment provides a direct comparison of the classical signs of psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNESs) in children and adults in order to establish the usefulness of the most important signs described for adults in children. Video-EEG recordings of patients with PNESs from 2006 to 2011 were analyzed. Twenty-five signs were selected as the most prevalent in literature, and their presence was evaluated. Events were categorized as either of the following: catatonic, major motor, minor motor, and subjective (Griffith et al., 2007 [11]). One hundred and fifteen patients were included; 63.5% were adults, 73.2% were females, and 14.4% had epilepsy. Adults presented more ictal eye closure (p=0.006), convulsions lasting >2 min (psemiological categories, major motor activity was the main feature in adults, and minor motor activity was more prevalent among children (52.9% and 38.1%, respectively; p=0.01). Our data showed that research about the distinct ictal features of PNESs, such as minor motor events that are more typical in children, is likely to be useful in promoting earlier recognition of PNESs in this population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Age-Related Differences in Speech Rate Perception Do Not Necessarily Entail Age-Related Differences in Speech Rate Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffner, Christopher C.; Newman, Rochelle S.; Dilley, Laura C.; Idsardi, William J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: A new literature has suggested that speech rate can influence the parsing of words quite strongly in speech. The purpose of this study was to investigate differences between younger adults and older adults in the use of context speech rate in word segmentation, given that older adults perceive timing information differently from younger…

  15. Age-related differences in neurotoxicity produced by organophosphorus and N-methyl carbamate pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potential pesticide effects in infants and toddlers have received much attention in the scientific literature and the public media, including the concern for increased response to acute or shortterm exposures. Age-related differences in the acute neurotoxicity of acetylcholinest...

  16. Age-related differences in brain activity in the subsequent memory paradigm: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maillet, David; Rajah, M Natasha

    2014-09-01

    Healthy aging is associated with declines in episodic memory. This reduction is thought to be due in part to age-related differences in encoding-related processes. In the current study, we performed an activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies assessing age-related differences in the neural correlates of episodic encoding. Only studies using the subsequent memory paradigm were included. We found age-related under-recruitment of occipital and fusiform cortex, but over-recruitment in a set of regions including bilateral middle/superior frontal gyri, anterior medial frontal gyrus, precuneus and left inferior parietal lobe. We demonstrate that all of the regions consistently over-recruited by older adults during successful encoding exhibit either direct overlap, or occur in close vicinity to regions consistently involved in unsuccessful encoding in young adults. We discuss the possibility that this overall pattern of age-related differences represents an age-related shift in focus: away from perceptual details, and toward evaluative and personal thoughts and feelings during memory tasks. We discuss whether these age-related differences in brain activation benefit performance in older adults, and additional considerations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Understanding age-related reductions in visual working memory capacity: examining the stages of change detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Philip C; Duda, Bryant; Hussey, Erin; Mason, Emily; Molitor, Robert J; Woodman, Geoffrey F; Ally, Brandon A

    2014-10-01

    Visual working memory (VWM) capacity is reduced in older adults. Research has shown age-related impairments to VWM encoding, but aging is likely to affect multiple stages of VWM. In the present study, we recorded the event-related potentials (ERPs) of younger and older adults during VWM maintenance and retrieval. We measured encoding-stage processing with the P1 component, maintenance-stage processing with the contralateral delay activity (CDA), and retrieval-stage processing by comparing the activity for old and new items (old-new effect). Older adults showed lower behavioral capacity estimates (K) than did younger adults, but surprisingly, their P1 components and CDAs were comparable to those of younger adults. This remarkable dissociation between neural activity and behavior in the older adults indicated that the P1 and CDA did not accurately assess their VWM capacity. However, the neural activity evoked during VWM retrieval yielded results that helped clarify the age-related differences. During retrieval, younger adults showed early old-new effects in frontal and occipital areas and a late central-parietal old-new effect, whereas older adults showed a late right-lateralized parietal old-new effect. The younger adults' early old-new effects strongly resembled an index of perceptual fluency, suggesting that perceptual implicit memory was activated. The activation of implicit memory could have facilitated the younger adults' behavior, and the lack of these early effects in older adults may suggest that they have much lower-resolution memory than do younger adults. From these data, we speculated that younger and older adults store the same number of items in VWM, but that younger adults store a higher-resolution representation than do older adults.

  18. Who, When, and Where? Age-Related Differences on a New Memory Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumida, Catherine A.; Holden, Heather M.; Van Etten, Emily J.; Wagner, Gabrielle M.; Hileman, Jacob D.; Gilbert, Paul E.

    2016-01-01

    Our study examined age-related differences on a new memory test assessing memory for "who," "when," and "where," and associations among these elements. Participants were required to remember a sequence of pictures of different faces paired with different places. Older adults remembered significantly fewer correct…

  19. Age-related differences in quality of standing balance using a composite score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasma, Jantsje H; Bijlsma, Astrid Y; van der Bij, Mark D W; Arendzen, J Hans; Meskers, Carel G M; Maier, Andrea B

    2014-01-01

    Age-related differences in standing balance are not detected by testing the ability to maintain balance. Quality of standing balance might be more sensitive to detect age-related differences. To study age-related differences in quality of standing balance, center of pressure (CoP) movement was evaluated using a wide range of CoP parameters in several standing conditions in healthy young and old participants. In 35 healthy young (18-30 years) and 75 healthy old (70-80 years) participants, CoP movement was assessed in eight standing conditions on a force plate, including side-by-side, one-leg, semi-tandem and tandem stance, both with eyes open and eyes closed. Direction-specific CoP composite scores were calculated from standardized single CoP parameters (mean amplitude, amplitude variability, mean velocity, velocity variability and range) in anterior-posterior (AP) and medial-lateral (ML) direction. Linear regression analysis was used to detect age-related differences in single CoP parameters and composite scores - adjusted for gender, height and weight. Overall, single CoP parameters were higher in old compared to young participants, but no single CoP parameter consistently demonstrated the largest effect size for all standing conditions. Age-related differences were demonstrated for CoP composite scores in AP direction (tandem eyes open; semi-tandem eyes closed; p CoP composite scores in ML direction were consistently higher for all standing conditions in old compared to young participants (p CoP composite scores in ML direction were the most consistent parameters to detect age-related differences in quality of standing balance in healthy participants and might be of clinical value to detect subtle changes in quality of standing balance. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

  20. Age-Related Differences of Individuals’ Arithmetic Strategy Utilization with Different Level of Math Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Jiwei; Li, Hongxia; Sun, Yan; Xu, Yanli; Sun, Yu

    2016-01-01

    The present study used the choice/no-choice method to investigate the effect of math anxiety on the strategy used in computational estimation and mental arithmetic tasks and to examine age-related differences in this regard. Fifty-seven fourth graders, 56 sixth graders, and 60 adults were randomly selected to participate in the experiment. Results showed the following: (1) High-anxious individuals were more likely to use a rounding-down strategy in the computational estimation task under the best-choice condition. Additionally, sixth-grade students and adults performed faster than fourth-grade students on the strategy execution parameter. Math anxiety affected response times (RTs) and the accuracy with which strategies were executed. (2) The execution of the partial-decomposition strategy was superior to that of the full-decomposition strategy on the mental arithmetic task. Low-math-anxious persons provided more accurate answers than did high-math-anxious participants under the no-choice condition. This difference was significant for sixth graders. With regard to the strategy selection parameter, the RTs for strategy selection varied with age. PMID:27803685

  1. Age-related Differences of Individuals’ Arithmetic Strategy Utilization with Different Level of Math Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiwei Si

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study used the choice/no-choice method to investigate the effect of math anxiety on the strategy used in computational estimation and mental arithmetic tasks and to examine age-related differences in this regard. 57 fourth graders, 56 sixth graders, and 60 adults were randomly selected to participate in the experiment. Results showed the following: (1 High-anxious individuals were more likely to use a rounding-down strategy in the computational estimation task under the best-choice condition. Additionally, sixth-grade students and adults performed faster than fourth-grade students on the strategy execution parameter. Math anxiety affected response times (RTs and the accuracy with which strategies were executed. (2 The execution of the partial-decomposition strategy was superior to that of the full-decomposition strategy on the mental arithmetic task. Low-math-anxious persons provided more accurate answers than did high-math-anxious participants under the no-choice condition. This difference was significant for sixth graders. With regard to the strategy selection parameter, the RTs for strategy selection varied with age.

  2. Age-Related Differences of Individuals' Arithmetic Strategy Utilization with Different Level of Math Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Jiwei; Li, Hongxia; Sun, Yan; Xu, Yanli; Sun, Yu

    2016-01-01

    The present study used the choice/no-choice method to investigate the effect of math anxiety on the strategy used in computational estimation and mental arithmetic tasks and to examine age-related differences in this regard. Fifty-seven fourth graders, 56 sixth graders, and 60 adults were randomly selected to participate in the experiment. Results showed the following: (1) High-anxious individuals were more likely to use a rounding-down strategy in the computational estimation task under the best-choice condition. Additionally, sixth-grade students and adults performed faster than fourth-grade students on the strategy execution parameter. Math anxiety affected response times (RTs) and the accuracy with which strategies were executed. (2) The execution of the partial-decomposition strategy was superior to that of the full-decomposition strategy on the mental arithmetic task. Low-math-anxious persons provided more accurate answers than did high-math-anxious participants under the no-choice condition. This difference was significant for sixth graders. With regard to the strategy selection parameter, the RTs for strategy selection varied with age.

  3. Age-related differences in cognition across the adult lifespan in autism spectrum disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lever, A.G.; Geurts, H.M.

    It is largely unknown how age impacts cognition in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We investigated whether age-related cognitive differences are similar, reduced or increased across the adult lifespan, examined cognitive strengths and weaknesses, and explored whether objective test performance is

  4. A Longitudinal Study of Age-Related Differences in Reactions to Psychological Contract Breach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bal, P.M.; Lange, A.H. de; Jansen, P.G.W.; Velde, M.E.G. van der

    2013-01-01

    The current paper investigated age-related differences in the relations of psychological contract breach with work outcomes over time. Based on affective events theory, we expected job satisfaction to mediate the longitudinal relationship of contract breach with changes in job performance. Moreover,

  5. A longitudinal study of age-related differences in reactions to psychological contract breach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bal, P.M.; de Lange, A.H.; Jansen, P.G.W.; van der Velde, E.G.

    2013-01-01

    The current paper investigated age-related differences in the relations of psychological contract breach with work outcomes over time. Based on affective events theory, we expected job satisfaction to mediate the longitudinal relationship of contract breach with changes in job performance. Moreover,

  6. Clinical characteristics of familial and sporadic age-related macular degeneration: differences and similarities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saksens, N.T.M.; Kersten, E.; Groenewoud, J.M.M.; Grinsven, M.J.J.P. van; Ven, J.P.H. van de; Sanchez, C.I.; Schick, T.; Fauser, S.; Hollander, A.I. den; Hoyng, C.B.; Boon, C.J.F.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: We describe the differences and similarities in clinical characteristics and phenotype of familial and sporadic patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). METHODS: We evaluated data of 1828 AMD patients and 1715 controls enrolled in the European Genetic Database. All subjects

  7. Age-related changes in force control under different task contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temprado, Jean-Jacques; Vieluf, Solveig; Sleimen-Malkoun, Rita

    2017-01-01

    We investigated age-related differences in motor behavior under different task contexts of isometric force control. The tasks involved rapid force production and force maintenance, either separately or in combination. For the combined context, we used Fitts-like tasks, in which we scaled either the force level (D manipulation, i.e., manipulation of the amplitude of the force to be produced) or the tolerance range (W manipulation, i.e., manipulation of the target width in which force is allowed to fluctuate). We studied two age groups and analyzed mainly variables that quantify behavioral variability (SD), information processing (signal-to-noise ratio and efficiency functions), and age-related slowing (slowing ratio). For rapid force control, age-related differences were more pronounced when preplanned processes were primarily involved, that is, in the rapid force production and Fitts-D manipulation tasks. Further, older adults were comparable to the younger adults in terms of end-point variability at the cost of being slower and more variable in timing. For force maintenance control, requiring mainly online control, age-related differences were the most visible in the stabilized phase of Fitts-D manipulation, followed by Fitts-W manipulation for SD, and then the force maintenance task. In sum, our findings reveal an age-related reorganization of how preplanned and online control processes are combined under different force control contexts. Indeed, both behavioral slowing and the overreliance on online control processes seem to be dependent on the task. In this respect, beyond the study of force control, we show the interest of investigating age effects using functionally different tasks.

  8. Age-related differences in cognition across the adult lifespan in autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lever, Anne G; Geurts, Hilde M

    2016-06-01

    It is largely unknown how age impacts cognition in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We investigated whether age-related cognitive differences are similar, reduced or increased across the adult lifespan, examined cognitive strengths and weaknesses, and explored whether objective test performance is related to subjective cognitive challenges. Neuropsychological tests assessing visual and verbal memory, generativity, and theory of mind (ToM), and a self-report measure assessing cognitive failures were administered to 236 matched participants with and without ASD, aged 20-79 years (IQ > 80). Group comparisons revealed that individuals with ASD had higher scores on visual memory, lower scores on generativity and ToM, and similar performance on verbal memory. However, ToM impairments were no longer present in older (50+ years) adults with ASD. Across adulthood, individuals with ASD demonstrated similar age-related effects on verbal memory, generativity, and ToM, while age-related differences were reduced on visual memory. Although adults with ASD reported many cognitive failures, those were not associated with neuropsychological test performance. Hence, while some cognitive abilities (visual and verbal memory) and difficulties (generativity and semantic memory) persist across adulthood in ASD, others become less apparent in old age (ToM). Age-related differences characteristic of typical aging are reduced or parallel, but not increased in individuals with ASD, suggesting that ASD may partially protect against an age-related decrease in cognitive functioning. Despite these findings, adults with ASD experience many cognitive daily challenges, which highlights the need for adequate social support and the importance of further research into this topic, including longitudinal studies. Autism Res 2016, 9: 666-676. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. The role of hippocampal iron concentration and hippocampal volume in age-related differences in memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigue, Karen M; Daugherty, Ana M; Haacke, E Mark; Raz, Naftali

    2013-07-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the relationships between 2 age-sensitive indices of brain integrity--volume and iron concentration--and the associated age differences in memory performance. In 113 healthy adults (age 19-83 years), we measured the volume and estimated iron concentration in the hippocampus (HC), caudate nucleus (Cd), and primary visual cortex (VC) in vivo with T2* relaxation times, and assessed memory performance with multiple tests. We applied structural equation modeling to evaluate the contribution of individual differences in 2 indices of integrity, volume and T2*, to age-related memory variance. The results show that in healthy adults, age differences in memory can be explained in part by individual differences in HC volume that in turn are associated with differences in HC iron concentration. Lower memory scores were linked to smaller HC and higher HC iron concentration. No such associations were noted for Cd and VC. We conclude that the association between age-related declines in memory and reduced hippocampal volume may reflect the impact of oxidative stress related to increase in free iron concentration. Longitudinal follow-up is needed to test whether altered iron homeostasis in the HC is an early marker for age-related cognitive decline.

  10. Age-related differences in associative memory: the role of sensory decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveh-Benjamin, Moshe; Kilb, Angela

    2014-09-01

    Numerous studies show age-related decline in episodic memory. One of the explanations for this decline points to older adults' deficit in associative memory, reflecting the difficulties they have in binding features of episodes into cohesive entities and retrieving these bindings. Here, we evaluate the degree to which this deficit may be mediated by sensory loss associated with increased age. In 2 experiments, young adults studied word pairs that were degraded at encoding either visually (Experiment 1) or auditorily (Experiment 2). We then tested their memory for both the component words and the associations with recognition tests. For both experiments, young adults under nondegraded conditions showed an advantage in associative over item memory, relative to a group of older adults. In contrast, under perceptually degraded conditions younger adults performed similarly to the older adults who were tested under nondegraded conditions. More specifically, under perceptual degradation, young adults' associative memory declined and their component memory improved somewhat, resulting in an associative deficit, similar to that shown by older adults. This evidence is consistent with a sensory acuity decline in old age being one mediator in the associative deficit of older adults. These results broaden our understanding of age-related memory changes and how sensory and cognitive processes interact to shape these changes. The theoretical implications of these results are discussed with respect to mechanisms underlying age-related changes in episodic memory and resource tradeoffs in the encoding of component and associative memory. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. "Older is always better": Age-related differences in vocabulary scores across 16 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-David, Boaz M; Erel, Hadas; Goy, Huiwen; Schneider, Bruce A

    2015-12-01

    Cross-sectional studies of cognitive aging compare age groups at 1 time point. It is unclear from such studies whether age-related cognitive differences remain stable across time. We present a cross-sectional investigation of vocabulary scores of 2,000 younger and older adults collected across 16 years, using the same laboratory and protocol. We found a steady decrease with year of testing and an advantage for older adults. An additive relation between age group and year of testing implied that age-related differences in vocabulary are independent of changes over time, suggesting that younger and older adults are similarly affected by changes in word usage. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Patterns of Age-Related Cognitive Differences in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Patrick S; Klinger, Laura G; Klinger, Mark R

    2017-10-01

    Little is known about age-related cognitive differences in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, given the overlap in cognitive impairments in ASD to those seen in typical aging, it is possible that adults with ASD will face even greater cognitive difficulties as they age. The current study used a cross-sectional design to examine age-related cognitive differences in adults with ASD and age and IQ-matched adults with typical development (age range 30-67 years). Results indicated that both age and diagnosis were related to poorer cognitive performance. However, adults with ASD exhibited pronounced age effects on measures related to executive functioning compared to adults with typical development, suggesting that aging in ASD may disproportionately affect specific cognitive processes.

  13. AB62. Age-related differences of erectile function in erectile dysfunction patients

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Kai; Jiang, Hui; Wang, Xiaofeng

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the age-related differences of erectile function and erectile hardness in erectile dysfunction (ED) patients. Methods The data is retrieved in the baseline database of a study on ED management which was performed in 46 urological clinics in China. The patients are stratified on the basis of every 10 years (yrs) old. The evaluation questionnaires of ED are the erectile function domain of the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-EF) and the Erection Hardness ...

  14. Age-related differences in sleep-based memory consolidation: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Wen-Jun; Li, Hui-Jie; Guo, Yu-Hua; Peng, Peng; Lei, Xu; Yu, Jing

    2017-03-01

    A period of post-learning sleep benefits memory consolidation compared with an equal-length wake interval. However, whether this sleep-based memory consolidation changes as a function of age remains controversial. Here we report a meta-analysis that investigates the age differences in the sleep-based memory consolidation in two types of memory: declarative memory and procedural memory. The meta-analysis included 22 comparisons of the performance between young adults (N =640) and older adults (N =529) on behavioral tasks measuring sleep-based memory consolidation. Our results showed a significant overall sleep-based beneficial effect in young adults but not in older adults. However, further analyses suggested that the age differences were mainly manifested in sleep-based declarative memory consolidation but not in procedural memory consolidation. We discussed the possible underlying mechanisms for the age-related degradation in sleep-based memory consolidation. Further research is needed to determine the crucial components for sleep-related memory consolidation in older adults such as age-related changes in neurobiological and cardiovascular functions, which may play an important role in this context and have the potential to delineate the interrelationships between age-related changes in sleep and memory. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Age-related differences in corticomotor facilitation indicate dedifferentiation in motor planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Eva-Maria; Behrens, Martin; Zschorlich, Volker R

    2015-05-01

    Efficient motor control requires motor planning. Age-related changes in motor control are well described, e.g. increased movement variability and greater antagonistic muscle co-activation, as well as less functional and less regional specific brain activation. However, less is known about age-related changes in motor planning. By use of transcranial magnetic stimulation we investigated differences in corticomotor facilitation during motor planning in 17 young (25±3years) and 17 older healthy adults (70±13years) in a delayed movement paradigm for wrist movements. Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were recorded for the flexor and extensor carpi radialis during movement preparation of wrist flexion and extension as well as during rest. We found that MEPs were less specifically facilitated during planning in older as compared to younger adults, as indicated by an Age×Condition×Muscle interaction. Young participants showed significantly facilitated MEPs in the respective muscle needed for wrist flexion or extension. By contrast MEPs in older participants were less specifically modulated. We conclude that age relates to dedifferentiated activation of the primary motor cortex already during preparation of distinct movements which might contribute to less efficient motor control in older adults. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Age-Related Gene Expression Differences in Monocytes from Human Neonates, Young Adults, and Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lissner, Michelle M; Thomas, Brandon J; Wee, Kathleen; Tong, Ann-Jay; Kollmann, Tobias R; Smale, Stephen T

    2015-01-01

    A variety of age-related differences in the innate and adaptive immune systems have been proposed to contribute to the increased susceptibility to infection of human neonates and older adults. The emergence of RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) provides an opportunity to obtain an unbiased, comprehensive, and quantitative view of gene expression differences in defined cell types from different age groups. An examination of ex vivo human monocyte responses to lipopolysaccharide stimulation or Listeria monocytogenes infection by RNA-seq revealed extensive similarities between neonates, young adults, and older adults, with an unexpectedly small number of genes exhibiting statistically significant age-dependent differences. By examining the differentially induced genes in the context of transcription factor binding motifs and RNA-seq data sets from mutant mouse strains, a previously described deficiency in interferon response factor-3 activity could be implicated in most of the differences between newborns and young adults. Contrary to these observations, older adults exhibited elevated expression of inflammatory genes at baseline, yet the responses following stimulation correlated more closely with those observed in younger adults. Notably, major differences in the expression of constitutively expressed genes were not observed, suggesting that the age-related differences are driven by environmental influences rather than cell-autonomous differences in monocyte development.

  17. Gender differences in age-related decline in regional cerebral glucose metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, Seong Ae; Cho, Sang Soo; Yoon, Eun Jin; Park, Hyun Soo; Lee, Eun Ju; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Kim, Sang Sun [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    In this study, we investigated gender differences in age-related declines in regional cerebral glucose metabolism using FDG-PET in a large population sample with a broad age range. 230 healthy subjects (90 male; age: 34-80 y, 140 females; age: 33-82 y) participated. Correlation maps showing age related declines in glucose uptake were created separately for each gender in SPM2. Using population-based probabilistic volume of interests (VOIs), VOIs were defined for the regions showing significant decline with aging. Age related declines were separately assessed within each age range using analysis of covariate in SPSS 13.0. In the total population without gender effect, age-related negative correlation of glucose metabolism was found in the bilateral inferior frontal gyri, bilateral caudate, bilateral thalamus, left insula, left superior frontal gyrus, left uncus, right superior temporal gyrus, right medial frontal gyrus, right parahippocampal gyrus, right anterior cingulate gyrus (P < 0.001 corrected, extent threshold k = 100). 14 VOIs values of brain regions were calculated based on this negative correlation results. The rate of decline across all defined VOIs assessed in the age category of 'more than 70' referenced to the category of '30- 39years' were 7.85% in the entire sample; 7.62% in male and 8.09% in female. Detailed analyses of declines in each age range showed separable patterns of declines across gender. In males, greater decline was observed after the age 60 (20.45%) than the ages of 30 and 50(7.98%). Whereas in females, greater declines were found in age 60s (20.15%) compared to 50s, and in 40(14.84%) compared to 30s. Age-related decline in cerebral glucose metabolism was found in both genders. We further observed that males show a relatively constant pattern of decline across a life span; whereas, females show a pattern of steep changes aging to 60s and to 40s, which may be related to changes in sex hormone levels after menopause.

  18. Gender differences in age-related decline in regional cerebral glucose metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bang, Seong Ae; Cho, Sang Soo; Yoon, Eun Jin; Park, Hyun Soo; Lee, Eun Ju; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Kim, Sang Sun

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we investigated gender differences in age-related declines in regional cerebral glucose metabolism using FDG-PET in a large population sample with a broad age range. 230 healthy subjects (90 male; age: 34-80 y, 140 females; age: 33-82 y) participated. Correlation maps showing age related declines in glucose uptake were created separately for each gender in SPM2. Using population-based probabilistic volume of interests (VOIs), VOIs were defined for the regions showing significant decline with aging. Age related declines were separately assessed within each age range using analysis of covariate in SPSS 13.0. In the total population without gender effect, age-related negative correlation of glucose metabolism was found in the bilateral inferior frontal gyri, bilateral caudate, bilateral thalamus, left insula, left superior frontal gyrus, left uncus, right superior temporal gyrus, right medial frontal gyrus, right parahippocampal gyrus, right anterior cingulate gyrus (P < 0.001 corrected, extent threshold k = 100). 14 VOIs values of brain regions were calculated based on this negative correlation results. The rate of decline across all defined VOIs assessed in the age category of 'more than 70' referenced to the category of '30- 39years' were 7.85% in the entire sample; 7.62% in male and 8.09% in female. Detailed analyses of declines in each age range showed separable patterns of declines across gender. In males, greater decline was observed after the age 60 (20.45%) than the ages of 30 and 50(7.98%). Whereas in females, greater declines were found in age 60s (20.15%) compared to 50s, and in 40(14.84%) compared to 30s. Age-related decline in cerebral glucose metabolism was found in both genders. We further observed that males show a relatively constant pattern of decline across a life span; whereas, females show a pattern of steep changes aging to 60s and to 40s, which may be related to changes in sex hormone levels after menopause

  19. Age-related differences in recall for words using semantics and prosody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sober, Jonathan D; VanWormer, Lisa A; Arruda, James E

    2016-01-01

    The positivity effect is a developmental shift seen in older adults to be increasingly influenced by positive information in areas such as memory, attention, and decision-making. This study is the first to examine the age-related differences of the positivity effect for emotional prosody. Participants heard a factorial combination of words that were semantically positive or negative said with either positive or negative intonation. Results showed a semantic positivity effect for older adults, and a prosody positivity effect for younger adults. Additionally, older adults showed a significant decrease in recall for semantically negative words said in an incongruent prosodically positive tone.

  20. Tune in or tune out: age-related differences in listening to speech in music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Frank A; Pichora-Fuller, M Kathleen

    2008-10-01

    To examine age-related differences in listening to speech in music. In the first experiment, the effect of music familiarity on word identification was compared with a standard measure of word identification in multitalker babble. The average level of the backgrounds was matched and two speech-to-background ratios were tested. In the second experiment, recognition recall was measured for background music heard during a word identification task. For older adults, word identification did not depend on the type of background, but for younger adults word identification was better when the background was familiar music than when it was unfamiliar music or babble. Younger listeners remembered background music better than older listeners, with the pattern of false alarms suggesting that younger listeners consciously processed the background music more than older listeners. In other words, younger listeners attempted to "tune in" the music background, but older listeners attempted to "tune out" the background. These findings reveal age-related differences in listening to speech in music. When older listeners are confronted with a music background they tend to focus attention on the speech foreground. In contrast, younger listeners attend to both the speech foreground and music background. When music is familiar, this strategy adopted by younger listeners seems to be beneficial to word identification.

  1. Prevalence of anti-retinal autoantibodies in different stages of Age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamus, Grazyna; Chew, Emily Y; Ferris, Frederick L; Klein, Michael L

    2014-12-08

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of central vision loss in older adults. Anti-retinal autoantibodies (AAbs) have been found in individuals with AMD. The goal of the study was to determine the AAb specificity in different stages of AMD, and determine whether there is a prevalent AAb signature. Sera of 134 participants in the Age-related Eye Disease Study were analyzed for anti-retinal AAbs by western blotting. The subjects were classified by diagnostic subgroups based upon their clinical classification: No AMD, Intermediate AMD, and Late AMD - geographic atrophy (GA) and Late AMD - neovascular (NV). The presence of anti-retinal AAb was detected in 58% patients with Intermediate and Late AMD, and 54% of those with no AMD. AAbs bound to fifteen different retinal antigens. Most individuals had 1 specific AAbs (67%), with the remainder having 2 to 4 different AAbs. Over 40% of patients with Intermediate AMD, and 46% of those with GA had anti-enolase AAbs, compared with 29% of individuals with NV and 29% with no AMD. Different AAbs signatures related to NV as compared to GA and/or Intermediate AMD were distinguished. Anti-40-kDa (10%) and 42-kDa (16%) autoantibodies were associated with Intermediate AMD, while anti-30-kDa AAbs (23%) were primarily present in GA. Anti-32-kDa (12%), 35-kDa (21%), and 60-kDa (8%) AAbs were more frequent in NV AMD. A unique AAb pattern for each of the disease subgroups was present when AMD progressed from the intermediate to the late forms of severity. Differences in the frequency of specific AAbs between AMD subgroups suggested that they may participate in pathogenicity of AMD. Further studies are necessary to confirm these observations in the larger cohort and individual AMD patients over time.

  2. Reaction time inconsistency in a spatial stroop task: age-related differences through childhood and adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Benjamin R; Strauss, Esther H; Hultsch, David F; Hunter, Michael A

    2007-07-01

    Age-related differences in inconsistency of reaction time (RT) across the life span were examined on a task with differing levels of demand on executive control. A total of 546 participants, aged 5 to 76 years, completed a spatial Stroop task that permitted observations under three conditions (congruent, incongruent, and neutral) according to the correspondence between the required response (based on stimulus direction) and stimulus location. An interference effect was observed across all ages. Analyses of neutral condition data replicated previous research demonstrating RT inconsistency follows a U-shaped developmental curve across the life span. The relationship between age and inconsistency, however, depended on condition: inconsistency in the congruent condition was higher than inconsistency in both the neutral and incongruent conditions across middle-aged groups. Reaction time inconsistency may reflect processing efficiency that is maximal in young adulthood and may also be sensitive to fluctuations in performance that reflect momentarily highly efficient responding.

  3. Age-Related Differences in Lexical Access Relate to Speech Recognition in Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Rebecca; Warzybok, Anna; Kollmeier, Birger; Ruigendijk, Esther

    2016-01-01

    Vocabulary size has been suggested as a useful measure of “verbal abilities” that correlates with speech recognition scores. Knowing more words is linked to better speech recognition. How vocabulary knowledge translates to general speech recognition mechanisms, how these mechanisms relate to offline speech recognition scores, and how they may be modulated by acoustical distortion or age, is less clear. Age-related differences in linguistic measures may predict age-related differences in speech recognition in noise performance. We hypothesized that speech recognition performance can be predicted by the efficiency of lexical access, which refers to the speed with which a given word can be searched and accessed relative to the size of the mental lexicon. We tested speech recognition in a clinical German sentence-in-noise test at two signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs), in 22 younger (18–35 years) and 22 older (60–78 years) listeners with normal hearing. We also assessed receptive vocabulary, lexical access time, verbal working memory, and hearing thresholds as measures of individual differences. Age group, SNR level, vocabulary size, and lexical access time were significant predictors of individual speech recognition scores, but working memory and hearing threshold were not. Interestingly, longer accessing times were correlated with better speech recognition scores. Hierarchical regression models for each subset of age group and SNR showed very similar patterns: the combination of vocabulary size and lexical access time contributed most to speech recognition performance; only for the younger group at the better SNR (yielding about 85% correct speech recognition) did vocabulary size alone predict performance. Our data suggest that successful speech recognition in noise is mainly modulated by the efficiency of lexical access. This suggests that older adults’ poorer performance in the speech recognition task may have arisen from reduced efficiency in lexical access

  4. Distinct aspects of frontal lobe structure mediate age-related differences in fluid intelligence and multitasking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kievit, Rogier A.; Davis, Simon W.; Mitchell, Daniel J.; Taylor, Jason R.; Duncan, John; Tyler, Lorraine K.; Brayne, Carol; Bullmore, Ed; Calder, Andrew; Cusack, Rhodri; Dalgleish, Tim; Matthews, Fiona; Marslen-Wilson, William; Rowe, James; Shafto, Meredith; Campbell, Karen; Cheung, Teresa; Geerligs, Linda; McCarrey, Anna; Tsvetanov, Kamen; Williams, Nitin; Bates, Lauren; Emery, Tina; Erzinçlioglu, Sharon; Gadie, Andrew; Gerbase, Sofia; Georgieva, Stanimira; Hanley, Claire; Parkin, Beth; Troy, David; Allen, Jodie; Amery, Gillian; Amunts, Liana; Barcroft, Anne; Castle, Amanda; Dias, Cheryl; Dowrick, Jonathan; Fair, Melissa; Fisher, Hayley; Goulding, Anna; Grewal, Adarsh; Hale, Geoff; Hilton, Andrew; Johnson, Frances; Johnston, Patricia; Kavanagh-Williamson, Thea; Kwasniewska, Magdalena; McMinn, Alison; Norman, Kim; Penrose, Jessica; Roby, Fiona; Rowland, Diane; Sargeant, John; Squire, Maggie; Stevens, Beth; Stoddart, Aldabra; Stone, Cheryl; Thompson, Tracy; Yazlik, Ozlem; Barnes, Dan; Dixon, Marie; Hillman, Jaya; Mitchell, Joanne; Villis, Laura; Henson, Richard N.A.

    2014-01-01

    Ageing is characterized by declines on a variety of cognitive measures. These declines are often attributed to a general, unitary underlying cause, such as a reduction in executive function owing to atrophy of the prefrontal cortex. However, age-related changes are likely multifactorial, and the relationship between neural changes and cognitive measures is not well-understood. Here we address this in a large (N=567), population-based sample drawn from the Cambridge Centre for Ageing and Neuroscience (Cam-CAN) data. We relate fluid intelligence and multitasking to multiple brain measures, including grey matter in various prefrontal regions and white matter integrity connecting those regions. We show that multitasking and fluid intelligence are separable cognitive abilities, with differential sensitivities to age, which are mediated by distinct neural subsystems that show different prediction in older versus younger individuals. These results suggest that prefrontal ageing is a manifold process demanding multifaceted models of neurocognitive ageing. PMID:25519467

  5. Age-related differences in street-crossing safety before and after training of older pedestrians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dommes, Aurélie; Cavallo, Viola; Vienne, Fabrice; Aillerie, Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    International accident statistics indicate that elderly pedestrians make up an extremely vulnerable road-user group. Past research has shown that older adults make many unsafe street-crossing decisions and adopt insufficient safety margins, especially when vehicles are approaching at high speed. Apart from studies on road design and speed-limit countermeasures, there is surprisingly no road-safety research on behavior-based measures to improve older pedestrians' safety. In this line, the present study was aimed at (i) assessing the effectiveness of a training program for older pedestrians that combined behavioral and educational interventions, and (ii) examining whether and to what extent age-related differences in street-crossing safety could be reduced after training older adults. Twenty seniors were enrolled in a training program. Before, immediately after, and six months after training, street-crossing behavior was assessed using a simulated street-crossing task. Twenty younger participants performed the same simulated task to obtain a baseline measure. The results showed that the training produced significant short- and long-term benefits, due to a shifting of the decision criteria among the older participants towards more conservative judgments. When compared with the younger group, the older participants improved their behavior considerably so that significant differences in the mean safety-related indicators were no longer observed. However, the older participants' ability to take the oncoming car's speed into account did not improve. Even after training, and contrary to younger adults, older participants were found to make more and more unsafe decisions as the car's speed increased, putting them at a higher risk at high speeds. This finding may reflect age-related perceptual and cognitive difficulties that cannot be remedied by a behavioral or educational training method. The present findings underline that high speed is an important risk factor for

  6. Foot and ankle strength assessment using hand-held dynamometry: reliability and age-related differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spink, Martin J; Fotoohabadi, Mohammad R; Menz, Hylton B

    2010-01-01

    Age-related reduction in lower limb muscle strength has been shown to be related to disability, falls and loss of independence. While there have been a number of studies on age-related changes in muscle strength, they have concentrated on more proximal muscle groups with little research into how ageing affects the muscles of the foot and ankle. To evaluate the intra- and interrater reliability of hand-held dynamometry for the assessment of foot and ankle strength, and to compare the values obtained between young and older people. The muscle groups which perform ankle dorsiflexion, plantar flexion, inversion, eversion and plantar flexion of the hallux and lesser digits were recorded for 36 young participants (17 males, 19 females, mean age 23.2 ± 4.3 years) and 36 older people (17 males, 19 females, mean age 77.1 ± 5.7 years) using a Citec hand-held dynamometer. Differences in muscle strength between the groups as well as intrarater and interrater reliability of two assessors were determined. The reliability of the hand-held dynamometry procedure was excellent for both intrarater (ICC(3,1) = 0.78-0.94) and interrater (ICC(3,1) = 0.77-0.88) comparisons. There were significant differences between the muscle strength of the young and older participants for all muscle groups tested (p dynamometry is a reliable instrument to measure the foot and ankle strength of young and older adults. Ageing is associated with a reduction in strength of between 24 and 37% for the muscles responsible for movement of the foot and ankle. Copyright © 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Age-related differences in norepinephrine kinetics: Effect of posture and sodium-restricted diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supiano, M.A.; Linares, O.A.; Smith, M.J.; Halter, J.B.

    1990-01-01

    We used compartmental analysis to study the influence of age on the kinetics of norepinephrine (NE) distribution and metabolism. Plasma NE and [3H]NE levels were measured in 10 young (age 19-33 yr) and 13 elderly (age 62-73 yr) subjects in the basal supine position, during upright posture, and after 1 wk of a sodium-restricted diet. We found that the basal supine release rate of NE into the extravascular compartment, which is the site of endogenous NE release (NE2), was significantly increased in the elderly group (young, 9.6 +/- 0.5; elderly, 12.3 +/- 0.8 nmol.min-1.m-2; means +/- SE; P = 0.016), providing direct evidence for an age-related increase in sympathetic nervous system (SNS) tone. Although upright posture led to a greater increase in plasma NE in the young (0.90 +/- 0.07 to 2.36 +/- 0.16 nM) than in the elderly (1.31 +/- 0.11 to 2.56 +/- 0.31 nM; age group-posture interaction, P = 0.02), the increase in NE2 was similar between the young (9.6 +/- 0.6 to 16.2 +/- 1.5 nmol.min-1.m-2) and the elderly (11.6 +/- 1.4 to 16.1 +/- 2.4 nmol.min-1.m-2; posture effect, P = 0.001; age group-posture interaction, P = 0.15). Thus the increase in SNS tone resulting from upright posture was similar in young and elderly subjects. Plasma NE levels increased similarly in both groups after a sodium-restricted diet (diet effect, P = 0.001; age group-diet interaction, P = 0.23). However, NE2 did not increase significantly in either group (diet effect, P = 0.26), suggesting that SNS tone did not increase after a sodium-restricted diet. Compartmental analysis provides a description of age-related differences in NE kinetics, including an age-related increase in the extravascular NE release rate

  8. Age-related differences in norepinephrine kinetics: Effect of posture and sodium-restricted diet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Supiano, M.A.; Linares, O.A.; Smith, M.J.; Halter, J.B. (Univ. of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor (USA))

    1990-09-01

    We used compartmental analysis to study the influence of age on the kinetics of norepinephrine (NE) distribution and metabolism. Plasma NE and (3H)NE levels were measured in 10 young (age 19-33 yr) and 13 elderly (age 62-73 yr) subjects in the basal supine position, during upright posture, and after 1 wk of a sodium-restricted diet. We found that the basal supine release rate of NE into the extravascular compartment, which is the site of endogenous NE release (NE2), was significantly increased in the elderly group (young, 9.6 +/- 0.5; elderly, 12.3 +/- 0.8 nmol.min-1.m-2; means +/- SE; P = 0.016), providing direct evidence for an age-related increase in sympathetic nervous system (SNS) tone. Although upright posture led to a greater increase in plasma NE in the young (0.90 +/- 0.07 to 2.36 +/- 0.16 nM) than in the elderly (1.31 +/- 0.11 to 2.56 +/- 0.31 nM; age group-posture interaction, P = 0.02), the increase in NE2 was similar between the young (9.6 +/- 0.6 to 16.2 +/- 1.5 nmol.min-1.m-2) and the elderly (11.6 +/- 1.4 to 16.1 +/- 2.4 nmol.min-1.m-2; posture effect, P = 0.001; age group-posture interaction, P = 0.15). Thus the increase in SNS tone resulting from upright posture was similar in young and elderly subjects. Plasma NE levels increased similarly in both groups after a sodium-restricted diet (diet effect, P = 0.001; age group-diet interaction, P = 0.23). However, NE2 did not increase significantly in either group (diet effect, P = 0.26), suggesting that SNS tone did not increase after a sodium-restricted diet. Compartmental analysis provides a description of age-related differences in NE kinetics, including an age-related increase in the extravascular NE release rate.

  9. Age related differences in reaction time components and diffusion properties of normal-appearing white matter in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yiqin; Bender, Andrew R; Raz, Naftali

    2015-01-01

    Deterioration of the white matter (WM) is viewed as the neural substrate of age differences in speed of information processing (reaction time, RT). However, the relationship between WM and RT components is rarely examined in healthy aging. We assessed the relationship between RT components derived from the Ratcliff diffusion model and micro-structural properties of normal-appearing WM (NAWM) in 90 healthy adults (age 18-82 years). We replicated all major extant findings pertaining to age differences in RT components and WM: lower drift rate, greater response conservativeness, longer non-decision time, lower fractional anisotropy (FA), greater mean (MD), axial (AD) and radial (RD) diffusivity were associated with advanced age. Age differences in anterior regions of the cerebral WM exceeded those in posterior regions. However, the only relationship between RT components and WM was the positive association between DR in the body of the corpus callosum and non-decision time. Thus, in healthy adults, age differences in NAWM diffusion properties are not a major contributor to age differences in RT components. Longitudinal studies with more precise and specific estimates of regional myelin content and evaluation of the contribution of age-related vascular risk factors are necessary to understand cerebral substrates of age-related cognitive slowing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Age-related differences in muscle fatigue vary by contraction type: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avin, Keith G; Law, Laura A Frey

    2011-08-01

    During senescence, despite the loss of strength (force-generating capability) associated with sarcopenia, muscle endurance may improve for isometric contractions. The purpose of this study was to perform a systematic meta-analysis of young versus older adults, considering likely moderators (ie, contraction type, joint, sex, activity level, and task intensity). A 2-stage systematic review identified potential studies from PubMed, CINAHL, PEDro, EBSCOhost: ERIC, EBSCOhost: Sportdiscus, and The Cochrane Library. Studies reporting fatigue tasks (voluntary activation) performed at a relative intensity in both young (18-45 years of age) and old (≥ 55 years of age) adults who were healthy were considered. Sample size, mean and variance outcome data (ie, fatigue index or endurance time), joint, contraction type, task intensity (percentage of maximum), sex, and activity levels were extracted. Effect sizes were (1) computed for all data points; (2) subgrouped by contraction type, sex, joint or muscle group, intensity, or activity level; and (3) further subgrouped between contraction type and the remaining moderators. Out of 3,457 potential studies, 46 publications (with 78 distinct effect size data points) met all inclusion criteria. A lack of available data limited subgroup analyses (ie, sex, intensity, joint), as did a disproportionate spread of data (most intensities ≥ 50% of maximum voluntary contraction). Overall, older adults were able to sustain relative-intensity tasks significantly longer or with less force decay than younger adults (effect size=0.49). However, this age-related difference was present only for sustained and intermittent isometric contractions, whereas this age-related advantage was lost for dynamic tasks. When controlling for contraction type, the additional modifiers played minor roles. Identifying muscle endurance capabilities in the older adult may provide an avenue to improve functional capabilities, despite a clearly established decrement in

  11. Age-related differences in internalizing psychopathology amongst the Australian general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunderland, Matthew; Slade, Tim; Carragher, Natacha; Batterham, Philip; Buchan, Heather

    2013-11-01

    Two methodological criticisms have limited the reliability and validity of findings from previous studies that seek to examine change across the life span in levels of internalizing psychopathology using general population surveys. The first criticism involves the potential influence of cohort effects that confound true age-related changes whereas the second criticism involves the use of a single form of assessment to measure and compare levels of internalizing psychopathology. This study seeks to address these criticisms by modeling age-related change using multiple measures and multiple surveys. Data from 2 epidemiological surveys conducted 10 years apart in the Australian general population were combined and used for the current study. The latent construct of internalizing psychopathology was modeled using a combination of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) depression and anxiety diagnoses as well as items from the Kessler Psychological Distress scale (K10; Kessler et al., 2002). Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) indicated that a single internalizing dimension provided good model fit to the data. Multigroup CFA indicated that strict measurement invariance of the model can be assumed across survey administrations and age bands, justifying comparisons of mean differences in latent trait levels. Significant changes in mean levels of latent internalizing psychopathology were evident between respondents aged 30-39 years old in 1997 and respondents aged 40-49 years old in 2007, suggesting a minor but significant increase in psychopathology across middle age. By contrast, a minor but significant decrease in psychopathology was noted when transitioning from late middle age (50-59 years old) to old age (60-69 years old). The majority of individuals in the general population will experience constant levels of internalizing psychopathology as they age, suggesting that the construct is relatively

  12. Tuning to the Positive: Age-Related Differences in Subjective Perception of Facial Emotion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rochelle Picardo

    Full Text Available Facial expressions aid social transactions and serve as socialization tools, with smiles signaling approval and reward, and angry faces signaling disapproval and punishment. The present study examined whether the subjective experience of positive vs. negative facial expressions differs between children and adults. Specifically, we examined age-related differences in biases toward happy and angry facial expressions. Young children (5-7 years and young adults (18-29 years rated the intensity of happy and angry expressions as well as levels of experienced arousal. Results showed that young children-but not young adults-rated happy facial expressions as both more intense and arousing than angry faces. This finding, which we replicated in two independent samples, was not due to differences in the ability to identify facial expressions, and suggests that children are more tuned to information in positive expressions. Together these studies provide evidence that children see unambiguous adult emotional expressions through rose-colored glasses, and suggest that what is emotionally relevant can shift with development.

  13. An examination of black/white differences in the rate of age-related mortality increase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Fenelon

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The rate of mortality increase with age among adults is typically used as a measure of the rate of functional decline associated with aging or senescence. While black and white populations differ in the level of mortality, mortality also rises less rapidly with age for blacks than for whites, leading to the well-known black/white mortality "crossover". OBJECTIVE This paper investigates black/white differences in the rate of mortality increase with age for major causes of death in order to examine the factors responsible for the black/white crossover. METHODS The analysis considers two explanations for the crossover: selective survival and age misreporting. Mortality is modeled using a Gompertz model for 11 causes of death from ages 50-84 among blacks and whites by sex. RESULTS Mortality increases more rapidly with age for whites than for blacks for nearly all causes of death considered. The all-cause mortality rate of mortality increase is nearly two percentage points higher for whites. The analysis finds evidence for both selective survival and age misreporting, although age misreporting is a more prominent explanation among women. CONCLUSIONS The black/white mortality crossover reflects large differences in the rate of age-related mortality increase. Instead of reflecting the impact of specific causes of death, this pattern exists across many disparate disease conditions, indicating the need for a broad explanation.

  14. Age-related difference in the effective neural connectivity associated with probabilistic category learning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Eun Jin; Cho, Sang Soo; Kim, Hee Jung; Bang, Seong Ae; Park, Hyun Soo; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Kim, Sang Eun

    2007-01-01

    Although it is well known that explicit memory is affected by the deleterious changes in brain with aging, but effect of aging in implicit memory such as probabilistic category learning (PCL) is not clear. To identify the effect of aging on the neural interaction for successful PCL, we investigated the neural substrates of PCL and the age-related changes of the neural network between these brain regions. 23 young (age, 252 y; 11 males) and 14 elderly (673 y; 7 males) healthy subjects underwent FDG PET during a resting state and 150-trial weather prediction (WP) task. Correlations between the WP hit rates and regional glucose metabolism were assessed using SPM2 (P diff (37) = 142.47, P<0.005), Systematic comparisons of each path revealed that frontal crosscallosal and the frontal to parahippocampal connection were most responsible for the model differences (P<0.05). For the successful PCL, the elderly recruits the basal ganglia implicit memory system but MTL recruitment differs from the young. The inadequate MTL correlation pattern in the elderly is may be caused by the changes of the neural pathway related with explicit memory. These neural changes can explain the decreased performance of PCL in elderly subjects

  15. Gender- and age-related differences in heart rate dynamics: are women more complex than men?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, S. M.; Goldberger, A. L.; Pincus, S. M.; Mietus, J.; Lipsitz, L. A.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. This study aimed to quantify the complex dynamics of beat-to-beat sinus rhythm heart rate fluctuations and to determine their differences as a function of gender and age. BACKGROUND. Recently, measures of heart rate variability and the nonlinear "complexity" of heart rate dynamics have been used as indicators of cardiovascular health. Because women have lower cardiovascular risk and greater longevity than men, we postulated that there are important gender-related differences in beat-to-beat heart rate dynamics. METHODS. We analyzed heart rate dynamics during 8-min segments of continuous electrocardiographic recording in healthy young (20 to 39 years old), middle-aged (40 to 64 years old) and elderly (65 to 90 years old) men (n = 40) and women (n = 27) while they performed spontaneous and metronomic (15 breaths/min) breathing. Relatively high (0.15 to 0.40 Hz) and low (0.01 to 0.15 Hz) frequency components of heart rate variability were computed using spectral analysis. The overall "complexity" of each heart rate time series was quantified by its approximate entropy, a measure of regularity derived from nonlinear dynamics ("chaos" theory). RESULTS. Mean heart rate did not differ between the age groups or genders. High frequency heart rate power and the high/low frequency power ratio decreased with age in both men and women (p gender-as well as age-related differences in heart rate dynamics. Whether these gender differences are related to lower cardiovascular disease risk and greater longevity in women requires further study.

  16. A Content Analysis of Testosterone Websites: Sex, Muscle, and Male Age-Related Thematic Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Nicholas; Vuong, Jimmy; Gray, Peter B

    2018-03-01

    Male testosterone supplementation is a large and growing industry. How is testosterone marketed to male consumers online? The present exploratory study entailed a content coding analysis of the home pages of 49 websites focused on testosterone supplementation for men in the United States. Four hypotheses concerning anticipated age-related differences in content coding were also tested: more frequent longevity content toward older men, and more frequent social dominance/physical formidability, muscle, and sex content toward younger men. Codes were created based on inductive observations and drawing upon the medical, life history, and human behavioral endocrinology literatures. Approximately half ( n = 24) of websites were oriented toward younger men (estimated audience of men 40 years of age or younger) and half ( n = 25) toward older men (estimated audience over 40 years of age). Results indicated that the most frequent content codes concerned online sales (e.g., product and purchasing information). Apart from sales information, the most frequent codes concerned, in order, muscle, sex/sexual functioning, low T, energy, fat, strength, aging, and well-being, with all four hypotheses also supported. These findings are interpreted in the light of medical, evolutionary life history, and human behavioral endocrinology approaches.

  17. Age related differences in mechanical demands imposed on the lower back by manual material handling tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shojaei, Iman; Vazirian, Milad; Croft, Emily; Nussbaum, Maury A; Bazrgari, Babak

    2016-04-11

    The prevalence of low back pain (LBP) increases with age, yet the underlying mechanism(s) responsible for this remains unclear. To explore the role of biomechanical factors, we investigated age-related differences in lower-back biomechanics during sagittally-symmetric simulated manual material handling tasks. For each task, trunk kinematics and mechanical demand on the lower back were examined, from among 60 participants within five equal-sized and gender-balanced age groups spanning from 20 to 70 years old. The tasks involved lowering a 4.5 kg load from an upright standing posture to both knee height and a fixed height and then lifting the load back to the initial upright posture. During these tasks, segmental body kinematics and ground reaction forces were collected using wireless inertial measurement units and a force platform. Overall, older participants completed the tasks with larger pelvic rotation and smaller lumbar flexion. Such adopted trunk kinematics resulted in larger peak shearing demand at the lower back in older vs. younger participants. These results suggest that older individuals may be at a higher risk for developing lower back pain when completing similar manual material handling tasks, consistent with epidemiological evidence for higher risks of occupational low back pain among this cohort. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Age-related differences in EEG beta activity during an assessment of ankle proprioception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo, Diana R; Barela, José A; Manzano, Gilberto M; Kohn, André F

    2016-05-27

    The aim of this work was to compare cortical beta oscillatory activity between young (YA) and older (OA) adults during the assessment of ankle proprioception. We analyzed the response time (RT) to kinesthetic perception and beta event-related desynchronization/synchronization (ERD/ERS) in response to passive ankle movement applied at a slow speed, 0.5°/s. The relationship between ERD/ERS and RT was investigated by classifying the signals into fast-, medium-, and slow-RT. The results showed a temporal relationship between beta oscillation changes and RT for both groups, i.e., earlier ERD and ERS were obtained for trials with faster response time. ERD was larger and delayed in OA compared to the YA, and beta ERS was present only for OA. These findings suggest that a less efficient proprioceptive signaling reaching the brain of OA requires a higher level of brain processing and hence the differences in ERD potentials between YA and OA. Furthermore, the occurrence of ERS in OA might represent a compensatory strategy of active cortical resetting for adequate sensorimotor behavior due to the age-related reduced peripheral input and neuromuscular impairments. Altered balance between excitatory and inhibitory intracortical activity in older adults presumably explains the changes in beta oscillations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of Age-related Differences in Empathy on Social Economic Decision-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beadle, Janelle N.; Paradiso, Sergio; Kovach, Christopher; Polgreen, Linnea; Denburg, Natalie; Tranel, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Background The ways in which aging affects social economic decision-making is a central issue in the psychology of aging. To examine age-related differences in social economic decision-making as a function of empathy, 80 healthy volunteers participated in the Repeated Fixed Opponent Ultimatum Game (UG-R). Previous economic decision making research has shown that in younger adults empathy is associated with prosocial behavior. The effects of empathy on older adult social economic decision-making are not well understood. Methods On each of 20 consecutive trials in the UG-R, one player (“Proposer”) splits ten dollars with another player (“Responder”) who chooses either to accept (whereby both receive the proposed division) or reject (whereby neither receives anything). Trait cognitive and emotional empathy were measured using the Interpersonal Reactivity Index. Results UG-R data were examined as a function of age and cognitive empathy. For unfair offers (i.e., offers less than $5), older Responders with high cognitive empathy showed less prosocial behavior and obtained greater payoffs than younger Responders with high cognitive empathy. Conclusions High levels of cognitive empathy may differentially affect economic decision making behavior in younger and older adults. For older adults, high cognitive empathy may be involved in obtaining high financial payoffs while for younger adults it may instead facilitate social relationships. PMID:22237008

  20. Effects of age-related differences in empathy on social economic decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beadle, Janelle N; Paradiso, Sergio; Kovach, Christopher; Polgreen, Linnea; Denburg, Natalie L; Tranel, Daniel

    2012-05-01

    The ways in which aging affects social economic decision-making is a central issue in the psychology of aging. To examine age-related differences in social economic decision-making as a function of empathy, 80 healthy volunteers participated in the Repeated Fixed Opponent Ultimatum Game (UG-R). Previous economic decision-making research has shown that in younger adults empathy is associated with prosocial behavior. The effects of empathy on older adult social economic decision-making are not well understood. On each of 20 consecutive trials in the UG-R, one player ("Proposer") splits $10 with another player ("Responder") who chooses either to accept (whereby both receive the proposed division) or reject (whereby neither receives anything). Trait cognitive and emotional empathy were measured using the Interpersonal Reactivity Index. UG-R data were examined as a function of age and cognitive empathy. For "unfair" offers (i.e. offers less than $5), older Responders with high cognitive empathy showed less prosocial behavior and obtained greater payoffs than younger Responders with high cognitive empathy. High levels of cognitive empathy may differentially affect economic decision-making behavior in younger and older adults. For older adults, high cognitive empathy may play a role in obtaining high financial payoffs while for younger adults it may instead be involved in facilitating social relationships.

  1. Age-related differences in twitch properties and muscle activation of the first dorsal interosseous.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jonathan D; Herda, Trent J; Trevino, Michael A; Sterczala, Adam J; Ciccone, Anthony B; Nicoll, Justin X

    2017-06-01

    To examine twitch force potentiation and twitch contraction duration, as well as electromyographic amplitude (EMG RMS ) and motor unit mean firing rates (MFR) at targeted forces between young and old individuals in the first dorsal interosseous (FDI). Ultrasonography was used to assess muscle quality. Twenty-two young (YG) (age=22.6±2.7years) and 14 older (OD) (age=62.1±4.7years) individuals completed conditioning contractions at 10% and 50% maximal voluntary contraction, (MVC) during which EMG RMS and MFRs were assessed. Evoked twitches preceded and followed the conditioning contractions. Ultrasound images were taken to quantify muscle quality (cross-sectional area [CSA] and echo intensity [EI]). No differences were found between young and old for CSA, pre-conditioning contraction twitch force, or MFRs (P>0.05). However, OD individuals exhibited greater EI and contraction duration (PMFRs. Ultrasonography suggested age-related changes in muscle structure contributed to altered contractile properties in the OD. Greater muscle activation requirements can have negative implications on fatigue resistance at low to moderate intensities in older individuals. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Age related differences of selected Hatha yoga practices on anthropometric characteristics, muscular strength and flexibility of healthy individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushik Halder

    2015-01-01

    Summary and Conclusion: Hatha yoga can improve anthropometric characteristics, muscular strength and flexibility among volunteers of different age group and can also be helpful in preventing and attenuating age related deterioration of these parameters.

  3. Age-Related Differences in Corticospinal Excitability during Observation and Motor Imagery of Balance Tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouthon, Audrey A; Ruffieux, Jan; Keller, Martin; Taube, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Postural control declines across adult lifespan. Non-physical balance training has been suggested as an alternative to improve postural control in frail/immobilized elderly people. Previous studies showed that this kind of training can improve balance control in young and older adults. However, it is unclear whether the brain of young and older adults is activated differently during mental simulations of balance tasks. For this purpose, soleus (SOL) and tibialis motor evoked potentials (MEPs) and SOL H-reflexes were elicited while 15 elderly (mean ± SD = 71 ± 4.6 years) and 15 young participants (mean ± SD = 27 ± 4.6 years) mentally simulated static and dynamic balance tasks using motor imagery (MI), action observation (AO) or the combination of AO and MI (AO + MI). Young subjects displayed significant modulations of MEPs that depended on the kind of mental simulation and the postural task. Elderly adults also revealed differences between tasks, but not between mental simulation conditions. Furthermore, the elderly displayed larger MEP facilitation during mental simulation (AGE-GROUP; F (1,28) = 5.9; p = 0.02) in the SOL muscle compared to the young and a task-dependent modulation of the tibialis background electromyography (bEMG) activity. H-reflex amplitudes and bEMG in the SOL showed neither task- nor age-dependent modulation. As neither mental simulation nor balance tasks modulated H-reflexes and bEMG in the SOL muscle, despite large variations in the MEP-amplitudes, there seems to be an age-related change in the internal cortical representation of balance tasks. Moreover, the modulation of the tibialis bEMG in the elderly suggests that aging partially affects the ability to inhibit motor output.

  4. Gender- and age-related differences in heart rate dynamics: are women more complex than men?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, S. M.; Goldberger, A. L.; Pincus, S. M.; Mietus, J.; Lipsitz, L. A.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. This study aimed to quantify the complex dynamics of beat-to-beat sinus rhythm heart rate fluctuations and to determine their differences as a function of gender and age. BACKGROUND. Recently, measures of heart rate variability and the nonlinear "complexity" of heart rate dynamics have been used as indicators of cardiovascular health. Because women have lower cardiovascular risk and greater longevity than men, we postulated that there are important gender-related differences in beat-to-beat heart rate dynamics. METHODS. We analyzed heart rate dynamics during 8-min segments of continuous electrocardiographic recording in healthy young (20 to 39 years old), middle-aged (40 to 64 years old) and elderly (65 to 90 years old) men (n = 40) and women (n = 27) while they performed spontaneous and metronomic (15 breaths/min) breathing. Relatively high (0.15 to 0.40 Hz) and low (0.01 to 0.15 Hz) frequency components of heart rate variability were computed using spectral analysis. The overall "complexity" of each heart rate time series was quantified by its approximate entropy, a measure of regularity derived from nonlinear dynamics ("chaos" theory). RESULTS. Mean heart rate did not differ between the age groups or genders. High frequency heart rate power and the high/low frequency power ratio decreased with age in both men and women (p < 0.05). The high/low frequency power ratio during spontaneous and metronomic breathing was greater in women than men (p < 0.05). Heart rate approximate entropy decreased with age and was higher in women than men (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS. High frequency heart rate spectral power (associated with parasympathetic activity) and the overall complexity of heart rate dynamics are higher in women than men. These complementary findings indicate the need to account for gender-as well as age-related differences in heart rate dynamics. Whether these gender differences are related to lower cardiovascular disease risk and greater longevity in

  5. Age-related differences in the functional properties of lips compared with skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, E; Ishikawa, J; Sugata, K; Tsukahara, K; Yasumori, H; Yamamoto, T

    2018-02-06

    Lips can easily become dry and rough and their biggest problems are drying and chapping. The cause of those problems is considered to be that the stratum corneum (SC) moisture is small and its barrier function is low. However, those problems decrease in subjects as they approach 40 years of age, after which problems due to their shape and color increase. The purpose of this study was to investigate relationships between SC properties of the lips during aging and to clarify the cause(s) of lip problems. One hundred and 38 Japanese female subjects with normal skin ranging in age from 16 to 78 years were enrolled in the study. The capacitance and transepidermal water loss (TEWL) values, viscoelasticity, and color of their lips were measured and compared with their cheeks. The capacitance values for the lip and the cheek increased and TEWL values for both areas decreased with age. TEWL values for the lip decreased until ~30 years of age and this is considered to be related to the problem of drying. Although the maximum amplitude U f of the lip increased with age, the U r /U f had no correlation with age. As for color, the L* and a* values decreased with age. Age-related changes with regard to SC functions, viscoelasticity and color of the lips have been clarified for the first time, and it is clear that these changes are related to problems of the lips. Compared with the cheeks, differences with the lips are more apparent. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Age-related differences in foot mobility in individuals with patellofemoral pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jade M; Crossley, Kay M; Vicenzino, Bill; Menz, Hylton B; Munteanu, Shannon E; Collins, Natalie J

    2018-01-01

    Age-related changes in midfoot mobility have the potential to influence success with foot orthoses intervention in people with patellofemoral pain (PFP). The aim of this study was to determine whether older people with PFP demonstrate less foot mobility than younger adults with PFP. One hundred ninety four participants (113 (58%) women, age 32 ± 7 years, BMI 25 ± 4.9 kg/m 2 ) with PFP (≥ 6 weeks duration) were included, with foot mobility quantified using reliable and valid methods. K-means cluster analysis classified participants into three homogenous groups based on age. After cluster formation, univariate analyses of co-variance (covariates: sex, weight) were used to compare midfoot height mobility, midfoot width mobility, and foot mobility magnitude between age groups (significance level 0.05). Cluster analysis revealed three distinct age groups: 18-29 years ( n  = 70); 30-39 years ( n  = 101); and 40-50 years ( n  = 23). There was a significant main effect for age for midfoot height mobility ( p  mobility magnitude ( p  = 0.006). Post-hoc analyses revealed that midfoot height mobility differed across all three groups (moderate to large effect sizes), and that foot mobility magnitude was significantly less in those aged 40-50 years compared to those aged 18-25 years (moderate effect size). There were no significant main effects for age for midfoot width mobility ( p  > 0.05). Individuals with PFP aged 40-50 years have less foot mobility than younger adults with PFP. These findings may have implications for evaluation and treatment of older individuals with PFP.

  7. Age-related decrease in motor cortical inhibition during standing under different sensory conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papegaaij, Selma; Taube, Wolfgang; Hogenhout, Margot; Baudry, Stephane; Hortobagyi, Tibor

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although recent studies point to the involvement of the primary motor cortex in postural control, it is unknown if age-related deterioration of postural control is associated with changes in motor cortical circuits. We examined the interaction between age and sensory condition in the

  8. The aqueous humour antioxidative capacity in different types and color of the age-related cataract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žorić Lepša

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Oxidative stress results from increased oxidative processes, decreased antioxidative protection, or both processes simultaneously. Photooxidative stress, as a form of oxidative stress, induced by the energy of solar radiation, today is considered as crucial in the age-related cataractogenesis. Other known and unknown, endogenous and egsogenous factors that contribute to the oxidative stress intensity, can influence the cataract type and brunescence. Thus the oxidative stress intensity and its form might determine the cataract type and brunescence, and also make the efforts in cataract prevention more complex. Hence, the objective of the present paper was to investigate the current amount of antioxidative capacity in aqueous humour during the cataract genesis of different types and pigmentation of cataract. Methods. Transversal review of 80 samples of humour aqueous obtained during extracapsular cataract extraction. Aqueouses were analyzed by tiobarbituric acid (TBA method for the total antioxidant activity estimation, expressed as %iMDA, and by using 0.1 ml of aqueous. Results. The mixed type of cataract showed the statistically significantly lower values of the intensities of antioxidative protection in aqueous humour compared to cortical and nuclear cataracts (p < 0.001, respectively. Between pure nuclear and cortical cataracts we found the small differences of the investigated parameter, but they pointed to the decreased level of antioxidative protection, i.e. the increased intensity of the aqueous humour oxidative stress in the cortical cataract type. A significant correlation between the cortical cataract maturation and the %iMDA (p < 0.05 was found. Conclusions. The role of the oxidative stress, here expressed as the antioxidative capacity of aqueous humour, could not be the same for all the cataract types. The lower level of antioxidative protection of aqueous in brunescent and mixed cataracts may point to the higher

  9. DRYAD and ADH: Further comments on explaining age-related differences in memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveh-Benjamin, Moshe; Smyth, Andrea C

    2016-02-01

    Recently, Smyth and Naveh-Benjamin (2016) questioned some of the main assumptions/hypotheses of DRYAD (or density of representations yields age-related deficits), a global-deficit model of aging and memory judgments (Benjamin, 2010; Benjamin et al., 2012). Smyth and Naveh-Benjamin (2016) provided empirical evidence that seems incompatible with DRYAD, but that fits the associative deficit hypothesis (ADH; Naveh-Benjamin, 2000), 1 specific-deficit theoretical view. In response, Aaron Benjamin (2016) offered a discussion of the complementary strengths and weaknesses of the DRYAD and the ADH, and the potential ways they might work together. We agree with many of his comments, but are not convinced that DRYAD is able to explain basic replicable empirical evidence of the type mentioned in Smyth and Naveh-Benjamin (2016). We discuss the reasons why we are not fully convinced by the demonstration of DRYAD's simulation of results presented in Benjamin (2016) and then present an implementation of ADH in a computationally based age-related impaired neuromodulation approach that was shown to simulate the basic empirical results of age-related associative memory deficits. We also discuss the issues of parsimony of theories and the appropriate type of representation, in the context of global versus specific deficits theoretical views. Finally, we show that the ADH's take on the distinction between items and associations has been adopted by some global computational models of memory. We believe that considerations of the above issues and others raised by Benjamin (2016) can lead to fruitful discussions that will benefit both theory development and existing knowledge of aging and memory. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Age-related differences in implicit learning of subtle third-order sequential structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Ilana J; Howard, James H; Howard, Darlene V

    2007-03-01

    Age-related implicit learning deficits increase with sequence complexity, suggesting there might be limits to the level of structure that older adults can learn implicitly. To test for such limits, we had 12 younger and 12 older adults complete an alternating serial reaction time task containing subtle structure in which every third trial follows a repeating sequence and intervening trials are determined randomly. Results revealed significant age deficits in learning. However, both groups did learn the subtle regularity without explicit awareness, indicating that older adults remain sensitive to highly complex sequential regularities in their environment, albeit to a lesser degree than younger adults.

  11. Investigating Age-related changes in fine motor control across different effectors and the impact of white matter integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtrop, Joseph L; Loucks, Torrey M; Sosnoff, Jacob J; Sutton, Bradley P

    2014-08-01

    Changes in fine motor control that eventually compromise dexterity accompany advanced age; however there is evidence that age-related decline in motor control may not be uniform across effectors. Particularly, the role of central mechanisms in effector-specific decline has not been examined but is relevant for placing age-related motor declines into the growing literature of age-related changes in brain function. We examined sub-maximal force control across three different effectors (fingers, lips, and tongue) in 18 young and 14 older adults. In parallel with the force variability measures we examined changes in white matter structural integrity in effector-specific pathways in the brain with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Motor pathways for each effector were identified by using an fMRI localizer task followed by tractography to identify the fiber tracts propagating to the midbrain. Increases in force control variability were found with age in all three effectors but the effectors showed different degrees of age-related variability. Motor control changes were accompanied by a decline in white matter structural integrity with age shown by measures of fractional anisotropy and radial diffusivity. The DTI metrics appear to mediate some of the age-related declines in motor control. Our findings indicate that the structural integrity of descending motor systems may play a significant role in age-related increases in motor performance variability, but that differential age-related declines in oral and manual effectors are not likely due to structural integrity of descending motor pathways in the brain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. [Clinical evaluation of quality of vision with age-related cataract of different morphologies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Cheng; Zhao, Jiang-yue; Ma, Li-wei; Qu, Bo; Zhang, Jin-song

    2011-11-01

    To investigate influence of cataract morphology on quality of vision in measurement of straylight and contrast sensitivity (CS), and to determine which type of cataract presents higher impairment of quality of vision. In a cross-sectional study, 76 eyes of 76 age-related cataract patients who treated in the Eye Hospital of China Medical University from February 2010 to December 2010 with a best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) of 0.5 or better, were classified into 3 groups: cortical cataract group (33 eyes of 33 subjects), nuclear cataract group (20 eyes of 20 subjects), posterior cataract group (23 eyes of 23 subjects), as well as normal control group (26 eyes of 26 subjects). BCVA, CS and intraocular straylight were respectively measured with phoropter, C-Quant straylight meter and CSV-1000E contrast sensitivity tester. Subjective quality of vision was examined with visual function index-14 (VF-14). Age, BCVA, straylight levels and CS at 3, 6, 12 and 18 c/d were 66.1 ± 6.7, 0.58 ± 0.10, 1.50 ± 0.24, 1.33 ± 0.19, 1.21 ± 0.18, 1.01 ± 0.19, and 0.50 ± 0.09 in the cortical group, 67.6 ± 5.0, 0.62 ± 0.11, 1.46 ± 0.11, 1.38 ± 0.19, 1.28 ± 0.19, 1.09 ± 0.18, and 0.54 ± 0.09 in the nuclear group, 60.6 ± 7.1, 0.57 ± 0.09, 1.85 ± 0.26, 1.11 ± 0.12, 1.04 ± 0.13, 0.89 ± 0.13, 0.34 ± 0.11 in the posterior group, and 63.9 ± 7.3, 1.00 ± 0.11, 1.28 ± 0.17, 1.58 ± 0.19, 1.72 ± 0.21, 1.53 ± 0.19, and 0.71 ± 0.11 in the normal eyes, respectively (F = 9.983, F = 103.925, F = 31.760, F = 28.871, F = 65.889, F = 66.453, F = 61.540; P = 0.000). In SNK-q test, BCVA, levels of straylight and CS at each spatial frequency in the normal eyes were significantly different from that in cataracts of different morphologies (P 0.05); age, straylight levels and CS at each spatial frequency in posterior cataract had significant differences compared with that in cortical and nuclear cataracts (P 0.05). The mean visual function index-14 (VF-14) showed significantly

  13. Age-Related Differences in the Brain Areas outside the Classical Language Areas among Adults Using Category Decision Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yong Won; Song, Hui-Jin; Lee, Jae Jun; Lee, Joo Hwa; Lee, Hui Joong; Yi, Sang Doe; Chang, Hyuk Won; Berl, Madison M.; Gaillard, William D.; Chang, Yongmin

    2012-01-01

    Older adults perform much like younger adults on language. This similar level of performance, however, may come about through different underlying brain processes. In the present study, we evaluated age-related differences in the brain areas outside the typical language areas among adults using a category decision task. Our results showed that…

  14. A socio-emotional selectivity perspective on age-related differences in reactions to psychological contract breach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matthijs Bal; Paul Jansen; Annet de Lange; Mandy van der Velde

    2013-01-01

    The current paper investigated age-related differences in the relations of psychological contract breach with work outcomes over time. Based on affective events theory, we expected job satisfaction to mediate the longitudinal relationship of contract breach with changes in job performance. Moreover,

  15. Age-Related Differences in the Relation between Motivation to Learn and Transfer of Training in Adult Continuing Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gegenfurtner, Andreas; Vauras, Marja

    2012-01-01

    This meta-analysis (k = 38, N = 6977) examined age-related differences in the relation between motivation to learn and transfer of training, using data derived from the literature on adult continuing education of the past 25 years. Based on socioemotional selectivity theory, a lifespan approach to expectancy theory, and research on interest and…

  16. What do younger and older workers want to accomplish? Age-related differences in content and characteristics of occupational goals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zacher, Hannes; Degner, Manuela; Seevaldt, Robert; Frese, Michael; Luedde, Joerg

    2009-01-01

    Demographic changes necessitate that companies commit younger workers and motivate older workers through work design. Age-related differences in occupational goals should be taken into account when accomplishing these challenges. In this study, we investigated goal contents and goal characteristics

  17. Executive Functioning and Processing Speed in Age-Related Differences in Memory: Contribution of a Coding Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudouin, Alexia; Clarys, David; Vanneste, Sandrine; Isingrini, Michel

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine executive dysfunctioning and decreased processing speed as potential mediators of age-related differences in episodic memory. We compared the performances of young and elderly adults in a free-recall task. Participants were also given tests to measure executive functions and perceptual processing speed…

  18. Can chronic multimorbidity explain the age-related differences in strength, speed and balance in older adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welmer, Anna-Karin; Kåreholt, Ingemar; Angleman, Sara; Rydwik, Elisabeth; Fratiglioni, Laura

    2012-10-01

    It is known that physical performance declines with age in general, however there remains much to be understood in terms of age-related differences amongst older adults across a variety of physical components (such as speed, strength and balance), and particularly in terms of the role played by multimorbidity of chronic diseases. We aimed to detect the age-related differences across four components of physical performance and to explore to what extent chronic diseases and multimorbidity may explain such differences. We analyzed cross-sectional data from a population-based sample of 3323 people, aged 60 years and older from the SNAC-K study, Stockholm, Sweden. Physical performance was assessed by trained nurses using several tests (grip strength, walking speed, balance and chair stands). Clinical diagnoses were made by the examining physician based on clinical history and examination. Censored normal regression analyses showed that the 72-90+ year-old persons had 17-40% worse grip strength, 44-86% worse balance, 30-86% worse chair stand score, and 21-59% worse walking speed, compared with the 60-66 year-old persons. Chronic diseases were strongly associated with physical impairment, and this association was particularly strong among the younger men. However, chronic diseases explained only some of the age-related differences in physical performance. When controlling for chronic diseases in the analyses, the age-related differences in physical performance changed 1-11%. In spite of the strong association between multimorbidity and physical impairment, chronic morbidities explained only a small part of the age-related differences in physical performance.

  19. Age-related differences in orienting attention to sound object representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alain, Claude; Cusimano, Madeline; Garami, Linda; Backer, Kristina C; Habelt, Bettina; Chan, Vanessa; Hasher, Lynn

    2018-02-09

    We examined the effect of age on listeners' ability to orient attention to an item in auditory short-term memory (ASTM) using high-density electroencephalography, while participants completed a delayed match-to-sample task. During the retention interval, an uninformative or an informative visual retro-cue guided attention to an item in ASTM. Informative cues speeded response times, but only for young adults. In young adults, informative retro-cues generated greater event-related potential amplitude between 450 and 650 ms at parietal sites, and an increased sustained potential over the left central scalp region, thought to index the deployment of attention and maintenance of the cued item in ASTM, respectively. Both modulations were reduced in older adults. Alpha and low beta oscillatory power suppression was greater when the retro-cue was informative than uninformative, especially in young adults. Our results point toward an age-related decline in orienting attention to the cued item in ASTM. Older adults may be dividing their attention between all items in working memory rather than selectively focusing attention on a single cued item. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Age-related differences in inhibitory control and memory updating in boys with Asperger syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Elisabeth M; Gschaidbauer, Bianca; Kaufmann, Liane; Fink, Andreas; Schulter, Günter; Mittenecker, Erich; Papousek, Ilona

    2016-12-26

    Deficits in specific executive domains are highly prevalent in autism spectrum disorder; however, age-related improvements in executive functions (reflecting prefrontal maturational changes) have been reported even in individuals diagnosed with autism. The current study examined two components of cognitive flexibility (inhibition of prepotent responses and memory monitoring/updating) by using a random-motor-generation task (MPT) in a group of 23 boys with Asperger syndrome (AS) and 23 matched healthy controls. We found poorer inhibition and more repetitive responses in younger AS children solely, but comparable memory monitoring/updating skills across groups. Overall, our findings correspond well with previous studies and reveal that even in AS specific EFs may improve with age and, thus, call for a more differentiated view of executive (dys) function profiles in children diagnosed with AS. Tests such as the random-motor-generation task may help to disentangle more specific processes of executive deficits in autism spectrum disorder as compared to the more classical tests.

  1. Different Strategies for the Treatment of Age-Related Macular Degeneration in China: An Economic Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To assess the cost-effectiveness of bevacizumab compared to ranibizumab, verteporfin photodynamic therapy (PDT, and usual care for the treatment of age-related macular degeneration (AMD in China. Methods. A Markov model was developed according to patient visual acuity (VA in the better-seeing eye (Snellen scale. Four cohorts of patients were treated with one of the following therapies: bevacizumab, ranibizumab, PDT, or usual care. Clinical data related to treatments were obtained from published randomized clinical trials. Direct medical costs and resource utilization in the Chinese health care setting were taken into account. Health and economic outcomes were evaluated over a lifetime horizon. Sensitivity analyses were performed. Results. Treatment with ranibizumab provided the greatest gains in quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs. The cost per marginal QALY gained with bevacizumab over usual care was $1,258, $3,803, and $2,066 for the predominantly classic, minimally classic, and occult lesions, respectively. One-way sensitivity analysis showed considerably influential factors, such as utility values and effectiveness data. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis indicated that, compared to usual care, PDT and ranibizumab most cases would be cost-effective in the bevacizumab arm at a threshold of $7,480/QALY. Conclusion. Bevacizumab can be a cost-effective option for the treatment of AMD in the Chinese setting.

  2. Generational Differences in the 5-Year Incidence of Age-Related Macular Degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruickshanks, Karen J; Nondahl, David M; Johnson, Lauren J; Dalton, Dayna S; Fisher, Mary E; Huang, Guan-Hua; Klein, Barbara E; Klein, Ronald; Schubert, Carla R

    2017-12-01

    Whether a reported decline in the risk of developing age-related macular degeneration (AMD) continued for people born during the Baby Boom years (1946-1964) or later is unknown. These data are important to plan for ocular health care needs in the 21st century. To determine whether the 5-year risk for AMD declined by generation and to identify factors that contributed to improvement in risk. Data came from the longitudinal cohort Beaver Dam Eye Study (March 1, 1988, through September 15, 1990, and March 1, 1993, through June 15, 1995) and the Beaver Dam Offspring Study (June 8, 2005, through August 4, 2008, and July 12, 2010, through March 21, 2013). These population-based studies examined residents of Beaver Dam, Wisconsin, aged 43 to 84 years in 1987 through 1988 and their adult offspring aged 21 to 84 years in 2005 through 2008. A total of 4819 participants were at risk for developing AMD based on fundus images obtained at baseline visits. Data were analyzed from February 18, 2016, through June 22, 2017, with additional analyses ending September 22, 2017. Fundus images were graded for AMD using the Wisconsin Age-related Maculopathy Grading System. The incidence of AMD was defined as the presence at the 5-year follow-up examination of pure geographic atrophy or exudative macular degeneration, any type of drusen with pigmentary abnormalities, or soft indistinct drusen without pigmentary abnormalities. Among the 4819 participants, the mean (SD) baseline age of the cohort was 54 (11) years; 2117 were men (43.9%) and 2702 were women (56.1%). The 5-year age- and sex-adjusted incidence of AMD was 8.8% in the Greatest Generation (born during 1901-1924), 3.0% in the Silent Generation (born during 1925-1945), 1.0% in the Baby Boom Generation (born during 1946-1964), and 0.3% in Generation X (born during 1965-1984). Adjusting for age and sex, each generation was more than 60% less likely to develop AMD than the previous generation (relative risk, 0.34; 95% CI, 0

  3. Tolerance of Muslim beliefs and practices : Age related differences and context effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkuyten, Maykel; Slooter, Luuk

    2007-01-01

    Tolerant judgments of Muslims’ political rights and dissenting beliefs and practices by ethnic Dutch adolescents (12–18 years) were examined. Participants (N = 632) made judgments of different types of behaviors and different contexts in an experimental questionnaire study. As in other studies,

  4. The role of education and verbal abilities in altering the effect of age-related gray matter differences on cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffener, Jason; Barulli, Daniel; Habeck, Christian; O'Shea, Deirdre; Razlighi, Qolamreza; Stern, Yaakov

    2014-01-01

    Evidence suggests that individual variability in lifetime exposures influences how cognitive performance changes with advancing age. Brain maintenance and cognitive reserve are theories meant to account for preserved performance despite advancing age. These theories differ in their causal mechanisms. Brain maintenance predicts more advantageous lifetime exposures will reduce age-related neural differences. Cognitive reserve predicts that lifetime exposures will not directly reduce these differences but minimize their impact on cognitive performance. The present work used moderated-mediation modeling to investigate the contributions of these mechanisms at explaining variability in cognitive performance among a group of 39 healthy younger (mean age (standard deviation) 25.9 (2.92) and 45 healthy older adults (65.2 (2.79)). Cognitive scores were computed using composite measures from three separate domains (speed of processing, fluid reasoning, and memory), while their lifetime exposures were estimated using education and verbal IQ measures. T1-weighted MR images were used to measure cortical thickness and subcortical volumes. Results suggest a stronger role for cognitive reserve mechanisms in explaining age-related cognitive variability: even with age-related reduced gray matter, individuals with greater lifetime exposures could perform better given their quantity of brain measures.

  5. The role of education and verbal abilities in altering the effect of age-related gray matter differences on cognition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Steffener

    Full Text Available Evidence suggests that individual variability in lifetime exposures influences how cognitive performance changes with advancing age. Brain maintenance and cognitive reserve are theories meant to account for preserved performance despite advancing age. These theories differ in their causal mechanisms. Brain maintenance predicts more advantageous lifetime exposures will reduce age-related neural differences. Cognitive reserve predicts that lifetime exposures will not directly reduce these differences but minimize their impact on cognitive performance. The present work used moderated-mediation modeling to investigate the contributions of these mechanisms at explaining variability in cognitive performance among a group of 39 healthy younger (mean age (standard deviation 25.9 (2.92 and 45 healthy older adults (65.2 (2.79. Cognitive scores were computed using composite measures from three separate domains (speed of processing, fluid reasoning, and memory, while their lifetime exposures were estimated using education and verbal IQ measures. T1-weighted MR images were used to measure cortical thickness and subcortical volumes. Results suggest a stronger role for cognitive reserve mechanisms in explaining age-related cognitive variability: even with age-related reduced gray matter, individuals with greater lifetime exposures could perform better given their quantity of brain measures.

  6. Age-related differences in values and economic attitudes among Russians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedotova Vera A.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Analyses of the connection between cultural values and economic development have changed many times in different countries and in different periods. In Russia, which is constantly undergoing economic and social transformations, this issue is especially rel- evant. One can say that culture, to some extent, bears responsibility for economic devel- opment, and so it is to be expected that different generations of the Russian people would perceive questions related to the connection of cultural values and economic attitudes in different ways. This article presents the results of research dedicated to revealing the correlation between cultural values and economic attitudes among different generations of Russians (N = 110 people. The participants were youth (18–25 years old and adults (37–63 years. I found that, for the adult generation, the “power-distance” index (a mea- sure of the level of dependence on power structures was positively correlated with eco- nomic self-determination and the desire to have money. For the younger generation, nei- ther the power-distance index nor the “masculinity” index was associated with economic autonomy, while the “uncertainty-avoidance” index encouraged economic autonomy but did not create additional opportunities for increasing personal income. In the study eco- nomic paternalism was expressed more by the younger generation; they were also more ready to invest energy in business, but they were not as interested as the adult generation in the state of the economy.

  7. Age-related decline in ovarian follicle stocks differ between chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloutier, Christina T; Coxworth, James E; Hawkes, Kristen

    2015-02-01

    Similarity in oldest parturitions in humans and great apes suggests that we maintain ancestral rates of ovarian aging. Consistent with that hypothesis, previous counts of primordial follicles in postmortem ovarian sections from chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) showed follicle stock decline at the same rate that human stocks decline across the same ages. Here, we correct that finding with a chimpanzee sample more than three times larger than the previous one, which also allows comparison into older ages. Analyses show depletion rates similar until about age 35, but after 35, the human counts continue to fall with age, while the change is much less steep in chimpanzees. This difference implicates likely effects on ovarian dynamics from other physiological systems that are senescing at different rates, and, potentially, different perimenopausal experience for chimpanzees and humans.

  8. Caring More and Knowing More Reduces Age-Related Differences in Emotion Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Jennifer Tehan; Isaacowitz, Derek M.

    2015-01-01

    Traditional emotion perception tasks show that older adults are less accurate than young adults at recognizing facial expressions of emotion. Recently, we proposed that socioemotional factors might explain why older adults seem impaired in lab tasks but less so in everyday life (Isaacowitz & Stanley, 2011). Thus, in the present research we empirically tested whether socioemotional factors such as motivation and familiarity can alter this pattern of age effects. In one task, accountability instructions eliminated age differences in the traditional emotion perception task. Using a novel emotion perception paradigm featuring spontaneous dynamic facial expressions of a familiar romantic partner versus a same-age stranger, we found that age differences in emotion perception accuracy were attenuated in the familiar partner condition, relative to the stranger condition. Taken together, the results suggest that both overall accuracy as well as specific patterns of age effects differ appreciably between traditional emotion perception tasks and emotion perception within a socioemotional context. PMID:26030775

  9. Caring more and knowing more reduces age-related differences in emotion perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Jennifer Tehan; Isaacowitz, Derek M

    2015-06-01

    Traditional emotion perception tasks show that older adults are less accurate than are young adults at recognizing facial expressions of emotion. Recently, we proposed that socioemotional factors might explain why older adults seem impaired in lab tasks but less so in everyday life (Isaacowitz & Stanley, 2011). Thus, in the present research we empirically tested whether socioemotional factors such as motivation and familiarity can alter this pattern of age effects. In 1 task, accountability instructions eliminated age differences in the traditional emotion perception task. Using a novel emotion perception paradigm featuring spontaneous dynamic facial expressions of a familiar romantic partner versus a same-age stranger, we found that age differences in emotion perception accuracy were attenuated in the familiar partner condition, relative to the stranger condition. Taken together, the results suggest that both overall accuracy as well as specific patterns of age effects differ appreciably between traditional emotion perception tasks and emotion perception within a socioemotional context. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. a longitudinal study of age-related differences in reactions to phsycological contract breach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paul Jansen; Annet de Lange; Matthijs Bal; Mandy van der Velde

    2013-01-01

    The current paper investigated age‐related differences in the relations of psychological contract breach with work outcomes over time. Based on affective events theory, we expected job satisfaction to mediate the longitudinal relationship of contract breach with changes in job performance. Moreover,

  11. Age-Related Sex Differences in Language Lateralization: A Magnetoencephalography Study in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Vickie Y.; MacDonald, Matt J.; Oh, Anna; Hua, Gordon N.; De Nil, Luc F.; Pang, Elizabeth W.

    2014-01-01

    It is well supported by behavioral and neuroimaging studies that typical language function is lateralized to the left hemisphere in the adult brain and this laterality is less well defined in children. The behavioral literature suggests there maybe be sex differences in language development, but this has not been examined systematically with…

  12. Studies on age-related changes, regional and bilateral differences in the skin blood flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Myung-Wook

    1992-01-01

    Xenon-133 clearance method was used to determine skin blood flow at different sites. The correlation between skin blood flow in the deltoid region and age was examined. In addition, regional and bilateral differences in skin blood flow were examined. The subjects were 60 men. They ranged in age from 23 to 72 years with a mean of 53.3±10.95. Fifty μCi of xenon-133 dissolved in 0.1 ml of sterile distilled water was injected into the skin area. The clearance curve over the skin was recorded for 30 minutes by a scintillation counter. Skin blood flow in the deltoid region decreased significantly with aging. Dorsal skin blood flow in the hands and feet were significantly lower than the deltoid region. Regarding skin blood flow in the deltoid regions, there was significantly bilateral difference. In the hands and feet, the dorsal skin was bilaterally nearly equal. In view of regional hemodynamics in the skin, the conditions for random-pattern skin flap and wound healing were unfavorable in the elderly as compared with younger persons. Skin blood flow decreased gradually from the upper part of the body to the lower part of the body. In skin blood flow in the dorsal skin of the hands and feet, no bilateral difference was observed. (N.K.)

  13. Age-Related Differences in Profiles of Mood-Change Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Jennifer Tehan; Isaacowitz, Derek M.

    2011-01-01

    As a group, older adults report positive affective lives. The extent to which there are subgroups of older adults whose moods are less positive, however, is unclear. Our aim in the present study was to identify and characterize different subgroups of adults who exhibit distinct trajectories of mood change across a relatively short time period.…

  14. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): gender- and age-related differences in neurocognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bálint, S; Czobor, P; Komlósi, S; Mészáros, A; Simon, V; Bitter, I

    2009-08-01

    Despite the growing recognition that the clinical symptom characteristics associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) persist into adulthood in a high proportion of subjects, little is known about the persistence of neurocognitive deficits in ADHD. The objective was twofold: (1) to conduct a meta-analysis of neuropsychological studies to characterize attentional performance in subjects with adult ADHD by examining differences in ADHD versus normal control subjects; and (2) to investigate whether these differences vary as a function of age and gender. Twenty-five neuropsychological studies comparing subjects with adult ADHD and healthy controls were evaluated. Statistical effect size was determined to characterize the difference between ADHD and control subjects. Meta-regression analysis was applied to investigate whether the difference between ADHD and control subjects varied as a function of age and gender across studies. Tests measuring focused and sustained attention yielded an effect size with medium to large magnitude whereas tests of simple attention resulted in a small to medium effect size in terms of poorer attention functioning of ADHD subjects versus controls. On some of the measures (e.g. Stroop interference), a lower level of attention functioning in the ADHD group versus the controls was associated with male gender. Adult ADHD subjects display significantly poorer functioning versus healthy controls on complex but not on simple tasks of attention, and the degree of impairment varies with gender, with males displaying a higher level of impairment.

  15. Age-Related Differences in Judgments of Inappropriate Behavior are Related to Humor Style Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Jennifer Tehan; Lohani, Monika; Isaacowitz, Derek M.

    2014-01-01

    Identifying social gaffes is important for maintaining relationships. Older adults are less able than young to discriminate between socially appropriate and inappropriate behavior in video clips. One open question is how these social appropriateness ratings relate to potential age differences in the perception of what is actually funny or not. In the present study, young, middle-aged, and older adults were equally able to discriminate between appropriate and inappropriate social behavior in a diverse set of clips relevant to both age groups. However, young and middle-aged adults rated the gaffe clips as funnier than control clips and young adults smiled more during the inappropriate clips than the control clips. Older adults did not show this pattern, suggesting that they did not find the inappropriate clips funny. Additionally, young adults endorsed a more aggressive humor style than middle-aged and older adults and aggressive humor style endorsement mediated age differences in social appropriateness ratings. Results are discussed in terms of possible mechanisms such as cohort differences in humor and developmental prioritization of certain humor styles, as well as the importance of investigating age differences in both abilities and preferences. PMID:25244473

  16. Antioxidant content and cytological examination of aqueous fluid from patients with age-related cataracts at different stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X; Sun, J; Dang, G F; Gao, Y; Duan, L; Wu, X Y

    2015-06-11

    We investigated the antioxidant content and conducted a cytological examination of the aqueous fluid and lenses of patients with age-related cataracts at different stages. The levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) in the aqueous fluid and lenses were determined by the xanthine oxidase method, the colorimetric method, and the improved reduced glutathione (GSH) depletion method, respectively. SOD, CAT, and GSH-PX content in the aqueous fluid and lenses decreased significantly with increasing lenticular nucleus hardness grading. However, the number of white blood cells, neutrophils, monocytes, lymphocytes, and eosinophils did not vary significantly with varying lenticular nucleus hardness. Antioxidant content examination is an important quantitative indicator for clinical diagnosis and treatment of age-related cataracts. Antioxidant content in the aqueous fluid and lenses decreased significantly with increasing lenticular nucleus hardness grading. Lenses at hardness level V had the lowest content of antioxidants.

  17. Age-Related Differences in the Gastrointestinal Microbiota of Chinstrap Penguins (Pygoscelis antarctica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Andrés; Balagué, Vanessa; Valera, Francisco; Martínez, Ana; Benzal, Jesús; Motas, Miguel; Diaz, Julia I; Mira, Alex; Pedrós-Alió, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract microbiota is known to play very important roles in the well being of animals. It is a complex community composed by hundreds of microbial species interacting closely among them and with their host, that is, a microbial ecosystem. The development of high throughput sequencing techniques allows studying the diversity of such communities in a realistic way and considerable work has been carried out in mammals and some birds such as chickens. Wild birds have received less attention and in particular, in the case of penguins, only a few individuals of five species have been examined with molecular techniques. We collected cloacal samples from Chinstrap penguins in the Vapour Col rookery in Deception Island, Antarctica, and carried out pyrosequencing of the V1-V3 region of the 16S rDNA in samples from 53 individuals, 27 adults and 26 chicks. This provided the first description of the Chinstrap penguin gastrointestinal tract microbiota and the most extensive in any penguin species. Firmicutes, Bacteoridetes, Proteobacteria, Fusobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Tenericutes were the main components. There were large differences between chicks and adults. The former had more Firmicutes and the latter more Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria. In addition, adults had richer and more diverse bacterial communities than chicks. These differences were also observed between parents and their offspring. On the other hand, nests explained differences in bacterial communities only among chicks. We suggest that environmental factors have a higher importance than genetic factors in the microbiota composition of chicks. The results also showed surprisingly large differences in community composition with other Antarctic penguins including the congeneric Adélie and Gentoo penguins.

  18. Age-Related Differences in Clinical Characteristics and Esophageal Motility in Patients with Dysphagia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakato, Rui; Manabe, Noriaki; Kamada, Tomoari; Matsumoto, Hideo; Shiotani, Akiko; Hata, Jiro; Haruma, Ken

    2017-06-01

    Dysphagia in elderly patients has a major effect on nutrition and quality of life (QOL). Although several studies have shown that aging itself is associated with changes in esophageal motility, the impact of these changes on dysphagia symptoms and QOL is unknown. This study assessed the manometric diagnoses of elderly patients with dysphagia compared with diagnoses in younger counterparts. Participants included 116 consecutive patients examined for dysphagia from 2007 to 2014. We divided patients into three groups by age: Group A, 66 years and older (24 men, 23 women); Group B, 45-65 years (18 men, 24 women); and Group C, 44 years and younger (15 men, 12 women). The three groups were compared in regard to symptoms, esophageal motility, and health-related QOL (HRQOL). All patients underwent esophageal manometry examination and completed a self-administered questionnaire concerning their symptoms; HRQOL assessment was based on results of the Short Form-8 General Health Survey. Symptoms rated ≥4 points on the Likert scale were defined as significant. Although all patients had dysphagia as a major symptom, more elderly patients reported globus sensation, whereas more young patients reported heartburn as the primary symptom. Manometric diagnoses were generally similar across the three groups. Ineffective esophageal motility was more prevalent in Groups A and C than in Group B, although the difference was not statistically significant. No significant differences in manometric parameters or HRQOL were detected among the three groups. Despite differences in symptom patterns, broad manometric diagnoses and impairment of HRQOL in elderly patients with dysphagia are similar to those in younger counterparts.

  19. Age-related differences do affect postural kinematics and joint kinetics during repetitive lifting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boocock, Mark G; Mawston, Grant A; Taylor, Steve

    2015-02-01

    Age is considered a risk factor for manual handling-related injuries and older workers incur higher injury-related costs than younger co-workers. This study investigated the differences between the kinematics and kinetics of repetitive lifting in two groups of handlers of different ages. Fourteen younger (mean 24.4 yr) and 14 older (mean 47.2 yr) males participated in the study. Participants repetitively lifted a box weighing 13 kg at a frequency of 10 lifts/min for a maximum of 20 min. Postural kinematics (joint and lumbosacral angles and angular velocities) and kinetics (joint moments) were measured throughout the lifting task using motion analysis and ground reaction forces. Muscle fatigue of the erector spinae was assessed using electromyography. Peak lumbosacral, trunk, hip and knee flexion angles differed significantly between age groups over the duration of the task, as did lumbosacral and trunk angular velocities. The younger group increased peak lumbar flexion by approximately 18% and approached 99% of maximum lumbosacral flexion after 20 min, whereas the older group increased lumbar flexion by 4% and approached 82% maximum flexion. The younger group had a larger increase in peak lumbosacral and trunk angular velocities during extension, which may be related to the increased back muscle fatigue observed among the younger group. Older participants appeared to control the detrimental effects of fatigue associated with repetitive lifting and limit lumbar spine range of motion. The higher rates of musculoskeletal injury among older workers may stem from a complex interaction of manual handling risk factors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Age-Related Differences of Maximum Phonation Time in Patients after Cardiac Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiro P. Izawa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims: Maximum phonation time (MPT, which is related to respiratory function, is widely used to evaluate maximum vocal capabilities, because its use is non-invasive, quick, and inexpensive. We aimed to examine differences in MPT by age, following recovery phase II cardiac rehabilitation (CR. Methods: This longitudinal observational study assessed 50 consecutive cardiac patients who were divided into the middle-aged group (<65 years, n = 29 and older-aged group (≥65 years, n = 21. MPTs were measured at 1 and 3 months after cardiac surgery, and were compared. Results: The duration of MPT increased more significantly from month 1 to month 3 in the middle-aged group (19.2 ± 7.8 to 27.1 ± 11.6 s, p < 0.001 than in the older-aged group (12.6 ± 3.5 to 17.9 ± 6.0 s, p < 0.001. However, no statistically significant difference occurred in the % change of MPT from 1 month to 3 months after cardiac surgery between the middle-aged group and older-aged group, respectively (41.1% vs. 42.1%. In addition, there were no significant interactions of MPT in the two groups for 1 versus 3 months (F = 1.65, p = 0.20. Conclusion: Following phase II, CR improved MPT for all cardiac surgery patients.

  1. Age-related differences in mechanism, cause, and location of trauma deaths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meisler, Rikke; Thomsen, Annemarie Bondegaard; Theilade, Peter

    2011-01-01

    ages, but the trauma mechanism differed among ages, with falls constituting 46.8% of trauma deaths in the elderly. The primary cause of death was head and spine injuries across all age-groups. Death took place before arrival at the hospital in 45% of the cases, but death during primary admission became...... regarding the trauma type, mechanism, cause and location of death. RESULTS: A total of 2923 patients were registered, of which 292 (9.9%) died within 30 days. Mortality increased with age, with a mortality of 46.1% in patients older than 80 years old. Blunt trauma was the most frequent trauma type at all...... increasingly important with advanced age. CONCLUSION: Increasing age was associated with higher mortality, an increased proportion of falls and fatal head or spine injuries....

  2. False memories in the DRM paradigm: age-related differences in lure activation and source monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugrue, Katrina; Strange, Deryn; Hayne, Harlene

    2009-01-01

    Prior research using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott paradigm has shown that participants are more likely to report the critical lures when long lists are presented. In this experiment, we evaluated two potential explanations for this list-length effect. Ten-year-old children and adults studied 7- or 14-word lists. After recalling each list, participants were then asked to report any other words that they had thought about, but had not reported, during the recall phase. We found that long lists were more likely to activate the critical lure and that short lists did not facilitate source monitoring. On the basis of our findings, we conclude that, for both age groups, the list-length effect was due primarily to list-related differences in activation of the critical lure.

  3. Age-related differences in the temporal dynamics of prospective memory retrieval: a lifespan approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattli, Florentina; Zöllig, Jacqueline; West, Robert

    2011-10-01

    The efficiency of prospective memory (PM) typically increases from childhood to young adulthood and then decreases in later adulthood. The current study used event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to examine the development of the neural correlates of processes associated with the detection of a PM cue, switching from the ongoing activity to the prospective task, retrieval of the intention from memory or task set configuration, and strategic monitoring of the environment. The study included 99 participants that were 7.5-83 years of age. Slow wave activity related to strategic monitoring was reliable across the lifespan suggesting that all ages were able to allocate attentional resources to facilitate PM. Additionally, components of the ERPs related to cue detection, switching, and task configuration were reliable across the lifespan, suggesting that similar processes contribute to PM at all ages. In children, PM errors may have resulted from a decoupling of processes supporting cue detection and switching from the ongoing activity to the prospective element of the task. In younger and older adults, PM errors appeared to result from the failure to detect PM cues in the environment. These findings lead to the conclusion that different processes may contribute to variation in PM across the lifespan. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Age-related differences in 1p and 19q deletions in oligodendrogliomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Del Bigio Marc R

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent reports indicate that anaplastic oligodendrogliomas frequently show allelic losses on chromosome arms 1p and 19q, and that these deletions are associated with better chemotherapeutic response and overall patient survival. Because of the diversified genetic makeup of the population and the centralized provincial referral system for brain tumor patients in Manitoba, the epidemiological features of such tumors sometimes differ from the published data acquired from non-community based settings. In this study, we assessed the prevalence of allelic deletions for chromosome arms 1p and 19q in anaplastic and in low-grade oligodendrogliomas in the Manitoba population. Methods Loss of heterozygosity (LOH analysis of brain tumors was carried out using 4 microsatellite markers (D1S508, D1S2734, D19S219 and D19S412 and a PCR based assay. The tumors were consecutively acquired during the period September 1999–March 2001 and a total of 63 tumors were assessed. Results We found that allelic loss of chromosome 1p and 19q was higher in oligodendrogliomas than in other diffuse gliomas and that for anaplastic oligodendrogliomas, younger patients exhibited significantly more deletions than older patients (>60 years of age. Conclusions These studies suggest that age may be a factor in the genetic alterations of oligodendrogliomas. In addition, these studies demonstrate that this assay can easily be carried out in a cost-effective manner in a small tertiary center.

  5. Bioelectrical impedance analysis and age-related differences of body composition in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guida, Bruna; Laccetti, Roberta; Gerardi, Clara; Trio, Rossella; Perrino, Nunzia Ruggiero; Strazzullo, Pasquale; Siani, Alfonso; Farinaro, Eduardo; Colantuoni, Antonio

    2007-03-01

    Significant changes in body composition that have important health related effects may occur in the elderly. In this study, we evaluated the bioelectrical characteristics in a large group of apparently healthy Caucasian men in the age range 50-80 years, as a function of age and body mass index. We studied 315 men with ages ranging from 50 to 80 years. They were divided into three groups according to body mass index (kg/m(2)): 18.5-24.9 normoweight (NW); 25.0-29.9 overweight (OW); > or =30 obese (OB), and they were classified in nine age subgroups: 50-59 (young-old, YO); 60-69 (old, O); 70-80 (oldest, OS). Fat-free mass, fat mass and body cell mass were investigated using conventional bioelectrical impedance analysis. Body composition was also assessed by bioelectrical impedance vector analysis and the RXc graph method. Body cell mass decreased significantly with age particularly in subgroups of the OW and OB groups (pbioelectrical impedance analysis indicating decreased soft tissue mass (fat-free mass and body cell mass), particularly in OW and OB-OS healthy men. We suggest 70 years of age as a cut-off for significant quantitative and qualitative (tissue electrical properties) body composition modifications. This bioelectrical impedance vector analysis pattern associated with ageing and across the different body mass index categories, may be useful for clinical purposes and can be used in geriatric routine to accurately assess the body composition modifications occurring in the elderly.

  6. Age-Related Differences in Predictors of Adherence to Rehabilitation After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Britton W.; Cornelius, Allen E.; Van Raalte, Judy L.; Petitpas, Albert J.; Sklar, Joseph H.; Pohlman, Mark H.; Krushell, Robert J.; Ditmar, Terry D.

    2003-06-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine whether the relationships between psychological factors and rehabilitation adherence after knee surgery differ as a function of age. DESIGN AND SETTING: Participants completed inventories of self-motivation, social support, athletic identity, and psychological distress before anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. After surgery, participants recorded their completion of home rehabilitation exercises and cryotherapy, and the sport rehabilitation professionals providing their treatment reported on the patients' attendance at, and adherence during, rehabilitation sessions. SUBJECTS: Sixty-one individuals with acute ACL tears. MEASUREMENTS: The Self-Motivation Inventory, Social Support Inventory, Athletic Identity Measurement Scale, Brief Symptom Inventory, and Sport Injury Rehabilitation Adherence Scale were used to measure self-motivation, social support, athletic identity, psychological distress, and adherence, respectively, during rehabilitation sessions. RESULTS: Hierarchic regression analyses indicated that age moderated the relationships between (1) self-motivation and home exercise completion, (2) social support and home exercise completion, (3) athletic identity and home exercise completion, and (4) athletic identity and home cryotherapy completion. CONCLUSIONS: The prospective moderating relationships for between psychological factors and indices of adherence to home-based rehabilitation activities indicate the need to consider developmental issues when examining psychological aspects of sport-injury rehabilitation.

  7. Thyroid-Specific Genes Expression Uncovered Age-Related Differences in Pediatric Thyroid Carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Isabel Cunha Vieira Cordioli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite a more advanced stage of disease at presentation, a better response to radioiodine (RAI therapy and a reduced overall mortality have been reported in pediatric differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC in comparison to adult DTC. Few studies suggested that the better response to RAI therapy in pediatric patients might be associated with an increased expression of NIS. However, a marked heterogeneity within the pediatric group has been recognized. Children (<10 years old usually present a more aggressive disease than adolescents (≥10–18 years old. By analyzing the expression of thyroid-specific genes in 38 sporadic pediatric tumors, we show that the expression of NIS, PDS, and TSHR was lower in children than adolescents (P<0.05. A linear regression confirmed the association between NIS expression and age. Most significantly, NIS was expressed at similar levels in DTC from children and adults, whereas PDS and TSHR expression was even lower in DTC from children, compared to adolescents and adults. Our data suggest that biological behaviors of DTC in adolescents might differ from those in children and adults. Therefore, the premise that the expression of thyroid-specific genes is higher in tumors from pediatric patients than in adults is not entirely true and might be too oversimplified.

  8. Age-related differences in children's strategy repetition: A study in arithmetic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaire, Patrick; Brun, Fleur

    2016-10-01

    Third and fifth graders (Experiment 1) and fifth and seventh graders (Experiment 2) accomplished computational estimation tasks in which they provided estimates to two-digit arithmetic problems (e.g., 34+68). Participants saw trials, each including three consecutive problems. Each trial was separated by a letter judgment task (i.e., participants needed to say whether a series of four letters included only vowels, only consonants, or both types of letters). On each problem, children were asked to select the better of the following strategies: rounding down (i.e., rounding both operands down to the nearest decades; e.g., 30+60=90) or rounding up (rounding both operands up to the nearest decades; e.g., 40+70=110). Half of the trials were repeated strategy trials (i.e., the better strategy was the same for the first two prime problems and the last target problem) and half were unrepeated strategy trials (i.e., the better strategy was different for prime and target problems). We found that (a) children repeated the same strategy over successive problems, even when they should change strategies to obtain better performance, (b) strategy repetitions decreased with age, (c) repeating the same strategy gave children performance benefits, and (d) these strategy repetition benefits were similar across grades. These effects of strategy repetition during strategy selection and strategy execution have important empirical and theoretical implications regarding how children choose among strategies, how children execute selected strategies on each problem, and how strategic variations change with age. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Quantifying Age-Related Differences in Human Reaching while Interacting with a Rehabilitation Robotic Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Yadav

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available New movement assessment and data analysis methods are developed to quantify human arm motion patterns during physical interaction with robotic devices for rehabilitation. These methods provide metrics for future use in diagnosis, assessment and rehabilitation of subjects with affected arm movements. Specifically, the current study uses existing pattern recognition methods to evaluate the effect of age on performance of a specific motion, reaching to a target by moving the end-effector of a robot (an X-Y table. Differences in the arm motion patterns of younger and older subjects are evaluated using two measures: the principal component analysis similarity factor (SPCA to compare path shape and the number of Fourier modes representing 98% of the path ‘energy’ to compare the smoothness of movement, a particularly important variable for assessment of pathologic movement. Both measures are less sensitive to noise than others previously reported in the literature and preserve information that is often lost through other analysis techniques. Data from the SPCA analysis indicate that age is a significant factor affecting the shapes of target reaching paths, followed by reaching movement type (crossing body midline/not crossing and reaching side (left/right; hand dominance and trial repetition are not significant factors. Data from the Fourier-based analysis likewise indicate that age is a significant factor affecting smoothness of movement, and movements become smoother with increasing trial number in both younger and older subjects, although more rapidly so in younger subjects. These results using the proposed data analysis methods confirm current practice that age-matched subjects should be used for comparison to quantify recovery of arm movement during rehabilitation. The results also highlight the advantages that these methods offer relative to other reported measures.

  10. Acquisition of english grammatical morphology by native mandarin-speaking children and adolescents: age-related differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Gisela; Fuse, Akiko

    2007-10-01

    This 5-year longitudinal study investigated the acquisition of 6 English grammatical morphemes (i.e., regular and irregular past tense, 3rd person singular, progressive aspect -ing, copula BE, and auxiliary DO) by 10 native Mandarin-speaking children and adolescents in the United States (arrived in the United States between 5 and 16 years of age). The goals were to chart and compare the acquisition trajectories and levels of mastery across the morphemes, identify when age-related differences emerged and which forms they took. Morphological proficiency was measured by the accuracy of these morphemes in obligatory contexts during spontaneous speech. The morphemes were mastered by different numbers of participants and showed different growth trajectories. Performance variance was partially predicted by age of arrival (AoAr) in the United States, with early arrivals achieving greater proficiency than late arrivals. However, such AoAr effects took several years to occur and only existed for 2 of the 6 morphemes (i.e., 3rd person singular and regular past tense). Growth curve analysis revealed that language environment was a stronger predictor of individual differences than AoAr. Results did not uncover age-related differences in the acquisition of tense versus non-tense-related morphemes, nor in regular versus irregular morphemes, nor in the error types. Findings support an Environmental account for age-related differences in 2nd language (L2) morphological acquisition. Results also indicate that the acquisition of some grammatical morphemes by school-aged immigrants takes several years to complete. As L2 learners exhibit some error types and difficulties similar to monolingual children with specific language impairment, caution needs to be taken when interpreting and using morphological errors as indicators of speech/language learning problems in this population.

  11. Potential drug-drug interactions in a Brazilian teaching hospital: age-related differences?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Oliveira Melo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes to measure frequency and to characterize the profile of potential drug interactions (pDDI in a general medicine ward of a teaching hospital. Data about identification and clinical status of patients were extracted from medical records between March to August 2006. The occurrence of pDDI was analyzed using the database monographs Micromedex® DrugReax® System. From 5,336 prescriptions with two or more drugs, 3,097 (58.0% contained pDDI. The frequency of major and well document pDDI was 26.5%. Among 647 patients, 432 (66.8% were exposed to at least one pDDI and 283 (43.7% to major pDDI. The multivariate analysis identified that factors related to higher rates of major pDDI were the same age (p< 0.0001, length of stay (p< 0.0001, prevalence of hypertension [OR=3.42 (p< 0.0001] and diabetes mellitus [OR=2.1 (p< 0.0001], cardiovascular diseases (p< 0.0001 and the number of prescribed drugs (Spearman’s correlation=0.640622, p< 0.0001. Between major pDDI, the main risk was hemorrhage (50.3%, the most frequent major pDDI involved combination of anticoagulants and antiplatelet drugs. Among moderate pDDI, 3,866 (90.8% involved medicines for the treatment of chronic non-communicable diseases, mainly hypertension. In HU-USP, the profile of pDDI was similar among adults and elderly (the most frequent pDDI and major pDDI were same, the difference was only the frequency in either group. The efforts of the clinical pharmacists should be directed to elderly patients with cardiovascular compromise, mainly in use of anticoagulants and antiplatelet drugs. Furthermore, hospital managers should increase the integration between levels of health care to promote safety patient after discharge.Keywords: Drug interactions. Aged. Internal Medicine. Hospitals, University. RESUMOInterações medicamentosas potenciais em um hospital escolar brasileiro: diferenças relacionadas à idade?O estudo tem por objetivo descrever o perfil de intera

  12. Of goals and habits: Age-related and individual differences in goal-directed decision-making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben eEppinger

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study we investigated age-related and individual differences in habitual (model-free and goal-directed (model-based decision-making. Specifically, we were interested in three questions. First, does age affect the balance between model-based and model-free decision mechanisms? Second, are these age-related changes due to age differences in working memory (WM capacity? Third, can model-based behavior be affected by manipulating the distinctiveness of the reward value of choice options? To answer these questions we used a two-stage Markov decision task in in combination with computational modeling to dissociate model-based and model-free decision mechanisms. To affect model-based behavior in this task we manipulated the distinctiveness of reward probabilities of choice options. The results show age-related deficits in model-based decision-making, which are particularly pronounced if unexpected reward indicates the need for a shift in decision strategy. In this situation younger adults explore the task structure, whereas older adults show perseverative behavior. Consistent with previous findings, these results indicate that older adults have deficits in the representation and updating of expected reward value. We also observed substantial individual differences in model-based behavior. In younger adults high WM capacity is associated with greater model-based behavior and this effect is further elevated when reward probabilities are more distinct. However, in older adults we found no effect of WM capacity. Moreover, age differences in model-based behavior remained statistically significant, even after controlling for WM capacity. Thus, factors other than decline in WM, such as deficits in the in the integration of expected reward value into strategic decisions may contribute to the observed impairments in model-based behavior in older adults.

  13. Age-related differences in signaling efficiency of human lens cells underpin differential wound healing response rates following cataract surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawes, Lucy Jean; Duncan, George; Wormstone, Ian Michael

    2013-01-14

    Cataract surgery is blighted by posterior capsule opacification (PCO), which is more severe and frequent in the young than the elderly (>60 years). Our aim was to understand the biological basis for these age-related differences in PCO/wound healing rates. Human capsular bags were prepared by cataract surgery on donor lenses (young [60 years] groups) and maintained in serum-free Eagle's minimum essential medium. Cell growth was determined using the MTS assay. Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) levels were determined using ELISA. Protein synthesis rates were elucidated by 35S-methionine incorporation. U0126, SB203580, and SP600125 were used to disrupt ERK-, p38-, and JNK-mediated signaling, respectively. Level of total and phospho-ERK, -c-jun, -P38, and -JNK plus cytokines were detected using a BIOPLEX array system. Following a 2-day culture period, significant decreases in IL-1β and IL-6, and increases in IL-10, IL-12, IL-13, and VEGF in the >60 years group were observed compared with their younger counterparts. Capsular bags (cells and capsule) from aged donors contained greater than or equal levels of HGF and FGF than younger counterparts and had greater rates of protein synthesis. Inhibition of ERK, p38, and JNK signaling significantly suppressed cell coverage on the posterior capsule. pERK, p-c-jun, p-p38, and pJNK were consistently lower in aged cell populations; total signaling protein expression was unaffected by age. Serum stimulation increased pERK, p-c-jun, and pJNK levels in cells of all ages; p-p38 was significantly increased in the >60 years group only. Ligand availability to cells is not a limiting factor as we age, but the ability to convert this resource into signaling activity is. We therefore propose that overall signaling efficiency is reduced as a function of age, which consequently limits wound-healing response rates after injury.

  14. Age-related delay in visual and auditory evoked responses is mediated by white- and grey-matter differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, D; Tyler, L K; Neto Henriques, R; Campbell, K L; Williams, N; Treder, M S; Taylor, J R; Henson, R N A

    2017-06-09

    Slowing is a common feature of ageing, yet a direct relationship between neural slowing and brain atrophy is yet to be established in healthy humans. We combine magnetoencephalographic (MEG) measures of neural processing speed with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures of white and grey matter in a large population-derived cohort to investigate the relationship between age-related structural differences and visual evoked field (VEF) and auditory evoked field (AEF) delay across two different tasks. Here we use a novel technique to show that VEFs exhibit a constant delay, whereas AEFs exhibit delay that accumulates over time. White-matter (WM) microstructure in the optic radiation partially mediates visual delay, suggesting increased transmission time, whereas grey matter (GM) in auditory cortex partially mediates auditory delay, suggesting less efficient local processing. Our results demonstrate that age has dissociable effects on neural processing speed, and that these effects relate to different types of brain atrophy.

  15. Age-related differences in warning symbol comprehension and training effectiveness: effects of familiarity, complexity, and comprehensibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesch, M F; Horrey, W J; Wogalter, M S; Powell, W R

    2011-10-01

    Age-related changes in selective attention, inhibitory efficiency, and the ability to form new associations suggest that older adults may have greater difficulty with more complex and less comprehensible symbols. We examined comprehension of symbols varying in terms of ratings of familiarity, complexity, and comprehensibility, by younger (aged 18-35) and older (aged 55-70) adults. It was found that older adults have greater difficulty than younger adults in comprehending warning symbols and that accident scenario training improves comprehension. Regression analyses indicated that familiarity and comprehensibility were important in determining performance on the pre-training comprehension test by both younger and older adults. However, training eliminated the effects of stimulus characteristics for younger adults, while older adults' comprehension continued to be significantly influenced by comprehensibility. We suggest that symbol design incorporates cues to knowledge to facilitate the linkage between new knowledge (i.e. the warning symbol) and relevant knowledge in long-term memory. Statement of Relevance: Symbol characteristics play an important role in age-related differences in warning symbol comprehension. To optimise comprehension by older adults, symbols should have a clear relationship with areal-world referent. Alternatively, symbol design could incorporate cues to knowledge to facilitate the linkage between new knowledge and relevant knowledge in long-term memory.

  16. The Influence of Age-Related Differences in Prior Knowledge and Attentional Refreshing Opportunities on Episodic Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loaiza, Vanessa M; Rhodes, Matthew G; Anglin, Julia

    2015-09-01

    The assumption that working memory (WM) is embedded within long-term memory suggests that the effectiveness of switching information between activated states in WM (i.e., attentional refreshing) may depend on whether that information is semantically relevant. Given that older adults often have greater general knowledge than younger adults, age-related deficits in episodic memory (EM) could be ameliorated by studying information that has existing semantic representations compared with unknown information. Younger and older adults completed a modified operation span task that varied the number of refreshing opportunities. The memoranda used were equally known to younger and older adults (neutral words; e.g., father), better known to older adults than younger adults (dated words; e.g., mirth), or unknown to both groups (unknown words; e.g., cobot). Results for immediate and delayed recall indicated an age-related improvement for dated memoranda and no age difference for unknown memoranda. Furthermore, refreshing opportunities predicted delayed recall of neutral memoranda more strongly for younger adults than older adults, whereas older adults' recall advantage for dated memoranda was explained by their prior knowledge and not refreshing opportunities. The results suggest that older adults' EM deficits could potentially be ameliorated by incorporating their superior knowledge to supplement relatively ineffective attentional refreshing in WM. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Macular ganglion cell complex and retinal nerve fiber layer comparison in different stages of age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucchiatti, Ilaria; Parodi, Maurizio Battaglia; Pierro, Luisa; Cicinelli, Maria Vittoria; Gagliardi, Marco; Castellino, Niccolò; Bandello, Francesco

    2015-09-01

    To employ optical coherence tomography (OCT) to analyze the morphologic changes in the inner retina in different categories of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Observational cross-sectional study. Single-center study. Inclusion criteria were age over 50, diagnosis of Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) category 2 and 3, naïve neovascular AMD, and atrophic AMD. Healthy patients of similar age acted as a control group. Primary outcome measures were the changes in ganglion cell complex (GCC) and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL). Secondary outcomes included modifications of rim area and cup-to-disc ratio. One hundred and thirty eyes of 130 patients were recruited: 26 eyes for AREDS category 2, 26 for AREDS category 3, 26 for neovascular AMD, 26 with atrophic AMD, and 26 controls. Mean peripapillary RNFL thickness was significantly lower in neovascular AMD, compared to controls (P = .004); peripapillary RNFL did not significantly vary among AREDS category 2 and 3 and atrophic AMD groups, compared to controls. Mean GCC thickness was higher in the control group, becoming progressively thinner up to neovascular and atrophic AMD groups (P < .0001). Rim area was significantly thinner in the neovascular AMD group compared with controls (P = .047); cup-to-disc ratio was higher in the neovascular AMD group compared with the control group (P = .047). This study demonstrates that eyes with neovascular AMD display reduced RNFL and GCC thickness. RNFL is partially spared in atrophic advanced AMD. The identification of alteration in RNFL and GCC thickness may reveal useful for future therapeutic implications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Executive and memory correlates of age-related differences in wayfinding performances using a virtual reality application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taillade, Mathieu; Sauzéon, Hélène; Dejos, Marie; Pala, Prashant Arvind; Larrue, Florian; Wallet, Grégory; Gross, Christian; N'Kaoua, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate in large-scale spaces wayfinding and spatial learning difficulties for older adults in relation to the executive and memory decline associated with aging. We compared virtual reality (VR)-based wayfinding and spatial memory performances between young and older adults. Wayfinding and spatial memory performances were correlated with classical measures of executive and visuo-spatial memory functions, but also with self-reported estimates of wayfinding difficulties. We obtained a significant effect of age on wayfinding performances but not on spatial memory performances. The overall correlations showed significant correlations between the wayfinding performances and the classical measures of both executive and visuo-spatial memory, but only when the age factor was not partialled out. Also, older adults underestimated their wayfinding difficulties. A significant relationship between the wayfinding performances and self-reported wayfinding difficulty estimates is found, but only when the age effect was partialled out. These results show that, even when older adults have an equivalent spatial knowledge to young adults, they had greater difficulties with the wayfinding task, supporting an executive decline view in age-related wayfinding difficulties. However, the correlation results are in favor of both the memory and executive decline views as mediators of age-related differences in wayfinding performances. This is discussed in terms of the relationships between memory and executive functioning in wayfinding task orchestration. Our results also favor the use of objective assessments of everyday navigation difficulties in virtual applications, instead of self-reported questionnaires, since older adults showed difficulties in estimating their everyday wayfinding problems.

  19. Age-related differences in lean mass, protein synthesis and skeletal muscle markers of proteolysis after bed rest and exercise rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanner, Ruth E; Brunker, Lucille B; Agergaard, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    Bed rest-induced muscle loss and impaired muscle recovery may contribute to age-related sarcopenia. It is unknown if there are age-related differences in muscle mass and muscle anabolic and catabolic responses to bed rest. A secondary objective was to determine if rehabilitation could reverse bed...

  20. Age-related differences in the phenomenal characteristics of long-term memories of March 11, 2004 terrorist attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío Vallet

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to explore age-related differences in the phenomenal characteristics of long-term memories of the terrorist attacks that took place in Madrid (Spain on March 11, 2004. One hundred and ninety-six individuals participated in this experiment: 92 were 9.60 years old on average and 104 were 39.41 years old on average at the time of the event. To evaluate their real memories of the event twelve years later, the Phenomenological Questionnaire on Autobiographical Memory was used. Differences were shown between the two groups in terms of memory quality, emotions associated with the event, and accessibility of the information remembered. Results were also represented using high-dimensional visualization (HDV graphs, supporting the assertion that long-term event memories have different characteristics depending on the age of the individual at the time the event took place. Memories in adult people meet the criteria to be considered flashbulb memories, while in the case of the younger people this kind of memory does not seem to emerge. Young people are probably less capable of evaluating the consequences of an event which results in reduced emotional arousal and a different elaboration of the event memory in comparison to older adults.

  1. Psychometric properties of the Purpose-In-Life Test and age-related differences among women diagnosed with eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Alandete, Joaquín; Ros, Montserrat Cañabate; Salvador, José Heliodoro Marco; Rodríguez, Sandra Pérez

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the psychometric properties of the Purpose-In-Life Test (PIL), as well as the age-related differences in meaning in life in women diagnosed with eating disorders. Participants were 250 Spanish women diagnosed with eating disorders who ranged from 12 to 60 years old. Confirmatory Factor Analysis, descriptive analyses, estimation of the internal consistency of the PIL, correlations between the PIL and the Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS), Overweight Preoccupation Scale (OPS), and Body Investment Scale (BIS), and age differences were calculated. A 19-item model that showed a good fit and internal consistency, a negative correlation between the PIL and both the BHS and OPS, and a positive correlation with the BIS, as well as significant differences between the adolescents and the mature adults, were found. It would be advisable to increase the inclusion of meaning in life in psychotherapeutic interventions with women diagnosed with eating disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Age-related connectivity differences between attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder patients and typically developing subjects: a resting-state functional MRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jisu Hong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a disorder characterized by behavioral symptoms including hyperactivity/impulsivity among children, adolescents, and adults. These ADHD related symptoms are influenced by the complex interaction of brain networks which were under explored. We explored age-related brain network differences between ADHD patients and typically developing (TD subjects using resting state fMRI (rs-fMRI for three age groups of children, adolescents, and adults. We collected rs-fMRI data from 184 individuals (27 ADHD children and 31 TD children; 32 ADHD adolescents and 32 TD adolescents; and 31 ADHD adults and 31 TD adults. The Brainnetome Atlas was used to define nodes in the network analysis. We compared three age groups of ADHD and TD subjects to identify the distinct regions that could explain age-related brain network differences based on degree centrality, a well-known measure of nodal centrality. The left middle temporal gyrus showed significant interaction effects between disease status (i.e., ADHD or TD and age (i.e., child, adolescent, or adult (P < 0.001. Additional regions were identified at a relaxed threshold (P < 0.05. Many of the identified regions (the left inferior frontal gyrus, the left middle temporal gyrus, and the left insular gyrus were related to cognitive function. The results of our study suggest that aberrant development in cognitive brain regions might be associated with age-related brain network changes in ADHD patients. These findings contribute to better understand how brain function influences the symptoms of ADHD.

  3. Gender- and age-related differences in clinical presentation and management of outpatients with stable coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Roberto; Abergel, Hélène; Ford, Ian; Fox, Kim M; Greenlaw, Nicola; Steg, Ph Gabriel; Hu, Dayi; Tendera, Michal; Tardif, Jean-Claude

    2013-09-10

    Contemporary generalizable data on the demographics and management of outpatients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) in routine clinical practice are sparse. Using the data from the CLARIFY registry we describe gender- and age-related differences in baseline characteristics and management of these patients across broad geographic regions. This international, prospective, observational, longitudinal registry enrolled stable CAD outpatients from 45 countries in Africa, Asia, Australia, Europe, the Middle East, and North, Central, and South America. Baseline data were available for 33280 patients. Mean (SD) age was 64 (10.5) years and 22.5% of patients were female. The prevalence of CAD risk factors was generally higher in women than in men. Women were older (66.6 vs 63.4 years), more frequently diagnosed with diabetes (33% vs 28%), hypertension (79% vs 69%), and higher resting heart rate (69 vs 67 bpm), and were less physically active. Smoking and a history of myocardial infarction were more common in men. Women were more likely to have angina (28% vs 20%), but less likely to have undergone revascularization procedures. CAD was more likely to be asymptomatic in older patients perhaps because of reduced levels of physical activity. Prescription of evidence-based medication for secondary prevention varied with age, with patients ≥ 75 years treated less often with beta blockers, aspirin and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors than patients age groups of outpatients with stable CAD. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Age-related changes in vertebral and iliac crest 3D bone microstructure-differences and similarities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jesper Skovhus; Jensen, Michael Vinkel; Niklassen, Andreas Steenholt

    2015-01-01

    Summary Age-related changes of vertebra and iliac crest 3D microstructure were investigated, and we showed that they were in general similar. The 95th percentile of vertebral trabecular thickness distribution increased with age for women. Surprisingly, vertebral and iliac crest bone microstructure...... was only weakly correlated (r = 0.38 to 0.75), despite the overall similar age-related changes.Introduction The purposes of the study were to determine the age-related changes in iliac and vertebral bone microstructure for women and men over a large age range and to investigate the relationship between...... the bone microstructure at these skeletal sites.Methods Matched sets of transiliac crest bone biopsies and lumbar vertebral body (L2) specimens from 41 women (19–96 years) and 39 men (23–95 years) were micro-computed tomography (μCT) scanned, and the 3D microstructure was quantified.Results For both women...

  5. Age-related differences in breast carcinoma knowledge, beliefs, and perceived risk among women visiting an academic general medicine practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, N C; Lee, A M; McDermott, M M

    1997-08-01

    This study assessed whether age-related differences in breast carcinoma knowledge and perceived risk exist among women in a primary care setting and whether these women's beliefs about the best age to begin screening mammography reflect those of their physicians. Consecutive women ages 30-70 years who visited an academic general medicine practice were asked to complete a questionnaire assessing breast carcinoma knowledge, beliefs, and perceived risk. Women's risk estimates were compared with individual risk probabilities derived from the Gail model. Women's beliefs about when to begin screening mammography were compared with the beliefs of the attending physicians in the practice. Questionnaire results were compared across age groups. Six hundred seventy-four women completed the survey. Overall, knowledge scores were negatively correlated with age (correlation coefficient = -0.30, P = 0.001). The level of knowledge about the benefits of mammography was high across all age groups. In contrast, knowledge that breast carcinoma incidence increases with age was poor. Only 28% of all women recognized that breast carcinoma is more common among women age 65 years than among women age 40 years. Among all women, 26% underestimated their risk of developing breast carcinoma in the next 10 years, 32% correctly estimated their risk, and 42% overestimated their risk. Fifty-five percent thought that mammography should begin when a woman is age 30-35 years. In contrast, all surveyed physicians recommended that a woman start undergoing mammography at age 40 years or older. In this primary care setting, older women had poorer breast carcinoma knowledge than younger women but were equally likely to appreciate the benefits of mammography. Most women were unaware that age is a risk factor for breast carcinoma. Improved education of females by their physicians may resolve some of the observed discrepancies regarding the optimal age to begin screening mammography.

  6. Age-related differences in pulmonary effects of acute and subchronic episodic ozone exposures in Brown Norway rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozone (O3) is known to induce adverse pulmonary and systemic health effects. Importantly, children and older persons are considered at-risk populations for O3-induced dysfunction, yet the mechanisms accounting for the age-related pulmonary responses to O3 are uncertain. In this s...

  7. Age-related effects and gender differences in Japanese healthy controls for [123I] FP-CIT SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Hideo; Arimura Shinichi; Nakanishi, Atsushi; Shimo, Yasushi; Motoi, Yumiko; Ishiguro, Koichi; Murakami, Koji; Hattori, Nobutaka; Aoki, Shigeki

    2017-01-01

    Dopamine transporter (DAT) imaging with [ 123 I]FP-CIT (DaTSCAN) is a widely used diagnostic tool for Parkinsonism and dementia. Since it was approved by the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labor, and Welfare in 2013, there have been no articles focusing on a Japanese normal population. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of aging and gender on DAT availability in Japanese people. SPECT imaging of 30 healthy Japanese controls (17 males, 13 females; range 50-86 years, mean 70 years) was performed SPECT images were reconstructed using a three-dimensional order subset expectation maximization (OSEM) algorithm with correction of the point spread function and scatter correction, without attenuation correction. The specific binding ratio (SBR) was calculated by DAT view software. Statistical analyses were performed using linear regression analysis, analysis of variance, and multiple comparison analysis. A strong correlation between the SBR and age was observed. The correlation coefficient in males and females were -0.566 and -0.502, respectively. The analysis of variance revealed that aging led to a decline of the SBR, and a significant difference (p = 0.005) was observed among generations. Gender also affected the SBR, and there was a significant difference between males and females (p = 0.036). The SBR in females was higher than in males. Consequently, the multiple comparison revealed a significant difference between 50s and 70s (p = 0.015) and 50s and 80s (p = 0.006). This is the first [ 123 I]FP-CIT SPECT study on subjects with normal dopamine function in Asian countries. This study provides a database of [ 123 I]FP-CIT SPECT in Japanese healthy controls. Higher DAT availability was found in women than in men. An average age-related decline in DAT availability of 8.9% was found in both genders. The data collected in this study would be helpful for Japanese physicians to make a differential diagnosis in Parkinsonian syndrome. The registration identification

  8. Assessment of Choroidal Microstructure and Subfoveal Thickness Change in Eyes With Different Stages of Age-Related Macular Degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Linna; Xu, Shiqiong; He, Fangling; Liu, Yan; Zhang, Yidan; Wang, Jing; Wang, Zhiliang; Fan, Xianqun

    2016-03-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a major cause of irreversible blindness. Choroidal structural changes seem to be inevitable in AMD pathogenesis. Our study revealed associated choroidal microstructural changes in AMD eyes.The aim of the study was to compare choroidal microstructural changes in eyes with AMD of different stages.The study was a retrospective, cross-sectional case series.The participants comprised of 32 age-matched normal eyes as controls, and 26 fellow uninvolved eyes of intermediate/late AMD, 29 of early AMD, 28 of intermediate AMD, and 39 of late AMD.All subjects underwent comprehensive ophthalmologic examination. The choroid images, including subfoveal choroidal thickness, percentage of Sattler layer area, and en face images of the choroid, were obtained using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography.The main outcome measures were subfoveal choroidal thickness changes, percentage of Sattler layer area changes, and en face images of the choroid in AMD eyes.One hundred fifty-four eyes of 96 individuals with mean age of 67.1±9.2 years were included. The mean subfoveal choroidal thickness was 295.4 ± 56.8 μm in age-matched normal eyes, 306.7 ± 68.4 μm in fellow uninvolved eyes with AMD, 293.8 ± 80.4 μm in early AMD, 215.6 ± 80.4 μm in intermediate AMD, and 200.4 ± 66.6 μm in late AMD (F = 14.2, all P < 0.001). Choroidal thickness was greater in early AMD eyes than in intermediate/late AMD eyes (P < 0.001). Mean percentage of Sattler layer area in each group showed a similar tendency. Microstructure of the choroid showed reduced vascular density of Sattler layer areas in late AMD eyes compared with normal eyes.Decreasing subfoveal choroidal thickness and percentage of Sattler layer area were demonstrated in the progression of AMD. The choroidal change was related to atrophy of the microstructural changes of underlying capillaries and medium-sized vessels.

  9. Influence of age-related learning and memory capacity of mice: different effects of a high and low caloric diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Wen; Wang, Rong; Ma, Li-Na; Xu, Bao-Lei; Zhang, Jing-Shuang; Zhao, Zhi-Wei; Wang, Yu-Lan; Zhang, Xu

    2016-04-01

    Recent studies indicate that consumption of the different calorie diet may be an important way to accelerate or slow the neurodegenerative disorder related to age. Long-term consumption of a high-calorie diet affects the brain and increase the risk of neurodegenerative disorders. And consumption of a low-calorie diet (caloric restriction, CR) could delay aging, and protect the central nervous system from neurodegenerative disorders. The underlying mechanisms have not yet been clearly defined. Thirty 6-week-old C57/BL6 mice were randomly assigned to a NC group (fed standard diet, n = 10), a CR group (fed a low-calorie diet, n = 10) or a HC group (fed a high-calorie diet, n = 10) for 10 months. Body weight was measured monthly. Learning and memory capacity were determined by Morris water maze. Pathological changes of the hippocampus cells were detected with HE and Nissl staining. The expression of GFAP was determined by immunofluorescence and western blot. The expression of mTOR, S6K and LC3B in the hippocampus was determined by immunofluorescence. After feeding for 10 months, compared with mice in the NC group, mean body weight was significantly higher in the HC group and significantly lower in the CR group. The result of Morris water maze showed that compared with mice in the NC group, the learning and memory capacity was significantly increased in the CR group, and significantly decreased in the HC group. HE and Nissl staining of the hippocampus showed cells damaged obviously in the HC group. In the hippocampus, the expression of GFAP, mTOR and S6K was increased in the HC group, and decreased in the CR group. The expression of LC3B was decreased in the HC group, and increased in the CR group. Long-term consumption of a high-calorie diet could inhibit autophagy function, and facilitate neuronal loss in the hippocampus, which in turn aggravate age-related cognition impairment. And consumption of a low-calorie diet (caloric restriction, CR) could enhance the

  10. Age-related differences in time-based prospective memory: The role of time estimation in the clock monitoring strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanneste, Sandrine; Baudouin, Alexia; Bouazzaoui, Badiâa; Taconnat, Laurence

    2016-07-01

    Time-based prospective memory (TBPM) is required when it is necessary to remember to perform an action at a specific future point in time. This type of memory has been found to be particularly sensitive to ageing, probably because it requires a self-initiated response at a specific time. In this study, we sought to examine the involvement of temporal processes in the time monitoring strategy, which has been demonstrated to be a decisive factor in TBPM efficiency. We compared the performance of young and older adults in a TBPM task in which they had to press a response button every minute while categorising words. The design allowed participants to monitor time by checking a clock whenever they decided. Participants also completed a classic time-production task and several executive tasks assessing inhibition, updating and shifting processes. Our results confirm an age-related lack of accuracy in prospective memory performance, which seems to be related to a deficient strategic use of time monitoring. This could in turn be partially explained by age-related temporal deficits, as evidenced in the duration production task. These findings suggest that studies designed to investigate the age effect in TBPM tasks should consider the contribution of temporal mechanisms.

  11. Auger electron spectroscopy for the determination of sex and age related Ca/P ratio at different bone sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balatsoukas, Ioannis; Kourkoumelis, Nikolaos; Tzaphlidou, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    The Ca/P ratio of normal cortical and trabecular rat bone was measured by Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). Semiquantitative analysis was carried out using ratio techniques to draw conclusions on how age, sex and bone site affect the relative composition of calcium and phosphorus. Results show that Ca/P ratio is not sex dependent; quite the opposite, bone sites exhibit variations in elemental stoichiometry where femoral sections demonstrate higher Ca/P ratio than rear and front tibias. Age-related changes are more distinct for cortical bone in comparison with the trabecular bone. The latter's Ca/P ratio remains unaffected from all the parameters under study. This study confirms that AES is able to successfully quantify bone mineral main elements when certain critical points, related to the experimental conditions, are addressed effectively.

  12. Asymmetry, sex differences and age-related changes in the white matter in the healthy elderly: a tract-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fukusumi Masami

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hemispherical asymmetry, sex differences and age-related changes have been reported for the human brain. Meanwhile it was still unclear the presence of the asymmetry or sex differences in the human brain occurred whether as a normal development or as consequences of any pathological changes. The aim of this study was to investigate hemispherical asymmetry, sex differences and age-related changes by using a tract-based analysis in the nerve bundles. Methods 40 healthy elderly subjects underwent magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging, and we calculated fractional anisotropy (FA and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC values along the major white matter bundles. Results We identified hemispherical asymmetry in the ADC values for the cingulate fasciculus in the total subject set and in males, and a sex difference in the FA values for the right uncinate fasciculus. For age-related changes, we demonstrated a significant increase in ADC values with advancing age in the right cingulum, left temporal white matter, and a significant decrease in FA values in the right superior longitudinal fasciculus. Conclusion In this study, we found hemispherical asymmetry, sex differences and age-related changes in particular regions of the white matter in the healthy elderly. Our results suggest considering these differences can be important in imaging studies.

  13. Understanding Algorithms in Different Presentations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csernoch, Mária; Biró, Piroska; Abari, Kálmán; Máth, János

    2015-01-01

    Within the framework of the Testing Algorithmic and Application Skills project we tested first year students of Informatics at the beginning of their tertiary education. We were focusing on the students' level of understanding in different programming environments. In the present paper we provide the results from the University of Debrecen, the…

  14. Age-related differences in skeletal muscle microvascular response to exercise as detected by contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wulf Hildebrandt

    Full Text Available Aging involves reductions in exercise total limb blood flow and exercise capacity. We hypothesized that this may involve early age-related impairments of skeletal muscle microvascular responsiveness as previously reported for insulin but not for exercise stimuli in humans.Using an isometric exercise model, we studied the effect of age on contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS parameters, i.e. microvascular blood volume (MBV, flow velocity (MFV and blood flow (MBF calculated from replenishment of Sonovue contrast-agent microbubbles after their destruction. CEUS was applied to the vastus lateralis (VLat and intermedius (VInt muscle in 15 middle-aged (MA, 43.6±1.5 years and 11 young (YG, 24.1±0.6 years healthy males before, during, and after 2 min of isometric knee extension at 15% of peak torque (PT. In addition, total leg blood flow as recorded by femoral artery Doppler-flow. Moreover, fiber-type-specific and overall capillarisation as well as fiber composition were additionally assessed in Vlat biopsies obtained from CEUS site. MA and YG had similar quadriceps muscle MRT-volume or PT and maximal oxygen uptake as well as a normal cardiovascular risk factors and intima-media-thickness.During isometric exercise MA compared to YG reached significantly lower levels in MFV (0.123±0.016 vs. 0.208±0.036 a.u. and MBF (0.007±0.001 vs. 0.012±0.002 a.u.. In the VInt the (post-occlusive hyperemia post-exercise peaks in MBV and MBF were significantly lower in MA vs. YG. Capillary density, capillary fiber contacts and femoral artery Doppler were similar between MA and YG.In the absence of significant age-related reductions in capillarisation, total leg blood flow or muscle mass, healthy middle-aged males reveal impaired skeletal muscle microcirculatory responses to isometric exercise. Whether this limits isometric muscle performance remains to be assessed.

  15. Age-related differences during simple working memory decisions: ERP indices of early recognition and compensation failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tays, William J; Dywan, Jane; Capuana, Lesley J; Segalowitz, Sidney J

    2011-06-01

    Imaging data has identified frontal cortical activation in older adults during simple recognition tasks that relates positively with performance and could, therefore, be considered compensatory. However, in a previous electrophysiological study involving a Sternberg task with proactive interference manipulations, we observed a frontal positive scalp potential between 400 and 500 ms that was unique to older adults and predictive of poorer performance. These results led us to ask whether unique frontal activation in older adults serves a compensatory role only during relatively simple tasks when stimulus familiarity provides an unambiguous basis for response selection. In the current study, we tested this hypothesis by having younger and older adults complete a verbal Sternberg task without interference manipulations. In younger adults, we observed an early posterior negativity (90-120 ms) that predicted performance accuracy. Older adults failed to show this early negativity but did produce the expected frontal positivity. However, the frontal positivity was again associated with poorer performance. These data support the view that younger adults are able to bias early target discrimination to benefit response selection whereas older adults rely on later controlled processes that are not always effective in buffering against normative age-related decline. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The braking force in walking: age-related differences and improvement in older adults with exergame training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maillot, Pauline; Perrot, Alexandra; Hartley, Alan; Do, Manh-Cuong

    2014-10-01

    The purposes of this present research were, in the first study, to determine whether age impacts a measure of postural control (the braking force in walking) and, in a second study, to determine whether exergame training in physically-simulated sport activity would show transfer, increasing the braking force in walking and also improving balance assessed by clinical measures, functional fitness, and health-related quality of life in older adults. For the second study, the authors developed an active video game training program (using the Wii system) with a pretest-training-posttest design comparing an experimental group (24 1-hr sessions of training) with a control group. Participants completed a battery comprising balance (braking force in short and normal step conditions), functional fitness (Senior Fitness Test), and health-related quality of life (SF-36). Results show that 12 weeks of video game-based exercise program training improved the braking force in the normal step condition, along with the functional fitness of lower limb strength, cardiovascular endurance, and motor agility, as measured by the Senior Fitness Test. Only the global mental dimension of the SF-36 was sensitive to exergame practice. Exergames appear to be an effective way to train postural control in older adults. Because of the multimodal nature of the activity, exergames provide an effective tool for remediation of age-related problems.

  17. Age-related differences in affective responses to and memory for emotions conveyed by music: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandrine eVieillard

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available There is mounting evidence that aging is associated with the maintenance of positive affect and the decrease of negative affect to ensure emotion regulation goals. Previous empirical studies have primarily focused on a visual or autobiographical form of emotion communication. To date, little investigation has been done on musical emotions. The few studies that have addressed aging and emotions in music were mainly interested in emotion recognition, thus leaving unexplored the question of how aging may influence emotional responses to and memory for music. In the present study, eighteen older (60-84 years and eighteen younger (19-24 years listeners were asked to evaluate the strength of their experienced emotion on happy, peaceful, sad, and scary musical excerpts (Vieillard, et al., 2008 while facial muscle activity was recorded. Participants then performed an incidental recognition task followed by a task in which they judged to what extent they experienced happiness, peacefulness, sadness, and fear when listening to music. Compared to younger adults, older adults (a reported a stronger emotional reactivity for happiness than other emotion categories, (b showed an increased zygomatic activity for scary stimuli, (c were more likely to falsely recognize happy music, and (d showed a decrease in their responsiveness to sad and scary music. These results are in line with previous findings and extend them to emotion experience and memory recognition, corroborating the view of age-related changes in emotional responses to music in a positive direction away from negativity.

  18. Age-related differences in affective responses to and memory for emotions conveyed by music: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieillard, Sandrine; Gilet, Anne-Laure

    2013-01-01

    There is mounting evidence that aging is associated with the maintenance of positive affect and the decrease of negative affect to ensure emotion regulation goals. Previous empirical studies have primarily focused on a visual or autobiographical form of emotion communication. To date, little investigation has been done on musical emotions. The few studies that have addressed aging and emotions in music were mainly interested in emotion recognition, thus leaving unexplored the question of how aging may influence emotional responses to and memory for emotions conveyed by music. In the present study, eighteen older (60-84 years) and eighteen younger (19-24 years) listeners were asked to evaluate the strength of their experienced emotion on happy, peaceful, sad, and scary musical excerpts (Vieillard et al., 2008) while facial muscle activity was recorded. Participants then performed an incidental recognition task followed by a task in which they judged to what extent they experienced happiness, peacefulness, sadness, and fear when listening to music. Compared to younger adults, older adults (a) reported a stronger emotional reactivity for happiness than other emotion categories, (b) showed an increased zygomatic activity for scary stimuli, (c) were more likely to falsely recognize happy music, and (d) showed a decrease in their responsiveness to sad and scary music. These results are in line with previous findings and extend them to emotion experience and memory recognition, corroborating the view of age-related changes in emotional responses to music in a positive direction away from negativity.

  19. Neural evidence for phonologically based language production deficits in older adults: An fMRI investigation of age-related differences in picture-word interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizio, Avery A; Moyer, Karlee J; Diaz, Michele T

    2017-04-01

    Older adults often show declines in phonological aspects of language production, particularly for low-frequency words, but maintain strong semantic systems. However, there are different theories about the mechanism that may underlie such age-related differences in language (e.g., age-related declines in transmission of activation or inhibition). This study used fMRI to investigate whether age-related differences in language production are associated with transmission deficits or inhibition deficits. We used the picture-word interference paradigm to examine age-related differences in picture naming as a function of both target frequency and the relationship between the target picture and distractor word. We found that the presence of a categorically related distractor led to greater semantic elaboration by older adults compared to younger adults, as evidenced by older adults' increased recruitment of regions including the left middle frontal gyrus and bilateral precuneus. When presented with a phonologically related distractor, patterns of neural activation are consistent with previously observed age deficits in phonological processing, including age-related reductions in the recruitment of regions such as the left middle temporal gyrus and right supramarginal gyrus. Lastly, older, but not younger, adults show increased brain activation of the pre- and postcentral gyri as a function of decreasing target frequency when target pictures are paired with a phonological distractor, suggesting that cuing the phonology of the target disproportionately aids production of low-frequency items. Overall, this pattern of results is generally consistent with the transmission deficit hypothesis, illustrating that links within the phonological system, but not the semantic system, are weakened with age.

  20. Age-related differences in muscle co-activation during locomotion and their relationship with gait speed: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hwang-Jae; Chang, Won Hyuk; Choi, Byung-Ok; Ryu, Gyu-Ha; Kim, Yun-Hee

    2017-01-31

    Muscle co-activation plays an important role in enhancing joint stability for movement regulation during motor learning activities. In normal aging, greater muscle co-activation is induced during gait in elderly adults. This study investigated age-related changes in muscle co-activation and spatio-temporal parameters during gait and identified the relationship between muscle co-activation and gait speed. A total of 46 adult volunteers participated in this study in three age groups (15 young adults [8 males, 7 females; age, 24.27 ± 2.71], 15 middle-aged adults [8 males, 7 females; age, 53.71 ± 2.52], and 16 elderly adults [7 males, 9 females; age, 76.88 ± 3.48]). All participants underwent locomotion analysis using a Three-dimensional motion analysis system and 12-channel dynamic electromyography. The elderly adults showed significantly higher co-activation than the young and middle-aged adults during gait (p elderly adults showed significantly lower trunk co-activation than the young and middle-aged adults (p gait speed by aging. Muscle co-activation of the trunk showed a significant positive correlation with gait speed based on age. However, muscle co-activation of the lower extremity showed a significant negative correlation with gait speed based on age. This finding demonstrated that less muscle co-activation of the trunk was related to locomotive instability in elderly adults. Therefore, clarification of the relationship between trunk co-activation and locomotor instability will be helpful for developing optimal rehabilitation of elderly people to prevent fall.

  1. Age-related Differences in Dystrophin: Impact on Force Transfer Proteins, Membrane Integrity, and Neuromuscular Junction Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, David C; Marcotte, George R; Marshall, Andrea G; West, Daniel W D; Baehr, Leslie M; Wallace, Marita A; Saleh, Perrie M; Bodine, Sue C; Baar, Keith

    2017-05-01

    The loss of muscle strength with age has been studied from the perspective of a decline in muscle mass and neuromuscular junction (NMJ) stability. A third potential factor is force transmission. The purpose of this study was to determine the changes in the force transfer apparatus within aging muscle and the impact on membrane integrity and NMJ stability. We measured an age-related loss of dystrophin protein that was greatest in the flexor muscles. The loss of dystrophin protein occurred despite a twofold increase in dystrophin mRNA. Importantly, this disparity could be explained by the four- to fivefold upregulation of the dystromir miR-31. To compensate for the loss of dystrophin protein, aged muscle contained increased α-sarcoglycan, syntrophin, sarcospan, laminin, β1-integrin, desmuslin, and the Z-line proteins α-actinin and desmin. In spite of the adaptive increase in other force transfer proteins, over the 48 hours following lengthening contractions, the old muscles showed more signs of impaired membrane integrity (fourfold increase in immunoglobulin G-positive fibers and 70% greater dysferlin mRNA) and NMJ instability (14- to 96-fold increases in Runx1, AchRδ, and myogenin mRNA). Overall, these data suggest that age-dependent alterations in dystrophin leave the muscle membrane and NMJ more susceptible to contraction-induced damage even before changes in muscle mass are obvious. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Mitochondrial DNA haplogroups confer differences in risk for age-related macular degeneration: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenney M Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Age-related macular degeneration (AMD is the leading cause of vision loss in elderly, Caucasian populations. There is strong evidence that mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress play a role in the cell death found in AMD retinas. The purpose of this study was to examine the association of the Caucasian mitochondrial JTU haplogroup cluster with AMD. We also assessed for gender bias and additive risk with known high risk nuclear gene SNPs, ARMS2/LOC387715 (G > T; Ala69Ser, rs10490924 and CFH (T > C; Try402His, rs1061170. Methods Total DNA was isolated from 162 AMD subjects and 164 age-matched control subjects located in Los Angeles, California, USA. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR and restriction enzyme digestion were used to identify the J, U, T, and H mitochondrial haplogroups and the ARMS2-rs10490924 and CFH-rs1061170 SNPs. PCR amplified products were sequenced to verify the nucleotide substitutions for the haplogroups and ARMS2 gene. Results The JTU haplogroup cluster occurred in 34% (55/162 of AMD subjects versus 15% (24/164 of normal (OR = 2.99; p = 0.0001. This association was slightly greater in males (OR = 3.98, p = 0.005 than the female population (OR = 3.02, p = 0.001. Assuming a dominant effect, the risk alleles for the ARMS2 (rs10490924; p = 0.00001 and CFH (rs1061170; p = 0.027 SNPs were significantly associated with total AMD populations. We found there was no additive risk for the ARMS2 (rs10490924 or CFH (rs1061170 SNPs on the JTU haplogroup background. Conclusions There is a strong association of the JTU haplogroup cluster with AMD. In our Southern California population, the ARMS2 (rs10490924 and CFH (rs1061170 genes were significantly but independently associated with AMD. SNPs defining the JTU mitochondrial haplogroup cluster may change the retinal bioenergetics and play a significant role in the pathogenesis of AMD.

  3. Are Age-Related Differences Between Young and Older Adults in an Affective Working Memory Test Sensitive to the Music Effects?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika eBorella

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available There are evidences showing that music can affect cognitive performance by improving our emotional state. The aim of the current study was to analyze whether age-related differences between young and older adults in a Working Memory (WM Span test in which the stimuli to be recalled have a different valence (i.e., neutral, positive, or negative words, are sensitive to exposure to music. Because some previous studies showed that emotional words can sustain older adults’ performance in WM, we examined whether listening to music could enhance the benefit of emotional material, with respect to neutral words, on WM performance decreasing the age-related difference between younger and older adults. In particular, the effect of two types of music (Mozart vs. Albinoni, which differ in tempo, arousal and mood induction, on age-related differences in an affective version of the Operation WM Span task were analyzed.Results showed no effect of music on the WM test regardless of the emotional content of the music (Mozart vs. Albinoni. However, as in previous studies, a valence effect for the words in the WM task was found with a higher number of negative words recalled with respect to positive and neutral ones in both younger and older adults. When individual differences, in terms of accuracy in the processing phase of the Operation Span task, were considered, only younger low-performing participants were affected by the type music, with the Albinoni condition that lowered their performance with respect to the Mozart condition. Such a result suggests that individual differences in WM performance, at least when young adults are considered, could be affected by the type of music.Altogether, these findings suggest that complex span tasks, such as WM tasks, along with age-related differences are less sensitive to music effects.

  4. Are age-related differences between young and older adults in an affective working memory test sensitive to the music effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borella, Erika; Carretti, Barbara; Grassi, Massimo; Nucci, Massimo; Sciore, Roberta

    2014-01-01

    There are evidences showing that music can affect cognitive performance by improving our emotional state. The aim of the current study was to analyze whether age-related differences between young and older adults in a Working Memory (WM) Span test in which the stimuli to be recalled have a different valence (i.e., neutral, positive, or negative words), are sensitive to exposure to music. Because some previous studies showed that emotional words can sustain older adults' performance in WM, we examined whether listening to music could enhance the benefit of emotional material, with respect to neutral words, on WM performance decreasing the age-related difference between younger and older adults. In particular, the effect of two types of music (Mozart vs. Albinoni), which differ in tempo, arousal and mood induction, on age-related differences in an affective version of the Operation WM Span task was analyzed. Results showed no effect of music on the WM test regardless of the emotional content of the music (Mozart vs. Albinoni). However, a valence effect for the words in the WM task was found with a higher number of negative words recalled with respect to positive and neutral ones in both younger and older adults. When individual differences in terms of accuracy in the processing phase of the Operation Span task were considered, only younger low-performing participants were affected by the type music, with the Albinoni condition that lowered their performance with respect to the Mozart condition. Such a result suggests that individual differences in WM performance, at least when young adults are considered, could be affected by the type of music. Altogether, these findings suggest that complex span tasks, such as WM tasks, along with age-related differences are not sensitive to music effects.

  5. Are age-related differences between young and older adults in an affective working memory test sensitive to the music effects?

    OpenAIRE

    Borella, Erika; Carretti, Barbara; Grassi, Massimo; Nucci, Massimo; Sciore, Roberta

    2014-01-01

    There are evidences showing that music can affect cognitive performance by improving our emotional state. The aim of the current study was to analyze whether age-related differences between young and older adults in a Working Memory (WM) Span test in which the stimuli to be recalled have a different valence (i.e., neutral, positive, or negative words), are sensitive to exposure to music. Because some previous studies showed that emotional words can sustain older adults’ performance in WM, we ...

  6. The sensitive period for language acquisition: The role of age related differences in cognitive and neural function

    OpenAIRE

    Finn, Amy Sue

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this research is to better understand why children consistently surpass adults in their ultimate attainment of language--the sensitive period for language acquisition. I propose the Nested Cognitive and Neural Asynchronies theory to explain this phenomenon. This theory first asserts that an expert neural system for language processing is built in a nested manner, with commitments made first to aspects of language that are learned early. Once built, this system--though expert in pro...

  7. Self-Evaluation Processes in Life Satisfaction: Uncovering Measurement Non-Equivalence and Age-Related Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidemeier, Heike; Staudinger, Ursula M.

    2012-01-01

    This study demonstrates how self-evaluation processes explain subgroup differences in ratings of life satisfaction (population heterogeneity). Life domains differ with regard to the constraints they impose on beliefs in internal control. We hypothesized that these differences are linked with cognitive biases in ratings of life satisfaction. In…

  8. Age-related wayfinding differences in real large-scale environments: detrimental motor control effects during spatial learning are mediated by executive decline?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Taillade

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate motor control activity (active vs. passive condition with regards to wayfinding and spatial learning difficulties in large-scale spaces for older adults. We compared virtual reality (VR-based wayfinding and spatial memory (survey and route knowledge performances between 30 younger and 30 older adults. A significant effect of age was obtained on the wayfinding performances but not on the spatial memory performances. Specifically, the active condition deteriorated the survey measure in all of the participants and increased the age-related differences in the wayfinding performances. Importantly, the age-related differences in the wayfinding performances, after an active condition, were further mediated by the executive measures. All of the results relative to a detrimental effect of motor activity are discussed in terms of a dual task effect as well as executive decline associated with aging.

  9. Sex- and age-related differences of myocardial perfusion at rest assessed with multidetector computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byrne, Christina; Kühl, J Tobias; Zacho, Mette

    2013-01-01

    The clinical presentation of ischemic heart disease in women differs from men, which could reflect sex-related differences of normal physiology. Cardiac CT angiography provides a noninvasive method to assess both regional and transmural myocardial perfusion in addition to coronary atherosclerosis....

  10. Non-native western tubenose gobies Proterorhinus semilunaris show distinct site, sex and age-related differences in diet

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Všetičková, Lucie; Janáč, Michal; Vašek, Mojmír; Roche, Kevin Francis; Jurajda, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 414, č. 10 (2014), s. 1-19 ISSN 1961-9502 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP505/11/1768 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : invasive species * Gobiidae * Proterorhinus semilunaris * diet * site-effect * sex-differences Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.928, year: 2014

  11. Age-related differences in working hours among male and female GPs: an SMS-based time use study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hassel, Daniël; van der Velden, Lud; de Bakker, Dinny; Batenburg, Ronald

    2017-12-19

    In several countries, the number of hours worked by general practitioners (GPs) has decreased, raising concern about current and impending workforce shortages. This shorter working week has been ascribed both to the feminisation of the workforce and to a younger generation of GPs who prefer more flexible working arrangements. There is, however, limited insight into how the impact of these determinants interact. We investigated the relative importance of differences in GPs' working hours in relation to gender, age, and employment position. An analysis was performed on real-time monitoring data collected by sending SMS text messages to 1051 Dutch GPs, who participated during a 1-week time use study. We used descriptive statistics, independent sample t-tests, and one-way ANOVA analysis to compare the working time of different GP groups. A path analysis was conducted to examine the difference in working time by gender, age, employment position, and their combinations. Female GPs worked significantly fewer hours than their male peers. GPs in their 50s worked the highest number of hours, followed by GPs age 60 and older. GPs younger than 40 worked the lowest number of hours. This relationship between working hours and age was not significantly different for women and men. As shown by path analysis, female GPs consistently worked fewer hours than their male counterparts, regardless of their age and employment position. The relationship between age and working hours was largely influenced by gender and employment position. The variation in working hours among GPs can be explained by the combination of gender, age, and employment position. Gender appears to be the most important predictor as the largest part of the variation in working hours is explained by a direct effect of this variable. It has previously been reported that the difference in working hours between male and female GPs had decreased over time. However, our findings suggest that gender remains a critical

  12. Proteomic profiles reveal age-related changes in coelomic fluid of sea urchin species with different life spans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodnar, Andrea

    2013-05-01

    Sea urchins have a different life history from humans and traditional model organisms used to study the process of aging. Sea urchins grow indeterminately, reproduce throughout their life span and some species have been shown to exhibit negligible senescence with no increase in mortality rate at advanced ages. Despite these properties, different species of sea urchins are reported to have very different natural life spans providing a unique model to investigate cellular mechanisms underlying life span determination and negligible senescence. To gain insight into the biological changes that accompany aging in these animals, proteomic profiles were examined in coelomic fluid from young and old sea urchins of three species with different life spans: short-lived Lytechinus variegatus, long-lived Strongylocentrotus franciscanus and Strongylocentrotus purpuratus which has an intermediate life span. The proteomic profiles of cell-free coelomic fluid were complex with many proteins exhibiting different forms and extensive post-translational modifications. Approximately 20% of the protein spots on 2-D gels showed more than two-fold change with age in each of the species. Changes that are consistent with age in all three species may prove to be useful biomarkers for age-determination for these commercially fished marine invertebrates and also may provide clues to mechanisms of negligible senescence. Among the proteins that change with age, the ectodomain of low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 4 (LRP4) was significantly increased in the coelomic fluid of all three sea urchin species suggesting that the Wnt signaling pathway should be further investigated for its role in negligible senescence. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The Nature of Age-Related Differences in Knee Function during Walking: Implication for the Development of Knee Osteoarthritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine A Boyer

    Full Text Available Changes in knee kinematics have been identified in the early stages of osteoarthritis (OA. However, there is a paucity of information on the nature of kinematic change that occur with aging prior to the development of OA, This study applied a robust statistical method (Principal Component Analysis to test the hypothesis that coupling between primary (flexion and secondary (anterior-posterior translation, internal-external rotation joint motions in walking would differ for age groupings of healthy subjects.Seventy-four healthy participants divided into three groups with mean ages of 24 ± 2.3 years (younger, 48 ± 4.7years (middle-age and 64 ± 2.4 years (older were examined. Principal Component Analysis was used to characterize and statistically compare the patterns of knee joint movement and their relationships in walking.There were significant differences between the younger group and both the middle-age and older groups in the knee frontal plane angle and the coupling between knee flexion (PC1, p≤0.04 and the relative magnitudes of secondary plane motions in early and late stance (PC3, p<0.01. Two additional principal components (PC2, p = 0.03 and PC5, p<0.01 described differences in early stance knee flexion and relationship with secondary plane motion through-out stance for the older compared with middle-age group.It appears there are changes in knee kinematics that occur with aging. The kinematic differences were identified for middle-aged as well as older adults suggesting midlife changes in neuromuscular physiology or behavior may have important consequences. These kinematic measures offer the potential to identify early markers for the risk of developing knee OA with aging.

  14. Radiographic assessment of lower third molar eruption in different anteroposterior skeletal patterns and age-related groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakovljevic, Aleksandar; Lazic, Emira; Soldatovic, Ivan; Nedeljkovic, Nenad; Andric, Miroslav

    2015-07-01

    To analyze radiographic predictors for lower third molar eruption among subjects with different anteroposterior skeletal relations and of different age groups. In total, 300 lower third molars were recorded on diagnostic digital orthopantomograms (DPTs) and lateral cephalograms (LCs). The radiographs were grouped according to sagittal intermaxillary angle (ANB), subject age, and level of lower third molar eruption. The DPT was used to analyze retromolar space, mesiodistal crown width, space/width ratio, third and second molar angulation (α, γ), third molar inclination (β), and gonion angle. The LC was used to determine ANB, angles of maxillar and mandibular prognathism (SNA, SNB), mandibular plane angle (SN/MP), and mandibular lengths. A logistic regression model was created using the statistically significant predictors. The logistic regression analysis revealed a statistically significant impact of β angle and distance between gonion and gnathion (Go-Gn) on the level of lower third molar eruption (P third molar impaction rate was significantly higher in the adult subgroup with the Class II (62.3%) compared with Class III subjects (31.7%; P third molar eruption were measured in Class III subjects. For valid estimation of mandibular third molar eruption, certain linear and angular measures (β angle, Go-Gn), as well as the size of the retromolar space, need to be considered.

  15. Quality of standing balance in community-dwelling elderly: Age-related differences in single and dual task conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Tiago; Fernandes, Ângela; Santos, Rubim; Paúl, Constança; Fernandes, Lia

    2016-01-01

    To examine the relationship between age and quality of standing balance in single and dual task conditions. A cross-sectional study was conducted using a sample of 243 community-dwellers aged ≥65 years. Quality of standing balance was assessed by measuring the center of pressure (COP) sway with a pressure platform. Measurements were performed under single task (orthostatic position) and dual task (orthostatic position while performing a verbal fluency task) conditions. The mean age of the participants was 79.1(±7.3)years and 76.1% were women. Older age was associated with an increased COP sway, mainly in the medial/lateral (ML) direction. Most COP sway parameters were higher under dual task conditions than under single task. After controlling for the effect of the number of words enunciated in dual task conditions, only the differences in COP sway parameters in the ML direction remained significant. There was no significant interaction between age group (65-79; ≥80 years) and condition, which indicates that differences in COP sway caused by performing a secondary task were similar for younger and for older participants. Age did not seem to influence significantly the decline in the quality of standing balance triggered by performing a concurrent cognitive task. However, older age was consistently associated with poorer standing balance, both in single and in dual task conditions. Therefore, performing a secondary task may lead older individuals to reach their postural stability limits and, consequently, to fall. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Age-related sex differences in body condition and telomere dynamics of red-sided garter snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollings, Nicky; Uhrig, Emily J; Krohmer, Randolph W; Waye, Heather L; Mason, Robert T; Olsson, Mats; Whittington, Camilla M; Friesen, Christopher R

    2017-04-12

    Life-history strategies vary dramatically between the sexes, which may drive divergence in sex-specific senescence and mortality rates. Telomeres are tandem nucleotide repeats that protect the ends of chromosomes from erosion during cell division. Telomeres have been implicated in senescence and mortality because they tend to shorten with stress, growth and age. We investigated age-specific telomere length in female and male red-sided garter snakes, Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis We hypothesized that age-specific telomere length would differ between males and females given their divergent reproductive strategies. Male garter snakes emerge from hibernation with high levels of corticosterone, which facilitates energy mobilization to fuel mate-searching, courtship and mating behaviours during a two to four week aphagous breeding period at the den site. Conversely, females remain at the dens for only about 4 days and seem to invest more energy in growth and cellular maintenance, as they usually reproduce biennially. As male investment in reproduction involves a yearly bout of physiologically stressful activities, while females prioritize self-maintenance, we predicted male snakes would experience more age-specific telomere loss than females. We investigated this prediction using skeletochronology to determine the ages of individuals and qPCR to determine telomere length in a cross-sectional study. For both sexes, telomere length was positively related to body condition. Telomere length decreased with age in male garter snakes, but remained stable in female snakes. There was no correlation between telomere length and growth in either sex, suggesting that our results are a consequence of divergent selection on life histories of males and females. Different selection on the sexes may be the physiological consequence of the sexual dimorphism and mating system dynamics displayed by this species. © 2017 The Author(s).

  17. Age-related differences in the accuracy of web query-based predictions of influenza-like illness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Domnich

    Full Text Available Web queries are now widely used for modeling, nowcasting and forecasting influenza-like illness (ILI. However, given that ILI attack rates vary significantly across ages, in terms of both magnitude and timing, little is known about whether the association between ILI morbidity and ILI-related queries is comparable across different age-groups. The present study aimed to investigate features of the association between ILI morbidity and ILI-related query volume from the perspective of age.Since Google Flu Trends is unavailable in Italy, Google Trends was used to identify entry terms that correlated highly with official ILI surveillance data. All-age and age-class-specific modeling was performed by means of linear models with generalized least-square estimation. Hold-out validation was used to quantify prediction accuracy. For purposes of comparison, predictions generated by exponential smoothing were computed.Five search terms showed high correlation coefficients of > .6. In comparison with exponential smoothing, the all-age query-based model correctly predicted the peak time and yielded a higher correlation coefficient with observed ILI morbidity (.978 vs. .929. However, query-based prediction of ILI morbidity was associated with a greater error. Age-class-specific query-based models varied significantly in terms of prediction accuracy. In the 0-4 and 25-44-year age-groups, these did well and outperformed exponential smoothing predictions; in the 15-24 and ≥ 65-year age-classes, however, the query-based models were inaccurate and highly overestimated peak height. In all but one age-class, peak timing predicted by the query-based models coincided with observed timing.The accuracy of web query-based models in predicting ILI morbidity rates could differ among ages. Greater age-specific detail may be useful in flu query-based studies in order to account for age-specific features of the epidemiology of ILI.

  18. Age-Related Differences in the Effect of Psychological Distress on Mortality: Type D Personality in Younger versus Older Patients with Cardiac Arrhythmias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Denollet

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Mixed findings in biobehavioral research on heart disease may partly be attributed to age-related differences in the prognostic value of psychological distress. This study sought to test the hypothesis that Type D (distressed personality contributes to an increased mortality risk following implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD treatment in younger patients but not in older patients. Methods. The Type D Scale (DS14 was used to assess general psychological distress in 455 younger (≤70 y,. Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT, but not Type D personality, was associated with increased mortality in older patients. Among younger patients, however, Type D personality was associated with an adjusted hazard ratio = 1.91 (95% CI 1.09–3.34 and 2.26 (95% CI 1.16–4.41 for all-cause and cardiac mortality; other predictors were increasing age, CRT, appropriate shocks, ACE-inhibitors, and smoking. Conclusion. Type D personality was independently associated with all-cause and cardiac mortality in younger ICD patients but not in older patients. Cardiovascular research needs to further explore age-related differences in psychosocial risk.

  19. The impact of lifestyle factors on age-related differences in hair trace element content in pregnant women in the third trimester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalny, Anatoly V; Tinkov, Alexey A; Voronina, Irina; Terekhina, Olga; Skalnaya, Margarita G; Bohan, Tatiana G; Agarkova, Lyubov A; Kovas, Yulia

    2018-01-01

    Trace elements play a significant role in the regulation of human reproduction, while advanced age may have a significant impact on trace element metabolism. The objective of the present study was to assess the impact of lifestyle factors on age-related differences in hair trace element content in pregnant women in the third trimester. A total of 124 pregnant women aged 20–29 (n = 72) and 30–39 (n = 52) were ex- amined. Scalp hair trace element content was assessed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry at NexION 300D (Perkin Elmer, USA) after microwave digestion. The results showed that the elder pregnant women had 36% (p = 0.009), 14% (p = 0.045), and 45% (p = 0.044) lower hair Zn, V, and Cd content, and 16% (p = 0.044) higher hair B levels – in comparison to the respective younger group values. Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that the age of the women had a significant influence on hair V and Zn levels. B content was also significantly influenced by age at first intercourse, smoking status, and specific dietary habits. None of the lifestyle factors were associated with hair Cd content in pregnant women. Hair V levels were also affected by following a special diet. Interestingly, alcohol intake did not have a significant impact on hair trace element content. These data indicate that lifestyle factors have a significant influence on age-related changes in hair trace elements during pregnancy that may impact the outcome of pregnancy.

  20. Sex difference in age-related changes in knee extensor strength and power production during a 10-times-repeated sit-to-stand task in Japanese elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagawa, Naoko; Shimomitsu, Teruichi; Kawanishi, Masashi; Fukunaga, Tetsuo; Kanehisa, Hiroaki

    2015-11-14

    For middle-aged and elderly women, age-related decline in an index representing power production during STS task (STS-PI), calculated by using an equation reported previously, has been shown to be greater than that in the force generation capability of lower extremity. Whether this is specific to women remains unclear. This study examined how the age-related changes in knee extensor strength and power production during STS differ between Japanese men and women aged 65 years or older. The time taken for a 10-times-repeated STS test (STS time) and force developed during maximal voluntary isometric knee extension (KE-F) were determined in Japanese younger-old (262 men and 285 women) aged 65-74 years and older-old (96 men and 89 women) aged 75-90 years. STS-PI was calculated using the following equation: STS-PI = (body height - 0.4) × body mass × 10/STS time. KE-F and STS-PI were significantly greater in the younger-old than in the older-old group (p movement such as STS in older women than in older men.

  1. Sex- and Age-Related Differences in Bone Microarchitecture in Men Relative to Women Assessed by High-Resolution Peripheral Quantitative Computed Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shreyasee Amin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The trabecular and cortical compartments of bone each contributes to bone strength. Until recently, assessment of trabecular and cortical microstructure has required a bone biopsy. Now, trabecular and cortical microstructure of peripheral bone sites can be determined noninvasively using high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT. Studies that have used HR-pQCT to evaluate cohorts of both men and women have provided novel insights into the changes in bone microarchitecture that occur with age between the sexes, which may help to explain the lower fracture incidence in older men relative to women. This review will highlight observations from these studies on both the sex- and age-related differences in trabecular and cortical microstructure that may underlie the differences in bone strength, and thereby fracture risk, between men and women.

  2. Age-related and sex-specific differences in proteasome activity in individual Drosophila flies from wild type, longevity-selected and stress resistant strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tina Ostergaard; Sarup, Pernille Merete; Loeschcke, Volker

    2012-01-01

    We have measured the caspase-like proteasome activity in individual male and female Drosophila flies by using a non-denaturing lysing technique that consistently extracts total protein. The mean proteasome activity in control C1 females was more than two times higher as compared with that in C1 m...... males. However, in longevity-selected LS1 flies the proteasome activity was significantly lower compared to C1 flies, but the sex differences were maintained to some extent. Five other stress resistant lines also had significantly reduced proteasome activity in both sexes. During ageing...... and that increased lifespan and stress resistance lead to a reduction in proteasome activity and recession of the age-related decline observed in control females....

  3. Age-related differences in lean mass, protein synthesis and skeletal muscle markers of proteolysis after bed rest and exercise rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Ruth E; Brunker, Lucille B; Agergaard, Jakob; Barrows, Katherine M; Briggs, Robert A; Kwon, Oh Sung; Young, Laura M; Hopkins, Paul N; Volpi, Elena; Marcus, Robin L; LaStayo, Paul C; Drummond, Micah J

    2015-09-15

    Bed rest-induced muscle loss and impaired muscle recovery may contribute to age-related sarcopenia. It is unknown if there are age-related differences in muscle mass and muscle anabolic and catabolic responses to bed rest. A secondary objective was to determine if rehabilitation could reverse bed rest responses. Nine older and fourteen young adults participated in a 5-day bed rest challenge (BED REST). This was followed by 8 weeks of high intensity resistance exercise (REHAB). Leg lean mass (via dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry; DXA) and strength were determined. Muscle biopsies were collected during a constant stable isotope infusion in the postabsorptive state and after essential amino acid (EAA) ingestion on three occasions: before (PRE), after bed rest and after rehabilitation. Samples were assessed for protein synthesis, mTORC1 signalling, REDD1/2 expression and molecular markers related to muscle proteolysis (MURF1, MAFBX, AMPKα, LC3II/I, Beclin1). We found that leg lean mass and strength decreased in older but not younger adults after bedrest (P protein synthesis increased before bed rest in both age groups (P protein synthesis rates and increased MAFBX mRNA, p-AMPKα and the LC3II/I ratio (P muscle loss after short-term bed rest. This may be partially explained by a combined suppression of protein synthesis and a marginal increase in proteolytic markers. Finally, rehabilitation restored bed rest-induced deficits in lean mass and strength in older adults. © 2015 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2015 The Physiological Society.

  4. Pilot evaluation of short-term changes in macular pigment and retinal sensitivity in different phenotypes of early age-related macular degeneration after carotenoid supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corvi, Federico; Souied, Eric H; Falfoul, Yousra; Georges, Anouk; Jung, Camille; Querques, Lea; Querques, Giuseppe

    2017-06-01

    To investigate the response of carotenoid supplementation in different phenotypes of early age-related macular degeneration (AMD) by measuring macular pigment optical density (MPOD) and retinal sensitivity. Consecutive patients with only medium/large drusen and only reticular pseudodrusen (RPD) and age-matched and sex-matched controls were enrolled. At baseline, participants underwent a complete ophthalmological examination including measurement of best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), MPOD and retinal sensitivity. Patients were put on vitamin supplementation (lutein 10 mg/day, zeaxanthin 2 mg/day) and 3 months later underwent a repeated ophthalmological examination. Twenty patients with medium/large drusen, 19 with RPD and 15 control subjects were included. At baseline, in controls, mean MPOD and BCVA were significantly higher compared with RPD (p=0.001 and p=0.01) but similar to medium/large drusen (p=0.9 and p=0.4). Mean retinal sensitivity was significantly higher in controls compared with RPD and medium/large drusen (for all pmacular sensitivity and MPOD than controls. After supplementation, MPOD significantly increased in RPD. These results suggest different pathophysiology for RPD as compared with medium/large drusen and may open new ways to identifying further therapeutic targets in this phenotype of early AMD. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  5. Age-related differences in Fukuda stepping and Babinski-Weil tests, within-day variability and test-retest reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquet, Nicole; Jehu, Deborah A; Lajoie, Yves

    2017-04-01

    The Fukuda stepping and Babinski-Weil tests are associated with unperceived body rotation and linear displacements in young adults, but performance in older adults on these two tests has yet to be determined. The main purpose was to compare the performance and reliability of the Fukuda stepping and Babinski-Weil tests in young and older adults. Fifty older and 50 young adults executed three trials of each test on day 1 (test) and day 2 (retest). Lateral and longitudinal displacements and body rotation relative to the starting position were measured. Means and standard deviations (SD) were compared between the two groups with Mann-Whitney tests. Test-retest reliability was assessed with intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC). Foot preference was determined from the score on the Waterloo Footedness Questionnaire and correlated with test scores. Lateral and longitudinal displacements were significantly larger in older than young participants on the Fukuda stepping test (p test (p test trials (p test in young (p  .05). Linear displacements, but not body rotation, were different between older and young adults. There was no clear age-related differences in test-retest reliability, but the moderate reliability indicates that performance can vary from day to day in both age groups.

  6. Age-related differences in stress responsiveness of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis of nonhuman primates with various types of adaptive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncharova, Nadezhda D; Oganyan, Tamara E

    2018-03-01

    Aging is characterized by disturbances in the functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, associated with disturbances in the adaptation processes and increase of the probability of the onset of post-stress syndrome. However, the individual features of age-related disorders stress reactivity of HPA axis have not been studied. The purpose was to study individual characteristics of the HPA axis responsiveness to acute psycho-emotional stress exposure (restraint, ASE) at different age periods on the model of the young adult and old physically healthy female rhesus monkeys that differ in their behavioral responses to stress, i.e., with depression-like and anxiety-like behavior (DAB) on the one hand and healthy standard (control) adaptive behavior (SB) on the other hand. No significant intergroup differences were observed in HPA axis responses to ASE in young animals. During aging the monkeys with SB showed reduced ACTH response to the ASE, whereas the monkeys with DAB demonstrated its increase. The old animals with DAB in response to ASE demonstrated the most pronounced HPA axis disorders, such as the highest levels of corticotrophin (ACTH), the lowest levels of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), reduced cortisol (F) levels and the highest values of the F/DHEAS molar ratio. The ratio F/DHEAS positively correlates with the malondialdehyde concentration in erythrocytes that is considered as the biomarker of oxidative stress. Thus, these data allow us to consider the old monkeys with DAB as individuals with higher vulnerability to the adverse effects of ASE. In addition, depression-like and anxiety-like behavior of aged primates under mild/moderate stress along with reduced DHEAS plasma concentration and increased values of F/DHEAS ratio can be used to identify individuals with increased vulnerability to ASE and accelerated aging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. [Regional Differences in the Care of Patients with Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration, Based on the Non-Interventional OCEAN Study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemssen, F; Hufenbach, U; Wiedon, A; Scheffler, M; Bertelmann, T

    2016-12-01

    Background: The main cause of blindness in the elderly in Germany is neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD). In the non-interventional OCEAN study, data were prospectively collected on the routine clinical care of patients treated with the drug ranibizumab. Patients: As part of an interim analysis within the ongoing study (NCT02194803), stratification was performed by the 17 regions of the German associations of panel physicians and by areas of different population density. Only data were analysed for patients for whom the first treatment with ranibizumab was documented. Results: A total of 5,606 patients were documented. The present manuscript reviews 2,658 treatment-naive patients with nAMD, documented by 324 ophthalmologists. Most patients receiving an intravitreal injection were female (60 %). The average patient was aged 77.7 ± 8.2 years at study start. The great majority of patients had statutory health insurance (91 %). At baseline, fluorescein angiography (FLA) was performed for 72 % of patients, while optical coherence tomography (OCT) was carried out for 76 %. A combination of both was performed for 54 % of patients, varying regionally from 26 % (Saxony-Anhalt) to 100 % (Berlin). The average waiting time between the first examination and the first injection was 20.0 ± 18.5 days. With different statistical models (ANOVA adjusted, with/without interactions), significant effects on treatment delay were found for district type (population density), federal state and type of specialist. Conclusion: No major regional differences were observed in the demographic characteristics of the patient population. The main regional disparities in the care of nAMD patients were in the application of diagnostic methods and the waiting times between the first examination and the first drug administration. The regional variations in treatment delays could clearly influence the risk of worse functional outcome. Georg Thieme Verlag KG

  8. Age-related differences in lower-limb muscle cross-sectional area and torque production in boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Sunita; Lott, Donovan J; Senesac, Claudia; Germain, Sean A; Vohra, Ravneet S; Sweeney, H Lee; Walter, Glenn A; Vandenborne, Krista

    2010-07-01

    To examine the relationship between lower-extremity muscle cross-sectional area, muscle strength, specific torque, and age in ambulatory boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) compared with controls. Observational cross-sectional study. University research setting. Volunteer sample of boys with DMD (n=22) and healthy control boys (n=10), ages 5 through 14 years. Not applicable. Maximal muscle cross-sectional area (CSA(max)) assessed by magnetic resonance imaging of quadriceps, plantarflexors (PFs) and dorsiflexors (DFs), peak isometric torque from dynamometry, and timed functional tests. The average CSA(max) of the triceps surae muscle group was approximately 60% higher in boys with DMD compared with controls (39.1+/-13.6 cm(2) vs 24.5+/-9.3 cm(2); P=.002), while the tibialis anterior muscle showed age-appropriate increases in CSA(max). The increase in quadriceps CSA(max) was also distinctly different in boys with DMD compared with controls. Specific torque (ie, peak torque/CSA(max)) was impaired in all 3 muscles groups, with the knee extensor (KE) and PF muscles showing 4-fold, and the DF muscles 2-fold, higher values in controls compared with boys with DMD. Large age-related gains in specific torque were observed in all 3 muscle groups of control subjects, which were absent in ambulatory boys with DMD. Correlations were observed between performance on functional tasks and quadriceps and PF torque production (r=-.45 to -.57, Pmuscle cross-sectional area and specific torque production in lower-extremity muscles showed distinctly different patterns in the KE, PF, and DF muscles of boys with DMD compared with controls. Copyright 2010 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Age-related macular degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Querques G

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Giuseppe Querques¹, Fernando Onofrio Avellis1,2, Lea Querques1,3, Francesco Bandello³, Eric H Souied¹ ¹Service d'Ophtalmologie, Centre Hospitalier Intercommunal Créteil, Université Paris-Est Créteil, Créteil, France; ²Parma Eye Clinic University Hospital, Università degli Studi di Parma, Parma, Italy; ³Department of Ophthalmology, Università Vita-Salute San Raffaele Milano, Milano, Italy Date of preparation: March 3, 2011 Conflict of interest: None declaredClinical question: Is there any new knowledge about the pathogenesis and treatment of age-related macular degeneration (AMD?Results: We now understand better the biochemical and pathological pathways involved in the genesis of AMD. Treatment of exudative AMD is based on intravitreal injection of new antivascular endothelial growth factor drugs for which there does not yet exist a unique recognized strategy of administration. No therapies are actually available for atrophic AMD, despite some experimental new pharmacological approaches.Implementation: strategy of administration, safety of intravitreal injectionKeywords: age-related macular degeneration, antivascular endothelial growth factor, choroidal neovascularization, drusen, geographic atrophy

  10. Age-Related Differences in Socio-demographic and Behavioral Determinants of HIV Testing and Counseling in HPTN 043/NIMH Project Accept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-Austin, N; Kulich, M; Chingono, A; Chariyalertsak, S; Srithanaviboonchai, K; Gray, G; Richter, L; van Rooyen, H; Morin, S; Sweat, M; Mbwambo, J; Szekeres, G; Coates, T; Celentano, D

    2018-02-01

    Youth represent a large proportion of new HIV infections worldwide, yet their utilization of HIV testing and counseling (HTC) remains low. Using the post-intervention, cross-sectional, population-based household survey done in 2011 as part of HPTN 043/NIMH Project Accept, a cluster-randomized trial of community mobilization and mobile HTC in South Africa (Soweto and KwaZulu Natal), Zimbabwe, Tanzania and Thailand, we evaluated age-related differences among socio-demographic and behavioral determinants of HTC in study participants by study arm, site, and gender. A multivariate logistic regression model was developed using complete individual data from 13,755 participants with recent HIV testing (prior 12 months) as the outcome. Youth (18-24 years) was not predictive of recent HTC, except for high-risk youth with multiple concurrent partners, who were less likely (aOR 0.75; 95% CI 0.61-0.92) to have recently been tested than youth reporting a single partner. Importantly, the intervention was successful in reaching men with site specific success ranging from aOR 1.27 (95% CI 1.05-1.53) in South Africa to aOR 2.30 in Thailand (95% CI 1.85-2.84). Finally, across a diverse range of settings, higher education (aOR 1.67; 95% CI 1.42, 1.96), higher socio-economic status (aOR 1.21; 95% CI 1.08-1.36), and marriage (aOR 1.55; 95% CI 1.37-1.75) were all predictive of recent HTC, which did not significantly vary across study arm, site, gender or age category (18-24 vs. 25-32 years).

  11. Machine learning algorithms based on signals from a single wearable inertial sensor can detect surface- and age-related differences in walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, B; Dixon, P C; Jacobs, J V; Dennerlein, J T; Schiffman, J M

    2018-04-11

    The aim of this study was to investigate if a machine learning algorithm utilizing triaxial accelerometer, gyroscope, and magnetometer data from an inertial motion unit (IMU) could detect surface- and age-related differences in walking. Seventeen older (71.5 ± 4.2 years) and eighteen young (27.0 ± 4.7 years) healthy adults walked over flat and uneven brick surfaces wearing an inertial measurement unit (IMU) over the L5 vertebra. IMU data were binned into smaller data segments using 4-s sliding windows with 1-s step lengths. Ninety percent of the data were used as training inputs and the remaining ten percent were saved for testing. A deep learning network with long short-term memory units was used for training (fully supervised), prediction, and implementation. Four models were trained using the following inputs: all nine channels from every sensor in the IMU (fully trained model), accelerometer signals alone, gyroscope signals alone, and magnetometer signals alone. The fully trained models for surface and age outperformed all other models (area under the receiver operator curve, AUC = 0.97 and 0.96, respectively; p ≤ .045). The fully trained models for surface and age had high accuracy (96.3, 94.7%), precision (96.4, 95.2%), recall (96.3, 94.7%), and f1-score (96.3, 94.6%). These results demonstrate that processing the signals of a single IMU device with machine-learning algorithms enables the detection of surface conditions and age-group status from an individual's walking behavior which, with further learning, may be utilized to facilitate identifying and intervening on fall risk. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Gender difference in age-related number of corticotropin-releasing hormone-expressing neurons in the human hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus and the role of sex hormones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bao, A.-M.; Swaab, D.F.

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the total number of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)-stained neurons in the human hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) increases with age. To determine whether this age-related change depends on gender and whether circulating sex hormones play a role, we

  13. The Societal Impact of Age-Related Macular Degeneration: Use of Social Support Resources Differs by the Severity of the Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Mark; Horowitz, Amy; Reinhardt, Joann P.; Stuen, Cynthia; Rubio, Roman; Oestreicher, Nina

    2011-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of legal blindness among persons aged 50 years and older and is most prevalent among individuals of European descent aged 65 and older (Friedman et al., 2004; Rosenthal & Thompson, 2003). By affecting central vision, AMD interferes with such tasks as reading, driving, and activities…

  14. [Presbycusis - Age Related Hearing Loss].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, N; Weber, B; Riechelmann, H

    2016-07-01

    Presbycusis or age related hearing loss can be defined as a progressive, bilateral and symmetrical sensorineural hearing loss due to age related degeneration of inner ear structures. It can be considered a multifactorial complex disorder with environmental and genetic factors. The molecular, electrophysiological and histological damage at different levels of the inner ear cause a progressive hearing loss, which usually affects the high frequencies of hearing. The resulting poor speech recognition has a negative impact on cognitive, emotional and social function in older adults. Recent investigations revealed an association between hearing impairment and social isolation, anxiety, depression and cognitive decline in elderly. These findings emphasize the importance of diagnosis and treating hearing loss in the elderly population. Hearing aids are the most commonly used devices for treating presbycusis. The technical progress of implantable hearing devices allows an effective hearing rehabilitation even in elderly with severe hearing loss. However, most people with hearing impairments are not treated adequately. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. [Comparison of Preferential Hyperacuity Perimeter (PHP) test and Amsler grid test in the diagnosis of different stages of age-related macular degeneration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampmeier, J; Zorn, M M; Lang, G K; Botros, Y T; Lang, G E

    2006-09-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) is the leading cause of blindness in people over 65 years of age. A rapid loss of vision occurs especially in cases with choroidal neovascularisation. Early detection of ARMD and timely treatment are mandatory. We have prospectively studied the results of two diagnostic self tests for the early detection of metamorphopsia and scotoma, the PHP test and the Amsler grid test, in different stages of ARMD. Patients with ARMD and best corrected visual acuity of 6/30 or better (Snellen charts) were examined with a standardised protocol, including supervised Amsler grid examination and PHP, a new device for metamorphopsia or scotoma measurement, based on the hyperacuity phenomenon in the central 14 degrees of the visual field. The stages of ARMD were independently graded in a masked fashion by stereoscopic ophthalmoscopy, stereoscopic fundus colour photographs, fluorescein angiography, and OCT. The patients were subdivided into 3 non-neovascular groups [early, late (RPE atrophy > 175 microm) and geographic atrophy], a neovascular group (classic and occult CNV) and an age-matched control group (healthy volunteers). 140 patients, with ages ranging from 50 to 90 years (median 68 years), were included in the study. Best corrected visual acuity ranged from 6/30 to 6/6 with a median of 6/12. 95 patients were diagnosed as non-neovascular ARMD. Thirty eyes had early ARMD (9 were tested positive by the PHP test and 9 by the Amsler grid test), and 50 late ARMD (positive: PHP test 23, Amsler grid test 26). The group with geographic atrophy consisted of 15 eyes (positive: PHP test 13, Amsler grid test 10). Forty-five patients presented with neovascular ARMD (positive: PHP test 38, Amsler grid test 36), 34 volunteers served as control group (positive: PHP test 1, Amsler grid test 5). The PHP and Amsler grid tests revealed comparable results detecting metamorphopsia and scotoma in early ARMD (30 vs. 30 %) and late ARMD (46 vs. 52 %). However, the

  16. QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF PIGMENT EPITHELIAL DETACHMENT RESPONSE TO DIFFERENT ANTI-VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR AGENTS IN WET AGE-RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaskas, Konstantinos; Karampelas, Michael; Horani, Mania; Hotu, Oana; Keane, Pearse; Aslam, Tariq

    2017-07-01

    To assess whether best-corrected visual acuity and pigment epithelial detachment (PED) height, volume, and reflectivity in patients with wet age-related macular degeneration are influenced by baseline anatomical and functional parameters, including quantifiable metrics of PED morphology and choice of treatment. One hundred two consecutive, treatment-naive wet age-related macular degeneration patients with PED (>50 μm) treated with aflibercept (52) or ranibizumab (50) were retrospectively included. Pigment epithelial detachment height, horizontal and vertical dimensions, and volume were recorded at baseline, 3 months, and 1 year, respectively. Bespoke image analysis software provided a quantifiable measure of reflectivity. Best-corrected visual acuity at 3 months was influenced by baseline best-corrected visual acuity (P = 0.006). Pigment epithelial detachment height was influenced by baseline height (P = 0.009), subretinal fluid (P = 0.008), central macular thickness (P = 0.006), and use of aflibercept (P = 0.003) at 3 months and by baseline height (P = 0.018), volume (P = 0.017), vertical dimension (P = 0.0004), and aflibercept (P = 0.015) at 1 year. Pigment epithelial detachment reflectivity increased from 43.59 to 55.86 (3 months) and 57.35 (1 year) (P detachments respond better in the context of more active disease. More hyporeflective PED content may predispose to better treatment response, especially with aflibercept.

  17. The Different Benefits from Different Gestures in Understanding a Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Seokmin; Hallman, Gregory L.; Son, Lisa K.; Black, John B.

    2013-01-01

    Explanations are typically accompanied by hand gestures. While research has shown that gestures can help learners understand a particular concept, different learning effects in different types of gesture have been less understood. To address the issues above, the current study focused on whether different types of gestures lead to different levels…

  18. Age-related changes of vertical and horizontal lumbar vertebral trabecular 3D bone microstructure is different in women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Jesper Skovhus; Niklassen, Andreas Steenholt; Ebbesen, Ebbe Nils; Brüel, Annemarie

    2013-11-01

    The study presents a 3D method for subdividing a trabecular network into horizontal and vertical oriented bone. This method was used to investigate the age related changes of the bone volume fraction and thickness of horizontal and vertical trabeculae in human lumbar vertebral bone estimated with unbiased 3D methods in women and men over a large age-range. The study comprised second lumbar vertebral body bone samples from 40 women (aged 21.7-96.4years, median 56.6years) and 39 men (aged 22.6-94.6years, median 55.6years). The bone samples were μCT scanned and the 3D microstructure was quantified. A voxel based algorithm inspecting the local neighborhood is presented and used to segment the trabecular network into horizontal and vertical oriented bone. For both women and men BV/TV decreased significantly with age, Tb.Th* was independent of age, while SMI increased significantly with age. Vertical (BV.vert/TV) and horizontal (BV.horz/TV) bone volume fraction decreased significantly with age for both sexes. BV.vert/TV decreased significantly faster with age for women than for men. Vertical (Tb.Th*.vert) and horizontal (Tb.Th*.horz) trabecular thickness were independent of age, while Tb.Th*.horz/Tb.Th*.vert decreased significantly with age for both sexes. Additionally, the 95th percentile of the trabecular thickness distribution increased significantly with age for vertical trabeculae in women, whereas it was independent of age in men. In conclusion, we have shown that vertical and horizontal oriented bone density decreases with age in both women and men, and that vertical oriented bone is lost more quickly in women than in men. Furthermore, vertical and horizontal trabecular thickness were independent of age, whereas the horizontal to vertical trabecular thickness ratio decreased significantly with age indicating a relatively more pronounced thinning of horizontal trabeculae. Finally, the age-related loss of trabecular elements appeared to result in a compensatory

  19. Sex- and age-related differences in half-marathon performance and competitiveness in the world's largest half-marathon - the GöteborgsVarvet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knechtle, B; Nikolaidis, P T

    2018-01-01

    In road runners, the age-related performance decline has been well investigated for marathoners, but little is known for half-marathoners. We analysed data from 138,616 runners (48,148 women and 90,469 men) competing between 2014 and 2016 in GöteborgsVarvet, the world's largest half-marathon. The men-to-women ratio in participants increased with age, the fastest race times were observed in age groups ˂35 and 35-39 years in women and in age group 35-39 years in men, the main effect of sex and the sex × age group interaction on race time were trivial, and the competitiveness was denser in men and in the younger age groups. In summary, in half-marathon running in the largest half-marathon in the world, the GöteborgsVarvet, women achieved the fastest race time at an earlier age compared to men where the fastest race times were observed in women in age groups ˂35 and 35-39 years and in men in age group 35-39 years.

  20. Age-related differences in memory expression during infancy: using eye-tracking to measure relational memory in 6- and 12-month-olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Jenny L; Power, Jessica

    2014-09-01

    Relational memory, or the ability to bind components of an event into a network of linked representations, is a primary function of the hippocampus. Here we extend eye-tracking research showing that infants are capable of forming memories for the relation between arbitrarily paired scenes and faces, by looking at age-related changes in relational memory over the first year of life. Six- and 12-month-old infants were familiarized with pairs of faces and scenes before being tested with arrays of three familiar faces that were presented on a familiar scene. Preferential looking at the face that matches the scene is typically taken as evidence of relational memory. The results showed that while 6-month-old showed very early preferential looking when face/scene pairs were tested immediately, 12-month-old did not exhibit evidence of relational memory either immediately or after a short delay. Theoretical implications for the functional development of the hippocampus and practical implications for the use of eye tracking to measure memory during early life are discussed. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Age-related macular degeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour, Morten; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Nissen, Mogens Holst

    2002-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a common macular disease affecting elderly people in the Western world. It is characterised by the appearance of drusen in the macula, accompanied by choroidal neovascularisation (CNV) or geographic atrophy. The disease is more common in Caucasian...

  2. Age-related macular degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanjiku Mathenge

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Age-related macular degeneration (AMD is a disease of the retina that usually develops in people aged 60 years and older. It affects about 8.7% of the world’s population and is the leading cause of blindness among people aged 50 and older in industrialised countries.

  3. Age-Related Macular Degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Sonia

    2015-09-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of vision loss in the elderly. AMD is diagnosed based on characteristic retinal findings in individuals older than 50. Early detection and treatment are critical in increasing the likelihood of retaining good and functional vision. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. [New aspects in age related macular degeneration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turlea, C

    2012-01-01

    Being the leading cause of blindness in modern world Age Related Macular Degeneration has beneficiated in the last decade of important progress in diagnosis, classification and the discovery of diverse factors who contribute to the etiology of this disease. Treatments have arised who can postpone the irreversible evolution of the disease and thus preserve vision. Recent findings have identified predisposing genetic factors and also inflamatory and imunological parameters that can be modified trough a good and adequate prevention and therapy This articole reviews new aspects of patology of Age Related Macular Degeneration like the role of complement in maintaining inflamation and the role of oxidative stress on different structures of the retina.

  5. Age-related oral changes.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mckenna, Gerald

    2010-10-01

    Age-related oral changes are seen in the oral hard and soft tissues as well as in bone, the temporomandibular joints and the oral mucosa. As older patients retain their natural teeth for longer, the clinical picture consists of normal physiological age changes in combination with pathological and iatrogenic effects. Clinical Relevance: With an ageing population retaining more of its natural teeth for longer, dental professionals should expect to observe oral age changes more frequently.

  6. The influence of gender- and age-related differences in the radiosensitivity of hematopoietic progenitor cells detected in steady-state human peripheral blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Kengo; Kashiwakura, Ikuo; Kuwabara, Mikinori

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the importance of gender and aging on the individual radiosensitivity of lineage-committed myeloid hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) detected in mononuclear cells (MNCs) of steady-state human peripheral blood (PB), the clonogenic survival of HPCs, including colony-forming unit-granulocyte macrophage; burst-forming unit-erythroid; colony-forming unit-granulocyte-erythroid-macrophage-megakaryocyte cells derived from MNCs exposed to 0.5 Gy and 2 Gy X-irradiation were estimated. MNCs were prepared from the buffy-coats of 59 healthy individual blood donors. The results showed that large individual differences exist in the number of HSPCs, as well as in the surviving fraction of cells. Furthermore, the number of progenitor cells strongly correlated with their surviving fraction, suggesting that the radiosensitivity of hematopoietic progenitor cells decreases with the number of cells in the 10 5 cells population. A statistically significant negative correlation was observed between the surviving fraction observed at a dose of 0.5 Gy and the age of an individual, however, none of these correlations were observed after 2 Gy irradiation. No statistically significant difference was observed in individual radiosensitivity between males and females at either radiation dose. The present results indicated a correlation between the individual responsiveness of HSPCs to ionizing irradiation, especially to low dose irradiation, and aging. (author)

  7. European multicentre database of healthy controls for [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT SPECT (ENC-DAT): age-related effects, gender differences and evaluation of different methods of analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varrone, Andrea [Karolinska University Hospital, R5:02, Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Centre for Psychiatry Research, Stockholm (Sweden); Dickson, John C. [UCLH NHS Foundation Trust and University College, Institute of Nuclear Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Tossici-Bolt, Livia [University Hospitals Southampton NHS Trust, Department of Medical Physics, Southampton (United Kingdom); Sera, Terez [University of Szeged, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Euromedic Szeged, Szeged (Hungary); Asenbaum, Susanne [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Vienna (Austria); Booij, Jan [University of Amsterdam, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kapucu, Ozlem L. [Gazi University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Ankara (Turkey); Kluge, Andreas [ABX-CRO, Dresden (Germany); Knudsen, Gitte M. [Rigshospitalet and University of Copenhagen, Neurobiology Research Unit, Copenhagen (Denmark); Koulibaly, Pierre Malick [University of Nice-Sophia Antipolis, Nuclear Medicine Department, Centre Antoine Lacassagne, Nice (France); Nobili, Flavio [University of Genoa, Clinical Neurophysiology Unit, Department of Neuroscience, Ophthalmology and Genetics, Genoa (Italy); Pagani, Marco [Institute of Cognitive Sciences and Technologies, CNR, Rome (Italy); Karolinska University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Stockholm (Sweden); Sabri, Osama [University of Leipzig, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Leipzig (Germany); Borght, Thierry vander [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Nuclear Medicine Division, Mont-Godinne Medical Center, Yvoir (Belgium); Laere, Koen van [University Hospital and K.U. Leuven, Nuclear Medicine, Leuven (Belgium); Tatsch, Klaus [Municipal Hospital of Karlsruhe Inc, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2013-02-15

    Dopamine transporter (DAT) imaging with [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT (DaTSCAN) is an established diagnostic tool in parkinsonism and dementia. Although qualitative assessment criteria are available, DAT quantification is important for research and for completion of a diagnostic evaluation. One critical aspect of quantification is the availability of normative data, considering possible age and gender effects on DAT availability. The aim of the European Normal Control Database of DaTSCAN (ENC-DAT) study was to generate a large database of [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT SPECT scans in healthy controls. SPECT data from 139 healthy controls (74 men, 65 women; age range 20 - 83 years, mean 53 years) acquired in 13 different centres were included. Images were reconstructed using the ordered-subset expectation-maximization algorithm without correction (NOACSC), with attenuation correction (AC), and with both attenuation and scatter correction using the triple-energy window method (ACSC). Region-of-interest analysis was performed using the BRASS software (caudate and putamen), and the Southampton method (striatum). The outcome measure was the specific binding ratio (SBR). A significant effect of age on SBR was found for all data. Gender had a significant effect on SBR in the caudate and putamen for the NOACSC and AC data, and only in the left caudate for the ACSC data (BRASS method). Significant effects of age and gender on striatal SBR were observed for all data analysed with the Southampton method. Overall, there was a significant age-related decline in SBR of between 4 % and 6.7 % per decade. This study provides a large database of [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT SPECT scans in healthy controls across a wide age range and with balanced gender representation. Higher DAT availability was found in women than in men. An average age-related decline in DAT availability of 5.5 % per decade was found for both genders, in agreement with previous reports. The data collected in this study may serve as a reference

  8. European multicentre database of healthy controls for [123I]FP-CIT SPECT (ENC-DAT): age-related effects, gender differences and evaluation of different methods of analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varrone, Andrea; Dickson, John C.; Tossici-Bolt, Livia; Sera, Terez; Asenbaum, Susanne; Booij, Jan; Kapucu, Ozlem L.; Kluge, Andreas; Knudsen, Gitte M.; Koulibaly, Pierre Malick; Nobili, Flavio; Pagani, Marco; Sabri, Osama; Borght, Thierry vander; Laere, Koen van; Tatsch, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Dopamine transporter (DAT) imaging with [ 123 I]FP-CIT (DaTSCAN) is an established diagnostic tool in parkinsonism and dementia. Although qualitative assessment criteria are available, DAT quantification is important for research and for completion of a diagnostic evaluation. One critical aspect of quantification is the availability of normative data, considering possible age and gender effects on DAT availability. The aim of the European Normal Control Database of DaTSCAN (ENC-DAT) study was to generate a large database of [ 123 I]FP-CIT SPECT scans in healthy controls. SPECT data from 139 healthy controls (74 men, 65 women; age range 20 - 83 years, mean 53 years) acquired in 13 different centres were included. Images were reconstructed using the ordered-subset expectation-maximization algorithm without correction (NOACSC), with attenuation correction (AC), and with both attenuation and scatter correction using the triple-energy window method (ACSC). Region-of-interest analysis was performed using the BRASS software (caudate and putamen), and the Southampton method (striatum). The outcome measure was the specific binding ratio (SBR). A significant effect of age on SBR was found for all data. Gender had a significant effect on SBR in the caudate and putamen for the NOACSC and AC data, and only in the left caudate for the ACSC data (BRASS method). Significant effects of age and gender on striatal SBR were observed for all data analysed with the Southampton method. Overall, there was a significant age-related decline in SBR of between 4 % and 6.7 % per decade. This study provides a large database of [ 123 I]FP-CIT SPECT scans in healthy controls across a wide age range and with balanced gender representation. Higher DAT availability was found in women than in men. An average age-related decline in DAT availability of 5.5 % per decade was found for both genders, in agreement with previous reports. The data collected in this study may serve as a reference database for

  9. Older adults' decoding of emotions: age-related differences in interpreting dynamic emotional displays and the well-preserved ability to recognize happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraitou, Despina; Papantoniou, Georgia; Gkinopoulos, Theofilos; Nigritinou, Magdalini

    2013-09-01

    Although the ability to recognize emotions through bodily and facial muscular movements is vital to everyday life, numerous studies have found that older adults are less adept at identifying emotions than younger adults. The message gleaned from research has been one of greater decline in abilities to recognize specific negative emotions than positive ones. At the same time, these results raise methodological issues with regard to different modalities in which emotion decoding is measured. The main aim of the present study is to identify the pattern of age differences in the ability to decode basic emotions from naturalistic visual emotional displays. The sample comprised a total of 208 adults from Greece, aged from 18 to 86 years. Participants were examined using the Emotion Evaluation Test, which is the first part of a broader audiovisual tool, The Awareness of Social Inference Test. The Emotion Evaluation Test was designed to examine a person's ability to identify six emotions and discriminate these from neutral expressions, as portrayed dynamically by professional actors. The findings indicate that decoding of basic emotions occurs along the broad affective dimension of uncertainty, and a basic step in emotion decoding involves recognizing whether information presented is emotional or not. Age was found to negatively affect the ability to decode basic negatively valenced emotions as well as pleasant surprise. Happiness decoding is the only ability that was found well-preserved with advancing age. The main conclusion drawn from the study is that the pattern in which emotion decoding from visual cues is affected by normal ageing depends on the rate of uncertainty, which either is related to decoding difficulties or is inherent to a specific emotion. © 2013 The Authors. Psychogeriatrics © 2013 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  10. Gender-Related and Age-Related Differences in Implantable Defibrillator Recipients: Results From the Pacemaker and Implantable Defibrillator Leads Survival Study ("PAIDLESS").

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Alyssa M; Kersten, Daniel J; Chung, Jessica A; Asheld, Wilbur J; Germano, Joseph; Islam, Shahidul; Cohen, Todd J

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influences of gender and age on defibrillator lead failure and patient mortality. The specific influences of gender and age on defibrillator lead failure have not previously been investigated. This study analyzed the differences in gender and age in relation to defibrillator lead failure and mortality of patients in the Pacemaker and Implantable Defibrillator Leads Survival Study ("PAIDLESS"). PAIDLESS includes all patients at Winthrop University Hospital who underwent defibrillator lead implantation between February 1, 1996 and December 31, 2011. Male and female patients were compared within each age decile, beginning at 15 years old, to analyze lead failure and patient mortality. Statistical analyses were performed using Wilcoxon rank-sum test, Fisher's exact test, Kaplan-Meier analysis, and multivariable Cox regression models. Pdefibrillator lead failure and patient mortality in relation to gender and age deciles at a single large implanting center. Within the 45 to 54 years group, leads implanted in women failed faster than in men. Male gender was found to be an independent protective factor in lead survival. This study emphasizes the complex interplay between gender and age with respect to implantable defibrillator lead failure and mortality.

  11. Adult-acquired flatfoot deformity and age-related differences in foot and ankle kinematics during the single-limb heel-rise test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimenti, Ruth L; Tome, Joshua; Hillin, Cody D; Flemister, Adolph S; Houck, Jeff

    2014-04-01

    Cross-sectional laboratory study. To compare single-limb heel-rise performance and foot-ankle kinematics between persons with stage 2 adult-acquired flat foot deformity (AAFD) and healthy controls. The inability to perform a single-limb heel rise is considered a positive functional diagnostic test for AAFD. However, which foot motions contribute to poor performance of this task are not known. Fifty individuals participated in this study, 20 with stage 2 AAFD (mean ± SD age, 57.6 ± 11.3 years), and 15 older participants (age, 56.8 ± 5.3 years) and 15 younger participants (age, 22.2 ± 2.4 years) without AAFD as control groups. Forefoot (sagittal plane) and rear foot (sagittal and frontal planes) kinematics were collected using a 3-D motion analysis system. Heel-rise performance (heel height) and kinematics (joint angles, excursions) were evaluated. One-way and 2-way analyses of variance were used to examine differences in heel-rise performance and kinematics between groups. Individuals with AAFD and older controls demonstrated lower heel-rise height than those in the younger control group (Pfoot kinematics in the sagittal plane, as opposed to the frontal plane, contributed to the lower heel height in participants with stage 2 AAFD. Older controls demonstrated lower heel-rise height than younger controls, indicating that clinical expectations of heel-rise performance may need to be adjusted for age.

  12. Age-related macular degeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour, Morten; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Nissen, Mogens Holst

    2002-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a common macular disease affecting elderly people in the Western world. It is characterised by the appearance of drusen in the macula, accompanied by choroidal neovascularisation (CNV) or geographic atrophy. The disease is more common in Caucasian....... Smoking is probably also a risk factor. Preventive strategies using macular laser photocoagulation are under investigation, but their efficacy in preventing visual loss is as yet unproven. There is no treatment with proven efficacy for geographic atrophy. Optimal treatment for exudative AMD requires...

  13. Age-related differences of semen quality, seminal plasma, and spermatozoa antioxidative and oxidative stress variables in bulls during cold and warm periods of the year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vince, S; Žura Žaja, I; Samardžija, M; Majić Balić, I; Vilić, M; Đuričić, D; Valpotić, H; Marković, F; Milinković-Tur, S

    2018-03-01

    concluded that antioxidative and OS variables differ significantly depending on bull age and time of year. Younger bulls were more sensitive to elevated ambient temperatures during the warm period, when the higher enzymatic antioxidative protection in seminal plasma and spermatozoa were insufficient to counteract the intensive oxidative processes in spermatozoa, which eventually resulted in decreased spermatozoa motility. The estimation of antioxidative and OS variables in seminal plasma and spermatozoa may have practical value for the assessment of bull semen quality.

  14. A data mining approach for classifying DNA repair genes into ageing-related or non-ageing-related

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasieva Olga

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ageing of the worldwide population means there is a growing need for research on the biology of ageing. DNA damage is likely a key contributor to the ageing process and elucidating the role of different DNA repair systems in ageing is of great interest. In this paper we propose a data mining approach, based on classification methods (decision trees and Naive Bayes, for analysing data about human DNA repair genes. The goal is to build classification models that allow us to discriminate between ageing-related and non-ageing-related DNA repair genes, in order to better understand their different properties. Results The main patterns discovered by the classification methods are as follows: (a the number of protein-protein interactions was a predictor of DNA repair proteins being ageing-related; (b the use of predictor attributes based on protein-protein interactions considerably increased predictive accuracy of attributes based on Gene Ontology (GO annotations; (c GO terms related to "response to stimulus" seem reasonably good predictors of ageing-relatedness for DNA repair genes; (d interaction with the XRCC5 (Ku80 protein is a strong predictor of ageing-relatedness for DNA repair genes; and (e DNA repair genes with a high expression in T lymphocytes are more likely to be ageing-related. Conclusions The above patterns are broadly integrated in an analysis discussing relations between Ku, the non-homologous end joining DNA repair pathway, ageing and lymphocyte development. These patterns and their analysis support non-homologous end joining double strand break repair as central to the ageing-relatedness of DNA repair genes. Our work also showcases the use of protein interaction partners to improve accuracy in data mining methods and our approach could be applied to other ageing-related pathways.

  15. Age-related macular degeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour, Morten; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Nissen, Mogens Holst

    2002-01-01

    cause of blindness among Caucasian individuals in developed countries. Blindness resulting from AMD rarely occurs before age 70, and most cases occur after age 80. The age-standardised 1-year incidence of legal blindness resulting from AMD is 212 cases per million. Two-thirds of AMD cases have CNV......Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a common macular disease affecting elderly people in the Western world. It is characterised by the appearance of drusen in the macula, accompanied by choroidal neovascularisation (CNV) or geographic atrophy. The disease is more common in Caucasian...... individuals than in pigmented races. In predominantly Caucasian populations, the age-standardised prevalence of AMD in at least one eye is 7760 cases per million. The age-standardised cumulated 1-year incidence of AMD in at least one eye is 1051 cases per million individuals. AMD is the most important single...

  16. Age-related accumulation of advanced glycation end-products-albumin, S100β, and the expressions of advanced glycation end product receptor differ in visceral and subcutaneous fat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Kuk Hui [Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, Gachon University Gil Medical Center, Gachon University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Son, Myeongjoo [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Gachon University Graduate School of Medicine, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Functional Cellular Networks Laboratory, Lee Gil Ya Cancer and Diabetes Institute, Gachon University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Hyosang; Oh, Seyeon; Yum, Yoonji [Functional Cellular Networks Laboratory, Lee Gil Ya Cancer and Diabetes Institute, Gachon University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Chang Hu [Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, Gachon University Gil Medical Center, Gachon University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Kook Yang, E-mail: kkyypark@ghil.com [Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, Gachon University Gil Medical Center, Gachon University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Kyunghee, E-mail: khbyun1@gachon.ac.kr [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Gachon University Graduate School of Medicine, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Functional Cellular Networks Laboratory, Lee Gil Ya Cancer and Diabetes Institute, Gachon University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-19

    Visceral fat induces more inflammation by activating macrophages than subcutaneous fat, and inflammation is an underlying feature of the pathogeneses of various diseases, including cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs), S100β, and their receptors, the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), lead to macrophage activation. However, little information is available regarding the differential accumulations of AGE-albumin (serum albumin modified by AGEs), S100β, or expressions of RAGE in different adipocyte types in fat tissues. In this study, the authors investigated whether age-related AGE-albumin accumulations S100β level, and RAGE expressions differ in subcutaneous and visceral fat tissues. Subcutaneous and visceral fat were harvested from 3- and 28-week-old rats. Macrophage activation was confirmed by Iba1 staining, and AGE-albumin accumulations and RAGE expressions were assessed by confocal microscopy. S100β were analyzed by immunoblotting. It was found that activated macrophage infiltration, AGE-albumin accumulation, and S100β in visceral fat was significantly greater in 28-week-old rats than in 3-week-old rats, but similar in subcutaneous fat. The expression of RAGE in visceral fat was much greater in 28-week-old rats, but its expression in subcutaneous fat was similar in 3- and 28-week-old rats. Furthermore, inflammatory signal pathways (NFκB, TNF-α) and proliferation pathways (FAK) in visceral fat were more activated in 28-week-old rats. These results imply that age-related AGE-albumin accumulation, S100β, and RAGE expression are more prominent in visceral than in subcutaneous fat, suggesting that visceral fat is involved in the pathogenesis of inflammation-induced diseases in the elderly. - Highlights: • The age-related AGE-albumin accumulation and S100β were more prominent in visceral than subcutaneous fat. • The age-related RAGE expression were more prominent in visceral than subcutaneous fat.

  17. Age-related accumulation of advanced glycation end-products-albumin, S100β, and the expressions of advanced glycation end product receptor differ in visceral and subcutaneous fat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, Kuk Hui; Son, Myeongjoo; Ahn, Hyosang; Oh, Seyeon; Yum, Yoonji; Choi, Chang Hu; Park, Kook Yang; Byun, Kyunghee

    2016-01-01

    Visceral fat induces more inflammation by activating macrophages than subcutaneous fat, and inflammation is an underlying feature of the pathogeneses of various diseases, including cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs), S100β, and their receptors, the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), lead to macrophage activation. However, little information is available regarding the differential accumulations of AGE-albumin (serum albumin modified by AGEs), S100β, or expressions of RAGE in different adipocyte types in fat tissues. In this study, the authors investigated whether age-related AGE-albumin accumulations S100β level, and RAGE expressions differ in subcutaneous and visceral fat tissues. Subcutaneous and visceral fat were harvested from 3- and 28-week-old rats. Macrophage activation was confirmed by Iba1 staining, and AGE-albumin accumulations and RAGE expressions were assessed by confocal microscopy. S100β were analyzed by immunoblotting. It was found that activated macrophage infiltration, AGE-albumin accumulation, and S100β in visceral fat was significantly greater in 28-week-old rats than in 3-week-old rats, but similar in subcutaneous fat. The expression of RAGE in visceral fat was much greater in 28-week-old rats, but its expression in subcutaneous fat was similar in 3- and 28-week-old rats. Furthermore, inflammatory signal pathways (NFκB, TNF-α) and proliferation pathways (FAK) in visceral fat were more activated in 28-week-old rats. These results imply that age-related AGE-albumin accumulation, S100β, and RAGE expression are more prominent in visceral than in subcutaneous fat, suggesting that visceral fat is involved in the pathogenesis of inflammation-induced diseases in the elderly. - Highlights: • The age-related AGE-albumin accumulation and S100β were more prominent in visceral than subcutaneous fat. • The age-related RAGE expression were more prominent in visceral than subcutaneous fat.

  18. Spatial variation in the storages and age-related dynamics of forest carbon sequestration in different climate zones-evidence from black locust plantations on the Loess Plateau of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Taijun; Ren, Bowen; Wang, Dahui; Liu, Guobin

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge about the long-term influences of climate change on the amount of potential carbon (C) sequestration in forest ecosystems, including age-related dynamics, remains unclear. This study used two similar age-sequences of black locust forests (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) in the semi-arid and semi-humid zones of China's Loess Plateau to assess the variation in C stocks and age-related dynamics. Our results demonstrated that black locust forests of the semi-humid zone stored significantly more C than did forests in the semi-arid zone, across the chronosequence (p zone, while the semi-arid zone had a capacity of only 79.4 Mg C ha-1. Soil organic C (SOC) increased continuously with stand age in the semi-arid zone (R2 = 0.84, p = 0.010). However, in the semi-humid zone, SOC declined sharply by 47.8% after the initial stage (5 to 10 y). The C stock in trees increased continuously with stand age in the semi-humid zone (R2 = 0.83, p = 0.011), yet in the semi-arid zone, it decreased dramatically from 43.0 Mg C ha-1 to 28.4 Mg C ha-1 during the old forest stage (38 to 56 y). The shift from being a net C sink to a net C source occurred at the initial stage in the semi-humid zone versus at the old forest stage in the semi-arid zone after reforestation. Surprisingly, with the exception of the initial and later stages (55 y), the patterns of C allocation among trees, soils, understory and litter were not statistically different between the two climate zones. Our results suggest that climate factors can alter the potential amount and age-related dynamics of forest C sequestration.

  19. Spatial Variation in the Storages and Age-Related Dynamics of Forest Carbon Sequestration in Different Climate Zones—Evidence from Black Locust Plantations on the Loess Plateau of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Taijun; Ren, Bowen; Wang, Dahui; Liu, Guobin

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge about the long-term influences of climate change on the amount of potential carbon (C) sequestration in forest ecosystems, including age-related dynamics, remains unclear. This study used two similar age-sequences of black locust forests (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) in the semi-arid and semi-humid zones of China’s Loess Plateau to assess the variation in C stocks and age-related dynamics. Our results demonstrated that black locust forests of the semi-humid zone stored significantly more C than did forests in the semi-arid zone, across the chronosequence (p zone, while the semi-arid zone had a capacity of only 79.4 Mg C ha−1. Soil organic C (SOC) increased continuously with stand age in the semi-arid zone (R2 = 0.84, p = 0.010). However, in the semi-humid zone, SOC declined sharply by 47.8% after the initial stage (5 to 10 y). The C stock in trees increased continuously with stand age in the semi-humid zone (R2 = 0.83, p = 0.011), yet in the semi-arid zone, it decreased dramatically from 43.0 Mg C ha−1 to 28.4 Mg C ha−1 during the old forest stage (38 to 56 y). The shift from being a net C sink to a net C source occurred at the initial stage in the semi-humid zone versus at the old forest stage in the semi-arid zone after reforestation. Surprisingly, with the exception of the initial and later stages (55 y), the patterns of C allocation among trees, soils, understory and litter were not statistically different between the two climate zones. Our results suggest that climate factors can alter the potential amount and age-related dynamics of forest C sequestration. PMID:25799100

  20. Understanding cohort differences in appraisals of reconstruction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: This study provides additional support for the premise that the utilization of psychiatric services needs to be viewed from the perspective of Liberians and that there are differences in preferences across groups. Our results suggest that service providers and policy makers take into account the age of the patient ...

  1. Risk factors for age-related maculopathy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Connell, Paul P

    2012-02-01

    Age-related maculopathy (ARM) is the leading cause of blindness in the elderly. Although beneficial therapeutic strategies have recently begun to emerge, much remains unclear regarding the etiopathogenesis of this disorder. Epidemiologic studies have enhanced our understanding of ARM, but the data, often conflicting, has led to difficulties with drawing firm conclusions with respect to risk for this condition. As a consequence, we saw a need to assimilate the published findings with respect to risk factors for ARM, through a review of the literature appraising results from published cross-sectional studies, prospective cohort studies, case series, and case control studies investigating risk for this condition. Our review shows that, to date, and across a spectrum of epidemiologic study designs, only age, cigarette smoking, and family history of ARM have been consistently demonstrated to represent risk for this condition. In addition, genetic studies have recently implicated many genes in the pathogenesis of age-related maculopathy, including Complement Factor H, PLEKHA 1, and LOC387715\\/HTRA1, demonstrating that environmental and genetic factors are important for the development of ARM suggesting that gene-environment interaction plays an important role in the pathogenesis of this condition.

  2. Spatial variation in the storages and age-related dynamics of forest carbon sequestration in different climate zones-evidence from black locust plantations on the Loess Plateau of China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taijun Li

    Full Text Available Knowledge about the long-term influences of climate change on the amount of potential carbon (C sequestration in forest ecosystems, including age-related dynamics, remains unclear. This study used two similar age-sequences of black locust forests (Robinia pseudoacacia L. in the semi-arid and semi-humid zones of China's Loess Plateau to assess the variation in C stocks and age-related dynamics. Our results demonstrated that black locust forests of the semi-humid zone stored significantly more C than did forests in the semi-arid zone, across the chronosequence (p < 0.001. The C carrying capacity of the plantations was measured at 166.4 Mg C ha-1 (1 Mg = 106 g in the semi-humid zone, while the semi-arid zone had a capacity of only 79.4 Mg C ha-1. Soil organic C (SOC increased continuously with stand age in the semi-arid zone (R2 = 0.84, p = 0.010. However, in the semi-humid zone, SOC declined sharply by 47.8% after the initial stage (5 to 10 y. The C stock in trees increased continuously with stand age in the semi-humid zone (R2 = 0.83, p = 0.011, yet in the semi-arid zone, it decreased dramatically from 43.0 Mg C ha-1 to 28.4 Mg C ha-1 during the old forest stage (38 to 56 y. The shift from being a net C sink to a net C source occurred at the initial stage in the semi-humid zone versus at the old forest stage in the semi-arid zone after reforestation. Surprisingly, with the exception of the initial and later stages (55 y, the patterns of C allocation among trees, soils, understory and litter were not statistically different between the two climate zones. Our results suggest that climate factors can alter the potential amount and age-related dynamics of forest C sequestration.

  3. Self-reported optometric practise patterns in age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, Angelica; Nivison-Smith, Lisa; Zangerl, Barbara; Assaad, Nagi; Kalloniatis, Michael

    2017-11-01

    by optometrists. Clinically significant variations in self-rated test competency and the understanding regarding nutritional supplements for different stages of age-related macular degeneration suggest that further work to up-skill optometrists may be required. © 2017 Optometry Australia.

  4. [Age-related changes of sensory system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, Toshihiko; Hanyu, Haruo; Umahara, Takahiko

    2013-10-01

    Pathological processes usually superimpose on physiological aging even in the sensory system including visual, hearing, olfactory, taste and somatosensory functions. Representative changes of age-related changes are presbyopia, cataracts, and presbyacusis. Reduced sense of smell is seen in normal aging, but the prominent reduction detected by the odor stick identification test is noticed especially in early stage of Alzheimer or Parkinson disease. Reduced sense of taste is well-known especially in salty sense, while the changes of sweet, bitter, and sour tastes are different among individuals. Finally, deep sensation of vibration and proprioception is decreased with age as well as superficial sensation (touch, temperature, pain). As a result, impaired sensory system could induce deterioration of the activities of daily living and quality of life in the elderly.

  5. Searching for a Different Understanding of Operational Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-26

    Searching for a Different Understanding of Operational Art A Monograph by MAJ Sean C. Chang United States...Sa. CONTRACT NUMBER Searching for a Different Understanding of Operational Art Sb. GRANT NUMBER Sc. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Sd...AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Many think that operational art

  6. Spatial Variation in the Storages and Age-Related Dynamics of Forest Carbon Sequestration in Different Climate Zones?Evidence from Black Locust Plantations on the Loess Plateau of China

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Taijun; Ren, Bowen; Wang, Dahui; Liu, Guobin

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge about the long-term influences of climate change on the amount of potential carbon (C) sequestration in forest ecosystems, including age-related dynamics, remains unclear. This study used two similar age-sequences of black locust forests (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) in the semi-arid and semi-humid zones of China's Loess Plateau to assess the variation in C stocks and age-related dynamics. Our results demonstrated that black locust forests of the semi-humid zone stored significantly mor...

  7. Risk Factors and Biomarkers of Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Nathan G.; Singh, Malkit K.; ElShelmani, Hanan; Mansergh, Fiona C.; Wride, Michael A.; Padilla, Maximilian; Keegan, David; Hogg, Ruth E.; Ambati, Balamurali K.

    2016-01-01

    A biomarker can be a substance or structure measured in body parts, fluids or products that can affect or predict disease incidence. As age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness in the developed world, much research and effort has been invested in the identification of different biomarkers to predict disease incidence, identify at risk individuals, elucidate causative pathophysiological etiologies, guide screening, monitoring and treatment parameters, and predict disease outcomes. To date, a host of genetic, environmental, proteomic, and cellular targets have been identified as both risk factors and potential biomarkers for AMD. Despite this, their use has been confined to research settings and has not yet crossed into the clinical arena. A greater understanding of these factors and their use as potential biomarkers for AMD can guide future research and clinical practice. This article will discuss known risk factors and novel, potential biomarkers of AMD in addition to their application in both academic and clinical settings. PMID:27156982

  8. Translational strategies in aging and age-related disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Armanios, M.; Cabo, R. de; Mannick, J.; Partridge, L.; Deursen, J. van; Villeda, S.

    2015-01-01

    Aging is a risk factor for several of the world's most prevalent diseases, including neurodegenerative disorders, cancer, cardiovascular disease and metabolic disease. Although our understanding of the molecular pathways that contribute to the aging process and age-related disease is progressing

  9. Pathophysiology of Age-Related Hearing Loss (Peripheral and Central)

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Kyu-Yup

    2013-01-01

    Age-related hearing loss (presbycusis) refers to bilaterally symmetrical hearing loss resulting from aging process. Presbycusis is a complex phenomenon characterized by audiometric threshold shift, deterioration in speech-understanding and speech-perception difficulties in noisy environments. Factors contributing to presbycusis include mitochondria DNA mutation, genetic disorders including Ahl, hypertension, diabetes, metabolic disease and other systemic diseases in the intrinsic aspects. Ext...

  10. Developmental and Individual Differences in Understanding of Fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, Robert S.; Pyke, Aryn A.

    2013-01-01

    We examined developmental and individual differences in 6th and 8th graders' fraction arithmetic and overall mathematics achievement and related them to differences in understanding of fraction magnitudes, whole number division, executive functioning, and metacognitive judgments within a crosssectional design. Results indicated that the difference…

  11. Contributions of Neuroimaging to Understanding Sex Differences in Cocaine Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, ML; Sawyer, EK; Howell, LL

    2011-01-01

    A consistent observation in drug abuse research is that males and females show differences in their response to drugs of abuse. In order to understand the neurobiology underlying cocaine abuse and effective treatments, it is important to consider the role of sex differences. Sex hormones have been investigated in both behavioral and molecular studies, but further evidence addressing drug abuse and dependence in both sexes would expand our knowledge of sex-differences in response to drugs of a...

  12. Risk factors of age-related macular degeneration in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Eugenia Nano

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSES: To assess the risk factors of age-related macular degeneration in Argentina using a case-control study. METHODS: Surveys were used for subjects' antioxidant intake, age/gender, race, body mass index, hypertension, diabetes (and type of treatment, smoking, sunlight exposure, red meat consumption, fish consumption, presence of age-related macular degeneration and family history of age-related macular degeneration. Main effects models for logistic regression and ordinal logistic regression were used to analyze the results. RESULTS: There were 175 cases and 175 controls with a mean age of 75.4 years and 75.5 years, respectively, of whom 236 (67.4% were female. Of the cases with age-related macular degeneration, 159 (45.4% had age-related macular degeneration in their left eyes, 154 (44.0% in their right eyes, and 138 (39.4% in both eyes. Of the cases with age-related macular degeneration in their left eyes, 47.8% had the dry type, 40.3% had the wet type, and the type was unknown for 11.9%. The comparable figures for right eyes were: 51.9%, 34.4%, and 13.7%, respectively. The main effects model was dominated by higher sunlight exposure (OR [odds ratio]: 3.3 and a family history of age-related macular degeneration (OR: 4.3. Other factors included hypertension (OR: 2.1, smoking (OR: 2.2, and being of the Mestizo race, which lowered the risk of age-related macular degeneration (OR: 0.40. Red meat/fish consumption, body mass index, and iris color did not have an effect. Higher age was associated with progression to more severe age-related macular degeneration. CONCLUSION: Sunlight exposure, family history of age-related macular degeneration, and an older age were the significant risk factors. There may be other variables, as the risk was not explained very well by the existing factors. A larger sample may produce different and better results.

  13. Sources of Individual Differences in Children's Understanding of Fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukovic, Rose K.; Fuchs, Lynn S.; Geary, David C.; Jordan, Nancy C.; Gersten, Russell; Siegler, Robert S.

    2014-01-01

    Longitudinal associations of domain-general and numerical competencies with individual differences in children's understanding of fractions were investigated. Children (n = 163) were assessed at 6 years of age on domain-general (nonverbal reasoning, language, attentive behavior, executive control, visual-spatial memory) and numerical (number…

  14. Assessing Understanding of the Energy Concept in Different Science Disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Mihwa; Liu, Xiufeng

    2016-01-01

    Energy is one of the most central and richly connected ideas across all science disciplines. The purpose of this study was to develop a measurement instrument for assessing students' understanding of the energy concept within and across different science disciplines. To achieve this goal, the Inter-Disciplinary Energy concept Assessment (IDEA) was…

  15. Comparison of University Students' Understanding of Graphs in Different Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planinic, Maja; Ivanjek, Lana; Susac, Ana; Milin-Sipus, Zeljka

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates university students' understanding of graphs in three different domains: mathematics, physics (kinematics), and contexts other than physics. Eight sets of parallel mathematics, physics, and other context questions about graphs were developed. A test consisting of these eight sets of questions (24 questions in all) was…

  16. The Association between Plasma 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Subgroups in Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Amardeep; Falk, Mads Krüger; Subhi, Yousif

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate potential differences in plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin in subtypes of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), and in patients in Clinical Age-Related Maculopathy Staging (CARMS) group 5 with or without subretinal fibrosis.......To evaluate potential differences in plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin in subtypes of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), and in patients in Clinical Age-Related Maculopathy Staging (CARMS) group 5 with or without subretinal fibrosis....

  17. Neuromuscular contributions to age-related weakness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Age-related physiological change of neuromuscular function is not a linear process and is likely influenced by various biological and behavioral factors (e.g., genetics, nutrition, physical activity level, comorbidities, etc.). These factors contribute to heterogeneity among older adults, which chal...

  18. Epidemiology of age-related maculopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.R. Vingerling (Hans)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractIn 1875, Pagenstecher and Gentll provided the first description of age-related maculopathy (ARM). Nowadays, hundred and twenty years after the first description, ARM is one of the major causes of severe irreversible visual loss in the elderly in western countries. It has been estimated

  19. Folate and age-related disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Durga, J.

    2004-01-01

    Aging is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular and neurodegenerative disorders and an increase in their risk factors, such as decreased concentrations of folate and increased concentrations of homocysteine. The association of folate and homocysteine with age-related disease and, most

  20. Parainflammation, chronic inflammation, and age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mei; Xu, Heping

    2015-11-01

    Inflammation is an adaptive response of the immune system to noxious insults to maintain homeostasis and restore functionality. The retina is considered an immune-privileged tissue as a result of its unique anatomic and physiologic properties. During aging, the retina suffers from a low-grade chronic oxidative insult, which sustains for decades and increases in level with advancing age. As a result, the retinal innate-immune system, particularly microglia and the complement system, undergoes low levels of activation (parainflammation). In many cases, this parainflammatory response can maintain homeostasis in the healthy aging eye. However, in patients with age-related macular degeneration, this parainflammatory response becomes dysregulated and contributes to macular damage. Factors contributing to the dysregulation of age-related retinal parainflammation include genetic predisposition, environmental risk factors, and old age. Dysregulated parainflammation (chronic inflammation) in age-related macular degeneration damages the blood retina barrier, resulting in the breach of retinal-immune privilege, leading to the development of retinal lesions. This review discusses the basic principles of retinal innate-immune responses to endogenous chronic insults in normal aging and in age-related macular degeneration and explores the difference between beneficial parainflammation and the detrimental chronic inflammation in the context of age-related macular degeneration. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  1. CREB Overexpression Ameliorates Age-related Behavioral and Biophysical Deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiao-Wen

    overexpressing CREB had increased excitability. This indicates that overexpression of CREB was sufficient to rescue both the cognitive deficits, and the biophysical dysfunction normally seen in aged animals. Together, the results from this thesis identify CREB as a new mechanism underlying age-related cognitive deficits. This not only furthers our understanding of how cognitive processes change with age, but also suggests that increasing activity of CREB or its downstream transcription targets may be a novel therapeutic for the treatment of age-related cognitive decline.

  2. Lipids, Lipoproteins, and Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katayoon B. Ebrahimi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Age-related macular degeneration (AMD is the leading cause of blindness among the elderly. While excellent treatment has emerged for neovascular disease, treatment for early AMD is lacking due to an incomplete understanding of the early molecular events. A prominent age-related change is the accumulation of neutral lipid in normal Bruch's membrane (BrM throughout adulthood and also disease-related BrM accumulations called basal deposits and drusen. AMD lesion formation has thus been conceptualized as sharing mechanisms with atherosclerotic plaque formation, where low-density lipoprotein (LDL retention within the arterial wall initiates a cascade of pathologic events. However, we do not yet understand how lipoproteins contribute to AMD. This paper explores how systemic and local production of lipoproteins might contribute to the pathogenesis of AMD.

  3. Prevention of Age-Related Macular Degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Niharika; Srinivasan, Sangeetha; Muralidharan, Vinata; Roy, Rupak; V, Jayprakash; Raman, Rajiv

    2017-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) compromises quality of life. However, the available therapeutic options are limited. This has led to the identification of modifiable risk factors to prevent the development or alter the natural course and prognosis of AMD. The identification and modification of risk factors has the potential for greater public health impact on reducing morbidity from AMD. Likewise, identifying the imaging clues and genetic clues could serve as a guide to recognizing the propensity for progression to severe and end stages of the disease. Several attempts, both successful and unsuccessful, have been made for interventions that could delay the progression of AMD. Of these, pharmacological interventions have shown promising results. The Age-Related Eye Disease Study 1 and 2 have shown the beneficial role of antioxidants in a selected group of patients. Copyright 2017 Asia-Pacific Academy of Ophthalmology.

  4. Interventions for age-related diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Figueira, Inês; Fernandes, Adelaide; Mladenovic Djordjevic, Aleksandra

    2016-01-01

    Over 60% of people aged over 65 are affected by multiple morbidities, which are more difficult to treat, generate increased healthcare costs and lead to poor quality of life compared to individual diseases. With the number of older people steadily increasing this presents a societal challenge. Age...... is the major risk factor for age-related diseases and recent research developments have led to the proposal that pharmacological interventions targeting common mechanisms of ageing may be able to delay the onset of multimorbidity. Here we review the state of the knowledge of multimorbidity, appraise...... the available evidence supporting the role of mechanisms of ageing in the development of the most common age-related diseases and assess potential molecules that may successfully target those key mechanisms....

  5. Ability of university-level education to prevent age-related decline in emotional intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabello, Rosario; Navarro Bravo, Beatriz; Latorre, José Miguel; Fernández-Berrocal, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies have suggested that educational history, as a proxy measure of active cognitive reserve, protects against age-related cognitive decline and risk of dementia. Whether educational history also protects against age-related decline in emotional intelligence (EI) is unclear. The present study examined ability EI in 310 healthy adults ranging in age from 18 to 76 years using the Mayer–Salovey–Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT). We found that older people had lower scores than younger people for total EI and for the EI branches of perceiving, facilitating, and understanding emotions, whereas age was not associated with the EI branch of managing emotions. We also found that educational history protects against this age-related EI decline by mediating the relationship between age and EI. In particular, the EI scores of older adults with a university education were higher than those of older adults with primary or secondary education, and similar to those of younger adults of any education level. These findings suggest that the cognitive reserve hypothesis, which states that individual differences in cognitive processes as a function of lifetime intellectual activities explain differential susceptibility to functional impairment in the presence of age-related changes and brain pathology, applies also to EI, and that education can help preserve cognitive-emotional structures during aging. PMID:24653697

  6. Ability of university-level education to prevent age-related decline in emotional intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabello, Rosario; Navarro Bravo, Beatriz; Latorre, José Miguel; Fernández-Berrocal, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies have suggested that educational history, as a proxy measure of active cognitive reserve, protects against age-related cognitive decline and risk of dementia. Whether educational history also protects against age-related decline in emotional intelligence (EI) is unclear. The present study examined ability EI in 310 healthy adults ranging in age from 18 to 76 years using the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT). We found that older people had lower scores than younger people for total EI and for the EI branches of perceiving, facilitating, and understanding emotions, whereas age was not associated with the EI branch of managing emotions. We also found that educational history protects against this age-related EI decline by mediating the relationship between age and EI. In particular, the EI scores of older adults with a university education were higher than those of older adults with primary or secondary education, and similar to those of younger adults of any education level. These findings suggest that the cognitive reserve hypothesis, which states that individual differences in cognitive processes as a function of lifetime intellectual activities explain differential susceptibility to functional impairment in the presence of age-related changes and brain pathology, applies also to EI, and that education can help preserve cognitive-emotional structures during aging.

  7. Heart Failure as an Aging-Related Phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Hiroyuki; Komuro, Issei

    2018-01-27

    The molecular pathophysiology of heart failure, which is one of the leading causes of mortality, is not yet fully understood. Heart failure can be regarded as a systemic syndrome of aging-related phenotypes. Wnt/β-catenin signaling and the p53 pathway, both of which are key regulators of aging, have been demonstrated to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of heart failure. Circulating C1q was identified as a novel activator of Wnt/β-catenin signaling, promoting systemic aging-related phenotypes including sarcopenia and heart failure. On the other hand, p53 induces the apoptosis of cardiomyocytes in the failing heart. In these molecular mechanisms, the cross-talk between cardiomyocytes and non-cardiomyocytes (e,g,. endothelial cells, fibroblasts, smooth muscle cells, macrophages) deserves mentioning. In this review, we summarize recent advances in the understanding of the molecular pathophysiology underlying heart failure, focusing on Wnt/β-catenin signaling and the p53 pathway.

  8. Humanin and age-related diseases: a new link?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Zhenwei; Tas, Emir; Muzumdar, Radhika

    2014-01-01

    Humanin (HN) is 24-amino acid mitochondria-associated peptide. Since its initial discovery over a decade ago, a role for HN has been reported in many biological processes such as apoptosis, cell survival, substrate metabolism, inflammatory response, and response to stressors such as oxidative stress, ischemia, and starvation. HN and its potent analogs have been shown to have beneficial effects in many age-related diseases including Alzheimer's disease, stroke, diabetes, myocardial ischemia and reperfusion, atherosclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and certain types of cancer both in vitro and in vivo. More recently, an association between HN levels, growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1 (GH/IGF axis), and life span was demonstrated using various mouse models with mutations in the GH/IGF axis. The goal of this review is to summarize the current understanding of the role of HN in aging and age-related diseases.

  9. Humanin and Age-related diseases: A new link?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenwei eGong

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Humanin (HN is 24-amino acid mitochondria-associated peptide. Since its initial discovery over a decade ago, a role for HN has been reported in many biological processes such as apoptosis, cell survival, substrate metabolism, inflammatory response and response to stressors such as oxidative stress, ischemia and starvation. HN and its potent analogs have been shown to have beneficial effects in many age-related diseases including Alzheimer’s disease (AD, stroke, diabetes, myocardial ischemia and reperfusion (MI-R, atherosclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS and certain types of cancer both in vitro and in vivo. More recently, an association between HN levels, growth hormone/ insulin-like growth factor-1 (GH/IGF axis and life span was demonstrated using various mouse models with mutations in the GH/IGF axis. The goal of this review is to summarize the current understanding of the role of HN in aging and age-related diseases.

  10. The importance of understanding individual differences in Down syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmiloff-Smith, Annette; Al-Janabi, Tamara; D'Souza, Hana; Groet, Jurgen; Massand, Esha; Mok, Kin; Startin, Carla; Fisher, Elizabeth; Hardy, John; Nizetic, Dean; Tybulewicz, Victor; Strydom, Andre

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we first present a summary of the general assumptions about Down syndrome (DS) still to be found in the literature. We go on to show how new research has modified these assumptions, pointing to a wide range of individual differences at every level of description. We argue that, in the context of significant increases in DS life expectancy, a focus on individual differences in trisomy 21 at all levels—genetic, cellular, neural, cognitive, behavioral, and environmental—constitutes one of the best approaches for understanding genotype/phenotype relations in DS and for exploring risk and protective factors for Alzheimer’s disease in this high-risk population. PMID:27019699

  11. Developmental and Individual Differences in Understanding of Fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, Robert S.; Pyke, Aryn A.

    2014-01-01

    We examined developmental and individual differences in 6th and 8th graders’ fraction arithmetic and overall mathematics achievement and related them to differences in understanding of fraction magnitudes, whole number division, executive functioning, and metacognitive judgments within a cross sectional design. Results indicated that the difference between low achieving and higher achieving children’s fraction arithmetic knowledge, already substantial in 6th grade, was much greater in 8th grade. The fraction arithmetic knowledge of low achieving children was similar in the two grades, whereas higher achieving children showed much greater knowledge in 8th than 6th grade, despite both groups having been in the same classrooms, using the same textbooks, and having the same teachers and classmates. Individual differences in both fraction arithmetic and mathematics achievement test scores were predicted by differences in fraction magnitude knowledge and whole number division, even after the contributions of reading achievement and executive functioning were statistically controlled. Instructional implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:23244401

  12. Age-related hair pigment loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, Desmond J

    2015-01-01

    Humans are social animals that communicate disproportionately via potent genetic signals imbued in the skin and hair, including racial, ethnic, health, gender, and age status. For the vast majority of us, age-related hair pigment loss becomes the inescapable signal of our disappearing youth. The hair follicle (HF) pigmentary unit is a wonderful tissue for studying mechanisms generally regulating aging, often before this becomes evident elsewhere in the body. Given that follicular melanocytes (unlike those in the epidermis) are regulated by the hair growth cycle, this cycle is likely to impact the process of aging in the HF pigmentary unit. The formal identification of melanocyte stem cells in the mouse skin has spurred a flurry of reports on the potential involvement of melanocyte stem cell depletion in hair graying (i.e., canities). Caution is recommended, however, against simple extrapolation of murine data to humans. Regardless, hair graying in both species is likely to involve an age-related imbalance in the tissue's oxidative stress handling that will impact not only melanogenesis but also melanocyte stem cell and melanocyte homeostasis and survival. There is some emerging evidence that the HF pigmentary unit may have regenerative potential, even after it has begun to produce white hair fibers. It may therefore be feasible to develop strategies to modulate some aging-associated changes to maintain melanin production for longer. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Psychophysical function in age-related maculopathy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Neelam, Kumari

    2012-02-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the late stage of age-related maculopathy (ARM), is the leading cause of blind registration in developed countries. The visual loss in AMD occurs due to dysfunction and death of photoreceptors (rods and cones) secondary to an atrophic or a neovascular event. The psychophysical tests of vision, which depend on the functional status of the photoreceptors, may detect subtle alterations in the macula before morphological fundus changes are apparent ophthalmoscopically, and before traditional measures of visual acuity exhibit deterioration, and may be a useful tool for assessing and monitoring patients with ARM. Furthermore, worsening of these visual functions over time may reflect disease progression, and some of these, alone or in combination with other parameters, may act as a prognostic indicator for identifying eyes at risk for developing neovascular AMD. Lastly, psychophysical tests often correlate with subjective and relatively undefined symptoms in patients with early ARM, and may reflect limitation of daily activities for ARM patients. However, clinical studies investigating psychophysical function have largely been cross-sectional in nature, with small sample sizes, and lack consistency in terms of the grading and classification of ARM. This article aims to comprehensively review the literature germane to psychophysical tests in ARM, and to furnish the reader with an insight into this complex area of research.

  14. Comparison of university students’ understanding of graphs in different contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Planinic

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates university students’ understanding of graphs in three different domains: mathematics, physics (kinematics, and contexts other than physics. Eight sets of parallel mathematics, physics, and other context questions about graphs were developed. A test consisting of these eight sets of questions (24 questions in all was administered to 385 first year students at University of Zagreb who were either prospective physics or mathematics teachers or prospective physicists or mathematicians. Rasch analysis of data was conducted and linear measures for item difficulties were obtained. Average difficulties of items in three domains (mathematics, physics, and other contexts and over two concepts (graph slope, area under the graph were computed and compared. Analysis suggests that the variation of average difficulty among the three domains is much smaller for the concept of graph slope than for the concept of area under the graph. Most of the slope items are very close in difficulty, suggesting that students who have developed sufficient understanding of graph slope in mathematics are generally able to transfer it almost equally successfully to other contexts. A large difference was found between the difficulty of the concept of area under the graph in physics and other contexts on one side and mathematics on the other side. Comparison of average difficulty of the three domains suggests that mathematics without context is the easiest domain for students. Adding either physics or other context to mathematical items generally seems to increase item difficulty. No significant difference was found between the average item difficulty in physics and contexts other than physics, suggesting that physics (kinematics remains a difficult context for most students despite the received instruction on kinematics in high school.

  15. Age-related epigenetic drift and phenotypic plasticity loss: implications in prevention of age-related human diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuanyuan; Tollefsbol, Trygve O

    2016-12-01

    Aging is considered as one of the most important developmental processes in organisms and is closely associated with global deteriorations of epigenetic markers such as aberrant methylomic patterns. This altered epigenomic state, referred to 'epigenetic drift', reflects deficient maintenance of epigenetic marks and contributes to impaired cellular and molecular functions in aged cells. Epigenetic drift-induced abnormal changes during aging are scantily repaired by epigenetic modulators. This inflexibility in the aged epigenome may lead to an age-related decline in phenotypic plasticity at the cellular and molecular levels due to epigenetic drift. This perspective aims to provide novel concepts for understanding epigenetic effects on the aging process and to provide insights into epigenetic prevention and therapeutic strategies for age-related human disease.

  16. Aging-related limit of exercise efficacy on motor decline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Jennifer C.; Cantu, Mark A.; Kasanga, Ella A.; Nejtek, Vicki A.; Papa, Evan V.; Bugnariu, Nicoleta; Salvatore, Michael F.

    2017-01-01

    Identifying lifestyle strategies and allied neurobiological mechanisms that reduce aging-related motor impairment is imperative, given the accelerating number of retirees and increased life expectancy. A physically active lifestyle prior to old age can reduce risk of debilitating motor decline. However, if exercise is initiated after motor decline has begun in the lifespan, it is unknown if aging itself may impose a limit on exercise efficacy to decelerate further aging-related motor decline. In Brown-Norway/Fischer 344 F1 hybrid (BNF) rats, locomotor activity begins to decrease in middle age (12–18 months). One mechanism of aging-related motor decline may be decreased expression of GDNF family receptor, GFRα-1, which is decreased in substantia nigra (SN) between 12 and 30 months old. Moderate exercise, beginning at 18 months old, increases nigral GFRα-1 and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression within 2 months. In aged rats, replenishing aging-related loss of GFRα-1 in SN increases TH in SN alone and locomotor activity. A moderate exercise regimen was initiated in sedentary male BNF rats in a longitudinal study to evaluate if exercise could attenuate aging-related motor decline when initiated at two different ages in the latter half of the lifespan (18 or 24 months old). Motor decline was reversed in the 18-, but not 24-month-old, cohort. However, exercise efficacy in the 18-month-old group was reduced as the rats reached 27 months old. GFRα-1 expression was not increased in either cohort. These studies suggest exercise can decelerate motor decline when begun in the latter half of the lifespan, but its efficacy may be limited by age of initiation. Decreased plasticity of GFRα-1 expression following exercise may limit its efficacy to reverse motor decline. PMID:29176896

  17. Age-related Differences in the Clinical Presentation, Associated Metabolic Abnormality, and Estimated Cardiovascular Risks from Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Cross-sectional Study from Health Evaluation Center in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan-Chuan Liu

    2010-12-01

    Conclusion: The prevalence of NAFLD demonstrated a bimodal distribution with age in different genders. Although baseline characters and biochemical markers were demonstrated to be potential screening tools in detecting such clinical abnormality, they actually exerted diverse capabilities in the prediction of NAFLD in the different age groups. Traditional cardiovascular risk scores were less effective in predicting NAFLD in the aging group population.

  18. Role of Age-Related Shifts in Rumen Bacteria and Methanogens in Methane Production in Cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chong; Meng, Qinghui; Chen, Yongxing; Xu, Mengsi; Shen, Min; Gao, Rui; Gan, Shangquan

    2017-01-01

    Rumen microbiota are essential for maintaining digestive and metabolic functions, producing methane as a byproduct. Dairy heifers produce large amounts of methane based on fermentation of digested organic matter, with adverse consequences for feed efficiency and the environment. It is therefore important to understand the influence of host age on the relationship between microbiota and methane production. This study explored the age effect on the relationship between microbial communities and enteric methane production in dairy cows and heifers using high-throughput sequencing. Methane production and volatile fatty acid concentrations were age-related. Heifers (9–10 months) had lower methane production but higher methane production per dry matter intake (DMI). The acetate:propionate ratio decreased significantly with increasing age. Age-related microbiota changes in the rumen were reflected by a significant shift in bacterial taxa, but relatively stable archaeal taxa. Prevotella, Ruminococcus, Flavonifractor, Succinivibrio, and Methanobrevibacter were affected by age. This study revealed different associations between predominant bacterial phylotypes and Methanobrevibacter with increasing age. Prevotella was strongly correlated with Methanobrevibacter in heifers; howerver, in older cows (96–120 months) this association was replaced by a correlation between Succinivibrio and Methanobrevibacter. This shift may account for the age-related difference in rumen fermentation and methane production per DMI. PMID:28855896

  19. Role of Age-Related Shifts in Rumen Bacteria and Methanogens in Methane Production in Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Liu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Rumen microbiota are essential for maintaining digestive and metabolic functions, producing methane as a byproduct. Dairy heifers produce large amounts of methane based on fermentation of digested organic matter, with adverse consequences for feed efficiency and the environment. It is therefore important to understand the influence of host age on the relationship between microbiota and methane production. This study explored the age effect on the relationship between microbial communities and enteric methane production in dairy cows and heifers using high-throughput sequencing. Methane production and volatile fatty acid concentrations were age-related. Heifers (9–10 months had lower methane production but higher methane production per dry matter intake (DMI. The acetate:propionate ratio decreased significantly with increasing age. Age-related microbiota changes in the rumen were reflected by a significant shift in bacterial taxa, but relatively stable archaeal taxa. Prevotella, Ruminococcus, Flavonifractor, Succinivibrio, and Methanobrevibacter were affected by age. This study revealed different associations between predominant bacterial phylotypes and Methanobrevibacter with increasing age. Prevotella was strongly correlated with Methanobrevibacter in heifers; howerver, in older cows (96–120 months this association was replaced by a correlation between Succinivibrio and Methanobrevibacter. This shift may account for the age-related difference in rumen fermentation and methane production per DMI.

  20. Age-related changes in mastication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyron, M A; Woda, A; Bourdiol, P; Hennequin, M

    2017-04-01

    The paper reviews human mastication, focusing on its age-related changes. The first part describes mastication adaptation in young healthy individuals. Adaptation to obtain a food bolus ready to be swallowed relies on variations in number of cycles, muscle strength and volume of emitted saliva. As a result, the food bolus displays granulometric and rheological properties, the values of which are maintained within the adaptive range of deglutition. The second part concerns healthy ageing. Some mastication parameters are slightly modified by age, but ageing itself does not impair mastication, as the adaptation possibilities remain operant. The third part reports on very aged subjects, who display frequent systemic or local diseases. Local and/or general diseases such as tooth loss, salivary defect, or motor impairment are then indistinguishably superimposed on the effects of very old age. The resulting impaired function increases the risk of aspiration and choking. Lastly, the consequences for eating behaviour and nutrition are evoked. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Radiotherapy in age-related macula degeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gripp, Stephan; Stammen, Johannes; Petersen, Claudia; Hartmann, Axel; Willers, Reinhart; Althaus, Christoph

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To ascertain the benefit from radiotherapy in age-related macula degeneration in a single-arm longitudinal study. Methods and Materials: From 1997 to 1998, 39 patients with occult and 33 patients with classic choroidal neovascularization (CNV) were irradiated with 16 Gy. Fluorescein angiography and measurements of visual acuity were performed before and 3, 6, and 12 months after irradiation. Results: Complete follow-up data for 1 year were available from 69 patients. The mean patient age was 72 years (range 49-92). Vision decreased in 43, was stable in 18, and improved in 8 cases. The mean vision deteriorated significantly (p=0.02, Wilcoxon test), particularly within the first 3 months. Patients with occult CNV did significantly better than did those with classic CNV (p=0.03). The proportion of patients retaining vision ≥0.2 fell from 65% to 42% (p <0.01), for classic and occult CNV from 50% to 23%, and for occult CNV from 77% to 56% (p<0.02), respectively. CNV size increased in 30 patients and was stable in 38. Neither age (p=0.17) nor gender (p=0.21, chi-square test) influenced prognosis. Four patients reported transitional complaints. Conclusion: Low-dose fractionated radiotherapy with 16 Gy is well tolerated. However, vision and reading ability were not preserved in most patients

  2. Animal models of age related macular degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennesi, Mark E.; Neuringer, Martha; Courtney, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Age related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of vision loss of those over the age of 65 in the industrialized world. The prevalence and need to develop effective treatments for AMD has lead to the development of multiple animal models. AMD is a complex and heterogeneous disease that involves the interaction of both genetic and environmental factors with the unique anatomy of the human macula. Models in mice, rats, rabbits, pigs and non-human primates have recreated many of the histological features of AMD and provided much insight into the underlying pathological mechanisms of this disease. In spite of the large number of models developed, no one model yet recapitulates all of the features of human AMD. However, these models have helped reveal the roles of chronic oxidative damage, inflammation and immune dysregulation, and lipid metabolism in the development of AMD. Models for induced choroidal neovascularization have served as the backbone for testing new therapies. This article will review the diversity of animal models that exist for AMD as well as their strengths and limitations. PMID:22705444

  3. Age-related hearing loss or presbycusis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qi; Tang, Jianguo

    2010-08-01

    Aging is a natural consequence of a society developing process. Although many adults retain good hearing as they aging, hearing loss related with age-presbycusis which can vary in severity from mild to substantial is common among elderly persons. There are a number of pathophysiological processes underlying age-related changes in the auditory system as well as in the central nervous systems. Many studies have been dedicated to the illustration of risk factors accumulating presbycusis such as heritability, environment factors, medical conditions, free radical (reactive oxygen species, ROS) and damage of mitochondrial DNA. Left untreated, presbycusis can not only lead sufferers to reduced quality of life, isolation, dependence and frustration, but also affect the healthy people around. These can be partly corrected using hearing aids, but it is not enough, more and more strategies of treatment based on the findings associating with presbycusis should be added rather than using single hearing aids. We review here the pathophysiology; heritability, susceptibility genes and other risk factors including environmental, medical, especially free radical (ROS) and damage of mitochondrial DNA; and some strategies of treatment, as well as promising rehabilitations associating with presbycusis.

  4. Children's Understandings of Emotions and Self: Are There Gender Differences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosacki, Sandra Leanne

    2007-01-01

    This study explored gendered relations between children's self-perceptions and emotion understanding. Ninety-one children (52 girls, 39 boys; 5-8 years) completed self-report self-perception measures and participated in individual interviews to assess three dimensions of self-understanding (continuity, agency, distinctiveness) and emotion…

  5. Age-related functional limitations, countermeasures, and crash risks : traffic tech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    This study updates and extends our understanding of how : age-related functional deficits, including changes in vision, : cognition, strength, and flexibility can increase older drivers : crash risks. The report discusses the potential of a variet...

  6. Age related macular degeneration and visual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoforidis, John B; Tecce, Nicola; Dell'Omo, Roberto; Mastropasqua, Rodolfo; Verolino, Marco; Costagliola, Ciro

    2011-02-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of central blindness or low vision among the elderly in industrialized countries. AMD is caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Among modifiable environmental risk factors, cigarette smoking has been associated with both the dry and wet forms of AMD and may increase the likelihood of worsening pre-existing AMD. Despite advances, the treatment of AMD has limitations and affected patients are often referred for low vision rehabilitation to help them cope with their remaining eyesight. The characteristic visual impairment for both forms of AMD is loss of central vision (central scotoma). This loss results in severe difficulties with reading that may be only partly compensated by magnifying glasses or screen-projection devices. The loss of central vision associated with the disease has a profound impact on patient quality of life. With progressive central visual loss, patients lose their ability to perform the more complex activities of daily living. Common vision aids include low vision filters, magnifiers, telescopes and electronic aids. Low vision rehabilitation (LVR) is a new subspecialty emerging from the traditional fields of ophthalmology, optometry, occupational therapy, and sociology, with an ever-increasing impact on the usual concepts of research, education, and services for visually impaired patients. Relatively few ophthalmologists practise LVR and fewer still routinely use prismatic image relocation (IR) in AMD patients. IR is a method of stabilizing oculomotor functions with the purpose of promoting better function of preferred retinal loci (PRLs). The aim of vision rehabilitation therapy consists in the achievement of techniques designed to improve PRL usage. The use of PRLs to compensate for diseased foveae has offered hope to these patients in regaining some function. However, in a recently published meta-analysis, prism spectacles were found to be unlikely to be of

  7. [Age-related decline of immune function and age-related diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isobe, Ken-ichi; Nishio, Naomi; Ito, Sachiko

    2009-07-01

    Effects of aging on immune system are widespread. The development of T and B cells declines with age. The functions of matured T and B cell also decline with age. Consequently, infections present major clinical problems for elderly patients. Many of age-related diseases are related to innate immunity. For example, the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and Alzheimer disease are related to macrophages (microglia). The Ox-LDL or A-beta induces macrophages or microglia to produce inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and matrix metalloproteinases. Recently neutrophils have been shown to be an important immune cells in atherosclerosis. Neutrophils secrete inflammatory cytokines. In wound healing neutrophils also work as first important immune cells, which affect age-related decline of wound repair.

  8. Using data to make a difference: Understanding crime through ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Victimisation surveys have the potential to deepen our understanding of crime in South Africa. Using the example of a survey conducted in Galeshewe, this article considers the challenges facing analysts in analysing victimisation surveys and suggests ways to increase the information that can be mined from local and ...

  9. Age-Related Differences in Bilateral Asymmetry in Cycling Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ting; Jensen, Jody L.

    2012-01-01

    Bilateral asymmetry, a form of limb laterality in the context of moving two limbs, emerges in childhood. Children and adults show lateral preference in tasks that involve the upper and lower limbs. The importance of research in limb laterality is the insight it could provide about lateralized functions of the cerebral hemispheres. Analyzing…

  10. Age-Related Differences in Clinical Features of Neurocysticercosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Clinical, radiologic, and inflammatory features of neurocysticercosis (NC in 92 pediatric (<15 years and 114 adult Mexican patients were compared in a study at three hospitals in Mexico City.

  11. Age-related differences in common Sandpiper Tringa hypoleucos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adults and juveniles in the tail-depressed posture were dominant in aggressive interactions than birds in the tail-level posture. In mixed flocks of foraging sandpipers, four possible types of aggressive interactions occurred. Adult over juvenile interactions occurred more frequently than expected, and juvenile over adult ...

  12. Genetics Home Reference: age-related hearing loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Description Age-related hearing loss (also known as presbycusis) is a decrease in hearing ability that happens ... age-related old-aged sensorineural hearing impairment presbyacusia presbycusis Related Information How are genetic conditions and genes ...

  13. Age-related changes in the knee meniscus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujii, Akira; Nakamura, Norimasa; Horibe, Shuji

    2017-12-01

    Aging is the most prominent risk factor for the development of osteoarthritis (OA), which affects knees and causes major health burdens. Meniscal dysfunction mostly based on degeneration contributes to the development and progression of knee OA. Meniscal degeneration is caused by various extrinsic factors, such as repetitive trauma or leg malalignment, while meniscal aging is considered as internal changes, such as molecular or cellular changes. Little is known about age-related changes in the meniscus. Therefore, this review aimed to summarize and clarify the understanding of the aged meniscus. There are few articles about natural aging in the meniscus, because most reports only demonstrate the effects of OA on the meniscus. We searched PubMed (1948 to November 2016) to identify and summarize all English-language articles evaluating natural aging in the meniscus. There is evidence of compositional change in the meniscus with aging, involving cells, collagens, and proteoglycans. In addition, as recent reports on the natural aging of cartilage have indicated, senescence of the meniscal cells may also lead to disruption of meniscal cells and tissue homeostasis. Due to the low turnover rate of collagen, accumulation of advanced glycation end-products largely contributes to tissue stiffness and vulnerability, and finally results in degenerative changes or tears. Furthermore, environmental factors such as joint fluid secreted by inflamed synovium could also contribute to meniscal tissue deterioration. Age-related changes induce meniscal tissue vulnerability and finally lead to meniscal dysfunction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Age-related decline in perception of prosodic affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, I; Ennis, T

    2001-01-01

    Perception of affect in speech is an important aspect of language, often conveying more about the intent of the speaker than semantic content. Impairment of perception of affect is seen in patients with right-hemisphere lesions. Nevertheless, little attention is paid to perception of emotional prosody in clinical neuropsychology. We present data concerning a revised version of the Emotional Perception Test (EPT-R), which indicates that older participants are significantly worse in prosodic perception than IQ-matched younger participants. The apparent age-related differences in perception of prosody are similar in magnitude to those seen on memory tests.

  15. A sensory origin for color-word stroop effects in aging: simulating age-related changes in color-vision mimics age-related changes in Stroop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-David, Boaz M; Schneider, Bruce A

    2010-11-01

    An increase in Stroop effects with age can be interpreted as reflecting age-related reductions in selective attention, cognitive slowing, or color-vision. In the present study, 88 younger adults performed a Stroop test with two color-sets, saturated and desaturated, to simulate an age-related decrease in color perception. This color manipulation with younger adults was sufficient to lead to an increase in Stroop effects that mimics age-effects. We conclude that age-related changes in color perception can contribute to the differences in Stroop effects observed in aging. Finally, we suggest that the clinical applications of Stroop take this factor into account.

  16. Understanding psychological implications affecting children of differing Body Mass Index

    OpenAIRE

    Shearer, Clare Anne

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This thesis aims to further our understanding in relation to childhood obesity and associated psychological difficulties. Design: The systematic review aimed to investigate the relationship between childhood psychological functioning in overweight and obese children and parental mental health difficulties. The empirical study aimed to examine possible relationships between Body Mass Index (BMI), self-esteem, quality of life and resilience, in order to determine any ...

  17. Different understanding: science through the eyes of visual thinkers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sesko, S.C.; Marchant, M.

    1997-09-11

    The objective of this emergent study was to follow the cognitive and creative processes demonstrated by five art student participants as they integrated a developing knowledge of big science, as practiced at the Department of Energy`s Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, into a personal and idiosyncratic visual, graphical, or multimedia product. The non-scientist participants involved in this process attended design classes sponsored by the Laboratory at the Art Center College of Design in California. The learning experience itself, and how the students arrived at their product, were the focus of the class and the research. The study was emergent in that we found no applicable literature on the use of art to portray a cognitive understanding of science. This lack of literature led us to the foundation literature on creativity and to the corpus of literature on public understanding of science. We believe that this study contributes to the literature on science education, art education, cognitive change, and public understanding of science. 20 refs., 11 figs.

  18. Advances in understanding gender difference in cardiometabolic disease risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onat, Altan; Karadeniz, Yusuf; Tusun, Eyyup; Yüksel, Hüsniye; Kaya, Ayşem

    2016-01-01

    Gender differences exist in cardiovascular or metabolic disease risk, beyond the protective effect of estrogens, mostly burdening the postmenopausal female. We aimed to review herein sex differences in pro-inflammatory states, the independence of inflammation from insulin resistance, differences in high-density lipoprotein dysfunction, in gene-environment interactions, and in the influence of current and former smoking on cardiometabolic risk. Sex differences in absorption of long-chain fatty acids are highlighted. Differences exist in the first manifestation of cardiovascular disease, men being more likely to develop coronary heart disease as a first event, compared to women who have cerebrovascular disease or heart failure as a first event. Autoimmune activation resulting from pro-inflammatory states, a fundamental mechanism for numerous chronic diseases in people prone to metabolic syndrome, is much more common in women, and these constitute major determinants. Therapeutic approaches to aspects related to sex difference are briefly reviewed.

  19. Future time perspective and awareness of age-related change: Examining their role in predicting psychological well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brothers, Allyson; Gabrian, Martina; Wahl, Hans-Werner; Diehl, Manfred

    2016-09-01

    This study examined how 2 distinct facets of perceived personal lifetime-future time perspective (FTP) and awareness of age-related change (AARC)-are associated with another, and how they may interact to predict psychological well-being. To better understand associations among subjective perceptions of lifetime, aging, and well-being, we tested a series of models to investigate questions of directionality, indirect effects, and conditional processes among FTP, AARC-Gains, AARC-Losses, and psychological well-being. In all models, we tested for differences between middle-aged and older adults, and between adults from the United States and Germany. Analyses were conducted within a structural equation modeling framework on a cross-national, 2.5-year longitudinal sample of 537 community-residing adults (age 40-98 years). Awareness of age-related losses (AARC-Losses) at Time 1 predicted FTP at Time 2, but FTP did not predict AARC-Gains or AARC-Losses. Furthermore, future time perspective mediated the association between AARC-Losses and well-being. Moderation analyses revealed a buffering effect of awareness of age-related gains (AARC-Gains) in which perceptions of more age-related gains diminished the negative effect of a limited future time perspective on well-being. Effects were robust across age groups and countries. Taken together, these findings suggest that perceived age-related loss experiences may sensitize individuals to perceive a more limited future lifetime which may then lead to lower psychological well-being. In contrast, perceived age-related gains may function as a resource to preserve psychological well-being, in particular when time is perceived as running out. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Future Time Perspective and Awareness of Age-Related Change: Examining their Role in Predicting Psychological Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brothers, Allyson; Gabrian, Martina; Wahl, Hans-Werner; Diehl, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    This study examined how two distinct facets of perceived personal lifetime – future time perspective (FTP) and awareness of age-related change (AARC) – are associated with one another, and how they may interact to predict psychological well-being. To better understand associations among subjective perceptions of lifetime, aging and well-being, we tested a series of models to investigate questions of directionality, indirect effects, and conditional processes among FTP, AARC-Gains, AARC-Losses, and psychological well-being. In all models, we tested for differences between middle-aged and older adults, and between adults from the U.S. and Germany. Analyses were conducted within a structural equation modeling framework on a cross-national, 2.5-year longitudinal sample of 537 community-residing adults (age 40–98 years). Awareness of age-related losses (AARC-Losses) at Time 1 predicted FTP at Time 2, but FTP did not predict AARC-Gains or AARC-Losses. Furthermore, future time perspective mediated the association between AARC-Losses and well-being. Moderation analyses revealed a buffering effect of awareness of age-related gains (AARC-Gains) in which perceptions of more age-related gains diminished the negative effect of a limited future time perspective on well-being. Effects were robust across age groups and countries. Taken together, these findings suggest that perceived age-related loss experiences may sensitize individuals to perceive a more limited future lifetime which may then lead to lower psychological well-being. In contrast, perceived age-related gains may function as a resource to preserve psychological well-being, in particular when time is perceived as running out. PMID:27243764

  1. Imaging geographic atrophy in age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göbel, Arno P; Fleckenstein, Monika; Schmitz-Valckenberg, Steffen; Brinkmann, Christian K; Holz, Frank G

    2011-01-01

    Advances in retinal imaging technology have largely contributed to the understanding of the natural history, prognostic markers and disease mechanisms of geographic atrophy (GA) due to age-related macular degeneration. There is still no therapy available to halt or slow the disease process. In order to evaluate potential therapeutic effects in interventional trials, there is a need for precise quantification of the GA progression rate. Fundus autofluorescence imaging allows for accurate identification and segmentation of atrophic areas and currently represents the gold standard for evaluating progressive GA enlargement. By means of high-resolution spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, distinct microstructural alterations related to GA can be visualized. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Voices from different cultures: Foundation Phase students’ understanding across

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalie Botha

    2011-12-01

    can extend boundaries beyond our single perspectives and experiences to the varying perspectives of others. This becomes particularly important for teachers of young children who may have very different life experiences from those of the children they teach. In this project, we examined storytelling as a way to cross-cultural boundaries and of harnessing the diverse worlds of South African citizens pedagogically. We asked fourth year students in a Foundation Phase teacher education programme to identify a person from a different cultural and linguistic group; and to have that person share a story with them to discover how the experience of listening to stories from different cultures, languages, and belief systems might influence their attitudes towards teaching children with those characteristic differences.

  3. NSAIDs may protect against age-related brain atrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara B Bendlin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs in humans is associated with brain differences including decreased number of activated microglia. In animals, NSAIDs are associated with reduced microglia, decreased amyloid burden, and neuronal preservation. Several studies suggest NSAIDs protect brain regions affected in the earliest stages of AD, including hippocampal and parahippocampal regions. In this cross-sectional study, we examined the protective effect of NSAID use on gray matter volume in a group of middle-aged and older NSAID users (n = 25 compared to non-user controls (n = 50. All participants underwent neuropsychological testing and T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. Non-user controls showed smaller volume in portions of the left hippocampus compared to NSAID users. Age-related loss of volume differed between groups, with controls showing greater medial temporal lobe volume loss with age compared to NSAID users. These results should be considered preliminary, but support previous reports that NSAIDs may modulate age-related loss of brain volume.

  4. Age Related Changes in Hematological Values of Myanmar Local Puppies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thandar Oo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The hematological parameters were used to monitor the health status and its components also changed according to the ages. However, there were no reports for this issues in Myanmar local dogs. Thus, this study was carried out to investigate the age-related changes on the hematological parameters of local puppies in Myanmar. Ten local puppies with the age of 2-3 month old were used in this experiment, which was lasted for 8 weeks.The daily clinical examinations were conducted throughout the entire experimental period for general health check-up. Haematological parameters (Total WBC count and its differential counts, and RBC, HCT, MCV, HGB, MCH, MCHC and platelets were measured bi-weekly with Abacus Vet-5 automate haematology analyser. According to the results, the total WBC and eosinophil counts were not significantly different (P>0.05, while lymphocytes, monocytes, neutrophils and basophils were significantly different (P0.05 throughout the experimental periods. Thus, the age-related changes were observed on cell counts of lymphocytes, monocytes, neutrophils, basophils in Myanmar local puppies.

  5. Understanding the Demographic Differences in Neighborhood Walking Supports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Susan A; Watson, Kathleen B; Paul, Prabasaj; Schmid, Thomas L; Fulton, Janet E

    2017-04-01

    Information about how presence and usefulness of neighborhood supports for walking differs by demographic characteristics can help guide community strategies to promote walking. Reported presence and usefulness of neighborhood supports (shops, transit stops, sidewalks, parks, interesting things to look at, well-lit at night, low crime rate, and cars following speed limit) were examined in 3973 U.S. adults who completed the 2014 SummerStyles survey. Percentage reporting neighborhood supports as present ranged from 25.3% (SE = 0.8) for interesting things to 55.8% (SE = 1.0) for low crime rate. Percentage who reported a support as useful ranged from 24.6% (SE = 1.4) for transit stops to 79.0% (SE = 1.1) for sidewalks among those with the support. This percentage ranged from 13.4% (SE = 0.8) for transit stops to 52.8% (SE = 1.1) for shops among those without the support. One or more demographic differences were observed for the presence of each support, and the presence of all supports differed by education and metro status. Demographic patterns were less clear when examining usefulness and patterns often differed by support type and presence. Presence and usefulness of neighborhood supports for walking can differ by type and demographic characteristics. Recognizing these difference can help communities plan and implement strategies to promote walking.

  6. Young children’s number sense development: Age related complexity across cases of three children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuhal Yılmaz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Children start to develop number sense even well before they start the school. Developing number sense serves as an intermediate tool for learning conventional mathematics taught in schools. This number sense has three key areas: number knowledge, counting and arithmetic operations. As a result, the aim of this study was to examine aged related complexity of number sense development of young children’s aged four, six and seven under two key areas: number knowledge and counting. Semi structured task based clinical interviews were employed to examine number sense development. Five different assessment tasks were employed with three children. Children’s responses were analysed to identify their level of number sense understanding and difficulties with developing number sense. Findings were reported under two categories: first children’s ability to understand number concept and their ability to accomplish number word sequences and second counting. Findings of the study indicated a significant age related complexity and improvement in both two aspects of number sense. Older children with more experience developed better number sense than the younger children.

  7. Young Children’s Number Sense Development: Age Related Complexity across Cases of Three Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuhal YILMAZ

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Children start to develop number sense even well before they start the school. Developing number sense serves as an intermediate tool for learning conventional mathematics taught in schools. This number sense has three key areas: number knowledge, counting and arithmetic operations. As a result, the aim of this study was to examine aged related complexity of number sense development of young children’s aged four, six and seven under two key areas: number knowledge and counting. Semi structured task based clinical interviews were employed to examine number sense development. Five different assessment tasks were employed with three children. Children’s responses were analysed to identify their level of number sense understanding and difficulties with developing number sense. Findings were reported under two categories: first children’s ability to understand number concept and their ability to accomplish number word sequences and second counting. Findings of the study indicated a significant age related complexity and improvement in both two aspects of number sense. Older children with more experience developed better number sense than the younger children.

  8. Divergent Thinking and Age-Related Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmiero, Massimiliano; Di Giacomo, Dina; Passafiume, Domenico

    2014-01-01

    Aging can affect cognition in different ways. The extent to which aging affects divergent thinking is unclear. In this study, younger and older adults were compared at the performance on the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking in visual and verbal form. Results showed that older adults can think divergently as younger participants, although they…

  9. MRI of spinal bone marrow: part I, techniques and normal age-related appearances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Lubdha M; Hanrahan, Christopher J

    2011-12-01

    This article reviews MRI protocols, including routine and nonroutine pulse sequences as well as the normal MRI appearance of spinal marrow and expected age-related changes. Routine MRI of the spine provides useful evaluation of the spinal bone marrow, but nonroutine MRI pulse sequences are increasingly being used to evaluate bone marrow pathology. An understanding of MRI pulse sequences and the normal and age-related appearances of bone marrow is important for the practicing radiologist.

  10. Different rays of sunlight: Understanding information disclosure and carbon transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matisoff, Daniel C.

    2013-01-01

    This study assesses the effectiveness of two types information disclosure programs – state-based mandatory carbon reporting programs and the voluntary Carbon Disclosure Project, which uses investor pressure to push firms to disclose carbon emissions and carbon management strategies. I match firms in each program to control groups of firms that have not participated in each program. Using panel data methods and a difference in differences specification, I measure the impact of each program on plant-level carbon emissions, plant-level carbon intensity, and plant level output. I find that neither program has generated an impact on plant-level carbon emissions, emissions intensity, or output. Placing this study in contrast with others that demonstrate improvements from mandatory information disclosure, these results suggest that how information is reported to stakeholders has important implications for program effectiveness. - Highlights: ► This article evaluates the Carbon Disclosure Project and state carbon reporting requirements. ► Evaluation is conducted with propensity score matching and difference-in-differences. ► State Disclosure Programs fail to lead power plants to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. ► The Carbon Disclosure Project leads to decreases in carbon emissions and electricity output. ► Information disclosure and transparency may be important part of policy mix but have limitations

  11. Understanding Children's Self-Regulation within Different Classroom Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmons, Kristy; Pelletier, Janette; Corter, Carl

    2016-01-01

    In this study, children's self-regulation was observed, along with other social and academic activities in kindergarten classrooms during whole group, small group, transition and play contexts. We examined how children's self-regulation and engagement differed among classroom grouping, play and transition contexts. Results showed that students…

  12. Understanding selection for long necks in different taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, David M; Ruxton, Graeme D

    2012-08-01

    There has been recent discussion about the evolutionary pressures underlying the long necks of extant giraffes and extinct sauropod dinosaurs. Here we summarise these debates and place them in a wider taxonomic context. We consider the evolution of long necks across a wide range of (both living and extinct) taxa and ask whether there has been a common selective factor or whether each case has a separate explanation. We conclude that in most cases long necks can be explained in terms of foraging requirements, and that alternative explanations in terms of sexual selection, thermoregulation and predation pressure are not as well supported. Specifically, in giraffe, tortoises, and perhaps sauropods there is likely to have been selection for high browsing. It the last case there may also have been selection for reaching otherwise inaccessible aquatic plants or for increasing the energetic efficiency of low browsing. For camels, wading birds and ratites, original selection was likely for increased leg length, with correlated selection for a longer neck to allow feeding and drinking at or near substrate level. For fish-eating long-necked birds and plesiosaurs a small head at the end of a long neck allows fast acceleration of the mouth to allow capture of elusive prey. A swan's long neck allows access to benthic vegetation, for vultures the long neck allows reaching deep into a carcass. Geese may be an unusual case where anti-predator vigilance is important, but so may be energetically efficient low browsing. The one group for which we feel unable to draw firm conclusions are the pterosaurs, this is in keeping with the current uncertainty about the biology of this group. Despite foraging emerging as a dominant theme in selection for long necks, for almost every taxonomic group we have identified useful empirical work that would increase understanding of the selective costs and benefits of a long neck. © 2011 The Authors. Biological Reviews © 2011 Cambridge Philosophical

  13. Phenomenological 'Verstehen' and interactionist 'sympathetic understanding': similarities and differences

    OpenAIRE

    Verhoeven, Jef

    1991-01-01

    Herbert Blumer, albeit accepting some similarities, did see clear differences between "symbolic interactionism" and "phenomenology". His main criticisms concerned the introspection of phenomenology and consequently the solipsism of this approach. Unfortunately, there was no opportunity in this interview to go into this problem more thoroughly. I want to resume this discussion here. As far as I have been abie to determine, the topic has not yet been treated in detail elsewhere. There has been ...

  14. Understanding Differences in Chemistry Climate Model Projections of Stratospheric Ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglass, A. R.; Strahan, S. E.; Oman, L. D.; Stolarski, R. S.

    2014-01-01

    Chemistry climate models (CCMs) are used to project future evolution of stratospheric ozone as concentrations of ozone-depleting substances (ODSs) decrease and greenhouse gases increase, cooling the stratosphere. CCM projections exhibit not only many common features but also a broad range of values for quantities such as year of ozone return to 1980 and global ozone level at the end of the 21st century. Multiple linear regression is applied to each of 14 CCMs to separate ozone response to ODS concentration change from that due to climate change. We show that the sensitivity of lower stratospheric ozone to chlorine change Delta Ozone/Delta inorganic chlorine is a near-linear function of partitioning of total inorganic chlorine into its reservoirs; both inorganic chlorine and its partitioning are largely controlled by lower stratospheric transport. CCMs with best performance on transport diagnostics agree with observations for chlorine reservoirs and produce similar ozone responses to chlorine change. After 2035, differences in Delta Ozone/Delta inorganic chlorine contribute little to the spread in CCM projections as the anthropogenic contribution to inorganic chlorine becomes unimportant. Differences among upper stratospheric ozone increases due to temperature decreases are explained by differences in ozone sensitivity to temperature change Delta Ozone/Delta T due to different contributions from various ozone loss processes, each with its own temperature dependence. Ozone decrease in the tropical lower stratosphere caused by a projected speedup in the Brewer-Dobson circulation may or may not be balanced by ozone increases in the middle- and high-latitude lower stratosphere and upper troposphere. This balance, or lack thereof, contributes most to the spread in late 21st century projections.

  15. The DrugAge database of aging-related drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barardo, Diogo; Thornton, Daniel; Thoppil, Harikrishnan; Walsh, Michael; Sharifi, Samim; Ferreira, Susana; Anžič, Andreja; Fernandes, Maria; Monteiro, Patrick; Grum, Tjaša; Cordeiro, Rui; De-Souza, Evandro Araújo; Budovsky, Arie; Araujo, Natali; Gruber, Jan; Petrascheck, Michael; Fraifeld, Vadim E; Zhavoronkov, Alexander; Moskalev, Alexey; de Magalhães, João Pedro

    2017-06-01

    Aging is a major worldwide medical challenge. Not surprisingly, identifying drugs and compounds that extend lifespan in model organisms is a growing research area. Here, we present DrugAge (http://genomics.senescence.info/drugs/), a curated database of lifespan-extending drugs and compounds. At the time of writing, DrugAge contains 1316 entries featuring 418 different compounds from studies across 27 model organisms, including worms, flies, yeast and mice. Data were manually curated from 324 publications. Using drug-gene interaction data, we also performed a functional enrichment analysis of targets of lifespan-extending drugs. Enriched terms include various functional categories related to glutathione and antioxidant activity, ion transport and metabolic processes. In addition, we found a modest but significant overlap between targets of lifespan-extending drugs and known aging-related genes, suggesting that some but not most aging-related pathways have been targeted pharmacologically in longevity studies. DrugAge is freely available online for the scientific community and will be an important resource for biogerontologists. © 2017 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Age-related associative deficits and the isolation effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badham, Stephen P; Maylor, Elizabeth A

    2013-01-01

    If all but one of the items in a list are similar (e.g., all black except one red), memory for the different item is enhanced (the isolation effect). Older adults generally show similar or smaller isolation effects compared to young adults, which has been attributed to age-related deficits in associative memory whereby older adults are less able to associate an isolated stimulus to its isolating feature. Experiment 1 examined the isolation effect for isolation based on spatial position, modality and color; in Experiment 2, the criterion for isolation was the associative relation between stimuli. The results consistently showed no differences between young and older participants in the magnitude of the isolation effect. Whilst age deficits in associative memory may act to reduce the isolation effect in older adults, age deficits in self-initiated processing and inhibitory functionality may counteract this reduction by enhancing the isolation effect in older adults.

  17. Age-related decline in global form suppression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiegand, Iris Michaela; Finke, Kathrin; Töllner, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    differences in the subsequent (250–500 ms) posterior contralateral negativity (PCN) indicated that attentional resources were allocated faster to Kanisza, as compared to non-Kanisza, targets in both age groups, while the allocation of spatial attention seemed to be generally delayed in older relative...... to younger age. Our results suggest that the enhanced global-local asymmetry in the older age group originated from less effective suppression of global distracter forms on early processing stages – indicative of older observers having difficulties with disengaging from a global default selection mode....... Selective attention, i.e., the ability to focus on relevant and ignore irrelevant information, declines with increasing age; however, how this deficit affects selection of global vs. local configurations remains unknown. On this background, the present study examined for age-related differences in a global...

  18. Age-related changes in bone architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Vincenzo; Franco, José Sérgio; Koch, Hilton Augusto; Labronici, Pedro José; Pires, Robinson Esteves S; Amaral, Ney Pecegueiro DO

    2016-01-01

    : to evaluate the histologic and morphometric characteristics of bone biopsies of the anterior iliac crest of patients of different age groups. : we studied 30 bone samples from the iliac crest, using brightfield optical microscopy. We divided the samples by donors' age groups in three groups: Group 1 (n = 10), subjects aged between 25 and 39 years; Group 2 (n = 10), subjects aged between 40 and 64 years; Group 3 (n = 10), individuals aged 65 years and over. We randomly divided the samples into two sets with 15 specimens. In the first study segment (n = 15), we used histological to assess the osteogenic property of the graft, through the analysis of cell reserve in the periosteum, the number of osteocytes in the lacunae and the number of Haversian and Volkmann's canals. In the second study segment (n = 15), we investigated the morphology of osteoconductive property of the graft, through quantification of the trabecular meshwork (Vv) and trabecular area (Sv). : histologically, we observed degeneration of bone occurring with age, characterized by thinning of the periosteum, with gradual replacement of the steogenic layer by fibrous tissue, small amount of Haversian and Volkmann's canals, osteocyte lacunae voids and fine spongy bone trabeculae, allowing ample medullary space, usually occupied by fat cells and adipocytes. Morphologically, with respect to the quantification of the trabecular meshwork (Vv), we found statistically significant differences between Groups 1 and 3 and between Groups 2 and 3, with reduction of the trabecular meshwork of about 45% in the elderly over 65 years old ; there was no statistically significant difference between Groups 1 and 2. There was also no statistical difference between the Groups regarding Sv. : the results of this experiment suggest that, in the elderly (over 65 years old), the osteogenic property of autologous bone graft decreases and the osteoconductive property is compromised. avaliar as características histológicas e

  19. Age-related changes in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaorong Gu

    Full Text Available Age-related changes in the retina are often accompanied by visual impairment but their mechanistic details remain poorly understood.Proteomic studies were pursued toward a better molecular understanding of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE aging mechanisms. RPE cells were isolated from young adults (3-4 month-old and old (24-25 month-old F344BN rats, and separated into subcellular fractions containing apical microvilli (MV and RPE cell bodies (CB lacking their apical microvilli. Proteins were extracted in detergent, separated by SDS-PAGE, digested in situ with trypsin and analyzed by LC MS/MS. Select proteins detected in young and old rat RPE were further studied using immunofluorescence and Western blot analysis.A total of 356 proteins were identified in RPE MV from young and 378 in RPE MV from old rats, 48% of which were common to each age group. A total of 897 proteins were identified in RPE CB from young rats and 675 in old CB, 56% of which were common to each age group. Several of the identified proteins, including proteins involved in response to oxidative stress, displayed both quantitative and qualitative changes in overall abundance during RPE aging. Numerous proteins were identified for the first time in the RPE. One such protein, collectrin, was localized to the apical membrane of apical brush border of proximal tubules where it likely regulates several amino acid transporters. Elsewhere, collectrin is involved in pancreatic β cell proliferation and insulin secretion. In the RPE, collectrin expression was significantly modulated during RPE aging. Another age-regulated, newly described protein was DJ-1, a protein extensively studied in brain where oxidative stress-related functions have been described.The data presented here reveals specific changes in the RPE during aging, providing the first protein database of RPE aging, which will facilitate future studies of age-related retinal diseases.

  20. Understanding cultural difference in caring for dying patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, B A; Gates-Williams, J

    1995-09-01

    Experiences of illness and death, as well as beliefs about the appropriate role of healers, are profoundly influenced by patients' cultural background. As the United States becomes increasingly diverse, cultural difference is a central feature of many clinical interactions. Knowledge about how patients experience and express pain, maintain hope in the face of a poor prognosis, and respond to grief and loss will aid health care professionals. Many patients' or families' beliefs about appropriate end-of-life care are easily accommodated in routine clinical practice. Desires about the care of the body after death, for example, generally do not threaten deeply held values of medical science. Because expected deaths are increasingly the result of explicit negotiation about limiting or discontinuing therapies, however, the likelihood of serious moral disputes and overt conflict increases. We suggest a way to assess cultural variation in end-of-life care, arguing that culture is only meaningful when interpreted in the context of a patient's unique history, family constellation, and socioeconomic status. Efforts to use racial or ethnic background as simplistic, straightforward predictors of beliefs or behavior will lead to harmful stereotyping of patients and culturally insensitive care for the dying.

  1. Understanding individual differences in word recognition skills of ESL children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geva, E; Yaghoub-Zadeh, Z; Schuster, B

    2000-01-01

    This paper focuses on the extent to which the development of ESL (English as a Second Language) word recognition skills mimics similar trajectories in same-aged EL1 (English as a First Language) children, and the extent to which phonological processing skills and rapid naming can be used to predict word recognition performance in ESL children. Two cohorts of Grade 1 ESL and EL1 primary-level children were followed for two consecutive years. Results indicated that vocabulary knowledge, a measure of language proficiency, and nonverbal intelligence were not significant predictors of word recognition in either group. Yet, by considering individual differences in phonological awareness and rapid naming, it was possible to predict substantial amounts of variance on word recognition performance six months and one year later in both language groups. Commonality analyses indicated that phonological awareness and rapid naming contributed unique variance to word recognition performance. Moreover, the profiles of not at-risk children in the EL1 and ESL groups were similar on all but the oral language measure, where EL1 children had the advantage. In addition, EL1 and ESL profiles of children who had word-recognition difficulty were similar, with low performance on rapid naming and phonological awareness. Results indicate that these measures are reliable indicators of potential reading disability among ESL children.

  2. Age related morphological alterations in elderly women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Ribeiro dos Santos

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to present the morphological profile of elderly women from differentage groups. The sample was made of 1,016 women, with age greater than 60 years. The following anthropometricvariables were measured: body mass, height, circumferences and skin folds and percent body fat was calculated.The mean values of the variables body mass, height, body mass index, circumferences and skin folds decreasedin the younger women group when they were compared to the oldest women. More expressive declines occurredin arm, midthigh, and medial calf circumferences, indicating a possible smaller muscle mass in older populations.Despite the fact that the body mass index mean values classify elderly women, predominantly, as overweight, itseems that the individuals that reach older age are those that present less body fatness. It´s suggested that futurestudies investigate these modifications in different populations, as elderly men. RESUMO O objetivo do presente estudo foi apresentar o perfil morfológico em diferentes faixas etárias de mulheresidosas. A amostra foi constituída de 1016 indivíduos do sexo feminino, com idade superior a 60 anos. Forammensuradas as seguintes variáveis antropométricas: massa corporal, estatura e circunferências, dobras cutânease posterior cálculo do percentual de gordura. Os valores médios das variáveis: massa corporal, estatura, índice demassa corporal, circunferências e dobras cutâneas das mulheres mais jovens reduziram, quando comparadas àsmais idosas. Os declínios mais expressivos ocorreram nas circunferências de braço, coxa média e panturrilhamedial, indicando, possivelmente, uma menor massa muscular em populações mais idosas. Apesar dos valoresmédios do índice de massa corporal classificar em as mulheres idosas, predominantemente, com sobrepeso,parece que os indivíduos que alcançam as idades mais avançadas são aqueles que apresentam menor adiposidadecorporal. Sugere-se que

  3. Age-related changes in contextual associative learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luu, Trinh T; Pirogovsky, Eva; Gilbert, Paul E

    2008-01-01

    The hippocampus plays a critical role in processing contextual information. Although age-related changes in the hippocampus are well documented in humans, nonhuman primates, and rodents, few studies have examined contextual learning deficits in old rats. The present study investigated age-related differences in contextual associative learning in young (6 mo) and old (24 mo) rats using olfactory stimuli. Stimuli consisted of common odors mixed in sand and placed in clear plastic cups. Testing was conducted in two boxes that represented two different contexts (Context 1 and Context 2). The contexts varied based on environmental features of the box such as color (black vs. white), visual cues on the walls of the box, and flooring texture. Each rat was simultaneously presented with two cups, one filled with Odor A and one filled with Odor B in each context. In Context 1, the rat received a food reward for digging in the cup containing Odor A, but did not receive a food reward for digging in the cup containing Odor B. In Context 2, the rat was rewarded for digging in the cup containing Odor B, but did receive a reward for digging in the cup containing Odor A. Therefore, the rat learned to associate Context 1 with Odor A and Context 2 with Odor B. The rat was tested for eight days using the same odor problem throughout all days of testing. The results showed no significant difference between young and old rats on the first two days of testing; however, young rats significantly outperformed old rats on Day 3. Young rats continued to maintain superior performance compared to old rats on Days 4-8. The results suggest that aging results in functional impairments in brain regions that support memory for associations between specific cues and their respective context.

  4. Wistar rats: A forgotten model of age-related hearing loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos eAlvarado

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Age-related hearing loss (ARHL is one of the most frequent sensory impairments in senescence and is a source of important socio-economic consequences. Understanding the pathological responses that occur in the central auditory pathway of patients who suffer from this disability is vital to improve its diagnosis and treatment. Therefore, the goal of this study was to characterize age-related modifications in auditory brainstem responses (ABR and to determine whether these functional responses might be accompanied by an imbalance between excitation and inhibition in the cochlear nucleus of Wistar rats. To do so, ABR recordings at different frequencies and immunohistochemistry for the vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (VGLUT1 and the vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT in the ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN were performed in young, middle-aged and old male Wistar rats. The results demonstrate that there was a significant increase in the auditory thresholds, a significant decrease in the amplitudes and an increase in the latencies of the ABR waves as the age of the rat increased. Additionally, there were decreases in VGLUT1 and VGAT immunostaining in the VCN of older rats compared to younger rats. Therefore, the observed age-related decline in the magnitude of auditory evoked responses might be due in part to a reduction in markers of excitatory function; meanwhile, the concomitant reduction in both excitatory and inhibitory markers might reflect a common central alteration in animal models of ARLH. Together, these findings highlight the suitability of the Wistar rat as an excellent model to study ARHL.

  5. Association of age-related macular degeneration and reticular macular disease with cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, Neelesh; Smith, R Theodore

    2016-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration is the leading cause of adult blindness in the developed world. Thus, major endeavors to understand the risk factors and pathogenesis of this disease have been undertaken. Reticular macular disease is a proposed subtype of age-related macular degeneration correlating histologically with subretinal drusenoid deposits located between the retinal pigment epithelium and the inner segment ellipsoid zone. Reticular lesions are more prevalent in females and in older age groups and are associated with a higher mortality rate. Risk factors for developing age-related macular degeneration include hypertension, smoking, and angina. Several genes related to increased risk for age-related macular degeneration and reticular macular disease are also associated with cardiovascular disease. Better understanding of the clinical and genetic risk factors for age-related macular degeneration and reticular macular disease has led to the hypothesis that these eye diseases are systemic. A systemic origin may help to explain why reticular disease is diagnosed more frequently in females as males suffer cardiovascular mortality at an earlier age, before the age of diagnosis of reticular macular disease and age-related macular degeneration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Motor Control and Aging: Links to Age-Related Brain Structural, Functional, and Biochemical Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Seidler, Rachael D.; Bernard, Jessica A.; Burutolu, Taritonye B.; Fling, Brett W.; Gordon, Mark T.; Gwin, Joseph T.; Kwak, Youngbin; Lipps, David B.

    2009-01-01

    Although connections between cognitive deficits and age-associated brain differences have been elucidated, relationships with motor performance are less well understood. Here, we broadly review age-related brain differences and motor deficits in older adults in addition to cognition-action theories. Age-related atrophy of the motor cortical regions and corpus callosum may precipitate or coincide with motor declines such as balance and gait deficits, coordination deficits, and movement slowing...

  7. Prevalence of age-related macular degeneration in elderly Caucasians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erke, Maja G; Bertelsen, Geir; Peto, Tunde

    2012-01-01

    To describe the sex- and age-specific prevalence of drusen, geographic atrophy, and neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD).......To describe the sex- and age-specific prevalence of drusen, geographic atrophy, and neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD)....

  8. Understand Schema, Understand Difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Bonnie A.

    2010-01-01

    In decades past, children entered into classrooms that were less diverse. They all came in knowing much of the same information, having had very similar experiences. They spoke the same language, ate the same food, and heard the same stories and music. In many case, they even knew each other. This group of less diverse students stayed less diverse…

  9. Age-related degradation of Westinghouse 480-volt circuit breakers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subudhi, M.; MacDougall, E.; Kochis, S.; Wilhelm, W.; Lee, B.S.

    1990-11-01

    After the McGuire event in 1987 relating to failure of the center pole weld in one of its reactor trip breakers, activities were initiated by the NRC to investigate the probable causes. A review of operating experience suggested that the burning of coils, jamming of the operating mechanism, and deterioration of the contacts dominated the breakers failures. Although failures of the pole shaft weld were not included as one of the generic problems, the NRC augmented inspection team had suspected that these welds were substandard which led them to crack prematurely. A DS-416 low voltage air circuit breaker manufactured by Westinghouse was mechanically cycled to identify age-related degradations. This accelerated aging test was conducted for over 36,000 cycles during nine months. Three separate pole shafts, one with a 60 degree weld, one with a 120 degree and one with a 180 degree were used to characterize the cracking in the pole level welds. In addition, three different operating mechanisms and several other parts were replaced as they became inoperable. The testing yielded many useful results. The burning of the closing coils was found to be the effect of binding in the linkages that are connected to this device. Among the seven welds on the pole shaft, number-sign 1 and number-sign 3 were the critical ones which cracked first to cause misalignment of the pole levers, which, in turn, had led to many problems with the operating mechanism including the burning of coils, excessive wear in certain parts, and overstressed linkages. Based on these findings, a maintenance program is suggested to alleviate the age-related degradations that occur due to mechanical cycling of this type of breaker. 3 refs., 39 figs., 7 tabs

  10. [The genetic variability of complement system in pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubicka-Trząska, Agnieszka; Karska-Basta, Izabella; Dziedzina, Sylwia; Sanak, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration is the leading cause of irreversible central vision impairment in people aged over 50 in developed countries. Age-related macular degeneration is a complex disease derived from environmental, immune and genetic factors. The complement pathway has been implicated in the pathogenesis of many diseases. Recently, variants in several genes, such as complement H (CFH), complement factor B (CFB), complement 2 (C2), and complement 3 (C3), encoding complement pathway proteins, have been identified as associated with age-related macular degeneration. However, the associations between these genes and age-related macular degeneration varied due to genetic variation within populations and various ethnics groups. The strongest association was found between the age-related macular degeneration and SNP Y402H rs 1061170 variant of CFH gene, which is present in 30% to 50% of age-related macular degeneration patients in Caucasian population and which is a risk factor for the development of age-related macular degeneration. Cohort studies showed that polymorphism Arg102Gly (SNP rs 2230199) of C3 protein could serve as a high-risk genetic marker for the development of age-related macular degeneration. Other rare variants of C3 (Lys155Gln, Lys65Gln, Arg735Trp, Ser1619Arg), may also be associated with a high incidence of age-related macular degeneration in some ethnic groups. A protective haplotype of variants E318D and IVS10 in the C2 gene as well as L9H and R320 in the BF were associated with age-related macular degeneration but only in Caucasians. The genetic findings in age-related macular degeneration patients stress the importance of detailed phenotyping to identify age-related macular degeneration subtypes, which may be associated with the presence of different polymorphisms and various environmental risk factors in any population. Further studies may be helpful to improve the effectiveness of prophylaxis and therapeutic options in age-related

  11. Perceptual and social attributes underlining age-related preferences for faces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanni SM Kiiski

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Although aesthetic preferences are known to be important in person perception and can play a significant role in everyday social decisions, the effect of the age of the observer on aesthetic preferences for faces of different ages has not yet been fully investigated. In the present study we investigated whether aesthetic preferences change with ageing, with an age-related bias in favouring faces from one’s own age group. In addition, we examined the role of age on both the perceptual qualities and the social attributes of faces that may influence these aesthetic judgements. Both younger and older adult observers provided ratings to images of younger, middle-aged and older unfamiliar faces. As well as attractiveness, the rating dimensions included other perceptual (distinctiveness, familiarity and social (competence, trustworthiness and dominance factors. The results suggested a consistent aesthetic preference for youthful faces across all ages of the observers but, surprisingly, no evidence for an age-related bias in attractiveness ratings. Older adults tended to provide higher ratings of attractiveness, competence and trustworthiness to the unfamiliar faces, consistent with the positivity effect previously reported. We also tested whether perceptual factors such as face familiarity or distinctiveness affected aesthetic ratings. Only ratings of familiarity, but not distinctiveness, were positively associated with the attractiveness of the faces. Moreover, ratings of familiarity decreased with increasing age of the face. With regard to the social characteristics of the faces, we found that the age of the face negatively correlated with ratings of trustworthiness provided by all observers, but with the competence ratings of older observers only. Interestingly, older adults provided higher ratings of perceived competence and trustworthiness to younger than older faces. However, our results also suggest that higher attractiveness ratings, together

  12. Perceptual and Social Attributes Underlining Age-Related Preferences for Faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiiski, Hanni S M; Cullen, Brendan; Clavin, Sarah L; Newell, Fiona N

    2016-01-01

    Although aesthetic preferences are known to be important in person perception and can play a significant role in everyday social decisions, the effect of the age of the observer on aesthetic preferences for faces of different ages has not yet been fully investigated. In the present study we investigated whether aesthetic preferences change with aging, with an age-related bias in favoring faces from one's own age group. In addition, we examined the role of age on both the perceptual qualities and the social attributes of faces that may influence these aesthetic judgements. Both younger and older adult observers provided ratings to images of younger, middle-aged and older unfamiliar faces. As well as attractiveness, the rating dimensions included other perceptual (distinctiveness, familiarity) and social (competence, trustworthiness and dominance) factors. The results suggested a consistent aesthetic preference for youthful faces across all ages of the observers but, surprisingly, no evidence for an age-related bias in attractiveness ratings. Older adults tended to provide higher ratings of attractiveness, competence and trustworthiness to the unfamiliar faces, consistent with the positivity effect previously reported. We also tested whether perceptual factors such as face familiarity or distinctiveness affected aesthetic ratings. Only ratings of familiarity, but not distinctiveness, were positively associated with the attractiveness of the faces. Moreover, ratings of familiarity decreased with increasing age of the face. With regard to the social characteristics of the faces, we found that the age of the face negatively correlated with ratings of trustworthiness provided by all observers, but with the competence ratings of older observers only. Interestingly, older adults provided higher ratings of perceived competence and trustworthiness to younger than older faces. However, our results also suggest that higher attractiveness ratings, together with older aged faces

  13. Individual differences in children's emotion understanding: Effects of age and language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pons, Francisco; Lawson, J.: Harris, P.; Rosnay, M. de

    2003-01-01

    Over the last two decades, it has been established that children's emotion understanding changes as they develop. Recent studies have also begun to address individual differences in children's emotion understanding. The first goal of this study was to examine the development of these individual...... differences across a wide age range with a test assessing nine different components of emotion understanding. The second goal was to examine the relation between language ability and individual differences in emotion understanding. Eighty children ranging in age from 4 to 11 years were tested. Children...... displayed a clear improvement with age in both their emotion understanding and language ability. In each age group, there were clear individual differences in emotion understanding and language ability. Age and language ability together explained 72% of emotion understanding variance; 20% of this variance...

  14. Impacts of age-related failures on nuclear systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meale, B.M.; Satterwhite, D.G.; Krantz, E.A.; MacDonald, P.E.

    1986-01-01

    Aging-related failure data from nine light water reactor safety, support, and power conversion systems have been extracted from an operational data base. Systems and components within the systems that are most affected by aging are identified. In addition, information on aging-related root causes of component failures has been extracted for service water and Class 1E electrical power distribution systems. Engineering insights are presented, and preliminary quantification of the importance of aging-related root causes for a service water system is provided

  15. Progress on retinal image analysis for age related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanagasingam, Yogesan; Bhuiyan, Alauddin; Abràmoff, Michael D; Smith, R Theodore; Goldschmidt, Leonard; Wong, Tien Y

    2014-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of vision loss in those over the age of 50 years in the developed countries. The number is expected to increase by ∼1.5 fold over the next ten years due to an increase in aging population. One of the main measures of AMD severity is the analysis of drusen, pigmentary abnormalities, geographic atrophy (GA) and choroidal neovascularization (CNV) from imaging based on color fundus photograph, optical coherence tomography (OCT) and other imaging modalities. Each of these imaging modalities has strengths and weaknesses for extracting individual AMD pathology and different imaging techniques are used in combination for capturing and/or quantification of different pathologies. Current dry AMD treatments cannot cure or reverse vision loss. However, the Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) showed that specific anti-oxidant vitamin supplementation reduces the risk of progression from intermediate stages (defined as the presence of either many medium-sized drusen or one or more large drusen) to late AMD which allows for preventative strategies in properly identified patients. Thus identification of people with early stage AMD is important to design and implement preventative strategies for late AMD, and determine their cost-effectiveness. A mass screening facility with teleophthalmology or telemedicine in combination with computer-aided analysis for large rural-based communities may identify more individuals suitable for early stage AMD prevention. In this review, we discuss different imaging modalities that are currently being considered or used for screening AMD. In addition, we look into various automated and semi-automated computer-aided grading systems and related retinal image analysis techniques for drusen, geographic atrophy and choroidal neovascularization detection and/or quantification for measurement of AMD severity using these imaging modalities. We also review the existing telemedicine studies which

  16. Age-related attitudes: the influence on relationships and performance at work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gellert, Franz Josef; Schalk, René

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to examine the influence of age and age-related attitudes on relationship factors. In addition, it seeks to assess how both factors affect care service work performance. The paper explores the influence of age and age-related attitudes on the relationship quality among employees, affecting performance in mentally and physically demanding work settings. The authors conducted the research in six residential homes for the elderly in Germany (152 respondents) and collected the data with questionnaires. Data are analyzed by multi-hierarchical regression analyses. Results show that age-related attitudes (intergenerational cooperation and the perception of older employees' capabilities) are important factors influencing the perceived quality level of in-group cooperation. Both age-related attitudes and relationship factors influence perceived employee performance, and job satisfaction. The findings contribute to understanding how age-related attitudes influence relationships among employees, the relationship between employees and supervisor, and the effect on service performance. The mono-cultural sample might be a limitation, as well as the composition of the sample: The majority of respondents were female. For leaders, supervisors and managers the results contribute to understanding how employees' age-related attitudes, in mentally and physically demanding work settings, influence the quality level of relationships and outcomes. This is relevant in the context of leaders/supervisors promoting followers' individual development and group/team development. The paper shows that in care service work with an increasing number of older employees, the positive perception of age-related attitudes influences relationship quality and performance positively.

  17. Low Calorie Diet Affects Aging-Related Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issue Past Issues Research News From NIH Low Calorie Diet Affects Aging-Related Factors Past Issues / Summer ... learn more about the effects of sustained low-calorie diets in humans on factors affecting aging. This ...

  18. [Depression in Patients with Age-Related Macular Degeneration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narváez, Yamile Reveiz; Gómez-Restrepo, Carlos

    2012-09-01

    Age-related macular degeneration is a cause for disability in the elderly since it greatly affects their quality of life and increases depression likelihood. This article discusses the negative effect depression has on patients with age-related macular degeneration and summarizes the interventions available for decreasing their depression index. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  19. Aging related changes in determinants of muscle force generating capacity: a comparison of muscle aging in men and male rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballak, Sam B; Degens, Hans; de Haan, Arnold; Jaspers, Richard T

    2014-03-01

    Human aging is associated with a progressive decline in skeletal muscle mass and force generating capacity, however the exact mechanisms underlying these changes are not fully understood. Rodents models have often been used to enhance our understanding of mechanisms of age-related changes in human skeletal muscle. However, to what extent age-related alterations in determinants of muscle force generating capacity observed in rodents resemble those in humans has not been considered thoroughly. This review compares the effect of aging on muscle force generating determinants (muscle mass, fiber size, fiber number, fiber type distribution and muscle specific tension), in men and male rodents at similar relative age. It appears that muscle aging in male F344*BN rat resembles that in men most; 32-35-month-old rats exhibit similar signs of muscle weakness to those of 70-80-yr-old men, and the decline in 36-38-month-old rats is similar to that in men aged over 80 yrs. For male C57BL/6 mice, age-related decline in muscle force generating capacity seems to occur only at higher relative age than in men. We conclude that the effects on determinants of muscle force differ between species as well as within species, but qualitatively show the same pattern as that observed in men. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The age-related positivity effect in electronic gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Phoebe E; Gonsalvez, Craig J; Maiuolo, Michelle; Leon, Tarren; Benedek, Gülten

    2018-01-01

    Older adults are increasingly spending time and money playing electronic gambling machines (EGMs). The current study assessed whether the age-related positivity effect influences responding to various EGM outcomes, including wins and losses of equivalent magnitude and frequency. We also explored cognitive mechanisms potentially underpinning the positivity effect. We recorded the skin conductance response (SCR) of healthy older and younger adults while they played for wins, losses, and fake wins (losses disguised as wins). After every win and fake win, participants were forced to choose red or black to either double their win or lose it. They also provided ratings of enjoyment and excitement, estimated number of wins and losses, and completed measures of cognitive function. Young and older adults demonstrated larger SCRs to wins relative to losses. When these wins and losses were of equivalent magnitude and frequency following a double-or-nothing scenario, only older adults responded more to a win than a loss. There were no age group differences in excitement and enjoyment, but older adults were more accurate than young adults in their recall of wins and losses. During EGM play, young and older adults demonstrate similar patterns on autonomic arousal. However, young adults' responding suggests generalized excitement, whereas older adults respond more to the prospect of financial gain.

  1. Ocular Surface Temperature in Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Sodi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of this study is to investigate the ocular thermographic profiles in age-related macular degeneration (AMD eyes and age-matched controls to detect possible hemodynamic abnormalities, which could be involved in the pathogenesis of the disease. Methods. 32 eyes with early AMD, 37 eyes with atrophic AMD, 30 eyes affected by untreated neovascular AMD, and 43 eyes with fibrotic AMD were included. The control group consisted of 44 healthy eyes. Exclusion criteria were represented by any other ocular diseases other than AMD, tear film abnormalities, systemic cardiovascular abnormalities, diabetes mellitus, and a body temperature higher than 37.5°C. A total of 186 eyes without pupil dilation were investigated by infrared thermography (FLIR A320. The ocular surface temperature (OST of three ocular points was calculated by means of an image processing technique from the infrared images. Two-sample t-test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA test were used for statistical analyses. Results. ANOVA analyses showed no significant differences among AMD groups (P value >0.272. OST in AMD patients was significantly lower than in controls (P>0.05. Conclusions. Considering the possible relationship between ocular blood flow and OST, these findings might support the central role of ischemia in the pathogenesis of AMD.

  2. Age related changes in steroid receptors on cultured lung fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barile, F.A.; Bienkowski, R.S.

    1986-01-01

    The number of high affinity glucocorticoid receptors (Ro) on human fetal lung fibroblasts decreases as the cells age in vitro, and it has been suggested that these cell systems may be useful models of age-related changes in vivo. They examined the relation between change in Ro with in vitro aging and donor age. Confluent monolayers of lung fibroblasts at various population doubling levels (PDL), were incubated with ( 3 H)-dexamethasone (( 3 H)Dex) either alone or with excess (.01 mM) Dex. Specific binding was calculated as the difference between radioactivity in cells incubated with and without unlabeled Dex; Scatchard plots were used to analyze the data. Ro, measured as fmol ( 3 H)Dex/10 6 cells, for two lines of human fetal cells (HFL-1 and MRC-5) decreased with increasing age in vitro. However, human newborn (CRL-1485) and adult (CCL-201) cells and fetal rabbit cells (FAB-290), showed increases in Ro with continuous passage. For each cell line, the affinity constant (K/sub d/) did not change significantly with passage. They conclude that the direction of changes in steroid receptor levels on cells aging in vitro is influenced by donor age and species. Caution should be used in applying results obtained from model systems to aging organisms

  3. Proinflammatory cytokines, aging, and age-related diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, Martin; Balardy, Laurent; Moulis, Guillaume; Gaudin, Clement; Peyrot, Caroline; Vellas, Bruno; Cesari, Matteo; Nourhashemi, Fati

    2013-12-01

    Inflammation is a physiological process that repairs tissues in response to endogenous or exogenous aggressions. Nevertheless, a chronic state of inflammation may have detrimental consequences. Aging is associated with increased levels of circulating cytokines and proinflammatory markers. Aged-related changes in the immune system, known as immunosenescence, and increased secretion of cytokines by adipose tissue, represent the major causes of chronic inflammation. This phenomenon is known as "inflamm-aging." High levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1, tumor necrosis factor-α, and C-reactive protein are associated in the older subject with increased risk of morbidity and mortality. In particular, cohort studies have indicated TNF-α and IL-6 levels as markers of frailty. The low-grade inflammation characterizing the aging process notably concurs at the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying sarcopenia. In addition, proinflammatory cytokines (through a variety of mechanisms, such as platelet activation and endothelial activation) may play a major role in the risk of cardiovascular events. Dysregulation of the inflammatory pathway may also affect the central nervous system and be involved in the pathophysiological mechanisms of neurodegenerative disorders (eg, Alzheimer disease).The aim of the present review was to summarize different targets of the activity of proinflammatory cytokines implicated in the risk of pathological aging. Copyright © 2013 American Medical Directors Association, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Multisite Assessment of Aging-Related Tau Astrogliopathy (ARTAG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, Gabor G; Xie, Sharon X; Lee, Edward B; Robinson, John L; Caswell, Carrie; Irwin, David J; Toledo, Jon B; Johnson, Victoria E; Smith, Douglas H; Alafuzoff, Irina; Attems, Johannes; Bencze, Janos; Bieniek, Kevin F; Bigio, Eileen H; Bodi, Istvan; Budka, Herbert; Dickson, Dennis W; Dugger, Brittany N; Duyckaerts, Charles; Ferrer, Isidro; Forrest, Shelley L; Gelpi, Ellen; Gentleman, Stephen M; Giaccone, Giorgio; Grinberg, Lea T; Halliday, Glenda M; Hatanpaa, Kimmo J; Hof, Patrick R; Hofer, Monika; Hortobágyi, Tibor; Ironside, James W; King, Andrew; Kofler, Julia; Kövari, Enikö; Kril, Jillian J; Love, Seth; Mackenzie, Ian R; Mao, Qinwen; Matej, Radoslav; McLean, Catriona; Munoz, David G; Murray, Melissa E; Neltner, Janna; Nelson, Peter T; Ritchie, Diane; Rodriguez, Roberta D; Rohan, Zdenek; Rozemuller, Annemieke; Sakai, Kenji; Schultz, Christian; Seilhean, Danielle; Smith, Vanessa; Tacik, Pawel; Takahashi, Hitoshi; Takao, Masaki; Rudolf Thal, Dietmar; Weis, Serge; Wharton, Stephen B; White, Charles L; Woulfe, John M; Yamada, Masahito; Trojanowski, John Q

    2017-07-01

    Aging-related tau astrogliopathy (ARTAG) is a recently introduced terminology. To facilitate the consistent identification of ARTAG and to distinguish it from astroglial tau pathologies observed in the primary frontotemporal lobar degeneration tauopathies we evaluated how consistently neuropathologists recognize (1) different astroglial tau immunoreactivities, including those of ARTAG and those associated with primary tauopathies (Study 1); (2) ARTAG types (Study 2A); and (3) ARTAG severity (Study 2B). Microphotographs and scanned sections immunostained for phosphorylated tau (AT8) were made available for download and preview. Percentage of agreement and kappa values with 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated for each evaluation. The overall agreement for Study 1 was >60% with a kappa value of 0.55 (95% CI 0.433-0.645). Moderate agreement (>90%, kappa 0.48, 95% CI 0.457-0.900) was reached in Study 2A for the identification of ARTAG pathology for each ARTAG subtype (kappa 0.37-0.72), whereas fair agreement (kappa 0.40, 95% CI 0.341-0.445) was reached for the evaluation of ARTAG severity. The overall assessment of ARTAG showed moderate agreement (kappa 0.60, 95% CI 0.534-0.653) among raters. Our study supports the application of the current harmonized evaluation strategy for ARTAG with a slight modification of the evaluation of its severity. © 2017 American Association of Neuropathologists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Mechanism of Inflammation in Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Parmeggiani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Age-related macular degeneration (AMD is a multifactorial disease that represents the most common cause of irreversible visual impairment among people over the age of 50 in Europe, the United States, and Australia, accounting for up to 50% of all cases of central blindness. Risk factors of AMD are heterogeneous, mainly including increasing age and different genetic predispositions, together with several environmental/epigenetic factors, that is, cigarette smoking, dietary habits, and phototoxic exposure. In the aging retina, free radicals and oxidized lipoproteins are considered to be major causes of tissue stress resulting in local triggers for parainflammation, a chronic status which contributes to initiation and/or progression of many human neurodegenerative diseases such as AMD. Experimental and clinical evidences strongly indicate the pathogenetic role of immunologic processes in AMD occurrence, consisting of production of inflammatory related molecules, recruitment of macrophages, complement activation, microglial activation and accumulation within those structures that compose an essential area of the retina known as macula lutea. This paper reviews some attractive aspects of the literature about the mechanisms of inflammation in AMD, especially focusing on those findings or arguments more directly translatable to improve the clinical management of patients with AMD and to prevent the severe vision loss caused by this disease.

  6. The theory behind the age-related positivity effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew E Reed

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The positivity effect refers to an age-related trend that favors positive over negative stimuli in cognitive processing. Relative to their younger counterparts, older people attend to and remember more positive than negative information. Since the effect was initially identified and the conceptual basis articulated (Mather & Carstensen, 2005 scores of independent replications and related findings have appeared in the literature. Over the same period, a number of investigations have failed to observe age differences in the cognitive processing of emotional material. When findings are considered in theoretical context, a reliable pattern of evidence emerges that helps to refine conceptual tenets. In this article we articulate the operational definition and theoretical foundations of the positivity effect and review the empirical evidence based on studies of visual attention, memory, decision-making, and neural activation. We conclude with a discussion of future research directions with emphasis on the conditions where a focus on positive information may benefit and/or impair cognitive performance in older people.

  7. Mechanism of Inflammation in Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmeggiani, Francesco; Romano, Mario R.; Costagliola, Ciro; Semeraro, Francesco; Incorvaia, Carlo; D'Angelo, Sergio; Perri, Paolo; De Palma, Paolo; De Nadai, Katia; Sebastiani, Adolfo

    2012-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a multifactorial disease that represents the most common cause of irreversible visual impairment among people over the age of 50 in Europe, the United States, and Australia, accounting for up to 50% of all cases of central blindness. Risk factors of AMD are heterogeneous, mainly including increasing age and different genetic predispositions, together with several environmental/epigenetic factors, that is, cigarette smoking, dietary habits, and phototoxic exposure. In the aging retina, free radicals and oxidized lipoproteins are considered to be major causes of tissue stress resulting in local triggers for parainflammation, a chronic status which contributes to initiation and/or progression of many human neurodegenerative diseases such as AMD. Experimental and clinical evidences strongly indicate the pathogenetic role of immunologic processes in AMD occurrence, consisting of production of inflammatory related molecules, recruitment of macrophages, complement activation, microglial activation and accumulation within those structures that compose an essential area of the retina known as macula lutea. This paper reviews some attractive aspects of the literature about the mechanisms of inflammation in AMD, especially focusing on those findings or arguments more directly translatable to improve the clinical management of patients with AMD and to prevent the severe vision loss caused by this disease. PMID:23209345

  8. Imaging Polarimetry in Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Masahiro; Yamanari, Masahiro; Iwasaki, Takuya; Elsner, Ann E.; Makita, Shuichi; Yatagai, Toyohiko; Yasuno, Yoshiaki

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE To evaluate the birefringence properties of eyes with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). To compare the information from two techniques—scanning laser polarimetry (GDx) and polarization-sensitive spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT)—and investigate how they complement each other. METHODS The authors prospectively examined the eyes of two healthy subjects and 13 patients with exudative AMD. Using scanning laser polarimetry, they computed phase-retardation maps, average reflectance images, and depolarized light images. To obtain polarimetry information with improved axial resolution, they developed a fiber-based, polarization-sensitive, spectral-domain OCT system and measured the phase retardation associated with birefringence in the same eyes. RESULTS Both GDx and polarization-sensitive spectral-domain optical coherence tomography detected abnormal birefringence at the locus of exudative lesions. Polarization-sensitive, spectral-domain OCT showed that in the old lesions with fibrosis, phase-retardation values were significantly larger than in the new lesions (P = 0.020). Increased scattered light and altered polarization scramble were associated with portions of the lesions. CONCLUSIONS GDx and polarization-sensitive spectral-domain OCT are complementary in probing birefringence properties in exudative AMD. Polarimetry findings in exudative AMD emphasized different features and were related to the progression of the disease, potentially providing a noninvasive tool for microstructure in exudative AMD. PMID:18515594

  9. Implications of Age-Related Changes in Anatomy for Geriatric-Focused Difficult Airways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Yi Lee

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The structure and function surrounding the airway change by the age, which may ultimately result in having anatomic features of difficult airways in the elderly. Hence, we reviewed the literature focusing on the age-related anatomic changes and accordingly to compare the characteristics of difficult airways. With age, teeth wear and loss, protein and collagen synthesis reduction, and bone loss and muscle atrophy results in aged face (chin protrusion, cheek retraction and drooping, jaw restriction (temporo-madibular joint disc displacement and osteoarthritis, neck and back stiffness, and kyphotic deformities (degeneration of spinal articular cartilage, intervertebral discs, and spinal osteoporosis. These age-related changes in anatomy are compatible with the predictors of a difficult airway. We hope that these age-related anatomic approaches will prospectively allow a detailed understanding of the hallmarks resulting in geriatric-focused difficult airways in the future studies.

  10. Age-related variations in the microstructure of human tibial cancellous bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Ming; Odgaard, A; Linde, F

    2002-01-01

    A thorough understanding of the microstructure of cancellous bone is crucial for diagnosis, prophylaxis, and treatment of age-related skeletal diseases. Until now, little has been known about age-related variations in the microstructure of peripheral cancellous bone. This study quantified age......-related changes in the three-dimensional (3D) microstructure of human tibial cancellous bone. One hundred and sixty cylindrical cancellous bone specimens were produced from 40 normal proximal tibiae from 40 donors, aged 16-85 years. These specimens were micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) scanned...... increase of anisotropy and constant connectivity suggest a bone remodeling mechanism that may reorient trabecular volume orientation in aging tibial cancellous bone. The aging trabeculae align more strongly to the primary direction--parallel to the tibial longitudinal loading axis....

  11. Age-related effects in the EEG during propofol anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, A; Grouven, U; Zander, I; Beger, F A; Siedenberg, M; Schultz, B

    2004-01-01

    Age-related differences in the spectral composition of the EEG in induction and emergence times, and in drug consumption during propofol anaesthesia were investigated. The EEGs of 60 female patients between 22 and 85 years of age were monitored continuously during standardized induction of anaesthesia with 2 mg of propofol kg(-1)60 s(-1). The EEGs were visually assessed in 20-s epochs according to a scale from A (awake) to F (very deep hypnosis). Visual EEG classifications, spectral parameters, and induction times were compared between different age groups. Additionally, data of 546 patients included in a multicentre study with 4630 patients (EEG monitor Narcotrend, MT MonitorTechnik, Bad Bramstedt, Germany) were analyzed with regard to age-dependent changes of propofol consumption using target-controlled infusion (TCI). During induction, patients older than 70 years reached significantly deeper EEG stages than younger patients, needed a longer time to reach the deepest EEG stage, and needed more time until a light EEG stage was regained. In patients aged 70 years and older, the total power, mainly in deep EEG stages, was significantly smaller due to a distinctly smaller absolute power of the delta frequency band. No single spectral parameter was able to reliably distinguish all EEG stages. During the steady state of anaesthesia, older patients needed less propofol for the maintenance of a defined stage of hypnosis than younger patients. Older patients differ from younger ones regarding the hypnotic effect of propofol and the spectral patterns in the EEG. For an efficient automatic assessment of the EEG during anaesthesia a multivariable approach accounting for age-effects is indispensable.

  12. Shared and Unique Genetic and Environmental Influences on Aging-Related Changes in Multiple Cognitive Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.; Reynolds, Chandra A.; Finkel, Deborah; Pedersen, Nancy L.

    2014-01-01

    Aging-related declines occur in many different domains of cognitive function during middle and late adulthood. However, whether a global dimension underlies individual differences in changes in different domains of cognition and whether global genetic influences on cognitive changes exist is less clear. We addressed these issues by applying…

  13. Can DRYAD explain age-related associative memory deficits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Andrea C; Naveh-Benjamin, Moshe

    2016-02-01

    A recent interesting theoretical account of aging and memory judgments, the DRYAD (density of representations yields age-related deficits; Benjamin, 2010; Benjamin, Diaz, Matzen, & Johnson, 2012), attributes the extensive findings of disproportional age-related deficits in memory for source, context, and associations, to a global decline in memory fidelity. It is suggested that this global deficit, possibly due to a decline in attentional processes, is moderated by weak representation of contextual information to result in disproportional age-related declines. In the current article, we evaluate the DRYAD model, comparing it to specific age-related deficits theories, in particular, the ADH (associative deficit hypothesis, Naveh-Benjamin, 2000). We question some of the main assumptions/hypotheses of DRYAD in light of data reported in the literature, and we directly assess the role of attention in age-related deficits by manipulations of divided attention and of the instructions regarding what to pay attention to in 2 experiments (one from the literature and a new one). The results of these experiments fit the predictions of the ADH and do not support the main assumption/hypotheses of DRYAD. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. [Epidemiology of the age-related macular degeneration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolár, P

    2010-07-01

    The age-related macular degeneration is the most common cause of severe decrease of the visual acuity in industrial countries. The epidemiological data published in last 30 years are very alarming. They document that the age-related macular degeneration is the most common cause of blindness in industrial countries in the population of patients older than 65 years. The signs of beginning disease may be diagnosed as early as in the patients older than 45 years. The disease is strictly age-related and its prevalence and incidence is markedly increasing according to the older age. The basic risk factors of the disease are smoking, untreated hypertension, atherosclerosis, cataract surgery, and appearance of the disease in the family. Among further possible risk factors we count diabetes mellitus and the light color of the iris. Equivocal is the negative influence of ultraviolet rays.

  15. A Deep Learning Algorithm for Prediction of Age-Related Eye Disease Study Severity Scale for Age-Related Macular Degeneration from Color Fundus Photography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassmann, Felix; Mengelkamp, Judith; Brandl, Caroline; Harsch, Sebastian; Zimmermann, Martina E; Linkohr, Birgit; Peters, Annette; Heid, Iris M; Palm, Christoph; Weber, Bernhard H F

    2018-04-10

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a common threat to vision. While classification of disease stages is critical to understanding disease risk and progression, several systems based on color fundus photographs are known. Most of these require in-depth and time-consuming analysis of fundus images. Herein, we present an automated computer-based classification algorithm. Algorithm development for AMD classification based on a large collection of color fundus images. Validation is performed on a cross-sectional, population-based study. We included 120 656 manually graded color fundus images from 3654 Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) participants. AREDS participants were >55 years of age, and non-AMD sight-threatening diseases were excluded at recruitment. In addition, performance of our algorithm was evaluated in 5555 fundus images from the population-based Kooperative Gesundheitsforschung in der Region Augsburg (KORA; Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg) study. We defined 13 classes (9 AREDS steps, 3 late AMD stages, and 1 for ungradable images) and trained several convolution deep learning architectures. An ensemble of network architectures improved prediction accuracy. An independent dataset was used to evaluate the performance of our algorithm in a population-based study. κ Statistics and accuracy to evaluate the concordance between predicted and expert human grader classification. A network ensemble of 6 different neural net architectures predicted the 13 classes in the AREDS test set with a quadratic weighted κ of 92% (95% confidence interval, 89%-92%) and an overall accuracy of 63.3%. In the independent KORA dataset, images wrongly classified as AMD were mainly the result of a macular reflex observed in young individuals. By restricting the KORA analysis to individuals >55 years of age and prior exclusion of other retinopathies, the weighted and unweighted κ increased to 50% and 63%, respectively. Importantly, the algorithm

  16. Age-Related Eye Disease and Participation in Cognitive Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Varin, Melanie; Kergoat, Marie-Jeanne; Belleville, Sylvie; Li, Gisele; Rousseau, Jacqueline; Roy-Gagnon, Marie-Hélène; Moghadaszadeh, Solmaz; Freeman, Ellen E.

    2017-01-01

    Studies have found a benefit to living a cognitively active life in older age. Our goal was to quantify participation in cognitively stimulating activities in adults with and without age-related eye disease. We conducted a cross-sectional hospital-based study in Montreal, Canada of older adults (n = 303) having either age-related macular degeneration (AMD) (n = 96), glaucoma (n = 93), or normal vision (n = 114). To be eligible, the AMD group had to have bilateral late stage AMD with a better ...

  17. Towards Understanding Different Faces of School Violence in Different "Worlds" of One Country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Lynette

    2013-01-01

    The legacy of South Africa's destructive history is still evident in the different worlds in which South Africans live. Quality education is compromised by violence occurring in schools and role-players must face school violence and take steps to deal with it. This can only be done if school violence is deeply understood within the various school…

  18. Age-Related Changes in the Hepatic Pharmacology and Toxicology of Paracetamol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J. Mitchell

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimal pharmacotherapy is determined when the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the drug are understood. However, the age-related changes in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, as well as the increased interindividual variation mean optimal dose selection are a challenge for prescribing in older adults. Poor understanding of how hepatic clearance and toxicity are different with age results in suboptimal dose selection, poor efficacy, and/or increased toxicity. Of particular concern is the analgesic paracetamol which has been in use for more than 50 years and is consumed by a large proportion of older adults. Paracetamol is considered to be a relatively safe drug; however, caution must be taken because of its potential for toxicity. Paracetamol-induced liver injury from accidental overdose accounts for up to 55% of cases in older adults. Better understanding of how age affects the hepatic clearance and toxicity of drugs will contribute to evidence-based prescribing for older people, leading to fewer adverse drug reactions without loss of benefit.

  19. Masking Period Patterns & Forward Masking for Speech-Shaped Noise: Age-related effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grose, John H.; Menezes, Denise C.; Porter, Heather L.; Griz, Silvana

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to assess age-related changes in temporal resolution in listeners with relatively normal audiograms. The hypothesis was that increased susceptibility to non-simultaneous masking contributes to the hearing difficulties experienced by older listeners in complex fluctuating backgrounds. Design Participants included younger (n = 11), middle-aged (n = 12), and older (n = 11) listeners with relatively normal audiograms. The first phase of the study measured masking period patterns for speech-shaped noise maskers and signals. From these data, temporal window shapes were derived. The second phase measured forward-masking functions, and assessed how well the temporal window fits accounted for these data. Results The masking period patterns demonstrated increased susceptibility to backward masking in the older listeners, compatible with a more symmetric temporal window in this group. The forward-masking functions exhibited an age-related decline in recovery to baseline thresholds, and there was also an increase in the variability of the temporal window fits to these data. Conclusions This study demonstrated an age-related increase in susceptibility to non-simultaneous masking, supporting the hypothesis that exacerbated non-simultaneous masking contributes to age-related difficulties understanding speech in fluctuating noise. Further support for this hypothesis comes from limited speech-in-noise data suggesting an association between susceptibility to forward masking and speech understanding in modulated noise. PMID:26230495

  20. Masking Period Patterns and Forward Masking for Speech-Shaped Noise: Age-Related Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grose, John H; Menezes, Denise C; Porter, Heather L; Griz, Silvana

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess age-related changes in temporal resolution in listeners with relatively normal audiograms. The hypothesis was that increased susceptibility to nonsimultaneous masking contributes to the hearing difficulties experienced by older listeners in complex fluctuating backgrounds. Participants included younger (n = 11), middle-age (n = 12), and older (n = 11) listeners with relatively normal audiograms. The first phase of the study measured masking period patterns for speech-shaped noise maskers and signals. From these data, temporal window shapes were derived. The second phase measured forward-masking functions and assessed how well the temporal window fits accounted for these data. The masking period patterns demonstrated increased susceptibility to backward masking in the older listeners, compatible with a more symmetric temporal window in this group. The forward-masking functions exhibited an age-related decline in recovery to baseline thresholds, and there was also an increase in the variability of the temporal window fits to these data. This study demonstrated an age-related increase in susceptibility to nonsimultaneous masking, supporting the hypothesis that exacerbated nonsimultaneous masking contributes to age-related difficulties understanding speech in fluctuating noise. Further support for this hypothesis comes from limited speech-in-noise data, suggesting an association between susceptibility to forward masking and speech understanding in modulated noise.

  1. Aflibercept in exudative age related macular degeneration refractory to ranibizumab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Ramos, J; Pascual-Camps, I; Cuéllar-Monreal, M J; Dolz-Marco, R; Fenoll, M A; Font-Noguera, I; Poveda-Andrés, J L; Gallego-Pinazo, R

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the effectiveness, safety and cost of aflibercept in the treatment of wet age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) refractory to ranibizumab. Retrospective observational study was conducted on patients diagnosed with wet ARMD, and previously treated with ranibizumab. Efficacy variables assessed were changes in visual acuity (BCVA) and anatomical improvements in the most affected eye. Factors associated with improvement of BCVA with aflibercept were also studied. Adverse events related to the aflibercept administration were recorded. Cost analysis data were collected from the hospital perspective, and only taking the direct medical costs into account. Cost-effectiveness analysis was calculated using the aflibercept treatment cost, and effectiveness calculated as BCVA gained. A total of 50 eyes corresponding to 46 patients were included. The median follow-up period was 4.6 months (range: 1.0-6.0). Improvement in visual acuity after the first 2 doses and at the end of the follow-up period was observed in 32.0 and 28.0% of treated eyes, respectively. None of the variables studied was associated with an improvement in the BCVA after treatment. No significant differences were found in the average monthly cost between treatments. Aflibercept is shown to be an effective treatment in a significant number of patients resistant to treatment with ranibizumab, presenting a cost similar to that generated during the final stages of treatment with ranibizumab. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. DNA damage and repair in age-related macular degeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szaflik, Jacek P.; Janik-Papis, Katarzyna; Synowiec, Ewelina; Ksiazek, Dominika; Zaras, Magdalena; Wozniak, Katarzyna; Szaflik, Jerzy; Blasiak, Janusz

    2009-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a retinal degenerative disease that is the main cause of vision loss in individuals over the age of 55 in the Western world. Clinically relevant AMD results from damage to the retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells thought to be mainly caused by oxidative stress. The stress also affects the DNA of RPE cells, which promotes genome instability in these cells. These effects may coincide with the decrease in the efficacy of DNA repair with age. Therefore individuals with DNA repair impaired more than average for a given age may be more susceptible to AMD if oxidative stress affects their RPE cells. This may be helpful in AMD risk assessment. In the present work we determined the level of basal (measured in the alkaline comet assay) endogenous and endogenous oxidative DNA damage, the susceptibility to exogenous mutagens and the efficacy of DNA repair in lymphocytes of 100 AMD patients and 110 age-matched individuals without visual disturbances. The cells taken from AMD patients displayed a higher extent of basal endogenous DNA damage without differences between patients of dry and wet forms of the disease. DNA double-strand breaks did not contribute to the observed DNA damage as checked by the neutral comet assay and pulsed field gel electrophoresis. The extent of oxidative modification to DNA bases was grater in AMD patients than in the controls, as probed by DNA repair enzymes NTH1 and Fpg. Lymphocytes from AMD patients displayed a higher sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide and UV radiation and repaired lesions induced by these factors less effectively than the cells from the control individuals. We postulate that the impaired efficacy of DNA repair may combine with enhanced sensitivity of RPE cells to blue and UV lights, contributing to the pathogenesis of AMD.

  3. DNA damage and repair in age-related macular degeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szaflik, Jacek P. [Department of Ophthalmology, Medical University of Warsaw and Samodzielny Publiczny Szpital Okulistyczny, Sierakowskiego 13, 03-710 Warsaw (Poland); Janik-Papis, Katarzyna; Synowiec, Ewelina; Ksiazek, Dominika [Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Lodz, Banacha 12/16, 90-237 Lodz (Poland); Zaras, Magdalena [Department of Ophthalmology, Medical University of Warsaw and Samodzielny Publiczny Szpital Okulistyczny, Sierakowskiego 13, 03-710 Warsaw (Poland); Wozniak, Katarzyna [Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Lodz, Banacha 12/16, 90-237 Lodz (Poland); Szaflik, Jerzy [Department of Ophthalmology, Medical University of Warsaw and Samodzielny Publiczny Szpital Okulistyczny, Sierakowskiego 13, 03-710 Warsaw (Poland); Blasiak, Janusz, E-mail: januszb@biol.uni.lodz.pl [Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Lodz, Banacha 12/16, 90-237 Lodz (Poland)

    2009-10-02

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a retinal degenerative disease that is the main cause of vision loss in individuals over the age of 55 in the Western world. Clinically relevant AMD results from damage to the retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells thought to be mainly caused by oxidative stress. The stress also affects the DNA of RPE cells, which promotes genome instability in these cells. These effects may coincide with the decrease in the efficacy of DNA repair with age. Therefore individuals with DNA repair impaired more than average for a given age may be more susceptible to AMD if oxidative stress affects their RPE cells. This may be helpful in AMD risk assessment. In the present work we determined the level of basal (measured in the alkaline comet assay) endogenous and endogenous oxidative DNA damage, the susceptibility to exogenous mutagens and the efficacy of DNA repair in lymphocytes of 100 AMD patients and 110 age-matched individuals without visual disturbances. The cells taken from AMD patients displayed a higher extent of basal endogenous DNA damage without differences between patients of dry and wet forms of the disease. DNA double-strand breaks did not contribute to the observed DNA damage as checked by the neutral comet assay and pulsed field gel electrophoresis. The extent of oxidative modification to DNA bases was grater in AMD patients than in the controls, as probed by DNA repair enzymes NTH1 and Fpg. Lymphocytes from AMD patients displayed a higher sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide and UV radiation and repaired lesions induced by these factors less effectively than the cells from the control individuals. We postulate that the impaired efficacy of DNA repair may combine with enhanced sensitivity of RPE cells to blue and UV lights, contributing to the pathogenesis of AMD.

  4. Age-related changes in oscillatory power affect motor action.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqing Liu

    Full Text Available With increasing age cognitive performance slows down. This includes cognitive processes essential for motor performance. Additionally, performance of motor tasks becomes less accurate. The objective of the present study was to identify general neural correlates underlying age-related behavioral slowing and the reduction in motor task accuracy. To this end, we continuously recorded EEG activity from 18 younger and 24 older right-handed healthy participants while they were performing a simple finger tapping task. We analyzed the EEG records with respect to local changes in amplitude (power spectrum as well as phase locking between the two age groups. We found differences between younger and older subjects in the amplitude of post-movement synchronization in the β band of the sensory-motor and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC. This post-movement β amplitude was significantly reduced in older subjects. Moreover, it positively correlated with the accuracy with which subjects performed the motor task at the electrode FCz, which detects activity of the mPFC and the supplementary motor area. In contrast, we found no correlation between the accurate timing of local neural activity, i.e. phase locking in the δ-θ frequency band, with the reaction and movement time or the accuracy with which the motor task was performed. Our results show that only post-movement β amplitude and not δ-θ phase locking is involved in the control of movement accuracy. The decreased post-movement β amplitude in the mPFC of older subjects hints at an impaired deactivation of this area, which may affect the cognitive control of stimulus-induced motor tasks and thereby motor output.

  5. Age-related changes in oscillatory power affect motor action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liqing; Rosjat, Nils; Popovych, Svitlana; Wang, Bin A; Yeldesbay, Azamat; Toth, Tibor I; Viswanathan, Shivakumar; Grefkes, Christian B; Fink, Gereon R; Daun, Silvia

    2017-01-01

    With increasing age cognitive performance slows down. This includes cognitive processes essential for motor performance. Additionally, performance of motor tasks becomes less accurate. The objective of the present study was to identify general neural correlates underlying age-related behavioral slowing and the reduction in motor task accuracy. To this end, we continuously recorded EEG activity from 18 younger and 24 older right-handed healthy participants while they were performing a simple finger tapping task. We analyzed the EEG records with respect to local changes in amplitude (power spectrum) as well as phase locking between the two age groups. We found differences between younger and older subjects in the amplitude of post-movement synchronization in the β band of the sensory-motor and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). This post-movement β amplitude was significantly reduced in older subjects. Moreover, it positively correlated with the accuracy with which subjects performed the motor task at the electrode FCz, which detects activity of the mPFC and the supplementary motor area. In contrast, we found no correlation between the accurate timing of local neural activity, i.e. phase locking in the δ-θ frequency band, with the reaction and movement time or the accuracy with which the motor task was performed. Our results show that only post-movement β amplitude and not δ-θ phase locking is involved in the control of movement accuracy. The decreased post-movement β amplitude in the mPFC of older subjects hints at an impaired deactivation of this area, which may affect the cognitive control of stimulus-induced motor tasks and thereby motor output.

  6. Aging-related tau astrogliopathy (ARTAG): harmonized evaluation strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Isidro; Grinberg, Lea T.; Alafuzoff, Irina; Attems, Johannes; Budka, Herbert; Cairns, Nigel J.; Crary, John F.; Duyckaerts, Charles; Ghetti, Bernardino; Halliday, Glenda M.; Ironside, James W.; Love, Seth; Mackenzie, Ian R.; Munoz, David G.; Murray, Melissa E.; Nelson, Peter T.; Takahashi, Hitoshi; Trojanowski, John Q.; Ansorge, Olaf; Arzberger, Thomas; Baborie, Atik; Beach, Thomas G.; Bieniek, Kevin F.; Bigio, Eileen H.; Bodi, Istvan; Dugger, Brittany N.; Feany, Mel; Gelpi, Ellen; Gentleman, Stephen M.; Giaccone, Giorgio; Hatanpaa, Kimmo J.; Heale, Richard; Hof, Patrick R.; Hofer, Monika; Hortobágyi, Tibor; Jellinger, Kurt; Jicha, Gregory A.; Ince, Paul; Kofler, Julia; Kövari, Enikö; Kril, Jillian J.; Mann, David M.; Matej, Radoslav; McKee, Ann C.; McLean, Catriona; Milenkovic, Ivan; Montine, Thomas J.; Murayama, Shigeo; Lee, Edward B.; Rahimi, Jasmin; Rodriguez, Roberta D.; Rozemüller, Annemieke; Schneider, Julie A.; Schultz, Christian; Seeley, William; Seilhean, Danielle; Smith, Colin; Tagliavini, Fabrizio; Takao, Masaki; Thal, Dietmar Rudolf; Toledo, Jon B.; Tolnay, Markus; Troncoso, Juan C.; Vinters, Harry V.; Weis, Serge; Wharton, Stephen B.; White, Charles L.; Wisniewski, Thomas; Woulfe, John M.; Yamada, Masahito

    2016-01-01

    Pathological accumulation of abnormally phosphorylated tau protein in astrocytes is a frequent, but poorly characterized feature of the aging brain. Its etiology is uncertain, but its presence is sufficiently ubiquitous to merit further characterization and classification, which may stimulate clinicopathological studies and research into its pathobiology. This paper aims to harmonize evaluation and nomenclature of aging-related tau astrogliopathy (ARTAG), a term that refers to a morphological spectrum of astroglial pathology detected by tau immunohistochemistry, especially with phosphorylation-dependent and 4R isoform-specific antibodies. ARTAG occurs mainly, but not exclusively, in individuals over 60 years of age. Tau-immunoreactive astrocytes in ARTAG include thorn-shaped astrocytes at the glia limitans and in white matter, as well as solitary or clustered astrocytes with perinuclear cytoplasmic tau immunoreactivity that extends into the astroglial processes as fine fibrillar or granular immunopositivity, typically in gray matter. Various forms of ARTAG may coexist in the same brain and might reflect different pathogenic processes. Based on morphology and anatomical distribution, ARTAG can be distinguished from primary tauopathies, but may be concurrent with primary tauopathies or other disorders. We recommend four steps for evaluation of ARTAG: (1) identification of five types based on the location of either morphologies of tau astrogliopathy: subpial, subependymal, perivascular, white matter, gray matter; (2) documentation of the regional involvement: medial temporal lobe, lobar (frontal, parietal, occipital, lateral temporal), subcortical, brainstem; (3) documentation of the severity of tau astrogliopathy; and (4) description of subregional involvement. Some types of ARTAG may underlie neurological symptoms; however, the clinical significance of ARTAG is currently uncertain and awaits further studies. The goal of this proposal is to raise awareness of

  7. Complement factor d in age-related macular degeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stanton, C.M.; Yates, J.R.W.; Hollander, A.I. den; Seddon, J.M.; Swaroop, A.; Stambolian, D.; Fauser, S.; Hoyng, C.B.; Yu, Y.; Atsuhiro, K.; Branham, K.; Othman, M.; Chen, W.; Kortvely, E.; Chalmers, K.; Hayward, C.; Moore, A.T.; Dhillon, B.; Ueffing, M.; Wright, A.F.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. To examine the role of complement factor D (CFD) in age-related macular degeneration (AMD) by analysis of genetic association, copy number variation, and plasma CFD concentrations. Methods. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the CFD gene were genotyped and the results analyzed by

  8. Age-related effects in the neocortical organization of chimpanzees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Autrey, Michelle M; Reamer, Lisa A; Mareno, Mary Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Among primates, humans exhibit the most profound degree of age-related brain volumetric decline in particular regions, such as the hippocampus and the frontal lobe. Recent studies have shown that our closest living relatives, the chimpanzees, experience little to no volumetric decline in gray and...

  9. Age-Related Hearing Loss: Implications for Counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Pamela E.; Hoyer, William J.

    1996-01-01

    Examines adaptation strategies used by hearing-impaired listeners and considers the implications of age-related hearing loss for counseling, intervention, and self-management. Outlines information on hearing aids and on practical communication strategies and the growing importance of these strategies as the population grows increasingly older.…

  10. Current surgical treatment of age-related macular degeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramos de Carvalho, J. Emanuel; Willig, A. J. H. E.; Chung, R.; Peiretti, E.; Mura, M.

    2014-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of severe, irreversible central vision loss in individuals over 65 years of age throughout much of the developed world. The advent of anti-VEGF therapy has had a great impact in the long-term natural history of this condition, more

  11. Nutritional influences on epigenetics and age-related disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutritional epigenetics has emerged as a novel mechanism underlying gene–diet interactions, further elucidating the modulatory role of nutrition in aging and age-related disease development. Epigenetics is defined as a heritable modification to the DNA that regulates chromosome architecture and modu...

  12. Extrinsic Mechanisms Involved in Age-Related Defective Bone Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trinquier, Anne Marie-Pierre Emilie; Kassem, Moustapha

    2011-01-01

    of fractures. Studies in rodents and humans revealed that, independent of sex hormone deficiency, the age-related decline in bone formation is characterized by decreased osteoblast number and lifespan and reduced bone-forming capacity of individual osteoblasts. An important clinical question is to identify...

  13. Age-related decrements in cycling and running performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Sports Medicine ... This study examined age-related decrements in athletic performance during running and cycling activities. ... These findings establish a trend that there is 'accelerated' aging during running which can perhaps be attributed to the increased weight-bearing stress on the muscles ...

  14. Age-related macular degeneration in Onitsha, Nigeria | Nwosu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To determine the incidence, pattern and ocular morbidity associated with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) at the Guinness Eye Center Onitsha Nigeria. Materials and Methods: The case files of all new patients aged 50 years and above seen between January 1997 and December 2004 were reviewed.

  15. Age-related macular degeneration: epidemiology and optimal treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour, Morten; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Nissen, Mogens Holst

    2002-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a common macular disease affecting elderly people in the Western world. It is characterised by the appearance of drusen in the macula, accompanied by choroidal neovascularisation (CNV) or geographic atrophy. The disease is more common in Caucasian...

  16. AGE-RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION -AN EMERGING AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LIVINGSTON

    associatedwithwetmaculardegeneration . : Whites are much more at risk than Blacks . Age-related accumulation of low-molecular-weight phototoxic, pro-toxic melanin oligomers within the lysosomes in the retinal pigment epithelium are suspected of decreasing the digestive rate of photoreceptors of the outer rod segments ...

  17. Age-related decrements in cycling and running perfor- mance

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    This study examined age-related decrements in athletic performance during running and cycling activi- ties. Design. The age group winning times for males aged between 18 and 70 years competing in the 1999 Argus cycle tour (103 km) and 1999 Comrades running marathon (90 km), South Africa's premier endurance.

  18. Review Article Therapeutic Potential of Statins in Age-related ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-08-09

    Aug 9, 2011 ... ABSTRACT. Age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) is the leading cause of irreversible vision loss, affecting one in three people aged 75 and above. Although exciting new pharmaceuticals to treat ARMD such as endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibitors, are now available, they are effective only in ...

  19. The molecular genetic basis of age-related macular degeneration ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. AMD; epidemiology; genes; polymorphism; risk. Abstract. Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a complex disorder of the eye and the third leading cause of blindness worldwide. With a multifactorial etiology, AMD results in progressive loss of central vision affecting the macular region of the eye in elderly.

  20. An epigenetic hypothesis of aging-related cognitive dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marsha R Penner

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This brief review will focus on a new hypothesis for the role of epigenetic mechanisms in aging-related disruptions of synaptic plasticity and memory. Epigenetics refers to a set of potentially self-perpetuating, covalent modifications of DNA and post-translational modifications of nuclear proteins that produce lasting alterations in chromatin structure. These mechanisms, in turn, result in alterations in specific patterns of gene expression. Aging-related memory decline is manifest prominently in declarative/episodic memory and working memory, memory modalities anatomically based largely in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, respectively. The neurobiological underpinnings of age-related memory deficits include aberrant changes in gene transcription that ultimately affect the ability of the aged brain to be “plastic”. The molecular mechanisms underlying these changes in gene transcription are not currently known, but recent work points toward a potential novel mechanism, dysregulation of epigenetic mechanisms. This has led us to hypothesize that dysregulation of epigenetic control mechanisms and aberrant epigenetic “marks” drive aging-related cognitive dysfunction. Here we focus on this theme, reviewing current knowledge concerning epigenetic molecular mechanisms, as well as recent results suggesting disruption of plasticity and memory formation during aging. Finally, several open questions will be discussed that we believe will fuel experimental discovery.

  1. Gene-diet interactions in age-related macular degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a prevalent blinding disease, accounting for roughly 50% of blindness in developed nations. Very significant advances have been made in terms of discovering genetic susceptibilities to AMD as well as dietary risk factors. To date, nutritional supplementation...

  2. Nutritional modulation of age-related macular degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness in the elderly worldwide. It affects 30-50 million individuals and clinical hallmarks of AMD are observed in at least one third of persons over the age of 75 in industrialized countries (Gehrs et al., 2006). Costs associated wi...

  3. Awareness, Knowledge, and Concern about Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimarolli, Verena R.; Laban-Baker, Allie; Hamilton, Wanda S.; Stuen, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD)--a common eye disease causing vision loss--can be detected early through regular eye-health examinations, and measures can be taken to prevent visual decline. Getting eye examinations requires certain levels of awareness, knowledge, and concern related to AMD. However, little is known about AMD-related…

  4. Therapeutic Potential of Statins in Age-related Macular Degeneration

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) is the leading cause of irreversible vision loss, affecting one in three people aged 75 and above. Although exciting new pharmaceuticals to treat ARMD such as endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibitors, are now available, they are effective only in selected group of patients, and ...

  5. on visual acuity in age related macular degeneration

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    marine origin) in the treatment of age related macular degeneration (AMD). In a randomized double blind clinical trial 280 eyes of 280 (157 F, 123 M) patients with wet and dry AMD were randomly assigned in treatment or placebo groups. Patients in ...

  6. The current pattern of gestational age-related anthropometric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The current pattern of gestational age-related anthropometric parameters of term Nigerian neonates. O Oluwafemi,1 FWACP; F Njokanma,2 FWACP; E Disu,2 ... Weight and length at birth reflect the quality of intra-uterine growth and exert a strong influence on postnatal survival. ..... Neonatal anthropometry: The thin-fat.

  7. Prevalence of Age-Related Macular Degeneration in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colijn, Johanna M.; Buitendijk, Gabriëlle H. S.; Prokofyeva, Elena; Alves, Dalila; Cachulo, Maria L.; Khawaja, Anthony P.; Cougnard-Gregoire, Audrey; Merle, Bénédicte M. J.; Korb, Christina; Erke, Maja G.; Bron, Alain; Anastasopoulos, Eleftherios; Meester-Smoor, Magda A.; Segato, Tatiana; Piermarocchi, Stefano; de Jong, Paulus T. V. M.; Vingerling, Johannes R.; Topouzis, Fotis; Creuzot-Garcher, Catherine; Bertelsen, Geir; Pfeiffer, Norbert; Fletcher, Astrid E.; Foster, Paul J.; Silva, Rufino; Korobelnik, Jean-François; Delcourt, Cécile; Klaver, Caroline C. W.; Ajana, Soufiane; Arango-Gonzalez, Blanca; Arndt, Verena; Bhatia, Vaibhav; Bhattacharya, Shomi S.; Biarnés, Marc; Borrell, Anna; Bühren, Sebastian; Calado, Sofia M.; Cougnard-Grégoire, Audrey; Dammeier, Sascha; de Jong, Eiko K.; de la Cerda, Berta; den Hollander, Anneke I.; Diaz-Corrales, Francisco J.; Diether, Sigrid; Emri, Eszter; Endermann, Tanja; Ferraro, Lucia L.; Garcia, Míriam; Heesterbeek, Thomas J.; Honisch, Sabina; Hoyng, Carel B.; Kersten, Eveline; Kilger, Ellen; Langen, Hanno; Lengyel, Imre; Luthert, Phil; Maugeais, Cyrille; Meester-Smoor, Magda; Monés, Jordi; Nogoceke, Everson; Peto, Tunde; Pool, Frances M.; Rodríguez, Eduardo; Ueffing, Marius; Ulrich Bartz-Schmidt, Karl U.; van Leeuwen, Elisabeth M.; Verzijden, Timo; Zumbansen, Markus; Acar, Niyazi; Anastosopoulos, Eleftherios; Azuara-Blanco, Augusto; Bergen, Arthur; Binquet, Christine; Bird, Alan; Brétillon, Lionel; Buitendijk, Gabrielle; Cachulo, Maria Luz; Chakravarthy, Usha; Chan, Michelle; Chang, Petrus; Colijn, Johanna; Cumberland, Philippa; Cunha-Vaz, José; Daien, Vincent; Deak, Gabor; Delyfer, Marie-Noëlle; den Hollander, Anneke; Dietzel, Martha; Erke, Maja Gran; Fauser, Sascha; Finger, Robert; Fletcher, Astrid; Foster, Paul; Founti, Panayiota; Göbel, Arno; Gorgels, Theo; Grauslund, Jakob; Grus, Franz; Hammond, Christopher; Helmer, Catherine; Hense, Hans-Werner; Hermann, Manuel; Hoehn, René; Hogg, Ruth; Holz, Frank; Hoyng, Carel; Jansonius, Nomdo; Janssen, Sarah; Khawaja, Anthony; Klaver, Caroline; Lamparter, Julia; Le Goff, Mélanie; Leal, Sergio; Lechanteur, Yara; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lotery, Andrew; Leung, Irene; Mauschitz, Matthias; Merle, Bénédicte; Meyer Zu Westrup, Verena; Midena, Edoardo; Miotto, Stefania; Mirshahi, Alireza; Mohan-Saïd, Sadek; Mueller, Michael; Muldrew, Alyson; Nunes, Sandrina; Oexle, Konrad; Rahi, Jugnoo; Raitakari, Olli; Ribeiro, Luisa; Rougier, Marie-Bénédicte; Sahel, José; Salonikiou, Aggeliki; Sanchez, Clarisa; Schmitz-Valckenberg, Steffen; Schweitzer, Cédric; Shehata, Jasmin; Silvestri, Giuliana; Simader, Christian; Souied, Eric; Springelkamp, Henriet; Tapp, Robyn; Verhoeven, Virginie; Von Hanno, Therese; Vujosevic, Stela; Williams, Katie; Wolfram, Christian; Yip, Jennifer; Zerbib, Jennyfer; Zwiener, Isabella

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a frequent, complex disorder in elderly of European ancestry. Risk profiles and treatment options have changed considerably over the years, which may have affected disease prevalence and outcome. We determined the prevalence of early and late AMD in

  8. Prevalence of Age-Related Macular Degeneration in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colijn, Johanna M; Buitendijk, Gabriëlle H S; Prokofyeva, Elena

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a frequent, complex disorder in elderly of European ancestry. Risk profiles and treatment options have changed considerably over the years, which may have affected disease prevalence and outcome. We determined the prevalence of early and late AMD...

  9. Age Related Variations in The Architecture of Caprine Haemal Nodes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Age related variations in the architecture of caprine haemal nodes were studied in West African dwarf goats aged between 1-24 months. Variations were observed in the thickness of the capsule, the content and organization of the cortical and medullary parenchyma as well as the stroma. In young goats age between 1-4 ...

  10. Age-related spontaneous lumbar intervertebral disc degeneration in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnishi, Takashi; Sudo, Hideki; Tsujimoto, Takeru; Iwasaki, Norimasa

    2018-01-01

    The pathogenesis of intervertebral disc degeneration is unclear, but it is a major cause of several spinal diseases. Animal models have historically provided an appropriate benchmark for understanding the human spine. However, there is little information about when intervertebral disc degeneration begins in the mouse or regarding the relationship between magnetic resonance imaging and histological findings. The aim for this study was to obtain information about age-related spontaneous intervertebral disc degeneration in the mouse lumbar spine using magnetic resonance imaging and a histological score regarding when the intervertebral disc degeneration started and how rapidly it progressed, as well as how our histological score detected the degeneration. The magnetic resonance imaging index yielded a moderate correlation with our Age-related model score. The Pfirrmann grade and magnetic resonance imaging index had moderate correlations with age. However, our Age-related model score had a high correlation with age. Intervertebral disc level was not a significant variable for the severity of disc degeneration. Both Pfirrmann grade and the Age-related model score were higher in the ≥14-month-old group than in the 6-month-old group. The present results indicated that mild but significant intervertebral disc degeneration occurred in 14-month-old mice, and the degree of degeneration progressed slowly, reaching a moderate to severe condition for 22-month-old mice. At least a 14-month follow-up is mandatory for evaluating spontaneous age-related mouse intervertebral disc degeneration. The histological classification score can precisely detect the gradual progression of age-related spontaneous intervertebral disc degeneration in the mouse lumbar spine, and is appropriate for evaluating it. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 36:224-232, 2018. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Individual Differences in Toddlers’ Social Understanding & Prosocial Behavior: Disposition or Socialization?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebekkah Lauren Gross

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We examined how individual differences in social understanding contribute to variability in early-appearing prosocial behavior. Moreover, potential sources of variability in social understanding were explored and examined as additional possible predictors of prosocial behavior. Using a multi-method approach with both observed and parent-report measures, 325 children aged 18 to 30 months were administered measures of social understanding (e.g. use of emotion words; self-understanding, prosocial behavior (in separate tasks measuring instrumental helping, empathic helping, and sharing, as well as parent-reported prosociality at home, temperament (fearfulness, shyness, and social fear, and parental socialization of prosocial behavior in the family. Individual differences in social understanding predicted variability in empathic helping and parent-reported prosociality, but not instrumental helping or sharing. Parental socialization of prosocial behavior was positively associated with toddlers’ social understanding, prosocial behavior at home, and instrumental helping in the lab, and negatively associated with sharing (possibly reflecting parents’ increased efforts to encourage children who were less likely to share. Further, socialization moderated the association between social understanding and prosocial behavior, such that social understanding was less predictive of prosocial behavior among children whose parents took a more active role in socializing their prosociality. None of the dimensions of temperament was associated with either social understanding or prosocial behavior. Parental socialization of prosocial behavior is thus an important source of variability in children’s early prosociality, acting in concert with early differences in social understanding, with different patterns of influence for different subtypes of prosocial behavior.

  12. Risks of age related macular degeneration and led lighting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Kaptsov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Spectral structure of environmental light can have significant influence on risks of various eye diseases which can evolve quite early. The paper dwells on how age-related macular degeneration evolves and on a part which eye age pigment plays in the process. We discuss predictive models for age pigment accumulation and methodology of their creation. We created a predictive mathematical model for accumulated A2E age pigment quantity allowing for LED lighting peculiarities and its age-related perception. The model encompasses active oxygen forms generation evolving due to decrease in antioxidant cellular protection efficiency in a lighting environment with a higher blue light dose. It is shown that superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase 1 (GRX 1 efficiency within 445 (plus minus 10 nanometers range drops substantially in blue light; it increases risks of lower cellular resistance to effects exerted by non-compensated active oxygen forms. These processes which are rather long-term can lead to early age-related macular degeneration. Mathematical calculations prove that in the nearest future a share of patients aged 30–40 who suffer from age-related macular degeneration will grow drastically; it will eventually lead to an increased number of disabled people aged 50–60 whose disability is caused by eyesight disorders. It is shown that if we fail to discover any mechanisms aimed at lowering risks of early age-related macular degeneration evolvement in the nearest future, total costs required for solving eyesight disorders issue will grow substantially. Thus, in 2012 about 140 billion dollars were spent on the eyesight disorders issue all over the world; the sum is likely to reach 377 billion dollars in 2050.

  13. Improving High School Students' Understanding of Potential Difference in Simple Electric Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liegeois, Laurent; Chasseigne, G'erard; Papin, Sophie; Mullet, Etienne

    2003-01-01

    This paper reports two studies into the understanding of the concept of potential difference in the current-potential difference-resistance context among 8th-12th graders (Study 1), and the efficiency of a learning device derived from Social Judgment Theory (Study 2). These two studies showed that: (a) when asked to infer potential difference from…

  14. A Systematic Investigation into Aging Related Genes in Brain and Their Relationship with Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Guofeng; Zhong, Xiaoyan; Mei, Hongkang

    2016-01-01

    Aging, as a complex biological process, is accompanied by the accumulation of functional loses at different levels, which makes age to be the biggest risk factor to many neurological diseases. Even following decades of investigation, the process of aging is still far from being fully understood, especially at a systematic level. In this study, we identified aging related genes in brain by collecting the ones with sustained and consistent gene expression or DNA methylation changes in the aging process. Functional analysis with Gene Ontology to these genes suggested transcriptional regulators to be the most affected genes in the aging process. Transcription regulation analysis found some transcription factors, especially Specificity Protein 1 (SP1), to play important roles in regulating aging related gene expression. Module-based functional analysis indicated these genes to be associated with many well-known aging related pathways, supporting the validity of our approach to select aging related genes. Finally, we investigated the roles of aging related genes on Alzheimer's Disease (AD). We found that aging and AD related genes both involved some common pathways, which provided a possible explanation why aging made the brain more vulnerable to Alzheimer's Disease.

  15. Gender differences in the evolution of illness understanding among patients with advanced cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Kalen; Prigerson, Holly G; Paulk, Elizabeth; Temel, Jennifer; Finlay, Esme; Marr, Lisa; McCorkle, Ruth; Rivera, Lorna; Munoz, Francisco; Maciejewski, Paul K

    2013-09-01

    Patient understanding of advanced metastatic disease is central to decisions about care near death. Prior studies have focused on gender differences in communication style rather than on illness understanding. : To evaluate gender differences in terminal illness acknowledgement (TIA), understanding that the disease is incurable and the advanced stage of the disease. To evaluate gender differences in patients' reports of discussions of life expectancy with oncology providers and its effect on differences in illness understanding. Coping with Cancer 2 patients (N = 68) were interviewed before and after a visit with their oncology providers to discuss scan results. At the prescan interview, there were no statistically significant gender differences in patient measures of illness understanding. At the postscan interview, women were more likely than men to recognize that their illness was incurable (Adjusted Odds Ratio, [AOR] = 5.29; P = .038), know that their cancer was at an advanced stage (AOR = 6.38; P = .013), and report having had discussions of life expectancy with their oncologist (AOR = 4.77; P = .021). Controlling discussions of life expectancy, women were more likely than men to report that their cancer was at an advanced stage (AOR = 9.53; P = .050). Controlling for gender, discussions of life expectancy were associated with higher rates of TIA (AOR = 4.65; P = .036) and higher rates of understanding that the cancer was incurable (AOR = 4.09; P = .085). Due largely to gender differences in communication, women over time have a better understanding of their illness than men. More frequent discussions of life expectancy should enhance illness understanding and reduce gender differences.

  16. Diastolic pressure underestimates age-related hemodynamic impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galarza, C R; Alfie, J; Waisman, G D; Mayorga, L M; Cámera, L A; del Río, M; Vasvari, F; Limansky, R; Farías, J; Tessler, J; Cámera, M I

    1997-10-01

    It has been hypothesized that as large arteries become more rigid with age, the pattern of hypertension changes from diastolic to systolic. Thus, diastolic blood pressure (DBP) may lose its ability to reflect the increase in vascular resistance with age. To assess this, we studied the age-related changes in blood pressure pattern and its steady-state and pulsatile determinants. We performed an epidemiological analysis based on a national survey of 10,462 subjects from Argentina. A hemodynamic analysis (impedance cardiography) was then carried out in 636 consecutive hypertensive patients (age, 25 to 74 years). Whereas the rate of increment in the prevalence of mild to moderate hypertension (MMH) reached a plateau after the sixth decade, isolated and borderline systolic forms of hypertension began a steep and sustained rise. Among patients with MMH, DBP remained stable from the third to the seventh decade, whereas SBP maintained a sustained increase. Despite similar DBP, the systemic vascular resistance index increased 47% (P<.01) and the cardiac index decreased 27% (P<.01), whereas the ratio of stroke volume to pulse pressure, an index of arterial compliance, decreased 45% (P<.01). However, there were no significant differences between older patients with MMH and those with isolated systolic hypertension in the level of SBP, vascular resistance, stroke volume, and cardiac index. Compared with age-matched normotensive control subjects, the ratio of stroke volume to pulse pressure was much more reduced in isolated systolic hypertension (48%) than in MMH (30%). In summary, the present study, carried out in a large sample of hypertensive subjects with a wide age range, showed a simultaneous impairment in vascular resistance and arterial compliance associated with aging in different patterns of hypertension. The magnitude of these changes, with opposite effects on DBP but additive effects on SBP, suggests that a hemodynamic mechanism could determine the transition in the

  17. Age-related physical and psychological vulnerability as pathways to problem gambling in older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Parke, A; Griffiths, M; Pattinson, J; Keatley, D

    2018-01-01

    Background: To inform clinical treatment and preventative efforts, there is an important need to understand the pathways to late-life gambling disorder. Aims: This study assesses the association between age-related physical health, social networks, and problem gambling in adults aged over 65 years and assesses the mediating role of affective disorders in this association. Methods: The sample comprised 595 older adults (mean age: 74.4 years, range: 65–94 years; 77.1% female) who were interview...

  18. Assessing Age-Related Etiologic Heterogeneity in the Onset of Islet Autoimmunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brittni N. Frederiksen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 1 diabetes (T1D, a chronic autoimmune disease, is often preceded by a preclinical phase of islet autoimmunity (IA where the insulin-producing beta cells of the pancreas are destroyed and circulating autoantibodies can be detected. The goal of this study was to demonstrate methods for identifying exposures that differentially influence the disease process at certain ages by assessing age-related heterogeneity. The Diabetes Autoimmunity Study in the Young (DAISY has followed 2,547 children at increased genetic risk for T1D from birth since 1993 in Denver, Colorado, 188 of whom developed IA. Using the DAISY population, we evaluated putative determinants of IA, including non-Hispanic white (NHW ethnicity, maternal age at birth, and erythrocyte membrane n-3 fatty acid (FA levels, for age-related heterogeneity. A supremum test, weighted Schoenfeld residuals, and restricted cubic splines were used to assess nonproportional hazards, that is, an age-related association of the exposure with IA risk. NHW ethnicity, maternal age, and erythrocyte membrane n-3 FA levels demonstrated a significant age-related association with IA risk. Assessing heterogeneity in disease etiology enables researchers to identify associations that may lead to better understanding of complex chronic diseases.

  19. Assessing Age-Related Etiologic Heterogeneity in the Onset of Islet Autoimmunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederiksen, Brittni N.; Barón, Anna; Lamb, Molly M.; Crume, Tessa L.; Sontag, Marci K.; Norris, Jill M.

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D), a chronic autoimmune disease, is often preceded by a preclinical phase of islet autoimmunity (IA) where the insulin-producing beta cells of the pancreas are destroyed and circulating autoantibodies can be detected. The goal of this study was to demonstrate methods for identifying exposures that differentially influence the disease process at certain ages by assessing age-related heterogeneity. The Diabetes Autoimmunity Study in the Young (DAISY) has followed 2,547 children at increased genetic risk for T1D from birth since 1993 in Denver, Colorado, 188 of whom developed IA. Using the DAISY population, we evaluated putative determinants of IA, including non-Hispanic white (NHW) ethnicity, maternal age at birth, and erythrocyte membrane n-3 fatty acid (FA) levels, for age-related heterogeneity. A supremum test, weighted Schoenfeld residuals, and restricted cubic splines were used to assess nonproportional hazards, that is, an age-related association of the exposure with IA risk. NHW ethnicity, maternal age, and erythrocyte membrane n-3 FA levels demonstrated a significant age-related association with IA risk. Assessing heterogeneity in disease etiology enables researchers to identify associations that may lead to better understanding of complex chronic diseases. PMID:25883970

  20. The suprachiasmatic nucleus: age-related decline in biological rhythms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Takahiro J; Takasu, Nana N; Nakamura, Wataru

    2016-09-01

    Aging is associated with changes in sleep duration and quality, as well as increased rates of pathologic/disordered sleep. While several factors contribute to these changes, emerging research suggests that age-related changes in the mammalian central circadian clock within the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) may be a key factor. Prior work from our group suggests that circadian output from the SCN declines because of aging. Furthermore, we have previously observed age-related infertility in female mice, caused by a mismatch between environmental light-dark cycles and the intrinsic, internal biological clocks. In this review, we address regulatory mechanisms underlying circadian rhythms in mammals and summarize recent literature describing the effects of aging on the circadian system.

  1. Reviewing fluid systems for age-related degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Stan

    1991-01-01

    Yankee Atomic Electric Company has developed the component degradation assessment tool (CoDAT), an expert system, that aids in handling and evaluating the large amounts of data required to support the license renewal process for nuclear power station fluid systems. In 1990, CoDAT evaluated the Yankee Nuclear Power Station fluid systems for age-related degradation. Its results are now being used to help focus the plant's maintenance programs and manage the expected degradation. CoDAT uses 'If-Then' rules, developed from industry codes, standards and publications, to determine the potential for 19 age-related degradation mechanisms. Other nuclear utilities pursuing the license renewal option also could use CoDAT. (author)

  2. Age-related changes of monoaminooxidases in rat cerebellar cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FM Tranquilli Leali

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Age-related changes of the monoaminoxidases, evaluated by enzymatic staining, quantitative analysis of images, biochemical assay and statistical analysis of data were studied in cerebellar cortex of young (3-month-old and aged (26- month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats. The enzymatic staining shows the presence of monoamino-oxidases within the molecular and granular layers as well as within the Purkinje neurons of the cerebellum of young and aged animals. In molecular layer, and in Purkinje neurons the levels of monoaminooxidases were strongly increased in old rats. The granular layer showed, on the contrary, an age-dependent loss of enzymatic staining. These morphological findings were confirmed by biochemical results. The possibility that age-related changes in monoaminooxidase levels may be due to impaired energy production mechanisms and/or represent the consequence of reduced energetic needs is discussed.

  3. Radiation treatment for age-related macular degeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taniguchi, Tomoko; Mandai, Michiko; Honjo, Megumi; Matsuda, Naoko; Miyamoto, Hideki; Takahashi, Masayo; Ogura, Yuichiro; Sasai, Keisuke [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1996-11-01

    Fifteen eyes of age-related macular degeneration were treated by low-dose radiation. All the affected eyes had subfoveal neovascular membrane. Seventeen nontreated eyes with similar macular lesion served as control. Radiation was performed using photon beam at 6MV. Each eye received daily dose of 2 Gy for 5 consecutive days. When evaluated 9 to 12 months after treatment, the size of neovascular membrane had decreased in 47% of treated eyes and 7% of control eyes. The visual acuity improved by 2 lines or more in 13% of treated eyes and in none of control eyes. When the initial neovascular membrane was less than 1.5 disc diameter in size, the visual acuity had improved or remained stationary in 90% of treated eyes and in 36% of control eyes. The findings show the potential beneficial effect of radiation for age-related macular degeneration. (author)

  4. Age-related percutaneous penetration part 1: skin factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konda, S; Meier-Davis, S R; Cayme, B; Shudo, J; Maibach, H I

    2012-05-01

    Changes in the skin that occur in the elderly may put them at increased risk for altered percutaneous penetration from pharmacotherapy along with potential adverse effects. Skin factors that may have a role in age-related percutaneous penetration include blood flow, pH, skin thickness, hair and pore density, and the content and structure of proteins, glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), water, and lipids. Each factor is examined as a function of increasing age along with its potential impact on percutaneous penetration. Additionally, topical drugs that successfully overcome the barrier function of the skin can still fall victim to cutaneous metabolism, thereby producing metabolites that may have increased or decreased activity. This overview discusses the current data and highlights the importance of further studies to evaluate the impact of skin factors in age-related percutaneous penetration.

  5. Age-related decline in mitral peak diastolic velocities is unaffected in well-trained runners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Rasmus Huan; Couppé, Christian; Dall, Christian Have

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We examined whether diastolic left ventricular function in young and senior lifelong endurance runners was significantly different from that in sedentary age-matched controls, and whether lifelong endurance running appears to modify the age-related decline in diastolic left ventricula...

  6. Single-Chain Antibody Fragment VEGF Inhibitor RTH258 for Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holz, Frank G; Dugel, Pravin U.; Weissgerber, Georges

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To assess the safety and efficacy of different doses of RTH258 applied as single intravitreal administration compared with ranibizumab 0.5 mg in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Design Six-month, phase 1/2, prospective, multicenter, double-masked, randomized...

  7. Zooming in on the hippocampus in aging and age-related diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wisse, L.E.M.

    2014-01-01

    The hippocampal formation is a brain structure important for memory and emotion regulation. The hippocampal formation is susceptible to aging and age-related diseases, which is manifested as volume loss, visible on MRI scans. The hippocampal formation consists of several subfields with different

  8. eNOS-uncoupling in age-related erectile dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, JM; Bivalacqua, TJ; Lagoda, GA; Burnett, AL; Musicki, B

    2011-01-01

    Aging is associated with ED. Although age-related ED is attributed largely to increased oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction in the penis, the molecular mechanisms underlying this effect are not fully defined. We evaluated whether endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) uncoupling in the aged rat penis is a contributing mechanism. Correlatively, we evaluated the effect of replacement with eNOS cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) on erectile function in the aged rats. Male Fischer 344 ...

  9. Complement pathway biomarkers and age-related macular degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemenetzi, M; Lotery, A J

    2016-01-01

    In the age-related macular degeneration (AMD) ‘inflammation model', local inflammation plus complement activation contributes to the pathogenesis and progression of the disease. Multiple genetic associations have now been established correlating the risk of development or progression of AMD. Stratifying patients by their AMD genetic profile may facilitate future AMD therapeutic trials resulting in meaningful clinical trial end points with smaller sample sizes and study duration. PMID:26493033

  10. The Development of Children's Moral Sensibility: Individual Differences and Emotion Understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Judy; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Developmental changes and individual differences in children's conceptions of transgression were studied in 46 children from preschool through 1st grade. Differences in response to moral transgressions in kindergarten were related to mothers' control management and to siblings' friendly behavior in the preschool period, early understanding of…

  11. Understanding changes of stomatal conductance under different atmospheric humidity levels for different tropical rainforest species in Biosphere 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornito, A. J. G.

    2016-12-01

    Understanding the dynamics of climate change is one of the biggest questions that scientists across the globe ask today. With understanding climate change comes the need to understand the ecological systems and how their biological and chemical processes contribute to climate change. As ocean ecosystems, rainforests are very productive systems and are responsible for most of the world's carbon budget. To maintain cooler conditions, tropical forests mitigate warming through evapotranspiration. The purpose of this project was to measure short-term plasticity by looking at stomatal conductance levels of different tropical rainforest species of plants in the rainforest, savannah, and desert habitats in the Biosphere 2 facility in Oracle, Arizona. It is known that stomatal conductance is affected by CO2, H2O, and light availability. It has been observed that temperature levels may not affect stomatal conductance because of the variability associated with it. Results indicated that there is a potential trend amongst these rainforest species when placed in different humidity percentage areas. By understanding stomatal conductance in response to humidity, we can better understand how productive rainforest systems are when humidity levels decrease, which may potentially occur as Earth undergoes global climate change.

  12. Hhip haploinsufficiency sensitizes mice to age-related emphysema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lao, Taotao; Jiang, Zhiqiang; Yun, Jeong; Qiu, Weiliang; Guo, Feng; Huang, Chunfang; Mancini, John Dominic; Gupta, Kushagra; Laucho-Contreras, Maria E; Naing, Zun Zar Chi; Zhang, Li; Perrella, Mark A; Owen, Caroline A; Silverman, Edwin K; Zhou, Xiaobo

    2016-08-09

    Genetic variants in Hedgehog interacting protein (HHIP) have consistently been associated with the susceptibility to develop chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and pulmonary function levels, including the forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), in general population samples by genome-wide association studies. However, in vivo evidence connecting Hhip to age-related FEV1 decline and emphysema development is lacking. Herein, using Hhip heterozygous mice (Hhip(+/-)), we observed increased lung compliance and spontaneous emphysema in Hhip(+/-) mice starting at 10 mo of age. This increase was preceded by increases in oxidative stress levels in the lungs of Hhip(+/-) vs. Hhip(+/+) mice. To our knowledge, these results provide the first line of evidence that HHIP is involved in maintaining normal lung function and alveolar structures. Interestingly, antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine treatment in mice starting at age of 5 mo improved lung function and prevented emphysema development in Hhip(+/-) mice, suggesting that N-acetyl cysteine treatment limits the progression of age-related emphysema in Hhip(+/-) mice. Therefore, reduced lung function and age-related spontaneous emphysema development in Hhip(+/-) mice may be caused by increased oxidative stress levels in murine lungs as a result of haploinsufficiency of Hhip.

  13. Senescent cells: SASPected drivers of age-related pathologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovadya, Yossi; Krizhanovsky, Valery

    2014-12-01

    The progression of physiological ageing is driven by intracellular aberrations including telomere attrition, genomic instability, epigenetic alterations and loss of proteostasis. These in turn damage cells and compromise their functionality. Cellular senescence, a stable irreversible cell-cycle arrest, is elicited in damaged cells and prevents their propagation in the organism. Under normal conditions, senescent cells recruit the immune system which facilitates their removal from tissues. Nevertheless, during ageing, tissue-residing senescent cells tend to accumulate, and might negatively impact their microenvironment via profound secretory phenotype with pro-inflammatory characteristics, termed senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). Indeed, senescent cells are mostly abundant at sites of age-related pathologies, including degenerative disorders and malignancies. Interestingly, studies on progeroid mice indicate that selective elimination of senescent cells can delay age-related deterioration. This suggests that chronic inflammation induced by senescent cells might be a main driver of these pathologies. Importantly, senescent cells accumulate as a result of deficient immune surveillance, and their removal is increased upon the use of immune stimulatory agents. Insights into mechanisms of senescence surveillance could be combined with current approaches for cancer immunotherapy to propose new preventive and therapeutic strategies for age-related diseases.

  14. Soybean β-Conglycinin Prevents Age-Related Hearing Impairment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tohru Tanigawa

    Full Text Available Obesity-related complications are associated with the development of age-related hearing impairment. β-Conglycinin (β-CG, one of the main storage proteins in soy, offers multiple health benefits, including anti-obesity and anti-atherosclerotic effects. Here, to elucidate the potential therapeutic application of β-CG, we investigated the effect of β-CG on age-related hearing impairment. Male wild-type mice (age 6 months were randomly divided into β-CG-fed and control groups. Six months later, the body weight was significantly lower in β-CG-fed mice than in the controls. Consumption of β-CG rescued the hearing impairment observed in control mice. Cochlear blood flow also increased in β-CG-fed mice, as did the expression of eNOS in the stria vascularis (SV, which protects vasculature. β-CG consumption also ameliorated oxidative status as assessed by 4-HNE staining. In the SV, lipofuscin granules of marginal cells and vacuolar degeneration of microvascular pericytes were decreased in β-CG-fed mice, as shown by transmission electron microscopy. β-CG consumption prevented loss of spiral ganglion cells and reduced the frequencies of lipofuscin granules, nuclear invaginations, and myelin vacuolation. Our observations indicate that β-CG ameliorates age-related hearing impairment by preserving cochlear blood flow and suppressing oxidative stress.

  15. Identification of Age-Related Macular Degeneration Using OCT Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabi, Punal M., Dr; Krishna, Nanditha; Ashwini, V.; Prathibha, H. M.

    2018-02-01

    Age-related Macular Degeneration is the most leading retinal disease in the recent years. Macular degeneration occurs when the central portion of the retina, called macula deteriorates. As the deterioration occurs with the age, it is commonly referred as Age-related Macular Degeneration. This disease can be visualized by several imaging modalities such as Fundus imaging technique, Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) technique and many other. Optical Coherence Tomography is the widely used technique for screening the Age-related Macular Degeneration disease, because it has an ability to detect the very minute changes in the retina. The Healthy and AMD affected OCT images are classified by extracting the Retinal Pigmented Epithelium (RPE) layer of the images using the image processing technique. The extracted layer is sampled, the no. of white pixels in each of the sample is counted and the mean value of the no. of pixels is calculated. The average mean value is calculated for both the Healthy and the AMD affected images and a threshold value is fixed and a decision rule is framed to classify the images of interest. The proposed method showed an accuracy of 75%.

  16. Vision rehabilitation for age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, W

    1999-01-01

    Though the numbers of patients with ARMD are high, associated referrals for vision rehabilitation are not. Practitioners need to refer patients with age-related maculopathy when medical and surgical treatment are no longer possible, and patients need to be educated to that fact. The impact of improving activities of daily living may be monumental and benefits society as a whole. People who are visually impaired are often ill-prepared to deal with the substantial adjustment involved, further stressing their entire support system. It may not be safe for visual and systemic reasons for older adults to cook, clean, and maintain their home. Poor vision contributes to the already increased risk of falls and subsequent fractures in these patients. Individuals who may have already been told they can no longer drive now face the possibility of being unable to live in their houses. Their independence may be threatened dramatically and abruptly. All these circumstances contribute to anxiety and depression. Patients with ARMD need to be educated about their disease process (teaching that can never be assumed to have been initiated). They need to be educated that they will not go completely blind and that, with assistance, they can accomplish a great deal. With today's technology, it is not difficult to help visually impaired individuals with ARMD, unless they are not referred or lack motivation. The primary complaint of an individual with ARMD is recognition of central detail. This affects all activities of daily living, and patient performance is subject to the duration and severity of the disease (including the size, density, and location of the central scotoma) and to their understanding of the disease. Rubin and coworkers, found that slow reading performance of patients with a dense central scotoma might reflect inherent limitations of peripheral retina for complex visual tasks. ARMD in most cases lends itself to magnification that enlarges the object beyond the blind spot

  17. Disregarding hearing loss leads to overestimation of age-related cognitive decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerreiro, Maria J S; Van Gerven, Pascal W M

    2017-08-01

    Aging is associated with cognitive and sensory decline. While several studies have indicated greater cognitive decline among older adults with hearing loss, the extent to which age-related differences in cognitive processing may have been overestimated due to group differences in sensory processing has remained unclear. We addressed this question by comparing younger adults, older adults with good hearing, and older adults with poor hearing in several cognitive domains: working memory, selective attention, processing speed, inhibitory control, and abstract reasoning. Furthermore, we examined whether sensory-related cognitive decline depends on cognitive demands and on the sensory modality used for assessment. Our results revealed that age-related cognitive deficits in most cognitive domains varied as a function of hearing loss, being more pronounced in older adults with poor hearing. Furthermore, sensory-related cognitive decline was observed across different levels of cognitive demands and independent of the sensory modality used for cognitive assessment, suggesting a generalized effect of age-related hearing loss on cognitive functioning. As most cognitive aging studies have not taken sensory acuity into account, age-related cognitive decline may have been overestimated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Age-related deposition of brain iron in normal adults: an in vivo susceptibility weighted imaging study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Qidong; Xu Xiaojun; Zhang Minming

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of age on the iron concentration of the human brain. Methods: The brain iron level was evaluated in vivo in 78 healthy adult volunteers using a noninvasive magnetic resonance method termed susceptibility weighted imaging. The subjects were divided intothree groups due to different ages: young (22-35 years old, n=27), middle- aged (36-55 years old, n=35), and aged (56-78 years old, n=16). The phase values were measured on the corrected phase images in the globus pallidus, putamen, caudate, substantia nigra, red nucleus, thalamus and frontal white matter. The phase values of those regions measured from the subjects over than 30 years old were correlated with published values of brain iron concentration in normal adults to check the validity of the data. Then, the phase values of the three groups were tested for significant age-related differences using one-way ANOVA, followed by post hoc testing using least significant difference (LSD) procedure. Regression analysis was used to further examine age-related effects revealed by group comparisons, and to estimate the rates of age-related changes. Results: A strong negative correlation was found between the phase values and the published values of the brain iron concentration (r=-0.796, P= 0.032), which indicated that the higher the iron deposition level, the greater the negative phase values. In the putamen (F=20.115, P<0.01) and frontal white matter (F=3.536, P=0.034), significant differences were detected in the phase values of the three age groups. Linear regression analysis showed that phase values of the putamen, frontal white matter, and red nucleus decreased with age (The regression coefficients were -0.001, -0.001, and < -0.001 respectively, and the P value were all < 0.05), which indicated that the iron concentration of those brain structures increased with age. No significant age- related changes of the iron concentration were found in the

  19. Age-related normal uptake of 99mTc-MDP in the lower spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundkvist, G.M.G.; Lilja, B.; Mattsson, S.

    1997-01-01

    Aim: The uptake of 99m Tc-MDP in the lower spine was quantified in connection with ordinary bone scintigraphy. Methods: Fifty-seven women and seventy-two men (aged 20-69 y), with no signs of metabolic or malignant disease and no history of back pain or atraumatic fractures, were included in the study. Results: The women showed an increase in 99m Tc-MDP uptake from the age of 20 y to about 45 y with a decrease from the time of menopause. In contrast to women, the uptake in men showed a slight decrease from the age of 20 y to about 50 y and thereafter a more marked decrease was seen. The major difference between men and women is the high premenopausal uptake in the female skeleton. Conclusion: An understanding of age-related changes in 99m Tc-MDP uptake, which are indices of the skeletal metabolism, is of importance especially in prevention and treatment of osteoporosis, a common disorder in postmenopausal women. (orig.) [de

  20. Age-Related Changes in Immunological and Physiological Responses Following Pulmonary Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Edmund J; Linge, Helena M

    2017-06-17

    This review examines the current status of knowledge of sepsis and pneumonia in the elderly population and how the dynamics of the pulmonary challenge affects outcome and consequences. Led by an unprecedented shift in demographics, where a larger proportion of the population will reach an older age, clinical and experimental research shows that aging is associated with certain pulmonary changes, but it is during infectious insult of the lungs, as in the case of pneumonia, that the age-related differences in responsiveness and endurance become obvious and lead to a worse outcome than in the younger population. This review points to the neutrophil, and the endothelium as important players in understanding age-associated changes in responsiveness to infectious challenge of the lung. It also addresses how the immunological set-point influences injury-repair phases, remote organ damage and how intake of drugs may alter the state of responsiveness in the users. Further, it points out the importance of considering age as a factor in inclusion criteria in clinical trials, in vitro/ex vivo experimental designs and overall interpretation of results.

  1. Integrating different understandings of landscape stewardship into the design of agri-environmental schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raymond, Christopher Mark; Reed, Mark; Bieling, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    understandings of landscape stewardship, with production respondents citing that AES do not encourage food production, whereas environmental and holistic farmers citing that AES do not support the development of a local green food culture and associated social infrastructure. These differences also emerged......While multiple studies have identified land managers’ preferences for agri-environmental schemes (AES), few approaches exist for integrating different understandings of landscape stewardship into the design of these measures. We compared and contrasted rural land managers’ attitudes toward AES...... and their preferences for AES design beyond 2020 across different understandings of landscape stewardship. Forty semi-structured interviews were conducted with similar proportions of small holders, medium holders and large holders in southwest Devon, UK. Overall, respondents most frequently cited concerns related...

  2. Global prevalence of age-related macular degeneration and disease burden projection for 2020 and 2040: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Wan Ling; Su, Xinyi; Li, Xiang; Cheung, Chui Ming G; Klein, Ronald; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Wong, Tien Yin

    2014-02-01

    : 0.5% vs 0.3%, 3.7; any: 12.3% vs 7.5%, 31.3). There was no difference in prevalence between Asians and Africans (all Bayes factors age-related macular degeneration were less prevalent in Asia than in Europe and North America (early: 6.3% vs 14.3% and 12.8% [Bayes factor 2.3 and 7.6]; any: 6.9% vs 18.3% and 14.3% [3.0 and 3.8]). No significant gender effect was noted in prevalence (Bayes factor age-related macular degeneration in 2020 is 196 million (95% CrI 140-261), increasing to 288 million in 2040 (205-399). These estimates indicate the substantial global burden of age-related macular degeneration. Summarised data provide information for understanding the effect of the condition and provide data towards designing eye-care strategies and health services around the world. National Medical Research Council, Singapore. Copyright © 2014 Wong et al. Open Access article distributed under the terms of CC BY-NC-ND. Published by .. All rights reserved.

  3. Use of a robotic device to measure age-related decline in finger proprioception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingemanson, Morgan L; Rowe, Justin B; Chan, Vicky; Wolbrecht, Eric T; Cramer, Steven C; Reinkensmeyer, David J

    2016-01-01

    Age-related changes in proprioception are known to affect postural stability, yet the extent to which such changes affect the finger joints is poorly understood despite the importance of finger proprioception in the control of skilled hand movement. We quantified age-related changes in finger proprioception in 37 healthy young, middle-aged, and older adults using two robot-based tasks wherein participants' index and middle fingers were moved by an exoskeletal robot. The first task assessed finger position sense by asking participants to indicate when their index and middle fingers were directly overlapped during a passive crisscross movement; the second task assessed finger movement detection by asking participants to indicate the onset of passive finger movement. When these tasks were completed without vision, finger position sense errors were 48 % larger in older adults compared to young participants (p proprioceptive reaction time was 78 % longer in older adults compared to young adults (p proprioception, these age-related differences were no longer apparent. No difference between dominant and non-dominant hand performance was found for either proprioception task. These findings demonstrate that finger proprioception is impaired in older adults, and visual feedback can be used to compensate for this deficit. The findings also support the feasibility and utility of the FINGER robot as a sensitive tool for detecting age-related decline in proprioception.

  4. Motor control and aging: links to age-related brain structural, functional, and biochemical effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidler, Rachael D; Bernard, Jessica A; Burutolu, Taritonye B; Fling, Brett W; Gordon, Mark T; Gwin, Joseph T; Kwak, Youngbin; Lipps, David B

    2010-04-01

    Although connections between cognitive deficits and age-associated brain differences have been elucidated, relationships with motor performance are less well understood. Here, we broadly review age-related brain differences and motor deficits in older adults in addition to cognition-action theories. Age-related atrophy of the motor cortical regions and corpus callosum may precipitate or coincide with motor declines such as balance and gait deficits, coordination deficits, and movement slowing. Correspondingly, degeneration of neurotransmitter systems-primarily the dopaminergic system-may contribute to age-related gross and fine motor declines, as well as to higher cognitive deficits. In general, older adults exhibit involvement of more widespread brain regions for motor control than young adults, particularly the prefrontal cortex and basal ganglia networks. Unfortunately these same regions are the most vulnerable to age-related effects, resulting in an imbalance of "supply and demand". Existing exercise, pharmaceutical, and motor training interventions may ameliorate motor deficits in older adults. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Age-related degradation of Westinghouse 480-volt circuit breakers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subudhi, M.; Shier, W.; MacDougall, E.

    1990-07-01

    An aging assessment of Westinghouse DS-series low-voltage air circuit breakers was performed as part of the Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) program. The objectives of this study are to characterize age-related degradation within the breaker assembly and to identify maintenance practices to mitigate their effect. Since this study has been promulgated by the failures of the reactor trip breakers at the McGuire Nuclear Station in July 1987, results relating to the welds in the breaker pole lever welds are also discussed. The design and operation of DS-206 and DS-416 breakers were reviewed. Failure data from various national data bases were analyzed to identify the predominant failure modes, causes, and mechanisms. Additional operating experiences from one nuclear station and two industrial breaker-service companies were obtained to develop aging trends of various subcomponents. The responses of the utilities to the NRC Bulletin 88-01, which discusses the center pole lever welds, were analyzed to assess the final resolution of failures of welds in the reactor trips. Maintenance recommendations, made by the manufacturer to mitigate age-related degradation were reviewed, and recommendations for improving the monitoring of age-related degradation are discussed. As described in Volume 2 of this NUREG, the results from a test program to assess degradation in breaker parts through mechanical cycling are also included. The testing has characterized the cracking of center-pole lever welds, identified monitoring techniques to determine aging in breakers, and provided information to augment existing maintenance programs. Recommendations to improve breaker reliability using effective maintenance, testing, and inspection programs are suggested. 13 refs., 21 figs., 8 tabs

  6. Ranibizumab vs. aflibercept for wet age-related macular degeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szabo, Shelagh M; Hedegaard, Morten; Chan, Keith

    2015-01-01

    the efficacy and safety of reduced frequency dosing for aflibercept, relative to other approved and marketed vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors for wet AMD, over 12 months. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Based on a systematic literature review performed according to a pre-specified protocol......OBJECTIVE: Although a reduced aflibercept (2.0 mg) injection frequency relative to the approved dosing posology is included in national treatment guidelines for wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD), there is limited evidence of its comparative efficacy. The objective was to compare...

  7. Research status of conbercept treating age-related macular degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Yan He

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Age-related macular degeneration(AMDis one of the major reasons of blindness among the elderly in the developed countries. As AMD patients are increasing year by year, AMD has become one of the important topics of ophthalmic research to prevent blindness. Its pathogenesis is not fully understood, but many studies have shown that vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGFplays an important role in the pathogenesis. With the development and application of anti-VEGF drugs, there are a variety of drugs applied to the disease. This article introduces conbercept for the treatment of AMD.

  8. Age-related hearing impairment and the triad of acquired hearing loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chao-Hui; Schrepfer, Thomas; Schacht, Jochen

    2015-01-01

    Understanding underlying pathological mechanisms is prerequisite for a sensible design of protective therapies against hearing loss. The triad of age-related, noise-generated, and drug-induced hearing loss displays intriguing similarities in some cellular responses of cochlear sensory cells such as a potential involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and apoptotic and necrotic cell death. On the other hand, detailed studies have revealed that molecular pathways are considerably complex and, importantly, it has become clear that pharmacological protection successful against one form of hearing loss will not necessarily protect against another. This review will summarize pathological and pathophysiological features of age-related hearing impairment (ARHI) in human and animal models and address selected aspects of the commonality (or lack thereof) of cellular responses in ARHI to drugs and noise. PMID:26283913

  9. Cellular senescence in aging and age-related disease: from mechanisms to therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, Bennett G; Durik, Matej; Baker, Darren J; van Deursen, Jan M

    2015-12-01

    Cellular senescence, a process that imposes permanent proliferative arrest on cells in response to various stressors, has emerged as a potentially important contributor to aging and age-related disease, and it is an attractive target for therapeutic exploitation. A wealth of information about senescence in cultured cells has been acquired over the past half century; however, senescence in living organisms is poorly understood, largely because of technical limitations relating to the identification and characterization of senescent cells in tissues and organs. Furthermore, newly recognized beneficial signaling functions of senescence suggest that indiscriminately targeting senescent cells or modulating their secretome for anti-aging therapy may have negative consequences. Here we discuss current progress and challenges in understanding the stressors that induce senescence in vivo, the cell types that are prone to senesce, and the autocrine and paracrine properties of senescent cells in the contexts of aging and age-related diseases as well as disease therapy.

  10. Age-related Hearing Impairment and the Triad of Acquired Hearing Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Hui eYang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding underlying pathological mechanisms is prerequisite for a sensible design of protective therapies against hearing loss. The triad of age-related, noise-generated, and drug-induced hearing loss ¬¬displays intriguing similarities in some cellular responses of cochlear sensory cells such as a potential involvement of reactive oxygen species and apoptotic and necrotic cell death. On the other hand, detailed studies have revealed that molecular pathways are considerably complex and, importantly, it has become clear that pharmacological protection successful against one form of hearing loss will not necessarily protect against another. This review will summarize pathological and pathophysiological features of age-related hearing impairment (ARHI in human and animal models and address selected aspects of the commonality (or lack thereof of cellular responses in ARHI to drugs and noise.

  11. Ginkgo biloba extract for age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Jennifer R

    2013-01-31

    Ginkgo is used in the treatment of peripheral vascular disease and 'cerebral insufficiency'. It is thought to have several potential mechanisms of action including increased blood flow, platelet activating factor antagonism, and prevention of membrane damage caused by free radicals. Vascular factors and oxidative damage are thought to be two potential mechanisms in the pathology of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The objective of this review was to determine the effect of Ginkgo biloba extract on the progression of AMD. We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (The Cochrane Library 2012, Issue 10), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE (January 1946 to October 2012), EMBASE (January 1980 to October 2012), Allied and Complementary Medicine Database (AMED) (January 1985 to October 2012), OpenGrey (System for Information on Grey Literature in Europe) (www.opengrey.eu/), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 5 October 2012. We searched the reference lists of identified reports and the Science Citation Index. We also contacted investigators of included studies for additional information. All randomised trials in people with AMD where Ginkgo biloba extract had been compared to control were included. The review author extracted data using a standardised form. The data were verified with the trial investigators. Trial quality was assessed. Two published trials were identified that randomised a total of 119 people. In one study conducted in France, 20 people were randomly allocated to Gingko biloba extract EGb 761 80 mg twice daily or placebo. In

  12. Seventh Grade Students' Conceptual Understanding about Citizenship: Does a Constructivist Social Studies Program Make a Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabanci, Osman; Kurnaz, Sefika; Yürük, Nejla

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have shown that students at different age levels come into classrooms with a variety of alternative conceptions. Commonly held alternative conceptions are the main source of the difficulties that students and teachers face in learning and teaching. The aim of this study was to compare the conceptual understanding of students who were…

  13. Embarrassment as a key to understanding cultural differences. Basic principles of cultural analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouchet, Dominique

    1995-01-01

    I introduce here the principles I use in my investigation of intercultural marketing and management. I explain how I discovered them, and show how they spring from a theoretical understanding of the dynamic of cultural differences. One of the basic methodological principles for my analysis...

  14. Bridging the Gap: Fraction Understanding Is Central to Mathematics Achievement in Students from Three Different Continents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torbeyns, Joke; Schneider, Michael; Xin, Ziqiang; Siegler, Robert S.

    2015-01-01

    Numerical understanding and arithmetic skills are easier to acquire for whole numbers than fractions. The "integrated theory of numerical development" posits that, in addition to these differences, whole numbers and fractions also have important commonalities. In both, students need to learn how to interpret number symbols in terms of…

  15. Amniotic epithelial cells: a new tool to combat aging and age-related diseases?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Di Germanio

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The number of elderly people is growing at an unprecedented rate and this increase of the aging population is expected to have a direct impact on the incidence of age-related diseases and healthcare-associated costs. Thus, it is imperative that new tools are developed to fight and slow age-related diseases. Regenerative medicine is a promising strategy for the maintenance of health and function late in life; however, stem cell-based therapies face several challenges including rejection and tumor transformation. As an alternative, the placenta offers an extraordinary source of fetal stem cells, including the amniotic epithelial cells (AECs, which retain some of the characteristics of embryonic stem cells, but show low immunogenicity, together with immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory activities. Because of these characteristics, AECs have been widely utilized in regenerative medicine. This perspective highlights different mechanisms triggered by transplanted AECs that could be potentially useful for anti-aging therapies, which include: Graft and differentiation for tissue regeneration in age-related settings, anti-inflammatory behavior to combat inflammaging, anti-tumor activity, direct lifespan and healthspan extension properties, and possibly rejuvenation in a manner reminiscent of heterochronic parabiosis.Here, we critically discuss benefits and limitation of AECs-based therapies in age-related diseases.

  16. Amniotic Epithelial Cells: A New Tool to Combat Aging and Age-Related Diseases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Germanio, Clara; Bernier, Michel; de Cabo, Rafael; Barboni, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    The number of elderly people is growing at an unprecedented rate and this increase of the aging population is expected to have a direct impact on the incidence of age-related diseases and healthcare-associated costs. Thus, it is imperative that new tools are developed to fight and slow age-related diseases. Regenerative medicine is a promising strategy for the maintenance of health and function late in life; however, stem cell-based therapies face several challenges including rejection and tumor transformation. As an alternative, the placenta offers an extraordinary source of fetal stem cells, including the amniotic epithelial cells (AECs), which retain some of the characteristics of embryonic stem cells, but show low immunogenicity, together with immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory activities. Because of these characteristics, AECs have been widely utilized in regenerative medicine. This perspective highlights different mechanisms triggered by transplanted AECs that could be potentially useful for anti-aging therapies, which include: Graft and differentiation for tissue regeneration in age-related settings, anti-inflammatory behavior to combat "inflammaging," anti-tumor activity, direct lifespan and healthspan extension properties, and possibly rejuvenation in a manner reminiscent of heterochronic parabiosis. Here, we critically discuss benefits and limitation of AECs-based therapies in age-related diseases.

  17. Age-related changes to the neural correlates of working memory which emerge after midlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, Helen N.; White, David J.; Ellis, Kathryn A.; Stough, Con; Camfield, David; Silberstein, Richard; Pipingas, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has indicated that the neural processes which underlie working memory change with age. Both age-related increases and decreases to cortical activity have been reported. This study investigated which stages of working memory are most vulnerable to age-related changes after midlife. To do this we examined age-differences in the 13 Hz steady state visually evoked potential (SSVEP) associated with a spatial working memory delayed response task. Participants were 130 healthy adults separated into a midlife (40–60 years) and an older group (61–82 years). Relative to the midlife group, older adults demonstrated greater bilateral frontal activity during encoding and this pattern of activity was related to better working memory performance. In contrast, evidence of age-related under activation was identified over left frontal regions during retrieval. Findings from this study suggest that after midlife, under-activation of frontal regions during retrieval contributes to age-related decline in working memory performance. PMID:24795625

  18. The Prevalence of Age-Related Eye Diseases and Visual Impairment in Aging: Current Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Ronald; Klein, Barbara E. K.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To examine prevalence of five age-related eye conditions (age-related cataract, AMD, open-angle glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy [DR], and visual impairment) in the United States. Methods. Review of published scientific articles and unpublished research findings. Results. Cataract, AMD, open-angle glaucoma, DR, and visual impairment prevalences are high in four different studies of these conditions, especially in people over 75 years of age. There are disparities among racial/ethnic groups with higher age-specific prevalence of DR, open-angle glaucoma, and visual impairment in Hispanics and blacks compared with whites, higher prevalence of age-related cataract in whites compared with blacks, and higher prevalence of late AMD in whites compared with Hispanics and blacks. The estimates are based on old data and do not reflect recent changes in the distribution of age and race/ethnicity in the United States population. There are no epidemiologic estimates of prevalence for many visually-impairing conditions. Conclusions. Ongoing prevalence surveys designed to provide reliable estimates of visual impairment, AMD, age-related cataract, open-angle glaucoma, and DR are needed. It is important to collect objective data on these and other conditions that affect vision and quality of life in order to plan for health care needs and identify areas for further research. PMID:24335069

  19. Aging-related systemic manifestations in COPD patients and cigarette smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Laurent; Chouaïd, Christos; Bastuji-Garin, Sylvie; Marcos, Elisabeth; Margarit, Laurent; Le Corvoisier, Philippe; Vervoitte, Laetitia; Hamidou, Leila; Frih, Lamia; Audureau, Etienne; Covali-Noroc, Ala; Andujar, Pascal; Saakashvili, Zakaria; Lino, Anne; Ghaleh, Bijan; Hue, Sophie; Derumeaux, Geneviève; Housset, Bruno; Dubois-Randé, Jean-Luc; Boczkowski, Jorge; Maitre, Bernard; Adnot, Serge

    2015-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is often associated with age-related systemic abnormalities that adversely affect the prognosis. Whether these manifestations are linked to the lung alterations or are independent complications of smoking remains unclear. To look for aging-related systemic manifestations and telomere shortening in COPD patients and smokers with minor lung destruction responsible for a decline in the diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO) corrected for alveolar volume (KCO). Cross-sectional study in 301 individuals (100 with COPD, 100 smokers without COPD, and 101 nonsmokers without COPD). Compared to control smokers, patients with COPD had higher aortic pulse-wave velocity (PWV), lower bone mineral density (BMD) and appendicular skeletal muscle mass index (ASMMI), and shorter telomere length (TL). Insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) were similar between control smokers and COPD patients. Smokers did not differ from nonsmokers for any of these parameters. However, smokers with normal spirometry but low KCO had lower ASMMI values compared to those with normal KCO. Moreover, female smokers with low KCO, had lower BMD and shorter TL compared to those with normal KCO. Aging-related abnormalities in patients with COPD are also found in smokers with minor lung dysfunction manifesting as a KCO decrease. Decreased KCO might be useful, particularly among women, for identifying smokers at high risk for aging-related systemic manifestations and telomere shortening.

  20. Aging-related systemic manifestations in COPD patients and cigarette smokers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Boyer

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is often associated with age-related systemic abnormalities that adversely affect the prognosis. Whether these manifestations are linked to the lung alterations or are independent complications of smoking remains unclear.To look for aging-related systemic manifestations and telomere shortening in COPD patients and smokers with minor lung destruction responsible for a decline in the diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO corrected for alveolar volume (KCO.Cross-sectional study in 301 individuals (100 with COPD, 100 smokers without COPD, and 101 nonsmokers without COPD.Compared to control smokers, patients with COPD had higher aortic pulse-wave velocity (PWV, lower bone mineral density (BMD and appendicular skeletal muscle mass index (ASMMI, and shorter telomere length (TL. Insulin resistance (HOMA-IR and glomerular filtration rate (GFR were similar between control smokers and COPD patients. Smokers did not differ from nonsmokers for any of these parameters. However, smokers with normal spirometry but low KCO had lower ASMMI values compared to those with normal KCO. Moreover, female smokers with low KCO, had lower BMD and shorter TL compared to those with normal KCO.Aging-related abnormalities in patients with COPD are also found in smokers with minor lung dysfunction manifesting as a KCO decrease. Decreased KCO might be useful, particularly among women, for identifying smokers at high risk for aging-related systemic manifestations and telomere shortening.

  1. Protein Oxidative Damage at the Crossroads of Cellular Senescence, Aging, and Age-Related Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin A. Baraibar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Protein damage mediated by oxidation, protein adducts formation with advanced glycated end products and with products of lipid peroxidation, has been implicated during aging and age-related diseases, such as neurodegenerative diseases. Increased protein modification has also been described upon replicative senescence of human fibroblasts, a valid model for studying aging in vitro. However, the mechanisms by which these modified proteins could impact on the development of the senescent phenotype and the pathogenesis of age-related diseases remain elusive. In this study, we performed in silico approaches to evidence molecular actors and cellular pathways affected by these damaged proteins. A database of proteins modified by carbonylation, glycation, and lipid peroxidation products during aging and age-related diseases was built and compared to those proteins identified during cellular replicative senescence in vitro. Common cellular pathways evidenced by enzymes involved in intermediate metabolism were found to be targeted by these modifications, although different tissues have been examined. These results underscore the potential effect of protein modification in the impairment of cellular metabolism during aging and age-related diseases.

  2. Age-related changes in crowding and reading speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rong; Patel, Bhavika N; Kwon, MiYoung

    2017-08-15

    Crowding, the inability to recognize objects in clutter, is known to play a role in developmental changes in reading speed. Here, we investigated whether crowding also plays a role in age-related changes in reading speed. We recruited 18 young (mean age: 22.6 ± 3.5; range: 18~31) and 21 older adults (mean age: 58.2 ± 7.0; range: 50~73) with normal vision. Reading speed was measured with short blocks of text. The degree of crowding was determined by measuring crowding zone (the distance between a target and flankers required to yield a criterion recognition accuracy) and the size of the visual span (an uncrowded window in the visual field within which letters can be recognizable reliably). Measurements were made across the central 16-degree visual field using letter-recognition tasks. Our results showed that, compared to young adults, older adults exhibited significantly slower reading speed (a decrease by 30%) and larger crowding: an enlargement of crowding zone (an increase by 31%) and shrinkage of the visual span (a decrease by 6.25 bits). We also observed significant correlations between reading speed and each of the crowding measures. Our results suggest that crowding increases with age. Age-related changes in crowding may in part explain slower reading in older adults.

  3. Radiation therapy for age-related macular degeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takagi, Chikako; Mori, Hideo; Akuta, Keizou [Otsu Red Cross Hospital, Shiga (Japan); Yoshimura, Nagahisa

    1998-04-01

    We evaluated the effect of low-dose radiation on age-related macular degeneration in 8 affected eyes. Radiation was applied using photons at 4 MV. Each eye received 10 fractions of 2 Gy per day over 2 weeks. At 6 months after treatment, funduscopic or angiographic findings had either improved or remained unchanged in all the eyes. The visual acuity improved by 2 lines or more in 2 eyes (25%), remained unchanged in 5 eyes (63%) and deteriorated in 1 eye (13%). At the last examination, fundus findings had improved in 2 eyes (25%), remained unchanged in 1 eye (13%) and deteriorated in 5 eyes (63%). The visual acuity had improved or unchanged in 2 eyes each (25%) and deteriorated in 4 eyes (50%). There has been no negative side effects of radiation. Above findings show that low-dose radiation is potentially beneficial for subfoveal or juxtafoveal choroidal neovascularizations in age-related macular degeneration on a short term basis. (author)

  4. Auditory white noise reduces age-related fluctuations in balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, J M; Will, O J; McGann, Z; Balasubramaniam, R

    2016-09-06

    Fall prevention technologies have the potential to improve the lives of older adults. Because of the multisensory nature of human balance control, sensory therapies, including some involving tactile and auditory noise, are being explored that might reduce increased balance variability due to typical age-related sensory declines. Auditory white noise has previously been shown to reduce postural sway variability in healthy young adults. In the present experiment, we examined this treatment in young adults and typically aging older adults. We measured postural sway of healthy young adults and adults over the age of 65 years during silence and auditory white noise, with and without vision. Our results show reduced postural sway variability in young and older adults with auditory noise, even in the absence of vision. We show that vision and noise can reduce sway variability for both feedback-based and exploratory balance processes. In addition, we show changes with auditory noise in nonlinear patterns of sway in older adults that reflect what is more typical of young adults, and these changes did not interfere with the typical random walk behavior of sway. Our results suggest that auditory noise might be valuable for therapeutic and rehabilitative purposes in older adults with typical age-related balance variability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. KCNQ channels regulate age-related memory impairment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Cavaliere

    Full Text Available In humans KCNQ2/3 heteromeric channels form an M-current that acts as a brake on neuronal excitability, with mutations causing a form of epilepsy. The M-current has been shown to be a key regulator of neuronal plasticity underlying associative memory and ethanol response in mammals. Previous work has shown that many of the molecules and plasticity mechanisms underlying changes in alcohol behaviour and addiction are shared with those of memory. We show that the single KCNQ channel in Drosophila (dKCNQ when mutated show decrements in associative short- and long-term memory, with KCNQ function in the mushroom body α/βneurons being required for short-term memory. Ethanol disrupts memory in wildtype flies, but not in a KCNQ null mutant background suggesting KCNQ maybe a direct target of ethanol, the blockade of which interferes with the plasticity machinery required for memory formation. We show that as in humans, Drosophila display age-related memory impairment with the KCNQ mutant memory defect mimicking the effect of age on memory. Expression of KCNQ normally decreases in aging brains and KCNQ overexpression in the mushroom body neurons of KCNQ mutants restores age-related memory impairment. Therefore KCNQ is a central plasticity molecule that regulates age dependent memory impairment.

  6. Age-Related Eye Disease and Participation in Cognitive Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varin, Melanie; Kergoat, Marie-Jeanne; Belleville, Sylvie; Li, Gisele; Rousseau, Jacqueline; Roy-Gagnon, Marie-Hélène; Moghadaszadeh, Solmaz; Freeman, Ellen E

    2017-12-21

    Studies have found a benefit to living a cognitively active life in older age. Our goal was to quantify participation in cognitively stimulating activities in adults with and without age-related eye disease. We conducted a cross-sectional hospital-based study in Montreal, Canada of older adults (n = 303) having either age-related macular degeneration (AMD) (n = 96), glaucoma (n = 93), or normal vision (n = 114). To be eligible, the AMD group had to have bilateral late stage AMD with a better eye visual acuity of 20/30 or worse. The glaucoma group had to have a diagnosis of bilateral primary open-angle glaucoma with visual field mean deviation Cognitive activities were measured using the Victoria Longitudinal Study Activity Questionnaire. Linear regression was used. Patients with AMD (β = -4.2, 95% confidence interval (CI) -6.0, -2.4) and glaucoma (β = -1.8, 95% CI -3.3, -0.3) participated in fewer cognitive activities per month compared to those with normal vision after adjusting for age, sex, education, diabetes, number of comorbidities, cognition, and cataract. People with AMD and glaucoma participated in fewer cognitive activities, which could put them at risk for future cognitive impairment.

  7. Age-Related Deficits in Reality Monitoring of Action Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Mark A.; Lyle, Keith B.; Butler, Karin M.; Dornburg, Courtney C.

    2008-01-01

    We describe three theoretical accounts of age-related increases in falsely remembering that imagined actions were performed (Thomas & Bulevich, 2006). To investigate these accounts and further explore age-related changes in reality monitoring of action memories, we used a new paradigm in which actions were (a) imagined-only (b) actually performed, or (c) both imagined and performed. Older adults were more likely than younger adults to misremember the source of imagined-only actions, with older adults’ more often specifying that the action was imagined and also that it was performed. For both age groups, as repetitions of the imagined-only events increased, illusions that the actions were only performed decreased. These patterns suggest that both older and younger adults utilize qualitative characteristics when making reality-monitoring judgments and that repeated imagination produces richer records of both sensory details and cognitive operations. However, sensory information derived from imagination appears to be more similar to that derived from performance for older than younger adults. PMID:18808253

  8. KCNQ channels regulate age-related memory impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaliere, Sonia; Malik, Bilal R; Hodge, James J L

    2013-01-01

    In humans KCNQ2/3 heteromeric channels form an M-current that acts as a brake on neuronal excitability, with mutations causing a form of epilepsy. The M-current has been shown to be a key regulator of neuronal plasticity underlying associative memory and ethanol response in mammals. Previous work has shown that many of the molecules and plasticity mechanisms underlying changes in alcohol behaviour and addiction are shared with those of memory. We show that the single KCNQ channel in Drosophila (dKCNQ) when mutated show decrements in associative short- and long-term memory, with KCNQ function in the mushroom body α/βneurons being required for short-term memory. Ethanol disrupts memory in wildtype flies, but not in a KCNQ null mutant background suggesting KCNQ maybe a direct target of ethanol, the blockade of which interferes with the plasticity machinery required for memory formation. We show that as in humans, Drosophila display age-related memory impairment with the KCNQ mutant memory defect mimicking the effect of age on memory. Expression of KCNQ normally decreases in aging brains and KCNQ overexpression in the mushroom body neurons of KCNQ mutants restores age-related memory impairment. Therefore KCNQ is a central plasticity molecule that regulates age dependent memory impairment.

  9. Melatonin: Protection against age-related cardiac pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favero, Gaia; Franceschetti, Lorenzo; Buffoli, Barbara; Moghadasian, Mohammed H; Reiter, Russel J; Rodella, Luigi F; Rezzani, Rita

    2017-05-01

    Aging is a complex and progressive process that involves physiological and metabolic deterioration in every organ and system. Cardiovascular diseases are one of the most common causes of mortality and morbidity among elderly subjects worldwide. Most age-related cardiovascular disorders can be influenced by modifiable behaviours such as a healthy diet rich in fruit and vegetables, avoidance of smoking, increased physical activity and reduced stress. The role of diet in prevention of various disorders is a well-established factor, which has an even more important role in the geriatric population. Melatonin, an indoleamine with multiple actions including antioxidant properties, has been identified in a very large number of plant species, including edible plant products and medical herbs. Among products where melatonin has been identified include wine, olive oil, tomato, beer, and others. Interestingly, consumed melatonin in plant foods or melatonin supplementation may promote health benefits by virtue of its multiple properties and it may counteract pathological conditions also related to cardiovascular disorders, carcinogenesis, neurological diseases and aging. In the present review, we summarized melatonin effects against age-related cardiac alterations and abnormalities with a special focus on heart ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury and myocardial infarction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Age-related retinopathy in NRF2-deficient mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenyang Zhao

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Cumulative oxidative damage is implicated in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2 is a transcription factor that plays key roles in retinal antioxidant and detoxification responses. The purposes of this study were to determine whether NRF2-deficient mice would develop AMD-like retinal pathology with aging and to explore the underlying mechanisms.Eyes of both wild type and Nrf2(-/- mice were examined in vivo by fundus photography and electroretinography (ERG. Structural changes of the outer retina in aged animals were examined by light and electron microscopy, and immunofluorescence labeling. Our results showed that Nrf2(-/- mice developed age-dependent degenerative pathology in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE. Drusen-like deposits, accumulation of lipofuscin, spontaneous choroidal neovascularization (CNV and sub-RPE deposition of inflammatory proteins were present in Nrf2(-/- mice after 12 months. Accumulation of autophagy-related vacuoles and multivesicular bodies was identified by electron microscopy both within the RPE and in Bruch's membrane of aged Nrf2(-/- mice.Our data suggest that disruption of Nfe2l2 gene increased the vulnerability of outer retina to age-related degeneration. NRF2-deficient mice developed ocular pathology similar to cardinal features of human AMD and deregulated autophagy is likely a mechanistic link between oxidative injury and inflammation. The Nrf2(-/- mice can provide a novel model for mechanistic and translational research on AMD.

  11. Do age-related increases in tip-of-the-tongue experiences signify episodic memory impairments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salthouse, Timothy A; Mandell, Arielle R

    2013-12-01

    Tip-of-the-tongue experiences (TOTs), in which a name is known but cannot be immediately retrieved from memory, can be a cause of concern if these experiences are viewed as a sign of memory decline. The current study was conducted to investigate the relation between age and TOT frequency, and the influence of episodic memory, which is the type of memory most often assessed to detect memory problems, on that relation. In a sample of adults, increased age was found to be associated with more TOTs across different types of materials, and additional analyses suggested that these relations between age and TOT frequency were not attributable to the use of different response criteria or to different amounts of knowledge. Because statistical control of a measure of episodic memory had little effect on the relation between age and TOT frequency, age-related increases in TOTs and age-related decreases in episodic memory appear to be at least partially independent phenomena.

  12. Transplantation of retinal pigment epithelial cells - a possible future treatment for age-related macular degeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiencke, Anne Katrine

    2001-01-01

    ophthalmology, age-related macular degeneration, retinal pigment epithelial cells, transplantation, treatment......ophthalmology, age-related macular degeneration, retinal pigment epithelial cells, transplantation, treatment...

  13. Transplantation of retinal pigment epithelial cells - a possible future treatment for age-related macular degeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiencke, Anne Katrine

    2001-01-01

    ophthalmology, age-related macular degeneration, transplantation, retinal pigment epithelial cells, treatment......ophthalmology, age-related macular degeneration, transplantation, retinal pigment epithelial cells, treatment...

  14. Toward understanding body image importance: individual differences in a Canadian sample of undergraduate students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegling, Alexander B; Delaney, Mary E

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between body image importance (BII) and perfectionism and body satisfaction in a Canadian sample of undergraduate students. Specifically, perfectionism was conceptualized as a common cause of BII and body satisfaction. Furthermore, gender-schematic processing was examined as a moderator of sex differences in BII, which have been inconsistently found. As hypothesized, there was no significant partial correlation between BII and body satisfaction, controlling for perfectionism. Also, a significant Sex × Gender Schematicity interaction indicated that gender schematicity moderates sex differences in BII. Implications for understanding individual differences in, and elevated levels of BII are discussed.

  15. Age-Related Reversals in Neural Recruitment across Memory Retrieval Phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Jaclyn H; Kensinger, Elizabeth A

    2017-05-17

    Over the last several decades, neuroimaging research has identified age-related neural changes that occur during cognitive tasks. These changes are used to help researchers identify functional changes that contribute to age-related impairments in cognitive performance. One commonly reported example of such a change is an age-related decrease in the recruitment of posterior sensory regions coupled with an increased recruitment of prefrontal regions across multiple cognitive tasks. This shift is often described as a compensatory recruitment of prefrontal regions due to age-related sensory-processing deficits in posterior regions. However, age is not only associated with spatial shifts in recruitment, but also with temporal shifts, in which younger and older adults recruit the same neural region at different points in a task trial. The current study examines the possible contribution of temporal modifications in the often-reported posterior-anterior shift. Participants, ages 19-85, took part in a memory retrieval task with a protracted retrieval trial consisting of an initial memory search phase and a subsequent detail elaboration phase. Age-related neural patterns during search replicated prior reports of age-related decreases in posterior recruitment and increases in prefrontal recruitment. However, during the later elaboration phase, the same posterior regions were associated with age-related increases in activation. Further, ROI and functional connectivity results suggest that these posterior regions function similarly during search and elaboration. These results suggest that the often-reported posterior-anterior shift may not reflect the inability of older adults to engage in sensory processing, but rather a change in when they recruit this processing. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The current study provides evidence that the often-reported posterior-anterior shift in aging may not reflect a global sensory-processing deficit, as has often been reported, but rather a

  16. Auditory and Cognitive Factors Underlying Individual Differences in Aided Speech-Understanding among Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry E. Humes

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to address individual differences in aided speech understanding among a relatively large group of older adults. The group of older adults consisted of 98 adults (50 female and 48 male ranging in age from 60 to 86 (mean = 69.2. Hearing loss was typical for this age group and about 90% had not worn hearing aids. All subjects completed a battery of tests, including cognitive (6 measures, psychophysical (17 measures, and speech-understanding (9 measures, as well as the Speech, Spatial and Qualities of Hearing (SSQ self-report scale. Most of the speech-understanding measures made use of competing speech and the non-speech psychophysical measures were designed to tap phenomena thought to be relevant for the perception of speech in competing speech (e.g., stream segregation, modulation-detection interference. All measures of speech understanding were administered with spectral shaping applied to the speech stimuli to fully restore audibility through at least 4000 Hz. The measures used were demonstrated to be reliable in older adults and, when compared to a reference group of 28 young normal-hearing adults, age-group differences were observed on many of the measures. Principal-components factor analysis was applied successfully to reduce the number of independent and dependent (speech understanding measures for a multiple-regression analysis. Doing so yielded one global cognitive-processing factor and five non-speech psychoacoustic factors (hearing loss, dichotic signal detection, multi-burst masking, stream segregation, and modulation detection as potential predictors. To this set of six potential predictor variables were added subject age, Environmental Sound Identification (ESI, and performance on the text-recognition-threshold (TRT task (a visual analog of interrupted speech recognition. These variables were used to successfully predict one global aided speech-understanding factor, accounting for about 60% of the variance.

  17. Prevalence of age-related maculopathy and age-related macular degeneration among the inuit in Greenland. The Greenland Inuit Eye Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mads Varis Nis; Rosenberg, Thomas; la Cour, Morten

    2008-01-01

    To examine the age- and gender-specific prevalence and describe the common phenotype of early age-related maculopathy (ARM) and late-stage age-related macular degeneration (AMD) among the Inuit in Greenland.......To examine the age- and gender-specific prevalence and describe the common phenotype of early age-related maculopathy (ARM) and late-stage age-related macular degeneration (AMD) among the Inuit in Greenland....

  18. Belief, Knowledge and Understanding. How to Deal with the Relations Between Different Cultural Perspectives in Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira-dos-Santos, Frederik; El-Hani, Charbel N.

    2017-05-01

    This article discusses how to deal with the relations between different cultural perspectives in classrooms, based on a proposal for considering understanding and knowledge as goals of science education, inspired by Dewey's naturalistic humanism. It thus combines educational and philosophical interests. In educational terms, our concerns relate to how science teachers position themselves in multicultural classrooms. In philosophical terms, we are interested in discussing the relations between belief, understanding, and knowledge under the light of Dewey's philosophy. We present a synthesis of Dewey's theory of inquiry through his naturalistic humanism and discuss its implications for the concepts of belief, understanding, and knowledge, as well as for the goals of science teaching. In particular, we highlight problems arising in the context of possible conflicts between scientific and religious claims in the school environment that result from totalitarian positions. We characterize an individual's position as totalitarian if he or she takes some way of thinking as the only one capable of expressing the truth about all that exists in the world, lacks open-mindedness to understand different interpretative perspectives, and attempts to impose her or his interpretation about the facts to others by violent means or not. From this stance, any other perspective is taken to be false a priori and, accordingly, as a putative target to be suppressed or adapted to the privileged way of thinking. We argue, instead, for a more fallibilist evaluation of our own beliefs and a more respectful appraisal of the diversity of students' beliefs by both students and teachers.

  19. Redox control of senescence and age-related disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akshaya Chandrasekaran

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The signaling networks that drive the aging process, associated functional deterioration, and pathologies has captured the scientific community's attention for decades. While many theories exist to explain the aging process, the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS provides a signaling link between engagement of cellular senescence and several age-associated pathologies. Cellular senescence has evolved to restrict tumor progression but the accompanying senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP promotes pathogenic pathways. Here, we review known biological theories of aging and how ROS mechanistically control senescence and the aging process. We also describe the redox-regulated signaling networks controlling the SASP and its important role in driving age-related diseases. Finally, we discuss progress in designing therapeutic strategies that manipulate the cellular redox environment to restrict age-associated pathology.

  20. Radiation Therapy for Neovascular Age-related Macular Degeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishan, Amar U. [Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Modjtahedi, Bobeck S.; Morse, Lawrence S. [Department of Ophthalmology and Vision Sciences, University of California, Davis, Sacramento, California (United States); Lee, Percy, E-mail: percylee@mednet.ucla.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, California (United States)

    2013-03-01

    In the enormity of the public health burden imposed by age-related macular degeneration (ARMD), much effort has been directed toward identifying effective and efficient treatments. Currently, anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) injections have demonstrated considerably efficacy in treating neovascular ARMD, but patients require frequent treatment to fully benefit. Here, we review the rationale and evidence for radiation therapy of ARMD. The results of early photon external beam radiation therapy are included to provide a framework for the sequential discussion of evidence for the usage of stereotactic radiation therapy, proton therapy, and brachytherapy. The evidence suggests that these 3 modern modalities can provide a dose-dependent benefit in the treatment of ARMD. Most importantly, preliminary data suggest that all 3 can be used in conjunction with anti-VEGF therapeutics, thereby reducing the frequency of anti-VEGF injections required to maintain visual acuity.

  1. [Future methods of treatment in age related macular degeneration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turlea, C

    2012-01-01

    In the present time the treatment of Age Related Macular Degeneration (ARMD) begins to develop. Many medical therapies are presently tested in the two types of ARMD, geographic atrophy and exudative ARMD. In atrophic ARMD, new drugs are aimed to spare photoreceptors and the retinal pigment epithelium, to prevent oxidative damage on the retina and to suppress the inflammation process. In exudative ARMD, new therapies are already in use and in progress, especially the anti-VEGF factors, and others try to improve visual prognosis in targeting other mechanism or cells involved in the angiogenesis process. This article reviews and summarizes the available data, presented in several scientific meetings, congresses or given directly by the companies involved.

  2. Age-related macular degeneration: epidemiology and optimal treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour, Morten; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Nissen, Mogens Holst

    2002-01-01

    cause of blindness among Caucasian individuals in developed countries. Blindness resulting from AMD rarely occurs before age 70, and most cases occur after age 80. The age-standardised 1-year incidence of legal blindness resulting from AMD is 212 cases per million. Two-thirds of AMD cases have CNV......Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a common macular disease affecting elderly people in the Western world. It is characterised by the appearance of drusen in the macula, accompanied by choroidal neovascularisation (CNV) or geographic atrophy. The disease is more common in Caucasian...... individuals than in pigmented races. In predominantly Caucasian populations, the age-standardised prevalence of AMD in at least one eye is 7760 cases per million. The age-standardised cumulated 1-year incidence of AMD in at least one eye is 1051 cases per million individuals. AMD is the most important single...

  3. Cognitive dysfunction and age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozzini, Luca; Riva, Maddalena; Ghilardi, Nausica; Facchinetti, Paola; Forbice, Eliana; Semeraro, Francesco; Padovani, Alessandro

    2014-05-01

    Several previous studies showed that age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) share common risk factors and histopathology changes, and there is epidemiological evidence linking AMD to cognitive impairment. We tested this theory in 51 patients with late-stage AMD and 24 controls by analyzing their neuropsychological profiles. In this study, data showed that patients affected by late-stage AMD have a worse global cognitive function than those of the controls and, in particular, show worse performances in memory tasks. Moreover, patients affected by the dry form of AMD are significantly impaired in executive functions in addition to memory. Data support the hypothesis of a possible association between AMD and cognitive impairment. In particular, patients affected by the dry form of AMD may be at greater risk of developing subsequent dementia.

  4. Vitamin D and Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Garcia Layana

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the relationship between vitamin D and health has received growing attention from the scientific and medical communities. Vitamin D deficiencies have been repeatedly associated with various acute and chronic diseases, including age-related macular degeneration (AMD. Its active metabolite, 1α,25-dihydoxy vitamin D, acts as a modulator of cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis, and cumulative data from experimental and observational studies suggest that relatively a lower vitamin D status could be a potential risk factor for the development of early and/or late AMD. Herein, we made a narrative review of the mechanisms linking a potential role of vitamin D with the current concepts of AMD pathophysiology.

  5. Redox control of senescence and age-related disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekaran, Akshaya; Idelchik, Maria Del Pilar Sosa; Melendez, J Andrés

    2017-04-01

    The signaling networks that drive the aging process, associated functional deterioration, and pathologies has captured the scientific community's attention for decades. While many theories exist to explain the aging process, the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) provides a signaling link between engagement of cellular senescence and several age-associated pathologies. Cellular senescence has evolved to restrict tumor progression but the accompanying senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) promotes pathogenic pathways. Here, we review known biological theories of aging and how ROS mechanistically control senescence and the aging process. We also describe the redox-regulated signaling networks controlling the SASP and its important role in driving age-related diseases. Finally, we discuss progress in designing therapeutic strategies that manipulate the cellular redox environment to restrict age-associated pathology. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. [Impact of cellular senescence on organismal aging and age-related diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielak-Zmijewska, Anna; Grabowska, Wioleta; Przybylska, Dorota

    2014-01-01

    Development of the civilization and medicine enables an even longer lifespan of people. To modulate the aging process it is necessary to discover its molecular mechanism and its causes. It has been known for almost 60 years that cells undergo senescence. A lot of markers of senescence have been described to distinguish senescent cells. Every year we can observe an increase in the number of data, supporting the thesis that the reason for aging of the whole organism is cellular senescence. We age because cells building tissues and organs undergo senescence. It is also believed that cellular senescence can increase the frequency of age-related diseases. The role of cellular senescence strictly depends on the age of the individual. In young ones it is essential for: protection against cancer and tissue regeneration. In old ones it causes tissues and organs dysfunctions and leads to age-related diseases. Slowing down aging could prevent age-related diseases and this seems to be more promising than curing them. To enrich our knowledge concerning aging it is important to understand signaling pathways leading to senescence. Recently a new role of cellular senescence has been discovered, namely during embryogenesis. This observation is very surprising and shows a new face of cellular senescence. It is possible that, similarly to the previously described role of apoptosis in embryogenesis, senescence is indispensable for proper organogenesis. Cellular senescence seems to be the universal and fundamental process, the role of which changes during the lifespan.

  7. Sources of Individual Differences in Children’s Understanding of Fractions

    OpenAIRE

    Vukovic, Rose K.; Fuchs, Lynn S.; Geary, David C.; Jordan, Nancy C.; Gersten, Russell; Siegler, Robert S.

    2014-01-01

    Longitudinal associations of domain-general and numerical competencies with individual differences in children’s understanding of fractions were investigated. Children (n = 163) were assessed at 6 years of age on domain-general (nonverbal reasoning, language, attentive behavior, executive control, visual-spatial memory) and numerical (number knowledge) competencies; at 7 years on whole-number arithmetic computations and number line estimation; and at 10 years on fraction concepts. Mediation a...

  8. The application of information theory for the research of aging and aging-related diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blokh, David; Stambler, Ilia

    2017-10-01

    This article reviews the application of information-theoretical analysis, employing measures of entropy and mutual information, for the study of aging and aging-related diseases. The research of aging and aging-related diseases is particularly suitable for the application of information theory methods, as aging processes and related diseases are multi-parametric, with continuous parameters coexisting alongside discrete parameters, and with the relations between the parameters being as a rule non-linear. Information theory provides unique analytical capabilities for the solution of such problems, with unique advantages over common linear biostatistics. Among the age-related diseases, information theory has been used in the study of neurodegenerative diseases (particularly using EEG time series for diagnosis and prediction), cancer (particularly for establishing individual and combined cancer biomarkers), diabetes (mainly utilizing mutual information to characterize the diseased and aging states), and heart disease (mainly for the analysis of heart rate variability). Few works have employed information theory for the analysis of general aging processes and frailty, as underlying determinants and possible early preclinical diagnostic measures for aging-related diseases. Generally, the use of information-theoretical analysis permits not only establishing the (non-linear) correlations between diagnostic or therapeutic parameters of interest, but may also provide a theoretical insight into the nature of aging and related diseases by establishing the measures of variability, adaptation, regulation or homeostasis, within a system of interest. It may be hoped that the increased use of such measures in research may considerably increase diagnostic and therapeutic capabilities and the fundamental theoretical mathematical understanding of aging and disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Peripheral Retinal Changes Associated with Age-Related Macular Degeneration in the Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2: Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 Report Number 12 by the Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 Optos PEripheral RetinA (OPERA) Study Research Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domalpally, Amitha; Clemons, Traci E; Danis, Ronald P; Sadda, SriniVas R; Cukras, Catherine A; Toth, Cynthia A; Friberg, Thomas R; Chew, Emily Y

    2017-04-01

    To compare rates of peripheral retinal changes in Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 (AREDS2) participants with at least intermediate age-related macular degeneration (AMD) with control subjects without intermediate age-related changes (large drusen). Cross-sectional evaluation of clinic-based patients enrolled in AREDS2 and a prospective study. Participants from prospective studies. The 200° pseudocolor and fundus autofluorescence (FAF) images were captured on the Optos 200 Tx Ultrawide-field device (Optos, Dunfermline, Scotland) by centering on the fovea and then steering superiorly and inferiorly. The montaged images were graded at a reading center with the images divided into 3 zones (zone 1 [posterior pole], zone 2 [midperiphery], and zone 3 [far periphery]) to document the presence of peripheral lesions. Peripheral retinal lesions: drusen, hypopigmentary/hyperpigmentary changes, reticular pseudodrusen, senile reticular pigmentary changes, cobblestone degeneration, and FAF abnormalities. A total of 484 (951 eyes) AREDS2 participants with AMD (cases) and 89 (163 eyes) controls without AMD had gradable color and FAF images. In zones 2 and 3, neovascularization and geographic atrophy (GA) were present, ranging from 0.4% to 6% in eyes of cases, respectively, and GA was present in 1% of eyes of controls. Drusen were detected in 97%, 78%, and 64% of eyes of cases and 48%, 21%, and 9% of eyes of controls in zones 2 and 3 superior and 3 inferior, respectively (P Age-related macular degeneration may be more than a "macular" condition but one that involves the entire retina. Future longitudinal studies of peripheral changes in AMD and their impact on visual function may contribute to understanding AMD pathogenesis. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Genome and Epigenome Editing in Mechanistic Studies of Human Aging and Aging-Related Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Cia-Hin; Suh, Yousin

    2017-01-01

    The recent advent of genome and epigenome editing technologies has provided a new paradigm in which the landscape of the human genome and epigenome can be precisely manipulated in their native context. Genome and epigenome editing technologies can be applied to many aspects of aging research and offer the potential to develop novel therapeutics against age-related diseases. Here, we discuss the latest technological advances in the CRISPR-based genome and epigenome editing toolbox, and provide insight into how these synthetic biology tools could facilitate aging research by establishing in vitro cell and in vivo animal models to dissect genetic and epigenetic mechanisms underlying aging and age-related diseases. We discuss recent developments in the field with the aims to precisely modulate gene expression and dynamic epigenetic landscapes in a spatial and temporal manner in cellular and animal models, by complementing the CRISPR-based editing capability with conditional genetic manipulation tools including chemically inducible expression systems, optogenetics, logic gate genetic circuits, tissue-specific promoters, and the serotype-specific adeno-associated virus. We also discuss how the combined use of genome and epigenome editing tools permits investigators to uncover novel molecular pathways involved in the pathophysiology and etiology conferred by risk variants associated with aging and aging-related disease. A better understanding of the genetic and epigenetic regulatory mechanisms underlying human aging and age-related disease will significantly contribute to the developments of new therapeutic interventions for extending health span and life span, ultimately improving the quality of life in the elderly populations. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. The Story-Presenting Method: a Method for Constructing Multiple Viewpoints to Understand Different Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Tadaharu

    2017-09-01

    This study will show the results of four dialogical cultural exchange classes, which were held between Japanese and Chinese high school students, and examine the shifts in students' viewpoints and changes in cultural understandings that occurred during those classes. In the first cultural exchange class, students of both countries read a story which described an older student who carelessly wore a T-shirt inside out, and younger students passed by without greeting him. Students of both countries were then asked to write their comments about it. From the second to the fourth class, students discussed the story with each other through exchanging their comments. By presenting another story, which introduced the viewpoint of a third person, and asking them questions that allowed them to reflect on their lives, students also experienced four different viewpoints during these cultural exchange classes. At the beginning of the cultural exchange, students of both countries tended to focus on the similarities in each other's comments, which led to the closing down of the discussion. However, through discussions and experiencing the four different viewpoints, they found there are some essential differences between them around 'ways of greeting' and 'hierarchical relationships between older and younger students', which motivated them to understand their counterparts' culture. Moreover, in the last comments of these cultural exchange classes, it was found that they acquired the viewpoints of cultural others. Given the results of these classes, it is shown that it is effective to present various stories to stimulate cultural understanding.

  12. Age-related changes in behavior in C57BL/6J mice from young adulthood to middle age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoji, Hirotaka; Takao, Keizo; Hattori, Satoko; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi

    2016-01-28

    these results might have been influenced by possible confounding factors such as the time of day at testing and prior test experience. Our results also indicate that relatively narrow age differences can produce significant behavioral differences during adulthood in mice. These findings provide an insight into our understanding of the neurobiological processes underlying brain function and behavior that are subject to age-related changes in early to middle life. The findings also indicate that age is one of the critical factors to be carefully considered when designing behavioral tests and interpreting behavioral differences that might be induced by experimental manipulations.

  13. No dramatic age-related loss of hair cells and spiral ganglion neurons in Bcl-2 over-expression mice or Bax null mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohlemiller Kevin K

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Age-related decline of neuronal function is associated with age-related structural changes. In the central nervous system, age-related decline of cognitive performance is thought to be caused by synaptic loss instead of neuronal loss. However, in the cochlea, age-related loss of hair cells and spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs is consistently observed in a variety of species, including humans. Since age-related loss of these cells is a major contributing factor to presbycusis, it is important to study possible molecular mechanisms underlying this age-related cell death. Previous studies suggested that apoptotic pathways were involved in age-related loss of hair cells and SGNs. In the present study, we examined the role of Bcl-2 gene in age-related hearing loss. In one transgenic mouse line over-expressing human Bcl-2, there were no significant differences between transgenic mice and wild type littermate controls in their hearing thresholds during aging. Histological analysis of the hair cells and SGNs showed no significant conservation of these cells in transgenic animals compared to the wild type controls during aging. These data suggest that Bcl-2 overexpression has no significant effect on age-related loss of hair cells and SGNs. We also found no delay of age-related hearing loss in mice lacking Bax gene. These findings suggest that age-related hearing loss is not through an apoptotic pathway involving key members of Bcl-2 family.

  14. INTERVIEWING EXPATRIATES AS A SOURCE FOR STUDENTS IN UNDERSTANDING DIFFERENCES IN CULTURAL BACKGROUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Luh Putu Sri Adnyani,S.Pd.,M.Hum.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Interviewing expatriates whom live in Bali was one of the projects that have been done in Cross Cultural Understanding class in the academic year of 2011/2012. The aims of the project was 1 students have direct communication with foreigners living in Bali, 2 students obtain information related to cultural differences experienced by expatriates and 3 students find out how the expatriates overcome cultural differences. The project was done by the students in six weeks. Each student had to contact an expatriate who can easily be found in Bali. They had to prepare an interview guide and put the result of their interview on paper. Each student had to present the result of their project to the class continued with classroom discussion. At the end of the presentation, the students conclude differences in cultural aspects experienced by the expatriates and how they handled those differences to be able to live in Bali. By interviewing expatriates, students had direct information about differences in cultural backgrounds and made Cross Cultural Understanding subject becomes a more realistic issue.

  15. Clinical Characteristics and Current Treatment of Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonekawa, Yoshihiro; Kim, Ivana K.

    2015-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a multifactorial degeneration of photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelium. The societal impact is significant, with more than 2 million individuals in the United States alone affected by advanced stages of AMD. Recent progress in our understanding of this complex disease and parallel developments in therapeutics and imaging have translated into new management paradigms in recent years. However, there are many unanswered questions, and diagnostic and prognostic precision and treatment outcomes can still be improved. In this article, we discuss the clinical features of AMD, provide correlations with modern imaging and histopathology, and present an overview of treatment strategies. PMID:25280900

  16. Age-related aspects of cutaneous wound healing: a mini-review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgonc, Roswitha; Gruber, Johann

    2013-01-01

    As the aging population in developed countries is growing in both numbers and percentage, the medical, social, and economic burdens posed by nonhealing wounds are increasing. Hence, it is all the more important to understand the mechanisms underlying age-related impairments in wound healing. The purpose of this article is to give a concise overview of (1) normal wound healing, (2) alterations in aging skin that have an impact on wound repair, (3) alterations in the repair process of aged skin, and (4) general factors associated with old age that might impair wound healing, with a focus on the literature of the last 10 years. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. A neurogenetics approach to understanding individual differences in brain, behavior, and risk for psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdan, R; Hyde, L W; Hariri, A R

    2013-03-01

    Neurogenetics research has begun to advance our understanding of how genetic variation gives rise to individual differences in brain function, which, in turn, shapes behavior and risk for psychopathology. Despite these advancements, neurogenetics research is currently confronted by three major challenges: (1) conducting research on individual variables with small effects, (2) absence of detailed mechanisms, and (3) a need to translate findings toward greater clinical relevance. In this review, we showcase techniques and developments that address these challenges and highlight the benefits of a neurogenetics approach to understanding brain, behavior and psychopathology. To address the challenge of small effects, we explore approaches including incorporating the environment, modeling epistatic relationships and using multilocus profiles. To address the challenge of mechanism, we explore how non-human animal research, epigenetics research and genome-wide association studies can inform our mechanistic understanding of behaviorally relevant brain function. Finally, to address the challenge of clinical relevance, we examine how neurogenetics research can identify novel therapeutic targets and for whom treatments work best. By addressing these challenges, neurogenetics research is poised to exponentially increase our understanding of how genetic variation interacts with the environment to shape the brain, behavior and risk for psychopathology.

  18. Bridging the Gap: Understanding the Differing Research Expectations of First-Year Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meg Raven

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective – The project sought to understand the research expectations of first-year students upon beginning university study, and how they differed from the expectations of their professors, in order to provide more focused instruction and work moreeffectively with professors and student support services.Methods – A survey of 317 first-year undergraduate students and 75 professors at MountSaint Vincent University in Halifax, Nova Scotia, was conducted to determine what eachexpected of first-year student research. Students were surveyed on the first day of theterm in order to best understand their research expectations as they transitioned fromhigh school to university.Results – The gulf between student and professor research expectations was found to beconsiderable, especially in areas such as time required for reading and research and theresources necessary to do research. While students rated their preparedness foruniversity as high, they also had high expectations related to their ability to use nonacademicsources. The majority of professors believed that students are not prepared todo university-level research, do not take enough responsibility for their own learning,should use more academic research sources, and should read twice as much as studentsbelieve they should. Conclusions – By better understanding differing research expectations, students can beguided very early in their studies about appropriate academic research practices, andlibrarians and professors can provide students with improved research instruction.Strategies for working with students, professors, and the university community arediscussed.

  19. Rare Complement Factor H Variant Associated With Age-Related Macular Degeneration in the Amish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Joshua D.; CookeBailey, Jessica N.; D'Aoust, Laura; Cade, William; Ayala-Haedo, Juan; Fuzzell, Denise; Laux, Renee; Adams, Larry D.; Reinhart-Mercer, Lori; Caywood, Laura; Whitehead-Gay, Patrice; Agarwal, Anita; Wang, Gaofeng; Scott, William K.; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A.; Haines, Jonathan L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Age-related macular degeneration is the leading cause of blindness among the adult population in the developed world. To further the understanding of this disease, we have studied the genetically isolated Amish population of Ohio and Indiana. Methods. Cumulative genetic risk scores were calculated using the 19 known allelic associations. Exome sequencing was performed in three members of a small Amish family with AMD who lacked the common risk alleles in complement factor H (CFH) and ARMS2/HTRA1. Follow-up genotyping and association analysis was performed in a cohort of 973 Amish individuals, including 95 with self-reported AMD. Results. The cumulative genetic risk score analysis generated a mean genetic risk score of 1.12 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.10, 1.13) in the Amish controls and 1.18 (95% CI: 1.13, 1.22) in the Amish cases. This mean difference in genetic risk scores is statistically significant (P = 0.0042). Exome sequencing identified a rare variant (P503A) in CFH. Association analysis in the remainder of the Amish sample revealed that the P503A variant is significantly associated with AMD (P = 9.27 × 10−13). Variant P503A was absent when evaluated in a cohort of 791 elderly non-Amish controls, and 1456 non-Amish cases. Conclusions. Data from the cumulative genetic risk score analysis suggests that the variants reported by the AMDGene consortium account for a smaller genetic burden of disease in the Amish compared with the non-Amish Caucasian population. Using exome sequencing data, we identified a novel missense mutation that is shared among a densely affected nuclear Amish family and located in a gene that has been previously implicated in AMD risk. PMID:24906858

  20. Age-Related Reduction of Recovery Sleep and Arousal Threshold in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vienne, Julie; Spann, Ryanne; Guo, Fang; Rosbash, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Physiological studies show that aging affects both sleep quality and quantity in humans, and sleep complaints increase with age. Along with knowledge about the negative effects of poor sleep on health, understanding the enigmatic relationship between sleep and aging is important. Because human sleep is similar to Drosophila (fruit fly) sleep in many ways, we addressed the effects of aging on sleep in this model organism. Methods: Baseline sleep was recorded in five different Drosophila genotypes raised at either 21°C or 25°C. The amount of sleep recovered was then investigated after a nighttime of sleep deprivation (12 h) and after chronic sleep deprivation (3 h every night for multiple nights). Finally, the effects of aging on arousal, namely, sensitivity to neuronal and mechanical stimuli, were studied. Results: We show that fly sleep is affected by age in a manner similar to that of humans and other mammals. Not only do older flies of several genotypes have more fragmented sleep and reduced total sleep time compared to young flies, but older flies also fail to recover as much sleep after sleep deprivation. This suggests either lower sleep homeostasis and/or a failure to properly recover sleep. Older flies also show a decreased arousal threshold, i.e., an increased response to neuronal and mechanical wake-promoting stimuli. The reduced threshold may either reflect or cause the reduced recovery sleep of older flies compared to young flies after sleep deprivation. Conclusions: Further studies are certainly needed, but we suggest that the lower homeostatic sleep drive of older flies causes their decreased arousal threshold. Citation: Vienne J, Spann R, Guo F, Rosbash M. Age-related reduction of recovery sleep and arousal threshold in Drosophila. SLEEP 2016;39(8):1613–1624. PMID:27306274

  1. Age-related normal uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-MDP in the lower spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundkvist, G.M.G. [Dept. of Clinical Physiology, Centralsjukhuset, Kristianstad (Sweden); Lilja, B. [Dept. of Clinical Physiology, Universitetssjukhuset MAS, Malmoe (Sweden); Mattsson, S. [Dept. of Radiation Physics, Universitetssjukhuset MAS, Malmoe (Sweden)

    1997-03-01

    Aim: The uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-MDP in the lower spine was quantified in connection with ordinary bone scintigraphy. Methods: Fifty-seven women and seventy-two men (aged 20-69 y), with no signs of metabolic or malignant disease and no history of back pain or atraumatic fractures, were included in the study. Results: The women showed an increase in {sup 99m}Tc-MDP uptake from the age of 20 y to about 45 y with a decrease from the time of menopause. In contrast to women, the uptake in men showed a slight decrease from the age of 20 y to about 50 y and thereafter a more marked decrease was seen. The major difference between men and women is the high premenopausal uptake in the female skeleton. Conclusion: An understanding of age-related changes in {sup 99m}Tc-MDP uptake, which are indices of the skeletal metabolism, is of importance especially in prevention and treatment of osteoporosis, a common disorder in postmenopausal women. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ziel: In Verbindung mit einer routinemaessigen Skelettszintigraphie wurde die Speicherung von {sup 99m}Tc-MDP in der unteren Wirbelsaeule quantifiziert. Methoden: 57 Frauen und 22 Maenner (Alter von 20-69 Jahren) ohne metabolische oder boesartige Erkrankungen sowie ohne Rueckenschmerzen oder Wirbelsinterungen wurden in die Studien aufgenommen. Ergebnisse: Bei Frauen zeigte sich ein Anstieg der {sup 99m}Tc-MDP-Speicherung zwischen den Altersabschnitten 20 bis 45 Jahre und dann ein Abfall waehrend der Menopause. Im Gegensatz hierzu zeigte sich bei Maennern ein leichter Abfall der Speicherung vom 20. bis 50. Lebensjahr und danach eine noch staerkere Abnahme. Der Hauptunterschied zwischen den Geschlechtern ist die relativ hohe Speicherung im weiblichen Skelett praemenopausal. Schlussfolgerung: Das Verstaendnis der Altersbeziehungen der {sup 99m}Tc-MDP-Speicherung als Indikator des Knochenstoffwechsels ist fuer Praevention und Behandlung der postmenopausalen Osteoporose wichtig. (orig.)

  2. Age-related changes in functional connectivity of cerebellar PlV: a FDG PET study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Sang Soo; Yoon, Eun Jin; Bang, Seong Ae; Park, Hyun Soo; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Kim, Sang Eun

    2007-01-01

    The cerebellum is known to have strong connection with cerebral cortex, and it shows the greatest mean shrinkage with aging. Changes in functional connectivity between cerebellum and cortical and subcortical cerebral areas possibly occur in normal aging. In this study, we tested changes of interregional connection between cerebellar posterior inferior vermis (PIV) and cerebrum in healthy subjects divided in three classes of age group (young: 20-30, middle age: 40-50, elderly: over 60 years) using FDG PET. 211 healthy subjects (age, 20-82 y; 134 female) were studied with resting-state brain glucose utilization measured by FDG-PET, cerebellar PIV activity after count-normalization to the whole gray matter mean count was extracted. Using PIV count as a 'seed', the maps of cross-correlation coefficients were computed by measuring the correlation between 'seed' and all the other brain voxels (P < 0.001 uncorrected, k = 100). Across all age groups, positive correlations of metabolic activity in the cerebellar PIV showed in cerebellum itself and bilateral thalamus. An extended positive correlation in cuneus which is served for visual information processing was observed in middle aged and elderly group differently from the young group. Also, in elderly group, this correlation was observed in the frontal areas such as right orbital and precentral gyri. Negative correlation implicating mutual inhibition between the areas was also founded in prefrontal and cingulate cortices and temporoparietal association areas. Comparing with the young group, in theses areas, enlarged negative correlations was founded with aging. We identified age related changes in cerebrocerebellar communication loop which reflect changes in local neuroplasticity in the normal aging brain. Present result may have implication for understanding the functional decline of cerebellum related cognitive ability as well as the deficit of motor coordination in normal aging and its compensation mechanism of brain

  3. Age-related changes in functional connectivity of cerebellar PlV: a FDG PET study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Sang Soo; Yoon, Eun Jin; Bang, Seong Ae; Park, Hyun Soo; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Kim, Sang Eun [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    The cerebellum is known to have strong connection with cerebral cortex, and it shows the greatest mean shrinkage with aging. Changes in functional connectivity between cerebellum and cortical and subcortical cerebral areas possibly occur in normal aging. In this study, we tested changes of interregional connection between cerebellar posterior inferior vermis (PIV) and cerebrum in healthy subjects divided in three classes of age group (young: 20-30, middle age: 40-50, elderly: over 60 years) using FDG PET. 211 healthy subjects (age, 20-82 y; 134 female) were studied with resting-state brain glucose utilization measured by FDG-PET, cerebellar PIV activity after count-normalization to the whole gray matter mean count was extracted. Using PIV count as a 'seed', the maps of cross-correlation coefficients were computed by measuring the correlation between 'seed' and all the other brain voxels (P < 0.001 uncorrected, k = 100). Across all age groups, positive correlations of metabolic activity in the cerebellar PIV showed in cerebellum itself and bilateral thalamus. An extended positive correlation in cuneus which is served for visual information processing was observed in middle aged and elderly group differently from the young group. Also, in elderly group, this correlation was observed in the frontal areas such as right orbital and precentral gyri. Negative correlation implicating mutual inhibition between the areas was also founded in prefrontal and cingulate cortices and temporoparietal association areas. Comparing with the young group, in theses areas, enlarged negative correlations was founded with aging. We identified age related changes in cerebrocerebellar communication loop which reflect changes in local neuroplasticity in the normal aging brain. Present result may have implication for understanding the functional decline of cerebellum related cognitive ability as well as the deficit of motor coordination in normal aging and its compensation

  4. The Rationale for Delaying Aging and the Prevention of Age-Related Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nir Barzilai

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available [Excerpt] We offer a different approach to delaying or preventing age-related diseases. To understand the necessity for a new approach we have plotted the mortality rates in Israelis in relation to specific age groups and diseases. With the common phenomenon of aging of Western populations it is of utmost importance to follow time-dependent and age-dependent mortality patterns to predict future needs of Western health systems. Age-specific, gender-specific, and cause-of-death-specific mortality rates were extracted from the statistical abstract of Israel1 and include data for the period of 1975–2010; these are presented in Figure 1, separately for men (A and women (B. Detailed age-specific causes of death data were available for the year 2009. Data presented were restricted to 5-year age groups starting at age 50, and for cause-specific mortality to the following age groups: 45–54, 55–64, 65–74, 75–84, and 85+. Causes of mortality were separated into malignant diseases, acute myocardial infarction, other ischemic heart diseases, other forms of heart diseases, cerebrovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, respiratory diseases, diseases of kidney, infectious diseases, all external causes, signs/symptoms and ill-defined conditions, and all other diseases. Figure 1 is similar to the one posted on the National Institute of Aging website and similar to data across the industrial world. The striking feature of this graph is that aging is a major log scale risk for most diseases, including the major killers: heart disease, cancer, diabetes, and Alzheimer’s. For example, while aging is a 100-fold risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD according to Figure 1, hypercholesterolemia is known to carry only a three-fold risk for CVD. For each of the mentioned diseases, aging is a log risk greater than the most important known risk factor for that disease.

  5. An age-related deficit in spatial-feature reference memory in homing pigeons (Columba livia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppola, Vincent J; Flaim, Mary E; Carney, Samantha N; Bingman, Verner P

    2015-03-01

    Age-related memory decline in mammals has been well documented. By contrast, very little is known about memory decline in birds as they age. In the current study we trained younger and older homing pigeons on a reference memory task in which a goal location could be encoded by spatial and feature cues. Consistent with a previous working memory study, the results revealed impaired acquisition of combined spatial-feature reference memory in older compared to younger pigeons. Following memory acquisition, we used cue-conflict probe trials to provide an initial assessment of possible age-related differences in cue preference. Both younger and older pigeons displayed a similarly modest preference for feature over spatial cues. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Factorial Structure and Age-Related Psychometrics of the MIDUS Personality Adjective Items across the Lifespan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimprich, Daniel; Allemand, Mathias; Lachman, Margie E.

    2014-01-01

    The present study addresses issues of measurement invariance and comparability of factor parameters of Big Five personality adjective items across age. Data from the Midlife in the United States (MIDUS) survey were used to investigate age-related developmental psychometrics of the MIDUS personality adjective items in two large cross-sectional samples (exploratory sample: N = 862; analysis sample: N = 3,000). After having established and replicated a comprehensive five-factor structure of the measure, increasing levels of measurement invariance were tested across ten age groups. Results indicate that the measure demonstrates strict measurement invariance in terms of number of factors and factor loadings. Also, we found that factor variances and covariances were equal across age groups. By contrast, a number of age-related factor mean differences emerged. The practical implications of these results are discussed and future research is suggested. PMID:21910548

  7. Age-related trends in late mortality following traumatic brain injury: A multicentre inception cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nott, Melissa T; Gates, Thomas M; Baguley, Ian J

    2015-06-01

    To investigate age-related mortality risk following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Review of 2545 consecutive discharges from three metropolitan rehabilitation centres in New South Wales, between 1 January 1990 and 1 October 2007. Survival status was censored on 1 October 2009. Between-group differences were assessed for older/younger patients. Multivariate Cox hazard regression was used to evaluate age-related mortality risk. Crude mortality rates, standardised mortality ratios and cause of death data were derived for each age decade. After controlling for known mortality risk factors, older patients were three times more likely to die than younger patients. Crude mortality rates increased exponentially with advancing age. However, when compared to normative population data, younger adults with TBI (following TBI. © 2014 ACOTA.

  8. Understanding Motivations and User Interests as Antecedents for Different Interaction Forms in Online Communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Lina; Sørensen, Bjarne Taulo; Tudoran, Ana Alina

    This study contributes to the understanding of online user communities as a potential source of innovation. That would require an interest from users in interacting in such communities. In order to establish interaction, users must provide as well as consume information. However, depending...... on the innovation task, one may be more important than the other. It is therefore important to understand, how companies can increase user willingness to engage in these different interaction forms. This study investigates the influence of various motivation factors and user interests on intention to provide...... or consume information in online food communities. A survey was conducted among 1009 respondents followed by analysis based on Structural Equation Modelling. Results revealed the effect of motivation factors to be stronger than basic consumer interests indicating that companies can influence the intended...

  9. Removing obstacles for African American English-speaking children through greater understanding of language difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Barbara Zurer; Conner, Tracy; Jackson, Janice E

    2013-01-01

    Language difference among speakers of African American English (AAE) has often been considered language deficit, based on a lack of understanding about the AAE variety. Following Labov (1972), Wolfram (1969), Green (2002, 2011), and others, we define AAE as a complex rule-governed linguistic system and briefly discuss language structures that it shares with general American English (GAE) and others that are unique to AAE. We suggest ways in which mistaken ideas about the language variety add to children's difficulties in learning the mainstream dialect and, in effect, deny them the benefits of their educational programs. We propose that a linguistically informed approach that highlights correspondences between AAE and the mainstream dialect and trains students and teachers to understand language varieties at a metalinguistic level creates environments that support the academic achievement of AAE-speaking students. Finally, we present 3 program types that are recommended for helping students achieve the skills they need to be successful in multiple linguistic environments.

  10. Age-related changes in the endocytic capacity of rat liver Kupffer and endothelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brouwer, A.; Barelds, R.J.; Knook, D.L.

    1985-01-01

    There are many indications that the functional capacity of the reticuloendothelial system (RES) declines with age. The aim of this study was to investigate the cellular basis of age-related changes in the clearance function of the RES. The experiments were focused mainly on Kupffer and endothelial cells of the liver which represent a major part of the RES and are primarily responsible for clearance of colloidal material from the circulation. The clearance capacity of the RES was tested clinically and experimentally by intravenous injection of colloids, such as radiolabeled heat-aggregated colloidal albumin. Age-related changes in the endocytosis of 125 I-labeled colloidal albumin (CA) in rats were determined by clearance and organ distribution of different doses of intravenously injected CA, uptake of CA by Kupffer and endothelial liver cells in vivo as determined after isolation of the cells from injected rats and kinetic studies on CA uptake by Kupffer cells in culture. The results show that, at a low dose, the clearance of CA is primarily determined by liver blood flow. At a higher saturating dose, plasma clearance and uptake by the liver are not significantly decreased with age. Endocytosis by endothelial cells, which accounts for about 60% of that of the whole liver, is also unchanged with age. In contrast, a significant decrease in endocytic capacity was observed for Kupffer cells in vivo. This age-related functional decline was also observed in Kupffer cells which were isolated from rats of different ages and maintained in culture

  11. The Marmoset as a Model of Aging and Age-Related Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardif, Suzette D.; Mansfield, Keith G.; Ratnam, Rama; Ross, Corinna N.; Ziegler, Toni E.

    2013-01-01

    The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) is poised to become a standard nonhuman primate aging model. With an average lifespan of 5 to 7 years and a maximum lifespan of 16.5 years, marmosets are the shortest-lived anthropoid primates. They display age-related changes in pathologies that mirror those seen in humans, such as cancer, amyloidosis, diabetes, and chronic renal disease. They also display predictable age-related differences in lean mass, calf circumference, circulating albumin, hemoglobin, and hematocrit. Features of spontaneous sensory and neurodegenerative change—for example, reduced neurogenesis, β-amyloid deposition in the cerebral cortex, loss of calbindin D28k binding, and evidence of presbycusis—appear between the ages of 7 and 10 years. Variation among colonies in the age at which neurodegenerative change occurs suggests the interesting possibility that marmosets could be specifically managed to produce earlier versus later occurrence of degenerative conditions associated with differing rates of damage accumulation. In addition to the established value of the marmoset as a model of age-related neurodegenerative change, this primate can serve as a model of the integrated effects of aging and obesity on metabolic dysfunction, as it displays evidence of such dysfunction associated with high body weight as early as 6 to 8 years of age. PMID:21411858

  12. Middle ear impedance studies in elderly patients implications on age-related hearing loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olusola Ayodele Sogebi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Controversies arise with respect to functioning of the middle ear over time.OBJECTIVE: To assess changes in middle ear impedance that may be related to aging, and/or if there was an association of these changes with those of the inner ear in the elderly patients.METHODS: Cross-sectional, comparative study of elderly patients managed in ear, nose and throat clinics. A structured questionnaire was administered to obtain clinical information. Pure tone audiometry, tympanometry, and acoustic reflexes were performed. Comparative analyses were performed to detect intergroup differences between clinico-audiometric findings and middle ear measures, viz. tympanograms and acoustic reflexes.RESULTS: One hundred and three elderly patients participated in the study; 52.4% were male, averagely 70.0 ± 6.3 years old, age-related hearing loss in 59.2%, abnormal tympanograms in 39.3%, absent acoustic reflex in 37.9%. There was no association between age and gender in patients with abnormal tympanograms and absent acoustic reflex. Significantly more patients with different forms and grades of age-related hearing loss had abnormal tympanometry and absent acoustic reflex.CONCLUSION: Some abnormalities were observed in the impedance audiometric measures of elderly patients, which were significantly associated with parameters connected to age-related hearing loss.

  13. Middle ear impedance studies in elderly patients implications on age-related hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sogebi, Olusola Ayodele

    2015-01-01

    Controversies arise with respect to functioning of the middle ear over time. To assess changes in middle ear impedance that may be related to aging, and/or if there was an association of these changes with those of the inner ear in the elderly patients. Cross-sectional, comparative study of elderly patients managed in ear, nose and throat clinics. A structured questionnaire was administered to obtain clinical information. Pure tone audiometry, tympanometry, and acoustic reflexes were performed. Comparative analyses were performed to detect intergroup differences between clinico-audiometric findings and middle ear measures, viz. tympanograms and acoustic reflexes. One hundred and three elderly patients participated in the study; 52.4% were male, averagely 70.0±6.3 years old, age-related hearing loss in 59.2%, abnormal tympanograms in 39.3%, absent acoustic reflex in 37.9%. There was no association between age and gender in patients with abnormal tympanograms and absent acoustic reflex. Significantly more patients with different forms and grades of age-related hearing loss had abnormal tympanometry and absent acoustic reflex. Some abnormalities were observed in the impedance audiometric measures of elderly patients, which were significantly associated with parameters connected to age-related hearing loss. Copyright © 2014 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  14. OUTER RETINAL TUBULATION: Characteristics in Patients With Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iaculli, Cristiana; Barone, Antonio; Scudieri, Marilisa; Giovanna Palumbo, Maria; Delle Noci, Nicola

    2015-10-01

    To assess the incidence, characteristics, best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), central macular thickness (CMT), and retinal sensitivity correlations in patients with and without outer retinal tubulation (ORT) affected by subfoveal choroidal neovascularization due to neovascular age-related macular degeneration. Prospective case series including 78 eyes of 78 consecutive patients with subfoveal choroidal neovascularization due to neovascular age-related macular degeneration. Baseline and follow-up visits included BCVA, intraocular pressure, ophthalmoscopic examination, CMT as measured by spectral domain optical coherence tomography, and retinal sensitivity tested with fundus-related perimetry (MP-1). Fluorescent angiography was performed at baseline. At the end of the follow-up period, the mean BCVA and CMT of patients with ORT were statistically different from those without ORT (BCVA: 0.61 ± 0.13 vs. 0.37 ± 1.59, P macular degeneration suggest that these parameters are statistically different in patients with ORT; this may be due to the pathogenesis of ORT formation, secondary to retinal pigment epithelial tears or photoreceptor damage. MP-1 microperimeter is a noninvasive instrument that provides useful information to better characterize the functional aspect of ORT in patients with age-related macular degeneration.

  15. Developmental improvement and age-related decline in unfamiliar face matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megreya, Ahmed M; Bindemann, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Age-related changes have been documented widely in studies of face recognition and eyewitness identification. However, it is not clear whether these changes arise from general developmental differences in memory or occur specifically during the perceptual processing of faces. We report two experiments to track such perceptual changes using a 1-in- 10 (experiment 1) and 1-in-1 (experiment 2) matching task for unfamiliar faces. Both experiments showed improvements in face matching during childhood and adult-like accuracy levels by adolescence. In addition, face-matching performance declined in adults of the age of 65 years. These findings indicate that developmental improvements and aging-related differences in face processing arise from changes in the perceptual encoding of faces. A clear face inversion effect was also present in all age groups. This indicates that those age-related changes in face matching reflect a quantitative effect, whereby typical face processes are engaged but do not operate at the best-possible level. These data suggest that part of the problem of eyewitness identification in children and elderly persons might reflect impairments in the perceptual processing of unfamiliar faces.

  16. Gödel, Escher, and degree of handedness: differences in interhemispheric interaction predict differences in understanding self-reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niebauer, Christopher Lee; Garvey, Kilian

    2004-01-01

    Ramachandran (1995) theorised that the left hemisphere (LH) is specialised for making a single and consistent interpretation of the self and the world, whereas the right hemisphere (RH) is responsible for monitoring anomalies in reference to these interpretations. If the anomalous information reaches a threshold, it interacts with the LH to update these interpretations or beliefs. Because mixed handers may have greater degrees of interhemispheric interaction compared to strong handers, they may have a lower threshold for updating beliefs. Two previous studies found this to be the case (Niebauer, Aselage, & Schutte, 2002a; Niebauer, Christman, & Reid, 2002b). Because monitoring one's beliefs may involve metacognitive processes, i.e., cognitions about cognitions, this model was extended to help explain individual differences in understanding self-referential concepts. In the first two studies, mixed-handed participants displayed a greater understanding of self-reference using a conceptual description of Gödel's Incompleteness Theorem. In a third study, mixed-handed participants displayed greater appreciation for self-referential works of M. C. Escher. Implications for a neuropsychological model of metacognition are discussed.

  17. Understanding Patterns of Library Use Among Undergraduate Students from Different Disciplines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Collins

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To test whether routinely-generated library usage data could be linked with information about students to understand patterns of library use among students from different disciplines at the University of Huddersfield. This information is important for librarians seeking to demonstrate the value of the library, and to ensure that they are providing services which meet user needs. The study seeks to join two strands of library user research which until now have been kept rather separate – an interest in disciplinary differences in usage, and a methodology which involves large-scale routinely-generated data. Methods – The study uses anonymized data about individual students derived from two sources: routinely-generated data on various dimensions of physical and electronic library resource usage, and information from the student registry on the course studied by each student. Courses were aggregated at a subject and then disciplinary level. Kruskal-Wallis and Mann Whitney tests were used to identify statistically significant differences between the high-level disciplinary groups, and within each disciplinary group at the subject level. Results – The study identifies a number of statistically significant differences on various dimensions of usage between both high-level disciplinary groupings and lower subject-level groupings. In some cases, differences are not the same as those observed in earlier studies, reflecting distinctive usage patterns and differences in the way that disciplines or subjects are defined and organised. While music students at Huddersfield are heavy library users within the arts subject-level grouping arts students use library resources less than those in social science disciplines, contradicting findings from studies at other institutions, Computing and engineering students were relatively similar, although computing students were more likely to download PDFs, and engineering students were more likely to

  18. [Risk factors for age-related macular degeneration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starzycka, M; Słomska, J; Górniak-Bednarz, A; Ortyl, E

    1997-01-01

    To present the results of examinations of the risk factors for age-related macular degeneration (AMD) carried out in the last 3 years. Our clinical material comprised 119 patients, 69 women and 50 men, aged 43-85, mean age 70 years. Using classification according to the worse eye, there were 20 patients with drusen, 27 with atrophic changes and 72 with exudative form and AMD. The following risk factors were evaluated: age, sex, body mass index, history of general medical conditions, cigarette smoking, sun exposure, family history of AMD and ocular conditions such as iris color, lens opacities, hyperopia, gerontoxon and changes in retinal vessels. The significant relationships were found between the development of AMD and the age of patients, as well as between the advanced forms of AMD and the history of cardiovascular diseases and sclerotic changes in retinal vessels, 87% of examined patients have light iris and 52% body mass index above 26. The studies confirmed the role of age in the development of AMD and indicated cardiovascular disturbances, increased body mass index and light iris as the possible risk factors for AMD that are most worth further studying. The special attention should be also paid to drusen as the risk factor of AMD.

  19. Bioactive Nutrients and Nutrigenomics in Age-Related Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Rescigno

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The increased life expectancy and the expansion of the elderly population are stimulating research into aging. Aging may be viewed as a multifactorial process that results from the interaction of genetic and environmental factors, which include lifestyle. Human molecular processes are influenced by physiological pathways as well as exogenous factors, which include the diet. Dietary components have substantive effects on metabolic health; for instance, bioactive molecules capable of selectively modulating specific metabolic pathways affect the development/progression of cardiovascular and neoplastic disease. As bioactive nutrients are increasingly identified, their clinical and molecular chemopreventive effects are being characterized and systematic analyses encompassing the “omics” technologies (transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics are being conducted to explore their action. The evolving field of molecular pathological epidemiology has unique strength to investigate the effects of dietary and lifestyle exposure on clinical outcomes. The mounting body of knowledge regarding diet-related health status and disease risk is expected to lead in the near future to the development of improved diagnostic procedures and therapeutic strategies targeting processes relevant to nutrition. The state of the art of aging and nutrigenomics research and the molecular mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of bioactive nutrients on the main aging-related disorders are reviewed herein.

  20. Age-related neuroinflammatory changes negatively impact on neuronal function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina A Lynch

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuroinflammatory changes, characterized by an increase in microglial activation and often accompanied by upregulation of inflammatory cytokines like interleukin-1β (IL-1β, are common to many, if not all, neurodegenerative diseases. Similar, though less dramatic neuroinflammatory changes are also known to occur with age. Among the consequences of these changes is an impairment in synaptic function and the evidence suggests that inflammatory cytokines may be the primary contributory factor responsible for the deficits in synaptic plasticity which have been identified in aged rodents. Specifically a decrease in the ability of aged rats to sustain long-term potentiation (LTP in perforant path-granule cells of the hippocampus is associated with increased microglial activation. This review considers the evidence which suggests a causal relationship between these changes and the factors which contribute to the age-related microglial activation, and reflects on data which demonstrate that agents which inhibit microglial activation also improve ability of rats to sustain LTP.

  1. Radiation therapy for age-related macular degeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Ayako; Honda, Kaoru; Ishibashi, Tatsuro; Shioyama, Yoshiyuki [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1998-11-01

    We evaluated the effects of low-dose radiation on choroidal neovascular membrane (CNV) in age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Since Chakravarthy reported the benefits from administration of low-dose external-beam irradiation for CNV, many studies have demonstrated that irradiation could have a beneficial treatment effect, whereas several reports have not. In our hospital, 12 eyes with AMD received 10 Gy of 4 MV photons and the other 9 eyes received 20 Gy. Another 4 eyes were untreated as control. After 6 months of treatment, visual acuity was maintained in 11 eyes, improved in 5 eyes, and deteriorated in 5 eyes of treated patients. In control group, visual acuity was maintained in 1 eye and deteriorated in 3 eyes. The size of CNV regressed in 10 eyes, remained stationary in 2 eyes and progressed in 2 eyes of treated patients, while in control group CNV regressed in 2 eyes and remained stationary in 1 eye. After 12 months some CNV progressed. Although the present result seems to be better than those in previous reports, whether or not the treatment is beneficial has to be awaited. (author)

  2. Age-related cerebral white matter changes on computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, Hitoshi; Kobayashi, Shotai; Koide, Hiromi; Yamaguchi, Shuhei; Okada, Kazunori; Shimote, Kouichi; Tsunematsu, Tokugoro

    1989-01-01

    Changes of cerebral white matter on computed cranial tomography related to aging were studied in 70 subjects aged 30 to 94 years. The subjects had no histories of cerebrovascular accidents and no abnormalities in the central nervous system were shown by physical examinations and CT scans. We measured the average attenuation values (CT numbers) of each elliptical region (165 pixels, 0.39cm 2 ) in the bilateral thalamus and twelve areas of deep white matter. Multiple regression analysis was used to assess the effects of age, cranial size and cranial bone CT numbers on the brain CT numbers. We also studied the association between brain CT numbers and brain atrophy, hypertension, diabetes mellitus. CT numbers of frontal white matter surrounding anterior horns decreased with aging in 70 subjects aged 30 to 94 years. No significant correlation between age and brain CT numbers was found in any other region by multivariate analysis, because of the prominent effect of cranial bone CT numbers on brain CT numbers. Although no age-related changes of white matter CT numbers was found in 41 subjects aged 30 to 65 years, there were significant negative correlations between age and white matter CT numbers at all regions in 29 subjects aged 66 to 94 years. Brain atrophy was associated with brain CT numbers. No association was found for hypertension or diabetes mellitus. Brain CT numbers decreased with aging even in neurologically healthy persons in older age. Brain CT numbers also decreased as cerebral atrophy advanced. (author)

  3. Targeting Mitochondria to Counteract Age-Related Cellular Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina T. Madreiter-Sokolowski

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Senescence is related to the loss of cellular homeostasis and functions, which leads to a progressive decline in physiological ability and to aging-associated diseases. Since mitochondria are essential to energy supply, cell differentiation, cell cycle control, intracellular signaling and Ca2+ sequestration, fine-tuning mitochondrial activity appropriately, is a tightrope walk during aging. For instance, the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS ensures a supply of adenosine triphosphate (ATP, but is also the main source of potentially harmful levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Moreover, mitochondrial function is strongly linked to mitochondrial Ca2+ homeostasis and mitochondrial shape, which undergo various alterations during aging. Since mitochondria play such a critical role in an organism’s process of aging, they also offer promising targets for manipulation of senescent cellular functions. Accordingly, interventions delaying the onset of age-associated disorders involve the manipulation of mitochondrial function, including caloric restriction (CR or exercise, as well as drugs, such as metformin, aspirin, and polyphenols. In this review, we discuss mitochondria’s role in and impact on cellular aging and their potential to serve as a target for therapeutic interventions against age-related cellular dysfunction.

  4. Cellular models and therapies for age-related macular degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L. Forest

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Age-related macular degeneration (AMD is a complex neurodegenerative visual disorder that causes profound physical and psychosocial effects. Visual impairment in AMD is caused by the loss of retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE cells and the light-sensitive photoreceptor cells that they support. There is currently no effective treatment for the most common form of this disease (dry AMD. A new approach to treating AMD involves the transplantation of RPE cells derived from either human embryonic or induced pluripotent stem cells. Multiple clinical trials are being initiated using a variety of cell therapies. Although many animal models are available for AMD research, most do not recapitulate all aspects of the disease, hampering progress. However, the use of cultured RPE cells in AMD research is well established and, indeed, some of the more recently described RPE-based models show promise for investigating the molecular mechanisms of AMD and for screening drug candidates. Here, we discuss innovative cell-culture models of AMD and emerging stem-cell-based therapies for the treatment of this vision-robbing disease.

  5. Assessment of Age-Related Changes in Pediatric Gastrointestinal Solubility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharaj, Anil R; Edginton, Andrea N; Fotaki, Nikoletta

    2016-01-01

    Compound solubility serves as a surrogate indicator of oral biopharmaceutical performance. Between infancy and adulthood, marked compositional changes in gastrointestinal (GI) fluids occur. This study serves to assess how developmental changes in GI fluid composition affects compound solubility. Solubility assessments were conducted in vitro using biorelevant media reflective of age-specific pediatric cohorts (i.e., neonates and infants). Previously published adult media (i.e., FaSSGF, FeSSGF, FaSSIF.v2, and FeSSIF.v2) were employed as references for pediatric media development. Investigations assessing age-specific changes in GI fluid parameters (i.e., pepsin, bile acids, pH, osmolality, etc.) were collected from the literature and served to define the composition of neonatal and infant media. Solubility assessments at 37 °C were conducted for seven BCS Class II compounds within the developed pediatric and reference adult media. For six of the seven compounds investigated, solubility fell outside an 80-125% range from adult values in at least one of the developed pediatric media. This result indicates a potential for age-related alterations in oral drug performance, especially for compounds whose absorption is delimited by solubility (i.e., BCS Class II). Developmental changes in GI fluid composition can result in relevant discrepancies in luminal compound solubility between children and adults.

  6. Automatic age-related macular degeneration detection and staging

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Grinsven, Mark J. J. P.; Lechanteur, Yara T. E.; van de Ven, Johannes P. H.; van Ginneken, Bram; Theelen, Thomas; Sánchez, Clara I.

    2013-03-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a degenerative disorder of the central part of the retina, which mainly affects older people and leads to permanent loss of vision in advanced stages of the disease. AMD grading of non-advanced AMD patients allows risk assessment for the development of advanced AMD and enables timely treatment of patients, to prevent vision loss. AMD grading is currently performed manually on color fundus images, which is time consuming and expensive. In this paper, we propose a supervised classification method to distinguish patients at high risk to develop advanced AMD from low risk patients and provide an exact AMD stage determination. The method is based on the analysis of the number and size of drusen on color fundus images, as drusen are the early characteristics of AMD. An automatic drusen detection algorithm is used to detect all drusen. A weighted histogram of the detected drusen is constructed to summarize the drusen extension and size and fed into a random forest classifier in order to separate low risk from high risk patients and to allow exact AMD stage determination. Experiments showed that the proposed method achieved similar performance as human observers in distinguishing low risk from high risk AMD patients, obtaining areas under the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve of 0.929 and 0.934. A weighted kappa agreement of 0.641 and 0.622 versus two observers were obtained for AMD stage evaluation. Our method allows for quick and reliable AMD staging at low costs.

  7. The Role of Inflammation in Age-Related Sarcopenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastiaan Dalle

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Many physiological changes occur with aging. These changes often, directly or indirectly, result in a deterioration of the quality of life and even in a shortening of life expectancy. Besides increased levels of reactive oxygen species, DNA damage and cell apoptosis, another important factor affecting the aging process involves a systemic chronic low-grade inflammation. This condition has already been shown to be interrelated with several (subclinical conditions, such as insulin resistance, atherosclerosis and Alzheimer's disease. Recent evidence, however, shows that chronic low-grade inflammation also contributes to the loss of muscle mass, strength and functionality, referred to as sarcopenia, as it affects both muscle protein breakdown and synthesis through several signaling pathways. Classic interventions to counteract age-related muscle wasting mainly focus on resistance training and/or protein supplementation to overcome the anabolic inflexibility from which elderly suffer. Although the elderly benefit from these classic interventions, the therapeutic potential of anti-inflammatory strategies is of great interest, as these might add up to/support the anabolic effect of resistance exercise and/or protein supplementation. In this review, the molecular interaction between inflammation, anabolic sensitivity and muscle protein metabolism in sarcopenic elderly will be addressed.

  8. Adiponectin deficiency exacerbates age-related hearing impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanigawa, T; Shibata, R; Ouchi, N; Kondo, K; Ishii, M; Katahira, N; Kambara, T; Inoue, Y; Takahashi, R; Ikeda, N; Kihara, S; Ueda, H; Murohara, T

    2014-01-01

    Obesity-related disorders are closely associated with the development of age-related hearing impairment (ARHI). Adiponectin (APN) exerts protective effects against obesity-related conditions including endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis. Here, we investigated the impact of APN on ARHI. APN-knockout (APN-KO) mice developed exacerbation of hearing impairment, particularly in the high frequency range, compared with wild-type (WT) mice. Supplementation with APN prevented the hearing impairment in APN-KO mice. At 2 months of age, the cochlear blood flow and capillary density of the stria vascularis (SV) were significantly reduced in APN-KO mice as compared with WT mice. APN-KO mice also showed a significant increase in terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL)-positive apoptotic cells in the organ of Corti in the cochlea at 2 months of age. At the age of 6 months, hair cells were lost at the organ of Corti in APN-KO mice. In cultured auditory HEI-OC1 cells, APN reduced apoptotic activity under hypoxic conditions. Clinically, plasma APN levels were significantly lower in humans with ARHI. Multiple logistic regression analysis identified APN as a significant and independent predictor of ARHI. Our observations indicate that APN has an important role in preventing ARHI. PMID:24763046

  9. Age related prolactin secretion in men after fentanyl anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliberti, Giuseppe; Pulignano, Isabella; Schiappoli, Angelo; Cigognetti, Leonilde; Tritapepe, Luigi; Proietta, Maria

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of age in the hormonal response to opiate anaesthetic fentanyl. In 90 patients undergoing aortocoronary bypass, 59.6 +/- 9.2 years mean age, 35-81 age range, prolactin (PRL), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), human growth hormone (HGH), insulin-like growth factor I (IGF I), glucagon and insulin were measured in venous blood samples drawn from fasting patients immediately before, at 8 h in the morning, and 60 min after the induction of anaesthesia with 30 microg/kg intravenous fentanyl bolus, 30 min after a second 7 microg/kg fentanyl bolus. Results showed a higher 60 min PRL peak in older, >65 years, in respect to younger, 65 and in 51-65-year-olds than in younger patients (for the basal values, respectively, P65 in respect to < or =50 (P<0.02) and to 51-65-year-old patients (P<0.05), with a significant negative correlation with age (r=-0.33; P<0.005). The study shows an age related increase of PRL concentrations after fentanyl administration. It may be due to the reduction of the hypothalamic dopaminergic tone with aging. IGF I levels have been confirmed to be inversely correlated with age.

  10. Community benefits from offshore renewables: The relationship between different understandings of impact, community, and benefit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudolph, David Philipp; Haggett, Claire; Aitken, Mhairi

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of a research project evaluating community benefit models for offshore renewables. We identify and analyse UK and international case studies of different forms of community benefit, and provide evidence of how such benefits are delivered. In particular we consider...... the key relationship between the identification of communities, perception of impact, and the apportionment of benefits. In doing so, we develop a range of different definitions of ‘community’, ‘benefit’, and ‘impact’ when considering community benefits. We propose that the way in which community, benefit......, and impact are understood is crucial in determining whether or how benefits should be apportioned and delivered; and that these definitions are closely connected to each other. We develop a new series of typologies as a way to understand this. Finally, we assess different mechanisms and schemes of community...

  11. Observing and understanding arterial and venous circulation differences in a physiology laboratory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altermann, Caroline; Gonçalves, Rithiele; Lara, Marcus Vinícius S; Neves, Ben-Hur S; Mello-Carpes, Pâmela B

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of the present article is to describe three simple practical experiments that aim to observe and discuss the anatomic and physiological functions and differences between arteries and veins as well as the alterations observed in skin blood flow in different situations. For this activity, students were divided in small groups. In each group, a volunteer is recruited for each experiment. The experiments only require a sphygmomanometer, rubber bands, and a clock and allow students to develop a hypothesis to explain the different responses to the interruption of arterial and venous blood flow. At the end, students prepare a short report, and the results are discussed. This activity allows students to perceive the presence of physiology in their daily lives and helps them to understand the concepts related to the cardiovascular system and hemodynamics. Copyright © 2015 The American Physiological Society.

  12. Age-related alterations of brain network underlying the retrieval of emotional autobiographical memories: an fMRI study using independent component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Ruiyang; Fu, Yan; Wang, Dahua; Yao, Li; Long, Zhiying

    2014-01-01

    Normal aging has been shown to modulate the neural underpinnings of autobiographical memory and emotion processing. Moreover, previous researches have suggested that aging produces a "positivity effect" in autobiographical memory. Although a few imaging studies have investigated the neural mechanism of the positivity effect, the neural substrates underlying the positivity effect in emotional autobiographical memory is unclear. To understand the age-related neural changes in emotional autobiographical memory that underlie the positivity effect, the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study used the independent component analysis (ICA) method to compare brain networks in younger and older adults as they retrieved positive and negative autobiographical events. Compared to their younger counterparts, older adults reported relatively higher positive feelings when retrieving emotional autobiographical events. Imaging data indicated an age-related reversal within the ventromedial prefrontal/anterior cingulate cortex (VMPFC/ACC) and the left amygdala of the brain networks that were engaged in the retrieval of autobiographical events with different valence. The retrieval of negative events compared to positive events induced stronger activity in the VMPFC/ACC and weaker activity in the amygdala for the older adults, whereas the younger adults showed a reversed pattern. Moreover, activity in the VMPFC/ACC within the task-related networks showed a negative correlation with the emotional valence intensity. These results may suggest that the positivity effect in older adults' autobiographical memories is potentially due to age-related changes in controlled emotional processing implemented by the VMPFC/ACC-amygdala circuit.

  13. A mid-life vitamin A supplementation prevents age-related spatial memory deficits and hippocampal neurogenesis alterations through CRABP-I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touyarot, Katia; Bonhomme, Damien; Roux, Pascale; Alfos, Serge; Lafenêtre, Pauline; Richard, Emmanuel; Higueret, Paul; Pallet, Véronique

    2013-01-01

    Age-related memory decline including spatial reference memory is considered to begin at middle-age and coincides with reduced adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Moreover, a dysfunction of vitamin A hippocampal signalling pathway has been involved in the appearance of age-related memory deficits but also in adult hippocampal neurogenesis alterations. The present study aims at testing the hypothesis that a mid-life vitamin A supplementation would be a successful strategy to prevent age-related memory deficits. Thus, middle-aged Wistar rats were submitted to a vitamin A enriched diet and were tested 4 months later in a spatial memory task. In order to better understand the potential mechanisms mediating the effects of vitamin A supplementation on hippocampal functions, we studied different aspects of hippocampal adult neurogenesis and evaluated hippocampal CRABP-I expression, known to modulate differentiation processes. Here, we show that vitamin A supplementation from middle-age enhances spatial memory and improves the dendritic arborisation of newborn immature neurons probably resulting in a better survival and neuronal differentiation in aged rats. Moreover, our results suggest that hippocampal CRABP-I expression which controls the intracellular availability of retinoic acid (RA), may be an important regulator of neuronal differentiation processes in the aged hippocampus. Thus, vitamin A supplementation from middle-age could be a good strategy to maintain hippocampal plasticity and functions.

  14. Understanding balance differences in individuals with multiple sclerosis with mild disability: An investigation of differences in sensory feedback on postural and dynamic balance control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denomme, Luke T.

    straight walking portion of the task in addition to a smaller DSM range (i.e., COM remained close to lateral BOS) during the entire steering task. These results suggest that IwMS adopt postural and dynamic control strategies (i.e., increased COP velocity, smaller self-selected maximal sway comfort zones and reduced walking speed) in order to maintain stability and complete the tasks. Results further revealed that IwMS display similar levels of postural and dynamic stability to OA despite differences in the type of sensory impairment possessed by each group. The findings also provide insights into the comparison of IwMS to two populations who represent the two extreme ends of the balance control continuum: HAMI and OA. Our data indicates that the level of postural and dynamic balance control in IwMS appears to express similar characteristics and may be located closer to the OA population on this continuum. Future research should evaluate the level of somatosensory impairment (i.e., monofilament testing and tuning fork tendon tap testing) between IwMS and OA in order to better differentiate levels of postural and dynamic balance control between groups and to gain a better understanding of where each group may be specifically located on the age-related balance control continuum.

  15. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Patients with the Wet Form of Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lešták, Jan; Tintěra, Jaroslav; Karel, Ivan; Svatá, Zuzana; Rozsíval, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The study is designed to determine the relationship between the progress of the wet form of age-related macular degeneration and the activity of the visual cortex examined using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Ten patients with the wet form of age-related macular degeneration (9 female and 1 male) with a mean age of 74.7 years (58–85 years) at various stages of bilateral involvement of the disease were included. Patients did not suffer from any other ocular nor neurological disease. All the patients underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging examinations with stimulation of both eyes using a black-and-white checkerboard of size 25.8 × 16.2 degrees. The group was compared with a group of healthy subjects with an average age of 54.1 years (45–65 years). For statistical evaluation, the Mann-Whitney U test was used. Comparing the extent of visual cortex activations we found a statistically significant difference between both the groups (p = 0.0247). However, the dependence of functional magnetic resonance imaging activity on visual acuity was not statistically significant (p = 0.223). We conclude that in patients with the wet form of age-related macular degeneration, lower functional magnetic resonance imaging activity of the visual cortex was found compared with the control group of healthy subjects. Dependence of functional magnetic resonance imaging activity on visual acuity was not statistically significant. PMID:28167987

  16. Serum Antioxidative Enzymes Levels and Oxidative Stress Products in Age-Related Cataract Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Chang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate the activity of antioxidative enzymes and the products of oxidative stress in patients with age-related cataracts and compare the findings with those in healthy control subjects. Method. Sixty patients with age-related cataract and sixty healthy controls of matched age and gender were included in this study. Serum samples were obtained to detect the antioxidative enzymes of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, and oxidation degradation products of malondialdehyde (MDA, 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE, conjugated diene (CD, advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP, protein carbonyl (PC, and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG. Results. Serum SOD, GSH-Px, and CAT activities in cataract group were significantly decreased as compared to the control subjects (P<0.05. The levels of MDA, 4-HNE, and CD in cataract patients were significantly higher than those in the control subjects (P<0.05, P<0.01. Cataract patients had higher levels of 8-OHdG, AOPP, and PC with respect to the comparative group of normal subjects (P<0.01. And there was no statistical significance in concentration of antioxidative enzymes and oxidative stress products in patients with different subtype cataract. Conclusions. Oxidative stress is an important risk factor in the development of age-related cataract, and augmentation of the antioxidant defence systems may be of benefit to prevent or delay cataractogenesis.

  17. High Cognitive Reserve is associated with a reduced age-related deficit in spatial conflict resolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga ePuccioni

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Several studies support the existence of a specific age-related difficulty in suppressing potentially distracting information. The aim of the present study is to investigate whether spatial conflict resolution is selectively affected by aging. The way aging affects individuals could be modulated by many factors determined by the socieconomic status: we investigated whether factors such as cognitive reserve (CR and years of education may play a compensatory role against age-related deficits in the spatial domain. A spatial Stroop task with no feature repetitions was administered to a sample of 17 non-demented older adults (69-79 years old and 18 younger controls (18-34 years old matched for gender and years of education. The two age groups were also administered with measures of intelligence and CR. The overall spatial Stroop effect did not differ according to age, neither for speed nor for accuracy. The two age groups equally showed sequential effects for congruent trials: reduced response times (RTs if another congruent trial preceded them, and accuracy at ceiling. For incongruent trials, older adults, but not younger controls, were influenced by congruency of trialn-1, since RTs increased with preceding congruent trials. Interestingly, such an age-related modulation negatively correlated with CR. These findings suggest that spatial conflict resolution in aging is predominantly affected by general slowing, rather than by a more specific deficit. However, a high level of CR seems to play a compensatory role for both factors.

  18. High cognitive reserve is associated with a reduced age-related deficit in spatial conflict resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puccioni, Olga; Vallesi, Antonino

    2012-01-01

    Several studies support the existence of a specific age-related difficulty in suppressing potentially distracting information. The aim of the present study is to investigate whether spatial conflict resolution is selectively affected by aging. The way aging affects individuals could be modulated by many factors determined by the socieconomic status: we investigated whether factors such as cognitive reserve (CR) and years of education may play a compensatory role against age-related deficits in the spatial domain. A spatial Stroop task with no feature repetitions was administered to a sample of 17 non-demented older adults (69–79 years-old) and 18 younger controls (18–34 years-old) matched for gender and years of education. The two age groups were also administered with measures of intelligence and CR. The overall spatial Stroop effect did not differ according to age, neither for speed nor for accuracy. The two age groups equally showed sequential effects for congruent trials: reduced response times (RTs) if another congruent trial preceded them, and accuracy at ceiling. For incongruent trials, older adults, but not younger controls, were influenced by congruency of trialn−1, since RTs increased with preceding congruent trials. Interestingly, such an age-related modulation negatively correlated with CR. These findings suggest that spatial conflict resolution in aging is predominantly affected by general slowing, rather than by a more specific deficit. However, a high level of CR seems to play a compensatory role for both factors. PMID:23248595

  19. Magnetic resonance fiber density mapping of age-related white matter changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stadlbauer, Andreas, E-mail: andi@nmr.at [MR Physics Group, Department of Radiology, Landesklinikum St. Poelten, Propst Fuehrer Strasse 4, A-3100 St. Poelten (Austria); Department of Neurosurgery, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Schwabachanlage 6, 91054 Erlangen (Germany); Ganslandt, Oliver [Department of Neurosurgery, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Schwabachanlage 6, 91054 Erlangen (Germany); Salomonowitz, Erich [MR Physics Group, Department of Radiology, Landesklinikum St. Poelten, Propst Fuehrer Strasse 4, A-3100 St. Poelten (Austria); Buchfelder, Michael [Department of Neurosurgery, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Schwabachanlage 6, 91054 Erlangen (Germany); Hammen, Thilo [Department of Neurology, Epilepsy Center, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Schwabachanlage 6, D-90429 Erlangen (Germany); Bachmair, Johanna [MR Physics Group, Department of Radiology, Landesklinikum St. Poelten, Propst Fuehrer Strasse 4, A-3100 St. Poelten (Austria); Eberhardt, Knut [Krankenhaus Schloss Werneck, MRT-Kompetenzzentrum, Balthasar-Neumann-Platz 1, D-97440 Werneck (Germany)

    2012-12-15

    Objectives: To introduce fiber density mapping (FDM) for investigation of age-related white matter (WM) changes and to compare its capabilities with conventional diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) post-processing. Methods: DTI data with 1.9 mm{sup 3} isotropic voxels were acquired from 44 healthy volunteers (18–88 years) at 3 T. FDM is a 3-step approach which includes diagonalization of the diffusion tensor, fiber reconstruction for the whole brain, and calculation of fiber density (FD) values. Maps of fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) were additionally calculated. Voxel-based analyses were performed to determine volume clusters of significant correlation with age. Bivariate linear regression models and Hotelling–Williams tests were used to detect significant differences between correlations. Results: FDM detected a larger WM volume affected by age-related changes concomitant with fewer significant clusters compared to FA and MD. This indicates that WM alterations due to normal aging occur rather globally than locally. FD values showed a significant stronger correlation with age in frontal lobes (prefrontal and precentral gyrus), limbic lobes (cingulate and parahippocampal gyrus), the corpus callosum (genu) and temporal lobes. Conclusions: FDM shows higher sensitivity for detection of age-related WM changes because it includes all surrounding fiber structures into the evaluation of each DTI data voxel.

  20. Cognitive impairment in the Age-Related Eye Disease Study: AREDS report no. 16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemons, Traci E; Rankin, Molly W; McBee, Wendy L

    2006-04-01

    To investigate potential associations between cognitive function and/or impairment and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and visual impairment in the Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS). The AREDS is an 11-center natural history study of AMD and age-related cataract. The AREDS Cognitive Function Battery was administered to 2946 participants. The battery consists of 6 neuropsychological tests measuring performance in several cognitive domains. The Dunnett multiple comparison test was used to identify differences by AMD and visual acuity severity. The relationship with cognitive impairment was also assessed using logistic regression. Mean scores of instruments in the AREDS Cognitive Function Battery declined with increased macular abnormalities and reduced visual acuity. After adjustment for age, sex, race, education, smoking status, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and depression, increased macular abnormalities (trend P value cognitive function scores as measured by the Modified Mini-Mental State Examination and the Wechsler Logical Memory Scale. Reduced vision was found to be associated with reduced mean cognitive function scores as measured by the Modified Mini-Mental State Examination and letter and verbal fluency tasks. Persons with vision worse than 20/40 OU were more likely to be cognitively impaired (Modified Mini-Mental State Examination score cognitive impairment in older persons.

  1. Functional and Homeostatic Impact of Age-Related Changes in Lymph Node Stroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather L. Thompson

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Adults over 65 years of age are more vulnerable to infectious disease and show poor responses to vaccination relative to those under 50. A complex set of age-related changes in the immune system is believed to be largely responsible for these defects. These changes, collectively termed immune senescence, encompass alterations in both the innate and adaptive immune systems, in the microenvironments where immune cells develop or reside, and in soluble factors that guide immune homeostasis and function. While age-related changes in primary lymphoid organs (bone marrow, and, in particular, the thymus, which involutes in the first third of life have been long appreciated, changes affecting aging secondary lymphoid organs, and, in particular, aging lymph nodes (LNs have been less well characterized. Over the last 20 years, LN stromal cells have emerged as key players in maintaining LN morphology and immune homeostasis, as well as in coordinating immune responses to pathogens. Here, we review recent progress in understanding the contributions of LN stromal cells to immune senescence. We discuss approaches to understand the mechanisms behind the decline in LN stromal cells and conclude by considering potential strategies to rejuvenate aging LN stroma to improve immune homeostasis, immune responses, and vaccine efficacy in the elderly.

  2. Aging-related changes in respiratory system mechanics and morphometry in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Jonathan E; Mantilla, Carlos B; Pabelick, Christina M; Roden, Anja C; Sieck, Gary C

    2016-07-01

    Previous work investigating respiratory system mechanics in mice has reported an aging-related increase in compliance and mean linear intercept (Lm). However, these changes were assessed using only a young (2-mo-old) and old (20- and 26-mo-old) group yet were interpreted to reflect a linear evolution across the life span. Therefore, to investigate respiratory system mechanics and lung morphometry across a more complete spectrum of ages, we utilized 2 (100% survival, n = 6)-, 6 (100% survival, n = 12)-, 18 (90% survival, n = 12)-, 24 (75% survival, n = 12)-, and 30 (25% survival, n = 12)-mo-old C57BL/6 mice. We found a nonlinear aging-related decrease in respiratory system resistance and increase in dynamic compliance and hysteresis between 2- and 24-mo-old mice. However, in 30-mo-old mice, respiratory system resistance increased, and dynamic compliance and hysteresis decreased relative to 24-mo-old mice. Respiratory system impedance spectra were measured between 1-20.5 Hz at positive end-expiratory pressures (PEEP) of 1, 3, 5, and 7 cmH2O. Respiratory system resistance and reactance at each level of PEEP were increased and decreased, respectively, only in 2-mo-old animals. No differences in the respiratory system impedance spectra were observed in 6-, 18-, 24-, and 30-mo-old mice. Additionally, lungs were fixed following tracheal instillation of 4% paraformaldehyde at 25 cmH2O and processed for Lm and airway collagen deposition. There was an aging-related increase in Lm consistent with emphysematous-like changes and no evidence of increased airway collagen deposition. Accordingly, we demonstrate nonlinear aging-related changes in lung mechanics and morphometry in C57BL/6 mice. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Age-related macular degeneration: prevention and treatment. A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Mirzabekova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Age-related macular degeneration (AMD is a multifactorial disease. Age, light exposure, smoking, melanin levels and low-antioxidant diet are contributed to AMD development and progression. Cardiovascular disorders are of considerable importance as well. In macula, photoreceptor outer segments that are rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (FA, particularly, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, are susceptible to free radicals damage. High blood flow velocity and oxygen partial pressure as well as direct sunlight exposure induce oxidative processes. The source of free radicals in photoreceptor cells and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE is an extensive mitochondrial metabolism, photoreceptor outer segments phagocytosis, lipofuscin phototoxic activity and hemoglobin or protoporphyrin precursors photosensitization. Oxidative stress is considered as an universal component of cell depth in necrosis, apoptosis and toxic damage. Antioxidant protective system consists of enzymes (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase and non-enzymatic factors (ascorbic acid, alpha tocopherol, retinol, carotenoids. Specific antioxidant food supplement containing ascorbic acid (500 mg, vitamin E (400 IU and beta carotene (15 mg coupled with zinc (80 mg of zinc oxide and copper (2 mg of copper oxide results in 25 % decrease in late-stage AMD development rate. Amongst the agents that can protect retina from oxidative stress and AMD development, carotenoids are of special importance. Lutein and zeaxanthin containing in retina and lens screen blue light from central area of the retina. They also absorb blue light and inhibit free radicals generation thus preventing polyunsaturated FA light destruction. Association between lutein and zeaxanthin intake and late-stage AMD risk was revealed. Amongst the most important factors which deficiency favors macular degeneration are omega-3 FAs, i.e., DHA. DHA is the key component of visual pigment rhodopsin transformation. It

  4. Age-related macular degeneration: prevention and treatment. A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Mirzabekova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Age-related macular degeneration (AMD is a multifactorial disease. Age, light exposure, smoking, melanin levels and low-antioxidant diet are contributed to AMD development and progression. Cardiovascular disorders are of considerable importance as well. In macula, photoreceptor outer segments that are rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (FA, particularly, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, are susceptible to free radicals damage. High blood flow velocity and oxygen partial pressure as well as direct sunlight exposure induce oxidative processes. The source of free radicals in photoreceptor cells and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE is an extensive mitochondrial metabolism, photoreceptor outer segments phagocytosis, lipofuscin phototoxic activity and hemoglobin or protoporphyrin precursors photosensitization. Oxidative stress is considered as an universal component of cell depth in necrosis, apoptosis and toxic damage. Antioxidant protective system consists of enzymes (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase and non-enzymatic factors (ascorbic acid, alpha tocopherol, retinol, carotenoids. Specific antioxidant food supplement containing ascorbic acid (500 mg, vitamin E (400 IU and beta carotene (15 mg coupled with zinc (80 mg of zinc oxide and copper (2 mg of copper oxide results in 25 % decrease in late-stage AMD development rate. Amongst the agents that can protect retina from oxidative stress and AMD development, carotenoids are of special importance. Lutein and zeaxanthin containing in retina and lens screen blue light from central area of the retina. They also absorb blue light and inhibit free radicals generation thus preventing polyunsaturated FA light destruction. Association between lutein and zeaxanthin intake and late-stage AMD risk was revealed. Amongst the most important factors which deficiency favors macular degeneration are omega-3 FAs, i.e., DHA. DHA is the key component of visual pigment rhodopsin transformation. It

  5. Static and flicker perimetry in age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luu, Chi D; Dimitrov, Peter N; Wu, Zhichao; Ayton, Lauren N; Makeyeva, Galina; Aung, Khin-Zaw; Varsamidis, Mary; Robman, Luba; Vingrys, Algis J; Guymer, Robyn H

    2013-05-01

    The relationship between clinical severity of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and macular function has not been well established. In this study, we investigated the correlation between clinical severity and functional deficits as detected by static and flicker perimetry. This cross-sectional study consisted of 279 AMD subjects and 24 control participants. AMD subjects were allocated into 1 of 10 AMD severity groups depending on the status of the designated study eye and the fellow eye, as assessed by color fundus photographs. Visual acuity, and static and flicker perimetry were tested on one eye during the same session. The geometric means, SDs, and percentage of abnormal eyes of static and flicker sensitivity of each AMD severity group were determined and compared. The pattern of change in sensitivity and percentage of abnormal eyes for static perimetry across all AMD severity groups were similar to flicker perimetry. Eyes with drusen > 125 μm (P[static] = 0.018, P[flicker] = 0.024), drusenoid epithelial detachment (P[static and flicker] flicker] flicker sensitivities compared to normal eyes. Static (β-coefficient -1.59, 95% confidence interval [CI] -4.78-1.60) and flicker (β-coefficient -1.29, 95% CI -4.66-2.08) sensitivities declined at a similar rate in eyes that showed clinical signs of progression. Static and flicker perimetry were affected similarly across the spectrum of AMD severity, and methods appeared to be valid techniques for assessing retinal sensitivity in AMD once drusen > 125 μm are present, but before the development of late AMD.

  6. Modelling the genetic risk in age-related macular degeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Grassmann

    Full Text Available Late-stage age-related macular degeneration (AMD is a common sight-threatening disease of the central retina affecting approximately 1 in 30 Caucasians. Besides age and smoking, genetic variants from several gene loci have reproducibly been associated with this condition and likely explain a large proportion of disease. Here, we developed a genetic risk score (GRS for AMD based on 13 risk variants from eight gene loci. The model exhibited good discriminative accuracy, area-under-curve (AUC of the receiver-operating characteristic of 0.820, which was confirmed in a cross-validation approach. Noteworthy, younger AMD patients aged below 75 had a significantly higher mean GRS (1.87, 95% CI: 1.69-2.05 than patients aged 75 and above (1.45, 95% CI: 1.36-1.54. Based on five equally sized GRS intervals, we present a risk classification with a relative AMD risk of 64.0 (95% CI: 14.11-1131.96 for individuals in the highest category (GRS 3.44-5.18, 0.5% of the general population compared to subjects with the most common genetic background (GRS -0.05-1.70, 40.2% of general population. The highest GRS category identifies AMD patients with a sensitivity of 7.9% and a specificity of 99.9% when compared to the four lower categories. Modeling a general population around 85 years of age, 87.4% of individuals in the highest GRS category would be expected to develop AMD by that age. In contrast, only 2.2% of individuals in the two lowest GRS categories which represent almost 50% of the general population are expected to manifest AMD. Our findings underscore the large proportion of AMD cases explained by genetics particularly for younger AMD patients. The five-category risk classification could be useful for therapeutic stratification or for diagnostic testing purposes once preventive treatment is available.

  7. The importance of understanding individual differences in Down syndrome [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette Karmiloff-Smith

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we first present a summary of the general assumptions about Down syndrome (DS still to be found in the literature. We go on to show how new research has modified these assumptions, pointing to a wide range of individual differences at every level of description. We argue that, in the context of significant increases in DS life expectancy, a focus on individual differences in trisomy 21 at all levels—genetic, cellular, neural, cognitive, behavioral, and environmental—constitutes one of the best approaches for understanding genotype/phenotype relations in DS and for exploring risk and protective factors for Alzheimer’s disease in this high-risk population.

  8. Energy landscape differences among integrins establish the framework for understanding activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Springer, Timothy A

    2018-01-02

    Why do integrins differ in basal activity, and how does affinity for soluble ligand correlate with cellular adhesiveness? We show that basal conformational equilibrium set points for integrin α 4 β 1 are cell type specific and differ from integrin α 5 β 1 when the two integrins are coexpressed on the same cell. Although α 4 β 1 is easier to activate, its high-affinity state binds vascular cell adhesion molecule and fibronectin 100- to 1,000-fold more weakly than α 5 β 1 binds fibronectin. Furthermore, the difference in affinity between the high- and low-affinity states is more compressed in α 4 β 1 (600- to 800-fold) than in α 5 β 1 (4,000- to 6,000-fold). α 4 β 1 basal conformational equilibria differ among three cell types, define affinity for soluble ligand and readiness for priming, and may reflect differences in interactions with intracellular adaptors but do not predict cellular adhesiveness for immobilized ligand. The measurements here provide a necessary framework for understanding integrin activation in intact cells, including activation of integrin adhesiveness by application of tensile force by the cytoskeleton, across ligand-integrin-adaptor complexes. This is a work of the U.S. Government and is not subject to copyright protection in the United States. Foreign copyrights may apply.

  9. Evaluation of the siRNA PF-04523655 versus ranibizumab for the treatment of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (MONET Study)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Quan Dong; Schachar, Ronald A; Nduaka, Chudy I

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of different dosing paradigms of PF-04523655 (PF) versus ranibizumab (comparator) in subjects with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD).......To evaluate the efficacy of different dosing paradigms of PF-04523655 (PF) versus ranibizumab (comparator) in subjects with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD)....

  10. Comparison of national level biomass maps for conterminous US: understanding pattern and causes of differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Neeti

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As Earth observation satellite data proliferate, so too do maps derived from them. Even when two co-located maps are produced with low overall error, the spatial distribution of error may not be the same. Increasingly, methods will be needed to understand differences among purportedly similar products. For this study, we have used the four aboveground biomass (AGB maps for conterminous US generated under NASA’s Carbon Monitoring System. We have developed systematic approach to (1 assess both the absolute accuracy of individual maps and assess the spatial patterns of agreement among maps, and (2 investigate potential causes of the spatial structure of agreement among maps to gain insight into reliability of methodological choices in map making. Results The comparison of the four biomass maps with FIA based total biomass estimates at national scale suggest that all the maps have higher biomass estimate compared to FIA. When the four maps were compared among each other, the result shows that the maps S and K have more similar spatial structure whereas the maps K and W have more similar absolute values. Although the maps K and W were generated using completely different methodological workflow, they agree remarkably. All the maps did well in the dominant forest type with maximum agreement between them. The comparison of difference between maps S and K with regional maps suggests that these maps were able to capture the disturbance and not so much regrowth pattern. Conclusions The study provides a comprehensive systematic approach to compare and evaluate different real data products using examples of four AGB maps. Although ostensibly the four maps map the same variable, they have different spatial distribution at different scale. Except the 2003 map, one can use other maps at the coarser spatial resolution. Finally, the disparate information available through different maps indicates a need for a temporal framework for

  11. Oxidative stress, innate immunity, and age-related macular degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Peter X.; Stiles, Travis; Douglas, Christopher; Ho, Daisy; Fan, Wei; Du, Hongjun; Xiao, Xu

    2016-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of vision loss affecting tens of millions of elderly worldwide. Early AMD is characterized by the appearance of soft drusen, as well as pigmentary changes in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). These soft, confluent drusen can progress into two forms of advanced AMD: geographic atrophy (GA, or dry AMD) or choroidal neovascularization (CNV, or wet AMD). Both forms of AMD result in a similar clinical progression in terms of loss of central vision. The exact mechanism for developing early AMD, as well as triggers responsible for progressing to advanced stage of disease, is still largely unknown. However, significant evidence exists demonstrating a complex interplay of genetic and environmental factors as causes of AMD progression. Multiple genes and/or single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been found associated with AMD, including various genes involved in the complement pathway, lipid metabolism and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling. Of the known genetic contributors to disease risk, the CFH Y402H and HTRA1/ARMS polymorphisms contribute to more than 50% of the genetic risk for AMD. Environmentally, oxidative stress plays a critical role in many aging diseases including cardiovascular disease, cancer, Alzheimer’s disease and AMD. Due to the exposure to sunlight and high oxygen concentration, the oxidative stress burden is higher in the eye than other tissues, which can be further complicated by additional oxidative stressors such as smoking. Increasingly, evidence is accumulating suggesting that functional abnormalities of the innate immune system incurred via high risk genotypes may be contributing to the pathogenesis of AMD by altering the inflammatory homeostasis in the eye, specifically in the handling of oxidation products. As the eye in non-pathological instances maintains a low level of inflammation despite the presence of a relative abundance of potentially inflammatory molecules, we have

  12. Interleukin-13 and age-related macular degeneration

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    Bo Fu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To identify the effects of interleukin (IL-13 on retinal pigment epithelial (RPE cells and the IL-13 level in aqueous humor of age-related macular degeneration (AMD patients. METHODS: IL-13 levels in aqueous humor specimens from AMD patients were detected with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. ARPE-19 cells were treated with 10 ng/mL IL-13 for 12, 24, and 48h. The cell proliferaton was evaluated by the MTS method. The mRNA and protein levels of α-SMA and ZO-1 were evaluated with quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR and Western blot respectively. The expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF were assessed by ELISA. RESULTS: IL-13 levels in the aqueous humor of patients with AMD were significantly higher than those in the control (167.33±17.64 vs 27.12±5.65 pg/mL; P<0.01. In vitro, IL-13 of high concentrations (10, 15, and 20 ng/mL inhibited ARPE-19 cell proliferation. α-SMA mRNA in ARPE-19 cell were increased (1.017±0.112 vs 1.476±0.168; P<0.001 and ZO-1 decreased (1.051±0.136 vs 0.702±0.069; P<0.001 after treated with 10 ng/mL IL-13 for 48h. The protein expression of α-SMA and ZO-1 also showed the same tendency (α-SMA: P=0.038; ZO-1: P=0.008. IL-13 significantly reduced the level of TNF-α (44.70±1.67 vs 31.79±3.53 pg/mL; P=0.005 at 48h, but the level of TGF-β2 was significantly increased from 34.44±2.92 to 57.61±6.31 pg/mL at 24h (P=0.004 and from 61.26±1.11 to 86.91±3.59 pg/mL at 48h (P<0.001. While expressions of VEGF didn’t change after IL-13 treatment. CONCLUSION: IL-13 in vitro inhibit ARPE-19 cell proliferation and expression in the aqueous may be associated with AMD.

  13. Age-related changes in the cognitive function of sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace-Schott, Edward F; Spencer, Rebecca M C

    2011-01-01

    Healthy aging is characterized by a diminished quality of sleep with decreased sleep duration and increased time awake after sleep onset. Older adults awaken more frequently and tend to awaken less from rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and more from non-REM (nREM) sleep than young adults. Sleep architecture also begins changing in middle age leading to a dramatic decrease in the deepest stage of nREM-slow wave sleep (SWS)-as aging progresses. Other less marked nREM changes include reduced numbers of sleep spindles and K-complexes. In contrast, the amount of REM diminishes only slightly. Both circadian and homeostatic sleep-regulatory processes are affected by aging. Circadian rhythms of temperature, melatonin, and cortisol are phase advanced and their amplitude diminished. An increased number of nocturnal awakenings and diminished daytime sleepiness suggest diminished homeostatic sleep pressure. A variety of endocrine and neuromodulatory changes (e.g., reduced growth hormone and dopamine levels) also accompany healthy aging. Healthy aging is characterized by declines in working memory and new episodic memory performance with relative sparing of semantic memory, recognition memory, and priming. Memory systems impacted by aging are associated with volumetric and functional changes in fronto-striatal circuits along with more limited changes in medial temporal structures (in which larger aging-related changes suggest neuropathology). Cross-sectional studies generally associate poorer sleep quality with poorer neuropsychological functioning. However, paradoxically, older adults appear to be more resistant to the cognitive effects of sleep deprivation, restriction, and fragmentation than younger adults. A new and expanding field examines the interaction between aging and sleep-dependent memory consolidation. Among forms of learning displaying prominent sleep-dependent consolidation in young adults, motor-sequence learning displays loss of sleep-dependent consolidation with

  14. A Novel Brain Network Construction Method for Exploring Age-Related Functional Reorganization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The human brain undergoes complex reorganization and changes during aging. Using graph theory, scientists can find differences in topological properties of functional brain networks between young and elderly adults. However, these differences are sometimes significant and sometimes not. Several studies have even identified disparate differences in topological properties during normal aging or in age-related diseases. One possible reason for this issue is that existing brain network construction methods cannot fully extract the “intrinsic edges” to prevent useful signals from being buried into noises. This paper proposes a new subnetwork voting (SNV method with sliding window to construct functional brain networks for young and elderly adults. Differences in the topological properties of brain networks constructed from the classic and SNV methods were consistent. Statistical analysis showed that the SNV method can identify much more statistically significant differences between groups than the classic method. Moreover, support vector machine was utilized to classify young and elderly adults; its accuracy, based on the SNV method, reached 89.3%, significantly higher than that with classic method. Therefore, the SNV method can improve consistency within a group and highlight differences between groups, which can be valuable for the exploration and auxiliary diagnosis of aging and age-related diseases.

  15. A Novel Brain Network Construction Method for Exploring Age-Related Functional Reorganization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Wang, Miao; Li, Yapeng; Huang, Yue; Chen, Xi

    2016-01-01

    The human brain undergoes complex reorganization and changes during aging. Using graph theory, scientists can find differences in topological properties of functional brain networks between young and elderly adults. However, these differences are sometimes significant and sometimes not. Several studies have even identified disparate differences in topological properties during normal aging or in age-related diseases. One possible reason for this issue is that existing brain network construction methods cannot fully extract the "intrinsic edges" to prevent useful signals from being buried into noises. This paper proposes a new subnetwork voting (SNV) method with sliding window to construct functional brain networks for young and elderly adults. Differences in the topological properties of brain networks constructed from the classic and SNV methods were consistent. Statistical analysis showed that the SNV method can identify much more statistically significant differences between groups than the classic method. Moreover, support vector machine was utilized to classify young and elderly adults; its accuracy, based on the SNV method, reached 89.3%, significantly higher than that with classic method. Therefore, the SNV method can improve consistency within a group and highlight differences between groups, which can be valuable for the exploration and auxiliary diagnosis of aging and age-related diseases.

  16. FDiff3: a finite-difference solver for facilitating understanding of heat conduction and numerical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, M.B. [University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield (United Kingdom). Department of Aerospace, Automotive and Design Engineering; Probert, S.D. [Cranfield University, Bedfordshire (United Kingdom). School of Engineering

    2004-12-01

    The growing requirement for energy thrift and hence the increasing emphasis on 'low-purchased-energy' designs are stimulating the need for more accurate insights into the thermal behaviours of buildings and their components. This better understanding is preferably achieved, rather than by using 'closed software' or teaching the relevant mathematics outside heat-transfer lessons, but from embedding the pertinent tutoring while dealing with heat-transfer problems using an open-source code approach. Hence a finite-difference software program (FDiff3) has been composed to show the principles of numerical analysis as well as improve the undergraduates' perception of transient conduction. The pedagogic approach behind the development, its present capabilities and applications to sample test-cases are discussed. (author)

  17. Sources of Individual Differences in Children’s Understanding of Fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukovic, Rose K.; Fuchs, Lynn S.; Geary, David C.; Jordan, Nancy C.; Gersten, Russell; Siegler, Robert S.

    2014-01-01

    Longitudinal associations of domain-general and numerical competencies with individual differences in children’s understanding of fractions were investigated. Children (n = 163) were assessed at 6 years of age on domain-general (nonverbal reasoning, language, attentive behavior, executive control, visual-spatial memory) and numerical (number knowledge) competencies; at 7 years on whole-number arithmetic computations and number line estimation; and at 10 years on fraction concepts. Mediation analyses controlling for general mathematics ability and general academic ability revealed that numerical and mathematical competencies were direct predictors of fraction concepts whereas domain-general competencies supported the acquisition of fraction concepts via whole-number arithmetic computations or number line estimation. Results indicate multiple pathways to fraction competence. PMID:24433246

  18. Thinking about television science: How students understand the nature of science from different program genres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhingra, Koshi

    2003-02-01

    Student views on the nature of science are shaped by a variety of out-of-school forces and television-mediated science is a significant force. To attempt to achieve a science for all, we need to recognize and understand the diverse messages about science that students access and think about on a regular basis. In this work I examine how high school students think about science that is mediated by four different program genres on television: documentary, magazine-format programming, network news, and dramatic or fictional programming. The following categories of findings are discussed: the ethics and validity of science, final form science, science as portrayed by its practitioners, and school science and television science. Student perceptions of the nature of science depicted on the program sample used in this study ranged from seeing science as comprising tentative knowledge claims to seeing science as a fixed body of facts.

  19. Different understandings of the relationship between teacher education and professional practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Lisbeth Angela Lunde; Lund, Jens Hansen; Beck, Mette Holdsendorf

    2016-01-01

    understandings of the relationship between teacher education and professional practice. We found that this relationship may impact how a teacher or manager actually practices the profession of education, including the methods teachers employ to teach, the methods the student teachers employ to teach......, and on the education totality. We also found that a lack of explanation of the educational paradigms to which teachers adhere may influence students’ optimal professional development.......In the Center for Didactic Methods and Approaches, VIA University College, we have developed a didactic model of reflection for teachers and managers with the purpose of reflecting on education, teaching, and explaining the educators’ educational paradigms. During the work, we found different...

  20. Modeling the Mechanical Consequences of Age-Related Trabecular Bone Loss by XFEM Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ruoxun; Gong, He; Zhang, Xianbin; Liu, Jun; Jia, Zhengbin; Zhu, Dong

    2016-01-01

    The elderly are more likely to suffer from fracture because of age-related trabecular bone loss. Different bone loss locations and patterns have different effects on bone mechanical properties. Extended finite element method (XFEM) can simulate fracture process and was suited to investigate the effects of bone loss on trabecular bone. Age-related bone loss is indicated by trabecular thinning and loss and may occur at low-strain locations or other random sites. Accordingly, several ideal normal and aged trabecular bone models were created based on different bone loss locations and patterns; then, fracture processes from crack initiation to complete failure of these models were observed by XFEM; finally, the effects of different locations and patterns on trabecular bone were compared. Results indicated that bone loss occurring at low-strain locations was more detrimental to trabecular bone than that occurring at other random sites; meanwhile, the decrease in bone strength caused by trabecular loss was higher than that caused by trabecular thinning, and the effects of vertical trabecular loss on mechanical properties were more severe than horizontal trabecular loss. This study provided a numerical method to simulate trabecular bone fracture and distinguished different effects of the possible occurrence of bone loss locations and patterns on trabecular bone.