Kadir, Mohd Amin Bin
This study describes adult learners understanding in learning Islam using the andragogy approach in Singapore comprising multicultural and multi-religious society. Singapore is a secular state where freedom of religion is encrypted in the constitution and Malay/Muslim comprises 13.3% of the population. Adults learn Islam to deepen their…
Gaiser, Robert R
Educators came to realize what internists and pediatricians have known all along: adults and children are not the same. They differ in physiology, pharmacology, and learning. To approach teaching of the adult learner as one would a child is likely to fail. To effectively design and execute a curriculum for the adult, the teacher must consider the role of personal experience, learning preparedness, learning orientation, and motivation to learn. Although these principles may seem novel, they represent good judgment when teaching the adult. The key factor for the educator is to determine the needs of the adult (which is typically based upon personal experience) and then design and implement a curriculum based upon these needs. This approach is backward from the approach used in children in which the curriculum is established without any input from the learner. One other means to improve success is to foster personal reflection upon the teaching by the adult learner. This reflection may develop from carefully phrased questions, from activities in applying the knowledge, or from within the learner. By helping the learner to reflect, the true goals of the teaching may be achieved and the teacher is rewarded by having a more knowledgeable provider, who is able to use and to question the new knowledge. The cycle of adult learning is completed but also starts again.
Nailul Morad MOHD NOR
Full Text Available World population ageing is unprecedented and pervasive which will affect all countries in the world. According to a United Nation report (2010: “By 2045, the number of older persons in the world will exceed the number of young for the first time in history.” The number of the older adult learners in distance education programs is also expected to increase in tandem with the growth of ageing population throughout the world. As such distance education institutions and instructors should be vigilant to this new emerging group of learners. The objectives of this study were to identify factors related to older adult learners’ participation in the distance education degree programs and their characteristics. Data were collected by using interviews and questionnaires. Respondents for the study were older adult learners age 50 and over who enrolled in degree programs at the School of Distance Education (SDE, Universiti Sains Malaysia in Malaysia. Five older adult learners were interviewed and 72 out of 123 respondents completed the questionnaires. The findings indicated that older adult learners’ participation in the distance education degree programs is mainly due to career advancement and to seek knowledge. The older adult learners’ distinct characteristics are high motivation, eager to learn, health conscious, effective time management, good social skills, no financial difficulties and have strong family support.
Bin Kadir, Mohd Amin; Arifin, Syamsul; Latipun; Fuad, Ahmad Nur
This study describes adult learners' understanding in learning Islam using andragogy approach in which the study was conducted in Kampung Siglap Mosque and Al-Zuhri Higher Learning Institute. Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) educate his companions of who are adults from the shackles of "jahiliyyah," spiritual and intellectual…
Hermans, Henry; Janssen, José; Vogten, Hubert; Koper, Rob
In adult education there is a continuous, growing demand for learning opportunities that fit the specific characteristics and preferences of particular learner groups or individual learners. This requires educational institutions to rethink their business and educational models, and develop more
Unaware of the messages a bare adult learning environment sends and its effect on adult learners, a trainer attends an intensive Reggio Emilia course and learns that the physical environment is the "third teacher"--for adults as well as for children. Using principles of Reggio, she offers suggestions for enhancing adult learning spaces and…
This article aims to provide evidence that "rote learning" or "memorisation" is a complex construct and is deeply embedded in the East Asian culture. An in-depth understanding of this learning approach is increasingly crucial considering the complex demography of contemporary higher education nowadays. Not only is there a rise…
Lund Larsen, Lea
This poster is a part of an on-going qualitative empirical research project: “Teachers of adults as learners. A study on teachers’ experiences in practice”. Adult learners have particular needs and characteristics that their teachers must be able to address. Some of the competencies that teachers...... need can be taught in formal settings, but in most teaching settings, the teachers act alone and develop their pedagogical approaches/-teaching strategies with no synchronous sparring from a colleague. Adult learners have particular needs and characteristics that their teachers must be able to address...... (cf. Knowles, Brookfield, Illeris, Lawler, King, Wahlgreen). If we study adult teachers as learners in practice, we may be able to identify what the teachers’ practice requires, and thereby qualify the efforts of teacher educators....
Holyoke, Laura; Heath-Simpson, Delta
This study explored connections between adult learners and their experiences in the context of small boutique wineries operating in the start-up phase of the organizational life cycle. The research objective was to gain insight regarding the pairing of adult learners with the entering of a specialty industry. Fourteen individuals from four…
Full Text Available This paper attempts at identifying the main features that characterize distance higher education and adult education, respectively, in order to be able to establish to what extent adult learners can fit in distance higher education programs. The historical background of distance learning education, the factors that influence adult learners, and distance learning’s key objectives, effects, issues, advantages, and disadvantages are to be briefly investigated in order to reach the purpose of this paper. Recent developments in Information Technology have led to a new approach to teaching and learning, especially as far as adult learning and distance learning are concerned. Thus, this study will also focus on the consequences of using technology for course design, delivery, and the perception of adult learners participating in distance learning.
Kistler, Mark J.
As more and more adults seek out education and training programs to help them become more competitive in the job market, it provides an opportunity for career and technical education. Those who teach adult learners should take into consideration their particular learning traits. This article highlights a framework of core principles to be…
Ozanne, Julie L.; Adkins, Natalie Ross; Sandlin, Jennifer A.
Little empirical evidence exists on how adult literacy learners act as consumers. Yet, adult literacy programs often employ a "functional" approach to consumer education and assume that adult learners are deficient in consumer skills. Data from a qualitative study of the consumer behaviors of adult literacy learners are used to explore how adult…
As Wight (1999, p.33) pointed out to“know a language was to know the grammar of it”, hence grammar teaching is usually the main approach in second or foreign language teaching. This paper presents an analysis from three aspects to il-lustrate why classroom grammar teaching benefits adult learners. However, if grammar is overstated, some negative results will occur. Therefore a balance between grammar teaching and communicative skill teaching is need, as is a balance between accuracy and fluency.
Flynn, Sarah; Brown, Jason; Johnson, Andrew; Rodger, Susan
This qualitative study examines barriers to adult education by the marginalized adult learner. We adopted an inclusive approach by interviewing potential adult learners who had not participated in adult education programs due to illiteracy. Five overlapping themes related to barriers emerged and were categorized as: family values and…
This paper attempts to contribute to a fuller understanding of the nature of language learner agency by considering it as a complex dynamic system. The purpose of the study was to explore detailed situated data to examine to what extent it is feasible to view learner agency through the lens of complexity theory. Data were generated through a…
Thoms, Karen Jarrett
This paper discusses motivation of adult learners. The first section discusses the adult learner, including the concepts of andragogy and pedagogy, as well as student-centered learning. The second section summarizes changing student demographics and predictions. The third section presents principles of adult learning. The fourth section covers…
This research attempted to provide an insight into major barriers facing adult learners pursuing a diploma in adult and continuing education programme through Blended Distance Learning. Participants included the adult learners, staff from the Department of Open and Distance Learning who are also the facilitators of the ...
This phenomenological study examined the transition of a group of adult English language learners from an Adult Basic Education program to a community college. The purpose of the study was to gain a deeper understanding of the driving forces of Adult Basic Education English language learners who had successfully transitioned from a non-credit…
This study explored what three Intermediate Phase English First Additional Language teachers understood about reading and teaching reading, and the strategies they used to develop learners' reading skills. Data gathered through interviews and observations of classroom practice were used to consider the extent of their ...
In recent years, with the rapid development of mobile devices, mobile learning (m-learning) has becoming another popular topic. There is a strong need for both researchers and educators to be aware of adult learners' attitudes toward English mobile learning, yet relevant studies on mobile learning to promote English learning for adult learners are…
education and the workplace. We use adult education and social learning theories to analyse an honours programme in Journalism and Media Studies where adult learners have flourished because access has been linked to learners' motivation, mindful adaptations to the curriculum, and support from the workplace.
O'Neill, Susan; Thomson, Margareta Maria
The current literature review explores the factors that contribute to academic persistence for adult learners. The aim of the study is to identify current research-based strategies aimed at supporting learner persistence, particularly for low-skilled adults. Elements of three theoretical frameworks, namely, expectancy-value theory (EVT), goal…
Heath-Simpson, Delta F.
The purpose of this phenomenological study was to understand and describe the lived experiences of adult learners who are owners and managers of small winery businesses operating in the start-up phase of the organizational life cycle. The study explored and identified the meaning of adult learning in the entrepreneurial context and its affect on…
Barkley, Heather R.
The limited research on adult learners and spiritual formation has created a knowledge gap regarding whether bachelor's degree-completion students value the faith aspects of their education at Christian colleges. As this population grows, so does the need to better understand if the spiritual components of adult programs are having an impact and…
Ade-Ojo, Gordon O.
Learners with dyslexia are likely to be over-represented in adult literacy classes because of the convergence in perceptions, causes and understanding of literacy problems and dyslexia. Given the great amount of apprehension about practitioners' and policy makers' understanding of dyslexia itself, it is important to carry out an exploration of the…
Alston, Geleana Drew; Clegg, T. E.; Clodfelter, Roy J., Jr.; Drye, Kimberly C.; Farrer, J. V.; Gould, Derek; Mohsin, Nidhal M.; Rankin, Tomiko N.; Ray, Sherri L.
Adult education is grounded in responding to the needs of others, and the field places emphasis on adult learning theories such as transformative learning and experiential learning. Service learning is an educational approach that balances formal instruction and direction with the opportunity for adult learners to serve in the community as a…
English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) practitioners are familiar with adult learners' stories of disruption, political trauma, and mental upheaval. Until recently, however, little attention has been paid to personal trauma and domestic abuse. Acknowledgement of the prevalence of violence generally, and of that experienced by those in the adult ESL…
Rousseau, Charlene X.
The purpose of this phenomenological study was to gain an understanding of the lived experiences of female adult learners pursuing graduate degrees online. As online graduate programs have become increasingly popular and more readily available in the last decade, more women than men are enrolling in online graduate programs in addition to…
... Step in the Right Direction Understanding Adult Overweight & Obesity View or Print All Sections Definition & Facts The terms “overweight” and “obesity” refer to body weight that is greater than ...
This article draws on a participatory photography project conducted with 10 socioeconomically disadvantaged adult learners for six weeks within the framework of production pedagogy. Throughout the project, the participants took photographs about their lives in response to three prompts that I gave: (1) take photographs of people that are important…
Examines the communication strategies used by adult second-language learners of English when performing contrasting pedagogic tasks. The article suggests that existing descriptions of communication strategies ignore the pragmatic function of such devices in interactive discourse and offers a reclassification that differentiates strategies…
Unlike most other papers which are devoted to the discussion of the problems of normal French language teaching / learning in anglophone settings, this paper examines specifically the anglophone adult learner of French, his needs and objectives. The paper provides a brief history of the introduction of French into Africa, ...
Singer, Elizabeth W.
Materials used by the director of a project designed to assist key personnel in businesses, industries, and agencies with the educational counseling of their employees are presented. The objectives of the project, "Training Mentors as Educational Advisors of Adult Learners," were to: (1) provide two training sessions in educational…
Seay, Sandra E.
Having stressful workdays is not the sole prerogative of adult students enrolled in educational leadership programs. According to a report released by the American Institute of Stress in 2002, 80% of adult workers felt stress in the workplace. From this it can be assumed that a certain amount of stress accompanies every adult who enters an evening…
Cantor, Jeffrey A.
This one-stop guide for trainers and educators of adults in industry, business, or the professions details a results-oriented instructional strategy that is based on the following principles for instructing adults effectively: (1) act as a leader, helper, guide, change agent, coordinator, and facilitator of learning; (2) promote active…
This edition reflects the latest work and advances in adult learning theory. Readers learn to develop meaningful programmes and use new techniques for effectively teaching adults. After examining the various theories of learning, the book presents the reasons why teaching adults is so different than teaching children. The book contains 13 appendices (100 pages) which give an overview of brain dominance technology and whole-brain thinking. There is also a self-diagnostic tool (photocopiable) for determining the competency of trainers, guidelines for learning contracts and ideas on how to switch from being a teacher to being a "facilitator of learning".
Plakhotnik, Maria S.; Delgado, Antonio; Seepersad, Rehana
This article explores four former doctoral students' perceptions about their selves as adult learners and adult educators through the use of autoethnography and reflective dialogue. The dynamics between the two selves were explored to identify emerging themes and implications for practice in adult education. The duality of their roles as learners…
Full Text Available The aim of the experiment described here was to attempt to measure adult learners' percetual interlanguage in phonology. The implementation of a methodology involving context-less lists of English words selected for their potential phonological problems is described, and the way in which learners process words they are listening to is discussed. The results of 13 Korean adults' perceptions and misperceptions are analysed: the most misperceived vowels were ID:/ and the short vowels /u, A, I, E, D, z/;c onsonants were mainly misperceived in word-final position, but 18, v, b, p, rl were misperceived to some extent in any position, and /S, j/ before the vowel /i:/; consonant clusters involving /f, 1, r/ were particularly subject to misperception. These findings have implications for the design of English pronunciation teaching materials for Koreans.
Sindhu P. NAIR
Full Text Available The growth of enrolment in the ODL system has been considerable. However, another parameter of significance in the context of Open and Distance learning is the learner success rate. While enrolment rates have been very encouraging in distance education, the pass-out rates haven’t been similar. There is a need to focus on the dynamics involved after a learner enrols himself in an OU and what drives him to stay focussed and complete his academic pursuit successfully or alternatively what holds or slows his academic progress and eventually makes him drop out. The study highlights that there are both institution-based (that is OU-based and learner-centric factors that could facilitate learners to successfully complete their studies. There are both controllable and uncontrollable factors that affect the OU learners’ success rate. This study attempts to capture the learner-centric factors and OU-related factors that have facilitated the learners to successfully complete their study. The paper delves into those key aspects or factors which would have facilitated the passed out learners in successfully completing their programmes in the open system. The findings are of direct interest, both from an institution perspective and that of a distance learner. It provides inputs to the Open and distance learning system, towards formulating appropriate strategies that further facilitate learners to successfully pass out. Also the findings serve as indicators/guide rules for any learner in the open system.
Storytelling has obvious benefits in the development of speaking and listening skills, vocabulary and memory abilities. It also nurtures reading and writing skills and offers learners opportunities to increase their confidence. Given the great value in employing storytelling as a support when learning a foreign language, I decided to use this technique with one of my adult EFL classrooms and observe the benefits and possible constraints. This paper presents the theoretical foundat...
Although many adult students turn to online degree programs due to their flexibility and convenience, a majority of prospective adult learners prefer to take classes on traditional brick-and-mortar campuses. This chapter examines how public research universities create pathways to degree attainment and boost degree completion rates among adult…
Nwosu, Uchenna June
Non-peer-reviewed Adult Basic Education learners return to education to solve a problem of inadequacy in life hence many adult basic education learners engage in the learning of basic skills to meet their needs in life than for the education itself. Due to feelings of inadequacy, in many instances the adult basic education learner displays low beliefs in abilities and capabilities which if not properly managed and enhanced can negatively impact on learning and consequently the mee...
Awofala, Adeneye O. A.; Anyikwa, Blessing E.
The study investigated adult learner numeracy as related to gender and performance in arithmetic among 32 Nigerian adult learners from one government accredited adult literacy centre in Lagos State using the quantitative research method within the blueprint of descriptive survey design. Data collected were analysed using the descriptive statistics…
Yap, Wei-Li; Neo, Mai; Neo, Tse-Kian
In Malaysia, traditional teaching is still a common approach among many lecturers. There have been many studies that have reported its limitations and many lecturers have started to adopt a more learner-centred teaching approach to promote better learner understanding and learner motivation. Throughout this effort, it is noticed there are…
De Paepe, Liesbeth; Zhu, Chang; Depryck, Koen
For the growing group of adult migrants, flexible solutions for second language (L2) acquisition are increasingly important, while concerns about the efficacy of online language learning abound. This study on the L2 situation in Flanders has 4 key aims: analyzing adult learner profiles in fully online Dutch beginners' courses; comparing learner…
Schroeder, Shawnda M.; Terras, Katherine L.
Although a majority of graduate students fall under the definition of adult learners (over age 24 years), many traditional institutions do not offer advising specific to them, nor do they recognize advising needs of these older students in online, classroom, or cohort situations. In this phenomenological study, 9 adult graduate learners were…
Huang, Jiuhan; Nisbet, Deanna
This article explores the relationship between reading strategy use and reading proficiency among 121 adult ESL learners. Reading strategy use was measured by the SORS, and reading proficiency was determined by the CASAS Reading Test and BEST Literacy Test. Findings of the study reveal that (a) adult ESL learners are active strategies users; (b)…
Dousay, Tonia A.
This study investigated the effects of two design principles as prescribed by the cognitive theory of multimedia learning on the situational interest of adult learners in a multimedia-based continuing education training program. One hundred and two adult learners employed by an emergency medical service were randomly assigned to one of three…
The paper finds out poor engagement in business English training program prevents adult learners at College of Continuing Education of Guangdong University of Foreign Studies from improving their communication skills. PBL (Project-Based Learning) is proposed to motivate adult learners to get involved with learning a lot. Based on the perspective…
Rabourn, Karyn E.; BrckaLorenz, Allison; Shoup, Rick
Adult learners are a growing population in U.S. postsecondary education who experience distinct barriers to academic success. However, higher education institutions continue to create and adhere to policies that favor traditional college students. Thus, adult learner experiences must be better understood to ensure this population is supported.…
The purpose of this study was to investigate the preferred method of learning about heart disease by adult learners. This research study also investigated if there was a statistically significant difference between race/ethnicity, age, and gender of adult learners and their preferred method of learning preventative heart disease care. This…
Alario-Hoyos, Carlos; Estévez-Ayres, Iria; Pérez-Sanagustín, Mar; Delgado Kloos, Carlos; Fernández-Panadero, Carmen
MOOCs (Massive Open Online Courses) have changed the way in which OER (Open Educational Resources) are bundled by teachers and consumed by learners. MOOCs represent an evolution towards the production and offering of structured quality OER. Many institutions that were initially reluctant to providing OER have, however, joined the MOOC wave.…
Rowlands, Gillian; Shaw, Adrienne; Jaswal, Sabrena; Smith, Sian; Harpham, Trudy
Health literacy, ‘the personal characteristics and social resources needed for individuals and communities to access, understand, appraise and use information and services to make decisions about health’, is key to improving peoples’ control over modifiable social determinants of health (SDH). This study listened to adult learners to understand their perspectives on gathering, understanding and using information for health. This qualitative project recruited participants from community skills courses to identify relevant ‘health information’ factors. Subsequently different learners put these together to develop a model of their ‘Journey to health’. Twenty-seven participants were recruited; twenty from community health literacy courses and seven from an adult basic literacy and numeracy course. Participants described health as a ‘journey’ starting from an individual's family, ethnicity and culture. Basic (functional) health literacy skills were needed to gather and understand information. More complex interactive health literacy skills were needed to evaluate the importance and relevance of information in context, and make health decisions. Critical health literacy skills could be used to adapt negative external factors that might inhibit health-promotion. Our model is an iterative linear one moving from ethnicity, community and culture, through lifestyle, to health, with learning revisited in the context of different sources of support. It builds on existing models by highlighting the importance of SDH in the translation of new health knowledge into healthy behaviours, and the importance of health literacy in enabling people to overcome barriers to health.
Jameson, Molly M.; Fusco, Brooke R.
Adult learners comprise a significant portion of current undergraduate populations, and projections indicate steady or growing numbers of adult learners in the future. Previous research has suggested that adult learners possess lower self-confidence than and face barriers not experienced by traditional undergraduate students. These constructs have…
Layow, Erica Amanda
This dissertation examined the representations novice and expert learners constructed for the geologic timescale. Learners engaged in a three-part activity. The purpose was to compare novice learners' representations to those of expert learners. This provided insight into the similarities and differences between their strategies for event ordering, assigning values and scale to the geologic timescale model, as well as their language and practices to complete the model. With a qualitative approach to data analysis informed by an expert-novice theoretical framework grounded in phenomenography, learner responses comprised the data analyzed. These data highlighted learners' metacognitive thoughts that might not otherwise be shared through lectures or laboratory activities. Learners' responses were analyzed using a discourse framework that positioned learners as knowers. Novice and expert learners both excelled at ordering and discussing events before the Phanerozoic, but were challenged with events during the Phanerozoic. Novice learners had difficulty assigning values to events and establishing a scale for their models. Expert learners expressed difficulty with determining a scale because of the size of the model, yet eventually used anchor points and unitized the model to establish a scale. Despite challenges constructing their models, novice learners spoke confidently using claims and few hedging phrases indicating their confidence in statements made. Experts used more hedges than novices, however the hedging comments were made about more complex conceptions. Using both phenomenographic and discourse analysis approaches for analysis foregrounded learners' discussions of how they perceived geologic time and their ways of knowing and doing. This research is intended to enhance the geoscience community's understanding of the ways novice and expert learners think and discuss conceptions of geologic time, including the events and values of time, and the strategies used
Smith, S.; Comstock, D.
The Research library at Los Alamos National Laboratory has been teaching an Internet class to adult learners since May 1994. The class is a team effort, combining lecture/demo with hands-on practice using Gopher and the World Wide Web. What started out as a small short-term project has become a weekly class available to any Lab employee or associate. More than 250 people have been taught to find basic reference materials and to navigate the Internet on the Gopher and World Wide Web. The class is one of the first classes offered by the Research Library to be filled every month, and one Laboratory group has recommended that their staff attend this class in preparation for more advanced Internet and HTML classes as part of their group training. The success of this class spurred development by the Research Library of more specific subject classes using Internet resources, specifically business and general science resources.
Full Text Available Pragmatics is the study of the relation of signs to interpreters. For English foreign language (EFL learners, the knowledge and comprehensible input of pragmatics is much needed. This paper is based on research project. The writer did the research survey by giving some respondents questionnaire. The respondent is some students from UAD, which is taken randomly. Besides using open questionnaire, the writer also got the data from in depth interview with some EFL learners, the native speaker who teaches English, and also did literature review from some books. The result of the research then gives some evidences that EFL learners difficulties in understanding the English pragmatics occurs in 1 greeting, 2 apologizing, 3 complimenting, and 4 thanking. The factors that promotes EFL learners’ difficulties in understanding because 1 the different culture and values between native speaker and learners; 2 habit that the usually use in their daily life.
Bowman, Stephanie L.; Plourde, Lee A.
Teens and young adults with Intellectual Disabilities (ID) meet the criteria of teen and adult learners chronologically, but may be deficient in many other areas of teen and adult learning. The spectrum of intellectual and adaptive capabilities among teens and adults with ID is vast, with each individual being unique. There are specific teaching…
Loizzo, Jamie; Ertmer, Peggy A.; Watson, William R.; Watson, Sunnie Lee
Despite the increased attention given to MOOCs over the last four years, learners' voices have been noticeably absent. This virtual ethnographic study was designed to examine the experiences of 12 adult learners with bachelors' and masters' degrees, enrolled in a four-week MOOC on the topic of human trafficking. Through the lenses of self-directed…
Weger, Heather D.
The present study reports on the motivations of adult, international learners of English, studying English 20 hours a week in a US-based Intensive English Program (IEP). Though often used as participants in language acquisition studies, there are few studies of these learners' motivational profiles. In the current study, a questionnaire designed…
Kasworm, Carol E.
Three significant elements should be considered in offering educational programs for the older learner: acceptance (old dogs); support (God bless little children while they're too young to hate); and dependability (watermelon wine). Guidelines are offered for the teacher entering the classroom composed of adult learners. (KC)
Hosch, Mary L.
Many adults are obstructed from specialized professions based on their anxiety of math. Math anxiety has been extensively researched for over 3 decades. Scholars have attempted to define its origins as well as the means to eliminate its often-debilitating effect on learners. Research indicates that learners with math anxiety often give up career…
This pilot case study of two teachers and their learner groups from Adult and Community settings, investigates how numeracy teachers, working with adult learners in discrete numeracy classes, motivate and enable learners to build on their informal skills and apply new learning to their own real-life contexts. Teachers used a range of abstract and…
Distance education is not a new concept for all kinds of learners in the modern societies. Many researchers have studied traditional distance education programs for adult learners in the past, but little research has been done on Web-based distance education (WBDE) for adult learners. There are also many popular online universities in the U.S. or…
Adel, Rahil; Hashemian, Mahmood
This study was an attempt to clarify and remind L2 learners/teachers of 2 kinds of writing: dicto-comp and dictation. We explored the effect of controlled writing on the accuracy of the writing of adult Iranian EFL learners. Prior to the study, the homogeneity of 30 adult EFL learners was checked through an OPT test. Thirty participants were…
Çetinkaya-Aydin, Gamze; Çakiroglu, Jale
The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible associations between preservice science teachers' understanding of nature of science and their learner characteristics; understanding of nature of scientific inquiry, science teaching self-efficacy beliefs, metacognitive awareness level, and faith/worldview schemas. The sample of the…
Weidert, John William
Rapid advancements in technology and the proliferation of mobile communication devices available in the marketplace require that community college administrators and teachers better understand levels of digital communication technology adoption and how adult learners currently use them. Such an understanding is necessary to developing the…
Wallner, Scott David
The purpose of the study was to identify reasons and motivation of adult stakeholders that influence participation in adult community education enrichment classes in the St. Cloud Public School District, St. Cloud, Minnesota. The study also examined the perceptions about adult learners held by leaders, planners, and facilitators of these programs,…
Childre, Amy; Sands, Jennifer R.; Pope, Saundra Tanner
Curriculum design is at the center of developing student ability to construct understanding. Without appropriately designed curriculum, instruction can be ineffective at scaffolding understanding. Often students with disabilities need more explicit instruction or guidance in applying their schema to new information. Thus, instruction must not only…
The research reported here investigates the efficacy of a module in an Advanced Certificate in Education course in promoting conceptual understanding in Astronomy. The research attempted to find out how teachers' understanding of astronomy concepts and processes change after completing this module as well as the ...
Finn, Amber N.; Schrodt, Paul
This study examined students' perceived understanding as a mediator of the relationship between student perceptions of teacher clarity, nonverbal immediacy cues, and learner empowerment (i.e., meaningfulness, competence, and impact). Participants included 261 undergraduate students who completed survey instruments. Results of structural equation…
Qhobela, Makomosela; Moru, Eunice Kolitsoe
Teacher-centred strategies have dominated most physics lessons in Lesotho. This study attempted to understand the contributing factors for the choice of teacher-centred teaching instead of learner-centred teaching with the goal of informing a professional development programme designed to address this problem. The paper responds to the research…
While many empirical studies demonstrate the effects of instruction on enhancing second language (L2) learners' pragmatic competence (Rose, 2005), few have attempted to gain an understanding of the quality of classroom life in addition to instructional efficacy. Drawing on the framework of Exploratory Practice (Allwright, 2005), the present study…
McCray, Kimberly H.
In order to better understand the importance of adult learning theory to museum educators' work, and that of their profession at large, museum professionals must address the need for more adult learning research and practice in museums--particularly work informed by existing theory and work seeking to generate new theory. Adult learning theory…
based on educational informatics. I shall draw your attention to the fact that in information sciences an ontology is described as an explicit (and formal) specification of a shared conceptualisation on the domain of interest. Ontologies of a thing/phenomenon support different researchers in providing......Learning is the reflective activity that enables the learner to draw upon her/his previous experiences and background knowledge to conceptualise, realise, understand and evaluate the present, so as to shape her/his future actions and to construct and develop new knowledge for her(him)self. Learning....... This research will conceptually focus on multiple categories through the adult learners’ developing conceptions of learning. The focus will be on different categories from the basic conceptions to excellent ones. I will take an appropriate model of students’ developing conceptions of learning into my...
Showalter, Daniel A.; Wollett, Chelsie; Reynolds, Sharon
This paper reports on the implementation of a high level contextualized mathematics curriculum by 12 adult basic instructors in a midwestern state. The 10-week pilot curriculum embedded high level mathematics in contexts that were familiar to adult learners. Instructors' weekly online posts were coded, and the following themes emerged: (a)…
Brown, Sandra K.
The issue of limited part-time teacher professional development and its effect on adult learners' success at an adult education center in the northeast United States was addressed in this study. At the research site, almost 50% of the teaching staff are adjuncts. Professional development opportunities have been limited, with only 1 opportunity…
Carlsen, A.; Holmberg, C.; Neghina, C.; Owusu-Boampong, A.
Distance education in higher education is a fast-growing and widespread phenomenon. As many adults are unable to participate in on-campus education, distance education offers flexible learning paths that greatly enhance accessibility to higher education. Exploring distance education's potential to increase the participation of adult learners in…
Feldman, Eric M.
This paper provides a resource on the impact of social media on adult learners' construction of knowledge, particularly as it pertains to adult education's role in fostering a robust democratic society. There has been an increase in the literature in recent years that explores the various aspects of social media use, such as the incivility of…
Grable, John E.
Innovation in doctoral degree program development and delivery provides an effective counterpoint to the expert-apprentice model established in the Middle Ages. The author outlines the importance of innovation in reaching adult learners and describes an innovative hybrid PhD program designed to allow aspiring doctoral adult-age students to pursue…
Self-directed learning is an important form of adult learning (Caffarella, 1993; Knowles, 1975; Knowles, Holton & Swanson, 2005; Merriam, 2001; Merriam & Caffarella, 1999). The strategies of self-directed learning allow adult learners to cope better with their studies while fulfilling family, work and other commitments. This study…
This study explores the relationship between adult English-language learners' assessment of their own language proficiency on the English Ability Questionnaire (EAQ) and their performance on the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL). It addresses aspects of developing the ""autonomous"" student and makes for the integration of self-directed learners who will be more aware of their strengths and weaknesses and how to address them
Full Text Available Detecting and combating plagiarism from Web-based sources is a concern for administrators and instructors involved in online distance education. In this paper, we quantify copy-and-paste plagiarism among adult learners in an online geography course offered through Penn State’s World Campus Geographic Information Systems (GIS certificate program. We also evaluate the effectiveness of an “expectation management” strategy intended to discourage adult learners from unintentional violations. We found that while manual methods detected plagiarism in only about 3 percent of assignments, Turnitin.com revealed a 13 percent plagiarism rate among the same assignments. Our attempts to increase awareness and manage expectations decreased infractions measurably, but not significantly. In contrast, Turnitin.com substantially improved our ability to detect infractions. We conclude that raising awareness and managing expectations about plagiarism may be worthwhile, but is no substitute for systematic detection and vigilant enforcement, even among adult learners.
Marshall, Chloë R; Morgan, Gary
There has long been interest in why languages are shaped the way they are, and in the relationship between sign language and gesture. In sign languages, entity classifiers are handshapes that encode how objects move, how they are located relative to one another, and how multiple objects of the same type are distributed in space. Previous studies have shown that hearing adults who are asked to use only manual gestures to describe how objects move in space will use gestures that bear some similarities to classifiers. We investigated how accurately hearing adults, who had been learning British Sign Language (BSL) for 1-3 years, produce and comprehend classifiers in (static) locative and distributive constructions. In a production task, learners of BSL knew that they could use their hands to represent objects, but they had difficulty choosing the same, conventionalized, handshapes as native signers. They were, however, highly accurate at encoding location and orientation information. Learners therefore show the same pattern found in sign-naïve gesturers. In contrast, handshape, orientation, and location were comprehended with equal (high) accuracy, and testing a group of sign-naïve adults showed that they too were able to understand classifiers with higher than chance accuracy. We conclude that adult learners of BSL bring their visuo-spatial knowledge and gestural abilities to the tasks of understanding and producing constructions that contain entity classifiers. We speculate that investigating the time course of adult sign language acquisition might shed light on how gesture became (and, indeed, becomes) conventionalized during the genesis of sign languages. Copyright © 2014 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.
Full Text Available This article examines the concepts of learning performance and learning success within the context of adult learners. The focus is on how these concepts have been defined in the literature, as they are anchored in different didactic theories and how they can effectively be applied to learning contexts with adults. Due to the divergent approaches and definitions in the literature, this article compares, categorizes and merges the literature, providing an overview and recommendations for practice. The overview refers to a critical examination of constructivism based approaches compared to other didactic learning theories such as cognitivism or behaviorism. Adult education presents itself as a dynamic area that can develop progressively, in both the professional and educational environments. Nowadays, it is important to be able to collect and use information quickly. This makes it possible to gain an advantage and deal with problems or questions in more focused ways. One must deal with increasing demands and a higher number of competitors not only in professional life. A synthesis of the literature can be presented by examining the terms of learning performance and learning success in different approaches, regarding implementations, definitions, historical developments as well as continuative and connected concepts, tendencies or point of views.
Mattison, Melissa J; Nemec, Eric C
To design an immersive, active learning, lifestyle medicine (LM) elective and evaluate its impact on a pharmacy learners' ability to understand the challenges of implementing lifestyle changes. A 3-credit elective was developed that incorporated goal setting and immersion into the realm of LM as experienced by both the patient and the practitioner. Learners were assessed via a survey instrument, formal assignments, reflections, and the Presidential Fitness Challenge. Learners reported that their ability to initiate LM as a primary intervention within a care plan significantly increased after taking this course. They also improved their overall health. By identifying and implementing self-identified lifestyle modifications, learners increased confidence in their abilities to produce evidence-based outcomes for patients. Learners were able to understand the challenges of trying to change their daily habits as they undertook their own personal goals.
Hummel, Kirsten M.
This study explores the relationship between aptitude, phonological memory (PM), and second language (L2) proficiency in nonnovice adult learners of English as an L2. Native speakers of French (N = 77) enrolled in a university Teaching English as a Second Language program were the participants in the study. Exploratory factor analysis revealed…
Zhou, Ally A.; Busch, Michael; Cumming, Alister
Recent research has identified certain goals of adult second language (L2) learners and their teachers for writing instruction in English as a second language (ESL), yet questions remain as to whether students' and teachers' goals correspond in ways that achieve instructional objectives and facilitate L2 development. The present study compared L2…
Jo, Il-Hyun; Kim, Dongho; Yoon, Meehyun
This study describes the process of constructing proxy variables from recorded log data within a Learning Management System (LMS), which represents adult learners' time management strategies in an online course. Based on previous research, three variables of total login time, login frequency, and regularity of login interval were selected as…
Taylor, Maurice; Trumpower, David; Pavic, Ivana
This article reports on a mixed methods study that investigated aspects of formal, non-formal and informal learning for workers and adult high school learners seeking literacy and essential skills. Three key themes emerged from the qualitative data: motivations for participation in various forms of learning; seeking out informal learning…
Although resources and training vary from program to program, adult English as a Second or Other Language (ESOL) teachers and English learners across the country are integrating computers and Internet use with ESOL instruction. This can be seen in the growing number of ESOL resources available on the World Wide Web. There are very good reasons for…
Belzer, Alisa; Pickard, Amy
This research synthesis analyzed qualitative depictions of adult literacy learners and identified five ways in which they are typically characterized: the Heroic Victim, the Needy (Problem) Child, the Broken (but Repairable) Cog, the Pawn of Destiny, and the Capable Comrade. These types do not capture the diversity or complexity of all adult…
Bangs, Kathryn E.; Binder, Katherine S.
Adult Basic Education programs are under pressure to develop and deliver instruction that promotes rapid and sustained literacy development. We describe a novel approach to a literacy intervention that focuses on morphemes, which are the smallest meaningful units contained in words. We argue that if you teach learners that big words are comprised…
Murray, Gina C.
The purpose of this study was to examine the motivation and satisfaction of adult learners who participated in non-credit studio art classes. Leisure motivation has been researched by educators, philosophers, psychologists, and social scientists (Candy, 1991; Brookfield, 2005: Dewey, 1980; Knowles, 1998; Maslow, 1970; Rogers, 1961, Stebbins,…
Brooks, William J.
A basic qualitative research study was conducted to develop insights into how adult learners employ problem-solving and decision-making (PSDM), when considering college financing, student loans, and student debt. Using the social media Website Facebook, eight qualified participants were recruited. Participants were interviewed via telephone, and…
Alroudhan, Hayat Eid
This study investigates the challenges faced by Arab adult learners of English as a foreign language (EFL) in acquiring English restrictive relative clauses (RRCs), as well as the factors that affect the process of acquisition. This issue has received considerable attention in second language (L2) research. The present study discusses the…
Deese Becht, Sara-Maria Francis
The purpose of this study is two-fold involving both practical and theoretical modeling components. The practical component, an experiential-learning phase, investigated a study population for effects that increasing levels of multicontextual physics activities have on student understanding of Newtonian systems of motion. This contextual-learning model measured learner convictions and non-response gaps and analyzed learner response trends on context, technology, challenge, growth, and success. The theoretical component, a model-building phase, designed a dynamic-knowing model for learning along a range of experiential tasks, from low to high context, monitored for indicators of learning in science and mathematics: learner academic performance and ability, learner control and academic attitude, and a learner non- response gap. This knowing model characterized a learner's process-of-knowing on a less to more expert- like learner-response continuum using performance and perspective indices associated with level of contextual- imagery referent system. Data for the contextual-learning model were collected on 180 secondary subjects: 72 middle and 108 high, with 36 physics subjects as local experts. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of three experimental groups differing only on context level of force and motion activities. Three levels of information were presented through context-based tasks: momentum constancy as inertia, momentum change as impulse, and momentum rate of change as force. The statistical analysis used a multi-level factorial design with repeated measures and discriminate analysis of response-conviction items. Subject grouping criteria included school level, ability level in science and mathematics, gender and race. Assessment criteria used pre/post performance scores, confidence level in physics concepts held, and attitude towards science, mathematics, and technology. Learner indices were computed from logit- transforms applied to learner outcomes
Çetinkaya-Aydın, Gamze; Çakıroğlu, Jale
The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible associations between preservice science teachers' understanding of nature of science and their learner characteristics; understanding of nature of scientific inquiry, science teaching self-efficacy beliefs, metacognitive awareness level, and faith/worldview schemas. The sample of the current study was 60 3rd-year preservice science teachers enrolled in the Nature of Science and History of Science course. Using a descriptive and associational case study design, data were collected by means of different qualitative and quantitative questionnaires. Analysis of the data revealed that preservice science teachers' understanding of nature of science and nature of scientific inquiry were highly associated. Similarly, science teaching self-efficacy beliefs, metacognitive awareness levels, and faith/worldviews of the preservice science teachers were found to be significantly associated with their understanding of nature of science. Thus, it can be concluded that there might be other factors interfering with the learning processes of nature of science.
This paper is based on a long-term ethnography of an adult creative writing class situated in a major urban art gallery in the United Kingdom. It takes the claims of one group of older adults--that creative writing made them "feel younger"--as the starting point for exploring this connection further. It places these claims broadly within…
This research investigates the amount of metalinguistic knowledge one can assume when teaching an adult to read. In addition, it questions the source of this awareness and whether it relates to general cognitive development, to schooling, or specifically to the act of learning to read. The subjects were sixty monolingual adults enrolled in a…
This article is the culmination of the Cultural and Linguistic Autobiography (CLA) writing project, which details narrative descriptions of adult English language learners' (ELLs') cultural and linguistic experiences and how those experiences may have influenced the ways in which these learners constructed and reconstructed their identities.…
Chu, Hui-Chin; Hsieh, Mei-Chi; Chang, Shan-Chih
The study aimed at investigating the relationships among career development, learning motivation, and learning satisfaction of adult learners in master's programs at S University. Questionnaires were distributed with 211 valid returns (71%). The results indicated that some of the demographics are factors affecting both of the learners' learning…
Rodriguez, Lisa Ann; Shepard, MaryFriend
This study explored the perceptions of adult English language learners about audience response systems (clickers) as tools to facilitate communication. According to second language acquisition theory, learners' receptive capabilities in the early stages of second language acquisition surpass expressive capabilities, often rendering them silent in…
Thien Sao Bui
Full Text Available This study examined the pronunciation of consonants /ð/ & /θ/ by adult Vietnamese learners of English. Ten adult Vietnamese learners of English were selected to be the sample for the audiotape observation, which aimed at identifying the participants’ mistakes in pronouncing /ð/ and /θ/. Secondly, 115 learners of English in Vietnam were asked to complete a questionnaire regarding the causes of their pronunciation errors. The findings indicated that substitution phenomenon was a dominant problem in the students’ pronunciation of /θ/ and /ð/. The most outstanding problem in pronouncing the consonant /θ/ was replacing this sound by Vietnamese /t‘/. With regards to /ð/ sound, it was most frequently mispronounced as /z/. Besides, there was a new kind of mistake found: it was the tendency to pronounce /dʒ/ instead of /ð/, which has not been reported ever. Apart from that, participants also confirmed some causes of their erroneous pronunciation. As perceived by the learners themselves, the most popular causes of their problems were the lack of English exposure and practice, which implicated that an effective environment for using English was highly necessary.
Adult learners are an under-researched group in music education. Although music education research often uses texts (interviews, autobiographical accounts, survey responses), linguistic analysis has not yet been used in this area. Meanwhile, the internet has become a source of support and expression for adult music learners, through blogs and forums. This presentation describes part of the research undertaken for my MA in English Language, which uses a corpus of online texts to investigate di...
Campos, Alfredo; Camino, Estefania; Perez-Fabello, Maria Jose
The aim of the present study was to assess the influence of word image vividness on the immediate and long-term recall (one-day interval) of words using either the rote repetition learning method or the keyword mnemonics method in a sample of adults aged 55 to 70 years. Subjects learned a list of concrete and abstract words using either rote…
Malu, Kathleen F.
This article presents a theoretical framework to support the use of children's picture storybooks in teaching EFL to adults and adolescents. The author presents ways to use these books, addresses the twin goals of teaching mechanics and culture, and includes a list of books and a wide variety of activities that EFL teachers can use to effectively…
Loizzo, Jamie Lynn
Massive open online courses (MOOCs) have been credited with disrupting the traditional classroom and challenging distance education models in higher education. MOOCs were developed with the intention of opening up education to the masses, specifically those in developing countries who could not readily access educational resources or opportunities. However, early quantitative reports have shown that MOOC participants tend to be adult learners who already possess bachelor's or master's degrees...
Hayat Eid Alroudhan
This study investigates the challenges faced by Arab adult learners of English as a foreign language (EFL) in acquiring English restrictive relative clauses (RRCs), as well as the factors that affect the process of acquisition. This issue has received considerable attention in second language (L2) research. The present study discusses the syntactic structure of RRCs in English and Arabic with regard to the use of resumptive pronouns and the use of overt versus covert relative markers as relat...
Barry, Margot; Egan, Arlene
Adult learners are attracted to learning opportunities (e.g. course offers) which seem promising in terms of allowing them to match their choices to their own perceived predispositions. To find out more about their personal learning style, some adult learners may fill in a questionnaire designed by researchers who aim (and claim) to enable both course providers and learners to optimise learning outcomes. The evaluation of these questionnaires measures learning styles using indicators developed for this purpose, but the results are not conclusive and their utility is therefore questionable. This narrative review critically examines some of the research which explores the usefulness of considering students' learning styles in adult education. The authors present a discussion - which remains hypothetical - on why the use of learning styles measures continues to be popular despite the absence of rigorous research findings to support this practice. Factors discussed by the authors include confirmation bias (making choices which confirm our prejudices) and user qualification (limiting availability to trained users, e.g. psychologists) as well as limited resources and skills in evaluating research, paired with educators' quest to implement evidence-focused techniques. The authors conclude that while learning styles assessments can be useful for the purpose of reflection on strengths and weaknesses, they should play a limited role in educational choices.
Putman, Paul G.
Adult learners can develop leadership skills and competencies such as conflict management and negotiation skills. Virtual simulations are among the emerging new technologies available to adult educators and trainers to help adults develop various leadership competencies. This study explored the impact of conflict management tactics as well as…
Full Text Available moved during recording or by a sound/beep that results from the press of a button and an obstruction of the device microphone. • Low volume: Speech is too soft to understand what is being said. • Whispering: Speaker whispers during recording. • Laughter...-processing categories. If any of these categories were marked for a particular utterance, the utterance was discarded. The event categories were combined as follows: • Option 1: Empty, Whispering, Laughter, Background speech, Transcription mismatch • Option 2: Empty...
True to Life is a five-level course for adults. To ensure a high level of motivation, the course focuses on contemporary themes, language and learning styles that are relevant to adult learners. The Starter level provides between 40 and 60 hours of class work. The other levels provide between 72 and 96 hours of class work, depending on the various options used. The range of extra materials (photocopiable worksheets, tests and videos) create a comprehensive and flexible teaching package. The ready-made lessons can be used as they stand, saving teacher time, or adapted using the optional activities suggested in the Teacher's Book.
Lawrence A. Tomei
Full Text Available Adult students demand a wider variety of instructional strategies that encompass real-world, interactive, cooperative, and discovery learning experiences.Designing Instruction for the Traditional, Adult, and Distance Learner: A New Engine for Technology-Based Teaching explores how technology impacts the process of devising instructional plans as well as learning itself in adult students. Containing research from leading international experts, this publication proposes realistic and accurate archetypes to assist educators in incorporating state-of-the-art technologies into online instruction.This text proposes a new paradigm for designing, developing, implementing, and assessed technology-based instruction. It addresses three target populations of today's learner: traditional, adult, and distance education. The text proposes a new model of instructional system design (ISD for developing effective technology-based education that involves a five-step process focusing on the learner, learning theories, resources, delivery modalities, and outcomes.
The purpose of this qualitative study was to discover the influence of instructional games on middle school learners' use of scientific language, concept understanding, and attitude toward learning science. The rationale for this study stemmed from the lack of research concerning the value of play as an instructional strategy for older learners. Specifically, the study focused on the ways in which 6 average ability 7th grade students demonstrated scientific language and concept use during gameplay. The data were collected for this 6-week study in a southern New Jersey suburban middle school and included audio recordings of the 5 games observed in class, written documents (e.g., student created game questions, self-evaluation forms, pre- and post-assessments, and the final quiz) interviews, and researcher field notes. Data were coded and interpreted borrowing from the framework for scientific literacy developed by Bybee (1997). Based on the findings, the framework was modified to reflect the level of scientific understanding demonstrated by the participants and categorized as: Unacquainted, Nominal, Functional, and Conceptual. Major findings suggested that the participants predominantly achieved the Functional level of scientific literacy (i.e., the ability to adequately and appropriately use scientific language in both written and oral discourse) during games. Further, it was discovered that the participants achieved the Conceptual level of scientific literacy during gameplay. Through games participants were afforded the opportunity to use common, everyday language to explore concepts, promoted through peer collaboration. In games the participants used common language to build understandings that exceeded Nominal or token use of the technical vocabulary and concepts. Additionally, the participants reported through interviews and self-evaluation forms that their attitude (patterns included: Motivation, Interest, Fun, Relief from Boredom, and an Alternate Learning
Strong, Robert; Harder, Amy; Carter, Hannah
The purpose of the study reported here was to explore and describe how Extension agents selected teaching strategies for adult audiences. Andragogy is hypotheses concerning the attributes of adult learners (Knowles, Swanson, & Holton III, 2005). Extension agents responsible for teaching the Master Beef Producer (MBP) program were purposively…
Hyman, Jack A.; Moser, Mary T.; Segala, Laura N.
Mobile information technology is changing the education landscape by offering learners the opportunity to engage in asynchronous, ubiquitous instruction. While there is a proliferation of mobile content management systems being developed for the mobile Web and stand-alone mobile applications, few studies have addressed learner expectations and…
Jana, Abhra; Amritavalli, Vijaya; Amritavalli, R.
Investigates the effects of definitional information in the form of dictionary entries, on second language learners' vocabulary learning in an instructed setting. Indian students (Native Hindi speakers) of English received monolingual English dictionary entries of five previously unknown words from four different learner's dictionaries. Results…
Within the South African school curriculum, the section on graphical functional relationships consists of signs which include symbols, notation and imagery. In a previous article we explored the role visualisation played in the way learners understood mathematical concepts. That paper reported on the learners' fixation with the physical features…
Senowarsito Senowarsito; Sukma Nur Ardini
This paper presents preliminary study of R&D on Teaching Materials Model of English Phonology for EF2L. The preliminary study aims at finding out the phonological fossilization of adult learners of English in Javanese context and figuring out the factors influencing them. 25 fourth-semester Javanese students of English Departement from 5 universities in Semarang municipality were selected as respondents. The data were collected from observation, interview and documentation. The results show t...
Bedore, Lisa M; Peña, Elizabeth D; Anaya, Jissel B; Nieto, Ricardo; Lugo-Neris, Mirza J; Baron, Alisa
This study examines English performance on a set of 11 grammatical forms in Spanish-English bilingual, school-age children in order to understand how item difficulty of grammatical constructions helps correctly classify language impairment (LI) from expected variability in second language acquisition when taking into account linguistic experience and exposure. Three hundred seventy-eight children's scores on the Bilingual English-Spanish Assessment-Middle Extension (Peña, Bedore, Gutiérrez-Clellen, Iglesias, & Goldstein, 2008) morphosyntax cloze task were analyzed by bilingual experience groups (high Spanish experience, balanced English-Spanish experience, high English experience, ability (typically developing [TD] vs. LI), and grammatical form. Classification accuracy was calculated for the forms that best differentiated TD and LI groups. Children with LI scored lower than TD children across all bilingual experience groups. There were differences by grammatical form across bilingual experience and ability groups. Children from high English experience and balanced English-Spanish experience groups could be accurately classified on the basis of all the English grammatical forms tested except for prepositions. For bilinguals with high Spanish experience, it was possible to rule out LI on the basis of grammatical production but not rule in LI. It is possible to accurately identify LI in English language learners once they use English 40% of the time or more. However, for children with high Spanish experience, more information about development and patterns of impairment is needed to positively identify LI.
Full Text Available There has been much discussion on the involvement of Universal Grammar (UG in Second Language Acquisition (SLA process. Despite growing research in the field, few precise answers to the problem have been suggested so far. Hence, recent L2 studies within the generative framework have shifted from investigating this issue to determining whether or not interlanguage grammars exhibit natural language characteristics (Can, Kilimci & Altunkol, 2007. The present study aimed to investigate L2 acquisition of syntactic movement in English noun clauses by Turkish adult learners. Accordingly, L1 involvement in SLA was sought through examining the upper intermediate Turkish learners’ knowledge about the movement in question. The study addressed the questions of whether or not Turkish adult ESL learners have problems, stemming from L1 interference, with the construction of the syntactic movement in English noun clauses, and whether or not there is any order of acquisition between the noun clauses in subject position and object position along with various wh-words. The study reported related findings, and concluded with a few pedagogical implications for practice, and a couple of suggestions for further directions.
Hayat Eid Alroudhan
Full Text Available This study investigates the challenges faced by Arab adult learners of English as a foreign language (EFL in acquiring English restrictive relative clauses (RRCs, as well as the factors that affect the process of acquisition. This issue has received considerable attention in second language (L2 research. The present study discusses the syntactic structure of RRCs in English and Arabic with regard to the use of resumptive pronouns and the use of overt versus covert relative markers as related to the definiteness of the head noun. This study is carried out using an acceptability judgment test as the tool for data collection. A sample of 100 male and female adult Arabic speakers is used with the aim of identifying potential acquisition problems. The results obtained provide further support for first language (L1 transfer. This study concludes that participants accepted the use of resumptive pronouns and preferred the overt relative markers determined by definiteness. It is further discovered that certain factors influenced the acquisition process such as participants’ age, age of learning, and age of immersion. The current study has some pedagogical implications for the teaching of relative clauses in the EFL context. Keywords: English Relative Clauses, Restrictive Relative Clauses, Relative pronoun, Arab Learners of English
Full Text Available Despite attempts to improve safety performance, the construction industry continues to account for a disproportionate rate of injuries. A large proportion of these injuries occur because workers are unable to recognize and respond to hazards in dynamic and unpredictable environments. Unrecognized hazards expose workers to unanticipated risks and can lead to catastrophic accidents. In order to enhance hazard recognition skills, employers often put new and experienced workers through formal hazard recognition training programs. Unfortunately, current training programs primarily rely on instructor-centric pedagogical approaches, which are insensitive to the adult learning process. In order to ensure effective adult learning, training programs must integrate learner-centric andragogical principles to improve engagement and retention in adult trainees. This paper aims to discuss training program elements that can potentially accelerate the adult learning process while improving safety knowledge retention. To this end, the researchers reviewed relevant literature on the cognitive processes of adult learning, essential components of effectual training programs and developed a reliable framework for the training and transfer of safety knowledge. A case example of successfully using the framework is also presented. The results of the study will provide safety trainers and construction professionals with valuable information on developing effective hazard recognition and receptor training programs, with the goal of improving construction safety performance.
de Greef, Maurice; Verté, Dominique; Segers, Mien
To date a significant share of the European population can be considered at risk of social exclusion. It has been argued that adult education programmes are a powerful tool to support vulnerable adults increasing their social inclusion. This study aims to answer the question if and which subgroups of vulnerable adults experience an increase in…
Full Text Available Errors analysis has become one of the most interesting issues in the study of Second Language Acquisition. It can not be denied that some teachers do not know a lot about error analysis and related theories of how L1, L2 or foreign language acquired. In addition, the students often feel upset since they find a gap between themselves and the teachers for the errors the students make and the teachers’ understanding about the error correction. The present research aims to investigate what errors adult English learners make in written production of English. The significances of the study is to know what errors students make in writing that the teachers can find solution to the errors the students make for a better English language teaching and learning especially in teaching English for adults. The study employed qualitative method. The research was undertaken at an airline education center in Bandung. The result showed that syntax errors are more frequently found than morphology errors, especially in terms of verb phrase errors. It is recommended that it is important for teacher to know the theory of second language acquisition in order to know how the students learn and produce theirlanguage. In addition, it will be advantages for teachers if they know what errors students frequently make in their learning, so that the teachers can give solution to the students for a better English language learning achievement. DOI: https://doi.org/10.24071/llt.2015.180205
Clare S. Johnson
Full Text Available The inclusion of online elements in learning environments is becoming commonplace in Post Compulsory Education. A variety of research into the value of such elements is available, and this study aims to add further evidence by looking specifically at the use of collaborative technologies such as online discussion forums and wikis to encourage higher order thinking and self-sufficient learning. In particular, the research examines existing pedagogical models including Salmon’s five-stage model, along with other relevant literature. A case study of adult learners in community-based learning centres forms the basis of the research, and as a result of the findings, an arrow model is suggested as a framework for online collaboration that emphasises the learner, mentions pre-course preparation and then includes three main phases of activity: post, interact and critique. This builds on Salmon’s five-stage model and has the benefit of being flexible and responsive, as well as allowing for further development beyond the model, particularly in a blended learning environment.
As many important issues pertaining to blended learning within the Sub-Saharan African context remain unexplored, this study implemented a blended learning approach in a graduate level course at a private university in Ghana, with the objective of exploring adult learners' attitudes, experiences and behaviors towards this learning approach, as…
Hayward, Milan S.; Williams, Mitchell R.
The completion agenda demands higher community college graduation rates among adult learners, and prior learning assessment (PLA) is a promising solution. PLA permits students to earn credit for college-level learning acquired outside of higher education and is associated with improved student outcomes. However, little is known regarding community…
Accommodating adult basic education (ABE) learners with learning disabilities (LD) is common practice across many instructional, testing, and work settings. However, the results from this literature search indicate that very few empirically based studies are available to support or reject the effectiveness of a great deal of accommodation…
Nafukho, Fredrick Muyia; Alfred, Mary; Chakraborty, Misha; Johnson, Michelle; Cherrstrom, Catherine A.
Purpose: The primary purpose of this study was to predict transfer of learning to workplace among adult learners enrolled in a continuing professional education (CPE) training program, specifically training courses offered through face-to-face, blended and online instruction formats. The study examined the predictive capacity of trainee…
Jimoyiannis, Athanassios; Gravani, Maria
The research reported in this paper aspires to shed light into adult digital literacy using learners' and educators' experiences and perceptions at Second Chance Schools, a project in Greece aiming at combating social exclusion through education. In exploring the above, this investigation uses a case-study approach within a qualitative paradigm…
Community is a place where people go to feel comfortable. It is important to develop strategies for enhancing a sense of community in the online learning environment designed for adult learners. The purpose of this study was to determine if adding a synchronous conferencing experience to an asynchronous course impacted overall sense of community,…
Research purpose: The objective of the research was to investigate the relation between adultlearners’ cognitive learning strategies (measured by the examination preparation inventoryand their psychosocial employability attributes (measured by the employability attributesscale. Motivation for the study: Recent research has made important progress in understanding thenotions of cognitive learning styles in learning and psychosocial employability attributes insustaining individuals’ employability in the contemporary world of work. However, researchon how adult learners’ cognitive learning strategies influence the psychosocial attributes theyneed to manage and sustain their employability has been lacking. Research approach, design and method: A quantitative cross-sectional survey design wasused, involving a stratified proportional random sample of 1102 predominantly early careerblack female undergraduate level adult learners. The participants were enrolled for distancelearning studies in the economic and management sciences field at a South African highereducation institution. Main findings: Canonical correlation and multiple regression analysis indicated the abstracttheoretical and factual practical cognitive learning strategies as useful predictors of theparticipants’ overall level of psychosocial employability attributes and especially their levelsof career self-management and proactivity. Practical/managerial implications: Learning practitioners should strive to integrate cognitivelearning strategies in the design of learning and assessment activities in order to fosterthe psychosocial employability attributes adult learners need to manage their continuedemployability in the contemporary workplace. Contribution: The study contributes new insights to the employability and learning andeducation literature. The results may potentially inform formal learning and assessmentdesign in order to improve adult learners’ learning performance and employability.
Sandars, John; Walsh, Kieran
The value of health professions education (HPE), with increasing demand for value resultant on financial constraint, has come under increasing scrutiny. An essential aspect for critical consideration is the extent to which the value ascribed by the learner differs from that of the HPE provider, especially in relation to the learning Methods and assessment of the HPE curriculum. The challenge of reconciling the tensions and differing perspectives of the learners and HPE providers can be met through co-production of the curriculum. The focus of the co-production approach is the recognition of the importance of diversity and social justice.
Bastarrika, Ainhoa; Davidson, Douglas J.
The present study used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to investigate how Spanish adult learners of Basque respond to morphosyntactic violations after a short period of training on a small fragment of Basque grammar. Participants (n = 17) were exposed to violation and control phrases in three phases (pretest, training, generalization-test). In each phase participants listened to short Basque phrases and they judged whether they were correct or incorrect. During the pre-test and generalization-test, participants did not receive any feedback. During the training blocks feedback was provided after each response. We also ran two Spanish control blocks before and after training. We analyzed the event-related magnetic- field (ERF) recorded in response to a critical word during all three phases. In the pretest, classification was below chance and we found no electrophysiological differences between violation and control stimuli. Then participants were explicitly taught a Basque grammar rule. From the first training block participants were able to correctly classify control and violation stimuli and an evoked violation response was present. Although the timing of the electrophysiological responses matched participants' L1 effect, the effect size was smaller for L2 and the topographical distribution differed from the L1. While the L1 effect was bilaterally distributed on the auditory sensors, the L2 effect was present at right frontal sensors. During training blocks two and three, the violation-control effect size increased and the topography evolved to a more L1-like pattern. Moreover, this pattern was maintained in the generalization test. We conclude that rapid changes in neuronal responses can be observed in adult learners of a simple morphosyntactic rule, and that native-like responses can be achieved at least in small fragments of second language. PMID:28174530
The present study aimed at making a pedagogical exploration into listening comprehension skills and examining the problems faced by learners in the English as a Foreign Language (EFL) classroom situation at Jazan University, Jazan city, Saudi Arabia. To analyze the problems, two very important processes were considered; namely, top-down and…
The prevalence of academic procrastination has long been the subject of attention among researchers. However, there is still a paucity of studies examining language learners since most of the studies focus on similar participants such as psychology students. The present study was conducted among students trying to learn English in the first year…
Ragonis, Noa; Shilo, Gila
The paper presents a theoretical investigational study of the potential advantages that secondary school learners may gain from learning two different subjects, namely, logic programming within computer science studies and argumentation texts within linguistics studies. The study suggests drawing an analogy between the two subjects since they both…
For at least three decades, scholars have discussed the rationale for using picture books with English learners of all ages. Research on how older ESL and EFL learners can benefit from picture books, however, remains scarce. This study explored 25 Taiwanese university EFL learners' engagement in a predicting-reading-confirming-integrating plus…
Danovitch, Judith H; Shenouda, Christine K
Adults and children use information about expertise to infer what a person is likely to know, but it is unclear whether they realize that expertise also has implications for learning. We explore adults' and children's understanding that expertise in a particular category supports learning about a closely related category. In four experiments, 5-year-olds and adults (n = 160) judged which of two people would be better at learning about a new category. When faced with an expert and a nonexpert, adults consistently indicated that expertise supports learning in a closely related category; however, children's judgments were inconsistent and were strongly influenced by the description of the nonexpert. The results suggest that although children understand what it means to be an expert, they may judge an individual's learning capacity based on different considerations than adults.
Mature learning refers to the process in which adults aged in the (circa) 50 - 75 age bracket, individually and in association with others, engage in direct encounter and then purposefully reflect upon, validate, transform, give personal meaning to and seek to integrate their ways of knowing. The handbook draws on practical experience, from planning and running events, to suggest ways to teach and train mature learners. It serves as a resource book to guide new projects that address the life ...
Many older adults are interested in learning long past the age dictated by social norms. Some want to learn simply for the joy of learning, others because of the social contacts made by joining a community of learners, and still others want to learn so that they have a purpose in life. The University of the Third Age (U3A) is one of several models…
Full Text Available As the number of global internet users increases, companies’ online advertisement expenditure also grows rapidly. Companies face challenges in targeting the right customers. Understanding which websites are often visited by target users and what they do on the internet will help companies direct their online advertisement to the right target. Using questionnaires, this study examines which sites are most often visited by Indonesian young adult internet users and what they do on the internet. It aims to understand the patterns of behavior of these users. The findings of this study provide some understanding to the marketers. Of consequence, such understanding would help them to select where and what to do with their advertisements when they are targeting the young adult internet users in Indonesia.
In an attempt to compare how orthography and phonology interact in EFL learners with different reading abilities, online measures were administered in this study to two groups of university learners, indexed by their reading scores on the Test of English for International Communication (TOEIC). In terms of "accuracy," the less-skilled…
Within the past 30 years, the number of nontraditional learners who pursue higher education has increased. This gravitation to higher education can be attributed to the changing value of the nontraditional learner regarding higher education as a direct link to improving the quality of employment, family, and financial stability. Despite the desire…
Voldborg, Hanne; Sorensen, Elsebeth Korsgaard
This paper investigates the potential of digital technologies for strengthening the participation and inclusion of learners with developmental and attention Deficits (focus learners) into the mainstream classroom. The paper describes the authors’ approach to the challenge of researching the extent...
Kaplonyi, Jessica; Bowles, Kelly-Ann; Nestel, Debra; Kiegaldie, Debra; Maloney, Stephen; Haines, Terry; Williams, Cylie
Effective communication skills are at the core of good health care. Simulated patients (SPs) are increasingly engaged as an interactive means of teaching, applying and practising communication skills with immediate feedback. There is a large body of research into the use of manikin-based simulation but a gap exists in the body of research on the effectiveness of SP-based education to teach communication skills that impact patient outcomes. The aim of this systematic review was to critically analyse the existing research, investigating whether SP-based communication skills training improves learner-patient communication, how communication skill improvement is measured, and who measures these improvements. The databases Medline, ProQuest (Health & Medical Complete, Nursing and Allied Health Source) and CINAHL (EBSCOhost) Education Resources Information Centre (ERIC) were searched for articles that investigated the effects of SP-based education on the communication skills of medical, nursing and allied health learners. There were 60 studies included in the review. Only two studies reported direct patient outcomes, one reporting some negative impact, and no studies included an economic analysis. Many studies reported statistically significant third-party ratings of improved communication effectiveness following SP-based education; however, studies were unable to be pooled for meta-analysis because of the outcome collection methods. There were a small number of studies comparing SP with no training at all and there were no differences between communication skills, contradicting the results from studies reporting benefits. Of the 60 studies included for analysis, 54 (90%) met the minimum quality score of 7/11, with four articles (7%) scoring 11/11. SP-based education is widely accepted as a valuable and effective means of teaching communication skills but there is limited evidence of how this translates to patient outcomes and no indication of economic benefit for this
Rafael Monroy Casas
Full Text Available In the ever-growing literature dealing with the acquisition by adults of the phonetics and phonology of a foreign language (FL, research has tried to provide an answer to the complex nature of cross-language transfer. The fact that despite idiosyncratic differences and sociolinguistic variation most adults learners of a foreign language (FL speak with an accent which is a reflection of their native language (NL and that their progress is impaired at a certain stage prompted a host of questions such as whether adults follow identical or different paths of development in their approach to a foreign language, whether those speaking the same native language are able to identify target language categories in the same way, whether perception and production are interdependent, the nature of the learning abilities and the interplay of transfer with universals. These and other problems relating to foreign language speech have been approached from different angles and theoretical frameworks (see Leather & James (1 99 1 for an overview, and more recently Leather (1999. The research reported here, based on the oral production of sixty-five Spanish adult learners of English as a FL, tries to shed some light on one of well-known problems related to the acquisition of a foreign language by non-native speakers: the analysis of different types of phonological processes shaping the fossilised interlanguage (IL of adult FL learners in order to see a whether they are adhered to by those adult learners sharing identical L1; b whether frozen IL reflects transfer from the leamer's L1 or is the result of developmental (Le. universal processes. In this connection we(1987 and SimilarityIDifferential Rate Hypothesis (1999 or Ekman's Markedness Differential Hypothesis (1977 and Structural Conformity Hypothesis in connection with some of the processes under analysis. Optimality Theory will be brought in in dealing with some problems encountered under Cluster Simplification
Holistic math focuses on problem solving with numbers and concepts. Whole math activities for adults include shopping for groceries, eating in restaurants, buying gas, taking medicine, measuring a room, estimating servings, and compiling a family cookbook. (SK)
Full Text Available This study used a revised Conversational Violations Test to examine Gricean maxim violations in 4- to 6-year-old Japanese children and adults. Participants’ understanding of the following maxims was assessed: be informative (first maxim of quantity, avoid redundancy (second maxim of quantity, be truthful (maxim of quality, be relevant (maxim of relation, avoid ambiguity (second maxim of manner, and be polite (maxim of politeness. Sensitivity to violations of Gricean maxims increased with age: 4-year-olds’ understanding of maxims was near chance, 5-year-olds understood some maxims (first maxim of quantity and maxims of quality, relation, and manner, and 6-year-olds and adults understood all maxims. Preschoolers acquired the maxim of relation first and had the greatest difficulty understanding the second maxim of quantity. Children and adults differed in their comprehension of the maxim of politeness. The development of the pragmatic understanding of Gricean maxims and implications for the construction of developmental tasks from early childhood to adulthood are discussed.
Full Text Available The authors explore language developmental processes of university English language learners. The used Retrospective Miscue Analysis (RMA and In-depth Reading Interviews as heuristic tools to generate critical dialogues with students to reflect on their L1 and English language learning processes and perceptions. The studies show that RMA and In-Depth Reading Interviews lead the teachers researches-and english language learners to critical learnable and teachable moments.
Full Text Available International and national mathematics studies have revealed the poor mathematics skills of South African learners. An essential tool that can be used to improve learners' mathematical skills is for educators to use effective feedback. Our purpose in this study was to elicit learners' understanding and expectations of teacher assessment feedback. The study was conducted with five Grade 9 mathematics learners. Data were generated from one group interview, seven journal entries by each learner, video-taped classroom observations and researcher field notes. The study revealed that the learners have insightful perceptions of the concept of educator feedback. While some learners viewed educator feedback as a tool to probe their understanding, others viewed it as a mechanism to get the educator's point of view. A significant finding of the study was that learners viewed educator assessment feedback as instrumental in building or breaking their self-confidence.
Kim, Hyung Nam
Twenty-five years after the Americans with Disabilities Act, there has still been a lack of advancement of accessibility in healthcare for people with visual impairments, particularly older adults with low vision. This study aims to advance understanding of how older adults with low vision obtain, process, and use health information and services, and to seek opportunities of information technology to support them. A convenience sample of 10 older adults with low vision participated in semi-structured phone interviews, which were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim for analysis. Participants shared various concerns in accessing, understanding, and using health information, care services, and multimedia technologies. Two main themes and nine subthemes emerged from the analysis. Due to the concerns, older adults with low vision tended to fail to obtain the full range of all health information and services to meet their specific needs. Those with low vision still rely on residual vision such that multimedia-based information which can be useful, but it should still be designed to ensure its accessibility, usability, and understandability.
The present paper portrays three theories of motivation in the expectation that it will help to understand the washback effect of language tests on learning English as a Foreign Language (EFL). The three theories that are identified involve attribution theories of motivation, flow, and functional theories of motivation. The characteristics of these theories are described in a way in which they may help understand the meaning of the recent attempt by the Japanese Ministry of Education to innov...
Mellard, Daryl F.; Anthony, Jason L.; Woods, Kari L.
This study extends the literature on the component skills involved in oral reading fluency. Dominance analysis was applied to assess the relative importance of seven reading-related component skills in the prediction of the oral reading fluency of 272 adult literacy learners. The best predictors of oral reading fluency when text difficulty was…
Squires, Susan Elaine
Loneliness can play a significant role in the wellbeing of older adults. This article describes a qualitative method for using case notes from the clinical records of older individuals in order to investigate the priority concerns spontaneously reported by older adults to deepen our understanding of both the context in which reported loneliness occurs in Ireland and the potential triggers. The participants in this study represent a cross-section of older adults who participated in the Technology Research for Independent Living Clinic (TRIL). Data were collected from participants through interviewer case notes at the TRIL centre in St James's hospital, Dublin. 624 participants (431 females; 193 males) ranging in age from 60-92 years (Mean 73 years, SD 7 years) took part in the study. All were community dwelling and provided consent. A thematic analysis from grounded theory was used to evaluate the case notes for each participant. Preliminary results highlight the richness of phenomenological experience to enhance our understanding of loneliness and provide an opportunity to better understand the precursors and variability that loneliness may take. In this study we found themes in the case note analysis linking social loneliness with self-imposed limitations on social engagement due to declining health while predominate themes for emotionally lonely focused on psychological issues of stress and anxiety associated with adverse life events. The results suggest the importance of case notes to inform clinical practice. Qualitative results provided insights into differing live events of older Irish adults, which help distinguish the causal differences between social and emotional loneliness.
Kong, Siu Cheung; Li, Ping; Song, Yanjie
This study evaluated a bilingual text-mining system, which incorporated a bilingual taxonomy of key words and provided hierarchical visualization, for understanding learner-generated text in the learning management systems through automatic identification and counting of matching key words. A class of 27 in-service teachers studied a course…
Cha, EunSeok; Crowe, James M; Braxter, Betty J; Jennings, Bonnie Mowinski
To better understand health-related decision making among overweight and obese emerging adults. A cross-sectional design was used in the parent study involving overweight and obese emerging adults, ages 18-29 years. The goal of the parent study was to screen participants' diabetes risk and identify characteristics of emerging adults with prediabetes (N=107). A sub-sample of respondents (n=34) from the parent study were invited to participate in focus group interviews depending on whether they had prediabetes (three groups) or they did not have prediabetes (four groups). Each focus group interview lasted 90-120 minutes following a semi-structured interview guide. Conventional content analysis was used in the data analysis. Because of the similarities between participants with and without prediabetes, the findings were synthesized and reported in the aggregate. Moreover, during the analysis, the authors decided that rational choice theory provided a useful organizing structure for presenting the data. Emerging adults' behavioral decisions were rational reactions to their personal competence, perception of health, environment, and availability of resources to handle problems. Calculation of trade-offs and estimations of resource availability were often used when making decisions. Emerging adults choose unhealthy behaviors due to inaccurate information and insufficient competence to practice healthy lifestyles rather than because of laziness or being irrational. Behavioral interventions for emerging adults need to help them develop skills to enhance health literacy and problem solving, thereby enhancing their awareness of available resources and decreasing the perceived cost of making healthy choices. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
This article challenges the predominance of modularization across the UK university system, arguing that the fragmentation of the learning experience which results from this model undermines the possibility of a disciplinary understanding. It proposes instead a practice of imaginative writing which, by engaging students' experience, interest and…
This paper presents the findings from a multiple-case study which has investigated the impact of mobile Web 2.0 technologies on self-directed learning (SDL) of workplace learners by exploring participants' learning experiences with a mobile App. Drawing on existing literatures, we examined learners' SDL personal attributes and process in the…
Zhou, Ally A.
Linguistic accuracy plays an important role in the quality of written texts, yet the explicit teaching of linguistic form--particularly grammar--for the purpose of improving learners' writing has generated an ongoing debate. Furthermore, students' voices about their learning are often ignored because they are perceived as not knowing what they…
Diep, Nguyet A.; Cocquyt, Celine; Zhu, Chang; Vanwing, Tom
The present study employs social cognitive theory (SCT) and social capital as the guiding frameworks to explain online interaction quality among learners in a blended learning program (N = 179). Capturing performance expectancy by perceived learning benefits and online interaction quality with nuanced cognitive measures, the study aims to validate…
Vann, Linda S.
Instructional designers are tasked with making instructional strategy decisions to facilitate achievement of learning outcomes as part of their professional responsibilities. While the instructional design process includes learner analysis, that analysis alone does not embody opportunities to assist instructional designers with demonstrations of…
Asgari, Azadeh; Bin Mustapha, Ghazali
This study aims to investigate the attrition rate of EFL concrete and abstract vocabulary among continuing and non-continuing Iranian female and male English language learners across different proficiency levels. They are students of a University and majored in different fields (between 20 and 25 years old). There was no treatment in this study…
Saito, Kazuya; Munro, Murray J
Although previous research indicates that Japanese speakers' second language (L2) perception and production of English /see symbol/ may improve with increased L2 experience, relatively little is known about the fine phonetic details of their /see symbol/ productions, especially during the early phase of L2 speech learning. This cross-sectional study examined acoustic properties of word-initial /see symbol/ from 60 Japanese learners with a length of residence of between one month and one year in Canada. Their performance was compared to that of 15 native speakers of English and 15 low-proficiency Japanese learners of English. Formant frequencies (F2 and F3) and F1 transition durations were evaluated under three task conditions--word reading, sentence reading, and timed picture description. Learners with as little as two to three months of residence demonstrated target-like F2 frequencies. In addition, increased LOR was predictive of more target-like transition durations. Although the learners showed some improvement in F3 as a function of LOR, they did so mainly at a controlled level of speech production. The findings suggest that during the early phase of L2 segmental development, production accuracy is task-dependent and is influenced by the availability of L1 phonetic cues for redeployment in L2.
Hooks, Laura M.
It is well documented that parent and family involvement in children's education correlates with success in school. The increasing number of English Language Learners in public schools has created a need for teacher educators to prepare preservice teachers to be able to work with families who have limited English. This study examined the outcomes…
Rodríguez, Iyubanit; Herskovic, Valeria; Gerea, Carmen; Fuentes, Carolina; Rossel, Pedro O; Marques, Maíra; Campos, Mauricio
Monitoring of patients may decrease treatment costs and improve quality of care. Pain is the most common health problem that people seek help for in hospitals. Therefore, monitoring patients with pain may have significant impact in improving treatment. Several studies have studied factors affecting pain; however, no previous study has reviewed the contextual information that a monitoring system may capture to characterize a patient's situation. The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review to (1) determine what types of technologies have been used to monitor adults with pain, and (2) construct a model of the context information that may be used to implement apps and devices aimed at monitoring adults with pain. A literature search (2005-2015) was conducted in electronic databases pertaining to medical and computer science literature (PubMed, Science Direct, ACM Digital Library, and IEEE Xplore) using a defined search string. Article selection was done through a process of removing duplicates, analyzing title and abstract, and then reviewing the full text of the article. In the final analysis, 87 articles were included and 53 of them (61%) used technologies to collect contextual information. A total of 49 types of context information were found and a five-dimension (activity, identity, wellness, environment, physiological) model of context information to monitor adults with pain was proposed, expanding on a previous model. Most technological interfaces for pain monitoring were wearable, possibly because they can be used in more realistic contexts. Few studies focused on older adults, creating a relevant avenue of research on how to create devices for users that may have impaired cognitive skills or low digital literacy. The design of monitoring devices and interfaces for adults with pain must deal with the challenge of selecting relevant contextual information to understand the user's situation, and not overburdening or inconveniencing users with
Kenya, like other Third World countries, has illiteracy rates for women which are twice those of men (in 1978, 35% of males and 70% of females aged 15 and above were illiterate). Since the beginning of the country's literacy campaign in 1979, women have comprised more than 70% of attendees. While this situation remains the case, the overall enrolment figures for the program have shown a gradual decline from 1979 to 1990 due to a lack of emphasis on individual motivation. Women dominate the literacy programs for several reasons: 1) women historically had less access to formal education than men; 2) the changing economy has forced women to assume extra responsibilities outside the home which make the women want to acquire formal skills; 3) women's schedules are often flexible enough to allow them to attend classes; 4) literacy classes provide women with needed socialization opportunities; and 5) in some communities cultural norms prevent men from attending classes with women. Women also have many obstacles which make their desire to become adult learners difficult to sustain. They have responsibilities which range from child-bearing to management of their family farms which leave them little time for study or class attendance. There is also little encouragement offered the women either at home or in their classes. At home they are confronted with a myriad of demands on their time. Their classes take place in conditions which are not very conducive to learning (classrooms designed for children or open air centers). The literacy teachers are, for the most part, unqualified. They must meet only minimal requirements and receive no training. The women also have less opportunities to practice their new skills outside of the classroom. Women have less time then men to read, and they are less fluent then men in English and Kiswahili, the 2 official languages of Kenya. Because Kenyan society is male-dominated, there is little encouragement given to women who attempt to
Full Text Available This paper presents preliminary study of R&D on Teaching Materials Model of English Phonology for EF2L. The preliminary study aims at finding out the phonological fossilization of adult learners of English in Javanese context and figuring out the factors influencing them. 25 fourth-semester Javanese students of English Departement from 5 universities in Semarang municipality were selected as respondents. The data were collected from observation, interview and documentation. The results show that phonological fossilizations occur on vowel (/e/ instead of /i/ in ‗english‘ /ˈɪŋ.glɪʃ/, /a/ instead of /æ/ in ‗aspect‘ /ˈæs.pekt/, it also occurs in /Ʌ,e, ǝ/ mostly in initial sound , consonant (/nð/ instead of /ð/ in ‗the‘ /ðǝ/, /ŋ/ instead of /ʤ/ in ‗change‘ /tʃeɪndʒ/, also in /tʃ, ϴ,ð,ʃ,v,Ʒ,z,j,k,g, suffix –ed and –es, and silent letter, and diphthong (/o/ instead of /ǝu/ in ‗over‘ /ǝuvǝr/ and in ‗power‘ /paʊər /, also in/ei,au/ . Factors affecting the occurrence of phonological fossilization are 1 the interference of respondents‘ mother tongue, such as Javanese tends to add sound /n/ in /nðǝlɔk/ ‗ndelok‘ and it interferes in pronouncing ‗the‘ to /nðǝ/ instead of /ðǝ/; 2 the learning materials of English Phonology course does not yet accommodate the learner‘s errors and or learner‘s fossilizations. These findings can be used as recommendation to develop teaching materials of English Phonology for EF2L.
Erin Jacquelyn White
Full Text Available This longitudinal study tracked the neuro-cognitive changes associated with second language (L2 grammar learning in adults in order to investigate how L2 processing is shaped by a learner's first language (L1 background and L2 proficiency. Previous studies using event-related potentials (ERPs have argued that late L2 learners cannot elicit a P600 in response to L2 grammatical structures that do not exist in the L1 or that are different in the L1 and L2. We tested whether the neuro-cognitive processes underlying this component become available after intensive L2 instruction. Korean- and Chinese late-L2-learners of English were tested at the beginning and end of a 9-week intensive English-L2 course. ERPs were recorded while participants read English sentences containing violations of regular past tense (a grammatical structure that operates differently in Korean and does not exist in Chinese. Whereas no P600 effects were present at the start of instruction, by the end of instruction, significant P600s were observed for both L1 groups. Latency differences in the P600 exhibited by Chinese and Korean speakers may be attributed to differences in L1-L2 reading strategies. Across all participants, larger P600 effects at session 2 were associated with: 1 higher levels of behavioural performance on an online grammaticality judgment task; and 2 with correct, rather than incorrect, behavioural responses. These findings suggest that the neuro-cognitive processes underlying the P600 (e.g., "grammaticalization" are modulated by individual levels of L2 behavioural performance and learning.
White, Erin Jacquelyn; Genesee, Fred; Steinhauer, Karsten
This longitudinal study tracked the neuro-cognitive changes associated with second language (L2) grammar learning in adults in order to investigate how L2 processing is shaped by a learner's first language (L1) background and L2 proficiency. Previous studies using event-related potentials (ERPs) have argued that late L2 learners cannot elicit a P600 in response to L2 grammatical structures that do not exist in the L1 or that are different in the L1 and L2. We tested whether the neuro-cognitive processes underlying this component become available after intensive L2 instruction. Korean- and Chinese late-L2-learners of English were tested at the beginning and end of a 9-week intensive English-L2 course. ERPs were recorded while participants read English sentences containing violations of regular past tense (a grammatical structure that operates differently in Korean and does not exist in Chinese). Whereas no P600 effects were present at the start of instruction, by the end of instruction, significant P600s were observed for both L1 groups. Latency differences in the P600 exhibited by Chinese and Korean speakers may be attributed to differences in L1-L2 reading strategies. Across all participants, larger P600 effects at session 2 were associated with: 1) higher levels of behavioural performance on an online grammaticality judgment task; and 2) with correct, rather than incorrect, behavioural responses. These findings suggest that the neuro-cognitive processes underlying the P600 (e.g., "grammaticalization") are modulated by individual levels of L2 behavioural performance and learning.
The present research explored the effects of cultural, affective, and linguistic variables on adult Chinese as a second language learners' willingness to communicate in Chinese. One hundred and sixty-two Chinese as a second language learners from a Chinese university answered the Willingness to Communicate in Chinese Scale, the Intercultural Sensitivity Scale, Chinese Speaking Anxiety Scale, Chinese Learning Motivation Scale, Use of Chinese Profile, as well as the Background Questionnaire. The major findings were as follows: (1) the Willingness to Communicate in Chinese Scales were significantly negatively correlated with Chinese Speaking Anxiety Scale but positively correlated with length of stay in China and (2) Chinese Speaking Anxiety Scale was a powerful negative predictor for the overall willingness to communicate in Chinese and the Willingness to Communicate in Chinese Scales, followed by length of stay in China, Chinese Learning Motivation Scale, interaction attentiveness, and Chinese proficiency level. Apparently, students' willingness to communicate in Chinese is largely determined by their Chinese Speaking Anxiety Scale level and length of stay in China, mediated by other variables such as Chinese proficiency level and intercultural communication sensitivity level.
Lynch, Erin M.
Faith-based programs for adult learners have environmental factors that differentiate them from non-faith based programs, but explicit empirical studies evaluating the impact of the psychosocial factors have been lacking in the literature. This study comparatively examines the achievement level of expressive communication skills as measured…
Hurley, Mary E.
The National Issues Forum's Literacy Program uses study circles and group discussion to promote empowerment and enhance adult literacy through civic education. The program has helped the Westonka (Minnesota) Adult Basic Education project accomplish its mission and has expanded the staff's view of adult learning. (SK)
Rodríguez Antonio R. Raigón
Full Text Available Since language teaching in modern-day society is closely linked to cultural instruction, this study employs the model of a cultural learning analysis based on the earlier work of Paige and Lee. Using this model, the authors analysed the cultural content of six B1 and B2-level textbooks for teaching English to adults in Spain, and carried out a comparative study of the results, contrasting the two levels. Findings show that the subjective aspects of culture receive less coverage in textbooks, despite being fundamental to an understanding of the values of a society. Regarding the comparison between B1 and B2 levels, the data indicate that the number of big “C” Culture occurrences is similar for both levels, although there are differences in other cultural aspects. So, for example, culture in general is dealt with more at the B1 level, whereas small “c” culture is dealt with more at the B2 level.
Atkisson, Curtis; O'Brien, Michael J; Mesoudi, Alex
Social learning (learning from others) is evolutionarily adaptive under a wide range of conditions and is a long-standing area of interest across the social and biological sciences. One social-learning mechanism derived from cultural evolutionary theory is prestige bias, which allows a learner in a novel environment to quickly and inexpensively gather information as to the potentially best teachers, thus maximizing his or her chances of acquiring adaptive behavior. Learners provide deference to high-status individuals in order to ingratiate themselves with, and gain extended exposure to, that individual. We examined prestige-biased social transmission in a laboratory experiment in which participants designed arrowheads and attempted to maximize hunting success, measured in caloric return. Our main findings are that (1) participants preferentially learned from prestigious models (defined as those models at whom others spent longer times looking), and (2) prestige information and success-related information were used to the same degree, even though the former was less useful in this experiment than the latter. We also found that (3) participants were most likely to use social learning over individual (asocial) learning when they were performing poorly, in line with previous experiments, and (4) prestige information was not used more often following environmental shifts, contrary to predictions. These results support previous discussions of the key role that prestige-biased transmission plays in social learning.
de Greef, Maurice; Segers, Mien; Verte, Dominique
According to the increasing rates of unemployment and poverty a significant share of the European population can be considered at-risk-of-social exclusion. In order to combat social exclusion adult education seemed to be a possible tool, which can increase social inclusion among adult learners. This study explores factors relating to training…
All over the World most effective methods for teaching reading to beginning-level adults have been applied. My continuing challenge has been to determine how reading acquisition research can be applied to teaching reading to adults. In this article, I describe the techniques I have found most useful; I hope other teachers working with beginning…
Money, Tracy; Littky, Dennis; Bush, Adam
In a historic unanimous vote on May 20, 2015, the Rhode Island Council on Postsecondary Education welcomed College Unbound as a degree-granting postsecondary option in the state, designed to serve the more than 110,000 Rhode Island adults who began but did not complete bachelor's degrees. The college is the adult-learning initiative of Big Picture…
Adawu, Anthony; Martin-Beltran, Melinda
Using sociocultural and poststructuralist theoretical lenses, this study examines the narrative construction of language-learner identity across time and space. We applied cross-narrative methodologies to analyze language-learning autobiographies and interview data from three English users who had recently transitioned to a U.S. context for…
White, Erin Jacquelyn; Genesee, Fred; Steinhauer, Karsten
This longitudinal study tracked the neuro-cognitive changes associated with second language (L2) grammar learning in adults in order to investigate how L2 processing is shaped by a learner’s first language (L1) background and L2 proficiency. Previous studies using event-related potentials (ERPs) have argued that late L2 learners cannot elicit a P600 in response to L2 grammatical structures that do not exist in the L1 or that are different in the L1 and L2. We tested whether the neuro-cognitive processes underlying this component become available after intensive L2 instruction. Korean- and Chinese late-L2-learners of English were tested at the beginning and end of a 9-week intensive English-L2 course. ERPs were recorded while participants read English sentences containing violations of regular past tense (a grammatical structure that operates differently in Korean and does not exist in Chinese). Whereas no P600 effects were present at the start of instruction, by the end of instruction, significant P600s were observed for both L1 groups. Latency differences in the P600 exhibited by Chinese and Korean speakers may be attributed to differences in L1–L2 reading strategies. Across all participants, larger P600 effects at session 2 were associated with: 1) higher levels of behavioural performance on an online grammaticality judgment task; and 2) with correct, rather than incorrect, behavioural responses. These findings suggest that the neuro-cognitive processes underlying the P600 (e.g., “grammaticalization”) are modulated by individual levels of L2 behavioural performance and learning. PMID:23300641
Nanton, Carmela R.
This chapter examines the cultural influences and applications of women's social capital networks on women's knowledge construction, community development, and autonomy within their cultures and the adult learning context.
O'Brien, Mary Grantham
In early stages of classroom language learning, many adult second language (L2) learners communicate primarily with one another, yet we know little about which speech stream characteristics learners tune into or the extent to which they understand this lingua franca communication. In the current study, 25 native English speakers learning German as…
This study examines the motivational development of Japanese language learners in Australia and South Korea and their future self-images as bilingual or multilingual individuals. Initial motivation to study Japanese was generally linked to an interest in Japanese language and culture. However, visions of possible future careers became a more significant motivational factor as the students progressed in their studies. The study explores the impact of the students’ multilingual competencies, ...
This article analyzes the crystallized learning disposition formed in secondary schools and its persistent influence on the transition between educational sectors and the workplace. Using interview data from eight adults who graduated from a prestigious university in Korea, this study reveals that "exam-inclined self-direction," a manner…
National Association of State Directors of Career Technical Education Consortium, 2011
In today's turbulent economy, how can adult workers best position themselves to secure jobs in high-demand fields where they are more likely to remain competitive and earn more? Further, how can employers up-skill current employees so that they meet increasingly complex job demands? Research indicates that Career Technical Education (CTE) aligned…
Nguyen, Shelbee R.
Professionals in the field of adult and higher education recognize the path into any learning community is riddled with complexities of life exigencies. This author states that he found "light at the end of the tunnel" in an experiential, transformative study abroad course in Spanish language and culture. Transformative learning abroad…
Collins, Pamela J.
The purpose of this study was to help fill the knowledge gap on stand-alone transition-to-college courses for adult students in an institutional setting where such courses have been extensively utilized via different delivery mediums. The ultimate goal was to use the knowledge obtained to aid personnel who work with nontraditional degree programs…
This book explores the social construction of age in the context of EFL in Mexico. It is the first book to address the age factor in SLA from a social perspective. Based on research carried out at a public university in Mexico, it investigates how adults of different ages experience learning a new language and how they enact their age identities…
Muhammad Ishtiaq; Muhammad Sabboor Hussain
This study aims at investigating the teachers’ practices and perceptions in teaching English in Saudi Arabia by viewing their stance on Cooperative Learning (CL) — an innovative teaching approach proposed to raise the language proficiency level of adult EFL learners. The study has been conducted in Qassim University, Saudi Arabia—a vibrant and flourishing EFL context. A quantitative tool (a questionnaire) has been used to collect data and to serve qualitative purposes. It reports 80 EFL teach...
Cao, Ying; Brizuela, Barbara M.
Past research has investigated students' epistemologies while they were taking courses that required an integrated understanding of mathematical and scientific concepts. However, past studies have not investigated students who are not currently enrolled in such classes. Additionally, past studies have primarily focused on individuals who are native English speakers from Western cultures. In this paper, we aim to investigate whether Hammer and his colleagues' claims concerning learners' epistemologies could be extended to individuals who lack advanced mathematics and science training, have had different cultural and learning experiences, and have grown up speaking and learning in another language. To this end, we interviewed a participant with these characteristics about her understandings of the concept of speed. Our findings show that previous theoretical frameworks can be used to explain the epistemologies of the individual examined in this study. The case suggests that these theories may be relevant regardless of the learner's mathematics and science background, language, educational experience, and cultural background. In the future, more cases should be examined with learners from different academic backgrounds and cultures to further support this finding.
Chung, Wei-Lun; Jarmulowicz, Linda
For monolingual English-speaking children, judgment and production of stress in derived words, including words with phonologically neutral (e.g., -ness) and non-neutral suffixes (e.g., -ity), is important to both academic vocabulary growth and to word reading. For Mandarin-speaking adult English learners (AELs) the challenge of learning the English stress system might be complicated by cross-linguistic differences in prosodic function and features. As Mandarin-speakers become more proficient in English, patterns similar to those seen in monolingual children could emerge in which awareness and use of stress and suffix cues benefit word reading. A correlational design was used to examine the contributions of English stress in derivation with neutral and non-neutral suffixes to English word and nonword reading. Stress judgment in non-neutral derivation predicted word reading after controlling for working memory and English vocabulary; whereas stress production in neutral derivation contributed to word reading and pseudoword decoding, independent of working memory and English vocabulary. Although AELs could use stress and suffix cues for word reading, AELs were different from native English speakers in awareness of non-neutral suffix cues conditioning lexical stress placement. AELs may need to rely on lexical storage of primary stress in derivations with non-neutral suffixes.
Brummel, N.E.; Balas, M.C.; Morandi, A.; Ferrante, L.E.; Gill, T.M.; Ely, E.W.
Objective To review how disability can develop in older adults with critical illness and to explore ways to reduce long-term disability following critical illness. Data Sources Review of the literature describing post-critical illness disability in older adults and expert opinion. Results We identified 19 studies evaluating disability outcomes in critically ill patients age 65 years and older. Newly acquired disability in activities of daily living, instrumental activities of daily living and mobility activities was commonplace among older adults who survived a critical illness. Incident dementia and less-severe cognitive impairment was also highly prevalent. Factors related to the acute critical illness, intensive care unit practices such as heavy sedation, physical restraints and immobility as well as aging physiology and coexisting geriatric conditions can combine to result in these poor outcomes. Conclusion Older adults who survive critical illness suffer physical and cognitive declines resulting in disability at greater rates than hospitalized, non-critically ill and community dwelling older adults. Interventions derived from widely available geriatric care models in use outside of the ICU, which address modifiable risk factors including immobility and delirium, are associated with improved functional and cognitive outcomes and can be used to complement ICU-focused models such as the ABCDEs. PMID:25756418
Tremethick, Mary Jane; Hogan, Patricia I.; Coleman, Barb; Adams, Kady
One of the goals of "Healthy People 2010" is to decrease the incidence of limitation in physical activity due to arthritis. Physical education, recreation, and dance professionals can play an important role in meeting this objective by addressing barriers to physical activity and exercise in older adults with arthritis, and by successfully…
Chan, Jessica S.; Wade-Woolley, Lesly
Background: This study was designed to extend our understanding of phonology and reading to include suprasegmental awareness using measures of prosodic awareness, which are complex tasks that tap into the rhythmic aspects of phonology. By requiring participants to access, reflect on and manipulate word stress, the prosodic awareness measures used…
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of using students’ presentations on improving English language skills of adult learners and assess its potency to reach the expected learning outcomes. The research was conducted in the Continuing Education Center, Ishik University, Erbil, KRG, Iraq. The target population consisted of 23 English language learners (university graduates, and currently working in the sphere of Education. This study consisted of three major phases: first, explanation, preparation, presentation of the students’ works on the topic of interest and observation of students’ performance, second, teacher-student and student-student discussion of the video-recorded presentations. The last step was the application of the survey, which was designed to measure the participants’ attitude toward the mini-projects they presented in the class. The data were analyzed by means of frequency and percentage, as well as a summarization of the discussions. The main findings show that students’ attitude toward oral presentations, prepared on the topic of their own interest, have a positive attitude on students’ motivation toward learning English and help the adult learners to improve their language in general, and the productive skills in particular.
Vanda de Sousa
Full Text Available The author reflects upon the dominating culture of images in the today’s fragmented and globalised world. She examines the cinematographic text as a tool that can be used in the process of adult education, facilitating the education of the generations who, unlike younger generations, were not born into the world of images. The author argues that teaching and learning about cinema can represent a tool which enables individuals to acquire cinematographic literacy and discover their psychological, cultural and social selves. The author starts by examining the cinematographic text as a consequence of the technological evolution. She goes on to describe the evolution of the cinematographic text, emphasizing its grammar, syntax and semantics, while focusing on the advantage of the cinematographic text and language over other languages, since such text leads to free interpretation and learning. Finally, she discusses film as a teaching and/or learning tool that puts an end to the hermeneutics, reveals the other (not the self, and leads to the comprehension and construction of our individual, social and cultural identity.
Cowan, Nelson; Vergauwe, Evie
We address short-term memory development and the role of covert verbal rehearsal (CVR), the imagined pronunciation of items from a list to be recalled. We suggest insights based on studies of serial and free recall. The research in adults has taken two tacks. (1) Overt rehearsal responses have been elicited to study what CVR strategies may occur, and (2) conditions have been imposed impeding the use CVR, presumably allowing an examination of its effects on recall. There are related lines of d...
Layman Donald K
Full Text Available Abstract Dietary Guidelines for Americans provide nutrition advice aimed at promoting healthy dietary choices for life-long health and reducing risk of chronic diseases. With the advancing age of the population, the 2010 Dietary Guidelines confront increasing risks for age-related problems of obesity, osteoporosis, type 2 diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome, heart disease, and sarcopenia. New research demonstrates that the meal distribution and amount of protein are important in maintaining body composition, bone health and glucose homeostasis. This editorial reviews the benefits of dietary protein for adult health, addresses omissions in current nutrition guidelines, and offers concepts for improving the Dietary Guidelines.
Full Text Available In response to the fact that college students complain on their unsuccessful story of their EFL learning experience such as the limited number of vocabulary, English Grammar confusion, low competence of English language skills, this article explores an alternative effective way of helping them to improve their English through Text-Based Learning (TBL model. This article is then intended to narrate the implementation of TBL to teach English for college students of non English Department of Post Graduate Program of State Islamic Institute of Tulungagung, Indonesia. The result of implementing this teaching model proves to be able to not only stimulate joyful learning atmosphere but to attract the students’ active participation during the EFL instructional process as well. This further brings about their better practical understanding on English language skills as their expectation. Therefore, for English lecturers, this model is pedagogically good to be implemented in their English instructional practices.
By comparing Peter Jarvis' understanding of learning with two other approaches--which Jarvis himself has referred to as "the most comprehensive": Etienne Wenger's "social theory of learning" and my own psychologically oriented theory of "the three dimensions of learning"--it becomes evident that Jarvis' understanding…
Full Text Available This study aims at investigating the teachers’ practices and perceptions in teaching English in Saudi Arabia by viewing their stance on Cooperative Learning (CL — an innovative teaching approach proposed to raise the language proficiency level of adult EFL learners. The study has been conducted in Qassim University, Saudi Arabia—a vibrant and flourishing EFL context. A quantitative tool (a questionnaire has been used to collect data and to serve qualitative purposes. It reports 80 EFL teachers’ (40 males and 40 females perceptions about CL using a 17-items comprehensive survey covering all the possible barriers in the way of implementing CL strategies in EFL classes. The survey items also explore how the EFL teachers in Saudi Arabia foresee the implications of making such an innovative move in their classes. The responses have been analyzed on a 5-point Likert scale which ranges from strongly disagree-disagree-neutral-agree-strongly agree. Major findings are that CL strategies have practical barriers but their implications are far more positive. The barriers are mainly due to the wrong learning habits of the adult EFL learners in Qassim University and lack of will and vision of the educational administration. The study recommends that CL strategies need to be given due consideration and support by the administrators and policy makers to raise the proficiency level of adult EFL learners. The study also allays the misconception that majority of the practitioners in English language teaching field are not ready to practice and implement CL strategies in their classes.
Grunenwald, Solange; Caron, Philippe
Central hypothyroidism (CH) is a rare cause of hypothyroidism generally related to a hypothalamic-pituitary disorder or arising as an iatrogenic complication. In adults, CH may be secondary to quantitative and/or qualitative alterations in thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) secretion. The disease is difficult to diagnose clinically because it lacks specific clinical signs and these may be masked by other anterior pituitary hormone secretion deficiencies. In patients with long-standing and marked CH, a diagnosis may be made based on low free T4 levels and normal, low or moderately increased TSH levels. In patients with early-stage or moderate CH, exploration of the circadian TSH cycle, determination of TSH response after a TRH test or recombinant TSH injection, estimation of TSH index, or evaluation of peripheral indexes of thyroid hormone metabolism may be required to establish a diagnosis. Regarding treatment, patients should receive levothyroxine replacement therapy, but hormone objectives during follow-up need to be precisely determined in order to reduce cardiovascular risks and to improve the quality of life of patients.
Cutilli, Carolyn Crane; Bennett, Ian M.
Health literacy refers to an individual’s ability to understand healthcare information to make appropriate decisions (S. C Ratzen & R. M. Parker, 2000). Healthcare professionals are obligated to make sure that patients understand information to maximize the benefits of healthcare. The National Assessment of Adult Literacy (NAAL) provides information on the literacy/health literacy levels of the U.S. adult population. The NAAL is the only large-scale survey of health literacy. The results of t...
Belleville, Sylvie; Zendel, Benjamin; West, Greg; Peretz, Isabelle
It is well known that hearing abilities decline with age, and one of the most commonly reported hearing difficulties reported in older adults is a reduced ability to understand speech in noisy environments. Older musicians have an enhanced ability to understand speech in noise, and this has been associated with enhanced brain responses related to both speech processing and the deployment of attention, however the causal impact of music lessons in older adults is poorly understood. A sample of...
Ellis, Jordan M; Schenk, Rebecca R; Galloway, Amy T; Zickgraf, Hana F; Webb, Rose Mary; Martz, Denise M
Adult picky eating (PE) has received increased attention in the eating behavior literature due to its important association with adult avoidant-restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID). The current study tested a model of potential risk factors of adult PE behavior, including perceived early parental feeding practices. An exploratory model was also utilized to understand associations with different aspects of adult PE behaviors. A sample of 1339 US adults recruited through Amazon's MTurk completed an online survey that included the recently developed Adult Picky Eating Questionnaire (APEQ), retrospective reports of parental feeding practices, and other measures of eating behavior and demographic variables. A structural equation modeling procedure tested a series of regression models that included BMI and disordered eating behaviors as covariates. SEM modeling indicated that retrospective reports of greater parental pressure to eat, higher disgust sensitivity, lower PE age of onset, and experiencing an aversive food event were associated with general adult PE behavior. Results also indicated parental encouragement of healthy eating may be a protective factor, and that men endorsed higher levels of adult PE. Exploratory analyses indicated that cross-sectional predictors and covariates were differentially related to specific aspects of PE as measured by the APEQ subscales. Early experiences, including parental approaches to feeding, appear to be potential risk factors of PE behavior in adults. A nuanced understanding of adult PE is important for the prevention and treatment of severe PE behaviors, related psychosocial impairment, and ARFID. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dunn, Karee E.; Lo, Wen-Juo
Understanding self-regulation in science learning is important for theorists and practitioners alike. However, very little has been done to explore and understand students' self-regulatory processes in postsecondary science courses. In this study, the influence of science efficacy, learning value, and goal orientation on the perceived use of…
West, Linden; Fleming, Ted; Finnegan, Fergal
This paper connects Bourdieu's concepts of habitus, dispositions and capital with a psychosocial analysis of how Winnicott's psychoanalysis and Honneth's recognition theory can be of importance in understanding how and why non-traditional students remain in higher education. Understanding power relations in an interdisciplinary way makes…
Folkman, Daniel Vance
This dissertation provides an analysis of the dialogue that occurred among a small group of adult learners who engaged in a self-guided action science inquiry into their own practice. The following pages describe how this group of five practitioners ventured into a critical, self-reflective inquiry into their own values, feelings, and intentions in search of personal and professional growth. It is a deeply revealing story that shows how, through group dialogue, the members gradually unravel the interconnections between their values, feelings, and intention. They uncover surprising and unanticipated patterns in their reasoning-in-action that reflect lessons from present day experiences as well as childhood axioms about what constitutes appropriate behavior. They push their learning further to recognize emotional triggers that are useful in confronting old habits of mind that must be overcome if new Model II strategies are to be learned and internalized. They conclude that becoming Model II requires a centering on basic values, a personal commitment to change, a willingness to persist in the face of resistance, and the wisdom to act with deliberate caution. The transformative power of this insight lies in the realization of what it takes personally and collectively to make the world a truly respectful, productive, democratic, and socially just place in which to live and work. The action science literature holds the assumption that a trained facilitator is needed to guide such an inquiry and the learning of Model II skills. Unfortunately, there are few educator-trainers available to facilitate the learning of Model II proficiencies over the months and years that may be required. The data presented here show that it is possible for a group of highly motivated individuals to initiate and sustain their own action science inquiry without the aid of a highly skilled facilitator. A model of the group dialogue is presented that highlights the salient characteristics of an
Culbertson, Jennifer; Newport, Elissa L
A fundamental question for cognitive science concerns the ways in which languages are shaped by the biases of language learners. Recent research using laboratory language learning paradigms, primarily with adults, has shown that structures or rules that are common in the languages of the world are learned or processed more easily than patterns that are rare or unattested. Here we target child learners, investigating a set of biases for word order learning in the noun phrase studied by Culbertson, Smolensky, and Legendre (2012) in college-age adults. We provide the first evidence that child learners exhibit a preference for typologically common harmonic word order patterns-those which preserve the order of the head with respect to its complements-validating the psychological reality of a principle formalized in many different linguistic theories. We also discuss important differences between child and adult learners in terms of both the strength and content of the biases at play during language learning. In particular, the bias favoring harmonic patterns is markedly stronger in children than adults, and children (unlike adults) acquire adjective ordering more readily than numeral ordering. The results point to the importance of investigating learning biases across development in order to understand how these biases may shape the history and structure of natural languages. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Culbertson, Jennifer; Newport, Elissa L.
A fundamental question for cognitive science concerns the ways in which languages are shaped by the biases of language learners. Recent research using laboratory language learning paradigms, primarily with adults, has shown that structures or rules that are common in the languages of the world are learned or processed more easily than patterns that are rare or unattested. Here we target child learners, investigating a set of biases for word order learning in the noun phrase studied by Culbertson, Smolensky & Legendre (2012) in college-age adults. We provide the first evidence that child learners exhibit a preference for typologically common harmonic word order patterns—those which preserve the order of the head with respect to its complements—validating the psychological reality of a principle formalized in many different linguistic theories. We also discuss important differences between child and adult learners in terms of both the strength and content of the biases at play during language learning. In particular, the bias favoring harmonic patterns is markedly stronger in children than adults, and children (unlike adults) acquire adjective ordering more readily than numeral ordering. The results point to the importance of investigating learning biases across development in order to understand how these biases may shape the history and structure of natural languages. PMID:25800352
Xue, Jin; Jiang, Xiaoming
The present research aimed to explore the developmental relationship between bilingual morphological awareness and reading for Chinese natives learning English as a foreign language (EFL learners). Pre- and post-tests were conducted with in an interval of 9 months. Morphological and reading measures in Chinese and English were administered to 139…
Ng, Chi-Hung Clarence
This study explored adult learners' goal profiles in relation to the completion of a compulsory academic essay. Based on learners' scores on items assessing mastery, performance-approach, and work-avoidance goals, cluster analyses produced three distinct categories of learners: performance-focused, work-avoidant, and multiple-goal learners. These…
Stuck, Rachel E; Rogers, Wendy A
As the population of older adults increase so will the need for care providers, both human and robot. Trust is a key aspect to establish and maintain a successful older adult-care provider relationship. However, due to trust volatility it is essential to understand it within specific contexts. This proposed mixed methods study will explore what dimensions of trust emerge as important within the human-human and human-robot dyads in older adults and care providers. First, this study will help identify key qualities that support trust in a care provider relationship. By understanding what older adults perceive as needing to trust humans and robots for various care tasks, we can begin to provide recommendations based on user expectations for design to support trust.
Ilgaz, Hale; Gulbahar, Yasemin
Offering many advantages to adult learners, e-Learning is now being recognized--and preferred--by more and more people, resulting in an increased number of distance learners in recent years. Numerous research studies focus on learner preferences for online learning, with most converging around the individual characteristics and differences, if not…
Dunn, Karee E.; Lo, Wen-Juo
Understanding self-regulation in science learning is important for theorists and practitioners alike. However, very little has been done to explore and understand students' self-regulatory processes in postsecondary science courses. In this study, the influence of science efficacy, learning value, and goal orientation on the perceived use of science study strategies was explored using structural equation modeling. In addition, the study served to validate the first two stages of Zimmerman's cyclical model of self-regulation and to address the common methodological weakness in self-regulation research in which data are all collected at one point after the learning cycle is complete. Thus, data were collected across the learning cycle rather than asking students to reflect upon each construct after the learning cycle was complete. The findings supported the hypothesized model in which it was predicted that self-efficacy would significantly and positively influence students' perceived science strategy use, and the influence of students' valuation of science learning on science study strategies would be mediated by their learning goal orientation. The findings of the study are discussed and implications for undergraduate science instructors are proposed.
Marples, Owen; Baldwin, Christine; Weekes, C Elizabeth
Background: Nutrition training for health care staff has been prioritized internationally as a key means of tackling malnutrition; however, there is a lack of clear evidence to support its implementation. Systematic reviews in other fields of training for health care staff indicate that training strategies may have a beneficial impact on learner and patient outcomes. Objectives: We assessed whether nutrition training for health care staff caring for nutritionally vulnerable adults resulted in improved learner and patient outcomes and evaluated the effectiveness of different training strategies. Design: A systematic review of trials of nutrition training for health care staff was conducted. Six databases were searched with key terms relating to malnutrition and nutrition training. Studies were categorized according to cognitive (didactic teaching), behavioral (practical implementation of skills), and psychological (individualized or group feedback and reflection) training strategies. Where sufficient data were available, meta-analysis was performed according to study design and training strategy. All study designs were eligible. The risk of bias was evaluated in accordance with Cochrane guidance. Results: Twenty-four studies met the eligibility criteria: 1 randomized controlled trial, 4 nonrandomized controlled trials, 3 quasi-experimental trials, 13 longitudinal pre-post trials, 2 qualitative studies, and 1 cross-sectional survey. Results from a number of low-quality studies suggest that nutrition training for health care staff may have a beneficial effect on staff nutrition knowledge, practice, and attitude as well as patient nutritional intake. There were insufficient data to determine whether any particular training strategy was more effective than the others. Conclusions: In the absence of high-quality evidence, low-quality studies suggest that nutrition training for health care staff has some positive effects. However, further randomized controlled trials are
Petersen, Karen Bjerg
of virtual e-learning, interviews with teachers and 10 learner participants in a virtual classroom setting, and discourse analysis of curriculum developed for the particular e-learning course The research has taken place in the context of a study of e-learning and virtual teaching of Danish as a Second...... language for adults. The research results indicate that teachers seem to compensate by trying to create virtual communities of learning. Learners, however, experience disembedded relations. Conversely, curriculum development, on tends to ‘exploit’ the conditions of disembedding social relations in e-learning......, locationally distant”. The aim of the paper is to analyse and discuss how different positions in e-learning settings result in different answers to modernity. These settings can be applied to either teacher, learner or curriculum positions. The research was based on a qualitative longitudinal case study...
Li, Hongli; Suen, Hoi K.
This study examines how Chinese ESL learners recognize English words while responding to a multiple-choice reading test as compared to Romance-language-speaking ESL learners. Four adult Chinese ESL learners and three adult Romance-language-speaking ESL learners participated in a think-aloud study with the Michigan English Language Assessment…
Larry E. Humes
Full Text Available This study was designed to address individual differences in aided speech understanding among a relatively large group of older adults. The group of older adults consisted of 98 adults (50 female and 48 male ranging in age from 60 to 86 (mean = 69.2. Hearing loss was typical for this age group and about 90% had not worn hearing aids. All subjects completed a battery of tests, including cognitive (6 measures, psychophysical (17 measures, and speech-understanding (9 measures, as well as the Speech, Spatial and Qualities of Hearing (SSQ self-report scale. Most of the speech-understanding measures made use of competing speech and the non-speech psychophysical measures were designed to tap phenomena thought to be relevant for the perception of speech in competing speech (e.g., stream segregation, modulation-detection interference. All measures of speech understanding were administered with spectral shaping applied to the speech stimuli to fully restore audibility through at least 4000 Hz. The measures used were demonstrated to be reliable in older adults and, when compared to a reference group of 28 young normal-hearing adults, age-group differences were observed on many of the measures. Principal-components factor analysis was applied successfully to reduce the number of independent and dependent (speech understanding measures for a multiple-regression analysis. Doing so yielded one global cognitive-processing factor and five non-speech psychoacoustic factors (hearing loss, dichotic signal detection, multi-burst masking, stream segregation, and modulation detection as potential predictors. To this set of six potential predictor variables were added subject age, Environmental Sound Identification (ESI, and performance on the text-recognition-threshold (TRT task (a visual analog of interrupted speech recognition. These variables were used to successfully predict one global aided speech-understanding factor, accounting for about 60% of the variance.
A Pilot Study Comparing Total Physical Response Storytelling[TM] with the Grammar-Translation Teaching Strategy to Determine Their Effectiveness in Vocabulary Acquisition among English as a Second Language Adult Learners
This study evaluated the effectiveness of Total Physical Response Storytelling (TPRS[TM]) compared to the Grammar-Translation approach for acquiring and retaining new vocabulary in an English as a Second Language (ESL) class. The subjects were adult Hispanic learners with limited literacy. An experimental design approach was used to gather…
Young, Jeani C.
Adult education is about change. Change in knowledge and understanding. Change in attitudes and beliefs. Change in skills and behaviors. The transfer that adult educators and learners often want to achieve is that change. In situations where transfer equals change, models of change can be useful to describe, support, and predict transfer. This…
This study examined idiom understanding in 120 neurologically healthy adults, ages 20-29 (20s Group), 40-49 (40s Group), 60-69 (60s Group), and 80-89 (80s Group) years old. Each participant was administered a familiarity task, definition explanation task, mental imagery task, and forced-choice comprehension task. Twenty idioms, 10 transparent and…
There is dissonance between the lives of adult students in rural Nepal in a subsistence-level agrarian community and their participation in school. The concept of "transfer" has several shortcomings from the standpoint of understanding relations between mathematical reasoning in the classroom and in the workplace. It is more helpful to…
McBride, Sara E; Rogers, Wendy A; Fisk, Arthur D
This study examined how individuals, younger and older, interacted with an imperfect automated system. The impact of workload on performance and automation use was also investigated. Automation is used in situations characterized by varying levels of workload. As automated systems spread to domains such as transportation and the home, a diverse population of users will interact with automation. Research is needed to understand how different segments of the population use automation. Workload was systematically manipulated to create three levels (low, moderate, high) in a dual-task scenario in which participants interacted with a 70% reliable automated aid. Two experiments were conducted to assess automation use for younger and older adults. Both younger and older adults relied on the automation more than they complied with it. Among younger adults, high workload led to poorer performance and higher compliance, even when that compliance was detrimental. Older adults' performance was negatively affected by workload, but their compliance and reliance were unaffected. Younger and older adults were both able to use and double-check an imperfect automated system. Workload affected how younger adults complied with automation, particularly with regard to detecting automation false alarms. Older adults tended to comply and rely at fairly high rates overall, and this did not change with increased workload. Training programs for imperfect automated systems should vary workload and provide feedback about error types, and strategies for identifying errors. The ability to identify automation errors varies across individuals, thereby necessitating training.
Van Den Berg, Heather A.; Dann, Shari L.; Dirkx, John M.
Adult conservation education is growing nationally. We investigated adults' motivations to take part in Michigan's Conservation Stewards education and volunteerism program. We used three theoretical frames (adult education orientations, volunteerism motivations, and leisure benefits sought) to understand learners' involvement. Adults' education…
Rhoades, Jason L; Gruber, James S; Horton, Bill
Recent reports highlight the vulnerability of elderly adults to climate change, yet limited research has focused on this topic. To address this, the purpose of this study was to develop an in-depth understanding of elderly adult's vulnerability to climate change within the context of a specific community. A case study methodology utilizing a community-based action research approach was employed to engage elderly participants living in Bridgeport, CT, in exploring their vulnerability to current and predicted climate stressors with a focus on extreme heat, flooding and storms, and air pollution. This research identifies personal characteristics that interact with contextual factors to influence elderly adult's vulnerability to climate change. Personal characteristics include health, economic, and social considerations. Contextual factors include the adequacy of emergency preparedness measures, transportation resources, and coping and recovery resources. As a result of the interplay of these characteristics and factors, predicted climate changes could have serious consequences for Bridgeport's elderly adults. This research provides a contextualized and detailed illustration of how climate change could overwhelm elderly adult's adaptive capacity and highlights the need for support services to provide safeguards. The issues and concerns raised may bear similarities to other locations, especially urban settings facing similar climate stressors with similar socioeconomic conditions. The findings suggest a need for further research to improve our understanding and serve as the basis for collaborative adaptation planning that engages elderly communities with local governments and a broad coalition of partners to keep elders safe.
Ab Latif Wani
Full Text Available There has been a shift in the understanding of brain, neurons, and their functional role over the last two decades. Earlier it was believed that the brain was a static organ and was not subject to any change throughout life. An understanding was developed later that brain reorganizes its structure by a specific property called neuroplasticity. Recent research shows that the brain generates new neurons even in the adult stage, and this process is called adult neurogenesis. Although researchers still not have all the answers about the newborn neurons, and why and how they are generated, and what is their role, some have highlighted the importance of these in learning and memory formation, and even in memories of fear and spatial navigation. A wide range of environmental experience influences the generation of newborn neurons and their functional variability. There are questions about how different environmental experiences cause the differences in the generation of new neurons. Recently the field of optogenetics attempted to answer the questions on adult neurogenesis. However there are still questions about adult neurogenesis which needs a more naturalistic approach, for their better understanding.
Liyanagunawardena, Tharindu Rekha; Williams, Shirley Ann
Massive open online courses (MOOCs) have become commonplace in the e-learning landscape. Thousands of elderly learners are participating in courses offered by various institutions on a multitude of platforms in many different languages. However, there is very little research into understanding elderly learners in MOOCs. We aim to show that a considerable proportion of elderly learners are participating in MOOCs and that there is a lack of research in this area. We hope this assertion of the wide gap in research on elderly learners in MOOCs will pave the way for more research in this area. Pre-course survey data for 10 University of Reading courses on the FutureLearn platform were analyzed to show the level of participation of elderly learners in MOOCs. Two MOOC aggregator sites (Class Central and MOOC List) were consulted to gather data on MOOC offerings that include topics relating to aging. In parallel, a selected set of MOOC platform catalogues, along with a recently published review on health and medicine-related MOOCs, were searched to find courses relating to aging. A systematic literature search was then employed to identify research articles on elderly learners in MOOCs. The 10 courses reviewed had a considerable proportion of elderly learners participating in them. For the over-66 age group, this varied from 0.5% (on the course "Managing people") to 16.3% (on the course "Our changing climate"), while for the over-56 age group it ranged from 3.0% (on "A beginners guide to writing in English") to 39.5% (on "Heart health"). Only six MOOCs were found to include topics related to aging: three were on the Coursera platform, two on the FutureLearn platform, and one on the Open2Study platform. Just three scholarly articles relating to MOOCs and elderly learners were retrieved from the literature search. This review presents evidence to suggest that elderly learners are already participating in MOOCs. Despite this, there has been very little research into their
Full Text Available The overarching purpose of our study was to compare performances of treatment and control condition students who completed a literacy-infused, inquiry-based science intervention through sixth grade as measured by a big idea assessment tool which we refer to as the Big Ideas in Science Assessment (BISA. First, we determine the concurrent validity of the BISA; second, we investigate the differences in the post-test of the BISA between treatment and control English Learners (ELs, controlling for their performance in the pre-test; third, we analyze the differences in the post-test of the BISA between treatment and control non-ELs, controlling for their performance in the pre-test; and fourth, we examine the relationship between students’ English language proficiency as measured by standardized assessment, and their performance in the BISA among ELs and non-ELs, respectively. Our findings indicate: (a literacy-infused science lessons with big ideas, implemented through the tested intervention, improved students’ language acquisition and science concept understanding for ELs and economically challenged students (ECs; (b there was a positive relationship between language and content for both ELs and non-ELs, with a similar magnitude, suggesting that students with a higher level of English proficiency score higher in science assessment; and (c the lesson plans prepared were successful for promoting a literacy-infused science curriculum via a 5E Model (Engage, Explore, Explain, Elaborate, and Evaluate that includes three to five of the Es used daily. A pedagogical approach for a literacy-infused science model with big ideas is proposed.
McBride, Sara E.; Rogers, Wendy A.; Fisk, Arthur D.
Objective This study examined how individuals, younger and older, interacted with an imperfect automated system. The impact of workload on performance and automation use was also investigated. Background Automation is used in situations characterized by varying levels of workload. As automated systems spread to domains such as transportation and the home, a diverse population of users will interact with automation. Research is needed to understand how different segments of the population use automation. Method Workload was systematically manipulated to create three levels (low, moderate, high) in a dual-task scenario in which participants interacted with a 70% reliable automated aid. Two experiments were conducted to assess automation use for younger and older adults. Results Both younger and older adults relied on the automation more than they complied with it. Among younger adults, high workload led to poorer performance and higher compliance, even when that compliance was detrimental. Older adults’ performance was negatively affected by workload, but their compliance and reliance were unaffected. Conclusion Younger and older adults were both able to use and double-check an imperfect automated system. Workload affected how younger adults complied with automation, particularly with regard to detecting automation false alarms. Older adults tended to comply and rely at fairly high rates overall, and this did not change with increased workload. Application Training programs for imperfect automated systems should vary workload and provide feedback about error types, and strategies for identifying errors. The ability to identify automation errors varies across individuals, thereby necessitating training. PMID:22235529
Bryant, Wanda L.
The emergence of a knowledge-based and technology-driven economy has prompted adults to seek additional knowledge and skills that will enable them to participate effectively in society. The rapid growth and popularity of the internet tools such as Web 2.0 tools have revolutionized adult learning. Through the rich support of Web 2.0 tools, adult…
Bolliger, Doris U.; Shepherd, Craig E.
As more adults frequent wilderness areas, they bring Internet-enabled devices (e.g., smart phones, tablets) with them. This study focuses on adults' perceptions of these devices in relation to desired outdoor learning experiences. Specifically, researchers examined the perspectives of naturalists who taught outdoor education programs and park…
This article discusses how to comprehend why people working unskilled jobs are less likely than other groups to position themselves as educable subjects and engage in adult education and training. This article outlines how different research traditions examining recruitment to and participation...... in adult education and training reveal and explain distinctive participation patterns. These traditions are critically reviewed in order to identify how they provide certain understandings and entail certain blind spots. The review reveals a striking absence of research into unskilled work and thus...... a tendency to overlook how engagement in specific kinds of work condition people’s perception of adult education and training. It is finally argued that future research must pay closer attention to people’s specific work-life and examine how engagement in specific historical, social and material (changing...
Learner lexicography as a research area has attracted increased attention during the past decades, but what is actually the true nature of learner lexicography? This question calls for a complex answer. Learner lexicography has as its objective to develop principles that help practitioners......, namely its functions, data and structures, as this strengthens the basis of learner lexicography because it leads to a proper study and understanding of the competences and needs of learners. Finally, the modern theory of dictionary functions encourages theoretical and practical lexicographers to adopt...
Pedersen, Inge Nygaard
The article presents varied ways of understanding and applying the clinical concept of counter transference. The sources are drawn from the author's own clinical praxis, from psychoanalytic and music therapy literature and from a qualitative interview examination among experienced music therapist...... applying the concept in music therapy improvisational work in adult psychiatry.......The article presents varied ways of understanding and applying the clinical concept of counter transference. The sources are drawn from the author's own clinical praxis, from psychoanalytic and music therapy literature and from a qualitative interview examination among experienced music therapists...
Full Text Available There is a small, but growing, social scientific literature on the racist and violent nature of contemporary adult pornography. However, considerably more empirical and theoretical work needs to be done to advance a critical criminological understanding of how such hurtful sexual media contribute to various forms of woman abuse in intimate relationships. The main objective of this article is to briefly review the relevant literature and to suggest a few new progressive empirical and theoretical directions.
賴素純 Su-Chun Lai
instructional designs and strategies for online adult learners.
Full Text Available For the first time learner's passport was pre sented at the international conference on permanent education, taking place in Rome in December 1994. This document is not meant for students only but for the entire population. It should contain notes on any format education, additional education, working experiences, cultural activities, sport results, awards, prizes and recommen dations. The mission of learner's passport is to gather all documents in one place, a handy book let which gives one an overall view over his/her achievements. It should help personnel departments in choosing the right person for a certain job as well as indirectly stimul ate additional activities of the learner's passport holder.
With the development of multimedia network technology and application, teacher-centered classroom teaching traditional pattern transfers completely to the new autonomous learning mode of learners as center. Teachers should improve English learning environment of learners, improve English autonomous learning awareness and motivation of adult learners, and strengthen the training of English learning. Teachers should guide adult learners to study English independently by making full use of multimedia cyber source.%随着多媒体网络技术的飞速发展和应用，以教师为中心的课堂授课传统模式彻底地转向以学生为中心的新型自主学习模式。教师应通过充分利用多媒体、网络资源，改善成人学习者的学习环境，培养他们利用网络自主学习英语的意识和动机，加强他们对英语学习的训练，逐步让他们养成网络自主学习英语的习惯。
Panagiotaki, Georgia; Hopkins, Michelle; Nobes, Gavin; Ward, Emma; Griffiths, Debra
This study explored the development of understanding of death in a sample of 4- to 11-year-old British children and adults (N=136). It also investigated four sets of possible influences on this development: parents' religion and spiritual beliefs, cognitive ability, socioeconomic status, and experience of illness and death. Participants were interviewed using the "death concept" interview that explores understanding of the subcomponents of inevitability, universality, irreversibility, cessation, and causality of death. Children understood key aspects of death from as early as 4 or 5years, and with age their explanations of inevitability, universality, and causality became increasingly biological. Understanding of irreversibility and the cessation of mental and physical processes also emerged during early childhood, but by 10years many children's explanations reflected not an improved biological understanding but rather the coexistence of apparently contradictory biological and supernatural ideas-religious, spiritual, or metaphysical. Evidence for these coexistent beliefs was more prevalent in older children than in younger children and was associated with their parents' religious and spiritual beliefs. Socioeconomic status was partly related to children's biological ideas, whereas cognitive ability and experience of illness and death played less important roles. There was no evidence for coexistent thinking among adults, only a clear distinction between biological explanations about death and supernatural explanations about the afterlife. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This research aims at investigating the relationship between writing skill and sub-skills of first language (Persian and foreign language (English. Therefore, 50 upper-intermediate EFL learners in Iran who were majoring in the English language were asked to write on two different topics in Persian and English. Then, the compositions were evaluated based on ESL Composition Profile. Subsequently, using Pearson product-moment correlation, the correlation between the compositions overall scores in L1 and L2, as well as the correlations between each of five major components of writing, including content, organization, vocabulary, language use, and mechanics in the two languages were examined. The results displayed large correlations between the compositions overall scores as well as between the four writing sub-skills in L1 and L2. The highest correlations were observed between writing sub-skills of vocabulary, mechanics, language use, and content respectively. These findings entail some pedagogical implications for effective language learning in both L1 and L2, utilizing the enhancing effect of cross-linguistic transfer of writing.
Anderson, Ryan Michael
Community colleges serve as the postsecondary college of choice for many adult students. Community colleges are aware of their increased role in postsecondary education and understand that they must continue to analyze student populations and adapt to their needs as well as maintain their open access philosophy. This study was conducted at the 15…
Funk, Amy; Garcia, Christina; Mullen, Tiara
: Background: Older hospitalized adults with hearing impairment are vulnerable to adverse outcomes. These patients are at risk for being labeled confused, experiencing a loss of control, experiencing heightened fear and anxiety, and misunderstanding the plan of care. This qualitative study sought to assess the hospital experience of older adults with hearing impairment in order to formulate suggestions for improving nursing care. Open-ended interviews were conducted with eight participants, ages 70 to 95 years, who were identified as having a hearing impairment and were admitted as inpatients to a midwestern medical center. Through data analysis, three common themes emerged: health care communication difficulties, passivity and vulnerability, and frustration with family. Nurses will benefit from having a deeper understanding of the hospital experience of this vulnerable population. Efforts to address their needs can be accomplished through the following nursing actions: assess, accommodate, educate, empower, and advocate.
Parma City School District, OH.
This handbook defines and describes the benefits of both collaborative approaches and cooperative techniques. An introduction uses watercolor marbling as a metaphor for collaborative approaches and cooperative activities. Section I provides research results regarding problems of adult literacy programs, skills employers want, and Bloom's taxonomy.…
Torbert, James Brison
An investigation reviewed current literature in the field of physiological factors affecting the adult learning environment. These findings were compared to the academic learning environment at the Phoenix Air National Guard. The end product was a set of recommendations for management to implement in order to improve the learning climate for the…
This exploratory study investigated how self-perceptions of self-determination and of achievement goal orientation were related to self-perceptions of satisfaction with the learning experience in a population of 495 adults engaged in non-formal lifelong learning through participation as amateur members of the United States Dressage Association.…
Lubin, Melissa Maybury
Coaching is an actionable way for adults to learn. For purposes of this study, learning was conceptualized by UNESCO's five pillars of learning to know, do, live together, be, and learning to transform oneself and society. The practice of coaching was defined as a social enterprise where, through a process of inquiry and reflection, coaches help…
Carnoy, Martin; Rabling, Brenda Jarillo; Castano-Munoz, Jonatan; Montoliu, Josep Maria Duart; Sancho-Vinuesa, Teresa
The increasing opportunities created for adults by on-line distance universities raise important issues about the payoff to such education. This study uses a unique set of survey data gathered by the Open University of Catalonia (UOC) in 2009 to estimate the earnings gains of the 2000-2003 cohorts of UOC students in six programmes of study over an…
Pierson, Sandra E.
Driving behavior is a contributing factor in 85% of all traffic crashes; therefore, driver reeducation must be centered on increasing safe driving behavior. Because self-reflection strategies have been shown to change behavior, a study using a self-assessment tool was conducted with Virginia adult drivers mandated to complete a driver improvement…
In this study the author examined why children and adults think they need to eat. Preschoolers through adults were provided with physiological, social, psychological, and routine causes for eating breakfast, lunch, snack, and dinner, and were asked to either agree or disagree with the causal responses provided. A 4 Reason x 4 Meal repeated measures analysis of variance revealed significant main effects for meals and reasons, as well as significant Meal x Reason and Meal x Reason x Grade interactions. The effect sizes ranged from 0.1 to 0.7. Across all age groups, participants acknowledged physiological needs and desires (fulfilling hunger and needs to stay healthy) and routine (e.g., it is dinner time) as the primary causes for eating breakfast, lunch, and dinner. However, for snack physiological needs were the primary reason. Second-grade students onward spontaneously produced biological justifications such as the need for energy and nutrition as important reasons for food consumption. These results lend support to the developmental model that children's and adults' understanding of eating changes in middle childhood.
Decades of reform have resulted in a system of further education that treats adults like children, with limited control over the qualifications they choose to pursue. This needs to change. Money must follow learners, not government contracts, and so create a genuinely demand-led system. The author proposes new financial and regulatory structures…
James, Chris; James, Jane; Potter, Ian
An adult ego development (AED) perspective accepts that the way adults interpret and interact in the social world can change during their life-span. This article seeks to analyse the validity and potential of AED for enhancing understandings of educational leadership practice and development. We analysed the AED literature and interviewed 16…
The purpose of this research study was to examine adults learning Finnish as a foreign language while striving to understand the reasons behind their decisions to do so, the support that was individually offered to the participants, how they felt throughout the learning process, and whether or not they found themselves to be self-reliant learners, as per Knowles’ andragogy theory. This study set out to examine adult language learners participating in the language and integration program at Pa...
Bledsoe, Johnny Mark
The content created by digital natives via collaborative Web 2.0 applications provides a rich source of unique knowledge and social capital for their virtual communities of interest. The problem addressed in this study was the limited understanding of older digital immigrants who use Web 2.0 applications to access, distribute, or enhance these…
Labranche, Leah; Johnson, Marjorie; Palma, David; D'Souza, Leah; Jaswal, Jasbir
Radiation oncologists require an in-depth understanding of anatomical relationships for modern clinical practice, although most do not receive formal anatomy training during residency. To fulfill the need for instruction in relevant anatomy, a series of four multidisciplinary, interactive learning modules were developed for a cohort of radiation…
Elufiede, Kemi, Ed.; Flynn, Bonnie, Ed.
The 36th Annual Adult Higher Education Alliance (AHEA) Conference was held on March 10-11, 2016 in Orlando, Florida, on the campus of the University of Central Florida. There were 48 presentations from scholars and practitioners from 20 states who participated in the conference. The contributions to these proceedings represent the best of the…
Describes one teacher's success with using "Harry Potter" in a program to teach elementary school English language learners. Provides comprehension strategies incorporated to help learners understand the story. Highlights the importance of creating a classroom environment with a low level of anxiety, the implications of the program, and the value…
Aim/Purpose: The purpose of this exploratory case study was to understand how teachers, working with English Language Learners (ELLs), expanded their knowledge and instructional practices as they implemented a one-to-one iPad® program. Background: English Language Learners experience linguistic, cultural, and cognitive shifts that can be…
Lopez Hartmann, Maja; Anthierens, Sibyl; Van Assche, Elisa; Welvaert, Joanna; Verhoeven, Véronique; Wens, Johan; Remmen, Roy
The objective of this study is to describe how adult daughters experience caring for a frail older parent at home. In the near future the ageing of the population will have a major impact on the demand for formal and informal long-term care. Relatives, especially spouses and adult children are the main providers of informal care. Qualitative research methodology was used to study the experience of adult daughters caring for their frail older parents. A phenomenological research perspective was used to better understand the daily experiences of caring for an ageing parent. Data were collected using open-ended interviews. Interviews were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data were subject to thematic analysis. Eleven women between 40-70 years of age participated in this study. Inductive coding of the interview data led to four main themes: being a caregiver as a natural process in life, the perception and consequences of caregiving activities, sharing care and finding a good balance between caring for an ageing parent and other responsibilities. Caregiving activities could be divided into visible and invisible activities and generated different feelings. The visible activities were more easily shared with other family members and professionals than the invisible ones. The women who struggled the most and tended to have a higher level of burden were those who experienced less support from their family. This study provided more insight into the experiences women have when caring for a parent. Supporting family networks that help in both visible and invisible activities may prevent overburden. Consumer-led care and the active participation of the informal caregiver in the decision-making process for building the care plan need to become more prominent. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Inhestern, Laura; Bultmann, Johanna Christine; Beierlein, Volker; Möller, Birgit; Romer, Georg; Koch, Uwe; Bergelt, Corinna
Parents with cancer are concerned about the impact of their disease on their children. However, parenting concerns and associated factors in cancer survivors have not previously been analyzed. The purpose of this study is to examine parenting concerns and to test a path model for understanding parenting concerns in cancer survivors. In a cross-sectional study, a total of 1416 parents with cancer (mean age 47.5years, 74% women) having minor or young-adult children were recruited through two cancer registries. Parenting concerns were assessed using the Parenting Concerns Questionnaire. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to analyze the associations between social support, parenting confidence, emotional distress, family functioning and parenting concerns. Mothers reported higher total parenting concerns than fathers (peffects of emotional distress and parenting confidence on parenting concerns. Family dysfunctioning was associated with lower concerns. An indirect association between social support and parenting concerns was identified. Parenting concerns in cancer survivors display the need for interventions and after care programs that focus on affected families with minor and young adult children. The results of the structural path model illustrate the associations between psychological and interactional factors. Supporting parents with cancer in their parenting confidence and strengthen social support and family functioning may not only reduce the long-term burden on the parents themselves but also the burden on the entire family. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Patzer, Rachel E; Serper, Marina; Reese, Peter P; Przytula, Kamila; Koval, Rachel; Ladner, Daniela P; Levitsky, Josh M; Abecassis, Michael M; Wolf, Michael S
We sought to evaluate the prevalence of medication understanding and non-adherence of entire drug regimens among kidney transplantation (KT) recipients and to examine associations of these exposures with clinical outcomes. Structured, in-person interviews were conducted with 99 adult KT recipients between 2011 and 2012 at two transplant centers in Chicago, IL; and Atlanta, GA. Nearly, one-quarter (24%) of participants had limited literacy as measured by the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine test; patients took a mean of 10 (SD=4) medications and 32% had a medication change within the last month. On average, patients knew what 91% of their medications were for (self-report) and demonstrated proper dosing (via observed demonstration) for 83% of medications. Overall, 35% were non-adherent based on either self-report or tacrolimus level. In multivariable analyses, fewer months since transplant and limited literacy were associated with non-adherence (all Padherence, and hospitalization could help target appropriate self-care interventions. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
International and national mathematics studies have revealed the poor mathematics skills of South African learners. An essential tool that can be used to improve learners' mathematical skills is for educators to use effective feedback. Our purpose in this study was to elicit learners' understanding and expectations of teacher ...
Shankar, Kalpana N; Taylor, Devon; Rizzo, Caroline T; Liu, Shan W
We sought to understand older patients' perspectives about their fall, fall risk factors, and attitude toward emergency department (ED) fall-prevention interventions. We conducted semistructured interviews between July 2015 and January 2016 of community-dwelling, nondemented patients in the ED, who presented with a fall to an urban, teaching hospital. Interviews were halted once we achieve thematic saturation with the data coded and categorized into themes. Of the 63 patients interviewed, patients blamed falls on the environment, accidents, a medical condition, or themselves. Three major themes were generated: (1) patients blamed falls on a multitude of things but never acknowledged a possible multifactorial rationale, (2) patients have variable level of concerns regarding their current fall and future fall risk, and (3) patients demonstrated a range of receptiveness to ED interventions aimed at preventing falls but provided little input as to what those interventions should be. Many older patients who fall do not understand their fall risk. However, based on the responses provided, older adults tend to be more receptive to intervention and more concerned about their future fall risk, making the ED an appropriate setting for intervention.
In examining the titles of this year's conference presentations, the author noticed quite a few papers that focus on learner-specific issues, for instance, papers that address learning styles, learner needs, personality and learning, learner modeling and, more generally, pedagogical issues that deal with individual learner differences in…
Van Schalkwyk, Gerrit I; Bhalla, Ish P; Griepp, Matthew; Kelmendi, Benjamin; Davidson, Larry; Pittenger, Christopher
Background Current attempts at understanding the heterogeneity in OCD have relied on quantitative methods. The results of such work point towards a dimensional structure for OCD. Existing qualitative work in OCD has focused on understanding specific aspects of the OCD experience in greater depth. However, qualitative methods are also of potential value in furthering our understanding of OCD heterogeneity by allowing for open-ended exploration of the OCD experience and correlating identified subtypes with patient narratives. Aims We explored variations in patients’ experience prior to, during, and immediately after performing their compulsions. Method Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 20 adults with OCD, followed by inductive thematic analysis. Participant responses were not analyzed within the context of an existing theoretical framework, and themes were labeled descriptively. Results The previously dichotomy of ‘anxiety’ vs ‘incompleteness’ emerged organically during narrative analysis. In addition, we found that some individuals with OCD utilize their behaviors as a way to cope with stress and anxiety more generally. Other participants did not share this experience and denied finding any comfort in their OC behaviors. The consequences of attention difficulties were highlighted, with some participants describing how difficulty focusing on a task could influence the need for it to be repeated multiple times. Conclusions The extent to which patients use OCD as a coping mechanism is a relevant distinction with potential implications for treatment engagement. Patients may experience ambivalence about suppressing behaviors that they have come to rely upon for management of stress and anxiety, even if these behaviors represent symptoms of a psychiatric illness. PMID:25855685
Full Text Available Background: Morbid obesity is a progressive, chronic condition associated with failed attempts at change and repeated relapses. Aim: There seems to be little previous research into the understanding of the everyday life of morbidly obese adults. We wanted to gain more knowledge about characteristics of eating habits and body image as well as motivational forces for change. Methods: A qualitative approach was chosen in order to gain insight into how morbidly obese adults experience everyday life. Qualitative interviews are well suited to provide insight into themes from the interviewee's life story from the subjects’ own perspectives. To gain insight into such processes, a narrative approach that allowed the informants to give voice to their ways of doing, thinking and feeling in daily life, was adopted. The informants comprised seven women and four men aged of 26–56 years, recruited from a population of obese individuals who had participated in a weight reduction course. A hermeneutic approach was used where the research question was the basis for a reflective interpretation. Results: The following meaning-units were identified: to be perceived as overweight; and to see oneself as overweight. Ingrained habits: the struggle between knowing and doing; acting without knowing; and eating is soothing. Conclusions: Seeing oneself as an obese person is a gradual process that implied experiencing oneself as different from significant others, such as (slim siblings and friends. To experience a gap between knowing and doing concerning food habits in everyday life indicates that informants value they have a choice. This is an important insight to consider when framing interventions to support this vulnerable group.
Zoellner, Jamie; Krzeski, Erin; Harden, Samantha; Cook, Emily; Allen, Kacie; Estabrooks, Paul A
Despite strong scientific data indicating associations among sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and numerous adverse health outcomes, little is known about culturally specific beliefs and potential individual-level behavioral strategies to reduce SSB intake. The primary objective of this formative study targeting adults residing in rural southwest Virginia was to apply the Theory of Planned Behavior to investigate culturally specific attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control constructs related to the consumption of SSB, water, and artificially sweetened beverages. Using a homogenous sampling strategy, eight focus groups were conducted with 54 adult participants who exceeded recommendations of Theory of Planned Behavior, to execute the focus group. All focus groups were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. Three researchers independently coded meaning units to the major themes and subsequently met to gain consensus in coding. Important beverage-specific themes emerged for attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, and intentions. Across all beverages, the most notable themes included taste (n=161 meaning units), availability/convenience (n=95 meaning units), habit/addiction (n=57 meaning units), and cost (n=28 meaning units). Health consequences associated with beverages and water-quality issues also surfaced, as well as normative beliefs, including the influence of doctors and peers. The identified themes and subthemes provide critical insight into understanding culturally relevant context and beliefs associated with beverage consumption behaviors and helps inform the development and evaluation of future intervention efforts targeting SSB consumption in the health disparate region of southwest Virginia. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Zheng, Robert; Spears, Jeffrey; Luptak, Marilyn; Wilby, Frances
The current study examined factors related to older adults' perceptions of Internet use. Three hundred ninety five older adults participated in the study. The factor analysis revealed four factors perceived by older adults as critical to their Internet use: social connection, self-efficacy, the need to seek financial information, and the need to…
Greenbaum, JoAnne; Angus, Kathryn Bartle
A position statement on the rights of adult readers and learners was adopted by the CRLA board in 2002 and published with a theoretical rationale in ["Journal of College Reading and Learning"] "JCRL," Spring 2003. The statement was a guideline for educators seeking to improve the quality of adult education. In 2016, at the…
Vafai, Maliheh Mansuripur
This article reports on an empirical case study centering on adult ESL learners' motivational patterns for learning English and its relevance to their career goals. It looks at past patterns of immigrant insertion within the socioeconomic context of the US and explores current trends in adult ESL curriculum development focused on the task of…
Rowe, Anna D; Fitness, Julie
The role of emotions in adult learning and achievement has received increasing attention in recent years. However, much of the emphasis has been on test anxiety, rather than the wider spectrum of negative emotions such as sadness, grief, boredom and anger. This paper reports findings of a qualitative study exploring the experience and functionality of negative emotions at university. Thirty-six academic staff and students from an Australian university were interviewed about emotional responses to a range of learning events. Data analysis was informed by a prototype approach to emotion research. Four categories of discrete negative emotions (anger, sadness, fear, boredom) were considered by teachers and students to be especially salient in learning, with self-conscious emotions (guilt, embarrassment, shame) mentioned by more students than staff. While negative emotions were frequently viewed as detrimental to motivation, performance and learning, they were also construed under some circumstances as beneficial. The findings are discussed in relation to the value of social functional approaches for a better understanding of the diverse roles of negative emotions in learning and achievement.
Anna D. Rowe
Full Text Available The role of emotions in adult learning and achievement has received increasing attention in recent years. However, much of the emphasis has been on test anxiety, rather than the wider spectrum of negative emotions such as sadness, grief, boredom and anger. This paper reports findings of a qualitative study exploring the experience and functionality of negative emotions at university. Thirty-six academic staff and students from an Australian university were interviewed about emotional responses to a range of learning events. Data analysis was informed by a prototype approach to emotion research. Four categories of discrete negative emotions (anger, sadness, fear, boredom were considered by teachers and students to be especially salient in learning, with self-conscious emotions (guilt, embarrassment, shame mentioned by more students than staff. While negative emotions were frequently viewed as detrimental to motivation, performance and learning, they were also construed under some circumstances as beneficial. The findings are discussed in relation to the value of social functional approaches for a better understanding of the diverse roles of negative emotions in learning and achievement.
The role of emotions in adult learning and achievement has received increasing attention in recent years. However, much of the emphasis has been on test anxiety, rather than the wider spectrum of negative emotions such as sadness, grief, boredom and anger. This paper reports findings of a qualitative study exploring the experience and functionality of negative emotions at university. Thirty-six academic staff and students from an Australian university were interviewed about emotional responses to a range of learning events. Data analysis was informed by a prototype approach to emotion research. Four categories of discrete negative emotions (anger, sadness, fear, boredom) were considered by teachers and students to be especially salient in learning, with self-conscious emotions (guilt, embarrassment, shame) mentioned by more students than staff. While negative emotions were frequently viewed as detrimental to motivation, performance and learning, they were also construed under some circumstances as beneficial. The findings are discussed in relation to the value of social functional approaches for a better understanding of the diverse roles of negative emotions in learning and achievement. PMID:29461487
Full Text Available Noise stress (NS is detrimental to many aspects of human health and behavior. Understanding the effect of noise stressors on human cognitive function is a growing area of research and is crucial to helping clinical populations, such as those with schizophrenia, which are particularly sensitive to stressors. A review of electronic databases for studies assessing the effect of acute NS on cognitive functions in healthy adults revealed 31 relevant studies. The review revealed (1 NS exerts a clear negative effect on attention, working memory and episodic recall, and (2 personality characteristics, in particular neuroticism, and sleep influence the impact of noise stressors on performance in interaction with task complexity. Previous findings of consistent impairment in NS-relevant cognitive domains, heightened sensitivity to stressors, elevated neuroticism and sleep disturbances in schizophrenia, taken together with the findings of this review, highlight the need for empirical studies to elucidate whether NS, a common aspect of urban environments, exacerbates cognitive deficits and other symptoms in schizophrenia and related clinical populations.
Open Distance Learning (ODL) provides learners with the greatest possible control over time, place and pace of education. The educational delivery of ODL has improved greatly over the years with growing number of students continuously enrolling into various ODL programs globally. ODL however does come with issues and problems. Loss of student…
Mattson, Alexandra; Ruiz, Octavio; Sommers, Meredith
Intended for secondary students, this curriculum unit (in both English and Spanish) provides a look into Mexico's second largest industry, tourism. The curriculum unit of four lessons includes general information about tourism, maps, stories, and a code of behavior for travelers. The unit enumerates learner objectives, defines vocabulary and…
Happ, Roland; Förster, Manuel; Rüspeler, Ann-Katrin; Rothweiler, Jasmin
In recent years, the financial education of young adults has gained importance in Germany; however, very few valid test instruments to assess the knowledge and understanding of personal finance are suitable for use in Germany. In this article, we describe results of a survey in which experts in Germany in areas related to personal finance judged…
Wagaman, M. Alex
Scholars have questioned the relevance of existing identity categories and labels for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) youth and emerging adults. Little is understood, however, about the ways in which LGBTQ emerging adults perceive their own identities and self-define the aspects of themselves that are most relevant to who…
Hämäläinen, Raija; De Wever, Bram; Nissinen, Kari; Cincinnato, Sebastiano
Purpose: Research has shown that the problem-solving skills of adults with a vocational education and training (VET) background in technology-rich environments (TREs) are often inadequate. However, some adults with a VET background do have sound problem-solving skills. The present study aims to provide insight into the socio-demographic,…
Lee, Youn Ok; Bahreinifar, Sareh; Ling, Pamela M.
Objective: To examine differences in tobacco-related attitudes and hookah and cigarette use among college and noncollege young adults. Participants: Time-location samples of young adult bar patrons in San Diego, California ("N" = 2,243), Tulsa ("N" = 2,095) and Oklahoma City ("N" = 2,200), Oklahoma, Albuquerque…
Mayo, J. B., Jr.
This article is a commentary on the seven papers in this special issue of "Sex Education." A compelling theme interwoven throughout all the articles in subtle and explicit ways is the role that adults play in the lives of students, particularly in the ways in which adults impact how students enact and respond to the multiple…
Caminotti, Enzo; Gray, Jeremy
Purpose: As two doctoral students and adult learners, the authors strongly believe that story telling can be a great tool for educators working with adult learners. The purpose of this paper is to increase awareness of how effective storytelling can be for adult learners. Design/methodology/approach: The approach of this paper is one of gathering…
Hand, Carri; Retrum, Jessica; Ware, George; Iwasaki, Patricia; Moaalii, Gabe; Main, Deborah S
Socially isolated aging adults are at risk of poor health and well-being. Occupational therapy can help address this issue; however, information is needed to guide such work. National surveys characterize social isolation in populations of aging adults but fail to provide meaningful information at a community level. The objective of this study is to describe multiple dimensions of social isolation and related factors among aging adults in diverse urban neighborhoods. Community-based participatory research involving a door-to-door survey of adults 50 years and older was used. Participants ( N = 161) reported social isolation in terms of small social networks (24%) and wanting more social engagement (43%). Participants aged 50 to 64 years reported the highest levels of isolation in most dimensions. Low income, poor health, lack of transportation, and infrequent information access appeared linked to social isolation. Occupational therapists can address social isolation in similar urban communities through policy and practice that facilitate social engagement and network building.
Hartzler, A L; Osterhage, K; Demiris, G; Phelan, E A; Thielke, S M; Turner, A M
Older adults apply various strategies to pursue healthy aging, but we know little about their views and use of personal health information to accomplish those ends. As a first step in formulating the role of personal health information management (PHIM) in healthy aging, we explored the perspectives of older adults on health and health information used in their everyday lives through four focus groups with 25 community-dwelling adults aged 60 and over. We found that the concept of wellness-the holistic and multidimensional nature of health and wellbeing-plays prominently in how older adults think about health and health information. Participants expressed wellness from a position of personal strength, rather than health-related deficits, by focusing on wellness activities for staying healthy through: (1) personal health practices, (2) social network support, and (3) residential community engagement. Although these themes involve personal health information, existing PHIM systems that focus on disease management are generally not designed to support wellness activities. Substantial opportunity exists to fill this wellness support gap with innovative health information technology designed for older adults. Findings carry implications for the design of PHIM tools that support healthy aging and methods for engaging older adults as co-producers of this critical support.
The study examines the desirability of and motivational needs for basic literacy in the mother tongue and library use in lbadan metropolis. Data were collected through indepth interviews with 25 adult basic learners. The study reveals a strong desire for literacy in the mother tongue by the respondents. The learners' ...
Ciriza-Lope, Maria; Shappeck, Marco; Arxer, Steven
During 2nd language acquisition, a learner's identity is consigned, juxtaposed, coconstructed, and reified through various affective positions and mitigating linguistic behaviors. Our study of adult Latino ESL students in Dallas, Texas, shows how language socialization experiences are shaped by the learners' affective stances toward the project of…
Duckworth, Vicky; Ade-Ojo, Gordon O.
The study draws on life history, literacy studies, and ethnographic approaches to exploring social practices as a frame to explore the narratives of two UK adult literacy learners who provide a description of their engagement with a transformative curriculum and pedagogical approach. One of the learners reveals his frustration at the lack of…
This paper reports on a longitudinal case study of an adult EFL learner who perceived himself as having difficulty learning English. Both learning difficulty and learner identity are viewed as being constructed in discursive interactions throughout one's life and, hence, amenable to reconstruction. Data collected from classroom interactions,…
Bull, Kelly Byrne
Preparing teachers to understand their students' reading processes so that they can guide their students toward connecting with texts in meaningful and personal ways are goals that can be met through the study of young adult literature. Twenty-first century learners live in an increasingly interconnected world and have access to countless texts…
Park, Ho-Ryong; Kim, Deoksoon
This study investigates adult English language learners' reading-strategy use when they read online texts in hypermedia learning environments. The learners joined the online Independent English Study Group (IESG) and worked both individually and collaboratively. This qualitative case study aims (a) to assess college-level ESL learners' use of…
. The main argument is that participation research must abandon the notion of motivation as an individual attribute and apply a dialectic concept of learner identity acknowledging work-life as a pivotal space for learning and formation of identity. I outline how a work-life-historical approach combining......The paper examines how unskilled work forms conditions for meeting the obligation to position oneself as an educable subject and engage in formal learning activities. Sensitivity to peoples’ work-life-experiences is necessary to understand their orientation toward different learning activities...... a critical theoretical approach inspired by Salling-Olesen’s and Archer’s concepts of identity and concerns can contribute to an understanding of the relationship between work and learner identity. Through narrative work-life interviews I examine how engagement in unskilled work in small and medium sized...
Justin Cook, C; Fletcher, Jason M
A large economics literature has shown long term impacts of birth weight on adult outcomes, including IQ and earnings that are often robust to sibling or twin fixed effects. We examine potential mechanisms underlying these effects by incorporating findings from the genetics and neuroscience literatures. We use a sample of siblings combined with an "orchids and dandelions hypothesis", where the IQ of genetic dandelions is not affected by in utero nutrition variation but genetic orchids thrive under advantageous conditions and wilt in poor conditions. Indeed, using variation in three candidate genes related to neuroplasticity (APOE, BDNF, and COMT), we find substantial heterogeneity in the associations between birth weight and adult outcomes, where part of the population (i.e., "dandelions") is not affected by birth weight variation. Our results help uncover why birth weight affects adult outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Howard-Payne, Lynlee; Bowman, Brett
Medical adult male circumcision has been shown to offer men significant protection against HIV infection during peno-vaginal sex. This has resulted in calls for a national roll-out of medical adult male circumcision in South Africa, a rights-based constitutional democracy. This article explores the ways that the potential tensions between this call to circumcise as a practice of good health citizenship and the guaranteed right to bodily integrity are negotiated in interviews with 30 urban-based men in Johannesburg. The results suggest that despite its demonstrable biological efficacy, these tensions may paralyse decision- and policy-makers in grappling with the potential scaling up of medical adult male circumcision for HIV prevention in South Africa.
Clark, Lauren; Thoreson, Sallie; Goss, Cynthia W; Zimmer, Lorena Marquez; Marosits, Mark; DiGuiseppi, Carolyn
This study explored older, community-dwelling adults' attitudes and values about proposed church-delivered balance classes for fall prevention. Community observation, group interviews with stakeholders, key informant interviews, and focus groups with church members ≥ 60 years of age were analyzed in two ways: first for inductive themes expressing community sentiment about fall prevention for older adults, then for content useful in creating locally tailored social marketing messages. Four themes expressed perceptions of fall-prevention programming: de-emphasizing fall risk and emphasizing strength and independence, moving older adults out of their "comfort zones" to join classes, identifying relationships to support fall-prevention activities, and considering gender-based differences in approaches to fall prevention. A content analysis of the same dataset yielded information about preferred places in the community, promotion through churches, a tolerable price, and the balance class product itself. The qualitative results will inform the social marketing program to increase intervention delivery success.
Rosa, Francesca; Bagnasco, Annamaria; Aleo, Giuseppe; Kendall, Sally; Sasso, Loredana
This paper was a report of the synthesis of evidence on examining the origins and definitions of the concept of resilience, investigating its application in chronic illness management and exploring its utility as a means of understanding family caregiving of adults with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. Resilience is a concept that is becoming relevant to understanding how individuals and families live with illness, especially long-term conditions. Caregivers of adults with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease must be able to respond to exacerbations of the condition and may themselves experience cognitive imbalances. Yet, resilience as a way of understanding family caregiving of adults with COPD is little explored. Literature review - integrative review. CINAHL, PubMed, Google Scholar and EBSCO were searched between 1989-2015. The principles of rapid evidence assessment were followed. We identified 376 relevant papers: 20 papers reported the presence of the concept of resilience in family caregivers of chronic diseases patients but only 12 papers reported the presence of the concept of resilience in caregivers of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease patients and have been included in the synthesis. The term resilience in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease caregiving is most often understood using a deficit model of health.
Clover, Darlene E.; Sanford, K.
Arguing gender inequity remains one of the biggest challenges of our time, and framed within the concept of "pedagogic contact zones", our article shares findings from a five-year feminist, cross-national study of women adult educators and community practitioners in public museums and art galleries in Canada and the United Kingdom.…
Marcus-Varwijk, Anne Esther; Koopmans, Marg; Visscher, Tommy L S; Seidell, Jacob C; Slaets, Joris P J; Smits, Carolien H M
Objective: This study explores older adults' perspectives on healthy living, and their interactions with professionals regarding healthy living. This perspective is necessary for health professionals when they engage in tailored health promotion in their daily work routines. Method: In a qualitative
Roessger, Kevin M.
The philosophy of radical behaviourism remains misunderstood within the field of adult education. Contributing to this trend is the field's homogeneous behaviourist interpretation, which attributes methodological behaviourism's principles to radical behaviourism. The guiding principles and assumptions of radical behaviourism are examined to…
The purpose of this study was to explore the transition process in congenital heart disease (CHD) care through the perceived needs and concerns of adolescents (pretransition) and the experiential insight from adults (post-transition), in order to inform future transition initiatives and information ...
Artelt, Cordula; Baumert, Jürgen; Julius-McElvany, Nele; Peschar, Jules
What are students like as learners as they approach the end of compulsory education? The answer matters greatly, not only because those with stronger approaches to learning get better results at school but also because young adults able to set learning goals and manage their own learning are much
Thompson, Charee M; Crook, Brittani; Love, Brad; Macpherson, Catherine Fiona; Johnson, Rebecca
We compared adolescent and young adult cancer patient and survivor language between mediated and face-to-face support communities in order to understand how the use of certain words frame conversations about family, friends, health, work, achievement, and leisure. We analyzed transcripts from an online discussion board (N = 360) and face-to-face support group (N = 569) for adolescent and young adults using Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count, a word-based computerized text analysis software that counts the frequency of words and word stems. There were significant differences between the online and face-to-face support groups in terms of content (e.g. friends, health) and style words (e.g. verb tense, negative emotion, and cognitive process). © The Author(s) 2015.
Roberta Maria DiDonato
Full Text Available Communication success under adverse conditions requires efficient and effective recruitment of both bottom-up (sensori-perceptual and top-down (cognitive-linguistic resources to decode the intended auditory-verbal message. Employing these limited capacity resources has been shown to vary across the lifespan, with evidence indicating that younger adults out-perform older adults for both comprehension and memory of the message. This study examined how sources of interference arising from the speaker (message spoken with conversational versus clear speech technique, the listener (hearing-listening and cognitive-linguistic factors, and the environment (in competing speech babble noise versus quiet interact and influence learning and memory performance using more ecologically valid methods than has been done previously. The results suggest that when older adults listened to complex medical prescription instructions with ‘clear speech,’ (presented at audible levels through insertion earphones their learning efficiency, immediate and delayed memory performance improved relative to their performance when they listened with a normal conversational speech rate (presented at audible levels in sound field. This better learning and memory performance for clear speech listening was maintained even in the presence of speech babble noise. The finding that there was the largest learning-practice effect on 2nd trial performance in the conversational speech when the clear speech listening condition was first is suggestive of greater experience-dependent perceptual learning or adaptation to the speaker’s speech and voice pattern in clear speech. This suggests that experience-dependent perceptual learning plays a role in facilitating the language processing and comprehension of a message and subsequent memory encoding.
DiDonato, Roberta M.; Surprenant, Aimée M.
Communication success under adverse conditions requires efficient and effective recruitment of both bottom-up (sensori-perceptual) and top-down (cognitive-linguistic) resources to decode the intended auditory-verbal message. Employing these limited capacity resources has been shown to vary across the lifespan, with evidence indicating that younger adults out-perform older adults for both comprehension and memory of the message. This study examined how sources of interference arising from the speaker (message spoken with conversational vs. clear speech technique), the listener (hearing-listening and cognitive-linguistic factors), and the environment (in competing speech babble noise vs. quiet) interact and influence learning and memory performance using more ecologically valid methods than has been done previously. The results suggest that when older adults listened to complex medical prescription instructions with “clear speech,” (presented at audible levels through insertion earphones) their learning efficiency, immediate, and delayed memory performance improved relative to their performance when they listened with a normal conversational speech rate (presented at audible levels in sound field). This better learning and memory performance for clear speech listening was maintained even in the presence of speech babble noise. The finding that there was the largest learning-practice effect on 2nd trial performance in the conversational speech when the clear speech listening condition was first is suggestive of greater experience-dependent perceptual learning or adaptation to the speaker's speech and voice pattern in clear speech. This suggests that experience-dependent perceptual learning plays a role in facilitating the language processing and comprehension of a message and subsequent memory encoding. PMID:26106353
Sigurdardottir, Sigrun Birna; Kaplan, Sigal; Møller, Mette
This study focuses on the intentions of adolescents to commute by car or bicycle as adults. The behavioral model is based on intrapersonal and interpersonal constructs from the theory of planned behavior extended to include constructs from the institutional, community and policy domains. Data from...... a survey among Danish adolescents is analyzed. It is found that car use intentions are related to positive car passenger experience, general interest in cars, and car ownership norms, and are negatively related to willingness to accept car restrictions and perceived lack of behavioral control. Cycling...
Moland, M; Whissell, C M
49 adult subjects responded to 37 children's drawings of six emotions (happy, sad, angry, afraid, surprised, and disgusted) by naming the emotion depicted and by identifying the pleasantness and arousal status of each drawing. Various analyses indicated that assignment to categories could be predicted on the basis of ratings of pleasantness and arousal (the two key dimensions of a bipolar affect space). Data support the contention that emotional responses should not be assessed solely on the basis of literal accuracy but should rather be described in terms of their location in affect space.
The purpose of this study is to determine the understanding of reproductive health among parents and female adolescents with Down syndrome. This cross-sectional study involved 22 parents and 22 female adolescents with Down syndrome in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The parents were required to fill up the socio-demographic information in questionnaire…
Brennan, Christine; Booth, James R.
Linguistic knowledge, cognitive ability, and instruction influence how adults acquire a second orthography yet it remains unclear how different forms of instruction influence grain size sensitivity and subsequent decoding skill and speed. Thirty-seven monolingual, literate English-speaking adults were trained on a novel artificial orthography…
Ceballos, L; Canton, C; Cadenazzi, G; Larsen, K; Virkel, G; Moreno, L; Fairweather, I; Lanusse, C; Alvarez, L
Closantel (CLS) is highly effective against adult liver flukes after its oral or subcutaneous (sc) administration in ruminants. Trans-tegumental diffusion and oral ingestion are the two potential routes available for the entry of drugs into Fasciola hepatica. The work reported here contributes to improve the understanding of CLS pharmacology. The main goals of were: I) to determine the pattern of in vivo CLS accumulation into adult F. hepatica and relevant tissues in CLS-treated sheep; II) to investigate the influence of the physicochemical composition of the incubation medium on the CLS diffusion process into adult F. hepatica; III) to assess the ovicidal activity of CLS against F. hepatica eggs; and IV) to investigate the in vivo effect of CLS treatment on glutathione S-transferases activity in adult liver flukes exposed to CLS. Fourteen healthy sheep were each orally infected with 75 F. hepatica metacercariae. Sixteen (16) weeks after infection, animals were treated with CLS by oral (n = 6, 10 mg/kg) or sub-cutaneous (sc) (n = 6, 5 mg/kg) route. At 12, 24 and 36 h post-treatment, animals were sacrificed (n = 2) and samples of blood, bile and adult F. hepatica were collected. In addition, flukes recovered from non-treated sheep (n = 2) were ex vivo incubated (60 min) in the presence of CLS in either RPMI or bile as incubation medium. CLS concentration was measured by HPLC. The ovicidal activity of CLS was investigated using eggs obtained from the bile of untreated sheep. Finally, glutathione S-transferase activity in F. hepatica recovered from untreated and CLS-treated sheep was assessed. In the in vivo studies, the highest CLS concentrations were measured in plasma and adult liver flukes. A positive correlation was observed between CLS concentration in plasma and in F. hepatica. Results obtained in the current work indicate that the in vivo accumulation of CLS into adult liver flukes occurs mainly by the oral route. After ex
Full Text Available Teaching English to Young Learners has become a trend nowadays. In every school, English is taught as one of the main subjects. In teaching young learners is not like teaching adults, children have their own way of learning. Since children like to play and have fun, the learning and teaching process should be suited with the nature of the children themselves. One of the forms of fun activities for children is through music, and songs are the common form of music that children know. Through this paper, the writer wants to show that through songs, children could enhance their language skills, such as speaking, listening and writing.
Teaching English to Young Learners has become a trend nowadays. In every school, English is taught as one of the main subjects. In teaching young learners is not like teaching adults, children have their own way of learning. Since children like to play and have fun, the learning and teaching process should be suited with the nature of the children themselves. One of the forms of fun activities for children is through music, and songs are the common form of music that children know. Through th...
Loinaz, Ismael; Sánchez, Luis Miguel; Vilella, Andrea
The assessment and treatment of emotional variables is a priority in the rehabilitation of offenders. Although theoretical proposals suggest a clear relationship between violence and self-esteem, attachment, and empathy, the research carried out to date has reached contradictory results due mainly to differences in the measurements used, the reliability of self-reports, or even to problems with the definition of the constructs. The present study analyzed these three variables in a prison sample of sexual offenders ( n = 48) and partner-violent men ( n = 68), using the Interpersonal Reactivity Index, the Rape Empathy Measure, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and the Adult Attachment Questionnaire. Results confirmed the low utility of nonspecific empathy, the predominance of high self-esteem, and the difficulty of identifying an insecure attachment. The implications of the use of these variables in the treatment of offenders, and the need to improve the assessment tools, are discussed.
Laing, Catherine M; Moules, Nancy J; Estefan, Andrew; Lang, Mike
The purpose of this philosophical hermeneutic study was to determine if, and understand how, digital stories might be effective therapeutic tools to use with children and adolescents/young adults (AYA) with cancer, thus helping mitigate suffering. Sixteen participants made digital stories with the help of a research assistant trained in digital storytelling and were interviewed following the completion of their stories. Findings from this research revealed that digital stories were a way to have others understand their experiences of cancer, allowed for further healing from their sometimes traumatic experiences, had unexpected therapeutic effects, and were a way to reconcile past experiences with current life. Digital stories, we conclude, show great promise with the pediatric and AYA oncology community and we believe are a way in which the psychosocial effects of cancer treatment may be addressed. Recommendations for incorporating digital stories into clinical practice and follow-up programs are offered.
Biedenweg, Kelly; Meischke, Hendrika; Bohl, Alex; Hammerback, Kristen; Williams, Barbara; Poe, Pamela; Phelan, Elizabeth A
Little is known about older adults' perceptions of organized programs that support exercise behavior. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 39 older adults residing in King County, Washington, who either declined to join, joined and participated, or joined and then quit a physical activity-oriented program. We sought to explore motivators and barriers to physical activity program participation and to elicit suggestions for marketing strategies to optimize participation. Two programs supporting exercise behavior and targeting older persons were the source of study participants: Enhance(®)Fitness and Physical Activity for a Lifetime of Success. We analyzed interview data using standard qualitative methods. We examined variations in themes by category of program participant (joiner, decliner, quitter) as well as by program and by race. Interview participants were mostly females in their early 70s. Approximately half were non-White, and about half had graduated from college. The most frequently cited personal factors motivating program participation were enjoying being with others while exercising and desiring a routine that promoted accountability. The most frequent environmental motivators were marketing materials, encouragement from a trusted person, lack of program fees, and the location of the program. The most common barriers to participation were already getting enough exercise, not being motivated or ready, and having poor health. Marketing messages focused on both personal benefits (feeling better, social opportunity, enjoyability) and desirable program features (tailored to individual needs), and marketing mechanisms ranged from traditional written materials to highly personalized approaches. These results suggest that organized programs tend to appeal to those who are more socially inclined and seek accountability. Certain program features also influence participation. Thoughtful marketing that involves a variety of messages and mechanisms is
Schumacher, Daniel J; Englander, Robert; Carraccio, Carol
As a result of the paradigm shift to a competency-based framework, both self-directed lifelong learning and learner-centeredness have become essential tenets of medical education. In the competency-based framework, learners drive their own educational process, and both learners and teachers share the responsibility for the path and content of learning. This learner-centered emphasis requires each physician to develop and maintain lifelong learning skills, which the authors propose culminate in becoming a "master leaner." To better understand the development of these skills and the attainment of that goal, the authors explore how learning theories inform the development of master learners and how to translate these theories into practical strategies for the learner, the teacher, and the learning environment so as to optimize this development.The authors begin by exploring self-determination theory, which lays the groundwork for understanding the motivation to learn. They next consider the theories of cognitive load and situated cognition, which inform the optimal context and environment for learning. Building from this foundation, the authors consider key educational theories that affect learners' abilities to serve as primary drivers of their learning, including self-directed learning (SDL); the self-assessment skills necessary for SDL; factors affecting self-assessment (self-concept, self-efficacy, illusory superiority, gap filling); and ways to mitigate the inaccuracies of self-assessment (reflection, self-monitoring, external information seeking, and self-directed assessment seeking).For each theory, they suggest practical action steps for the learner, the teacher, and the learning environment in an effort to provide a road map for developing master learners.
Castillo, Rigoberto; Rojas, María del Pilar
This paper reports an action research study aimed at understanding how to sensitize young English language learners towards caring for the environment. The pedagogical intervention in a 5th grade class consisted in the use of creative writing strategies to express learners' ideas. Three stages were followed: "recognizing facts,"…
Becker, Karen; Newton, Cameron; Sawang, Sukanlaya
This study aims to identify and categorize barriers to e-learning adoption and the relative impact of those barriers on learners. It contributes to the understanding of learner perceptions of barriers, the different types of barriers and their relative importance. This study used a quantitative methodology grounded in previous literature. The…
Solak, Ekrem; Cakir, Recep
The purpose of this study was to determine the use of language learning strategies of e-learners and to understand whether there were any correlations between language learning strategies and academic achievement. Participants of the study were 274?e-learners, 132 males and 142 females, enrolled in an e-learning program from various majors and…
Wang, Yuan; Paquette, Luc; Baker, Ryan
In this paper, we present progress towards a longitudinal study of the post-course career advancement of MOOC learners. We present initial results and analysis plans for how to link this to in-course behaviour, towards better understanding the goals of all MOOC learners.
Heffernan, Eithne; Coulson, Neil S; Henshaw, Helen; Barry, Johanna G; Ferguson, Melanie A
This study explored the psychosocial experiences of adults with hearing loss using the self-regulatory model as a theoretical framework. The primary components of the model, namely cognitive representations, emotional representations, and coping responses, were examined. Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted. The data were analysed using an established thematic analysis procedure. Twenty-five adults with mild-moderate hearing loss from the UK and nine hearing healthcare professionals from the UK, USA, and Canada were recruited via maximum variation sampling. Cognitive representations: Most participants described their hearing loss as having negative connotations and consequences, although they were not particularly concerned about the progression or controllability/curability of the condition. Opinions differed regarding the benefits of understanding the causes of one's hearing loss in detail. Emotional representations: negative emotions dominated, although some experienced positive emotions or muted emotions. Coping responses: engaged coping (e.g. hearing aids, communication tactics) and disengaged coping (e.g. withdrawal from situations, withdrawal within situations): both had perceived advantages and disadvantages. This novel application of the self-regulatory model demonstrates that it can be used to capture the key psychosocial experiences (i.e. perceptions, emotions, and coping responses) of adults with mild-moderate hearing loss within a single, unifying framework.
Full Text Available Diagnoses of autism spectrum disorder (ASD and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD are increasingly being made in adulthood. However, assessments can fail to address the diverse range of problems that patients have experienced. The current study applied an early symptomatic syndromes eliciting neurodevelopmental clinical examinations (ESSENCE framework to explore retrospectively reported childhood developmental and behavioral problems. It examined if adult ASD and ADHD patients would show problems outside those reflected in the respective diagnostic criteria, and also if these patient groups would show more extensive childhood problems than other psychiatric patients. Parents of adults with ADHD (n = 130, ASD (n = 57, coexisting ADHD and ASD (n = 38, and other psychiatric disorders (n = 56 reported on a range of childhood problems. Descriptions of the ADHD, ASD, and ADHD+ASD groups reflected greater impairment than descriptions for patients with other psychiatric disorders in most problem areas. Although differences were observed between ADHD and ASD patients in the core diagnostic areas, these syndromes also shared a number of childhood difficulties. The ESSENCE approach can assist in understanding the symptom history of adult ADHD and ASD patients and can be helpful to distinguish their childhood experiences from other psychiatric patients' experiences.
Jiang, Xiangying; Sawaki, Yasuyo; Sabatini, John
This study examined the relationship among word reading efficiency, text reading fluency, and reading comprehension for adult English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners. Data from 185 adult Chinese EFL learners preparing to take the Test-of-English-as-a-Foreign-Language[TM] (TOEFL[R]) were analyzed in this study. The participants completed a…
Norman, Helmi; Nordin, Norazah; Din, Rosseni; Ally, Mohamed
The concept of situation awareness is essential in enhancing collaborative learning. Learners require information from different awareness aspects to deduce a learning situation for decision-making. Designing learning environments that assist learners to understand situation awareness via monitoring actions and reaction of other learners has been…
Full Text Available Recent developments in SLA, such as learner-centredness, social constructivism, the postmethod era, and complexity perspectives, have highlighted the need for more localized, situated understandings of teaching and learning and greater recognition of learner individuality and diversity. In this article, I suggest an effective way of meeting these needs is to employ learner histories. This powerful form of writing allows learners to use their L2 to engage in authentic, personally meaningful communication with others about their identities, experiences, perceptions and emotions related to their language learning histories. As a text type, they are able to facilitate a more holistic perspective of the learner’s life and reveal the unique interconnections that an individual makes across various domains. They also enable the situated, contextualised and dynamic nature of their learning experiences to become apparent and provide learners with a genuine, motivating purpose for writing. Exploring data generated in Austria with tertiary-level EFL learners, I seek to illustrate some of the rich potential of these text types from three perspectives, namely, those of the teacher, learner and researcher.
McNamara, Erin R; Austin, Stephanie; Case, Laura; Wiener, John S; Peterson, Andrew C; Kishnani, Priya S
To study the prevalence of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and incontinence in late-onset Pompe disease (LOPD) Methods: Adult LOPD patients seen at the Duke Pompe Clinic were prospectively recruited and asked to complete validated questionnaires on LUTS and incontinence as part of an IRB-approved study. Patient demographics as well as previous urologic history were reviewed. 35 patients with LOPD were included in the study (17 males and 18 females). The median age was 51.8 (range 18-72 years of age). Of these patients, 27/35 were receiving enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with median duration of 54 months (range 5-88 months). In the male patients, 9/17 (53%) described their stream as dribbling, weak, or intermittent, and 9/17 (53%) complained of post-void dribbling. In addition 38% of the men were unable to stop their urination midstream. In the female patients, the most common complaint was urinary incontinence, reported in 14/18 (78%). In addition, 7/18 (39%) complained of post-void dribbling, and 47% were unable to stop their urination midstream. Bowel incontinence was reported in 45% of patients. There was a significant association between urinary symptoms and lower extremity function scores and duration of ERT (p = 0.005 and p = 0.04, respectively) This is the first study in a large cohort of LOPD patients that demonstrates LUTS and incontinence occur at a high rate. This study emphasizes the spectrum of LOPD is beyond isolated gross motor and pulmonary involvement and has a significant effect on the lower urinary tract.
Rosenthal, Lisa; Carroll-Scott, Amy; Earnshaw, Valerie A; Sackey, Naa; O'Malley, Stephanie S; Santilli, Alycia; Ickovics, Jeannette R
Many people continue to smoke tobacco products despite known negative health consequences, including increased risk of chronic disease and death. Disparities exist in rates of smoking and chronic disease, underscoring the importance of understanding the barriers and motivations to smoking cessation among vulnerable populations, such as socioeconomically disadvantaged people of color. This study uses data from a cross-sectional randomized household survey conducted in six low-income neighborhoods in New Haven, Connecticut, USA (N=1205). The objectives were to examine barriers and motivations to quitting smoking among daily tobacco smokers (31.6% of respondents) and sociodemographic differences in endorsement of barriers and motivations. The two most common barriers to quitting were perceiving it to be too difficult and not wanting to quit. Financial costs, social support, and social influence were themes endorsed highly across both barriers and motivations to quitting. Sociodemographic differences were found, such as women and Black participants being more likely to be interested in a free quitline or quit website; women and Latinos being more likely to be afraid of gaining weight; and women, participants with less education, and older participants being more likely to be concerned about the cost of cessation products. Understanding barriers and motivations to quitting among disadvantaged populations is crucial. Financial issues, social support, and social norms should be targeted in promoting cessation among disadvantaged, urban populations. Programs, interventions, and policies can also use research about specific barriers and motivations for sociodemographic sub-groups to be tailored, targeted, and more effective. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Plummer, Deborah L; Stone, Rosalie Torres; Powell, Lauren; Allison, Jeroan
This study examined patterns, characteristics, and predictors of cross-racial friendships as the context for understanding contemporary race relations. A national survey included 1,055 respondents, of whom 55% were white, 32% were black, and 74% were female; ages ranged from 18 to ≥65 years. Focus groups were conducted to assess societal and personal benefits. Participants (n = 31) were racially diverse and aged 20 to 66 years. After accounting for multiple covariates, regression analysis revealed that Asians, Hispanics, and multiracial individuals are more likely than their white and black counterparts to have cross-racial friends. Females were less likely than males to have 8 or more cross-racial friends. Regression analysis revealed that the depth of cross-racial friendships was greater for women than men and for those who shared more life experiences. Increasing age was associated with lower cross-racial friendship depth. Qualitative analysis of open-ended questions and focus group data established the social context as directly relevant to the number and depth of friendships. Despite the level of depth in cross-racial friendships, respondents described a general reluctance to discuss any racially charged societal events, such as police shootings of unarmed black men. This study identified salient characteristics of individuals associated with cross-racial friendships and highlighted the influence of the social, historical, and political context in shaping such friendships. Our findings suggest that contemporary race relations reflect progress as well as polarization. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Roessger, Kevin M.; Greenleaf, Arie; Hoggan, Chad
To overcome situational hurdles when researching transformative learning in adults, we outline a research approach using single-case research designs and smartphone data collection apps. This approach allows researchers to better understand learners' current lived experiences and determine the effects of transformative learning interventions on…
Fracasso, Lucille E.; Bangs, Kathryn; Binder, Katherine S.
The Adult Basic Education (ABE) population consists of a wide range of abilities with needs that may be unique to this set of learners. The purpose of this study was to better understand the relative contributions of phonological decoding and morphological awareness to spelling, vocabulary, and comprehension across a sample of ABE students. In…
Training in Influencing Skills from Neuro-Linguistic Programming (Modelled from Hypnosis and Family Therapy), in Combination with Innovative Maths Pedagogy, Raises Maths Attainment in Adult Numeracy Learners
Allan, F.; Bourne, J.; Bouch, D.; Churches, R.; Dennison, J.; Evans, J.; Fowler, J.; Jeffers, A.; Prior, E.; Rhodes, L.
Case study research suggests that NLP [neuro-linguistic programming] influencing strategies benefit teacher effectiveness. Maths pedagogy involving higher-order questioning, challenge, problem solving and collaborative working may be a way of improving attainment in adult numeracy learning, however, such strategies may be less effective if the…
Comparison of 41 female and 15 male older adults participating in Universities of the Third Age found the genders approach retirement differently. Women want to experience freedom and make up for lost opportunities; men prefer to "sit." However, men with active interests before retirement continued activity in the Third Age. (SK)
Clarice N. Waters
Full Text Available Abstract Background Sedentary behaviours (SB can be characterized by low energy expenditure in a reclining position (e.g., sitting often associated with work and transport. Prolonged SB is associated with increased risk for chronic conditions, and due to technological advances, the working population is in office settings with high occupational exposure to SB. This study aims to assess SB among office workers, as well as barriers and strategies towards reducing SB in the work setting. Methods Using a mixed-methods approach guided by the socio-ecological framework, non-academic office workers from a professional school in a large public university were recruited. Of 180 eligible office workers, 40 enrolled and completed all assessments. Self-reported and objectively measured SB and activity levels were captured. Focus group discussion (FGD were conducted to further understand perceptions, barriers, and strategies to reducing workplace SB. Environmental factors were systematically evaluated by trained research staff using an adapted version of the Checklist for Health Promotion Environments at Worksites (CHEW. Thematic analysis of FGD was conducted and descriptive analysis of quantitative data was performed. Results The sample was mostly Chinese (n = 33, 80 % with a total of 24 (60 % female participants. Most participants worked five days a week for about 9.5(0.5 hrs/day. Accelerometer data show that participants spend the majority of their days in sedentary activities both on workdays (76.9 % and non-workdays (69.5 %. Self-report data confirm these findings with median sitting time of 420(180 minutes at work. From qualitative analyses, major barriers to reducing SB emerged, including the following themes: workplace social and cultural norms, personal factors, job scope, and physical building/office infrastructure. CHEW results confirm a lack of support from the physical infrastructure and information environment to reducing SB
This article explores the linguistic identity of young multilingual learners through the use of a Language Portrait Silhouette. Examples from a research study of children aged 6-8 years in a German bilingual program in Canada provide teachers with an understanding that linguistic identity comprises expertise, affiliation, and inheritance. This…
High stakes assessments conducted in the southwestern United States demonstrate that fewer than 50% of English language learners (ELLs) are achieving proficiency levels in reading fluency. The purpose of this study was to understand if reading interventions using the framework of Samuels's repeated reading (RR) strategy increased student…
Velasco, Patricia; García, Ofelia
This article makes the case for using translanguaging in developing the academic writing of bilinguals. It reviews the emerging literature on learning and teaching theories of translanguaging and presents theoretical understandings of biliteracy development and specifically on the teaching of writing to bilingual learners. The article analyzes…
Sweet, Shane N; Noreau, Luc; Leblond, Jean; Dumont, Frédéric S
Understanding the factors that can predict greater quality of life (QoL) is important for adults with spinal cord injury (SCI), given that they report lower levels of QoL than the general population. To build a conceptual model linking SCI-related needs, secondary complications, and QoL in adults with SCI. Prior to testing the conceptual model, we aimed to develop and evaluate the factor structure for both SCI-related needs and secondary complications. Individuals with a traumatic SCI (N = 1,137) responded to an online survey measuring 13 SCI-related needs, 13 secondary complications, and the Life Satisfaction Questionnaire to assess QoL. The SCI-related needs and secondary complications were conceptualized into factors, tested with a confirmatory factor analysis, and subsequently evaluated in a structural equation model to predict QoL. The confirmatory factor analysis supported a 2-factor model for SCI related needs, χ(2)(61, N = 1,137) = 250.40, P SCI-related needs (β = -.22 and -.20, P SCI-related needs of individuals with SCI and preventing or managing secondary complications are essential to their QoL.
the education quality and more specifically learners' mathematical skills are .... worth). Students with a high self-esteem displayed acceptance of feedback .... Thus feedback is portrayed as means of communication of the teacher's view.
actions against those learners who disrupt teaching and learning or challenge the Code of Conduct. .... American "law" television series and movies);. 2. arrange ..... disciplinary committee, because they wanted to protect their children. It is the ...
The aim of this article is to suggest a theoretical framework than can assess to how people’s engagement in specific historical and social work practices are significant to their development, maintenance or transformation of a learner identity. Such a framework is crucial in order to grasp how...... different groups have distinctive conditions for meeting the obligation of forming a proactive learner identity and engage in lifelong learning prevalent in both national and transnational policies on lifelong learning....
Daskalovska, Nina; Gudeva, Liljana Koleva; Ivanovska, Biljana
There are a lot of factors which influence success in learning. However, one of the most important factors is the learner’s motivation to reach the desired goals. Research and experience show that learners with strong motivation can achieve a lot regardless of circumstances. Studies of motivation in second language learning have led to several distinctions, one of which is the distinction between integrative and instrumental motivation. According to this distinction, some learners are motivat...
Reading comprehension in English as a foreign language (EFL) is a key to success in academic studies in Israel. As Israel is a cultural melting pot, adult students come from widely diverse educational backgrounds, often determined by their cultural environment. They arrive at the university or college classroom with vastly different approaches to learning and reading, in general, and to reading in EFL, in particular. The challenge for the EFL teacher is to help students draw from their cultur...
Siklosi, Karen R
BACKGROUND: The number of adults living with cystic fibrosis (CF) is increasing, necessitating an assessment of knowledge in this growing population. METHODS: A questionnaire assessing CF knowledge was completed by 100 CF patients (median age: 26.0 years, range 17-49 years; median FEV: 57.0% predicted, range 20-127% predicted). Level of knowledge was correlated with clinical and sociodemographic characteristics. RESULTS: Questionnaire validation showed acceptable internal consistency (alpha=0.75) and test-retest reliability (0.94). Patients had fair overall understanding of CF (mean=72.4%, SD=13.1), with greater knowledge of lung and gastrointestinal topics (mean=81.6%, SD=11.6) than reproduction and genetics topics (mean=57.9%, SD=24.1). Females and those with post-secondary education scored significantly higher (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: This study validated a questionnaire that can be utilized to assess CF knowledge. Although CF patients understand most aspects of their disease, knowledge deficits are common - particularly regarding genetics and reproduction - and should be considered when developing CF education programs.
Huang, X.; Tan, J.
Commutes in urban areas create interesting travel patterns that are often stored in regional transportation databases. These patterns can vary based on the day of the week, the time of the day, and commuter type. This study proposes methods to detect underlying spatio-temporal variability among three groups of commuters (senior citizens, child/students, and adults) using data mining and spatial analytics. Data from over 36 million individual trip records collected over one week (March 2012) on the Singapore bus and Mass Rapid Transit (MRT) system by the fare collection system were used. Analyses of such data are important for transportation and landuse designers and contribute to a better understanding of urban dynamics. Specifically, descriptive statistics, network analysis, and spatial analysis methods are presented. Descriptive variables were proposed such as density and duration to detect temporal features of people. A directed weighted graph G ≡ (N , L, W) was defined to analyze the global network properties of every pair of the transportation link in the city during an average workday for all three categories. Besides, spatial interpolation and spatial statistic tools were used to transform the discrete network nodes into structured human movement landscape to understand the role of transportation systems in urban areas. The travel behaviour of the three categories follows a certain degree of temporal and spatial universality but also displays unique patterns within their own specialties. Each category is characterized by their different peak hours, commute distances, and specific locations for travel on weekdays.
Poeker, Sophie A; Geirnaert, Annelies; Berchtold, Laura; Greppi, Anna; Krych, Lukasz; Steinert, Robert E; de Wouters, Tomas; Lacroix, Christophe
Consumption of fermentable dietary fibers (DFs), which can induce growth and/or activity of specific beneficial populations, is suggested a promising strategy to modulate the gut microbiota and restore health in microbiota-linked diseases. Until today, inulin and fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) are the best studied DFs, while little is known about the gut microbiota-modulating effects of β-glucan, α-galactooligosaccharide (α-GOS) and xylo-oligosaccharide (XOS). Here, we used three continuous in vitro fermentation PolyFermS model to study the modulating effect of these DFs on two distinct human adult proximal colon microbiota, independently from the host. Supplementation of DFs, equivalent to a 9 g daily intake, induced a consistent metabolic response depending on the donor microbiota. Irrespective to the DF supplemented, the Bacteroidaceae-Ruminococcaceae dominated microbiota produced more butyrate (up to 96%), while the Prevotellaceae-Ruminococcaceae dominated microbiota produced more propionate (up to 40%). Changes in abundance of specific bacterial taxa upon DF supplementation explained the observed changes in short-chain fatty acid profiles. Our data suggest that the metabolic profile of SCFA profile may be the most suitable and robust read-out to characterize microbiota-modulating effects of a DF and highlights importance to understand the inter-individual response to a prebiotic treatment for mechanistic understanding and human application.
Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives ... school level understand and implement learner-centered pedagogy. ... prove that teachers' knowledge and skills as regard learner-centred pedagogical ...
Neale, Dave; Clackson, Kaili; Georgieva, Stanimira; Dedetas, Hatice; Scarpate, Melissa; Wass, Sam; Leong, Victoria
Play during early life is a ubiquitous activity, and an individual's propensity for play is positively related to cognitive development and emotional well-being. Play behavior (which may be solitary or shared with a social partner) is diverse and multi-faceted. A challenge for current research is to converge on a common definition and measurement system for play - whether examined at a behavioral, cognitive or neurological level. Combining these different approaches in a multimodal analysis could yield significant advances in understanding the neurocognitive mechanisms of play, and provide the basis for developing biologically grounded play models. However, there is currently no integrated framework for conducting a multimodal analysis of play that spans brain, cognition and behavior. The proposed coding framework uses grounded and observable behaviors along three dimensions (sensorimotor, cognitive and socio-emotional), to compute inferences about playful behavior in a social context, and related social interactional states. Here, we illustrate the sensitivity and utility of the proposed coding framework using two contrasting dyadic corpora ( N = 5) of mother-infant object-oriented interactions during experimental conditions that were either non-conducive (Condition 1) or conducive (Condition 2) to the emergence of playful behavior. We find that the framework accurately identifies the modal form of social interaction as being either non-playful (Condition 1) or playful (Condition 2), and further provides useful insights about differences in the quality of social interaction and temporal synchronicity within the dyad. It is intended that this fine-grained coding of play behavior will be easily assimilated with, and inform, future analysis of neural data that is also collected during adult-infant play. In conclusion, here, we present a novel framework for analyzing the continuous time-evolution of adult-infant play patterns, underpinned by biologically informed
Full Text Available Despite large-scale interventions, significant numbers of adults worldwide continue to have problems with basic literacy, in particular in the area of reading. To be effective, adult reading teachers need expert knowledge at practitioner level. However, practices in adult reading education vary widely, often reflecting the individual beliefs of each teacher about how an adult can learn to read. In this study, phenomenographic analysis was used to identify categories of approaches to teaching adult reading, used by a group of 60 teachers in Western Australia and New Zealand. Four approaches were identified: reassurance, task-based, theory-based and responsive. It is argued that for teachers to become effective and consistent in responding to learner needs, they must understand their own beliefs and the consequences of these. The identification of different approaches in adult reading education is an important step in this process.
Full Text Available Unruly learners and disciplinary problems are an intractable part of every teacher’s teaching experience. It appears that, even though most schools have enacted a code of conduct to regulate learner behaviour, this does not always have the desired effect. Disciplinary problems in schools impact negatively on the teaching and learning environment as well as on teachers’ personal and professional well-being and morale. Framed within the context of a biblical worldview, this article narrates the experiences of one teacher who decided to take action towards hope. The situation in her classroom was quite desperate with learners coming to school unprepared and behaving very badly and parents being uninterested in the performance of their children at school. She realised that she could not change the learners or their parents unless she started with herself. In this context, she, as a postgraduate student under the supervision of the co-authors, embarked on an action-research project to promote positive learner behaviour. By collaborating with the learners on a set of classroom rules, engaging in reflective teaching and changing her own behaviour towards the learners, the situation in her classroom improved. Based on her experiences, this article argues that teachers should empower themselves with knowledge and a better understanding of the concept of discipline rather than viewing the classroom as a battlefield. It is important to acknowledge and show respect and appreciation for each learner in his or her own context.
Teaching English to young learners at elementary school is different from that to adults. The English teachers to young learners in elementary school, therefore, need to comprehend and to apply the theories of language teaching-learning to young learners and language classroom management. Besides, the English teachers are not only required to be able to teach well but also to be able to design materials so that they can apply approaches, methods, and techniques of teaching-learning English ap...
This study explores the relationship between (perceptual and cognitive) learning styles and the use of hypermedia annotations by intermediate EFL learners while reading a hypermedia text. The participants were 44 EFL adult learners studying English for academic purposes. Data were collected through a software tracking tool, a learning styles survey and interviews. Results did not indicate a significant relationship, suggesting that learners with different learning styles had similar patterns ...
Stinehart, Kathleen; Kornegay, Jane G.
To reach older, nontraditional students and alumni, alumni associations must offer a different type of programming Suggestions include ignoring class years of alumni, bringing current and former adult students together, emphasizing career connections, supporting networking, featuring a college speaker to satisfy lifelong learners' hunger for…
Seers, Kate; Barker, Karen L
Objectives We aimed to explore healthcare professionals’ experience of treating chronic non-malignant pain by conducting a qualitative evidence synthesis. Understanding this experience from the perspective of healthcare professionals will contribute to improvements in the provision of care. Design Qualitative evidence synthesis using meta-ethnography. We searched five electronic bibliographic databases from inception to November 2016. We included studies that explore healthcare professionals’ experience of treating adults with chronic non-malignant pain. We used the GRADE-CERQual framework to rate confidence in review findings. Results We screened the 954 abstracts and 184 full texts and included 77 published studies reporting the experiences of over 1551 international healthcare professionals including doctors, nurses and other health professionals. We abstracted six themes: (1) a sceptical cultural lens, (2) navigating juxtaposed models of medicine, (3) navigating the geography between patient and clinician, (4) challenge of dual advocacy, (5) personal costs and (6) the craft of pain management. We rated confidence in review findings as moderate to high. Conclusions This is the first qualitative evidence synthesis of healthcare professionals’ experiences of treating people with chronic non-malignant pain. We have presented a model that we developed to help healthcare professionals to understand, think about and modify their experiences of treating patients with chronic pain. Our findings highlight scepticism about chronic pain that might explain why patients feel they are not believed. Findings also indicate a dualism in the biopsychosocial model and the complexity of navigating therapeutic relationships. Our model may be transferable to other patient groups or situations. PMID:29273663
Waki, N.; Memon, A.; Khan, M.O.; Masood, S.; Rouf, M.; Mirza, R.
Objective: To assess the current understanding of treatment and management protocols for adult diabetic in-patients at a tertiary care hospital. Methods: This cross-sectional study, conducted at the Civil Hospital Karachi from July to September 2009, involved 450 participants, who were interviewed through a well-structured questionnaire regarding the patient's demography, clinical features, past medical history, type of diabetes mellitus, duration, associated complications, and also involved patient notes for laboratory tests and management. SPSSv15.0 was used for descriptive analysis. Results: The study population of 450 diabetics had 144 (32%) males and 306 (68%) females. Of the total, 435 (96.7%) patients had type 2 diabetes. There were 231 (51%) patients using insulin, 168 (37.3%) oral hypoglycaemic drugs, and 51 (11.3%) using both. Among patients using insulin, regular insulin usage stood at 30% followed by a combination of regular insulin and NPH (26.7%) and NPH alone at 6%. The most popular drug used was metformin (27.3%) and the least used drug was glitazones (4%). In the study population, 73.3% patients controlled their diabetes with diet, and 24.7% with regular exercise. Conclusion: Majority of the study population had type 2 diabetes with a female preponderance. Insulin was prescribed for half the patients. Metformin was the most frequently used oral hypoglycaemic drug. (author)
Thomas, Emily; Murphy, Mary; Pitt, Rebecca; Rivers, Angela; Leavens, David A
Povinelli, Bierschwale, and Cech (1999) reported that when tested on a visual attention task, the behavior of juvenile chimpanzees did not support a high-level understanding of visual attention. This study replicates their research using adult humans and aims to investigate the validity of their experimental design. Participants were trained to respond to pointing cues given by an experimenter, and then tested on their ability to locate hidden objects from visual cues. Povinelli et al.'s assertion that the generalization of pointing to gaze is indicative of a high-level framework was not supported by our findings: Training improved performance only on initial probe trials when the experimenter's gaze was not directed at the baited cup. Furthermore, participants performed above chance on such trials, the same result exhibited by chimpanzees and used as evidence by Povinelli et al. to support a low-level framework. These findings, together with the high performance of participants in an incongruent condition, in which the experimenter pointed to or gazed at an unbaited container, challenge the validity of their experimental design. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved).
Chiu, Ching-Ju; Liu, Chia-Wen
affected by health barriers (26.0%, 39/150 vs 15.9%, 22/138; P=.004) and anthropic factors or accidental barriers (7.3%, 11/150 vs 2.9%, 4/138; P=.02). Our findings that the need to keep up with the world associated with Internet adoption, and gender differences in reasons behind Internet withdrawal, such that women reported more health and anthropic factors or accidental barriers than man, may provide a new perspective that help health educators understand strategies that encourage older adults to keep learning, an important component of active aging. ©Ching-Ju Chiu, Chia-Wen Liu. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 03.11.2017.
Full Text Available In the present day open and distance education has become a significant way of the development of higher education. Bangladesh Open University (BOU, the only public institution in Bangladesh offers several formal and non-formal programs from secondary to post graduate level through distance mode. The main objectives of BOU’s program is to provide flexible and need based education particularly to the rural and disadvantaged groups like woman, agricultural workers, unemployed youths, uneducated adults, on-the-job people etc. The School of Social Science, Humanities and Language (SSHL at the BOU offers Bachelor of Arts/Bachelor of Social Science (BA/BSS to create efficient and skilled manpower in the country. The focuses of this paper is to find out learners’ views and attitude towards BA/BSS program at BOU. In this study, 187 respondents were randomly selected from 15 tutorial centers of 2 Regional Resource centers (RRCs of BOU. The study showed that 62% learners were male and the mean age of the learners was 34.05 years (minimum 22; maximum 54. More than 50% learners were married and nearly half (47.6% of them were private employees and 86.6% were Muslims. Amongst them, 72.2% were come from urban areas and residing around 23.08 km from the tutorial centers. Most (72% of the learners of BA/BSS program stated that the program was as usual but 24.1% expressed that it was difficult to understand but 97.7% learners responded that text materials were up to the mark. Regarding the media programs, 61% of the learners gave their opinion that TV programs were at the level best but they wanted to watch these at the evening or night schedule. It was surprising that 26.2% of the learners had bitter experience with the services of RRCs. Finally, some measures have been proposed to offer effective and more popular educational program through BOU.
Curran Janet A
Full Text Available Abstract Background The Canadian CT Head Rule was prospectively derived and validated to assist clinicians with diagnostic decision-making regarding the use of computed tomography (CT in adult patients with minor head injury. A recent intervention trial failed to demonstrate a decrease in the rate of head CTs following implementation of the rule in Canadian emergency departments. Yet, the same intervention, which included a one-hour educational session and reminders at the point of requisition, was successful in reducing cervical spine imaging rates in the same emergency departments. The reason for the varied effect of the intervention across these two behaviours is unclear. There is an increasing appreciation for the use of theory to conduct process evaluations to better understand how strategies are linked with outcomes in implementation trials. The Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF has been used to explore health professional behaviour and to design behaviour change interventions but, to date, has not been used to guide a theory-based process evaluation. In this proof of concept study, we explored whether the TDF could be used to guide a retrospective process evaluation to better understand emergency physicians’ responses to the interventions employed in the Canadian CT Head Rule trial. Methods A semi-structured interview guide, based on the 12 domains from the TDF, was used to conduct telephone interviews with project leads and physician participants from the intervention sites in the Canadian CT Head Rule trial. Two reviewers independently coded the anonymised interview transcripts using the TDF as a coding framework. Relevant domains were identified by: the presence of conflicting beliefs within a domain; the frequency of beliefs; and the likely strength of the impact of a belief on the behaviour. Results Eight physicians from four of the intervention sites in the Canadian CT Head Rule trial participated in the interviews. Barriers
Sarab, Mohamad Reza Anani; Gordani, Yahya
Investigations into the use of private speech by adult English foreign language (EFL) learners in regulating their mental activities have been an interesting area of research with a sociocultural framework. Following this line of research, 30 advanced adult EFL learners were selected via the administration of Oxford quick placement test and took a…
Hamzah Saleh Ghammaz
Full Text Available This study aimed at investigating the problems that Jordanian EFL learners encounter in presupposition triggered by certain factive verbs. Specifically, it sought to find out whether there is a relationship between the subjects’ proficiency level in English and their correct recognition of presupposition triggered by certain factive verbs. It also aims at identifying which factive verbs are much more difficult than others in terms of the presupposed meaning. The subjects of the study were 70 adult learners of English at the University of Jordan. They belong to two different proficiency levels: Intermediate and Advanced. A special test was prepared to elicit the data needed for investigation. The test required the subjects to circle the best choice that presupposes a given sentence. The results showed that the Advanced Group outperformed the Intermediate Group on all the target factive verbs, and the factive verb “ be aware of ” proved to be the most difficult one followed by “forget”. The importance of this study lies in that it invistigates the semantic behaviour of some verbs in English language what contributes to understanding the general semantic system of the language, and this is the main tast of linguists. The study recommended that further investigation should be made in the area of presupposition and factive verbs in order to pinpoint the sources of difficulty for learners. The results of those investigations can be used to improve EFL learning and teaching in Jordan.
Chavez, Monika M. Th.
A survey investigated the attitudes of second language learners about authentic texts, written and oral, used for language instruction. Respondents were 186 randomly-selected university students of German. The students were administered a 212-item questionnaire (the items are appended) that requested information concerning student demographic…
Hindal, Huda; Reid, Norman; Whitehead, Rex
It is well established that girls and boys perform differently in traditional examinations in most countries. This study looks at a sample of 754 school students in Kuwait (aged about 13) and explores how boys and girls differ in the performance in a range of tests related to learner characteristics. The fundamental question is how boys and girls…
Trevor Greene, the 2013 MetLife/NASSP National High School Principal of the Year, empowers staff members and students to be the best teachers and learners they can be and provides the community resources to support them. In this article, Greene, principal of Toppenish High School in Washington, shares his biggest motivator as a school leader and…
Gautum, Satyen; Jangam, Sachin; Loh, Kai Chee
Developing responsible learners is one of the key education challenges of our time. Education literature suggests that for students to see themselves as active and necessary participants in their own learning, it is important that they view themselves as stakeholders in education. This research aims at exploring the effectiveness of instructional…
Rea, Jennifer K.
The two studies presented in this dissertation provide an understanding of young adults' perspective financial socialization processes and how the experiences influence a conceptualization of financial well-being and their choice of romantic relationship status (Study 1: N = 31, Study 2: N = 549). Study 1 has adapted Gudmunson and Danes' (2011)…
Schiamberg, Lawrence B.; Gans, Daphna
Using an applied ecological model, this study focuses on contextual risk factors of elder abuse. Five levels of environment were used to interpret existing research on risk factors. Configuration of risk factors provides a framework for understanding the intergenerational character of quality of life for older adults, developing recommendations…
Graziano, Kevin J.; Hall, John D.
Research on flipped instruction with English Language Learners (ELLs) is sparse. Data-driven flipped research conducted with ELLs primarily involves adult learners attending a college or university. This study examined the academic performance of secondary ELLs who received flipped instruction in an algebra course at a newcomer school compared to…
Lozano Velandia, Sergio Andrés
This qualitative action research study explored the interactions of young-adult learners carrying out self-reflection on their learning processes in an ESP (English for special purposes) course at an airline training-center in Bogotá, Colombia. Needs analysis revealed that learners had poor knowledge of technical English, and lacked strong…
Tsukada, Kimiko; Cox, Felicity; Hajek, John; Hirata, Yukari
Learners of a foreign language (FL) typically have to learn to process sounds that do not exist in their first language (L1). As this is known to be difficult for adults, in particular, it is important for FL pedagogy to be informed by phonetic research. This study examined the role of FL learners' previous linguistic experience in the processing…
BavaHarji, Madhubala; Gheitanchian, Mehrnaz; Letchumanan, Krishnaveni
This study examined the effects of tasks, with varying levels of complexity, i.e. simple, + complex and ++ complex tasks on EFL learners' oral production in a multimedia task-based language teaching environment. 57 EFL adult learners carried out a total of 12 tasks, in sets of four tasks within three different themes and different levels of…
Fernández-Toro, María; Furnborough, Concha
Despite the potential benefits of assignment feedback, learners often fail to use it effectively. This study examines the ways in which adult distance learners engage with written feedback on one of their assignments. Participants were 10 undergraduates studying Spanish at the Open University, UK. Their responses to feedback were elicited by means…
Many studies on test anxiety among adult language learners have been performed, while only a few studies have dealt with overall test anxiety. In addition, these studies do not specifically address test anxiety in foreign language learning among elementary school language learners. Thus, this study aims to investigate the level of test anxiety…
Full Text Available This research will explore teaching styles of university professors. Teaching style is an umbrella term for teaching decisions made during the entire teaching process – planning, delivery, and evaluation. Contemporary university teachers are advised to adopt the learner-centred teaching style which is assumed to produce remarkable possibilities. In the Fall Semester 2015 fifty-two respondents in different faculties of International University of Sarajevo were surveyed using The Principles of Adult Learning Scale inventory designed by Gary J. Conti. Inventory scores were calculated according to guidelines suggested by the author of the inventory. The scores revealed that majority of respondents strongly supported teacher-centred rather than learner-centred styles of instruction. Scores were analysed on gender lines and across three different faculties, namely: Arts and Social Sciences; Business and Administration; Engineering and Natural Sciences. In all five groups none of the seven teaching style indicators was found to conform with the learner-centred teaching criteria. There was no statistically significant difference between the two genders’ preference for a teaching style. And there was no statistically significant difference between teaching style preference across the three different faculties.The results of this research imply that the learner-centred style of instruction is not frequently implemented. Secondly, the results indicate that the requirements necessary for proper application of the learner-centred teaching style are not easy to meet in current written and unwritten norms. Finally, the results show that traditional teaching styles, which have been preserved in different scientific fields, still predominate in universities.
Abstract This study aims to investigate how a primary school in Norway addresses learners with diverse linguistic and cultural background, in this study referred as culturally and linguistically diverse learners (CLD learners). The study is founded on the premises of multicultural education (MCE) which is considered essential to address the education of CLD learners. Therefore, the scope of the study is based on a five- category theoretical framework comprising: understanding the concept ...
This article presents the Universal Design for Learning (UDL) framework as one way to understand how to support learners with severe disabilities and how to support their access to authentic and appropriate curricula that improves their quality of life. Two key ideas from the UDL framework, (a) understanding learner variability and (b) supporting…
Full Text Available Background. Worldwide, suicide affects the most vulnerable populations, including adolescents and young adults. It is estimated that suicide will contribute more than 2% to the global burden of disease by 2020. Information about the prevalence of suicidal behaviour and the sociodemographic characteristics and risk factors associated with suicide in the South African (SA rural context is important for local and national policy and contributes to global understanding of the phenomenon.Objective. To investigate key demographic factors and behaviours associated with planning and attempting suicide among high-school learners.Methods. In a cross-sectional study, we used stratified random sampling to select 16 schools in uMgungundlovu District, KwaZulu-Natal Province, SA. All grade 10 learners (N=1 759 at these schools completed a self-administered questionnaire (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System. Data analysis was carried out with Stata 13 statistical software using generalised estimating equations.Results. In total, 222 learners (12.6% of the 1 759 had made plans to attempt suicide during the previous 12 months, 261 (14.8% had actually attempted suicide, and 218 attempts had resulted in the learner being treated by a doctor or nurse (12.4%. The risk of planning suicide increased with age. For male learners, being threatened with a weapon on school property (adjusted odds ratio (AOR 3.7, 95% confidence interval (CIÂ 1.9 - 7.1; p<0.01 or bullied through Facebook or WhatsApp (AOR 3.1, 95% CI 1.5 - 7.1; p<0.01 significantly increased the likelihood of making a suicide attempt that resulted in treatment by a doctor or nurse. For female learners, engaging in risk behaviours increased this likelihood, risk factors including being physically hurt by someone they were dating (1 - 3 times AOR 3.3, 95% CI 1.9 - 5.7; p<0.01, â‰¥4Â times AOR 10.0, 95% CI 2.5 - 40.2 (p<0.01 and number of drinks consumed
Full Text Available Learning a new language is ultimately to be able to communicate with it. Encouraging a sense of responsibility on the part of the learners is crucial for training them to be proficient communicators. As such, understanding the strategies that they employ in acquiring the language skill is important to come to ideas of how to promote learner autonomy. Research recently conducted with three different groups of learners of English at the tertiary education level in Malang indicated that they used metacognitive and social startegies at a high frequency, while memory, cognitive, conpensation, and affective strategies were exercised at a medium frewuency. This finding implies that the learners have acquired some degrees of autonomy because metacognive strategies requires them to independently make plans for their learning activities as well as evaluate the progress, and social strategies requires them to independently enhance communicative interactions with other people. Further actions are then to be taken increase their learning autonomy, that is by intensifying the practice of use of the other four strategy categories, which are not yet applied intensively.
For years, the tobacco industry has organized the inoculation of tobacco addiction to adolescents. The analysis of a 1973 RJReynols ® document identified ten physical and psychological factors in order to increase the number of young users for a brand of cigarettes. These young people are classified into three groups: pre-smokers, learners and smokers. The taste for pre-smokers and learners and nicotine for smokers are main physical parameters. The industry clearly knows that tobacco is mainly consumed because of nicotine addiction, so it is necessary to make adolescents addict. It is interesting to note that cigarette pack was in 1973 a positive factor to attract young smokers, whereas now with the arrival of the neutral packaging, the tobacco industry declares that packaging has no influence to attract teenagers ! Of the psychological factors, the only negative factor is the self-image of the smoker. The tobacco industry already recognized in 1973 that smokers were unhappy about smoking. For learners, self-image and the experience of adults are most important factor, which is why the industry strives to create a positive image and convey message that smoking initiation is a ritual to become adult. According to the tobacco industry, stress and alleviation of boredom are also important points in turning pre-smokers into learners and learners into smokers. This article aims to provide practical tools for understanding industry initiatives targeting adolescents. The attached tool can be used by the teens or adults involved to understand the optimization of teenagers tobacco marketing. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available There are various theories, strategies and techniques regarding teaching different language skills. At the same time, as practice shows listening remains the most challenging skill for the educators to teach effectively and for the learners to master. Moreover, both the learners and their teachers have their own, not infrequently rather disparate, subjective theories, as well as learning and teaching preferences. Older adult learners are a peculiar case as they are a very diverse group, aware of their needs and cognitive abilities. At the same time, their teachers are unfortunately often unaware of these needs and do not adapt the materials to suit their students. The aim of this paper is, thus, to present the opinions of the teachers of older adult students and to provide basis for future research.
The first three chapters of the book offer relevant information on the new methodological approach, learner corpus profiling, and the exemplifying case, Romanian Learner English. The description of the Romanian Corpus of Learner English is also given special attention. The following three chapters include corpus-based frequency analyses of selected grammatical categories (articles, prepositions, genitives), combined with error analyses. In the concluding discussion, the book summarizes the features compiled as lexico-grammatical profiles.
Understanding communication between emergency and consulting physicians: a qualitative study that describes and defines the essential elements of the emergency department consultation-referral process for the junior learner.
Chan, Teresa; Orlich, Donika; Kulasegaram, Kulamakan; Sherbino, Jonathan
To define the important elements of an emergency department (ED) consultation request and to develop a simple model of the process. From March to September 2010, 61 physicians (21 emergency medicine [EM], 20 general surgery [GS], 20 internal medicine [IM]; 31 residents, 30 attending staff) were questioned about how junior learners should be taught about ED consultation. Two investigators independently reviewed focus group and interview transcripts using grounded theory to generate an index of themes until saturation was reached. Disagreements were resolved by consensus, yielding an inventory of themes and subthemes. All transcripts were coded using this index of themes; 30% of transcripts were coded in duplicate to determine the agreement. A total of 245 themes and subthemes were identified. The agreement between reviewers was 77%. Important themes in the process were as follows: initial preparation and review of investigations by EM physician (overall endorsement 87% [range 70-100% in different groups]); identification of involved parties (patient and involved physicians) (100%); hypothesis of patient's diagnosis (75% [range 62-83%]) or question for the consulting physician (70% [range 55-95%]); urgency (100%) and stability (74% [range 62-80%]); questions from the consultant (100%); discussion/communication (98% [range 95-100%]); and feedback (98% [range 95-100%]). These components were reorganized into a simple framework (PIQUED). Each clinical specialty significantly contributed to the model (χ2 = 7.9; p value = 0.019). Each group contributed uniquely to the final list of important elements (percent contributions: EM, 57%; GS, 41%; IM, 64%). We define important elements of an ED consultation with input from emergency and consulting physicians. We propose a model that organizes these elements into a simple framework (PIQUED) that may be valuable for junior learners.
McMurrer, Eileen; Terrill, Lynda
This digest summarizes the history of public libraries and library literacy programs; describes current delivery models; and discusses initiatives in library literacy, profiling one successful public library program that serves adult English language learners and their families. (Adjunct ERIC Clearinghouse for ESL Literacy Education) (Author/VWL)
Bookey-Bassett, Sue; Markle-Reid, Maureen; Mckey, Colleen A; Akhtar-Danesh, Noori
To report a concept analysis of interprofessional collaboration in the context of chronic disease management, for older adults living in communities. Increasing prevalence of chronic disease among older adults is creating significant burden for patients, families and healthcare systems. Managing chronic disease for older adults living in the community requires interprofessional collaboration across different health and other care providers, organizations and sectors. However, there is a lack of consensus about the definition and use of interprofessional collaboration for community-based chronic disease management. Concept analysis. Electronic databases CINAHL, Medline, HealthStar, EMBASE, PsychINFO, Ageline and Cochrane Database were searched from 2000 - 2013. Rodgers' evolutionary method for concept analysis. The most common surrogate term was interdisciplinary collaboration. Related terms were interprofessional team, multidisciplinary team and teamwork. Attributes included: an evolving interpersonal process; shared goals, decision-making and care planning; interdependence; effective and frequent communication; evaluation of team processes; involving older adults and family members in the team; and diverse and flexible team membership. Antecedents comprised: role awareness; interprofessional education; trust between team members; belief that interprofessional collaboration improves care; and organizational support. Consequences included impacts on team composition and function, care planning processes and providers' knowledge, confidence and job satisfaction. Interprofessional collaboration is a complex evolving concept. Key components of interprofessional collaboration in chronic disease management for community-living older adults are identified. Implications for nursing practice, education and research are proposed. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available The aim of this article is to investigate the factors that are influencing student satisfaction in case of neurology related massive open online courses (MOOCs. We analyzed data collected from learners enrolled in 40 neurology related MOOCs, by manually looking for information in these courses reviews. The main identified satisfaction factors can be grouped into the following categories: content related factors: course content, additional materials, assignments, external research and teaching - learning related factors (teacher presentation techniques / style: engaging, clear, coherent, knowledgeable, sharing / explanation, interactive, excitement, considering student’s needs, inspiring, sense of humor. Competences, skills and objectives pursued by neurology related MOOCs are also discussed. Analyzing these factors can be useful in new courses management (design and implementation and also in understanding the needs (motivation, behaviors, perception of 21st century learners interested in neurology related fields.
Richardson, Anne E.
The urgent environmental issues of today require science-literate adults to engage in business and political decisions to create solutions. Despite the need, few adults have the knowledge and skills of science literacy. This doctoral dissertation is an analytical case study examining the science-learner identity development of Exploratorium Field Trip Explainers. Located in San Francisco, CA, the Exploratorium is a museum of science, art, and human perception dedicated to nurturing curiosity and exploration. Data collected included semi-structured interviews with sixteen former Field Trip Explainers, participant observation of the current Field Trip Explainer Program, and review of relevant documentation. Data analysis employed constant comparative analysis, guided by the communities of practice theoretical framework (Wenger, 1998) and the National Research Council's (2009) Six Strands of Science Learning. Findings of this research indicate that Exploratorium Field Trip Explainers participate in a community of practice made up of a diverse group of people that values curiosity and openness to multiple ways of learning. Many participants entered the Field Trip Explainer Program with an understanding of science learning as a rigid process reserved for a select group of people; through participation in the Field Trip Explainer community of practice, participants developed an understanding of science learning as accessible and a part of everyday life. The findings of this case study have implications for research, theory, and practice in informal adult science learning, access of non-dominant groups to science learning, and adult workplace learning in communities of practice.
Kreisman, Brian M.; Mazevski, Annette G.; Schum, Donald J.; Sockalingam, Ravichandran
This investigation examined whether speech intelligibility in noise can be improved using a new, binaural broadband hearing instrument system. Participants were 36 adults with symmetrical, sensorineural hearing loss (18 experienced hearing instrument users and 18 without prior experience). Participants were fit binaurally in a planned comparison, randomized crossover design study with binaural broadband hearing instruments and advanced digital hearing instruments. Following an adjustment peri...
Objective To explore what might encourage older people to exercise at home after falls rehabilitation. Design: Qualitative research methods were used based on a grounded theory approach, to provide insights into older adults' experiences following a fall, of both rehabilitation and home exercise. Setting: Community dwellings. Method: Nine…
Kwon, Hyun Joo; Schallert, Diane L.
Ten adult readers, advanced in their control of two languages, Korean and English, were recruited for a study of academic literacy practices to examine the various linguistic repertoires on which they drew. Analysis of their language use revealed many instances of "translanguaging," that is, a flexible reliance on two languages to serve…
Conte, Helen; Jirwe, Maria; Scheja, Max; Hjelmqvist, Hans
The study describes issues that facilitate collaboration in teams of learners in an interprofessional education unit in intensive care. A descriptive qualitative study design was applied using semi-structured interviews based on the critical incident technique and qualitative content analysis. Nineteen participants, eight learners in their specialist training, nine supervisors and two head supervisors in Sweden identified 47 incidents. Teams of learners having control was the core issue. Motivation, time, experiences and reflection were central issues for facilitating collaboration. Efficiently training teams how to collaborate requires learners having control while acting on their common understanding and supervisors taking a facilitating role supporting teams to take control of their critical analysis.
McNaughton Sarah A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Nutrition and physical activity are major determinants of health and quality of life; however, there exists little research focusing on determinants of these behaviours in older adults. This is important, since just as these behaviours vary according to subpopulation, it is likely that the determinants also vary. An understanding of the modifiable determinants of nutrition and physical activity behaviours among older adults to take into account the specific life-stage context is required in order to develop effective interventions to promote health and well-being and prevent chronic disease and improve quality of life. Methods The aim of this work is to identify how intrapersonal, social and environmental factors influence nutrition and physical activity behaviours among older adults living in urban and rural areas. This study is a cohort study of adults aged 55-65 years across urban and rural Victoria, Australia. Participants completed questionnaires at baseline in 2010 and will complete follow-up questionnaires in 2012 and 2014. Self-report questionnaires will be used to assess outcomes such as food intake, physical activity and sedentary behaviours, anthropometry and quality of life. Explanatory variables include socioeconomic position, and measures of the three levels of influence on older adults’ nutrition and physical activity behaviours (intrapersonal, social and perceived environmental influences. Discussion Obesity and its determinant behaviours, physical inactivity and poor diet are major public health concerns and are significant determinants of the quality of life among the ageing population. There is a critical need for a better understanding of the determinants of nutrition and physical activity in this important target group. This research will provide evidence for the development of effective policies and programs to promote and support increased physical activity and healthy eating behaviours among older
Pakhale, S; Baron, J; Armstrong, M; Tasca, G; Gaudet, E; Aaron, S D; Cameron, W; Balfour, L
This study builds on the limited research documenting Cystic Fibrosis (CF) patients' understanding of treatment recommendations and how this may impact adherence to therapy. We surveyed adults with CF and their healthcare professional (HCP) to capture treatment recommendations provided by the HCP, and patients' knowledge, and frequency of performance, of these recommendations. We classified CF participants' understanding of treatment recommendations (correct/incorrect) as compared to the actual recommendations made by the HCP. We computed CF participants' adherence in relation to HCP treatment recommendations and to their own understanding of treatment recommendations (adherent/non-adherent). Complete HCP and patient data were available for 42 participants. The recommended treatment frequency was correctly understood by 0%-87.8% of CF participants. Adherence to HCP treatment recommendations ranged from 0 to 68.3% (mean 45.4%±21.5), and rates were low (<33%) for acapella, percussion/postural drainage, tobramycin nebulization and insulin. Participants' adherence was greater when calculated in relation to participants' understanding of treatment recommendations (62.4%±25.1) than when calculated in relation to actual HCP treatment recommendations (45.4%±21.5%) (p=0.009). Adults with CF misunderstand treatment recommendations; this likely affects treatment adherence. Interventions to ensure HCPs use effective communication strategies are needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Shaw, Philip; Leeke, Philip
Handbooks recommend a variety of quite complicated procedures for learning and remembering vocabulary, but most learners only engage in very simple procedures. The aim of this project was to establish a basis for identifying optimal vocabulary recording procedures by finding out what learners...
Byrne, Jason; Diem, Robert
The purpose of this study was to use an app-embedded survey to profile language learner demographics. A total of 3,759 EFL language learners from primarily eight L1 backgrounds (French, German, Italian, Japanese, Korean, Russian, Spanish and Thai) responded to the survey embedded within a popular English grammar app. This app has over 500,000…
Correct pronunciation is not guaranteed, because only syllabification and the main stress are indicated in words. Grammatical guidance is also not given to such an extent that learners will be able to generate correct sentences on their own. The role that contrastive analysis and error analysis can play to anticipate learners' ...
Betts, George T.; Carey, Robin J.; Kapushion, Blanche M.
"Autonomous Learner Model Resource Book" includes activities and strategies to support the development of autonomous learners. More than 40 activities are included, all geared to the emotional, social, cognitive, and physical development of students. Teachers may use these activities and strategies with the entire class, small groups, or…
Liaw, Shu-Sheng; Huang, Hsiu-Mei
This paper investigates the use of e-books as learning tools in terms of learner satisfaction, usefulness, behavioral intention, and learning effectiveness. Based on the activity theory approach, this research develops a research model to understand learner attitudes toward e-books in two physical sizes: 10? and 7?. Results suggest that screen…
McKay, Shirley E.
This thesis is the result of efforts made to gain an understanding of the slow learner in order to obtain background material for the future writing of a homemaking textbook, which will be geared to the needs and objectives of below average individuals. Included are discussions of such topics as: (1) What Is the Slow Learner Like, (2) Identifying…
Arguel, Amaël; Lockyer, Lori; Lipp, Ottmar V.; Lodge, Jason M.; Kennedy, Gregor
Confusion is an emotion that is likely to occur while learning complex information. This emotion can be beneficial to learners in that it can foster engagement, leading to deeper understanding. However, if learners fail to resolve confusion, its effect can be detrimental to learning. Such detrimental learning experiences are particularly…
Fu, Fong-Ling; Su, Rong-Chang; Yu, Sheng-Chin
In an effective e-learning game, the learner's enjoyment acts as a catalyst to encourage his/her learning initiative. Therefore, the availability of a scale that effectively measures the enjoyment offered by e-learning games assist the game designer to understanding the strength and flaw of the game efficiently from the learner's points of view.…
The paper gives an overview of learner corpora and their application to second language learning and teaching. It is proposed that there are four core components in learner corpus research, namely, corpus linguistics expertise, a good background in linguistic theory, knowledge of SLA theory, and a good understanding of foreign language teaching…
Demouy, Valérie; Jones, Ann; Kan, Qian; Kukulska-Hulme, Agnes; Eardley, Annie
Most of the literature on mobile language learning is located in classroom contexts, and often concerns the use of resources developed by teachers or researchers. However, we also need to understand learner initiated practices, in informal as well as formal settings, where mobile language learners are increasingly using digital resources. In this…
Holden, Richard J; Srinivas, Preethi; Campbell, Noll L; Clark, Daniel O; Bodke, Kunal S; Hong, Youngbok; Boustani, Malaz A; Ferguson, Denisha; Callahan, Christopher M
Older adults purchase and use over-the-counter (OTC) medications with potentially significant adverse effects. Some OTC medications, such as those with anticholinergic effects, are relatively contraindicated for use by older adults due to evidence of impaired cognition and other adverse effects. To inform the design of future OTC medication safety interventions for older adults, this study investigated consumers' decision making and behavior related to OTC medication purchasing and use, with a focus on OTC anticholinergic medications. The study had a cross-sectional design with multiple methods. A total of 84 adults participated in qualitative research interviews (n = 24), in-store shopper observations (n = 39), and laboratory-based simulated OTC shopping tasks (n = 21). Simulated shopping participants also rank-ordered eight factors on their importance for OTC decision making. Findings revealed that many participants had concerns about medication adverse effects, generally, but were not aware of age-related risk associated with the use of anticholinergic medications. Analyses produced a map of the workflow of OTC-related behavior and decision making as well as related barriers such as difficulty locating medications or comparing them to an alternative. Participants reported effectiveness, adverse effects or health risks, and price as most important to their OTC medication purchase and use decisions. A persona analysis identified two types of consumers: the habit follower, who frequently purchased OTC medications and considered them safe; and the deliberator, who was more likely to weigh their options and consider alternatives to OTC medications. A conceptual model of OTC medication purchase and use is presented. Drawing on study findings and behavioral theories, the model depicts dual processes for OTC medication decision making - habit-based and deliberation-based - as well as the antecedents and consequences of decision making. This model suggests
College also runs a number of higher education (HE) courses. ... linking this with strategies, methods and skills to teach adult numeracy learners. .... The assessment helped provide detailed learner profiles against the Level 3 specifications ...
English teaching professionals working with children in primary school, adolescents in secondary school, or adults at university know that learners nowadays think and behave differently than those from previous generations. These students were born into a world of information technology; they prefer to multitask rather than focus on one thing at a…
This article calls attention to a facet of the expertise of second language (L2) learners of Japanese at the intersection of language, memory, gesture, and the psycholinguistics of a logographic writing system. Previous research has shown that adult L2 learners of Japanese living in Japan (similarly to native speakers of Japanese) often…
Rahmatian, Rouhollah; Mehrabi, Marzieh; Safa, Parivash; Golfam, Arsalan
Hesitation, when speaking a foreign language, is studied through its components: beginnings, pauses, and repetitions. This paper aims to identify, through the study of this phenomenon, vulnerable zones among Iranian learners when they speak French. A case study of 30 adult learners shows that hesitation is not random and at different levels (A1 to…
Roman de Mettelinge, Tine; Cambier, Dirk; Calders, Patrick; Van Den Noortgate, Nele; Delbaere, Kim
Background Older adults with type 2 Diabetes Mellitus are at increased risk of falling. The current study aims to identify risk factors that mediate the relationship between diabetes and falls. Methods 199 older adults (104 with diabetes and 95 healthy controls) underwent a medical screening. Gait (GAITRite®), balance (AccuGait® force plate), grip strength (Jamar®), and cognitive status (Mini-Mental State Examination and Clock Drawing Test) were assessed. Falls were prospectively recorded during a 12-month follow-up period using monthly calendars. Results Compared to controls, diabetes participants scored worse on all physical and cognitive measures. Sixty-four participants (42 diabetes vs. 22 controls) reported at least one injurious fall or two non-injurious falls (“fallers”). Univariate logistic regression identified diabetes as a risk factor for future falls (Odds Ratio 2.25, 95%CI 1.21–4.15, p = 0.010). Stepwise multiple regressions defined diabetes and poor balance as independent risk factors for falling. Taking more medications, slower walking speed, shorter stride length and poor cognitive performance were mediators that reduced the Odds Ratio of the relationship between diabetes and faller status relationship the most followed by reduced grip strength and increased stride length variability. Conclusions Diabetes is a major risk factor for falling, even after controlling for poor balance. Taking more medications, poorer walking performance and reduced cognitive functioning were mediators of the relationship between diabetes and falls. Tailored preventive programs including systematic medication reviews, specific balance exercises and cognitive training might be beneficial in reducing fall risk in older adults suffering from diabetes. PMID:23825617
Sigurdardottir, Sigrun Birna; Kaplan, Sigal; Møller, Mette
This study focuses on the intentions of adolescents to commute by car or bicycle as adults, as key elements towards promoting societal transition towards sustainable modes. The behavioral model is based on the theory of planned behavior combined with positive current travel experience, willingness...... passenger experience, general interest in cars, and car-ownership norms, and are negatively related to willingness to accept car restrictions and perceived lack of behavioral control; (ii) cycling intentions are positively related to positive cycling experience, willingness to accept car restrictions...
This study aims to analyse artistic understanding in primary and secondary education and the relationship between this understanding and motivational characteristics such as goal orientation, engagement in art activities and attitude to art education at school, which determine (according to prior research) learners' academic achievement, in…
Fenesi, Barbara; Kim, Joseph A
Research on metacognition has consistently demonstrated that learners fail to endorse instructional designs that produce benefits to memory, and often prefer designs that actually impair comprehension. Unlike previous studies in which learners were only exposed to a single multimedia design, the current study used a within-subjects approach to examine whether exposure to both redundant text and non-redundant text multimedia presentations improved learners' metacognitive judgments about presentation styles that promote better understanding. A redundant text multimedia presentation containing narration paired with verbatim on-screen text (Redundant) was contrasted with two non-redundant text multimedia presentations: (1) narration paired with images and minimal text (Complementary) or (2) narration paired with minimal text (Sparse). Learners watched presentation pairs of either Redundant + Complementary, or Redundant + Sparse. Results demonstrate that Complementary and Sparse presentations produced highest overall performance on the final comprehension assessment, but the Redundant presentation produced highest perceived understanding and engagement ratings. These findings suggest that learners misperceive the benefits of redundant text, even after direct exposure to a non-redundant, effective presentation.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Young adults experience many adverse health behavior changes as they transition from adolescence into adulthood. A better understanding of the relationships between health promoting and risky health behaviors may aid in the development of health promotion interventions for various types of young adult post-secondary students. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine associations between alcohol and tobacco use and physical activity among 2-year and 4-year college students. Methods Cross-sectional analyses were conducted using 2007 survey data, collected as part of an on-going post-secondary health surveillance system in Minnesota. Students were randomly selected to participant from 14 Minnesota colleges and universities (six 2-year community and/or technical colleges, eight 4-year post-secondary institutions. The 2007 surveillance data included 9,931 respondents. Results The prevalence of demographic characteristics and health behaviors (e.g., physical activity, tobacco use differed between young adults attending 2-year and 4-year post-secondary institutions; in general, those attending 2-year institutions are representative of more at-risk populations. Overall, higher levels of moderate, vigorous and strengthening physical activity were associated with higher levels of alcohol consumption and lower levels of smoking. In general, despite the disparities in the prevalence of these risk behaviors, the associations between the behaviors did not differ substantially between 2-year and 4-year post-secondary populations. Conclusions These findings illustrate links between leading risk behaviors. Interventions targeting multiple risk behaviors among young adults may warrant further consideration. Overall, future research is needed to support and inform young adult health promotion efforts that may be implemented in a wide array of post-secondary institutions.
Ageing and learning are value-laden concepts that are culturally relevant. Culture plays an important role in influencing what people think, resulting in different views and understandings by people from diverse cultural backgrounds. In the literature, there have been research and discussions relating culture with ageing and culture with learning…
While there may be similarities between adults and children in how they learn (such as language, interaction and communication), many writers argue that adult learners are different from child learners in a number of ways. This article aims to review how adults learn through examining one particular theory of adult learning. Two conflicting…
Vásquez, Anete; Smith, Philip C
This thoroughly revised and updated edition of Teaching Language Arts to English Language Learners provides readers with the comprehensive understanding of both the challenges that face ELLs and ways in which educators might address them in the language arts classroom. The authors offer proven techniques that teachers can readily use to teach reading, writing, grammar, and vocabulary as well as speaking, listening, and viewing skills. A complete section is also devoted to ways teachers can integrate all five strands of the language arts curriculum into a comprehensive unit of study w
Kreisman, Brian M; Mazevski, Annette G; Schum, Donald J; Sockalingam, Ravichandran
This investigation examined whether speech intelligibility in noise can be improved using a new, binaural broadband hearing instrument system. Participants were 36 adults with symmetrical, sensorineural hearing loss (18 experienced hearing instrument users and 18 without prior experience). Participants were fit binaurally in a planned comparison, randomized crossover design study with binaural broadband hearing instruments and advanced digital hearing instruments. Following an adjustment period with each device, participants underwent two speech-in-noise tests: the QuickSIN and the Hearing in Noise Test (HINT). Results suggested significantly better performance on the QuickSIN and the HINT measures with the binaural broadband hearing instruments, when compared with the advanced digital hearing instruments and unaided, across and within all noise conditions.
Janusz K. Rybakowski
Full Text Available This article focuses on some aspects of recent progress in the neurobiology and treatment of bipolar disorder (BD in adults. A molecular-genetic approach to the etiopathogenesis of the illness resulted in the findings of a genetic overlap between BD and other major psychiatric disorders. Furthermore, a poly-gene-environmental interaction in the development of the illness has been demonstrated. For the management of BD, new drugs with putative mood-stabilizing properties have been introduced in the past two decades. However, none of these can surpass lithium, the prototype mood-stabilizer, still considered the most specific drug for BD. Recent research on lithium, besides providing new data on the neurobiology of BD, has confirmed anti-suicidal, immunomodulatory, and neuroprotective properties of this drug.
Laing, Catherine M; Moules, Nancy J; Estefan, Andrew; Lang, Mike
The purpose of this philosophical hermeneutic study was to understand the effects on health care providers (HCPs) of watching digital stories made by (past and present) pediatric and adolescent/young adult (AYA) oncology patients. Twelve HCPs participated in a focus group where they watched digital stories made by pediatric/AYA oncology patients and participated in a discussion related to the impact the stories had on them personally and professionally. Findings from this research revealed that HCPs found digital stories to be powerful, therapeutic, and educational tools. Health care providers described uses for digital stories ranging from education of newly diagnosed families to training of new staff. Digital stories, we conclude, can be an efficient and effective way through which to understand the patient experience, implications from which can range from more efficient patient care delivery to decision making. Recommendations for incorporating digital storytelling into healthcare delivery are offered.
Jiang Ruizhou; Chen Jincheng
Objective: To have a further study of the value of MSCT in diagnosing acute small bowel retrograde intussusception in adults by means of 64-slice-spinal CT. Methods: A 46-year-old female patient with the history of abdominal operation was found having acute mechanical small bowel obstruction through plain X-ray radiograph. 64-slice MSCT was performed afterwards (plain scan + 3 stage contrast scans). Hence, evidence is provided for operation. Results: Using the technique of MSCT for the patient can promptly approach the diagnosis of jejuno-jejunal intussusception with severe bowel obstruction; no small bowel tumor or other organic lesion found in this case. With the patient who has the history of abdominal operations, MSCT can predict the reason of adhesion causing bowel intussusception, and provide the evidence for operation; whereas MSCT with contrast media offers a further investigation of the blood supply to the bowels through SMA, and observation of blood circulation through the intussuscepting site, which represents venous congestion of intussusception. This case is a retrograde small bowel intussusception and confirmed with operation evidence. A greater amount of gas and fluid is accumulated between the dilated space of middle-distal portion of intussusceptum and intussuscipiens. Nevertheless, less gas at the proximal portion and that can be an important sign for retrograde intussusception. Conclusion: MSCT is a good choice of examination for diagnosis of adult's intussusception. As the literature mentioned the advantages of MSCT for observing the circulation of intussusceptum and whether the diagnosis is antegrade or retrograde intussusception is also essential. (authors)
Full Text Available Noise-vocoded speech is commonly used to simulate the sensation after cochlear implantation as it consists of spectrally degraded speech. High individual variability exists in learning to understand both noise-vocoded speech and speech perceived through a cochlear implant (CI. This variability is partly ascribed to differing cognitive abilities like working memory, verbal skills or attention. Although clinically highly relevant, up to now, no consensus has been achieved about which cognitive factors exactly predict the intelligibility of speech in noise-vocoded situations in healthy subjects or in patients after cochlear implantation. We aimed to establish a test battery that can be used to predict speech understanding in patients prior to receiving a CI. Young and old healthy listeners completed a noise-vocoded speech test in addition to cognitive tests tapping on verbal memory, working memory, lexicon and retrieval skills as well as cognitive flexibility and attention. Partial-least-squares analysis revealed that six variables were important to significantly predict vocoded-speech performance. These were the ability to perceive visually degraded speech tested by the Text Reception Threshold, vocabulary size assessed with the Multiple Choice Word Test, working memory gauged with the Operation Span Test, verbal learning and recall of the Verbal Learning and Retention Test and task switching abilities tested by the Comprehensive Trail-Making Test. Thus, these cognitive abilities explain individual differences in noise-vocoded speech understanding and should be considered when aiming to predict hearing-aid outcome.
Ross, Andrew S.; Stracke, Elke
Within applied linguistics, understanding of motivation and cognition has benefitted from substantial attention for decades, but the attention received by language learner emotions has not been comparable until recently when interest in emotions and the role they can play in language learning has increased. Emotions are at the core of human…
Lomeli, Cynthia Leticia
The purpose of this study was to further understand the perceptions of MAT@USC teacher candidates and how their perceptions and previous experiences affect the educational experiences of Latino English language learners. Three questions were developed to guide this study: (1) What are the perceptions of MAT@USC candidates in selected courses…
Dhanapala, Kusumi Vasantha; Yamada, Jun
This study aims to understand how EFL learners in different reading proficiency levels comprehend L2 texts, using five-component skills involving measures of (1) vocabulary knowledge, (2) drawing inferences and predictions, (3) knowledge of text structure and discourse organization, (4) identifying the main idea and summarizing skills, and (5)…
The number of English language learners (ELL) in schools continues to rise. However, statistics reveal that the majority of classroom teachers have no training in working with ELLs (NCES, 2011). Because of this, it is critical to understand how teachers can be successfully prepared to teach ELLs. Through in-depth inquiry, this study explored what…
This study evaluates reading comprehension instruction at senior high schools in Accra. Classroom observation was used to identify the techniques used by teachers in the reading class and questionnaire was used to collect information from learners about the difficulties they have in understanding text. It reports that the ...
Geddes, Kimberly A.
This article presents lesson plans that incorporate tiered objectives and brainstorming techniques as means for differentiating instruction and ensuring that learners are challenged at levels commensurate with their abilities even though they are developing an understanding of the same physics concepts. A listing of materials and resources…
This meta-synthesis is on research conducted by different researchers in a team research project on learners' experience of aggression in secondary schools in South Africa. The objective was to obtain a broader understanding of their experience of aggression in different contexts in South Africa, as well as possible ways to ...
Paglialonga, Alessia; Tognola, Gabriella; Grandori, Ferdinando
A novel, user-operated test of suprathreshold acuity in noise for use in adult hearing screening (AHS) was developed. The Speech Understanding in Noise test (SUN) is a speech-in-noise test that makes use of a list of vowel-consonant-vowel (VCV) stimuli in background noise presented in a three-alternative forced choice (3AFC) paradigm by means of a touch sensitive screen. The test is automated, easy-to-use, and provides self-explanatory results (i.e., 'no hearing difficulties', or 'a hearing check would be advisable', or 'a hearing check is recommended'). The test was developed from its building blocks (VCVs and speech-shaped noise) through two main steps: (i) development of the test list through equalization of the intelligibility of test stimuli across the set and (ii) optimization of the test results through maximization of the test sensitivity and specificity. The test had 82.9% sensitivity and 85.9% specificity compared to conventional pure-tone screening, and 83.8% sensitivity and 83.9% specificity to identify individuals with disabling hearing impairment. Results obtained so far showed that the test could be easily performed by adults and older adults in less than one minute per ear and that its results were not influenced by ambient noise (up to 65dBA), suggesting that the test might be a viable method for AHS in clinical as well as non-clinical settings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Heffernan, Eithne; Coulson, Neil S.; Henshaw, Helen; Barry, Johanna G.; Ferguson, Melanie A
Objective This study explored the psychosocial experiences of adults with hearing loss using the self-regulatory model as a theoretical framework. The primary components of the model, namely cognitive representations, emotional representations, and coping responses, were examined. Design Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted. The data were analysed using an established thematic analysis procedure. Study sample Twenty-five adults with mild-moderate hearing loss from the UK and nine hearing healthcare professionals from the UK, USA, and Canada were recruited via maximum variation sampling. Results Cognitive representations: Most participants described their hearing loss as having negative connotations and consequences, although they were not particularly concerned about the progression or controllability/curability of the condition. Opinions differed regarding the benefits of understanding the causes of one’s hearing loss in detail. Emotional representations: negative emotions dominated, although some experienced positive emotions or muted emotions. Coping responses: engaged coping (e.g. hearing aids, communication tactics) and disengaged coping (e.g. withdrawal from situations, withdrawal within situations): both had perceived advantages and disadvantages. Conclusions This novel application of the self-regulatory model demonstrates that it can be used to capture the key psychosocial experiences (i.e. perceptions, emotions, and coping responses) of adults with mild-moderate hearing loss within a single, unifying framework. PMID:26754550
Bodrova, Elena; Leong, Deborah J.; Paynter, Diane E.
Preschool and kindergarten teachers can help young learners meet early literacy standards without sacrificing developmentally appropriate practice. Several professional associations have described appropriate expectations for children of different age levels known as milestones, developmental accomplishments, and benchmarks. (MLH)
Wang, Dianjian; Lai, Hongling; Leslie, Michael
The present study aims to investigate Chinese English learners' ability to use communication strategies (CSs). The subjects are put in a relatively real English referential communication setting and the analyses of the research data show that Chinese English learners, when encountering problems in foreign language (FL) communication, are characterized by the frequent use of substitution, approximation, circumlocution, literal translation, exemplification, word-coinage, repetition, and the infrequent use of cultural-knowledge and paralinguistic CSs. The rare use of paralinguistic strategies is found to be typical of Chinese English learners. The high frequency of literal translation, one first language (L1)-based strategy in our study sample, suggests that FL learners' use of L1-based CSs may depend more upon the developmental stage of their target language than the typology distance between L1 and the target language. The frequency of repetition reveals one fact that the Chinese English learners lack variety and flexibility in their use of CSs. Based on these findings, it was indicated that learners' use of CSs is influenced by a variety of factors, among which the development stage of their interlanguage and their cultural background are identified as two important factors. Some implications are finally suggested for the English foreign language teaching practice in China.
LaConte, K.; Dusenbery, P.; Fitzhugh, G.; Harold, J. B.; Holland, A.
Learners frequently need to access increasingly complex information to help them understand our changing world. More and more libraries are transforming themselves into places where learners not only access STEM information, but interact with professionals and undertake hands-on learning. Libraries are beginning to position themselves as part of learning ecosystems that contribute to a collective impact on the community. Traveling STEM exhibits are catalyzing these partnerships and engaging students, families, and adults in repeat visits through an accessible venue: their public library. The impact of the STAR Library Education Network's (STAR_Net) Discover Earth: A Century of Change exhibit on partnerships, the circulation of STEM resources, and the engagement of learners was studied by an external evaluation team. The STAR_Net project's summative evaluation utilized mixed methods to investigate project implementation and its outcomes. Methods included pre- and post-exhibit surveys administered to staff from each library that hosted the exhibits; interviews with staff from host libraries; patron surveys; exhibit-related circulation records; web metrics regarding the online STAR_Net community of practice; and site visits. A subset of host libraries recruited professionals, who delivered programming that connected Earth systems science, weather, climate, and conservation themes from the exhibit to local issues. Library patrons improved their knowledge about STEM topics presented in the exhibits and associated programming, and patrons viewing the exhibit reflected the demographics of their communities. In a follow-up survey, patrons reported spending an average of 60 minutes looking at the exhibit over their cumulative visits to the library. In contrast, visitors might visit a museum only once to look at a comparably-sized traveling exhibit due to barriers such as cost and distance. Exhibit host libraries reported an increase in the circulation of Earth science
Full Text Available Analyses of interactions between an adult and a one-year-old child are often connected with studying early communicative competences, e.g. the child’s participation in turn-taking sequences, in joint attention, and use of pointing gestures. Infants’ communicative behaviors were studied using a structured observational measure - the Early Social Communication Scales (Mundy et al., 2003 in a study of 358 12-month-old children. An exploratory factor analysis revealed: (i a distinction between the categories of initiation and response among the behaviors displayed, (ii simple and complex behavior categories occurring; (iii the presence within one factor of behaviors fulfilling various functions (e.g. requesting and sharing interest. An analysis of the results showed that communicative competences can be classified according to their level and ignoring their function, and made it possible to suggest modifications to the way in which behaviors are coded on the ESCS and to complement the procedure of studying early communicative competences.
Ngooi, Bi Xia; Packer, Tanya L; Warner, Grace; Kephart, George; Koh, Karen Wei Ling; Wong, Raymond Ching Chiew; Lim, Serene Peiying
Validation studies of the PAM-13 have found differences in scale performance, suggesting that health beliefs embedded in different cultures and/or self-management needs of different client groups influence how people respond to the items. The purpose of this study was to examine how adults with cardiac conditions in Singapore interpreted and responded to the PAM-13, to investigate possible reasons for differences in responses and to propose solutions to overcome them. We conducted retrospective cognitive interviews with 13 participants in an out-patient heart center. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed based on the framework approach to qualitative analysis. The four stages from Tourangeau's cognitive model were used as a framework to index the data from each item. There was variation in comprehension of questions leading to variation in responses. Comprehension issues were due to terms perceived by participants to be vague and the use of English terms uncommon in Singapore. Cultural influences impacted decision processes and problems with response processes of the self-rating Likert scale surfaced. This study reinforces the need to culturally adapt the tool, even when language translation is not necessary. Providing Likert scales with a larger number of may widen the relevance of PAM-13 in Singapore. Implications for rehabilitation Need to culturally adapt assessment tool, even when language translation is not necessary. Consider using Likert scales with a larger number of categories when using in Asian countries such as Singapore. Caution must be taken when using PAM-13 levels to decide interventions for each individual.
Zvolensky, Michael J; Paulus, Daniel J; Bakhshaie, Jafar; Garza, Monica; Manning, Kara; Lemaire, Chad; Reitzel, Lorraine R; Smith, Lia J; Ochoa-Perez, Melissa
One social determinant of health construct that is reliably related to health disparities among the Latino population is subjective social status, reflecting subjective ratings of social standing. Yet, little research has explored factors that may undergird variability in subjective social status among this population or in general. Accordingly, the present investigation examined one possible etiological model wherein age moderates the relation between individual differences in anxiety sensitivity (fear of the negative consequences of stress sensations) and subjective social status among a Latino primary care sample. Participants included Spanish-speaking Latino adults (n = 394; 86.5% female; average age = 39.0 years). Results demonstrated an interaction between the anxiety sensitivity and age for subjective social status among the Latino sample. Inspection of the form of the significant interaction indicated that the association between anxiety sensitivity and subjective social status was evident among older, but not younger, persons. The current findings suggest that decreasing anxiety sensitivity, especially among older Latinos, may be one possible viable therapeutic approach to change subjective social status in order to help offset health disparities among this group.
John L. Murphy
Full Text Available This paper examines recent accounts by Americans who have learned Irish. Their narratives from the West of Ireland express what translation theorist Michael Cronin calls ‘individualist politics of language’. He claims that the English-speaking majority will determine the survival of 21st century Irish. Cronin shifts Irish into a globalized, ‘late modern’ network. Foreign-born learners enter this network when they choose to study Irish. They counter the stereotype of Irish schoolchildren forced into rote recitation of a moribund language. Patricia Monaghan combines goddess-worship with academic research into indigenous spirituality, place-name lore, literature, and the Irish environmental inheritance. Her travelogue and reports by five other American visitors to Gaeltachtaí are compared with John Montague and Éilís Ní Dhuibhne’s literary depictions of 20th-century Irish-born school-level learners.Feminist, post-colonial, and literary criticisms enrich understanding of how American students apply ecological and cultural strategies that seek to recover this indigenous language. Choosing to make the case for Irish, adult students share Cronin’s ‘individualist politics’. In English-language books, American advocates preserve and expand a linguistic ecology in which Irish may survive.
English learning is extensive among adults. Their motivations are classified into two types: the integrative one and the instrumental one.Obviously the integrative motivation makes the learners more active and joyful in learning process. Teachers find ways to cultivate and inspire the adult learners' motivation of learning L2, to design and deliver language instruction with care and sensitivity, and to assess rather than test the learners' learning for inducing a positive reaction.
Full Text Available I examine how teachers employ a questioning strategy in supporting Grade 9 learners doing science investigations in South African schools. A particular focus of this study was how teachers use questioning in contributing towards the autonomy of these learners. The research adopted a qualitative approach which involved the collection of data by means of classroom observations and interviews with five teachers at schools resourced for practical work. The analysis of transcript data revealed that teachers support learners by asking probing questions at all stages of the investigation. The teachers used a questioning strategy in enabling the learners to understand more clearly the question or hypothesis they intended investigating, to review and reconsider their planning, to rethink some of their actions when collecting data, to make sense of their data, and to revisit and amend their plan after generating incorrect findings. The significance of this study, in making explicit teacher questioning at the stages of the investigation, is that it provides a guideline for teachers on how to support learners attain greater autonomy in doing science investigations.
Full Text Available A study was conducted in Vellore district of Tamil Nadu state to understand the learning styles of students. The term learning style refers to the way or method or approach by which a student learns. The study explored the possible learning style variations among agricultural, horticultural, engineering and arts & science students and their association with academic achievement. One hundred and twelve students were randomly selected from the four streams and their learning styles were analyzed. In the agricultural and horticultural streams, a majority of the students were auditory learners. They were also found to be predominantly unimodal learners. Overall, it was found that majority of the students were visual learners followed by auditory and kinesthetic style. The highest percentage of kinesthetic learners was found among engineering students. Trimodal learners scored the highest mean percentage of marks. The influence of learning styles on the academic achievements of the students did not show a significant relationship.
Dr. L. Kannan
compared to less than 50 percentage of marks majority 3666 have less than 80 percentage of attendance this difference of observation among both genders has got statistical significance p0.007were male students with low performance has got low percentage of attendance. In this study the family type has gotno association with the level of performance. To analyze simultaneously on all the variables gender understanding the language unable to study on their own unhappy with the subjects and problem with their class mates. These answers differ significantly among low performers compared to high performers. Finally the study has been concluded that low achievers slow learners needs to concentrate on their regularity of attending their classes so that to have a better performance in their subsequent internal examinations. Many students felt they were not able to study on their own and perform in their internal assessment examination so students can be encouraged group discussions and effective mentorship programme can be generated in order to have better performance in their internal examinations.
Full Text Available Learners with physical disabilities have been entering mainstream schools for some years now. Whereas early research on inclusive education necessitated a strong focus on the needs of the learners, there has also been a recent interest in the role of the teachers in inclusive education. By adopting constructivism as the paradigm for inquiry a study was undertaken to establish the stress factors for teachers who have to include a learner with a physical disability in their mainstream classes. The rationale for the study is threefold: i Learners with physical disabilities are entering mainstream schools increasingly, ii it is often assumed that inclusive education is too stressful for teachers to cope with, and iii related research has shown that increased contact with individuals with disabilities has a positive effect on attitudes towards individuals with disabilities. In accordance with the dialectical methodology of constructivism, the Teacher Stress and Coping Questionnaire and in-depth interviews were utilised to establish the stress factors and the extent of the stress factors that may be present. The aim of the constructivist inquiry process is to promote understanding and reconstruction. In this article the quantitative results indicate overall low or non-existent levels of stress in teachers who have to include a learner with a physical disability, and the results therefore contribute to our understanding of this situation. The qualitative results reconstruct the meanings that these teachers attach to the inclusion of a learner with a physical disability and reveal some albeit limited concerns about the communication processes between parents and teachers and a perceived lack of pre-service training.
Full Text Available Play during early life is a ubiquitous activity, and an individual’s propensity for play is positively related to cognitive development and emotional well-being. Play behavior (which may be solitary or shared with a social partner is diverse and multi-faceted. A challenge for current research is to converge on a common definition and measurement system for play – whether examined at a behavioral, cognitive or neurological level. Combining these different approaches in a multimodal analysis could yield significant advances in understanding the neurocognitive mechanisms of play, and provide the basis for developing biologically grounded play models. However, there is currently no integrated framework for conducting a multimodal analysis of play that spans brain, cognition and behavior. The proposed coding framework uses grounded and observable behaviors along three dimensions (sensorimotor, cognitive and socio-emotional, to compute inferences about playful behavior in a social context, and related social interactional states. Here, we illustrate the sensitivity and utility of the proposed coding framework using two contrasting dyadic corpora (N = 5 of mother-infant object-oriented interactions during experimental conditions that were either non-conducive (Condition 1 or conducive (Condition 2 to the emergence of playful behavior. We find that the framework accurately identifies the modal form of social interaction as being either non-playful (Condition 1 or playful (Condition 2, and further provides useful insights about differences in the quality of social interaction and temporal synchronicity within the dyad. It is intended that this fine-grained coding of play behavior will be easily assimilated with, and inform, future analysis of neural data that is also collected during adult–infant play. In conclusion, here, we present a novel framework for analyzing the continuous time-evolution of adult–infant play patterns, underpinned by
Thomas, Roanne; Hamilton, Ryan
Life with a disability is often riddled with paradoxes, one of which is being visibly marked, while personal experiences, losses, and challenges remain hidden. Our article draws attention to this paradox among people who live with secondary lymphedema after cancer (SLC). SLC is a relatively unfamiliar chronic condition within medical and lay discourses of cancer, which proves challenging for the many cancer survivors who are in search of information and understanding. Thirteen men and women with SLC were recruited from two research sites (Fredericton, NB, and Ottawa, ON, Canada) to participate in semi-structured interviews about the physical and psychosocial aspects of SLC. Using a methodology of interpretive description, our analysis of participant interviews reveals the complex ways in which men and women felt both visible and invisible within various contexts. We discuss three majors themes: (in)visibility and appearance related to material losses; (in)visibility and action connected to visible losses in function, as well as invisible struggles to care for oneself; and the loss of present and future well-being, as SLC renders some limitations visible while potentially obscuring a hopeful future indefinitely. Our research indicates that timely diagnosis of SLC would be an immediate first step in recognizing the physical and emotional dimensions of the condition. To accomplish this, increased awareness is needed. To enhance quality of life for those living with SLC, the development of new resources and psychosocial supports is also required. PMID:25148936
This study investigates the determinants of adult learners' participation in higher education in a lifelong learning environment. The author argues that the determinants of adult learners' participation in higher education include individual demands, state and institutional policy objectives and industry-driven demands rather than demographic…
Calderón, Margarita; Slavin, Robert; Sánchez, Marta
The fastest-growing student population in U.S. schools today is children of immigrants, half of whom do not speak English fluently and are thus labeled English learners. Although the federal government requires school districts to provide services to English learners, it offers states no policies to follow in identifying, assessing, placing, or instructing them. Margarita Calderón, Robert Slavin, and Marta Sánchez identify the elements of effective instruction and review a variety of successful program models. During 2007-08, more than 5.3 million English learners made up 10.6 percent of the nation's K-12 public school enrollment. Wide and persistent achievement disparities between these English learners and English-proficient students show clearly, say the authors, that schools must address the language, literacy, and academic needs of English learners more effectively. Researchers have fiercely debated the merits of bilingual and English-only reading instruction. In elementary schools, English learners commonly receive thirty minutes of English as a Second Language (ESL) instruction but attend general education classes for the rest of the day, usually with teachers who are unprepared to teach them. Though English learners have strikingly diverse levels of skills, in high school they are typically lumped together, with one teacher to address their widely varying needs. These in-school factors contribute to the achievement disparities. Based on the studies presented here, Calderón, Slavin, and Sánchez assert that the quality of instruction is what matters most in educating English learners. They highlight comprehensive reform models, as well as individual components of these models: school structures and leadership; language and literacy instruction; integration of language, literacy, and content instruction in secondary schools; cooperative learning; professional development; parent and family support teams; tutoring; and monitoring implementation and outcomes
Sweet, Shane N; Fortier, Michelle S; Guérin, Eva; Tulloch, Heather; Sigal, Ronald J; Kenny, Glen P; Reid, Robert D
This study was set out to test if autonomous motivation mediated the relationship between self-efficacy and 12-month physical activity (PA) in adults with type 2 diabetes involved in a randomized exercise trial. Participants (n = 234) completed questionnaires measuring barrier self-efficacy at 3 months, autonomous motivation at 6 months, and PA at 12 months. A mediational analysis of longitudinal data revealed that autonomous motivation mediated the relationship between barrier-self-efficacy and PA. High barrier self-efficacy can therefore help predict 12-month PA in adults with type 2 diabetes, although this effect is attenuated by autonomous motivation. Hence, participating in PA for autonomous reasons such as by choice and/or for fun further explains PA at 12 months in this population. Results of this study extend our understanding of the motivational constructs involved in PA in the maintenance phase. This study has important theoretical implications in that it helps to organize and consolidate well-known correlates of PA by proposing a temporal relationship between them that could be tailored in interventions.
Gunam D. Singh
Full Text Available Managing learner aggression in the school system is central to learners’ academic performance and holistic development. In order to manage learner aggression, it is important to understand the contributory factors and the forms of learner aggression. This article reports on an investigation of factors contributing to learner aggression in rural secondary schools in the Empangeni district of KwaZulu-Natal in order to identify the forms of learner aggression and to establish strategies to manage such aggression in these secondary schools. A qualitative research design was adopted to investigate the phenomenon through an interview process with participants from five rural secondary schools. The findings showed that the factors contributing to learner aggression include family factors, environmental factors and school-related factors whilst the most common forms of learner aggression in schools are verbal aggression, physical aggression and bullying. The article concludes with the role that the school, parents and the Department of Education can play in addressing learner aggression in schools.
Implementing learnerships: learner recruitment and selection B lessons learnt from the KwaZulu-Natal pilot projects. ... 2001 in KwaZulu-Natal, with specific reference to the recruitment and selection of learners. ... AJOL African Journals Online.
Stefanova, Eliza; Ilieva, Miroslava; Nikolova, Nikolina; Stefanov, Krassen
Stefanova, E., Ilieva, M., Nikolova, N, & Stefanov, K. (2008). Turning university professors into competent learners. In H. W. Sligte & R. Koper (Eds.), Proceedings of the 4th TENCompetence Open Workshop. Empowering Learners for Lifelong Competence Development: pedagogical, organisational and
problem is further compounded if educators are not trained to work with learners from ... to locate problems that emerge with the learners themselves rather than within the system ..... "Black students' school success: coping with the burden of ...
Huong, Vu Thi; Casadesus, Marti; Marimon, Frederic
The aims of this study are threefold in their approach to English academy teaching: (i) to assess learner satisfaction, (ii) to assess the impact of satisfaction on loyalty and (iii) to assess the three constructs that we considered to be the antecedents of learner satisfaction: learner motivation, learner attitude and service quality. To collect…
This descriptive study reports findings on the relationship between focus on form, learner uptake and subsequent lexical gains in learners' oral production. The data for the study consisted in 17 45-minute audio-recorded teacher-led conversations, 204 learners' diaries (17 sessions x 12 learners) reporting what they had learned after each…
Dixon-Williams, Shelley B.
This research is an exploratory multiple case study of adult serving undergraduate colleges and universities. Using the Council of Adult and Experiential Learning (CAEL) Principles of Effective Practice for Serving Adult Learners, this study examines the differences of adult serving undergraduate colleges across the three sectors of higher…
Giordano, James; Rochford, Regina A.
Recently, business education programs have experienced a decline in enrollment and an increase in attrition. To understand these issues and recommend solutions, the learning styles of 503 first-year business majors at an urban community college were examined. The results demonstrated that: (a) 94% of the participants were analytic learners; (b)…
Shin, Joan Kang
Teachers of young learners (YLs) often use songs and movement to engage children in the classroom. However, are there missed opportunities for language learning and practice that can be added to what they are already doing in their English for young learner (EYL) classes? A deeper understanding of the importance of music in children's lives and…
Liu, Chen-Chung; Chang, Chia-Jung; Tseng, Jui-Min
A general challenge facing Internet-based learners is how to identify information objects which are helpful in expanding their understanding of important information in a domain. Recommendation systems may assist learners in identifying potentially helpful information objects. However, the recent literature mainly focuses on the technical…
Veletsianos, George; Collier, Amy; Schneider, Emily
Researchers describe with increasing confidence "what" they observe participants doing in massive open online courses (MOOCs). However, our understanding of learner activities in open courses is limited by researchers' extensive dependence on log file analyses and clickstream data to make inferences about learner behaviors. Further, the…
Lund Larsen, Lea
In this paper, I examine the field of adult learners from the teachers’ perspective. Firstly, I identify the characteristics of adults as learners and their particular needs, which teach- ers must be aware of and deal with. Secondly, I propose a combination of adult learners’ characteristics with...
Specialised translation dictionaries for learners are reference tools that can help users with domain discourse in a foreign language in connection with translation. The most common type is the business dictionary covering several more or less related subject fields. However, business dictionaries...... the needs of learners, it is proposed that specialised translation dictionaries should be designed as augmented reference tools. It is argued that electronic and printed dictionaries should include sections or CD-ROMs with syntactic, translation etc. data as well as exercises and illustrative documents...
Fitzpatrick, Kevin M
Optimism has been noted as a primary protective factor in understanding mental health symptomatology in clinical and non-clinical settings. Any exploration of optimism has been absent in understanding mental health outcomes among homeless people. This study, using intensive interviews with 168 homeless adults in Northwest Arkansas, examines the role that social support and optimism play in lessening the negative impact of homeless circumstances/experiences on mental health symptomatology. Using OLS, findings support a mediating/protective role that social support and optimism play in lowering the negative effects of childhood life experiences on depressive symptoms among homeless persons. Despite the overwhelming conditions of homelessness, persons with higher levels of optimism and social support report lower depression and anxiety symptoms. The findings are discussed paying particular attention to the importance of developing and maintaining the perception of support and resiliency in preserving a positive outlook for the future among homeless persons facing often-debilitating circumstances. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
The study was conducted on self regulated learners of senior secondary school. The main objectives of the study were to find out significant dimensions of emotional intelligence held by self regulated learners. To compare the emotional intelligence dimensions of self regulated learners, in terms of subject and gender. To find out the relationship…
Jun 19, 2014 ... Objectives: This research investigated Grade 11 learners' knowledge of the CTOP Act and ... those learners attending schools formerly designated for African learners during Apartheid .... be performed if, in the opinion of a medical practitioner, ..... of pre-termination of pregnancy counselling to the woman.
Structured activity sheets with three tasks were given to learners; these tasks were done in groups, and the group leaders were interviewed. It was found that learners tended to do well with routine-type questions, implying that they were functioning at an action level. From the interviews it appeared that learners might have ...
Full Text Available This qualitative case study in a rural school in Umgungundlovu District in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, explored Grade 12 learners' mental constructions of mathematical knowledge during engagement with optimisation problems. Ten Grade 12 learners who do pure Mathematics participated, and data were collected through structured activity sheets and semi-structured interviews. Structured activity sheets with three tasks were given to learners; these tasks were done in groups, and the group leaders were interviewed. It was found that learners tended to do well with routine-type questions, implying that they were functioning at an action level. From the interviews it appeared that learners might have the correct answer, but lacked conceptual understanding. Exploring learners' mental constructions via their responses to activity sheets and interviews enabled common errors and misconceptions to be identified. Themes that emerged were that learners: 1 lacked the understanding of notation dy/dx, 2 had not constructed the derivative and minima/maxima schema, 3 had some difficulty in modelling problems, 4 preferred rules and formulas, and 5 applied algebraic notions incorrectly. Inferences are drawn for curriculum developers and teachers. This study also formulated itemised genetic decompositions for particular tasks, which contribute to APOS theory.
Jacklyn J. Thompson
Full Text Available Online education cannot continue to grow at the current pace while ignoring a crucial component of campus support, wellness for adult online learners. This paper brings awareness to the concept of wellness as an important student support service in adult online education. It includes a summarized review of relevant literature and identifies specific wellness concerns of adult online learners. The paper also provides examples of how three American higher education institutions are addressing the issue of wellness promotion in online learning. It identifies areas for improvement in current wellness initiatives and offers recommended strategies for supporting adult online learner wellness to professional organizations, institutions, instructors, and distance learners.http://dx.doi.org/10.5944/openpraxis.6.1.100
Summarizes Abraham Maslow's concepts of the organization of the personality with implications for educating the disadvantaged adult learner. Special attention is given to personality syndromes and the effect they have on the expression of behavior. (JOW)
Full Text Available Background: Most nurse educators regard students who enter postgraduate studies as adult learners capable of self-direction and independent learner behaviour. Therefore, a mismatch between the nurse educator’s expectation of adult learners and actual adult learner conduct may result in disappointment and even frustration for both educator and learner. Purpose: This article is a report of a secondary analysis of data that were collected to explore the high-fidelity simulation learning experiences of a group of postgraduate nursing students.The secondary analysis was done to determine whether adult learners who bring professional knowledge and experience to a postgraduate learning environment displayed adult learner conduct as proposed by educational theorist Malcolm Knowles. Method: Using a qualitative descriptive research design, data were gathered from 18 postgraduate nursing students who participated in high-fidelity simulation in a nursing school at a higher education institution in South Africa. The nominal group technique was used to collect the students’ ideas about improving their simulation learning experiences. A secondary qualitative analysis of the primary nominal group data was done. Findings: Data either confirmed or belied adult learner behaviour. Although the findings suggested self-directed and independent learner behaviour, they also revealed behaviour evident of dependence on the educator. Conclusion: Mature students have well established ways of thinking and doing that may hinder learning. Educators have to support adult learners in developing effective learning techniques in order to maximise the benefits of their experience and knowledge by fostering independence and self-direction.
Michael Kainose Mhlolo
Full Text Available This article reports on regularities observed in learners' preconceptions of reflective symmetry. Literature suggests that the very existence of such regularities indicates a gap between what learners know and what they need to know. Such a gap inhibits further understanding and application, and hence needed to be investigated. A total of 235 Grade 11 learners, from 13 high schools that participate in the First Rand Foundation-funded Mathematics Education project in the Eastern Cape, responded to a task on reflective symmetry. Our framework for analysing the responses was based on the taxonomy of structure of the observed learning outcome. The results indicated that 85% of learner responses reflect a motion understanding of reflections, where learners considered geometric figures as physical motions on top of the plane. While this understanding is useful in some cases, it is not an essential aspect of mapping understanding, which is critical for application in function notations and other analytical geometry contexts. We suggest that if this gap is to be closed, learners need to construct these reflections physically so that they may think of reflections beyond motion.
Learner-centered design is an evolving software design perspective addressing the needs of learners---a specific audience trying to work in and understand new work practices in which they have a novice or naive understanding. Learner-centered design involves designing software that incorporates work support features (or scaffolding features) informed by social constructivist learning theories. By adopting a constructivist "learning by doing" perspective, scaffolds should support learners so they can mindfully engage in previously inaccessible work activity, which in turn allows those learners to progressively gain a better understanding of the new work. While there is an intuitive notion of "learner-centered design", there is less specific design information for developing learner-centered software. As a result, learner-centered software results from "educated guesses" and ad-hoc design approaches rather than from systematic design methods. Thus there is a need for specific design guidance to facilitate the development of learner-centered tools that help learners see the tasks, terminology, tools, etc. in the new work context and engage in that work. The research in this dissertation provides a more specific base of learner-centered design descriptions, methods, and guidelines to analyze work practices and design and evaluate scaffolds. The research approach involves using the development of Symphony---a scaffolded integrated tool environment for high-school students learning the work of computational science inquiry---as a case study to develop the learner-centered design approach. Symphony incorporates a variety of science tools with process scaffolding to support students in performing complex air pollution investigations. Six ninth-grade students used Symphony to investigate air quality questions for several weeks in an environmental science class. The student testing helped assess the effectiveness of the software scaffolding and in turn, the learner
Nga Thanh Nguyen
Full Text Available This research explores how the concept of learner autonomy is understood and used in Vietnamese higher educational settings. Data were collected through interviews in Vietnamese with four university lecturers in Hanoi, Vietnam and then reported in an English language thesis. The problems confronted by the lecturers were in understanding the concept of learner autonomy, the complexities of translation equivalence for the concept from one language to another, and the impact of culture in interpreting the concept of learner autonomy. The paper concludes with recommendations for educators to be sensitive to cultural and linguistic considerations when transferring concepts from one culture to another.
Blended learning appears to facilitate learner empowerment more readily than either face-to-face or fully online courses. This contention is supported by a review of literature on the affordances of blended learning that support Thomas and Velthouse's (1990) four conditions of empowerment: choice, meaningfulness, competence, and impact. Blended…
Johnathon P. Ehsani
Full Text Available An increasing number of countries are requiring an extended learner permit prior to independent driving. The question of when drivers begin the learner permit period, and how long they hold the permit before advancing to independent licensure has received little research attention. Licensure timing is likely to be related to “push” and “pull” factors which may encourage or inhibit the process. To examine this question, we recruited a sample of 90 novice drivers (49 females and 41 males, average age of 15.6 years soon after they obtained a learner permit and instrumented their vehicles to collect a range of driving data. Participants completed a series of surveys at recruitment related to factors that may influence licensure timing. Two distinct findings emerged from the time-to-event analysis that tested these push and pull factors in relation to licensure timing. The first can be conceptualized as teens’ motivation to drive (push, reflected in a younger age when obtaining a learner permit and extensive pre-permit driving experience. The second finding was teens’ perceptions of their parents’ knowledge of their activities (pull; a proxy for a parents’ attentiveness to their teens’ lives. Teens who reported higher levels of their parents’ knowledge of their activities took longer to advance to independent driving. These findings suggest time-to-licensure may be related to teens’ internal motivation to drive, and the ability of parents to facilitate or impede early licensure.
ate medium for encoding. Correct pronunciation is not guaranteed, because only syllabification and the main stress are indicated in words. Grammatical guidance is also not given to such an extent that Learners will be able to generate correct sentences on their own. The role that con- trastive analysis and error analysis ...
Reasons people do not complete online training courses include (1) no incentives, (2) lack of connectedness, (3) learner preference for instructor-led courses, (4) poor course design, (5) "some is enough," and (6) lack of perks. Course delivery must consider three elements: the technology, course design, and the learning environment. (JOW)
Glahn, Christian; Specht, Marcus; Koper, Rob
Glahn, C., Specht, M., & Koper, R. (2007). Requirements for flexible learner monitoring. In T. Navarette, J. Blat & R. Koper (Eds.). Proceedings of the 3rd TENCompetence Open Workshop 'Current Research on IMS Learning Design and Lifelong Competence Development Infrastructures' (pp. 89-96). June,
Full Text Available Book review of “Teaching in a Globally Connected World: Preparing Learners for the Future.” Edited by Ervin F. Sparapani and Pamela L. Ross McClain. Lanham, MD: Hamilton Books, 2016. ISBN: 978-0-7618-6814-9
Peer review is a complex collaborative activity, which may engage English language learners in reading, writing, listening, and speaking and carry many potential benefits for their language learning (Hu, 2005). While many research studies focused on peer review practices of adult language learners in academic settings in the USA or abroad in…
Chen, Julian ChengChiang
English as a foreign language (EFL) learners' language use in 3-D virtual environments is a vibrant avenue that still deserves more research attention in the field of CALL. To contribute research and pedagogical implications to the current Second Life (SL) literature, this study aims to examine EFL adult learners' use of communication strategies…
In all OECD countries, digital media and connectedness are integral to the lives of todays learners. It is often claimed that these learners are ""new millennium learners"", or ""digital natives"", who have different expectations about education. This book contributes to the debate about the effects of technology attachment and connectedness on todays learners, and their expectations about teaching. The book sets out to answer the following questions: Can the claim that todays students are ""new millenium learners"" or ""digital natives be sustained empirically? Is there consistent research evidence demonstrating the effects of technology on cognitive development, social values, and learning expectations? What are the implications for educational policy and practice?
Reed, Suzanne; Shell, Richard; Kassis, Karyn; Tartaglia, Kimberly; Wallihan, Rebecca; Smith, Keely; Hurtubise, Larry; Martin, Bryan; Ledford, Cynthia; Bradbury, Scott; Bernstein, Henry Hank; Mahan, John D
The application of the best practices of teaching adults to the education of adults in medical education settings is important in the process of transforming learners to become and remain effective physicians. Medical education at all levels should be designed to equip physicians with the knowledge, clinical skills, and professionalism that are required to deliver quality patient care. The ultimate outcome is the health of the patient and the health status of the society. In the translational science of medical education, improved patient outcomes linked directly to educational events are the ultimate goal and are best defined by rigorous medical education research efforts. To best develop faculty, the same principles of adult education and teaching adults apply. In a systematic review of faculty development initiatives designed to improve teaching effectiveness in medical education, the use of experiential learning, feedback, effective relationships with peers, and diverse educational methods were found to be most important in the success of these programs. In this article, we present 5 examples of applying the best practices in teaching adults and utilizing the emerging understanding of the neurobiology of learning in teaching students, trainees, and practitioners. These include (1) use of standardized patients to develop communication skills, (2) use of online quizzes to assess knowledge and aid self-directed learning, (3) use of practice sessions and video clips to enhance significant learning of teaching skills, (4) use of case-based discussions to develop professionalism concepts and skills, and (5) use of the American Academy of Pediatrics PediaLink as a model for individualized learner-directed online learning. These examples highlight how experiential leaning, providing valuable feedback, opportunities for practice, and stimulation of self-directed learning can be utilized as medical education continues its dynamic transformation in the years ahead
Msimanga, Audrey; Lelliott, Anthony
This paper discusses the nature of learner engagement with science content during small group discussions in which learners use their home languages. We observed that learners reverted to their home languages in small group discussions, yet very little is known about the dynamics of learner engagement when they use their home languages in classroom discussions in South Africa and elsewhere. We analysed transcripts of discussions by three small groups in a Grade 10 Chemistry class. Contrary to teachers' fears that learners may not engage meaningfully with science content when talking in their home languages, all three groups spent over 90% of discussion time on task. Learners made and supported claims, challenged each others' ideas and questioned each others' thinking. Although the levels of critique varied between the groups, there was evidence of negotiation of understandings of the concepts. We argue that use of learners' home languages for engagement with difficult concepts may be a legitimate resource for science teachers to create opportunities for learner conceptual understanding. Further research is needed to understand the dynamics of teacher and learner use of their languages in science lessons, the best teaching strategies to achieve this, how teacher educators may model these strategies without undermining the need by both parents and learners' for English language proficiency to access social goods.
Nga Thanh Nguyen; Donna Tangen; Denise Beutel
This research explores how the concept of learner autonomy is understood and used in Vietnamese higher educational settings. Data were collected through interviews in Vietnamese with four university lecturers in Hanoi, Vietnam and then reported in an English language thesis. The problems confronted by the lecturers were in understanding the concept of learner autonomy, the complexities of translation equivalence for the concept from one language to another, and the impact of culture in interp...
Voldborg, Hanne; Sorensen, Elsebeth Korsgaard
at school? Using this lens, the authors examine, to what extent technology may assist teachers to create more ideal learning environments by reducing the threat for these learners and enable them to participate in learning. Virtual Learning Environments (VLEs), digital templates, timers and calendars......, become aware and understand their own role in the classroom. This paper suggests technologies for structuring and overviewing as basic assistive tools for equalizing the learning possibilities for learners with developmental and attention difficulties in an inclusive school setting....
Agha, Arun; Liu-Ambrose, Teresa Y L; Backman, Catherine L; Leese, Jennifer; Li, Linda C
The home-based Otago Exercise Program (OEP) has been shown to reduce the occurrence of falls in community-dwelling seniors. A new OEP DVD was recently developed for people living in rural communities to be used with minimal coaching by a physical therapist. This study aimed to understand older adults' experiences using the DVD-delivered OEP and explore barriers and facilitators to implementing the DVD-delivered OEP from the participants' perspectives. Rural community-dwelling older adults (75 years and older) who participated in a six-month DVD-delivered OEP study were invited to participate in this qualitative study. Two small group interviews were initially conducted to explore the breadth of participants' experiences with the program. These were followed by semi-structured individual interviews to gain an in-depth understanding of these experiences. An inductive constant comparison analysis of the transcripts was performed. To ensure methodological rigor, field notes, journaling, and an audit trail were maintained, supplemented by peer-review. Of 32 eligible participants, five participated in group interviews and 16 in individual interviews. Three themes emerged. Theme 1, The OEP DVD-useful training tool but in need of more pep, represented participants' experiences that the DVD provided important guidance at program onset, but was too slow and low-energy for longer-term use. Theme 2, Gaining control over one's exercise regimen, but sometimes life gets in the way of staying active, described participants' appreciation of the program's flexibility, but personal health concerns and everyday lives posed challenges to adhering to the program. Theme 3, Social creatures-wanting greater human connection during exercise, described how some participants desired further social interactions for enhancing motivation and receiving guidance. Individuals should be encouraged to refer to the OEP user manual or DVD as needed and engage friends and family in exercises. The
"Teaching Teaching & Understanding Understanding" is a 19-minute award-winning short-film about teaching at university and higher-level educational institutions. It is based on the "Constructive Alignment" theory developed by Prof. John Biggs. The film delivers a foundation for understanding what...
Sandars, John; Homer, Matthew; Walsh, Kieran; Rutherford, Alaster
There is increasing use of hypermedia online learning in continuing medical education (CME) that presents the learner with a wide range of different learning resources, requiring the learner to use self-regulated learning (SRL) skills. This study is the first to apply an SRL perspective to understand how learners engage with hypermedia online learning in CME. We found that the main SRL skills used by learners were use of strategies and monitoring. The increasing use of strategies was associated with increasing interest in the topic and with increasing satisfaction with the learning experience. Further research is recommended to understand SRL processes and its impact on learning in other aspects of hypermedia online learning across the different phases of medical education. Research is also recommended to implement and evaluate the learning impact of a variety of approaches to develop the SRL skills of hypermedia online learners in CME.
Full Text Available Listening is often listed as the most challenging language skill that the students need to learn in the language classrooms. Therefore the awareness of listening strategies and techniques, such as bottom-up and top-down processes, specific styles of listening, or various compensatory strategies, prove to facilitate the process of learning of older individuals. Indeed, older adult learners find decoding the aural input, more challenging than the younger students. Therefore, both students’ and teachers’ subjective theories and preferences regarding listening comprehension as well as the learners’ cognitive abilities should be taken into account while designing a teaching model for this age group. The aim of this paper is, thus, to draw the conclusions regarding processes, styles and strategies involved in teaching listening to older second language learners and to juxtapose them with the already existing state of research regarding age-related hearing impairments, which will serve as the basis for future research.
A fundamental aspect of adult education is engaging adults in becoming lifelong learners. More often than not, this requires removing barriers to learning, especially those relating to the actual organisational or institutional learning process. This article explores some of the main barriers to adult learning discussed in the literature and…
Smiljana Narančić Kovač
Full Text Available There are three major aspects of studying picturebooks which are relevant for future FL teachers: familiarity with a range of picturebooks, theoretical considerations, and practical issues, such as evaluating picturebooks, understanding their potential in FL learning and an ability to design activities for young learners. To exemplify ways of addressing picturebooks in pre-service teacher education, this article shows how these aspects are covered in the study programme of primary English at the Faculty of Teacher Education in Zagreb, Croatia. Beginning with a brief explanation of how this programme evolved from the seminal work of Mirjana Vilke, it also presents examples of picturebook-related activities for use with young learners, designed by pre-service students. The article concludes that an understanding of the theoretical and historical background to picturebooks empowers teachers to use them in their teaching practice in an efficient way.
Full Text Available The present study investigated the effect of brain dominance on the use of Language learning speaking strategies. One hundred forty two undergraduate students of Shiraz University, Iran, participated in this study. The Hemispheric Dominance Test (HDT was employed to categorize participants as right-, left- and whole-brain dominant, and a Speaking Strategy Questionnaire was administered to evaluate their use of speaking strategies. The results were analyzed using a one-way between groups analysis of variance (ANOVA to investigate whether there were any significant differences between the three brain dominant groups in their overall use of speaking strategies. A MANOVA was also run to investigate whether the groups had preferences regarding the use of any particular strategy type. Results indicated a statistically significant difference between the whole brain dominant participants and both left brain and right brain dominant learners for using compensation speaking strategies. To teach and learn more effectively, instructors and learners need to better understand and appreciate individual differences and how they can affect the learning process. They could find ways to combine activities that accommodate both left and right brain learners, employing not only the usual linear, verbal model, but also the active, image-rich, visuo-spatial models so that learners would be able to use both hemispheres.
Full Text Available Striatal projecting neurons, known as medium spiny neurons (MSNs, segregate into two compartments called matrix and striosome in the mammalian striatum. The matrix domain is characterized by the presence of calbindin immunopositive (CB+ MSNs, not observed in the striosome subdivision. The existence of a similar CB+ MSN population has recently been described in two striatal structures in male zebra finch (a vocal learner bird: the striatal capsule and the Area X, a nucleus implicated in song learning. Female zebra finches show a similar pattern of CB+ MSNs than males in the developing striatum but loose these cells in juveniles and adult stages. In the present work we analyzed the existence and allocation of CB+MSNs in the striatal domain of the vocal learner bird budgerigar (representative of psittaciformes order and the non-vocal learner bird quail (representative of galliformes order. We studied the co-localization of CB protein with FoxP1, a transcription factor expressed in vertebrate striatal MSNs. We observed CB+ MSNs in the medial striatal domain of adult male and female budgerigars, although this cell type was missing in the potentially homologous nucleus for Area X in budgerigar. In quail, we observed CB+ cells in the striatal domain at developmental and adult stages but they did not co-localize with the MSN marker FoxP1. We also described the existence of the CB+ striatal capsule in budgerigar and quail and compared these results with the CB+ striatal capsule observed in juvenile zebra finches. Together, these results point out important differences in CB+MSN distribution between two representative species of vocal learner and non-vocal learner avian orders (respectively the budgerigar and the quail, but also between close vocal learner bird families.
Miller, Amanda C; Keenan, Janice M
This study replicated and extended a phenomenon in the text memory literature referred to as the centrality deficit Miller & Keenan (Annals of Dyslexia 59:99-113, 2009). It examined how reading in a foreign language (L2) affects one's text representation and ability to recall the most important information. Readers recalled a greater proportion of central than of peripheral ideas, regardless of whether reading in their native language (L1) or a foreign language (L2). Nonetheless, the greatest deficit in participants' L2 recalls, as compared with L1 recalls, was on the central, rather than the peripheral, information. This centrality deficit appears to stem from resources being diverted from comprehension when readers have to devote more cognitive resources to lower level processes (e.g., L2 word identification and syntactic processing), because the deficit was most evident among readers who had lower L2 proficiency. Prior knowledge (PK) of the passage topic helped compensate for the centrality deficit. Readers with less L2 proficiency who did not have PK of the topic displayed a centrality deficit, relative to their L1 recall, but this deficit dissipated when they did possess PK.
This article draws on critical theories and perspectives on mathematics education to explain the tendency of mathematics teaching worldwide to remain focused on developing procedural understanding, despite repeated calls from the mathematics education community for a more relevant and engaging curriculum. It highlights how conventional approaches to teaching mathematics contribute towards alienating a high proportion of learners and reproducing inequities within society. The article reports o...
Vasilyeva, Tatyana; Uskova, Olga; Kosheleva, Elena Yurievna; Dong Thi Lin Jang
The purpose of this article is to move readers toward a deeper understanding of and wider respect for the issues of the modern system of bilingual education based on the principles of multiculturalism. Different conditions of learning are taken into account: the Russian language in restricted linguistic medium as well as Russian as a foreign language. The principles of multiculturalism determine the educational concepts used in teaching Russian to diverse categories of learners. The authors d...
Bohane, Laura; Maguire, Nick; Richardson, Thomas
The person-centred typological approach to personality makes the distinction between overcontrolled and undercontrolled personality types. This review systematically searched for research on the utility of these personality types in adult mental health. A total of 43 papers were included, which were divided broadly into cross-sectional studies, longitudinal studies and studies with clinical populations. Three personality types have been largely replicated in both normal and clinical populations: resilients, overcontrollers and undercontrollers. These types show utility in predicting long-term functioning and mental health, understanding heterogeneous personalities within clinical subgroups and have implications for treatment. Some disagreement on the number of personality types deemed replicable across samples and differing methodologies do exist, with some finding a dimensional approach to personality to have greater predictive utility. These personality types have been shown to be important in a number of mental health problems such as eating disorders, which may prove helpful in developing new psychological interventions. These studies point to the importance of overcontrolled personality types as well as undercontrolled in mental health. More research is needed with a greater range of clinical populations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This study investigated the opportunity to learn (OTL that is available to Grade 12 mathematics learners. Learner workbooks were analysed in terms of time on task, curriculum coverage, curriculum coherence, and cognitive demand. Based on these elements, experienced mathematics teachers judged the opportunity that the learners have to achieve more than 60% for each topic. According to the workbooks, the average number of active learning days in this sample was 54.1 days per annum. This resulted in limited curriculum coverage in almost all sections in 16 of the 18 under-performing schools. In these schools, learners spent most of their time practising routine procedures. The high correlation of 0.95 (p < 0.001 between the experts'prediction about the opportunity to learn in the different schools (based on the learner workbooks and learners' actual performance in the Grade 12 exam shows that the number, the coverage, the cognitive level, and the coherence of activities play a major role in understanding learner performance.
Conte, Helen; Scheja, Max; Hjelmqvist, Hans; Jirwe, Maria
Research about collaboration within teams of learners in intensive care is sparse, as is research on how the learners in a group develop into a team. The aim of this study was to explore the collaboration in teams of learners during a rotation in an interprofessional education unit in intensive care from a sociocultural learning perspective. Focused Ethnographic methods were used to collect data following eight teams of learners in 2009 and 2010. Each team consisted of one resident, one specialist nurse student and their supervisors (n = 28). The material consisted of 100 hours of observations, interviews, and four hours of sound recordings. A qualitative analysis explored changing patterns of interplay through a constant comparative approach. The learners' collaboration progressed along a pattern of participation common to all eight groups with a chronological starting point and an end point. The progress consisted of three main steps where the learners' groups developed into teams during a week's training. The supervisors' guided the progress by gradually stepping back to provide latitude for critical reflection and action. Our main conclusion in training teams of learners how to collaborate in the intensive care is the crucial understanding of how to guide them to act like a team, feel like a team and having the authority to act as a team.
Kerlyl, Alice; Hall, Phil; Bull, Susan
There is an extensive body of work on Intelligent Tutoring Systems: computer environments for education, teaching and training that adapt to the needs of the individual learner. Work on personalisation and adaptivity has included research into allowing the student user to enhance the system's adaptivity by improving the accuracy of the underlying learner model. Open Learner Modelling, where the system's model of the user's knowledge is revealed to the user, has been proposed to support student reflection on their learning. Increased accuracy of the learner model can be obtained by the student and system jointly negotiating the learner model. We present the initial investigations into a system to allow people to negotiate the model of their understanding of a topic in natural language. This paper discusses the development and capabilities of both conversational agents (or chatbots) and Intelligent Tutoring Systems, in particular Open Learner Modelling. We describe a Wizard-of-Oz experiment to investigate the feasibility of using a chatbot to support negotiation, and conclude that a fusion of the two fields can lead to developing negotiation techniques for chatbots and the enhancement of the Open Learner Model. This technology, if successful, could have widespread application in schools, universities and other training scenarios.
Buxner, Sanlyn; Impey, Chris David; Wenger, Matthew; Formanek, Martin; Romine, James M.
Massively open online courses (MOOCs) are becoming increasingly popular ways to reach diverse lifelong learners all over the world. Although MOOCs resemble more formal classes (e.g. videos of content, quizzes, activities), they are often used by informal audiences from home. Recently, MOOCs have become more utilized by universities to conduct outreach as they explore how to use MOOCs to reach new potential learners. Despite the rapid adaption of MOOCs, little is known about individuals who choose to take a MOOC, how they interact with the course materials, and what motivates them to finish the course.We present results of a study of lifelong learners engaged in an astronomy "101" MOOC. Through analysis of registered learners' behaviors as well as self-reported responses to a survey about science, we were able to characterize a subset of the learners engaged in the MOOC during its first offering. Overall, 25363 learners from over 100 countries registered for the MOOC. Of those, 14900 accessed at least one part of the course. Learners were recruited to complete a survey of their knowledge and attitudes towards science. Of the learner group who opened the course, 2889 individuals completed the survey, 2465 of those were able to be linked to their usage of the MOOC through a unique identifier.Learners represented a wide-range of ages, professions, and previous science experience. The best predictors for MOOC completion were engagement in the first activity and first writing assignment and engagement in the online forum. Learners were very interested in science prior to their registration, had higher basic science knowledge that most undergraduate students enrolled in a parallel astronomy course, and used online searches and science sites to get their information about science. As we reach out to a worldwide audience to learners in these massively open online courses, understanding their motivations and behaviors will be essential. This work is helping us understand and
Donnelly, Tam Truong; Fung, Tak Shing; Al-Thani, Al-Anoud Bint Mohammad
Physical inactivity and unhealthy diets increase the risk for diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Many people in Qatar are sedentary and consume diets high in fats, salt and sugar. The purpose of this study was to determine physical activity levels, food habits and understand the variables that might predict physical activity and healthy eating behaviours among Arabic-speaking adults living in the State of Qatar. A cross-sectional community-based survey was conducted with 1606 Arab adults ≥18 years of age from March 2013 to June 2015. Using a non-probability sampling technique, participants were recruited from three universities and five primary healthcare centres in Qatar. Participants were interviewed using a structured survey questionnaire. The survey included questions regarding demography, clinical characteristics and the participant's daily dietary practice. Physical activity level was assessed by the Arabic version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS V.22.0. Of 1606 participants, 50.1% were men and 49.9% were women. The participants' mean (SD) body mass index was 28.03 (5.85) Kg/m 2 . Two-thirds of the participants were either overweight (36.4%) or obese (33.6%). Within the 7 days prior to completing the questionnaire, 64% and 39.9% of study participants did not engage in vigorous or moderate physical activity, respectively. Within the 7 days prior to completing the questionnaire, the mean (SD) time for vigorous physical activity was 31.12 (59.28) min, 46.87 (63.01) min for moderate physical activity, and 42.01 (47.04) min for walking. One-third of the participants consumed fresh fruits and vegetables once or more daily, and fish, beef or chicken 2-4 times weekly. One quarter of the participants ate pasta, cakes or pastries 2-4 times weekly, and 40.6% of them ate white bread daily. Participants exhibited insufficient physical activity and poor dietary habits. There is a need for a
Genç Ilter, Binnur
Teaching a foreign language to young learners have some differences from teaching adults. Young children have concentration problems and they tend to change their mood every ten minutes and need more creative activities than adults. Therefore, foreign language teachers have to choose interesting activities for them and foreign language teacher…