WorldWideScience

Sample records for understand theoretical concepts

  1. Moral distress: a comparative analysis of theoretical understandings and inter-related concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lützén, Kim; Kvist, Beatrice Ewalds

    2012-03-01

    Research on ethical dilemmas in health care has become increasingly salient during the last two decades resulting in confusion about the concept of moral distress. The aim of the present paper is to provide an overview and a comparative analysis of the theoretical understandings of moral distress and related concepts. The focus is on five concepts: moral distress, moral stress, stress of conscience, moral sensitivity and ethical climate. It is suggested that moral distress connects mainly to a psychological perspective; stress of conscience more to a theological-philosophical standpoint; and moral stress mostly to a physiological perspective. Further analysis indicates that these thoughts can be linked to the concepts of moral sensitivity and ethical climate through a relationship to moral agency. Moral agency comprises a moral awareness of moral problems and moral responsibility for others. It is suggested that moral distress may serve as a positive catalyst in exercising moral agency. An interdisciplinary approach in research and practice broadens our understanding of moral distress and its impact on health care personnel and patient care.

  2. Developing a Theoretical Framework for Examining Student Understanding of Fractional Concepts: An Historical Accounting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Susan M.; Wilkerson, Trena L.; Montgomery, Mark; Mechell, Sara; Arterbury, Kristin; Moore, Sherrie

    2012-01-01

    In 2007, a group of mathematics educators and researchers met to examine rational numbers and why children have such an issue with them. An extensive review of the literature on fractional understanding was conducted. The ideas in that literature were then consolidated into a theoretical framework for examining fractions. Once that theoretical…

  3. THEORETICAL CONCEPTIONS OF GEOGRAPHY TEACHERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloy Montes Galbán

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this research was to determine the current theoretical concepts handled by third stage basic education geography teachers. A non experimental descriptive study was made. Data was collected through a semi structured questionnaire. The population was conformed by the teachers who work at the National schools placed in the parishes Raul Leoni and Cacique Mara of Maracaibo city, Zulia State. There is not clarity in regard to the correct handling of the different geographic currents, and the slight notion teachers have leans towards a traditional, descriptive, retrospective memory based conception.

  4. Conceptions of Musical Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallam, Susan; Papageorgi, Ioulia

    2016-01-01

    Music can be understood in many ways. This has important implications for music education. The research reported here explored how groups of people conceptualise musical understanding and what they believe supports its acquisition. In this study 463 participants completed two statements: "Musical understanding is" and "You learn to…

  5. Ausubel's understanding of concept development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janković Aleksandar P.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents one of relatively new cognitivistic learning and cognition theories - the theory by American psychologist David Ausubel. We consider this theory to be very usable for teaching beginners or for cognition process. It is of utmost importance that first or elementary concepts concerning natural and social phenomena a pupil aquires need to be accurate, understandable and properly connected in a cause-effect sequence of conceptual systems so that items of knowledge aquired can be stable and usable. For correct understanding of Ausubel's claims concerning processes and procedures involved in the acquisition of elementary concepts, which is central to this investigation, it is necessary to address problems and questions concerning the following: the process of aquisition or construction of first concepts; how to base verbal learning; how is subsuming achieved, that is connecting of new and previously acquired concepts; what is the relation of this theory with other cognitivistic theories of learning, and, finally, what are critical views or evalutions which can make this theory truly productive in relation to teaching.

  6. [Aromatherapy and nursing: historical and theoretical conception].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnatta, Juliana Rizzo; Kurebayashi, Leonice Fumiko Sato; Turrini, Ruth Natalia Teresa; Silva, Maria Júlia Paes da

    2016-02-01

    Aromatherapy is a Practical or Complementary Health Therapy that uses volatile concentrates extracted from plants called essential oils, in order to improve physical, mental and emotional well-being. Aromatherapy has been practiced historically and worldwide by nurses and, as in Brazil is supported by the Federal Nursing Council, it is relevant to discuss this practice in the context of Nursing through Theories of Nursing. This study of theoretical reflection, exploratory and descriptive, aims to discuss the pharmacognosy of essential oils, the historical trajectory of Aromatherapy in Nursing and the conceptions to support Aromatherapy in light of eight Nursing Theorists (Florence Nightingale, Myra Levine, Hildegard Peplau, Martha Rogers, Callista Roy, Wanda Horta, Jean Watson and Katharine Kolcaba), contributing to its inclusion as a nursing care practice.

  7. Aromatherapy and nursing: historical and theoretical conception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Rizzo Gnatta

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aromatherapy is a Practical or Complementary Health Therapy that uses volatile concentrates extracted from plants called essential oils, in order to improve physical, mental and emotional well-being. Aromatherapy has been practiced historically and worldwide by nurses and, as in Brazil is supported by the Federal Nursing Council, it is relevant to discuss this practice in the context of Nursing through Theories of Nursing. This study of theoretical reflection, exploratory and descriptive, aims to discuss the pharmacognosy of essential oils, the historical trajectory of Aromatherapy in Nursing and the conceptions to support Aromatherapy in light of eight Nursing Theorists (Florence Nightingale, Myra Levine, Hildegard Peplau, Martha Rogers, Callista Roy, Wanda Horta, Jean Watson and Katharine Kolcaba, contributing to its inclusion as a nursing care practice.

  8. A Description Logic Based Knowledge Representation Model for Concept Understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badie, Farshad

    2017-01-01

    This research employs Description Logics in order to focus on logical description and analysis of the phenomenon of ‘concept understanding’. The article will deal with a formal-semantic model for figuring out the underlying logical assumptions of ‘concept understanding’ in knowledge representation...... systems. In other words, it attempts to describe a theoretical model for concept understanding and to reflect the phenomenon of ‘concept understanding’ in terminological knowledge representation systems. Finally, it will design an ontology that schemes the structure of concept understanding based...

  9. Graph-theoretical concepts and physicochemical data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lionello Pogliani

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Graph theoretical concepts have been used to model the molecular polarizabilities of fifty-four organic derivatives, and the induced dipole moment of a set of fifty-seven organic compounds divided into three subsets. The starting point of these modeling strategies is the hydrogen-suppressed chemical graph and pseudograph of a molecule, which works very well for second row atoms. From these types of graphs a set of graph-theoretical basis indices, the molecular connectivity indices, can be derived and used to model properties and activities of molecules. With the aid of the molecular connectivity basis indices it is then possible to build higher-order descriptors. The problem of 'graph' encoding the contribution of the inner-core electrons of heteroatoms can here be solved with the aid of odd complete graphs, Kp-(p-odd. The use of these graph tools allow to draw an optimal modeling of the molecular polarizabilities and a satisfactory modeling of the induced dipole moment of a wide set of organic derivatives.

  10. Understanding pressure: didactical transpositions and pupils' conceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kariotogloy, P.; Psillos, D.; Vallassiades, O.

    1990-03-01

    Using the concept of pressure two research trends-content analysis and pupils' conceptions of subject matter-are drawn together, in an attempt to understand the issues in teaching and learning specific domains of physics.

  11. Theoretical Insights for Developing the Concept of Social Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rūta Tamošiūnaitė

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose—Social technologies continue to grow in popularity in society. Even though the term “social technology” is most commonly used to refer to new social media such as Twitter and Facebook, a redefinition of this concept based on the original definition is needed. Nowadays the concept of “social technology” has several aspects, which destabilize the dominant image of technology. It emphasizes the social sciences and the humanities as shapers of society, reconsiders the strength of “soft technologies.” The aim of this paper is to provide rich insight into the concept of social technologies’ and to develop the meaning of social technologies in information and knowledge society by analysing new needs and application forms of social technologies. Findings—the research contributed to the understanding of the concept of social technologies. Based on the analysis and synthesis of the scientific literature, a theoretical framework for defining social technologies was developed. Research limitations/implications—the research is limited in a few aspects. For a deeper understanding of social technologies and for developing technological perspectives in social sciences a broader theoretical, as well as empirical, research is necessary. In order to generalise the research findings, further research should include different dimensions from the perspective of other sciences. Article Type: conceptual paper.

  12. Theoretical Insights for Developing the Concept of Social Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Skaržauskaitė

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose—Social technologies continue to grow in popularity in society. Even though the term “social technology” is most commonly used to refer to new social media such as Twitter and Facebook, a redefinition of this concept based on the original definition is needed. Nowadays the concept of “social technology” has several aspects, which destabilize the dominant image of technology. It emphasizes the social sciences and the humanities as shapers of society, reconsiders the strength of “soft technologies.” The aim of this paper is to provide rich insight into the concept of social technologies’ and to develop the meaning of social technologies in information and knowledge society by analysing new needs and application forms of social technologies.Findings—the research contributed to the understanding of the concept of social technologies. Based on the analysis and synthesis of the scientific literature, a theoretical framework for defining social technologies was developed.Research limitations/implications—the research is limited in a few aspects. For a deeper understanding of social technologies and for developing technological perspectives in social sciences a broader theoretical, as well as empirical, research is necessary. In order to generalise the research findings, further research should include different dimensions from the perspective of other sciences.

  13. From theoretical concept to organizational tool for public sector improvement:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Jette; Hindhede, Anette Lykke; Andersen, Vibeke

    2018-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine, first, how social capital was crafted and transformed from a theoretical concept to an organizational tool for public sector improvement that was adopted by a Danish region and implemented in all regional hospitals. Second, the paper examines...... produce a pressure on the department management and the nurses. Originality/value – The explanatory critical framework combined with the ethnographic approach is a useful approach for theorizing and understanding social capital as an example of the emergence and consequences of new managerial tools...

  14. Gene therapy: theoretical and bioethical concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kevin R

    2003-01-01

    Gene therapy holds great promise. Somatic gene therapy has the potential to treat a wide range of disorders, including inherited conditions, cancers, and infectious diseases. Early progress has already been made in the treatment of a range of disorders. Ethical issues surrounding somatic gene therapy are primarily those concerned with safety. Germline gene therapy is theoretically possible but raises serious ethical concerns concerning future generations.

  15. Aromatherapy and nursing: historical and theoretical conception

    OpenAIRE

    Gnatta, Juliana Rizzo; Kurebayashi, Leonice Fumiko Sato; Turrini, Ruth Natalia Teresa; Silva, Maria Júlia Paes da

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Aromatherapy is a Practical or Complementary Health Therapy that uses volatile concentrates extracted from plants called essential oils, in order to improve physical, mental and emotional well-being. Aromatherapy has been practiced historically and worldwide by nurses and, as in Brazil is supported by the Federal Nursing Council, it is relevant to discuss this practice in the context of Nursing through Theories of Nursing. This study of theoretical reflection, exploratory and descrip...

  16. Solar pond conception - experimental and theoretical studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurt, Huseyin [Zonguldak Karaelmas Univ., Technical Education Faculty, Karabuk (Turkey); Halici, Fethi [Sakarya Univ., Mechanical Engineering Dept., Adapazari (Turkey); Binark, A. Korhan [Marmara Univ., Technical Education Faculty, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2000-07-01

    A one dimensional transient mathematical model for predicting the thermal performance of the salt gradient solar pond is developed and presented. In this paper, the natural solar ponds and different artificial solar pond systems found in the literature are introduced. Necessary modifications are made on the experimental stand located in Istanbul Technical University, the experimental stand is introduced and natural phenomena produced in the pond by the different solar pond variations under natural conditions are observed. In the theoretical work based on a one dimensional unsteady state heat conduction model with internal heat generation, the energy and mass balance equations for the upper convective zone, the non-convective zone and the lower convective zone, all of which form the solar pond, are written in terms of differential equations. These equations are solved analytically and numerically. The results obtained from the analysis are compared with the experimental results. The temperature and the concentration profiles are separately presented in the figures. (Author)

  17. Theoretical concepts about "Intelligence" - practices and standards in democratic societies

    OpenAIRE

    Mr.Sc. Bahri Gashi

    2013-01-01

    My thesis consists of theoretical analysis on the need for recognition of academic concepts to shape and design research field intelligence community activity, careful analysis of the terms and concepts that are strongly linked to intelligence work methodology, theoretical aspects description given practice best to regulate this specific area in our academic studies, has made the study to take proper shape with bold shades of comparative empirical analysis. My study aims to summarize, to ...

  18. Theoretical aspect of the development of 'corporate social responsibility' concept

    OpenAIRE

    Milanović, Vesna M.; Bučalina, Andrea D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical aspect of the development of 'corporate social responsibility' concept from the beginning of the 20th century to the present day, with the focus on the following periods: up to 1950, between 1950 an 1970, from 1970 to 1990 and from 1990 to now. We employed historical approach. We had an insight into the results of theoretical research on 'corporate social responsibility' concept, which were mostly presented in scientific papers in the English language. The ab...

  19. Theoretical Studies in Natural Language Understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-05-01

    concepts in the taxonomy (e.g., "if you eat this, you will get sick" or "if you eat this it will satisfy your hunger") . The two most important aspects... eating meat, etc., then in almost all such cases one can imagine (or actually encounter) entities to which the term should apply, but which fail to...Philosophical Essays on Mind and Psychology, Bradford Books, 1978. Frege, G. 1892. " Uber Sinn und Bedeutung". Zeitschr. f. Philosophie und philosoph. Kritik

  20. Theoretical approaches to natural language understanding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    This book discusses the following: Computational Linguistics, Artificial Intelligence, Linguistics, Philosophy, and Cognitive Science and the current state of natural language understanding. Three topics form the focus for discussion; these topics include aspects of grammars, aspects of semantics/pragmatics, and knowledge representation.

  1. Radiography – How do students understand the concept of radiography?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundgren, S.M.; Lundén, M.; Andersson, B.T.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Radiography as a concept has mainly been associated with the functional role of the radiographer. The concept has been studied from a theoretical point of view. However, there is a lack of a theoretical foundation and research on the actual substance of the term radiography used in education. It is therefore important to undertake an investigation in order to determine how students after three years education understand the subject of radiography. Aim: The aim of this study was to analyse how students in the Swedish radiographers' degree program understand the concept of radiography. Method: A concept analysis was made according to the hybrid model, which combines theoretical, fieldwork and analytical phases. A summative content analysis was used to identify the number and content of statements. The empirical data were collected from questionnaires answered by radiography students at four universities in Sweden. Findings: All radiography students' exemplified radiography with statements related to the practical level although some of them also identified radiography at an abstract level, as a subject within a discipline. The attribute ‘An interdisciplinary area of knowledge’ emerged, which is an attribute on the abstract level. The practical level was described by four attributes: Mastering Medical Imaging’, ‘To accomplish images for diagnosis and interventions’, ‘Creating a caring environment’ and ‘Enabling fruitful encounters’. Conclusion: The hybrid model used was a versatile model of concept development. The results of this study have increased the understanding of what characterizes the concept of radiography in a Swedish context. - Highlights: • This concept analysis of radiography was undertaken according to a hybrid model. • In radiography humanistic aspects are emphasized, a shift from the technological perspective. • The attributes demonstrate the essence and interdisciplinary nature of radiography. • This

  2. Understanding Social Networks: Theories, Concepts, and Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadushin, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Despite the swift spread of social network concepts and their applications and the rising use of network analysis in social science, there is no book that provides a thorough general introduction for the serious reader. "Understanding Social Networks" fills that gap by explaining the big ideas that underlie the social network phenomenon.…

  3. Understanding catchment behaviour through model concept improvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fenicia, F.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis describes an approach to model development based on the concept of iterative model improvement, which is a process where by trial and error different hypotheses of catchment behaviour are progressively tested, and the understanding of the system proceeds through a combined process of

  4. A survey of theoretical research on the EXTRAP concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehnert, B.

    1988-12-01

    A review is given of the theoretical analysis on the Extrap concept which consists of a Z-pinch being immersed in an octupole field generated by currents in a set of external conductors. This analysis includes research on plasma breakdown and start-up, equilibrium and stability, in terms of MHD and kinetic theory. Extrap theory includes an extensive area of diversified problems, being related to a high beta value, a non-circular plasma cross section with a magnetic separatrix, and strongly inhomogeneous plasma conditions in space. This also leads to unexplored and important areas of plasma physics, reaching far beyond the special applications to the Extrap configuration. At present progress has been made in the analysis of breakdown, of dissipation-free equilibria, and in identifying the instability modes and possible stabilizing meachanisms in Extrap. Nevertheless much work still remains within the area of dissipative equilibria and transport, as well as in the efforts to reach a complete theoretical understanding of the experimentally observed stability. (115 refs.)

  5. Theoretical concepts about "Intelligence" - practices and standards in democratic societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr.Sc. Bahri Gashi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available My thesis consists of theoretical analysis on the need for recognition of academic concepts to shape and design research field intelligence community activity, careful analysis of the terms and concepts that are strongly linked to intelligence work methodology, theoretical aspects description given practice best to regulate this specific area in our academic studies, has made the study to take proper shape with bold shades of comparative empirical analysis. My study aims to summarize, to analyze existing approaches and break the "taboo theories," floats mysteriously present new knowledge, summed up in this multidisciplinary field study, now theories only considering the nature of scientific thought for recognition theoretical concepts and legal regulation best practice intelligence services in democratic societies. emocratic societies. Treatment of this complex matter such as "intelligent services submission principle" of democracy is very difficult. Is between the concept of democracy is to be open and transparent, and intelligent service logic in the concept is to be closed and secret. Generally in "strategic studies and Peace” security for the creation of "security system" argued by the authors Buzan and Herring. Concept Intelligent based on the theory: "The essence of intelligence is the adequate response to a stimulus." Is the essence of this analysis?

  6. Towards understanding international migration determinants today: Theoretical perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Predojević-Despić Jelena

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In times of global migration flows and ever increasing mobility of the workforce in the world, the necessity for constant deepening of theoretical knowledge is imposed as a basis for understanding main determinants of this phenomenon, and with an aim of directing the focus of migration researches towards more efficient overcoming of challenges and making use of the advantages which international migrations could bring both to origin, destination and transit countries. The main goal of this paper is to give a critical review on the development of the economic migrations theory, to state the main similarities and differences between various approaches and to point out to the main drawbacks and problems which the theoretical perspective is facing when studying the determinants of contemporary international labor migrations. The focus of the study refers to voluntary labor migrations with reference to migrations of the highly educated population, while the stress is on economic theories, although some of them are closely connected to sociological, geographical and anthropological theories. The development of the theory on international migrations has been started by micro theoretical models, namely, through the conceptualization of theories which place the individual in the focal point of research, who estimates the positive, namely negative sides of moving from one location to another. Economic models on the micro theoretical level cede more space to models of macro structure which research the social and economic structure within and between countries. There are many theoretical models which offer possible answers to the question on what are the main determinants of international migrations on the macro analytical level. Although every one of them tries to give an answer to the same question, they use different concepts, assumptions and frameworks of research. The reasons which bring about the initiation of international migrations can be

  7. THEORETICAL CONTEXT EVOLUTION OF THE CONCEPT OF «NATION»

    OpenAIRE

    Іванов, Микола Семенович; Гречук, О. В.

    2015-01-01

    There are a lot of approaches to understand the concept of «nation». Scientific interest to the problem of determining the nature of this phenomenon is substantiated. Some researchers define the nation as an ethnic community, others have put the basis for understanding the nation’s social and psychological components. In particular, the concept of nation German sociologist M. Weber was formed in the system of concepts such as «nation-state», «culture», and was closely associated with such are...

  8. [ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT AND WORK ENGAGEMENT - THEORETICAL CONCEPTIONS AND TERMINOLOGICAL PROBLEMS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łaguna, Mariola; Mielniczuk, Emilia; Żaliński, Adam; Wałachowska, Karolina

    2015-01-01

    Engagement in professional activities and positive attitudes towards an organization are of significant importance to functioning and health of employees. Studies analysing the phenomena of employees' engagement and their relations with an organization undergo a dynamic development in both international and Polish research. Two theoretical conceptions: organizational commitment (by Meyer and Allen) and work engagement (by Schaufeli and Bakker) have become prominent in the field. They capture 2 similar, albeit distinct constructs. In English-language journals academics concentrate on theoretical and empirical analyses of similarities and differences between the 2 concepts, while in Polish publications scholars also have to deal with the issue of the original term translation. The problem lies mostly in Polish nomenclature of the dimensions proposed in both of these conceptions. Lack of common translations for different studies may cause confusion in this area of research. In the paper authors present a review of Polish translations of terms used in the discussed conceptions and a linguistic analysis of terms, both in English and in Polish. Authors provide solutions which could help to clarify terminology in Polish-language publications concerning organizational commitment and work engagement. This allows for further development of research in this field.

  9. Emerging theoretical understanding of pluricentric coordination in public governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reff Pedersen, Anne; Sehested, Karina; Sørensen, Eva

    2011-01-01

    Currently, we are witnessing a comprehensive change in the theoretical understandings of how coordination is provided in the pursuit of public governance. Traditional strands of theory took their departure from the presumption that coordination is the outcome of processes within coherent institut...

  10. Public understanding of radiation protection concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The Chernobyl accident in April 1986 clearly showed that communication with the public was one of the areas where there was a strong need for improvement, particularly concerning the nature and extent of the information provided by national authorities. The countermeasures adopted by public health authorities also raised difficulties in terms of public understanding and acceptance due, in part, to the perception of discrepancies in national, regional or local response to the accident, but also to a more basic lack of comprehension of the complex radiation protection considerations involved. In an attempt to help improve the situation, the NEA Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health decided to organise a Workshop on public communication in the event of a nuclear accident, centered on radiation protection issues. The purpose of this Workshop was to analyse appropriate methods and language to be used when explaining to the public the scientific concepts underlying radiation risks and radiation protection, and the technical rationale for the choice of protective actions in an emergency. Separate abstracts were prepared for individual papers presented at the meeting

  11. Deep Understanding of Electromagnetism Using Crosscutting Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Poorter, John; De Lange, Jan; Devoldere, Lies; Van Landeghem, Jouri; Strubbe, Katrien

    2017-01-01

    Crosscutting concepts like patterns and models are fundamental parts in both the American framework of science education (from the AAAS) and our proposals for a new science education framework in Flanders. These concepts deepen the insight of both students and teachers. They help students to ask relevant questions during an inquiry and they give…

  12. Understanding the managerial state: a few theoretical tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iana Gomes de Lima

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article offers theoretical tools to the analysis of the state and contemporary public policies, with special attention to educational policies. Utilizing mainly the contribution of John Clarke and Janet Newman and adding the concepts used by Michael Apple and Stephen Ball, this article offer theoretical lenses to theexamination of the managerial nature of the contemporary state. Through the dispersal of power, the blurring of the borders between public and private and assessment policies that control the action of public institutions, the managerial state fi ghts the Welfare State and creates the conditions to public policies that reshape the relationship between civil society and the state. The article ends with some implications to the study of educational policies, emphasizing the fact that the managerial logic does not transfer, unmediated, to all state actions.

  13. Theoretical concepts aiding in decision making and practical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schenker-Wicki, Andrea; Rauber, Dominique

    1997-01-01

    Emergency-simulating drillings are current preoccupations of the national organizations in charge with emergency interventions. Generally, the attention is focused on the initial phases of the operations to the detriment of the later stages that concern the agricultural and agro-alimentary problems. In order to test its theoretical concepts and its coordinating role, the National Centre for Emergency Operations launched the drilling BACCHUS, addressed to the personnel of different authorities. For the first time in Switzerland executive bodies in the agricultural and agro-alimentary fields were integrated in the decision-making process involved in final phases. These final phases aim at simulating the means of reducing the ingestion doses after an accidental release of radioactivity. The principal conclusion was that the contamination criteria used by radiation protection and agro-alimentary industry experts could be very different if healthy foodstuffs are available

  14. A Theoretical Model for Meaning Construction through Constructivist Concept Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badie, Farshad

    The central focus of this Ph.D. research is on ‘Logic and Cognition’ and, more specifically, this research covers the quintuple (Logic and Logical Philosophy, Philosophy of Education, Educational Psychology, Cognitive Science, Computer Science). The most significant contributions of this Ph.D. di...... of ‘learning’, ‘mentoring’, and ‘knowledge’ within learning and knowledge acquisition systems. Constructivism as an epistemology and as a model of knowing and, respectively as a theoretical model of learning builds up the central framework of this research........D. dissertation are conceptual, logical, terminological, and semantic analysis of Constructivist Concept Learning (specifically, in the context of humans’ interactions with their environment and with other agents). This dissertation is concerned with the specification of the conceptualisation of the phenomena...

  15. The Construction of a Solidarity Sustainability Concept Theoretical Contributions to the Reach of Socio-Environmentalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloise Siqueira Garcia

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article has as general objective to draw up considerations about the concept of sustainability having as its apparatus its intimate connection with solidarity, so that the studies traced are presented as theoretical contributions to socio-environmentalism. In this context, the following specific objectives were listed: analyze the main aspects of Sustainability, focusing on the social dimension; to study Solidarity in its historical and conceptual aspects; and to understand the close correlation between both categories. In the methodology was adopted the inductive method, having been applied the techniques of the referent, category, operational concepts, bibliographical research and file.

  16. THE NECESSITY OF APPROACHING THE ENTERPRISE PERFORMANCE CONCEPT THROUGH A THEORETICAL FUNDAMENTAL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DEAC VERONICA

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to justify the necessity of building of a theoretical-fundamental system to define and delimitate the integrated notions applicable to the concept of enterprise performance. Standing as a fundamental research, the present paper argues and shows that the literature in this field and the applied environment, as well, require a more clearer segregation, respectively an increase of specificity of the concept "enterprise performance" considering that it is not unanimously defined, on one hand, and, especially, due to the fact that it represents a key concept widely used, which, ultimately, has to be measured in order to be helpful, on the other hand. Moreover, the present paper would be useful to scholars working in the field of firm performance who are willing to understand this concept and to develop the future research referring to enterprise performance measurement.

  17. Understanding statistical concepts using S-PLUS

    CERN Document Server

    Schumacker, Randall E

    2001-01-01

    Written as a supplemental text for an introductory or intermediate statistics course, this book is organized along the lines of many popular statistics texts. The chapters provide a good conceptual understanding of basic statistics and include exercises that use S-PLUS simulation programs. Each chapter lists a set of objectives and a summary.The book offers a rich insight into how probability has shaped statistical procedures in the behavioral sciences, as well as a brief history behind the creation of various statistics. Computational skills are kept to a minimum by including S-PLUS programs

  18. Understanding augmented reality concepts and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Craig, Alan B

    2013-01-01

    Augmented reality is not a technology. Augmented reality is a medium. Likewise, a book on augmented reality that only addresses the technology that is required to support the medium of augmented reality falls far short of providing the background that is needed to produce, or critically consume augmented reality applications. One reads a book. One watches a movie. One experiences augmented reality. Understanding Augmented Reality addresses the elements that are required to create compelling augmented reality experiences. The technology that supports

  19. A Formal Semantics for Concept Understanding relying on Description Logics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badie, Farshad

    2017-01-01

    logical assumptions whose discovery may lead us to a better understanding of ‘concept understanding’. The Structure of Observed Learning Outcomes (SOLO) model as an appropriate model of increasing complexity of humans’ understanding has supported the formal analysis.......In this research, Description Logics (DLs) will be employed for logical description, logical characterisation, logical modelling and ontological description of concept understanding in terminological systems. It’s strongly believed that using a formal descriptive logic could support us in revealing...

  20. A Formal Semantics for Concept Understanding relying on Description Logics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badie, Farshad

    2017-01-01

    In this research, Description Logics (DLs) will be employed for logical description, logical characterisation, logical modelling and ontological description of concept understanding in terminological systems. It’s strongly believed that using a formal descriptive logic could support us in reveali...... logical assumptions whose discovery may lead us to a better understanding of ‘concept understanding’. The Structure of Observed Learning Outcomes (SOLO) model as an appropriate model of increasing complexity of humans’ understanding has supported the formal analysis....

  1. Studies of Credit and Equity Markets with Concepts of Theoretical Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Münnix, Michael C

    2011-01-01

    Financial markets are becoming increasingly complex. The financial crisis of 2008 to 2009 has demonstrated that an improved understanding of the mechanisms embedded in the market is a key requirement for the estimation of financial risk. Recently, concepts of theoretical physics, in particular concepts of complex systems, have proven to be very useful in this regard. Michael C. Münnix analyses the statistical dependencies in financial markets and develops mathematical models using concepts and methods from physics. The author focuses on aspects that played a key role in the emergence of the recent financial crisis: estimation of credit risk, dynamics of statistical dependencies, and correlations on small time-scales. He visualizes the findings for various large-scale empirical studies of market data. The results give novel insights into the mechanisms of financial markets and allow conclusions on how to reduce financial risk significantly.

  2. Designing Of Lectures through Systemic Approach to Teaching and Learning, a Model for (SATL) MethodologyConcepts play a vital role in enabling chemist to deliver. The recently developing concept based teaching methods are likely to play a pivotal role towards the efforts for promoting understanding of chemical concepts and assimilation of vital theoretical foundations of chemistry. A. F. M. Fahmy and J. J. Lagowski are the leading figures in a worldwide derive towards concept building of young generation through this novel mode of teaching and learning. However, their efforts, till recently have been mostly organic chemistry specific. Nevertheless, SALTC teaching methods are equally applicable to various other disciplines in chemistry. SATLC methodology can also be thus used to overcome the problems faced by students in understanding the efficacy of any chemical entity for a specific and desired chemical action. This presentation outlines possible applications of SATLC technique to the concepts related to a number of aspects of Physical Chemistry that are to be put together in one unit for facilitating a chemical compound’s application in any chemical change desired by any researcher.

    OpenAIRE

    *M. Nazir; I. I. Naqvi

    2012-01-01

    Concepts play a vital role in enabling chemist to deliver. The recently developing concept based teaching methods are likely to play a pivotal role towards the efforts for promoting understanding of chemical concepts and assimilation of vital theoretical foundations of chemistry. A. F. M. Fahmy and J. J. Lagowski are the leading figures in a worldwide derive towards concept building of young generation through this novel mode of teaching and learning. However, their efforts, till recently hav...

  3. Cultural Psychology of Differences and EMS; a New Theoretical Framework for Understanding and Reconstructing Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Toshiya

    2017-09-01

    In this paper I introduce the outlines of our new type of theoretical framework named 'Cultural psychology of Differences' for understanding cultural others and dialogically reconstructing interactions among cultural others. In order to understand cultural others, it is necessary for us to reconstruct a new concept which enables us to analyze dynamic generation processes of culture. We propose the concept of Expanded Mediational Structure, EMS, as an elementary unit for understanding human social interactions. EMS is composed of subjects who interacts each other using objects of some kind as mediators, and a normative mediator, NM, which mediates their interactions. It is necessary to generate, share and adjust a NM to keep social interactions stable, and culture will appear when interaction malfunction is attributed to a gaps of NMs. The concept of EMS helps us to understand how culture is functionally substantialized in the plane of collective (or communal) intersubjectivity and how cultural conflicts develop and intensify. Focusing on the generation process of culture through interactions provides us with another option to understand cultural others through dialogical interactions with them.

  4. The conceptual basis for interprofessional collaboration: core concepts and theoretical frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amour, Danielle; Ferrada-Videla, Marcela; San Martin Rodriguez, Leticia; Beaulieu, Marie-Dominique

    2005-05-01

    Interprofessional collaboration is a key factor in initiatives designed to increase the effectiveness of health services currently offered to the public. It is important that the concept of collaboration be well understood, because although the increasingly complex health problems faced by health professionals are creating more interdependencies among them, we still have limited knowledge of the complexity of interprofessional relationships. The goal of this literature review was to identify conceptual frameworks that could improve our understanding of this important aspect of health organizations. To this end, we have identified and taken into consideration: (A) the various definitions proposed in the literature and the various concepts associated with collaboration, and (B) the various theoretical frameworks of collaboration. Our results demonstrate that: (1) the concept of collaboration is commonly defined through five underlying concepts: sharing, partnership, power, interdependency and process; (2) the most complete models of collaboration seem to be those based on a strong theoretical background, either in organizational theory or in organizational sociology and on empirical data; (3) there is a significant amount of diversity in the way the various authors conceptualized collaboration and in the factors influencing collaboration; (4) these frameworks do not establish clear links between the elements in the models and the outputs; and (5) the literature does not provide a serious attempt to determine how patients could be integrated into the health care team, despite the fact that patients are recognized as the ultimate justification for providing collaborative care.

  5. Future Science Teachers' Understandings of Diffusion and Osmosis Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomazic, Iztok; Vidic, Tatjana

    2012-01-01

    The concepts of diffusion and osmosis cross the disciplinary boundaries of physics, chemistry and biology. They are important for understanding how biological systems function. Since future (pre-service) science teachers in Slovenia encounter both concepts at physics, chemistry and biology courses during their studies, we assessed the first-,…

  6. Evaluation of Students' Understanding of Thermal Concepts in Everyday Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Hye-Eun; Treagust, David F.; Yeo, Shelley; Zadnik, Marjan

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the underlying conceptual structure of the thermal concept evaluation (TCE) questionnaire, a pencil-and-paper instrument about everyday contexts of heat, temperature, and heat transfer, to investigate students' conceptual understanding of thermal concepts in everyday contexts across several school years and…

  7. Theoretical Investigations of Plasma-Based Accelerators and Other Advanced Accelerator Concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shuets, G.

    2004-01-01

    Theoretical investigations of plasma-based accelerators and other advanced accelerator concepts. The focus of the work was on the development of plasma based and structure based accelerating concepts, including laser-plasma, plasma channel, and microwave driven plasma accelerators

  8. Understanding the Concept of Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Sudhir; Desgain, Denis DR

    This publication is intended to enable national policy makers and other stakeholders, such as the private sector and technical experts, to acquaint themselves with the concept of NAMA. It aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Action (NAMA) concept...... and enhance the understanding of NAMAs by explaining the underlying decisions of the Conference of the Parties in layman’s terms. The first chapter describes how the concept of NAMA emerged in the context of the negotiations on climate change. The chapter gives an overview of how the concepts of NAMA...

  9. How Do Students Acquire an Understanding of Logarithmic Concepts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulqueeny, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    The use of logarithms, an important tool for calculus and beyond, has been reduced to symbol manipulation without understanding in most entry-level college algebra courses. The primary aim of this research, therefore, was to investigate college students' understanding of logarithmic concepts through the use of a series of instructional tasks…

  10. Understanding concepts of place in recreation research and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linda. E. Kruger; Troy E. Hall; Maria C. Stiefel

    2008-01-01

    Over a 3-day weekend in the spring of 2004 a group of scientists interested in extending understanding of place as applied in recreation research and management convened a working session in Portland, Oregon. The purpose of the gathering was to clarify their understanding of place-related concepts, approaches to the study of people-place relations, and the application...

  11. Undergraduate Mathematics Students' Understanding of the Concept of Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardini, Caroline; Pierce, Robyn; Vincent, Jill; King, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    Concern has been expressed that many commencing undergraduate mathematics students have mastered skills without conceptual understanding. A pilot study carried out at a leading Australian university indicates that a significant number of students, with high tertiary entrance ranks, have very limited understanding of the concept of function,…

  12. Etymology as an Aid to Understanding Chemistry Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, Nittala S.

    2004-01-01

    Learning the connection between the roots and the chemical meaning of terms can improve students' understanding of chemistry concepts, making them easier and more enjoyable to master. The way in which using etymology to understand the meanings and relationships of chemistry terms can aid students in strengthening and expanding their grasp of…

  13. Understanding the biological concept "bird": A kindergarten case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchholz, Dilek

    The purpose of this qualitative, multiple case study of 14 students in a metropolitan public school in the Deep South was to find out, during a period of three months, what these kindergarten-aged children knew about birds, whether this knowledge represented current scientific thought, if such science instruction meaningfully affected their prior knowledge, and if so, what the factors during instruction that seemed to influence their understanding of the concept of bird were. The research was conducted in three phases; preinstruction interviews, instruction, and postinstruction interviews. The theoretical framework for this research was based on the Human Constructivism theory of learning (Mintzes, Wandersee and Novak, 1997). Instructional materials consisted of carefully chosen books (both fiction and non-fiction), guest speakers, field trips, a live bird in the classroom, students' observation journals, teacher-made classification and sorting activities, and picture-based concept maps. The findings suggest that young children's knowledge of birds was limited chiefly to birds' anatomical and morphological characteristics, with repeated references being made by the children to human characteristics. There was a positive, significant difference in young children's pre- and postinstruction scientific knowledge of birds. Although performance varied from child to child after instruction, most children were able to identify some common birds by name. Just one child resisted conceptual change. Kindergarten children's basic knowledge of bird behavior was limited to flight and eating. Although the children had more conceptual knowledge at the end, understanding still appeared to be shallow. The children did develop their skill in observing markedly. It also became evident that these kindergarten children needed more (a) experience in asking questions, (b) practice in techniques of visual representation, and (c) language development in order to be able to explain what they

  14. The Theoretical and Methodological Crisis of the Afrocentric Conception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, W. Curtis

    1992-01-01

    Defines the theory of the Afrocentric conception, and comments on Afrocentric research methodology. The Afrocentric conception is likely to succeed if it constructs a particularist theory in contrast to cross-cultural relativism and because it relies on the methodology of the absolute rather than the comparative. (SLD)

  15. [The concept of "understanding" (Verstehen) in Karl Jaspers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villareal, Helena; Aragona, Massimiliano

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the relationship between empathy and psychopathology. It deals with the concept of "understanding" in Jaspers' General Psychopathology, 100 years after the publication of its first edition. The Jaspersian proposal has the person and his/her experience as its primary object of study, just as in Ortegas' vital reason. Jaspers' understanding is not rational but empathetic, based on the co-presence of emotional content and detailed descriptions. Jaspers' methodology is essentially pluralistic, considering both explanation and understanding, necessary for psychopathology. Despite certain limits, the concept of understanding is the backbone of the psychopathological reasoning, and has proven useful over a century of clinical practice. However, it needs a review covering the recent epistemological and clinical findings. "To be understandable" is a relational property that emerges from a semiotic process. Therefore, an effective psychology should encompass an inter-subjective process, and get away from strict rationalism.

  16. Threshold concepts as barriers to understanding climate science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, P.

    2013-12-01

    Whilst the scientific case for current climate change is compelling, the consequences of climate change have largely failed to permeate through to individuals. This lack of public awareness of the science and the potential impacts could be considered a key obstacle to action. The possible reasons for such limited success centre on the issue that climate change is a complex subject, and that a wide ranging academic, political and social research literature on the science and wider implications of climate change has failed to communicate the key issues in an accessible way. These failures to adequately communicate both the science and the social science of climate change at a number of levels results in ';communication gaps' that act as fundamental barriers to both understanding and engagement with the issue. Meyer and Land (2003) suggest that learners can find certain ideas and concepts within a discipline difficult to understand and these act as a barrier to deeper understanding of a subject. To move beyond these threshold concepts, they suggest that the expert needs to support the learner through a range of learning experiences that allows the development of learning strategies particular to the individual. Meyer and Land's research into these threshold concepts has been situated within Economics, but has been suggested to be more widely applicable though there has been no attempt to either define or evaluate threshold concepts to climate change science. By identifying whether common threshold concepts exist specifically in climate science for cohorts of either formal or informal learners, scientists will be better able to support the public in understanding these concepts by changing how the knowledge is communicated to help overcome these barriers to learning. This paper reports on the findings of a study that examined the role of threshold concepts as barriers to understanding climate science in a UK University and considers its implications for wider

  17. Towards Concept Understanding relying on Conceptualisation in Constructivist Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badie, Farshad

    2017-01-01

    and understandings over their mental structures in the framework of constructivism, and I will clarify my logical [and semantic] conceptions of humans’ concept understandings. This research focuses on philosophy of education and on logics of human learning. It connects with the topics ‘Cognition in Education......, through this constructivism to a pedagogical theory of learning. I will mainly focus on conceptual and epistemological analysis of humans’ conceptualisations based on their own mental objects (schemata). Subsequently, I will propose an analytical specification of humans’ conceptualisations...

  18. [Towards understanding human ecology in nursing practice: a concept analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Truc; Alderson, Marie

    2010-06-01

    Human ecology is an umbrella concept encompassing several social, physical, and cultural elements existing in the individual's external environment. The pragmatic utility method was used to analyze the "human ecology" concept in order to ascertain the conceptual fit with nursing epistemology and to promote its use by nurses in clinical practice. Relevant articles for the review were retrieved from the MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and CSA databases using the terms "human ecology," "environment," "nursing," and "ecology." Data analysis revealed that human ecology is perceived as a theoretical perspective designating a complex, multilayered, and multidimensional system, one that comprises individuals and their reciprocal interactions with their global environments and the subsequent impact of these interactions upon their health. Human ecology preconditions include the individuals, their environments, and their transactions. Attributes of this concept encompass the characteristics of an open system (e.g., interdependence, reciprocal).

  19. Grounded understanding of abstract concepts: The case of STEM learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Justin C; Kraemer, David J M

    2017-01-01

    Characterizing the neural implementation of abstract conceptual representations has long been a contentious topic in cognitive science. At the heart of the debate is whether the "sensorimotor" machinery of the brain plays a central role in representing concepts, or whether the involvement of these perceptual and motor regions is merely peripheral or epiphenomenal. The domain of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) learning provides an important proving ground for sensorimotor (or grounded) theories of cognition, as concepts in science and engineering courses are often taught through laboratory-based and other hands-on methodologies. In this review of the literature, we examine evidence suggesting that sensorimotor processes strengthen learning associated with the abstract concepts central to STEM pedagogy. After considering how contemporary theories have defined abstraction in the context of semantic knowledge, we propose our own explanation for how body-centered information, as computed in sensorimotor brain regions and visuomotor association cortex, can form a useful foundation upon which to build an understanding of abstract scientific concepts, such as mechanical force. Drawing from theories in cognitive neuroscience, we then explore models elucidating the neural mechanisms involved in grounding intangible concepts, including Hebbian learning, predictive coding, and neuronal recycling. Empirical data on STEM learning through hands-on instruction are considered in light of these neural models. We conclude the review by proposing three distinct ways in which the field of cognitive neuroscience can contribute to STEM learning by bolstering our understanding of how the brain instantiates abstract concepts in an embodied fashion.

  20. Understanding the concept of nationally appropriate mitigation action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, S.; Desgain, D.

    2013-05-15

    This publication is intended to enable national policy makers and other stakeholders, such as the private sector and technical experts, to acquaint themselves with the concept of NAMA. It aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Action (NAMA) concept and enhance the understanding of NAMAs by explaining the underlying decisions of the Conference of the Parties in layman's terms. The first chapter describes how the concept of NAMA emerged in the context of the negotiations on climate change. The chapter gives an overview of how the concepts of NAMA and related MRV and financing issues have evolved through the different COPs. The second chapter clarifies the understanding of NAMAs in the context of the global temperature goal, and moves on to discuss the legal nature and scope of NAMAs. The chapter subsequently analyses the diversity of NAMAs submitted by developing countries to the UNFCCC, and ends by proposing a structure for formal submission of a NAMA. The third chapter specifically addresses the concept of measurement, reporting and verification (MRV), and describes the implications for countries implementing the MRV requirements. The last chapter discusses institutional arrangements, under the Convention, for providing financing to develop and implement NAMAs. The chapter also briefly discusses the different financial sources for implementing NAMAs, and concludes by explaining the concept of incremental cost in this specific context. (Author)

  1. SOCIOLOGICAL UNDERSTANDING OF INTERNET: THEORETICAL APPROACHES TO THE NETWORK ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. E. Dobrinskaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The network is an efficient way of social structure analysis for contemporary sociologists. It gives broad opportunities for detailed and fruitful research of different patterns of ties and social relations by quantitative analytical methods and visualization of network models. The network metaphor is used as the most representative tool for description of a new type of society. This new type is characterized by flexibility, decentralization and individualization. Network organizational form became the dominant form in modern societies. The network is also used as a mode of inquiry. Actually three theoretical network approaches in the Internet research case are the most relevant: social network analysis, “network society” theory and actor-network theory. Every theoretical approach has got its own notion of network. Their special methodological and theoretical features contribute to the Internet studies in different ways. The article represents a brief overview of these network approaches. This overview demonstrates the absence of a unified semantic space of the notion of “network” category. This fact, in turn, points out the need for detailed analysis of these approaches to reveal their theoretical and empirical possibilities in application to the Internet studies. 

  2. A Theoretical Framework towards Understanding of Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulou, Maria S.

    2014-01-01

    Children's emotional and behavioural difficulties are the result of multiple individual, social and contextual factors working in concert. The current paper proposes a theoretical framework to interpret students' emotional and behavioural difficulties in schools, by taking into consideration teacher-student relationships, students'…

  3. Investigating High School Students' Understanding of Chemical Equilibrium Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpudewan, Mageswary; Treagust, David F.; Mocerino, Mauro; Won, Mihye; Chandrasegaran, A. L.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the year 12 students' (N = 56) understanding of chemical equilibrium concepts after instruction using two conceptual tests, the "Chemical Equilibrium Conceptual Test 1" ("CECT-1") consisting of nine two-tier multiple-choice items and the "Chemical Equilibrium Conceptual Test 2"…

  4. Improving students’ understanding of mathematical concept using maple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ningsih, Y. L.; Paradesa, R.

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to improve students’ understanding of mathematical concept ability through implementation of using Maple in learning and expository learning. This study used a quasi-experimental research with pretest-posttest control group design. The sample on this study was 61 students in the second semester of Mathematics Education of Universitas PGRI Palembang, South Sumatera in academic year 2016/2017. The sample was divided into two classes, one class as the experiment class who using Maple in learning and the other class as a control class who received expository learning. Data were collective through the test of mathematical initial ability and mathematical concept understanding ability. Data were analyzed by t-test and two ways ANOVA. The results of this study showed (1) the improvement of students’ mathematical concept understanding ability who using Maple in learning is better than those who using expository learning; (2) there is no interaction between learning model and students’ mathematical initial ability toward the improvement of students’ understanding of mathematical concept ability.

  5. Alienation: A Concept for Understanding Low-Income, Urban Clients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcomb-McCoy, Cheryl

    2004-01-01

    The author examines the concept of alienation and how it can be used to understand low-income, urban clients. A description is presented of 4 dimensions of alienation: powerlessness, meaninglessness, normlessness, and social isolation. Case illustrations are provided, and recommendations are made for counseling alienated clients. This article…

  6. Efficiency of working memory: Theoretical concept and practical application

    OpenAIRE

    Lalović Dejan

    2008-01-01

    Efficiency of working memory is the concept which connects psychology of memory with different fields of cognitive, differential and applied psychology. In this paper, the history of interest for the assessment of the capacity of short-term memory is presented in brief, as well as the different methods used nowadays to assess the individual differences in the efficiency of working memory. What follows is the consideration of studies that indicate the existence of significant links between the...

  7. Emergence, concept, and understanding of Pan-River-Basin (PRB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Liu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the concept of Pan-River-Basin (PRB for water resource management is proposed with a discussion on the emergence, concept, and application of PRB. The formation and application of PRB is also discussed, including perspectives on the river contribution rates, harmonious levels of watershed systems, and water resource availability in PRB system. Understanding PRB is helpful for reconsidering river development and categorizing river studies by the influences from human projects. The sustainable development of water resources and the harmonization between humans and rivers also requires PRB.

  8. Theoretical concepts of personal self and the reconstructive psychotherapy problematics in clinical psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ksenia Serhiyvna Maximenko

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a survey on the problem of theoretical conceptions of the “Self” and specific features applying a reconstructive therapy to Clinical Psychology. A dynamics of self-understanding of a patient and self-destructing influence of different diseases are being traced beginning from the works by W.James and up to the modern researches. The aims and targets of therapeutical and psychocorrectional work depending on the primary, secondary etc. personality features are defined more precisely concerning their dependence on the primary, secondary etc. personality features of a patient or on the nozological and etiological roots of the sufferance. Several groups of factors essential for a psychological therapy are being analyzed.

  9. SOCIOLOGICAL UNDERSTANDING OF INTERNET: THEORETICAL APPROACHES TO THE NETWORK ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. E. Dobrinskaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Internet studies are carried out by various scientific disciplines and in different research perspectives. Sociological studies of the Internet deal with a new technology, a revolutionary means of mass communication and a social space. There is a set of research difficulties associated with the Internet. Firstly, the high speed and wide spread of Internet technologies’ development. Secondly, the collection and filtration of materials concerning with Internet studies. Lastly, the development of new conceptual categories, which are able to reflect the impact of the Internet development in contemporary world. In that regard the question of the “network” category use is essential. Network is the base of Internet functioning, on the one hand. On the other hand, network is the ground for almost all social interactions in modern society. So such society is called network society. Three theoretical network approaches in the Internet research case are the most relevant: network society theory, social network analysis and actor-network theory. Each of these theoretical approaches contributes to the study of the Internet. They shape various images of interactions between human beings in their entity and dynamics. All these approaches also provide information about the nature of these interactions. 

  10. Public understanding of hydrogen energy: A theoretical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherry-Brennan, Fionnguala; Devine-Wright, Hannah; Devine-Wright, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to investigate public understanding of hydrogen energy using a particular social-psychological theory, namely, the theory of social representations to explore how processes of understanding generated lay knowledge of hydrogen energy. Using a free association method for data collection and multidimensional scaling for analysis, the results enabled the identification of themes in the data such as energy, environment, community, science, and technology, and people and place, around which understanding was based. Processes of representation, such as anchoring to pre-existing knowledge, were seen as essential in guiding understanding. The results indicated that there were diverse influences involved in understanding and, although risk perception of hydrogen was acknowledged, community concerns were seen to override any negative effect of focussing on risk. The role of emotion in decision-making was highlighted as positive emotional responses to the Promoting Unst's Renewable Energy (PURE), a local hydrogen storage project, resulted in hydrogen energy generally being positively evaluated despite acknowledged risks posed by hydrogen such as its explosiveness and flammability. Recommendations for policy include recognising that the combination of expert and lay knowledge plays an important role in public acceptance or rejection of hydrogen energy.

  11. Public understanding of hydrogen energy. A theoretical approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherry-Brennan, Fionnguala; Devine-Wright, Hannah; Devine-Wright, Patrick [Manchester Architecture Research Centre (MARC), University of Manchester, Humanities Bridgeford Street, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2010-10-15

    The aim of this paper was to investigate public understanding of hydrogen energy using a particular social-psychological theory, namely, the theory of social representations to explore how processes of understanding generated lay knowledge of hydrogen energy. Using a free association method for data collection and multidimensional scaling for analysis, the results enabled the identification of themes in the data such as energy, environment, community, science, and technology, and people and place, around which understanding was based. Processes of representation, such as anchoring to pre-existing knowledge, were seen as essential in guiding understanding. The results indicated that there were diverse influences involved in understanding and, although risk perception of hydrogen was acknowledged, community concerns were seen to override any negative effect of focussing on risk. The role of emotion in decision-making was highlighted as positive emotional responses to the Promoting Unst's Renewable Energy (PURE), a local hydrogen storage project, resulted in hydrogen energy generally being positively evaluated despite acknowledged risks posed by hydrogen such as its explosiveness and flammability. Recommendations for policy include recognising that the combination of expert and lay knowledge plays an important role in public acceptance or rejection of hydrogen energy. (author)

  12. Public understanding of hydrogen energy: A theoretical approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherry-Brennan, Fionnguala, E-mail: fionnguala@manchester.ac.u [Manchester Architecture Research Centre (MARC), University of Manchester, Humanities Bridgeford Street, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Devine-Wright, Hannah; Devine-Wright, Patrick [Manchester Architecture Research Centre (MARC), University of Manchester, Humanities Bridgeford Street, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2010-10-15

    The aim of this paper was to investigate public understanding of hydrogen energy using a particular social-psychological theory, namely, the theory of social representations to explore how processes of understanding generated lay knowledge of hydrogen energy. Using a free association method for data collection and multidimensional scaling for analysis, the results enabled the identification of themes in the data such as energy, environment, community, science, and technology, and people and place, around which understanding was based. Processes of representation, such as anchoring to pre-existing knowledge, were seen as essential in guiding understanding. The results indicated that there were diverse influences involved in understanding and, although risk perception of hydrogen was acknowledged, community concerns were seen to override any negative effect of focussing on risk. The role of emotion in decision-making was highlighted as positive emotional responses to the Promoting Unst's Renewable Energy (PURE), a local hydrogen storage project, resulted in hydrogen energy generally being positively evaluated despite acknowledged risks posed by hydrogen such as its explosiveness and flammability. Recommendations for policy include recognising that the combination of expert and lay knowledge plays an important role in public acceptance or rejection of hydrogen energy.

  13. The Concept of Embodied Knowledge for Understanding Organisational Knowledge Creation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsudaira, Yoshito; Fujinami, Tsutomu

    Our goal in this paper is to understand, in the light of intuition and emotion, the problem-finding and value judgments by organisational members that are part of organisational knowledge creation. In doing so, we emphasise the importance of embodied knowledge of organisations as an explanatory concept. We propose ways of approaching intuition and sense of value as these are posited as objects of research. Approaches from the first, second, and third-person viewpoints result in a deeper grasp of embodied knowledge of organisations. Important in organisational knowledge creation is embodied knowledge of organisations, which has a bearing on problem-finding before any problem-solving or decision making takes place, and on value judgments about the importance of problems that have been found. This article proposes the concept of embodied knowledge, and, by introducing it, gives a profound understanding of that facet of organisational knowledge creation characterised by tacit knowledge held by organisational individuals.

  14. Efficiency of working memory: Theoretical concept and practical application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalović Dejan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficiency of working memory is the concept which connects psychology of memory with different fields of cognitive, differential and applied psychology. In this paper, the history of interest for the assessment of the capacity of short-term memory is presented in brief, as well as the different methods used nowadays to assess the individual differences in the efficiency of working memory. What follows is the consideration of studies that indicate the existence of significant links between the efficiency of working memory and general intelligence, the ability of reasoning, personality variables, as well as some socio-psychological phenomena. Special emphasis is placed on the links between the efficiency of working memory and certain aspects of pedagogical practice: acquiring the skill of reading, learning arithmetic and shedding light on the cause of general failure in learning at school. What is also provided are the suggestions that, in the light of knowledge about the development and limitations of working memory at school age, can be useful for teaching practice.

  15. THEORETICAL AND METHODOLOGICAL CONCEPTS OF PHILOLOGICAL EDUCATION IN THE USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Bidyuk

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical and methodical foundations of higher philological education in the USA have been considered. Modern trends in the development of philology as a scientific field and a direction of professional training in the USA have been found out. Sociocultural peculiarities of philological education in the USA have been revealed. The essence of transformation processes in the philologists’ training at present time has been considered. They are: diversity and flexibility of educational programs; close relationship of higher education and linguistic communities; «major-minor» specialization; using of innovative forms and methods; reducing stress and increasing classroom time for independent students’ work; providing free access to education; improving elective education system; academic students’ mobility; implementing of «expert systems» into the quality of educational outcomes; creating conditions for ethnic minorities education. The transformation of the philological education system at conceptual, legal and normative, organizational and pedagogical, content-based, institutional and sociocultural levels has been analyzed. It has been found out that the content of the training provides for the integration of social and humanitarian, linguistic, literature-based, translational components of learning outcomes directed at forming a competent philologist-researcher, philologist-translator/interpreter, philologist-literary scholar, thus a highly moral, cultured personality. Key competencies of a philologist (linguistic, literature-based, translational, cross-cultural, information, research have been singled out and characterized. Special attention has been paid to the problem of providing quality philological education; in particular, the criteria and their indicators have been singled out. Perspectives for further researches on the problem of philological education in the USA have been outlined.

  16. Theoretical concepts of X-ray nanoscale analysis theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Benediktovitch, Andrei; Ulyanenkov, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a concise survey of modern theoretical concepts of X-ray materials analysis. The principle features of the book are: basics of X-ray scattering, interaction between X-rays and matter and new theoretical concepts of X-ray scattering. The various X-ray techniques are considered in detail: high-resolution X-ray diffraction, X-ray reflectivity, grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering and X-ray residual stress analysis. All the theoretical methods presented use the unified physical approach. This makes the book especially useful for readers learning and performing data ana

  17. A NETWORK-THEORETICAL APPROACH TO UNDERSTANDING INTERSTELLAR CHEMISTRY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jolley, Craig C.; Douglas, Trevor

    2010-01-01

    Recent years have seen dramatic advances in computational models of chemical processes in the interstellar medium (ISM). Typically, these models have been used to calculate changes in chemical abundances with time; the calculated abundances can then be compared with chemical abundances derived from observations. In this study, the output from an astrochemical simulation has been used to generate directed graphs with weighted edges; these have been analyzed with the tools of network theory to uncover whole-network properties of reaction systems in dark molecular clouds. The results allow the development of a model in which global network properties can be rationalized in terms of the basic physical properties of the reaction system. The ISM network exhibits an exponential degree distribution, which is likely to be a generic feature of chemical networks involving a broad range of reaction rate constants. While species abundances span several orders of magnitude, the formation and destruction rates for most species are approximately balanced-departures from this rule indicate species (such as CO) that play a critical role in shaping the dynamics of the system. Future theoretical or observational studies focusing on individual molecular species will be able to situate them in terms of their role in the complete system or quantify the degree to which they deviate from the typical system behavior.

  18. Photoelectric effect experiment for understanding the concept of quantization of radiation energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeimy Gerardine Berrios Saavedra

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study forms part of research on the teaching of physics. The question that directed it was: How a proposed classroom, based on the photoelectric effect experiment helps pres-service teachers of physics of the Universidad Pedagógica Nacional to expand their understanding of the concept of quantization energy of radiation? The construction of the theoretical framework developed on the one hand, with scientific ideas about the quantization of energy, and moreover, with the educational proposals of teaching for understanding. This pedagogical approach was guided by the investigative gaze of the study methodology based on design, taking as main element the use of learning tools such as the task to Predict, Experiment and Explain (PEE. It was found that these tasks fomented the initial understandings of students about the concept, while they enriched and transformed progressively their models and scientific ideas, promoting aspects of scientific work in developing curiosity, imagination and motivation.

  19. Prospecting theoretical approaches to understand internationalization of creative economy firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvio Luís de Vasconcellos

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We argue that the internationalization process of firms in the creative economy has particular aspects that distinguish it from internationalization of firms in traditional economic sectors. We explore ways in which the international business literature might be helpful for understanding how internationalization takes place in firms whose core business is creation of ideas. We conducted a case study using a focus group technique to investigate a creative economy firm specialized in computer graphics. The firm already does business internationally as a producer of electronic mockup models, but is transitioning to the computer-generated video production industry. Our results suggest that behavioral approaches to international business related to entrepreneurship, as well as country origin effects and networks theory could be useful to expanding knowledge about the internationalization process in such firms, in which creativity is a critical resource.

  20. Understanding of Earth and Space Science Concepts: Strategies for Concept-Building in Elementary Teacher Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulunuz, Nermin; Jarrett, Olga S.

    2009-01-01

    This research is concerned with preservice teacher understanding of six earth and space science concepts that are often taught in elementary school: the reason for seasons, phases of the moon, why the wind blows, the rock cycle, soil formation, and earthquakes. Specifically, this study examines the effect of readings, hands-on learning stations,…

  1. Financial Understanding: A Phenomenographic Access to Students’ Concepts of Credits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Speer

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Financial education has become a more popular part of general education in schools. Different social and economic backgrounds as well as experiences influence the students’ conceptualization of the same financial phenomenon. Therefore, phenomenography is an appropriate research strategy for investigating students’ deeper understanding of financial core concepts. Our research concentrates on ‘credit’ as a central phenomenon. Thirteen focus groups made up of secondary school students and university students in Germany discussed varying examples of taking out a loan. Systematizing students’ conceptualizations, the outcome space consists of four main categories: attitudes, needs, credit terms and calculation. On a deeper level we found further subcategories. The results of our explorative study can guide a chronology of teaching different concepts as well as further research.

  2. Using the BERT concept to promote public understanding of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, Kwan-Hoong; Cameron, J.R.

    2001-01-01

    Radiation phobia can be greatly decreased if the simple BERT (Background Equivalent Radiation Time) concept is used to explain the dose to all diagnostic radiology patients. It converts the radiation dose to an equivalent period of natural background radiation. It is understandable, it does not mention risk, and it educates the patient that human-made radiation is the same as the background radiation which gives them most of their annual dose. Medical physicists should provide each clinical x-ray unit with a table that gives the BERT value for various procedures and patient sizes and educate the radiologists and radiographers how to use the BERT approach for relieving radiation anxiety. (author)

  3. Mining Concept Maps to Understand University Students' Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jin Soung; Cho, Moon-Heum

    2012-01-01

    Concept maps, visual representations of knowledge, are used in an educational context as a way to represent students' knowledge, and identify mental models of students; however there is a limitation of using concept mapping due to its difficulty to evaluate the concept maps. A concept map has a complex structure which is composed of concepts and…

  4. The Contribution of Conceptual Change Texts Accompanied by Concept Mapping to Eleventh-Grade Students Understanding of Cellular Respiration Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al khawaldeh, Salem A.; Al Olaimat, Ali M.

    2010-01-01

    The present study conducted to investigate the contribution of conceptual change texts, accompanied by concept mapping instruction to eleventh-grade students' understanding of cellular respiration concepts, and their retention of this understanding. Cellular respiration concepts test was developed as a result of examination of related literature…

  5. Cryogenic treatment of steel: from concept to metallurgical understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villa, Matteo; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2017-01-01

    , the metallurgical understanding of the microstructural changes involved in cryogenic treatment of steel has remained poor. It is believed that the improvement in wear resistance is promoted by an enhanced precipitation of carbides during tempering, but no explanation has been given as to how this enhanced......Subjecting steel to cryogenic treatment to improve its properties was conceived in the 30ies of the previous century. The proof of concept that properties, in particular wear resistance, can indeed be improved importantly, was reported in the next decades. Despite many investigations...... precipitation can be obtained. In the last six years, the authors have applied in situ magnetometry, synchrotron X-Ray Diffraction and dilatometry to enlighten the phase transitions occurring in steels at cryogenic temperatures and to point out the connection between different treatment parameters...

  6. UNDERSTANDING AND APPLICABILITY OF THE FOREST SOIL CONCEPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Moreira Rovedder

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509810563The forestry sector plays an important role in the socioeconomic and environmental Brazilian context, therefore the improvement of the knowledge about forest soil becomes essential for its sustainable use as a conservation base of natural heritage as resource for economical development. Forest soil can be characterized by pedogenesis occurred under influence of a forestry typology or under a currently natural or cultivated forest coverage. Differentiating forest soils from those occupied with other uses helps the understanding of possible alterations related to vegetal coverage and the developing of better management strategies to soil and forest use. Nevertheless, there is no consensus about this term because the soils present variations according to the forest characteristics, stimulating the discussion concerning its interpretation and applicability. This review aimed to analyze the utilization of forest soil concept, highlighting the differentiation characteristics and the relation with coverage type, natural or cultivated. Aspects related to deposition, quality and management of residues, nutrients cycling, soil compaction and site productivity are emphasized. The forest soil concept is widely used by specific literature and useful to collect specific information and to plan the sustainable use of soil and forest. The improvement of knowledge about these resources provides the creation of a common identity, supporting comparative studies and consolidating the research regarding to this theme.

  7. On the definition of a theoretical concept of an operating system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2010-01-01

    We dwell on how a definition of a theoretical concept of an operating system, suitable to be incorporated in a mathematical theory of operating systems, could look like. This is considered a valuable preparation for the development of a mathematical theory of operating systems.

  8. Physics in one dimension: theoretical concepts for quantum many-body systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönhammer, K

    2013-01-09

    Various sophisticated approximation methods exist for the description of quantum many-body systems. It was realized early on that the theoretical description can simplify considerably in one-dimensional systems and various exact solutions exist. The focus in this introductory paper is on fermionic systems and the emergence of the Luttinger liquid concept.

  9. The Contemporary Mass Media Education in Russia: In Search for New Theoretical Conceptions and Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Media education in Russia in general has still not moved from the theoretical conceptions and local experiments to the wide practical implementation. It is necessary to consolidate pedagogical institutions of higher education, universities, faculties of journalism, experimenters in media education and also the media community, coordination of the…

  10. The self-schema model: a theoretical approach to the self-concept in eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, K F

    1996-04-01

    Over the last several decades, the self-concept has been implicated as a important determinant of eating disorders (ED). Although considerable progress has been made, questions remain unanswered about the properties of self-concept that distinguish women with an ED from other populations, and mechanisms that link the self-concept to the disordered behaviors. Markus's self-schema model is presented as a theoretical approach to explore the role of the self-concept in ED. To show how the schema model can be integrated with existing work on the self-concept in ED, a framework is proposed that addresses the number, content, and accessibility of the self-schemas. More specifically, it is posited that a limited collection of positive self-schemas available in memory, in combination with a chronically and inflexibly accessible body-weight self-schema, lead to the disordered behaviors associated with anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa.

  11. Some Observations on the Concepts of Information-Theoretic Entropy and Randomness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan D.H. Smith

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Certain aspects of the history, derivation, and physical application of the information-theoretic entropy concept are discussed. Pre-dating Shannon, the concept is traced back to Pauli. A derivation from first principles is given, without use of approximations. The concept depends on the underlying degree of randomness. In physical applications, this translates to dependence on the experimental apparatus available. An example illustrates how this dependence affects Prigogine's proposal for the use of the Second Law of Thermodynamics as a selection principle for the breaking of time symmetry. The dependence also serves to yield a resolution of the so-called ``Gibbs Paradox.'' Extension of the concept from the discrete to the continuous case is discussed. The usual extension is shown to be dimensionally incorrect. Correction introduces a reference density, leading to the concept of Kullback entropy. Practical relativistic considerations suggest a possible proper reference density.

  12. Bulgarian ethnos according to A.Kh. Khalikov’ works: scientific concept and its theoretical bases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izmaylov Iskander L.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problems of Bulgar and Tatar ethnogenesis studied in the works of the prominent Kazan archaeologist A.Kh. Khalikov. His concept was based on the fact that a number of ethnic groups (Turkic, Finno-Ugric, and East Slavic participated in the formation of these peoples and that the key role in these processes was played by their mutual cultural influence. The concept of ethnogenesis and ethnic history of the Tatar people offered by A.Kh. Khalikov was a serious theoretical breakthrough against the background of both ideology-biased historical schemes of the Soviet era and the various nationalist ideas, differing from them by a comprehensive, integral scientific analysis of predominantly archaeological data. At present, however, when theoretical and factual bases of historical and ethnological research have considerably expanded, a number of conflicting issues have arisen in the framework of this concept, which, therefore, require new approaches to their solution.

  13. A theoretical concept for a thermal-hydraulic 3D parallel channel core model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeld, A.

    2004-01-01

    A detailed description of the theoretical concept of the 3D thermal-hydraulic single- and two-phase flow phenomena is presented. The theoretical concept is based on important development lines such as separate treatment of the mass and energy from the momentum balance eqs. The other line is the establishment of a procedure for the calculation of the mass flow distributions into different parallel channels based on the fact that the sum of pressure decrease terms over a closed loop must stay, despite of un-symmetric perturbations, zero. The concept is realized in the experimental code HERO-X3D, concentrating in a first step on an artificial BWR or PWR core which may consist of a central channel, four quadrants, and a bypass channel. (authors)

  14. First-Year Biology Students' Understandings of Meiosis: An Investigation Using a Structural Theoretical Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Frances; Pegg, John; Panizzon, Debra

    2009-01-01

    Meiosis is a biological concept that is both complex and important for students to learn. This study aims to explore first-year biology students' explanations of the process of meiosis, using an explicit theoretical framework provided by the Structure of the Observed Learning Outcome (SOLO) model. The research was based on responses of 334…

  15. Bringing norms back in: A theoretical and empirical discussion of their importance for understanding demographic behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liefbroer, A.C.; Billari, F.C.

    2010-01-01

    Although the life-course perspective emphasizes the importance of the concept of social norms for understanding demographic choices, the usefulness of this concept is heavily debated. In particular, it has been questioned whether social norms are still important in post-modern societies, and whether

  16. Children's understanding of area concepts: development, curriculum and educational achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Trevor G; Parkinson, Kellie

    2010-01-01

    As one part of a series of studies undertaken to investigate the contribution of developmental attributes of learners to school learning, a representative sample of forty-two students (age from 5 years and 3 months to 13 years and 1 month) was randomly selected from a total student population of 142 students at a small private primary school in northern Australia. Those children's understandings of area concepts taught during the primary school years were assessed by their performance in two testing situations. The first consisted of a written classroom test of ability to solve area problems with items drawn directly from school texts, school examinations and other relevant curriculum documents. The second, which focused more directly on each child's cognitive development, was an individual interview for each child in which four "area" tasks such as the Meadows and Farmhouse Experiment taken from Chapter 11 of The Child's Conception of Geometry (Piaget, Inhelder and Szeminska, 1960, pp. 261-301) were administered. Analysis using the Rasch Partial Credit Model provided a finely detailed quantitative description of the developmental and learning progressions revealed in the data. It is evident that the school mathematics curriculum does not satisfactorily match the learner's developmental sequence at some key points. Moreover, the children's ability to conserve area on the Piagetian tasks, rather than other learner characteristics, such as age and school grade seems to be a precursor for complete success on the mathematical test of area. The discussion focuses on the assessment of developmental (and other) characteristics of school-aged learners and suggests how curriculum and school organization might better capitalize on such information in the design and sequencing of learning experiences for school children. Some features unique to the Rasch family of measurement models are held to have special significance in elucidating the development/attainment nexus.

  17. Understanding and Applying the Concept of Value Creation in Radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, David B; Durand, Daniel J; Siegal, Daniel S

    2017-04-01

    The concept of value in radiology has been strongly advocated in recent years as a means of advancing patient care and decreasing waste. This article explores the concept of value creation in radiology and offers a framework for how radiology practices can create value according to the needs of their referring clinicians. Value only exists in the eyes of a customer. We propose that the primary purpose of diagnostic radiology is to answer clinical questions using medical imaging to help guide management of patient care. Because they are the direct recipient of this service, we propose that referring clinicians are the direct customers of a radiology practice and patients are indirect customers. Radiology practices create value as they understand and fulfill their referring clinicians' needs. To narrow those needs to actionable categories, we propose a framework consisting of four major dimensions: (1) how quickly the clinical question needs to be answered, (2) the degree of specialization required to answer the question, (3) how often the referring clinician uses imaging, and (4) the breadth of imaging that the referring clinician uses. We further identify three major settings in which referring clinicians utilize radiological services: (1) emergent or urgent care, (2) primary care, and (3) specialty care. Practices best meet these needs as they engage with their referring clinicians, create a shared vision, work together as a cohesive team, structure the organization to meet referring clinicians' needs, build the tools, and continually improve in ways that help referring clinicians care for patients. Copyright © 2016 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Concept Mapping as a Tool to Develop and Measure Students' Understanding in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Sema; Erdimez, Omer; Zimmerman, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Concept maps measured a student's understanding of the complexity of concepts, and interrelationships. Novak and Gowin (1984) claimed that the continuous use of concept maps increased the complexity and interconnectedness of students' understanding of relationships between concepts in a particular science domain. This study has two purposes; the…

  19. A theoretical and empirical review of the death-thought accessibility concept in terror management research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Joseph; Schimel, Jeff; Arndt, Jamie; Faucher, Erik H

    2010-09-01

    Terror management theory (TMT) highlights the motivational impact of thoughts of death in various aspects of everyday life. Since its inception in 1986, research on TMT has undergone a slight but significant shift from an almost exclusive focus on the manipulation of thoughts of death to a marked increase in studies that measure the accessibility of death-related cognition. Indeed, the number of death-thought accessibility (DTA) studies in the published literature has grown substantially in recent years. In light of this increasing reliance on the DTA concept, the present article is meant to provide a comprehensive theoretical and empirical review of the literature employing this concept. After discussing the roots of DTA, the authors outline the theoretical refinements to TMT that have accompanied significant research findings associated with the DTA concept. Four distinct categories (mortality salience, death association, anxiety-buffer threat, and dispositional) are derived to organize the reviewed DTA studies, and the theoretical implications of each category are discussed. Finally, a number of lingering empirical and theoretical issues in the DTA literature are discussed with the aim of stimulating and focusing future research on DTA specifically and TMT in general.

  20. Central gender theoretical concepts in health research: the state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarström, Anne; Johansson, Klara; Annandale, Ellen; Ahlgren, Christina; Aléx, Lena; Christianson, Monica; Elwér, Sofia; Eriksson, Carola; Fjellman-Wiklund, Anncristine; Gilenstam, Kajsa; Gustafsson, Per E; Harryson, Lisa; Lehti, Arja; Stenberg, Gunilla; Verdonk, Petra

    2014-02-01

    Despite increasing awareness of the importance of gender perspectives in health science, there is conceptual confusion regarding the meaning and the use of central gender theoretical concepts. We argue that it is essential to clarify how central concepts are used within gender theory and how to apply them to health research. We identify six gender theoretical concepts as central and interlinked-but problematic and ambiguous in health science: sex, gender, intersectionality, embodiment, gender equity and gender equality. Our recommendations are that: the concepts sex and gender can benefit from a gender relational theoretical approach (i.e., a focus on social processes and structures) but with additional attention to the interrelations between sex and gender; intersectionality should go beyond additive analyses to study complex intersections between the major factors which potentially influence health and ensure that gendered power relations and social context are included; we need to be aware of the various meanings given to embodiment, which achieve an integration of gender and health and attend to different levels of analyses to varying degrees; and appreciate that gender equality concerns absence of discrimination between women and men while gender equity focuses on women's and men's health needs, whether similar or different. We conclude that there is a constant need to justify and clarify our use of these concepts in order to advance gender theoretical development. Our analysis is an invitation for dialogue but also a call to make more effective use of the knowledge base which has already developed among gender theorists in health sciences in the manner proposed in this paper.

  1. Children's conceptions of physical events: explicit and tacit understanding of horizontal motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Christine; Taylor Tavares, Joana; Devine, Amy

    2014-06-01

    The conceptual understanding that children display when predicting physical events has been shown to be inferior to the understanding they display when recognizing whether events proceed naturally. This has often been attributed to differences between the explicit engagement with conceptual knowledge required for prediction and the tacit engagement that suffices for recognition, and contrasting theories have been formulated to characterize the differences. Focusing on a theory that emphasizes omission at the explicit level of conceptual elements that are tacitly understood, the paper reports two studies that attempt clarification. The studies are concerned with 6- to 10-year-old children's understanding of, respectively, the direction (141 children) and speed (132 children) of motion in a horizontal direction. Using computer-presented billiards scenarios, the children predicted how balls would move (prediction task) and judged whether or not simulated motion was correct (recognition task). Results indicate that the conceptions underpinning prediction are sometimes interpretable as partial versions of the conceptions underpinning recognition, as the omission hypothesis would imply. However, there are also qualitative differences, which suggest partial dissociation between explicit and tacit understanding. It is suggested that a theoretical perspective that acknowledges this dissociation would provide the optimal framework for future research. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  2. Value-based management: Theoretical base, shareholders' request and the concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaličanin Đorđe M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The pressure of financial markets, which is a consequence of shareholder revolution, directly affects the solution to the following dilemma: is the mission of corporations to maximize shareholders' wealth or to satisfy interests of other stakeholders? The domination of shareholder theory has caused the appearance of the valuebased management concept. Value-based management is a relevant concept and a process of management in modern environment. The importance of shareholder value requires transformation of traditional enterprise into value driven enterprise. This paper addresses theoretical base, shareholder revolution and the main characteristics of value-based management.

  3. The value chain of a commune as an attempt to integrate various theoretical concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dziemianowicz Wojciech

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the topic of the local development factors within the value chain of the commune (gmina. The concept of the value chain examines development factors in three groups: the leader, the internal environment and the external environment; it also takes into account the time factor. This article also presents the usefulness of three theoretical and conceptual approaches in reference to the idea of the value chain: the theory of development path dependency, the network theory, and the concept of smart specializations.

  4. The value chain of a commune as an attempt to integrate various theoretical concepts

    OpenAIRE

    Dziemianowicz Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    This article deals with the topic of the local development factors within the value chain of the commune (gmina). The concept of the value chain examines development factors in three groups: the leader, the internal environment and the external environment; it also takes into account the time factor. This article also presents the usefulness of three theoretical and conceptual approaches in reference to the idea of the value chain: the theory of development path dependency, the network theory...

  5. Masculinity and Intellectual Disability: A Review of Theoretical Concepts and Research

    OpenAIRE

    Ćwirynkało, Katarzyna; Borowska-Beszta, Beata; Bartnikowska, Urszula

    2016-01-01

    According to Morgan (1981)there are various theoretical paradigms of masculinity. Author believes that most of the social sciences concepts is about men, however, research on masculinity itself is relatively new. A similar situation exists in the areas of conceptualizing masculinity and intellectual disability. The intersection of masculinity and disability is an underexplored focus of research and it is essential to redress the gap (Wilson et al., 2013). The following paper is an overview of...

  6. Understanding students' concepts through guided inquiry learning and free modified inquiry on static fluid material

    OpenAIRE

    Sularso Sularso; Widha Sunarno; Sarwanto Sarwanto

    2017-01-01

    This study provides information on understanding students' concepts in guided inquiry learning groups and in free modified inquiry learning groups. Understanding of student concept is reviewed on the concept of static fluid case. The number of samples tested were 67 students. The sample is divided into 2 groups of students: the group is given guided inquiry learning and the group given the modified free inquiry learning. Understanding the concept of students is measured through 23 tests of it...

  7. Prospective Mathematics Teachers' Understanding of the Base Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horzum, Tugba; Ertekin, Erhan

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze what kind of conceptions prospective mathematics teachers (PMTs) have about the base concept (BC). One-hundred and thirty-nine PMTs participated in the study. In this qualitative research, data were obtained through open-ended questions, the semi-structured interviews and pictures of geometric figures drawn…

  8. Organizational commitment and work engagement – Theoretical conceptions and terminological problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariola Łaguna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Engagement in professional activities and positive attitudes towards an organization are of significant importance to functioning and health of employees. Studies analysing the phenomena of employees’ engagement and their relations with an organization undergo a dynamic development in both international and Polish research. Two theoretical conceptions: organizational commitment (by Meyer and Allen and work engagement (by Schaufeli and Bakker have become prominent in the field. They capture 2 similar, albeit distinct constructs. In English-language journals academics concentrate on theoretical and empirical analyses of similarities and differences between the 2 concepts, while in Polish publications scholars also have to deal with the issue of the original term translation. The problem lies mostly in Polish nomenclature of the dimensions proposed in both of these conceptions. Lack of common translations for different studies may cause confusion in this area of research. In the paper we present a review of Polish translations of terms used in the discussed conceptions. We also present a linguistic analysis of terms, both in English and in Polish. We provide solutions which could help to clarify terminology in Polish-language publications concerning organizational commitment and work engagement. This allows for further development of research in this field. Med Pr 2015;66(2:277–284

  9. Utilizing the Theoretical Framework of Collective Identity to Understand Processes in Youth Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futch, Valerie A.

    2016-01-01

    This article explores collective identity as a useful theoretical framework for understanding social and developmental processes that occur in youth programs. Through narrative analysis of past participant interviews (n = 21) from an after-school theater program, known as "The SOURCE", it was found that participants very clearly describe…

  10. The home concept in poetic texts: new ways of understanding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    С А Радзиевская

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the analysis of the HOME concept in American poetic texts and on the description of the model of its content. Linguocognitive mechanisms of the formation of the images of home are revealed.

  11. Peeling the Onion: Student Teacher's Conceptions of Literary Understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Maj Asplund; Fulop, Marta; Marton, Ference

    2001-01-01

    Studied the theories student teachers held about literary understanding through interviews with 25 Hungarian and 8 Swedish student teachers. Categories of theories captured a substantial portion of the variation in how literary understanding can be seen. Three central aspects of human understanding, variation, discernment, and simultaneity, could…

  12. The current theoretical assumptions of the Bobath concept as determined by the members of BBTA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raine, Sue

    2007-01-01

    The Bobath concept is a problem-solving approach to the assessment and treatment of individuals following a lesion of the central nervous system that offers therapists a framework for their clinical practice. The aim of this study was to facilitate a group of experts in determining the current theoretical assumptions underpinning the Bobath concept.A four-round Delphi study was used. The expert sample included all 15 members of the British Bobath Tutors Association. Initial statements were identified from the literature with respondents generating additional statements. Level of agreement was determined by using a five-point Likert scale. Level of consensus was set at 80%. Eighty-five statements were rated from the literature along with 115 generated by the group. Ninety-three statements were identified as representing the theoretical underpinning of the Bobath concept. The Bobath experts agreed that therapists need to be aware of the principles of motor learning such as active participation, opportunities for practice and meaningful goals. They emphasized that therapy is an interactive process between individual, therapist, and the environment and aims to promote efficiency of movement to the individual's maximum potential rather than normal movement. Treatment was identified by the experts as having "change of functional outcome" at its center.

  13. Using control systems analysis and design concepts to understand ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper is a combination of some of our past and current works on the application of control theory to the study of HIV/AIDS. The paper aims to show how control theoretic analytical tools can be and have been applied to HIV/AIDS mathematical models in order to gain insights into HIV/AIDS infection dynamics. The paper ...

  14. A Chinese young adult non-scientist's epistemologies and her understandings of the concept of speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Ying; Brizuela, Barbara M.

    2015-08-01

    Past research has investigated students' epistemologies while they were taking courses that required an integrated understanding of mathematical and scientific concepts. However, past studies have not investigated students who are not currently enrolled in such classes. Additionally, past studies have primarily focused on individuals who are native English speakers from Western cultures. In this paper, we aim to investigate whether Hammer and his colleagues' claims concerning learners' epistemologies could be extended to individuals who lack advanced mathematics and science training, have had different cultural and learning experiences, and have grown up speaking and learning in another language. To this end, we interviewed a participant with these characteristics about her understandings of the concept of speed. Our findings show that previous theoretical frameworks can be used to explain the epistemologies of the individual examined in this study. The case suggests that these theories may be relevant regardless of the learner's mathematics and science background, language, educational experience, and cultural background. In the future, more cases should be examined with learners from different academic backgrounds and cultures to further support this finding.

  15. An Understanding of the Concept and Conditions of Bilingualism: A Study in an EFL Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Patricia Lastra R.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study carried out at a private school that implemented a bilingual program more than a decade ago. The main aim of the project was to find out how the school community understands the concept of bilingualism and the conditions required to fulfill the goals of a bilingual curriculum at the school. Data were collected through surveys and focus groups made up of different members of the school community. The results showed that bilingualism is associated with a high intensification of English classes and the necessity of having English-speaking employees. Results also depict some theoretical issues about bilingualism and important conditions for implementing a bilingual program.

  16. Equivalent uniform dose concept evaluated by theoretical dose volume histograms for thoracic irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, J L; Lorchel, F; Perrot, Y; Aletti, P; Noel, A; Wolf, D; Courvoisier, P; Bosset, J F

    2007-03-01

    The goal of our study was to quantify the limits of the EUD models for use in score functions in inverse planning software, and for clinical application. We focused on oesophagus cancer irradiation. Our evaluation was based on theoretical dose volume histograms (DVH), and we analyzed them using volumetric and linear quadratic EUD models, average and maximum dose concepts, the linear quadratic model and the differential area between each DVH. We evaluated our models using theoretical and more complex DVHs for the above regions of interest. We studied three types of DVH for the target volume: the first followed the ICRU dose homogeneity recommendations; the second was built out of the first requirements and the same average dose was built in for all cases; the third was truncated by a small dose hole. We also built theoretical DVHs for the organs at risk, in order to evaluate the limits of, and the ways to use both EUD(1) and EUD/LQ models, comparing them to the traditional ways of scoring a treatment plan. For each volume of interest we built theoretical treatment plans with differences in the fractionation. We concluded that both volumetric and linear quadratic EUDs should be used. Volumetric EUD(1) takes into account neither hot-cold spot compensation nor the differences in fractionation, but it is more sensitive to the increase of the irradiated volume. With linear quadratic EUD/LQ, a volumetric analysis of fractionation variation effort can be performed.

  17. Understanding context in knowledge translation: a concept analysis study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squires, Janet E; Graham, Ian D; Hutchinson, Alison M; Linklater, Stefanie; Brehaut, Jamie C; Curran, Janet; Ivers, Noah; Lavis, John N; Michie, Susan; Sales, Anne E; Fiander, Michelle; Fenton, Shannon; Noseworthy, Thomas; Vine, Jocelyn; Grimshaw, Jeremy M

    2015-05-01

    To conduct a concept analysis of clinical practice contexts (work environments) that facilitate or militate against the uptake of research evidence by healthcare professionals in clinical practice. This will involve developing a clear definition of context by describing its features, domains and defining characteristics. The context where clinical care is delivered influences that care. While research shows that context is important to knowledge translation (implementation), we lack conceptual clarity on what is context, which contextual factors probably modify the effect of knowledge translation interventions (and hence should be considered when designing interventions) and which contextual factors themselves could be targeted as part of a knowledge translation intervention (context modification). Concept analysis. The Walker and Avant concept analysis method, comprised of eight systematic steps, will be used: (1) concept selection; (2) determination of aims; (3) identification of uses of context; (4) determination of defining attributes of context; (5) identification/construction of a model case of context; (6) identification/construction of additional cases of context; (7) identification/construction of antecedents and consequences of context; and (8) definition of empirical referents of context. This study is funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (January 2014). This study will result in a much needed framework of context for knowledge translation, which identifies specific elements that, if assessed and used to tailor knowledge translation activities, will result in increased research use by nurses and other healthcare professionals in clinical practice, ultimately leading to better patient care. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Understanding Electrochemistry Concepts Using the Predict-Observe-Explain Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamustafaoglu, Sevilay; Mamlok-Naaman, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    The current study deals with freshman students who study at the Department of Science at the Faculty of Education. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of teaching electrochemistry concepts using Predict-Observe-Explain (POE) strategy. The study was quasi-experimental design using 20 students each in the experimental group (EG) and…

  19. A theoretical relation between the form factor concept and the fractal description of irregularily shaped particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naumann, K.H.; Bunz, H.

    1994-04-01

    This report describes a theoretical concept that establishes a complete link between the form factor characterization and the fractal description of irregularily shaped particles. Of central importance is the approximate consideration of hydrodynamic interactions between the primary particles within the framework of the Kirkwood-Riseman theory, resulting in a clear distinction between the geometric and the hydrodynamic radius of the agglomerates. Furthermore, special attention is given to the description of the density decay in the outer regions of the particles. Using connectivity arguments it is shown that the case of particles with very low fractal dimension (e.g. chainlike species) requires a specific treatment. (orig./HP) [de

  20. Theoretical Prerequisites for the Formation of the Concept of Environmentally Responsible Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kniazieva Tetiana V.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to study the evolution of theoretical approaches to the problems related to the ecological and economic interaction of economic entities and clarify the essential characteristics of the economic component of environmentally responsible marketing. By analyzing, systematizing and summarizing scientific works of domestic and foreign scientists, the evolution of marketing concepts is considered, the views of researchers on the definition of the concepts “social marketing”, “environmental marketing” are systematized. As a result of the research, the advantages and disadvantages of the existing definitions of “green” marketing are highlighted. The main characteristics of the concept “environmentally responsible marketing” are formulated in the context of the concepts of sustainable development and socially responsible marketing. Prospects for further research in this area are: the infrastructure of environmentally responsible marketing; a conceptual justification of the methodology for building an environmentally responsible marketing system; factors and models of modern economic growth with consideration for the environmental factor, etc.

  1. The Open Business Model: Understanding an Emerging Concept

    OpenAIRE

    Weiblen Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Along with the emergence of phenomena such as value co-creation, firm networks, and open innovation, open business models have achieved growing attention in research. Scholars from different fields use the open business model, largely without providing a definition. This has led to an overall lack of clarity of the concept itself. Based on a comprehensive review of scholarly literature in the field, commonalities and differences in the perceived nature of the open business model are carved ou...

  2. Prospective mathematics teachers' understanding of the base concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horzum, Tuğba; Ertekin, Erhan

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze what kind of conceptions prospective mathematics teachers(PMTs) have about the base concept(BC). One-hundred and thirty-nine PMTs participated in the study. In this qualitative research, data were obtained through open-ended questions, the semi-structured interviews and pictures of geometric figures drawn by PMTs. As a result, it was determined that PMTs dealt with the BC in a broad range of seven different images. It was also determined that the base perception of PMTs was limited mostly to their usage in daily life and in this context, they have position-dependent and word-dependent images. It was also determined that PMTs named the base to explain the BC or paid attention to the naming of three-dimensional geometric figures through the statement: 'objects are named according to their bases'. At the same time, it was also determined that PMTs had more than one concept imageswhich were contradicting with each other. According to these findings, potential explanations and advices were given.

  3. Understanding employee motivation and organizational performance: Arguments for a set-theoretic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael T. Lee

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Empirical evidence demonstrates that motivated employees mean better organizational performance. The objective of this conceptual paper is to articulate the progress that has been made in understanding employee motivation and organizational performance, and to suggest how the theory concerning employee motivation and organizational performance may be advanced. We acknowledge the existing limitations of theory development and suggest an alternative research approach. Current motivation theory development is based on conventional quantitative analysis (e.g., multiple regression analysis, structural equation modeling. Since researchers are interested in context and understanding of this social phenomena holistically, they think in terms of combinations and configurations of a set of pertinent variables. We suggest that researchers take a set-theoretic approach to complement existing conventional quantitative analysis. To advance current thinking, we propose a set-theoretic approach to leverage employee motivation for organizational performance.

  4. Representing general theoretical concepts in structural equation models: The role of composite variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, J.B.; Bollen, K.A.

    2008-01-01

    Structural equation modeling (SEM) holds the promise of providing natural scientists the capacity to evaluate complex multivariate hypotheses about ecological systems. Building on its predecessors, path analysis and factor analysis, SEM allows for the incorporation of both observed and unobserved (latent) variables into theoretically-based probabilistic models. In this paper we discuss the interface between theory and data in SEM and the use of an additional variable type, the composite. In simple terms, composite variables specify the influences of collections of other variables and can be helpful in modeling heterogeneous concepts of the sort commonly of interest to ecologists. While long recognized as a potentially important element of SEM, composite variables have received very limited use, in part because of a lack of theoretical consideration, but also because of difficulties that arise in parameter estimation when using conventional solution procedures. In this paper we present a framework for discussing composites and demonstrate how the use of partially-reduced-form models can help to overcome some of the parameter estimation and evaluation problems associated with models containing composites. Diagnostic procedures for evaluating the most appropriate and effective use of composites are illustrated with an example from the ecological literature. It is argued that an ability to incorporate composite variables into structural equation models may be particularly valuable in the study of natural systems, where concepts are frequently multifaceted and the influence of suites of variables are often of interest. ?? Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007.

  5. What is This Thing Called Sensemaking?: A Theoretical Framework for How Physics Students Resolve Inconsistencies in Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odden, Tor Ole B.

    Students often emerge from introductory physics courses with a feeling that the concepts they have learned do not make sense. In recent years, science education researchers have begun to attend to this type of problem by studying the ways in which students make sense of science concepts. However, although many researchers agree intuitively on what sensemaking looks like, the literature on sensemaking is both theoretically fragmented and provides few guidelines for how to encourage and support the process. In this dissertation, I address this challenge by proposing a theoretical framework to describe students' sensemaking processes. I base this framework both on the science education research literature on sensemaking and on a series of video-recorded cognitive, clinical interviews conducted with introductory physics students enrolled in a course on electricity and magnetism. Using the science education research literature on sensemaking as well as a cognitivist, dynamic network model of mind as a theoretical lens, I first propose a coherent definition of sensemaking. Then, using this definition I analyze the sensemaking processes of these introductory physics students during episodes when they work to articulate and resolve gaps or inconsistencies in their understanding. Based on the students' framing, gestures, and dialogue I argue that the process of sensemaking unfolds in a distinct way, which we can describe as an epistemic game in which students first build a framework of knowledge, then identify a gap or inconsistency in that framework, iteratively build an explanation to resolve the gap or inconsistency, and (sometimes) successfully resolve it. I further argue that their entry into the sensemaking frame is facilitated by a specific question, which is in turn motivated by a gap or inconsistency in knowledge that I call the vexation point. I also investigate the results of sensemaking, arguing that students may use the technique of conceptual blending to both

  6. Simulation-Based Performance Assessment: An Innovative Approach to Exploring Understanding of Physical Science Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Jessica; Wind, Stefanie; Koval, Jayma; Dagosta, Joseph; Ryan, Mike; Usselman, Marion

    2016-01-01

    This paper illustrates the use of simulation-based performance assessment (PA) methodology in a recent study of eighth-grade students' understanding of physical science concepts. A set of four simulation-based PA tasks were iteratively developed to assess student understanding of an array of physical science concepts, including net force,…

  7. Influence of Particle Theory Conceptions on Pre-Service Science Teachers' Understanding of Osmosis and Diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlHarbi, Nawaf N. S.; Treagust, David F.; Chandrasegaran, A. L.; Won, Mihye

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the understanding of diffusion, osmosis and particle theory of matter concepts among 192 pre-service science teachers in Saudi Arabia using a 17-item two-tier multiple-choice diagnostic test. The data analysis showed that the pre-service teachers' understanding of osmosis and diffusion concepts was mildly correlated with…

  8. Assessing Children's Understanding of Length Measurement: A Focus on Three Key Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Heidi

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author presents three different tasks that can be used to assess students' understanding of the concept of length. Three important measurement concepts for students to understand are transitive reasoning, use of identical units, and iteration. In any teaching and learning process it is important to acknowledge students'…

  9. Liberal Liability. Understanding Students’ Conceptions of Gender Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Murstedt

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Research has shown that teaching gender theories tends to be an educational challenge and elicits student resistance. However, little is known about students’ learning processes in social science. This study aims to explore these learning processes by drawing on feminist pedagogy and conceptual change theory. The results show that when students are asked to perform analysis from a structural gender perspective, they recurrently introduce other explanatory frameworks based on non-structural understandings. The students’ learning processes involve reformulating questions and making interpretations based on liberal understandings of power, freedom of choice and equality. We argue that this process is due to the hegemonic position of the liberal paradigm as well as to the dominant ideas about science. Clarifying the underlying presumptions of a liberal perspective and a structural perspective may help students to recognise applied premises and enable them to distinguish relevant explanations.

  10. An Attachment Theoretical Framework for Understanding Personality Disorders: Developmental, Neuroscience, and Psychotherapeutic Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth N. Levy

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose that John Bowlby's attachment theory provides a theoretically coherent, empirically based, and clinically useful model for understanding personality pathology. This theoretical framework brings parsimony and breadth to the conceptualization of the etiology, maintenance, and treatment of personality disorders (PDs. Attachment theory can explain both the intrapersonal and interpersonal difficulties common in those with PDs and is consistent with findings from studies across multiple domains of knowledge, including evolutionary biology, ethology/comparative psychology, developmental psychology, experimental social-personality psychology, and neuroscience.PDs are characterized by significant interpersonal challenges. Recently, these challenges have been hypothesized to stem from underlying maladaptive attachment schemas. Our goal is to outline and elaborate on attachment theory as a foundation for the etiology and pathology of PDs and to highlight the implications of this theory for treatment. We begin with a brief review of attachment, describing its conceptualization and assessment in both children and adults in order to examine PD development. This theoretical foundation is supported by a body of empirical research, from which we present findings from neurobiological and developmental literatures linking attachment and PDs. We then examine the role of attachment in the psychotherapy process and in treatment outcome. Further, we outline research reporting changes in attachment patterns as a result of treatment. Finally, we summarize the implications of attachment theory for understanding PDs and present possible directions for future research.

  11. Double Stimulation in Strategic Concept Formation: An Activity-Theoretical Analysis of Business Planning in a Small Technology Firm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virkkunen, Jaakko; Ristimaki, Paivi

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we study the relationships between culturally existing general strategy concepts and a small information and communication technology firm's specific strategic challenge in its management team's search for a new strategy concept. We apply three theoretical ideas of cultural historical activity theory: (a) the idea of double…

  12. The Intense Slow Positron Source concept: A theoretical perspective on a proposed INEL Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makowitz, H.; Abrashoff, J.D.; Landman, W.H.; Albano, R.K.; Tajima, T.

    1992-01-01

    An analysis has been performed of the INEL Intense Slow Positron Source (ISPS) concept. The results of the theoretical study are encouraging. A full-scale device with a monoenergetic 5 KeV positron beam of ≥10 12 e + /s on a ≤0.03-cmdiameter target appears feasible and can be obtained within the existing infrastructure of INEL reactor facilities. A 30.0-cm-diameter, large area source dish, moderated at first with thin crystalline W films and later by solid Ne, is proposed as the initial device in order to explore problems with a facility scale system. A demonstration scale beam at ≥10 10 slow e + /s is proposed using a 58 Co source plated on a 6-cm-diameter source dish insert, placed in a 30- cm adapter

  13. Cross-cultural undergraduate medical education in North America: theoretical concepts and educational approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitmanova, Sylvia

    2011-04-01

    Cross-cultural undergraduate medical education in North America lacks conceptual clarity. Consequently, school curricula are unsystematic, nonuniform, and fragmented. This article provides a literature review about available conceptual models of cross-cultural medical education. The clarification of these models may inform the development of effective educational programs to enable students to provide better quality care to patients from diverse sociocultural backgrounds. The approaches to cross-cultural health education can be organized under the rubric of two specific conceptual models: cultural competence and critical culturalism. The variation in the conception of culture adopted in these two models results in differences in all curricular components: learning outcomes, content, educational strategies, teaching methods, student assessment, and program evaluation. Medical schools could benefit from more theoretical guidance on the learning outcomes, content, and educational strategies provided to them by governing and licensing bodies. More student assessments and program evaluations are needed in order to appraise the effectiveness of cross-cultural undergraduate medical education.

  14. THEORETICAL JUSTIFICATION OF THE CONCEPT OF INNOVATION DEVELOPMENT OF BUSINESS PROCESSES IN THE COMPANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina G. Garanina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article contains theoretical and practical justification of the concept of innovative development of business processes based on the information analysis of the company’s infrastructure under the conditions of building a common information space. This study focuses on the supporting business processes update, on the documented information processing based on the state-of-the-art information technology solutions in particularly.The factors preventing an enterprise to build a common information space are highlighted in this study. The functional set of the management areas is examined and the degree of state-of-the-art information technology utilization to support the company’s process areas is analyzed. It is proposed to overcome the identified barriers through the automation of the company’s process areas and innovative development of supporting business processes of documented information processing by using modern information technology resources.

  15. Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL as Sociolinguistic and Sociological Conception: Possibilities and Limits of Theoretical Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariia Rubtcova

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at examining possibilities and limits of Systemic functional linguistics theoretical framework. Ideologically SFL concept was associated with the ideas of social justice and equality, the building of the society of equal opportunities through the educational system. The most interesting ideas arose when the SFL representatives thought about the development of English as a native language and were connected with the overcoming of class distinctions. The current version - genre-based approach – has serious limits. The desire of a genre-based approach to the systematization of genres carries a risk of cultural contradictions and conflict of cultures. However, the basic theoretical SFL principles are still in the stage of formation, as SFL researchers seek to avoid some rigidity of the classical institutional (genre approach, which is in contradiction with the principles of diversity. The founder M. Halliday offered ideas for the organization of a flexible approach based on International English that may become World Englishes, developing in order to adapt to the meanings of other cultures.  Therefore, an SFL approach still needs some alterations to spread outside the Western world and conform to the new culture for it. Besides, we can think about proposals of Halliday’s supporters to develop the own version of English for non-Western countries, considering its culture and mentality.

  16. Understanding rapid theoretical change in particle physics: a month-by-month co-citation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, D.; Koester, D.; White, D.H.; Kern, R.

    1979-01-01

    While co-citation analysis has proved a powerful tool in the study of changes in intellectual foci in science, no one has ever used the technique to study very rapid changes in the theoretical structure of a scientific field. This paper presents month-by-month co-citation analyses of key phases in the weak-electromagnetic unification research program within particle physics, and shows that these analyses capture and illuminate very rapid intellectual changes. These data provide yet another illustration of the utility of co-citation analysis for understanding the history of science. 8 figures

  17. Psychological resilience: an approach to the concept, theoretical framework and relation with child sexual abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Gustavo Pinto-Cortez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Child sexual abuse is a serious public health problem and a violation of human rights from children and adolescents. A prolific research has been developed to determine the magnitude of the problem, psychological effects, risk factors and protective factors. In this context, resilience approach becomes important by explain the mechanisms that promote positive adaptation to adversity. In this paper, it is discussed in the first part, the analysis of the concept of resilience and its various stages of investigation over time. Finally, an integration of this model in understanding and approaching child and adolescent victimization is done.

  18. Proof of concept of an artificial muscle: theoretical model, numerical model, and hardware experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeufle, D F B; Günther, M; Blickhan, R; Schmitt, S

    2011-01-01

    Recently, the hyperbolic Hill-type force-velocity relation was derived from basic physical components. It was shown that a contractile element CE consisting of a mechanical energy source (active element AE), a parallel damper element (PDE), and a serial element (SE) exhibits operating points with hyperbolic force-velocity dependency. In this paper, the contraction dynamics of this CE concept were analyzed in a numerical simulation of quick release experiments against different loads. A hyperbolic force-velocity relation was found. The results correspond to measurements of the contraction dynamics of a technical prototype. Deviations from the theoretical prediction could partly be explained by the low stiffness of the SE, which was modeled analog to the metal spring in the hardware prototype. The numerical model and hardware prototype together, are a proof of this CE concept and can be seen as a well-founded starting point for the development of Hill-type artificial muscles. This opens up new vistas for the technical realization of natural movements with rehabilitation devices. © 2011 IEEE

  19. Transactive System: Part I: Theoretical Underpinnings of Payoff Functions, Control Decisions, Information Privacy, and Solution Concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lian, Jianming [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhang, Wei [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sun, Y. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Marinovici, Laurentiu D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kalsi, Karanjit [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Widergren, Steven E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2018-01-17

    new transactive energy system design with demonstrable guarantees on stability and performance. Specifically, the goals are to (1) establish a theoretical basis for evaluating the performance of different transactive systems, (2) devise tools to address canonical problems that exemplify challenges and scenarios of transactive systems, and (3) provide guidelines for design of future transactive systems. This report, Part 1 of a two part series, advances the above-listed research objectives by reviewing existing transactive systems and identifying a theoretical foundation that integrates payoff functions, control decisions, information privacy, and mathematical solution concepts.

  20. Using Laboratory Activities Enhanced with Concept Cartoons to Support Progression in Students' Understanding of Acid-Base Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozmen, Haluk; Demircioglu, Gokhan; Burhan, Yasemin; Naseriazar, Akbar; Demircioglu, Hulya

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the effectiveness of an intervention based on a series of laboratory activities enhanced with concept cartoons. The purpose of the intervention was to enhance students' understanding of acid-base chemistry for eight grade students' from two classes in a Turkish primary school. A pretest-posttest non-equivalent…

  1. Understanding the Canadian adult CT head rule trial: use of the theoretical domains framework for process evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curran Janet A

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Canadian CT Head Rule was prospectively derived and validated to assist clinicians with diagnostic decision-making regarding the use of computed tomography (CT in adult patients with minor head injury. A recent intervention trial failed to demonstrate a decrease in the rate of head CTs following implementation of the rule in Canadian emergency departments. Yet, the same intervention, which included a one-hour educational session and reminders at the point of requisition, was successful in reducing cervical spine imaging rates in the same emergency departments. The reason for the varied effect of the intervention across these two behaviours is unclear. There is an increasing appreciation for the use of theory to conduct process evaluations to better understand how strategies are linked with outcomes in implementation trials. The Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF has been used to explore health professional behaviour and to design behaviour change interventions but, to date, has not been used to guide a theory-based process evaluation. In this proof of concept study, we explored whether the TDF could be used to guide a retrospective process evaluation to better understand emergency physicians’ responses to the interventions employed in the Canadian CT Head Rule trial. Methods A semi-structured interview guide, based on the 12 domains from the TDF, was used to conduct telephone interviews with project leads and physician participants from the intervention sites in the Canadian CT Head Rule trial. Two reviewers independently coded the anonymised interview transcripts using the TDF as a coding framework. Relevant domains were identified by: the presence of conflicting beliefs within a domain; the frequency of beliefs; and the likely strength of the impact of a belief on the behaviour. Results Eight physicians from four of the intervention sites in the Canadian CT Head Rule trial participated in the interviews. Barriers

  2. Test of Understanding of Vectors: A Reliable Multiple-Choice Vector Concept Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barniol, Pablo; Zavala, Genaro

    2014-01-01

    In this article we discuss the findings of our research on students' understanding of vector concepts in problems without physical context. First, we develop a complete taxonomy of the most frequent errors made by university students when learning vector concepts. This study is based on the results of several test administrations of open-ended…

  3. Conceptions of Memorizing and Understanding in Learning, and Self-Efficacy Held by University Biology Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tzu-Chiang; Liang, Jyh-Chong; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to explore Taiwanese university students' conceptions of learning biology as memorizing or as understanding, and their self-efficacy. To this end, two questionnaires were utilized to survey 293 Taiwanese university students with biology-related majors. A questionnaire for measuring students' conceptions of memorizing and…

  4. The Effect of Guided Inquiry-Based Instruction on Middle School Students' Understanding of Lunar Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trundle, Kathy Cabe; Atwood, Ronald K.; Christopher, John E.; Sackes, Mesut

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of non-traditional guided inquiry instruction on middle school students' conceptual understandings of lunar concepts. Multiple data sources were used to describe participants' conceptions of lunar phases and their cause, including drawings, interviews, and a lunar shapes card sort. The data were analyzed via a…

  5. Learning about a Level Physics Students' Understandings of Particle Physics Using Concept Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourlay, H.

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes a small-scale piece of research using concept mapping to elicit A level students' understandings of particle physics. Fifty-nine year 12 (16- and 17 year-old) students from two London schools participated. The exercise took place during school physics lessons. Students were instructed how to make a concept map and were…

  6. Prospective Physics Teachers' Level of Understanding Energy, Power and Force Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saglam-Arslan, Aysegul; Kurnaz, Mehmet Altan

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine prospective physics teachers' level of understanding of the concepts of energy and the related concepts of force and power. The study was carried out with the participation of 56 physics education department students at a university in Karadeniz region. All participants had previously taken an introductory…

  7. Effectiveness of Instruction Based on the Constructivist Approach on Understanding Chemical Equilibrium Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkus, Huseyin; Kadayifci, Hakki; Atasoy, Basri; Geban, Omer

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify misconceptions concerning chemical equilibrium concepts and to investigate the effectiveness of instruction based on the constructivist approach over traditional instruction on 10th grade students' understanding of chemical equilibrium concepts. The subjects of this study consisted of 71 10th grade…

  8. Innovative learning model for improving students’ argumentation skill and concept understanding on science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafsiati Astuti, Rini

    2018-04-01

    Argumentation skill is the ability to compose and maintain arguments consisting of claims, supports for evidence, and strengthened-reasons. Argumentation is an important skill student needs to face the challenges of globalization in the 21st century. It is not an ability that can be developed by itself along with the physical development of human, but it must be developed under nerve like process, giving stimulus so as to require a person to be able to argue. Therefore, teachers should develop students’ skill of arguing in science learning in the classroom. The purpose of this study is to obtain an innovative learning model that are valid in terms of content and construct in improving the skills of argumentation and concept understanding of junior high school students. The assessment of content validity and construct validity was done through Focus Group Discussion (FGD), using the content and construct validation sheet, book model, learning video, and a set of learning aids for one meeting. Assessment results from 3 (three) experts showed that the learning model developed in the category was valid. The validity itself shows that the developed learning model has met the content requirement, the student needs, state of the art, strong theoretical and empirical foundation and construct validity, which has a connection of syntax stages and components of learning model so that it can be applied in the classroom activities

  9. Increasing the understanding of chemical concepts: The effectiveness of multiple exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bius, Janet H.

    Chemistry is difficult because it has multilevels of knowledge with each level presenting challenges in vocabulary, abstract thinking, and symbolic language. Students have to be able to transfer between levels to understand the concepts and the theoretical models of chemistry. The cognitive theories of constructivism and cognitive-load theory are used to explain the difficulties novice learners have with the subject of chemistry and methods to increase success for students. The relationship between external representations, misconceptions and topics on the success of students are addressed. If students do not know the formalisms associated with chemical diagrams and graphs, the representations will decrease student success. Misconceptions can be formed when new information is interpreted based on pre-existing knowledge that is faulty. Topics with large amount of interacting elements that must be processed simultaneously are considered difficult to understand. New variables were created to measure the number of times a student is exposed to a chemical concept. Each variable was coded according to topic and learning environment, which are the lecture and laboratory components of the course, homework assignments and textbook examples. The exposure variables are used to measure the success rate of students on similar exam questions. Question difficulty scales were adapted for this project from those found in the chemical education literature. The exposure variables were tested on each level of the difficulty scales to determine their effect at decreasing the cognitive demand of these questions. The subjects of this study were freshmen science majors at a large Midwest university. The effects of the difficulty scales and exposure variables were measured for those students whose exam scores were in the upper one-fourth percentile, for students whose test scores were in the middle one-half percentile, and the lower one-fourth percentile are those students that scored the

  10. Profile of Metacognition of Mathematics and Mathematics Education Students in Understanding the Concept of Integral Calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misu, La; Ketut Budayasa, I.; Lukito, Agung

    2018-03-01

    This study describes the metacognition profile of mathematics and mathematics education students in understanding the concept of integral calculus. The metacognition profile is a natural and intact description of a person’s cognition that involves his own thinking in terms of using his knowledge, planning and monitoring his thinking process, and evaluating his thinking results when understanding a concept. The purpose of this study was to produce the metacognition profile of mathematics and mathematics education students in understanding the concept of integral calculus. This research method is explorative method with the qualitative approach. The subjects of this study are mathematics and mathematics education students who have studied integral calculus. The results of this study are as follows: (1) the summarizing category, the mathematics and mathematics education students can use metacognition knowledge and metacognition skills in understanding the concept of indefinite integrals. While the definite integrals, only mathematics education students use metacognition skills; and (2) the explaining category, mathematics students can use knowledge and metacognition skills in understanding the concept of indefinite integrals, while the definite integrals only use metacognition skills. In addition, mathematics education students can use knowledge and metacognition skills in understanding the concept of both indefinite and definite integrals.

  11. Concept of the Cooling System of the ITS for ALICE: Technical Proposals, Theoretical Estimates, Experimental Results

    CERN Document Server

    Godisov, O N; Yudkin, M I; Gerasimov, S F; Feofilov, G A

    1994-01-01

    Contradictory demands raised by the application of different types of sensitive detectors in 5 layers of the Inner Tracking System (ITS) for ALICE stipulate the simultaneous use of different schemes of heat drain: gaseous cooling of the 1st layer (uniform heat production over the sensitive surface) and evaporative cooling for the 2nd-5th layers (localised heat production). The last system is also a must for the thermostabilization of Si-drift detectors within 0.1 degree C. Theoretical estimates of gaseous, evaporative and liquid cooling systems are done for all ITS layers. The results of the experiments done for evaporative and liquid heat drain systems are presented and discussed. The major technical problems of the evaporative systems' design are being considered: i) control of liquid supply; ii) vapour pressure control. Two concepts of the evaporative systems are proposed: 1) One channel system for joint transfer of two phases (liquid + gas); 2) Two channels system with separate transfer of phases. Both sy...

  12. Understanding effects in reviews of implementation interventions using the Theoretical Domains Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Elizabeth A; Presseau, Justin; Eccles, Martin P

    2015-06-17

    Behavioural theory can be used to better understand the effects of behaviour change interventions targeting healthcare professional behaviour to improve quality of care. However, the explicit use of theory is rarely reported despite interventions inevitably involving at least an implicit idea of what factors to target to implement change. There is a quality of care gap in the post-fracture investigation (bone mineral density (BMD) scanning) and management (bisphosphonate prescription) of patients at risk of osteoporosis. We aimed to use the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) within a systematic review of interventions to improve quality of care in post-fracture investigation. Our objectives were to explore which theoretical factors the interventions in the review may have been targeting and how this might be related to the size of the effect on rates of BMD scanning and osteoporosis treatment with bisphosphonate medication. A behavioural scientist and a clinician independently coded TDF domains in intervention and control groups. Quantitative analyses explored the relationship between intervention effect size and total number of domains targeted, and as number of different domains targeted. Nine randomised controlled trials (RCTs) (10 interventions) were analysed. The five theoretical domains most frequently coded as being targeted by the interventions in the review included "memory, attention and decision processes", "knowledge", "environmental context and resources", "social influences" and "beliefs about consequences". Each intervention targeted a combination of at least four of these five domains. Analyses identified an inverse relationship between both number of times and number of different domains coded and the effect size for BMD scanning but not for bisphosphonate prescription, suggesting that the more domains the intervention targeted, the lower the observed effect size. When explicit use of theory to inform interventions is absent, it is possible to

  13. Investigation of students’ intermediate conceptual understanding levels: the case of direct current electricity concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aktan, D Cobanoglu

    2013-01-01

    Conceptual understanding is one of the main topics in science and physics education research. In the majority of conceptual understanding studies, students’ understanding levels were categorized dichotomously, either as alternative or scientific understanding. Although they are invaluable in many ways, namely developing new instructional materials and assessment instruments, students’ alternative understandings alone are not sufficient to describe students’ conceptual understanding in detail. This paper introduces an example of a study in which a method was developed to assess and describe students’ conceptual understanding beyond alternative and scientific understanding levels. In this study, six undergraduate students’ conceptual understanding levels of direct current electricity concepts were assessed and described in detail by using their answers to qualitative problems. In order to do this, conceptual understanding indicators are described based on science and mathematics education literature. The students’ understanding levels were analysed by assertion analysis based on the conceptual understanding indicators. The results indicated that the participants demonstrated three intermediate understanding levels in addition to alternative and scientific understanding. This paper presents the method and its application to direct current electricity concepts. (paper)

  14. Proportional Reasoning and Related Concepts: Analysis of Gaps and Understandings of Middle Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojose, Bobby

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated proportional reasoning and the related concepts of decimal, percent, and ratio. In particular, the research focused on analyzing the gaps and understandings that grades 6, 7, and 8 students have and advanced factors for such gaps and understandings. The study employed a mixed method approach in which quantitative data was…

  15. In-Service Elementary Teachers' Understanding of Magnetism Concepts before and after Non-Traditional Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwood, Ronald K.; Christopher, John E.; Combs, Rebecca K.; Roland, Elizabeth E.

    2010-01-01

    Magnetism is a topic frequently studied in elementary schools. Since magnetism is a popular topic and is included in national science education standards, it might be assumed that elementary teachers have a good understanding of this topic and that elementary students develop a good understanding of fundamental magnetism concepts. Unfortunately,…

  16. Theoretical concepts "land management process", "land management procedure" and their relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tretiak A.M.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The state significance of land management activities is manifested in those legal consequences that arise after the issuance of land management documentation and are conditioned by the need to secure unsupported land rights and the use and protection of land in a state-guaranteed manner. The procedural activity of land surveyors and other persons authorized by the state to commit land management operations must be carried out in a certain order established by the state and obey the rights and obligations of the persons specified by the legislation at each stage of the development of such relations.The main goal of applying to land management organizations and land surveyors is landuse documentation, which is made in accordance with the requirements of the law and with which the relevant legal properties of the land management procedure are associated. First of all, let's dwell on such basic concepts as "land management process" and "land management procedure". Consideration of the term "land management process" implies a preliminary analysis of the category "process". At the same time, it must be admitted that the development of the procedural form of this category has not been paid attention. Considering the concept of "land management process", its place and role in the system of social relations, emphasis will be placed on the concept of a broad understanding of the legal process, the problem of which exists for decades.Thus, the legal process is a regulated by the procedural rules procedure for the activities of competent state bodies, consisting of the preparation, adoption and documentary consolidation of legal decisions of a general and individual nature. In the land law, the category "process" is specific and serves to designate relationships that provide regulatory and security land-property relationships. Particularly difficult today is the question of the delimitation of the concepts of "process" and "procedure" in general. Regarding

  17. ANALYSIS LEARNING MODEL OF DISCOVERY AND UNDERSTANDING THE CONCEPT PRELIMINARY TO PHYSICS LEARNING OUTCOMES SMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Rosepda Sebayang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims: 1 to determine whether the student learning outcomes using discovery learning is better than conventional learning 2 To determine whether the learning outcomes of students who have a high initial concept understanding better then of low initial concept understanding, and 3 to determine the effect of interaction discovery learning and understanding of the initial concept of the learning outcomes of students. The samples in this study was taken by cluster random sampling two classes where class X PIA 3 as a class experiment with applying discovery learning and class X PIA 2 as a control class by applying conventional learning. The instrument used in this study is a test of learning outcomes in the form of multiple-choice comprehension test initial concept description form. The results of research are: 1 learning outcomes of students who were taught with discovery learning is better than the learning outcomes of students who are taught by conventional learning, 2 student learning outcomes with high initial conceptual understanding better than the learning outcomes of students with low initial conceptual understanding, and 3 there was no interaction between discovery learning and understanding of initial concepts for the student learning outcomes.

  18. A Theoretical Approach to Understanding Population Dynamics with Seasonal Developmental Durations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Yijun; Zhao, Xiao-Qiang

    2017-04-01

    There is a growing body of biological investigations to understand impacts of seasonally changing environmental conditions on population dynamics in various research fields such as single population growth and disease transmission. On the other side, understanding the population dynamics subject to seasonally changing weather conditions plays a fundamental role in predicting the trends of population patterns and disease transmission risks under the scenarios of climate change. With the host-macroparasite interaction as a motivating example, we propose a synthesized approach for investigating the population dynamics subject to seasonal environmental variations from theoretical point of view, where the model development, basic reproduction ratio formulation and computation, and rigorous mathematical analysis are involved. The resultant model with periodic delay presents a novel term related to the rate of change of the developmental duration, bringing new challenges to dynamics analysis. By investigating a periodic semiflow on a suitably chosen phase space, the global dynamics of a threshold type is established: all solutions either go to zero when basic reproduction ratio is less than one, or stabilize at a positive periodic state when the reproduction ratio is greater than one. The synthesized approach developed here is applicable to broader contexts of investigating biological systems with seasonal developmental durations.

  19. Hans-Georg Gadamer’s philosophical hermeneutics: Concepts of reading, understanding and interpretation

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Regan

    2012-01-01

    Hans-Georg Gadamer’s philosophical hermeneutics is a popular qualitative research interpretive method aiming to explore the meaning of individual experiences in relation to understanding human interpretation. Gadamer identifies that authentic engagement with reading requires awareness of the inter-subjective nature of understanding in order to promote a reflective engagement with the text. The main concepts of Gadamer’s view of reading and understanding are explored in this paper in relation ...

  20. Cancer surviving patients' rehabilitation – understanding failure through application of theoretical perspectives from Habermas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkelsen, Thorbjørn H; Soendergaard, Jens; Jensen, Anders B; Olesen, Frede

    2008-01-01

    This study aims to analyze whether the rehabilitation of cancer surviving patients (CSPs) can be better organized. The data for this paper consists of focus group interviews (FGIs) with CSPs, general practitioners (GPs) and hospital physicians. The analysis draws on the theoretical framework of Jürgen Habermas, utilizing his notions of 'the system and the life world' and 'communicative and strategic action'. In Habermas' terminology, the social security system and the healthcare system are subsystems that belong to what he calls the 'system', where actions are based on strategic actions activated by the means of media such as money and power which provide the basis for other actors' actions. The social life, on the other hand, in Habermas' terminology, belongs to what he calls the 'life world', where communicative action is based on consensual coordination among individuals. Our material suggests that, within the hospital world, the strategic actions related to diagnosis, treatment and cure in the biomedical discourse dominate. They function as inclusion/exclusion criteria for further treatment. However, the GPs appear to accept the CSPs' previous cancer diagnosis as a precondition sufficient for providing assistance. Although the GPs use the biomedical discourse and often give biomedical examples to exemplify rehabilitation needs, they find psychosocial aspects, so-called lifeworld aspects, to be an important component of their job when helping CSPs. In this way, they appear more open to communicative action in relation to the CSPs' lifeworld than do the hospital physicians. Our data also suggests that the CSPs' lifeworld can be partly colonized by the system during hospitalization, making it difficult for CSPs when they are discharged at the end of treatment. This situation seems to be crucial to our understanding of why CSPs often feel left in limbo after discharge. We conclude that the distinction between the system and the lifeworld and the implications of a

  1. Cancer surviving patients' rehabilitation - understanding failure through application of theoretical perspectives from Habermas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkelsen, Thorbjørn H; Soendergaard, Jens; Jensen, Anders B; Olesen, Frede

    2008-06-06

    This study aims to analyze whether the rehabilitation of cancer surviving patients (CSPs) can be better organized. The data for this paper consists of focus group interviews (FGIs) with CSPs, general practitioners (GPs) and hospital physicians. The analysis draws on the theoretical framework of Jürgen Habermas, utilizing his notions of 'the system and the life world' and 'communicative and strategic action'. In Habermas' terminology, the social security system and the healthcare system are subsystems that belong to what he calls the 'system', where actions are based on strategic actions activated by the means of media such as money and power which provide the basis for other actors' actions. The social life, on the other hand, in Habermas' terminology, belongs to what he calls the 'life world', where communicative action is based on consensual coordination among individuals. Our material suggests that, within the hospital world, the strategic actions related to diagnosis, treatment and cure in the biomedical discourse dominate. They function as inclusion/exclusion criteria for further treatment. However, the GPs appear to accept the CSPs' previous cancer diagnosis as a precondition sufficient for providing assistance. Although the GPs use the biomedical discourse and often give biomedical examples to exemplify rehabilitation needs, they find psychosocial aspects, so-called lifeworld aspects, to be an important component of their job when helping CSPs. In this way, they appear more open to communicative action in relation to the CSPs' lifeworld than do the hospital physicians. Our data also suggests that the CSPs' lifeworld can be partly colonized by the system during hospitalization, making it difficult for CSPs when they are discharged at the end of treatment. This situation seems to be crucial to our understanding of why CSPs often feel left in limbo after discharge. We conclude that the distinction between the system and the lifeworld and the implications of a

  2. Pre-Service Physics Teachers' Understanding of the Relational Structure of Physics Concepts: Organising Subject Contents for Purposes of Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koponen, Ismo; Nousiainen, Maija

    2013-01-01

    Good conceptual understanding of physics is based on understanding what the key concepts are and how they are related. This kind of understanding is especially important for physics teachers in planning how and in what order to introduce concepts in teaching; connections which tie concepts to each other give direction of progress--there is "flux…

  3. Shape of the self-concept clarity change during group psychotherapy predicts the outcome: An empirical validation of the theoretical model of the self-concept change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał eStyła

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Self-concept clarity describes the extent to which the schemas of the self are internally integrated, well defined, and temporally stable. This article presents a theoretical model that describes how different shapes of self-concept clarity change (especially stable increase and V shape observed in the course of psychotherapy are related to the therapy outcome. Linking the concept of Jean Piaget and the dynamic systems theory, the study postulates that a stable self-concept clarity increase is needed for the participants with a rather healthy personality structure, while self-concept clarity change characterized by a V shape or fluctuations is optimal for more disturbed patients. Method: Correlational study in a naturalistic setting with repeated measurements (M=5.8 was conducted on the sample of 85 patients diagnosed with neurosis and personality disorders receiving intensive eclectic group psychotherapy under routine inpatient conditions. Participants filled in the Self-Concept Clarity Scale, Symptoms’ Questionnaire KS-II, and Neurotic Personality Questionnaire KON-2006 at the beginning and at the end of the course of psychotherapy. The Self-Concept Clarity Scale was also administered every two weeks during psychotherapy. Results: As hypothesized, among the relatively healthiest group of patients the stable self-concept clarity increase was related to positive treatment outcome, while more disturbed patients benefited from the fluctuations and V shape of self-concept clarity change. Conclusions: The findings support the idea that for different personality dispositions either a monotonic increase or transient destabilization of self-concept clarity is a sign of a good treatment prognosis.

  4. Mapping Theory - a mapping of the theoretical territory related to a contemporary concept of public space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Shelley

    2008-01-01

    This working paper maps the theoretical territory of public space - urban public space - in a contemporary urban context. By finding, selecting, registering and examining existing theoretical stand points, the paper founds a basis for the creation of theory in an architectural discourse and for t......This working paper maps the theoretical territory of public space - urban public space - in a contemporary urban context. By finding, selecting, registering and examining existing theoretical stand points, the paper founds a basis for the creation of theory in an architectural discourse...

  5. A theoretical framework for understanding neuromuscular response to lower extremity joint injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrosimone, Brian G; McLeod, Michelle M; Lepley, Adam S

    2012-01-01

    Neuromuscular alterations are common following lower extremity joint injury and often lead to decreased function and disability. These neuromuscular alterations manifest in inhibition or abnormal facilitation of the uninjured musculature surrounding an injured joint. Unfortunately, these neural alterations are poorly understood, which may affect clinical recognition and treatment of these injuries. Understanding how these neural alterations affect physical function may be important for proper clinical management of lower extremity joint injuries. Pertinent articles focusing on neuromuscular consequences and treatment of knee and ankle injuries were collected from peer-reviewed sources available on the Web of Science and Medline databases from 1975 through 2010. A theoretical model to illustrate potential relationships between neural alterations and clinical impairments was constructed from the current literature. Lower extremity joint injury affects upstream cortical and spinal reflexive excitability pathways as well as downstream muscle function and overall physical performance. Treatment targeting the central nervous system provides an alternate means of treating joint injury that may be effective for patients with neuromuscular alterations. Disability is common following joint injury. There is mounting evidence that alterations in the central nervous system may relate to clinical changes in biomechanics that may predispose patients to further injury, and novel clinical interventions that target neural alterations may improve therapeutic outcomes.

  6. Geoscience Academic Provenance: A Theoretical Framework for Understanding Geoscience Students' Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houlton, H.; Keane, C.

    2012-04-01

    The demand and employment opportunities for geoscientists in the United States are projected to increase 23% from 2008 to 2018 (Gonzales, 2011). Despite this trend, there is a disconnect between undergraduate geoscience students and their desire to pursue geoscience careers. A theoretical framework was developed to understand the reasons why students decide to major in the geosciences and map those decisions to their career aspirations (Houlton, 2010). A modified critical incident study was conducted to develop the pathway model from 17, one-hour long semi-structured interviews of undergraduate geoscience majors from two Midwest Research Institutions (Houlton, 2010). Geoscience Academic Provenance maps geoscience students' initial interests, entry points into the major, critical incidents and future career goals as a pathway, which elucidates the relationships between each of these components. Analyses identified three geoscience student population groups that followed distinct pathways: Natives, Immigrants and Refugees. A follow up study was conducted in 2011 to ascertain whether these students continued on their predicted pathways, and if not, reasons for attrition. Geoscientists can use this framework as a guide to inform future recruitment and retention initiatives and target these geoscience population groups for specific employment sectors.

  7. Force-induced bone growth and adaptation: A system theoretical approach to understanding bone mechanotransduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maldonado, Solvey; Findeisen, Rolf

    2010-01-01

    The modeling, analysis, and design of treatment therapies for bone disorders based on the paradigm of force-induced bone growth and adaptation is a challenging task. Mathematical models provide, in comparison to clinical, medical and biological approaches an structured alternative framework to understand the concurrent effects of the multiple factors involved in bone remodeling. By now, there are few mathematical models describing the appearing complex interactions. However, the resulting models are complex and difficult to analyze, due to the strong nonlinearities appearing in the equations, the wide range of variability of the states, and the uncertainties in parameters. In this work, we focus on analyzing the effects of changes in model structure and parameters/inputs variations on the overall steady state behavior using systems theoretical methods. Based on an briefly reviewed existing model that describes force-induced bone adaptation, the main objective of this work is to analyze the stationary behavior and to identify plausible treatment targets for remodeling related bone disorders. Identifying plausible targets can help in the development of optimal treatments combining both physical activity and drug-medication. Such treatments help to improve/maintain/restore bone strength, which deteriorates under bone disorder conditions, such as estrogen deficiency.

  8. Elementary pre-service teachers' conceptual understanding of dissolving: a Vygotskian concept development perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrell, Pamela; Subramaniam, Karthigeyan

    2015-09-01

    Background and purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate and identify the nature and the interrelatedness of pre-service teachers' misconceptions and scientific concepts for explaining dissolving before, during, and after a 5E learning cycle lesson on dissolving, the intervention. Sample, design, and methods: Guided by Vygotsky's theory of concept development, the study focused specifically on the spontaneous, and spontaneous pseudo-concepts held by the 61 elementary pre-service teachers during a 15-week science methods course. Data included concept maps, interview transcripts, written artifacts, drawings, and narratives, and were thematically analyzed to classify concepts and interrelatedness. Results: Results of the study showed that spontaneous pseudo-concepts (1) dominated pre-service teachers' understandings about dissolving throughout the study, and (2) were simply associated with scientific concepts during and after the intervention. Conclusion: Collectively, the results indicated that the pre-service teachers' did not acquire a unified system of knowledge about dissolving that could be characterized as abstract, generalizable, and hierarchical. Implications include the need for (1) familiarity with pre-service teachers' prior knowledge about science content; (2) a variety of formative assessments to assess their misconceptions; (3) emphasizing the importance of dialectical method for concept development during instruction; and (4) skillful content instructors.

  9. From evidence to understanding: a commentary on Fisher (1922) 'On the mathematical foundations of theoretical statistics'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, David J

    2015-04-13

    The nature of statistics has changed over time. It was originally concerned with descriptive 'matters of state'--with summarizing population numbers, economic strength and social conditions. But during the course of the twentieth century its aim broadened to include inference--how to use data to shed light on underlying mechanisms, about what might happen in the future, about what would happen if certain actions were taken. Central to this development was Ronald Fisher. Over the course of his life he was responsible for many of the major conceptual advances in statistics. This is particularly illustrated by his 1922 paper, in which he introduced many of the concepts which remain fundamental to our understanding of how to extract meaning from data, right to the present day. It is no exaggeration to say that Fisher's work, as illustrated by the ideas he described and developed in this paper, underlies all modern science, and much more besides. This commentary was written to celebrate the 350th anniversary of the journal Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society.

  10. The understanding of core pharmacological concepts among health care students in their final semester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronsson, Patrik; Booth, Shirley; Hägg, Staffan; Kjellgren, Karin; Zetterqvist, Ann; Tobin, Gunnar; Reis, Margareta

    2015-12-29

    The overall aim of the study was to explore health care students´ understanding of core concepts in pharmacology. An interview study was conducted among twelve students in their final semester of the medical program (n = 4), the nursing program (n = 4), and the specialist nursing program in primary health care (n = 4) from two Swedish universities. The participants were individually presented with two pharmacological clinically relevant written patient cases, which they were to analyze and propose a solution to. Participants were allowed to use the Swedish national drug formulary. Immediately thereafter the students were interviewed about their assessments. The interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. A thematic analysis was used to identify units of meaning in each interview. The units were organized into three clusters: pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, and drug interactions. Subsequent procedure consisted of scoring the quality of students´ understanding of core concepts. Non-parametric statistics were employed. The study participants were in general able to define pharmacological concepts, but showed less ability to discuss the meaning of the concepts in depth and to implement these in a clinical context. The participants found it easier to grasp concepts related to pharmacodynamics than pharmacokinetics and drug interactions. These results indicate that education aiming to prepare future health care professionals for understanding of more complex pharmacological reasoning and decision-making needs to be more focused and effective.

  11. Theoretical Analysis of Occupational Development Aspects from the Viewpoint of the Personality's Constant Individual Traits Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilsz, Jolanta

    2015-01-01

    The concept of personality's constant individual traits and its significance, as well as implications for problems connected with choosing an occupation have been presented in the paper. Selected theories of occupational development have been analyzed from the concept viewpoint and certain traits of occupational personality presented by authors of…

  12. A new mix design concept for earth-moist concrete: A theoretical and experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hüsken, Götz; Brouwers, Jos

    2008-01-01

    This paper addresses experiments on earth-moist concrete (EMC) based on the ideas of a new mix design concept. First, a brief introduction into particle packing and relevant packing theories is given. Based on packing theories for geometric packing, a new concept for the mix design of earth-moist

  13. The Study on the Core Concepts of Contemporary Sociology of Education and Its Theoretical Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Min-hui

    2006-01-01

    Within the sphere of contemporary social sciences, the terms "modernity," "post-modernity" and "globalization" have penetrated, as the core concepts, into various fields of social sciences in a logical way. In constituting the concept of "modernity," sociology of education develops the educational theory, as sociological theory does, into a "grand…

  14. Using Guided Reinvention to Develop Teachers' Understanding of Hypothesis Testing Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolor, Jason; Noll, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Statistics education reform efforts emphasize the importance of informal inference in the learning of statistics. Research suggests statistics teachers experience similar difficulties understanding statistical inference concepts as students and how teacher knowledge can impact student learning. This study investigates how teachers reinvented an…

  15. The Effect of Various Media Scaffolding on Increasing Understanding of Students' Geometry Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutiarso, Sugeng; Coesamin, M.; Nurhanurawati

    2018-01-01

    This study is a quasi-experimental research with pretest-posttest control group design, which aims to determine (1) the tendency of students in using various media scaffolding based on gender, and (2) effect of media scaffolding on increasing understanding of students' geometry concepts. Media scaffolding used this study is chart, props, and…

  16. Understanding the Nernst Equation and Other Electrochemical Concepts: An Easy Experimental Approach for Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal-Iglesias, Francisco J.; Solla-Gullon, Jose; Rodes, Antonio; Herrero, Enrique; Aldaz, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    The goal of the present laboratory experiment is to deepen the understanding of the Nernst equation and some other concepts that are essential in electrochemistry. In this practical laboratory session, students first learn that the equilibrium potential of an electrode is related to the difference between two equilibrium inner electric potentials…

  17. A Cross-Age Study of Student Understanding of the Concept of Homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbrook, Susan L.; Marek, Edmund A.

    1992-01-01

    The conceptual views of homeostasis held by students (n=300) in seventh grade life science, tenth grade biology, and college zoology were examined. A biographical questionnaire, the results from two Piagetian-like developmental tasks, and a concept evaluation statement of homeostasis were collected from each student. Understanding of the concept…

  18. Students' Understanding of Genetics Concepts: The Effect of Reasoning Ability and Learning Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiliç, Didem; Saglam, Necdet

    2014-01-01

    Students tend to learn genetics by rote and may not realise the interrelationships in daily life. Because reasoning abilities are necessary to construct relationships between concepts and rote learning impedes the students' sound understanding, it was predicted that having high level of formal reasoning and adopting meaningful learning orientation…

  19. The Collaboration of Cooperative Learning and Conceptual Change: Enhancing the Students' Understanding of Chemical Bonding Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eymur, Gülüzar; Geban, Ömer

    2017-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of cooperative learning based on conceptual change approach instruction on ninth-grade students' understanding in chemical bonding concepts compared to traditional instruction. Seventy-two ninth-grade students from two intact chemistry classes taught by the same teacher in a public high…

  20. Determination of Factors Related to Students' Understandings of Heat, Temperature and Internal Energy Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurcay, Deniz; Gulbas, Etna

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate the relationships between high school students' learning approaches and logical thinking abilities and their understandings of heat, temperature and internal energy concepts. Learning Approach Questionnaire, Test of Logical Thinking and Three-Tier Heat, Temperature and Internal Energy Test were used…

  1. Comparing Two Types of Diagnostic Items to Evaluate Understanding of Heat and Temperature Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Hye-Eun; Chandrasegaran, A. L.; Treagust, David F.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate an efficient method to assess year 8 (age 13-14) students' conceptual understanding of heat and temperature concepts. Two different types of instruments were used in this study: Type 1, consisting of multiple-choice items with open-ended justifications; and Type 2, consisting of two-tier…

  2. Effect of Conceptual Change Approach on Students' Understanding of Reaction Rate Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingir, Sevgi; Geban, Omer

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of conceptual change text oriented instruction compared to traditional instruction on 10th grade students' understanding of reaction rate concepts. 45 students from two classes of the same teacher in a public high school participated in this study. Students in the experimental group…

  3. Understanding the Concept of Food Sovereignty Using the Ghana School Feeding Program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quaye, W.; Ruivenkamp, G.T.P.; Frempong, G.; Essegbey, G.

    2010-01-01

    This article deepens the understanding of the emerging food sovereignty concept using a case study of a home-grown school feeding programme that promotes local food demand - supply linkages. A school feeding programme in four selected districts in Ghana is analysed with respect to community

  4. A Mixed Methods Analysis of Students' Understanding of Slope and Derivative Concepts and Students' Mathematical Dispositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Rita Manubhai

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examined understanding of slope and derivative concepts and mathematical dispositions of first-semester college calculus students, who are recent high school graduates, transitioning to university mathematics. The present investigation extends existing research in the following ways. First, based on this investigation, the…

  5. The InVEST Volcanic Concept Survey: Exploring Student Understanding about Volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parham, Thomas L., Jr.; Cervato, Cinzia; Gallus, William A., Jr.; Larsen, Michael; Hobbs, Jon; Stelling, Pete; Greenbowe, Thomas; Gupta, Tanya; Knox, John A.; Gill, Thomas E.

    2010-01-01

    Results from the Volcanic Concept Survey (VCS) indicated that many undergraduates do not fully understand volcanic systems and plate tectonics. During the 2006 academic year, a ten-item conceptual survey was distributed to undergraduate students enrolled in Earth science courses at five U.S. colleges and universities. A trained team of graders…

  6. Building Students' Understanding of Quadratic Equation Concept Using Naïve Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fachrudin, Achmad Dhany; Putri, Ratu Ilma Indra; Darmawijoyo

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to know how Naïve Geometry method can support students' understanding about the concept of solving quadratic equations. In this article we will discuss one activities of the four activities we developed. This activity focused on how students linking the Naïve Geometry method with the solving of the quadratic…

  7. The Precalculus Concept Assessment: A Tool for Assessing Students' Reasoning Abilities and Understandings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Marilyn; Oehrtman, Michael; Engelke, Nicole

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the development of the Precalculus Concept Assessment (PCA) instrument, a 25-item multiple-choice exam. The reasoning abilities and understandings central to precalculus and foundational for beginning calculus were identified and characterized in a series of research studies and are articulated in the PCA Taxonomy. These…

  8. Conceptual Understanding of Acids and Bases Concepts and Motivation to Learn Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin-Dindar, Ayla; Geban, Omer

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of 5E learning cycle model oriented instruction (LCMI) on 11th-grade students' conceptual understanding of acids and bases concepts and student motivation to learn chemistry. The study, which lasted for 7 weeks, involved two groups: An experimental group (LCMI) and a control group (the…

  9. Social Studies Student Teachers' Levels of Understanding Sociology Concepts within Social Studies Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatekin, Kadir

    2013-01-01

    This study aims at investigating social studies student teachers' levels of understanding sociology concepts within social studies curriculum. Study group of the research consists of 266 teacher candidates attending the Department of Social Studies, Faculty of Education, Kastamonu University during 2012 to 2013 education year. A semi-structured…

  10. Mapping Theory - a mapping of the theoretical territory related to a contemporary concept of public space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Shelley

    2008-01-01

    This working paper maps the theoretical territory of public space - urban public space - in a contemporary urban context. By finding, selecting, registering and examining existing theoretical stand points, the paper founds a basis for the creation of theory in an architectural discourse and for t......This working paper maps the theoretical territory of public space - urban public space - in a contemporary urban context. By finding, selecting, registering and examining existing theoretical stand points, the paper founds a basis for the creation of theory in an architectural discourse...... and for the examination of new spatial constellations for further research in public space. In addition to this, the appendices of the working paper are a kind of database for sources and source analyses....

  11. Mapping Theory - a mapping of the theoretical territory related to a contemporary concept of public space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Shelley

    2008-01-01

    This working paper maps the theoretical territory of public space - urban public space - in a contemporary urban context. By finding, selecting, registering and examining existing theoretical stand points, the paper founds a basis for the creation of theory in an architectural discourse...... and for the examination of new spatial constellations for further research in public space. In addition to this, the appendices of the working paper are a kind of database for sources and source analyses....

  12. Concept Communication and Interpretation of Illness: A Holistic Model of Understanding in Nursing Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordby, Halvor

    To ensure patient communication in nursing, certain conditions must be met that enable successful exchange of beliefs, thoughts, and other mental states. The conditions that have received most attention in the nursing literature are derived from general communication theories, psychology, and ethical frameworks of interpretation. This article focuses on a condition more directly related to an influential coherence model of concept possession from recent philosophy of mind and language. The basic ideas in this model are (i) that the primary source of understanding of illness experiences is communicative acts that express concepts of illness, and (ii) that the key to understanding patients' concepts of illness is to understand how they depend on patients' lifeworlds. The article argues that (i) and (ii) are especially relevant in caring practice since it has been extensively documented that patients' perspectives on disease and illness are shaped by their subjective horizons. According to coherentism, nurses need to focus holistically on patients' horizons in order to understand the meaning of patients' expressions of meaning. Furthermore, the coherence model implies that fundamental aims of understanding can be achieved only if nurses recognize the interdependence of patients' beliefs and experiences of ill health. The article uses case studies to elucidate how the holistic implications of coherentism can be used as conceptual tools in nursing.

  13. Exploring children's understanding of death: through drawings and the Death Concept Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonoti, Fotini; Leondari, Angeliki; Mastora, Adelais

    2013-01-01

    To investigate whether children's understanding of the concept of death varies as a function of death experience and age, 52 children aged 7, 9, and 11 years (26 had a personal death experience), drew a picture reflecting the meaning of the word death and completed the Death Concept Questionnaire for examination of Human and Animal Death. The results showed that the 2 methodological tools used offered complementary information and that children's understanding of death is related both to age and past experience. Children with death experience seem to have a more realistic understanding of death than their inexperienced age-mates. As regards to the effect of age, our findings support the assumption that the different components of death develop through different processes.

  14. [From classical management to contemporary management: understanding new concepts to empower nursing management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spagnol, Carla Aparecida

    2002-01-01

    This theoretical work aimed to study Hospital Administration, focusing on Nursing Management. The author points out contemporary administration concepts, and leads us to think over how those new models of management (already in use in some institutions known as pioneers on this area) may have influence on the Nursing Management practice inserted on the context. The author concludes that Nursing is going through a transition moment, breaking paradigms, trying to get over Classical Administration beliefs and searching for flexible, humanized and shared ways to manage Nursing Care.

  15. Economic Integration and Foreign Direct Investment: Review of Main Theoretical Concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam MARSZK

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the article is to present key theoretical relationships between economic integration and FDI flows. The research method used is a comprehensive literature review. Most influential publications, including books, articles, working papers, etc. contributing to the subject were identified. The review consists of two essential parts: theory of FDI, and theoretical relationships between economic integration and FDI flows. Finally, the outlined publications were discussed and critiqued, including the empirical context, i.e. empirical verification of the presented links.

  16. Anthropophagy: a singular concept to understand Brazilian culture and psychology as specific knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Arthur Arruda Leal

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this work is to present the singularity of the concept of anthropophagy in Brazilian culture. This article examines its use in the Modernist Movement of the 1920s and explores the possibilities it creates for thinking about Brazilian culture in nonidentitarian terms. We then use the concept of anthropophagy in a broader, practical sense to understand psychology as a kind of anthropophagical knowledge. We do so because in many ways the discipline of psychology is similar to Brazilian culture in its plurality and complexity. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Towards a Theoretical Framework for Understanding PGCE Student Teacher Learning in the Wild Coast Rural Schools' Partnership Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennefather, Jane

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on a theoretical model that I am developing in order to understand student teacher learning in a rural context and the enabling conditions that can support this learning. The question of whether a supervised teaching practice in a rural context can contribute to the development of student teacher professional learning and…

  18. Strategy Effectiveness of Game-Theoretical Solution Concepts in Extensive-Form General-Sum Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cermak, Jiri; Bosansky, Branislav; Gatti, Nicola

    Academic communities have adopted different conventions for ordering authors on academic publications. Are these choices inconsequential, or can they significantly impact individual authors, or even communities at large? We consider a game theoretic model to study allocation of credit to authors...

  19. Experimental and Theoretical Researches of a Resonator Concept of a Dielectric Wakefield Accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onishchenko, I.N.; Kiselev, V.A.; Linnik, A.F.; Onishchenko, N.I.; Sotnikov, G.V.; Uskov, V.V.

    2006-01-01

    Wakefield excitation in a cylindrical dielectric waveguide or resonator by a regular sequence of electron bunches foe application to high-gradient particle acceleration has been investigated theoretically and experimentally using an electron linac 'ALMAZ-2' (4.5 MeV, 6.10 3 bunches of duration 60 ps and charge 0.32 nC each)

  20. Uncertainties and understanding of experimental and theoretical results regarding reactions forming heavy and superheavy nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giardina, G.; Mandaglio, G.; Nasirov, A. K.; Anastasi, A.; Curciarello, F.; Fazio, G.

    2018-02-01

    Experimental and theoretical results of the PCN fusion probability of reactants in the entrance channel and the Wsur survival probability against fission at deexcitation of the compound nucleus formed in heavy-ion collisions are discussed. The theoretical results for a set of nuclear reactions leading to formation of compound nuclei (CNs) with the charge number Z = 102- 122 reveal a strong sensitivity of PCN to the characteristics of colliding nuclei in the entrance channel, dynamics of the reaction mechanism, and excitation energy of the system. We discuss the validity of assumptions and procedures for analysis of experimental data, and also the limits of validity of theoretical results obtained by the use of phenomenological models. The comparison of results obtained in many investigated reactions reveals serious limits of validity of the data analysis and calculation procedures.

  1. Assessing Students' Understandings of Biological Models and Their Use in Science to Evaluate a Theoretical Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grünkorn, Juliane; Upmeier zu Belzen, Annette; Krüger, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Research in the field of students' understandings of models and their use in science describes different frameworks concerning these understandings. Currently, there is no conjoint framework that combines these structures and so far, no investigation has focused on whether it reflects students' understandings sufficiently (empirical evaluation).…

  2. The influence of teachers' conceptions on their students' learning: children's understanding of sheet music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Íñiguez, Guadalupe; Pozo, Juan Ignacio

    2014-06-01

    Despite increasing interest in teachers' and students' conceptions of learning and teaching, and how they influence their practice, there are few studies testing the influence of teachers' conceptions on their students' learning. This study tests how teaching conception (TC; with a distinction between direct and constructive) influences students' representations regarding sheet music. Sixty students (8-12 years old) from music conservatories: 30 of them took lessons with teachers with a constructive TC and another 30 with teachers shown to have a direct TC. Children were given a musical comprehension task in which they were asked to select and rank the contents they needed to learn. These contents had different levels of processing and complexity: symbolic, analytical, and referential. Three factorial ANOVAs, two-one-way ANOVAs, and four 2 × 3 repeated-measures ANOVAs were used to analyse the effects of and the interaction between the independent variables TC and class, both for/on total cards selected, their ranking, and each sub-category (the three processing levels). ANOVAs on the selection and ranking of these contents showed that teachers' conceptions seem to mediate significantly in the way the students understand the music. Students from constructive teachers have more complex and deep understanding of music. They select more elements for learning scores than those from traditional teachers. Teaching conception also influences the way in which children rank those elements. No difference exists between the way 8- and 12-year-olds learn scores. Children's understanding of the scores is more complex than assumed in other studies. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  3. The Empirical Measurement of a Theoretical Concept: Tracing Social Exclusion among Racial Minority and Migrant Groups in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luann Good Gingrich

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an in-depth description and case application of a conceptual model of social exclusion: aiming to advance existing knowledge on how to conceive of and identify this complex idea, evaluate the methodologies used to measure it, and reconsider what is understood about its social realities toward a meaningful and measurable conception of social inclusion. Drawing on Pierre Bourdieu’s conceptual tools of social fields and systems of capital, our research posits and applies a theoretical framework that permits the measurement of social exclusion as dynamic, social, relational, and material. We begin with a brief review of existing social exclusion research literature, and specifically examine the difficulties and benefits inherent in quantitatively operationalizing a necessarily multifarious theoretical concept. We then introduce our conceptual model of social exclusion and inclusion, which is built on measurable constructs. Using our ongoing program of research as a case study, we briefly present our approach to the quantitative operationalization of social exclusion using secondary data analysis in the Canadian context. Through the development of an Economic Exclusion Index, we demonstrate how our statistical and theoretical analyses evidence intersecting processes of social exclusion which produce consequential gaps and uneven trajectories for migrant individuals and groups compared with Canadian-born, and racial minority groups versus white individuals. To conclude, we consider some methodological implications to advance the empirical measurement of social inclusion.

  4. Understanding the concept of resolving power in the Fabry-Perot interferometer using a digital simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juvells, I; Carnicer, A; Ferre-Borrull, J; MartIn-Badosa, E; Montes-Usategui, M

    2006-01-01

    The resolution concept in connection with the Fabry-Perot interferometer is difficult to understand for undergraduate students enrolled in physical optics courses. The resolution criterion proposed in textbooks for distinguishing equal intensity maxima and the deduction of the resolving power equation is formal and non-intuitive. In this paper, we study the practical meaning of the resolution criterion and resolution power using a computer simulation of a Fabry-Perot interferometer. The light source in the program has two monochromatic components, the wavelength difference being tunable by the user. The student can also adjust other physical parameters so as to obtain different simulation results. By analysing the images and graphics of the simulation, the resolving power concept becomes intuitive and understandable

  5. Students concept understanding of fluid static based on the types of teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmawati, I. D.; Suparmi; Sunarno, W.

    2018-03-01

    This research aims to know the concept understanding of student are taught by guided inquiry based learning and conventional based learning. Subjects in this study are high school students as much as 2 classes and each class consists of 32 students, both classes are homogen. The data was collected by conceptual test in the multiple choice form with the students argumentation of the answer. The data analysis used is qualitative descriptive method. The results of the study showed that the average of class that was using guided inquiry based learning is 78.44 while the class with use conventional based learning is 65.16. Based on these data, the guided inquiry model is an effective learning model used to improve students concept understanding.

  6. Students’ understanding and application of the area under the curve concept in physics problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Hai Nguyen

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates how students understand and apply the area under the curve concept and the integral-area relation in solving introductory physics problems. We interviewed 20 students in the first semester and 15 students from the same cohort in the second semester of a calculus-based physics course sequence on several problems involving the area under the curve concept. We found that only a few students could recognize that the concept of area under the curve was applicable in physics problems. Even when students could invoke the area under the curve concept, they did not necessarily understand the relationship between the process of accumulation and the area under a curve, so they failed to apply it to novel situations. We also found that when presented with several graphs, students had difficulty in selecting the graph such that the area under the graph corresponded to a given integral, although all of them could state that “the integral equaled the area under the curve.” The findings in this study are consistent with those in previous mathematics education research and research in physics education on students’ use of the area under the curve.

  7. Designing learning apparatus to promote twelfth grade students’ understanding of digital technology concept: A preliminary studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlius; Kaniawati, I.; Feranie, S.

    2018-05-01

    A preliminary learning design using relay to promote twelfth grade student’s understanding of logic gates concept is implemented to see how well it’s to adopted by six high school students, three male students and three female students of twelfth grade. This learning design is considered for next learning of digital technology concept i.e. data digital transmition and analog. This work is a preliminary study to design the learning for large class. So far just a few researches designing learning design related to digital technology with relay. It may due to this concept inserted in Indonesian twelfth grade curriculum recently. This analysis is focus on student difficulties trough video analysis to learn the concept. Based on our analysis, the recommended thing for redesigning learning is: students understand first about symbols and electrical circuits; the Student Worksheet is made in more detail on the assembly steps to the project board; mark with symbols at points in certain places in the circuit for easy assembly; assembly using relays by students is enough until is the NOT’s logic gates and the others that have been assembled so that effective time. The design of learning using relays can make the relay a liaison between the abstract on the digital with the real thing of it, especially in the circuit of symbols and real circuits. Besides it is expected to also enrich the ability of teachers in classroom learning about digital technology.

  8. Displays for promotion of public understanding of geological repository concept and the spatial scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shobu, Nobuhiro; Kashiwazaki, Hiroshi

    2003-05-01

    Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institutes (JNC) has a few thousands of short term visitors to Geological Isolation Basic Research Facility of Tokai works in every year. From the viewpoint of promotion of the visitor's understanding and also smooth communication between researchers and visitors, the explanation of the technical information on geological disposal should be carried out in more easily understandable methods, as well as conventional tour to the engineering-scale test facility (ENTRY). This paper reports on the background information and the appearance of displays, which were installed at ENTRY, to promote public understanding of geological repository concept and the spatial scale. They have been practically used as one of the explanation tools to support visitor's understanding. (author)

  9. Quantification of the radionuclide image: Theoretical concepts and the role of the computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabinowitz, A.; Wexler, J.P.; Blaufox, M.D.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to provide the reader with the basic fundamentals for understanding dynamic and quantitative imaging studies. The computer, which is a basic requirement for the optimum generation and analysis of these data, is discussed here. These studies require an understanding of physiologic and mathematic principles and of the workings of the machine that is used to record them

  10. Exploring Asynchrony as a Theoretical Framework for Understanding Giftedness: A Case of Cognitive Dissonance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andronaco, Julie A.; Shute, Rosalyn; McLachlan, Angus

    2014-01-01

    Asynchrony is a theoretical construct that views the intellectually gifted child as inherently vulnerable because of disparities arising from the mismatch between his or her chronological age and mental age. Such disparities, for example, between wanting to belong but being intellectually out of step with peers, are said to give rise to a…

  11. Understanding, Selecting, and Integrating a Theoretical Framework in Dissertation Research: Creating the Blueprint for Your "House"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Cynthia; Osanloo, Azadeh

    2014-01-01

    The theoretical framework is one of the most important aspects in the research process, yet is often misunderstood by doctoral candidates as they prepare their dissertation research study. The importance of theory-driven thinking and acting is emphasized in relation to the selection of a topic, the development of research questions, the…

  12. Test of understanding of vectors: A reliable multiple-choice vector concept test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barniol, Pablo; Zavala, Genaro

    2014-06-01

    In this article we discuss the findings of our research on students' understanding of vector concepts in problems without physical context. First, we develop a complete taxonomy of the most frequent errors made by university students when learning vector concepts. This study is based on the results of several test administrations of open-ended problems in which a total of 2067 students participated. Using this taxonomy, we then designed a 20-item multiple-choice test [Test of understanding of vectors (TUV)] and administered it in English to 423 students who were completing the required sequence of introductory physics courses at a large private Mexican university. We evaluated the test's content validity, reliability, and discriminatory power. The results indicate that the TUV is a reliable assessment tool. We also conducted a detailed analysis of the students' understanding of the vector concepts evaluated in the test. The TUV is included in the Supplemental Material as a resource for other researchers studying vector learning, as well as instructors teaching the material.

  13. Dienes AEM as an alternative mathematics teaching aid to enhance Indonesian students’ understanding of algebra concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soro, S.; Maarif, S.; Kurniawan, Y.; Raditya, A.

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study is to find out the effect of Dienes AEM (Algebra Experience Materials) on the ability of understanding concept of algebra on the senior high school student in Indonesia. This research is an experimental research with subject of all high school students in Indonesia. The samples taken were high school students in three provinces namely DKI Jakarta Province, West Java Province and Banten Province. From each province was taken senior high school namely SMA N 9 Bekasi West Java, SMA N 94 Jakarta and SMA N 5 Tangerang, Banten. The number of samples in this study was 114 high school students of tenth grade as experimental class and 115 high school students of tenth grade as control class. Learning algebra concept is needed in learning mathematics, besides it is needed especially to educate students to be able to think logically, systematically, critically, analytically, creatively, and cooperation. Therefore in this research will be developed an effective algebra learning by using Dienes AEM. The result of this research is that there is a significant influence on the students’ concept comprehension ability taught by using Dienes AEM learning as an alternative to instill the concept of algebra compared to the students taught by conventional learning. Besides, the students’ learning motivation increases because students can construct the concept of algebra with props.

  14. Understanding polycystic ovary syndrome from the patient perspective: a concept elicitation patient interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Mona L; Halling, Katarina; Eek, Daniel; Krohe, Meaghan; Paty, Jean

    2017-08-18

    The aim of this study was to explore the need for a new disease-specific patient reported outcome (PRO) measure for use in clinical trials of drugs designed to target the underlying causes of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and in the process contribute to our understanding of the symptoms and impacts that define the patient experience with PCOS. Semi-structured interviews were conducted in 20 women diagnosed with PCOS according to the Rotterdam criteria who had not menstruated in the previous month. The relative importance of PCOS symptoms and impact concepts to patients was determined by analyzing the frequency of their expression in the interview transcripts. These insights were compared to clinicians' perceptions of PCOS. Pain- and discomfort-related symptoms accounted for the highest proportion (27.6%) of the 735 patient expressions, although clinicians did not consider pain to be important to patients with PCOS. The most frequently expressed individual symptoms were cramping (70% of patients; 14.7% of concepts), irregular menstruation (95% of patients; 12.2% of concepts), facial hair growth (75% of patients; 10.6% of concepts), heavy bleeding (70% of patients; 8.8% of concepts), infertility (70% of patients; 5.4% of concepts), and bloating (60% of patients; 5.2% of concepts). Cramping, heavy bleeding, and bloating were not identified by clinicians as being important to patients with PCOS. The impacts most frequently reported by patients with PCOS related to emotional well-being (e.g. anxiety/stress) and coping behaviors (e.g. acne medication, hair removal). The only validated PCOS-specific PRO, the PCOSQ, does not capture some key PCOS symptoms and impacts expressed by patients with PCOS, most notably those related to pain and discomfort, bleeding intensity and coping behaviours. Furthermore, some key PCOS symptoms may be under-recognized in the clinic.

  15. SPECIALIZED MAPPING OF CRUSTAL FAULT ZONES. PART 1: BASIC THEORETICAL CONCEPTS AND PRINCIPLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Zh. Seminsky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-term studies of shear zones have included collection of data on fractures showing no indication of displacement which are termed as 'blank' fractures. A method aimed at mapping fault structures and stress fields has been developed on the basis of results of paragenetic analysis of measurements of abundant fractures. The method is termed as 'specialized mapping', firstly, due to its specific structural goal so that to distinguish it from the conventional geological mapping of regions in nature, and, secondly, because of the specific procedure applied to refer to fractures as references to decipher fault-block patterns of natural regions. In Part 1, basic theoretical concepts and principles of specialized mapping are described. Part 2 is being prepared for publication in one of the next issues of the journal; it will cover stages of the proposed method and describe some of the cases of its application.In terms of general organizational principles, specialized mapping is similar to other methods based on structural paragenetic analysis and differs from such methods in types of paragenesises viewed as references to reveal crustal fault zones. Such paragenesises result from stage-by-stage faulting (Fig 2 and Fig. 7 during which stress fields of the 2nd order are regularly changeable within the shear zone. According to combined experimental and natural data, a complete paragenesis of fractures in the shear zone includes a major (1st order fault plane and fractures of other seven types, R, R’, n, n’, t, t’ and T (2nd order (Fig. 4 and Fig 8. At the fracture level, each of them corresponds to a paragenesis including three nearly perpendicular systems of early ruptures (Fig. 1, which are based on two classical patterns of conjugated fractures, one of which is consistent with the position of the fault plane (Fig. 3. Taking into account that strike-slip, reverse and normal faults are similar in terms of mechanics (i.e. they are formed due to

  16. Students’ Understanding of the Concept of Democracy and Implications for Teacher Education in Social Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Elise Hesby Mathé

    2016-04-01

    be actively encouraged and maintained also in successful democracies. Little is known, however, about how students understand and explain democracy as a subject-specific concept. Such knowledge may be valuable for social studies teachers and teacher educators to fulfil the purpose of the social studies curriculum. The present article investigates 16-year-old students’ understanding of the concept of democracy. In social studies, the concept of democracy is essential not only for disciplinary understanding and discourse, but also for students’ out-of-school democratic participation. To investigate students’ understanding of this concept, semi-structured group interviews were conducted with a total of 23 students at three different Norwegian upper secondary schools. A central finding is that students primarily expressed a liberal understanding of democracy focusing on voting in elections as the main political activity. Students also demonstrated more or less limited or elaborate understanding. In addition to presenting and discussing students’ understandings of the concept of democracy, this article considers implications for teacher education in social studies. One implication is that teacher educators need to engage actively in discussing and defining core concepts with their students. This is related to supporting student teachers’ professional development and in turn developing adolescents’ opportunities for democratic participation. Such a dual focus can provide a knowledge base to help student teachers in their professional development in their first years as practicing teachers.Keywords: democracy, concepts, understanding, teacher education, social studies, democratic theory

  17. Alienation and Engagement: Development of an Alternative Theoretical Framework for Understanding Student Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Jennifer M.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper it is suggested that the themes of alienation and engagement offer a productive alternative perspective for characterising the student experience of learning in higher education, compared to current dominant perspectives such as that offered by approaches to learning and related concepts. A conceptual and historical background of the…

  18. University students’ understanding of the electromotive force concept in the context of electromagnetic induction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuza, Kristina; Guisasola, Jenaro; De Cock, Mieke; Bollen, Laurens; Van Kampen, Paul

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we present research on university students’ understanding of the concept of electromotive force (emf). The work presented here is a continuation of previous research by Garzón et al (2014 Am. J. Phys. 82 72–6) in which university students’ understanding of emf in the contexts of transient current and direct current circuits was analyzed. In the work we present here the investigation focuses on electromagnetic induction phenomena. Three open-ended questions from a broader questionnaire were analyzed in depth. We used phenomenography to define categories and detect lines of reasoning and difficulties in conceptual understanding. Very few students showed a good understanding of the emf concept in electromagnetic induction circuits or an ability to distinguish it from potential difference. Although the prevalences of the responses in the different categories are different, we find that the difficulties are the same in the three universities. Standard instruction does not allow most students to analyze unfamiliar contexts where the answer requires a systemic explanatory model. (paper)

  19. INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION AND INTERSUBJECTIVE COMMUNICATION. SOME THEORETICAL AND CONCEPTUAL KEYS FOR ITS UNDERSTANDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Rizo Garcia

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the proliferation of digital communication forms, is urgent for communication research to strengthen the works around the interpersonal dimension of communicative processes. To do so, communication field needs to extend the boarding spectrum of interpersonal communication, an object that has been relegated to a secondary plane by the predominance of mass media research. This work is based on the need to distinguish intersubjective communication from interpersonal communication, two terms that are often conceived as synonymous. Even though both share the same empirical referents, their theoretical foundations are different. This essay presents three theoretical perspectives to define intersubjective communication –symbolic interactionism, phenomenological sociology and the Theory of Communicative Action– that share an interest beyond the situations of face to face interaction in which all subjects are daily immersed. A documentary and interpretive methodology is used in this work, because it's an argumentative essay that tries to outline some theoretical and conceptual guidelines to think –and make complex– interpersonal and intersubjective communication. It is relevant the approach of both communication types from different fields aside the strictly communicational; for that reason, in this essay are emphasized contributions made from other areas such as philosophy and social psychology.

  20. Shape of the self-concept clarity change during group psychotherapy predicts the outcome: an empirical validation of the theoretical model of the self-concept change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styła, Rafał

    2015-01-01

    Background: Self-Concept Clarity (SCC) describes the extent to which the schemas of the self are internally integrated, well defined, and temporally stable. This article presents a theoretical model that describes how different shapes of SCC change (especially stable increase and “V” shape) observed in the course of psychotherapy are related to the therapy outcome. Linking the concept of Jean Piaget and the dynamic systems theory, the study postulates that a stable SCC increase is needed for the participants with a rather healthy personality structure, while SCC change characterized by a “V” shape or fluctuations is optimal for more disturbed patients. Method: Correlational study in a naturalistic setting with repeated measurements (M = 5.8) was conducted on the sample of 85 patients diagnosed with neurosis and personality disorders receiving intensive eclectic group psychotherapy under routine inpatient conditions. Participants filled in the Self-Concept Clarity Scale (SCCS), Symptoms' Questionnaire KS-II, and Neurotic Personality Questionnaire KON-2006 at the beginning and at the end of the course of psychotherapy. The SCCS was also administered every 2 weeks during psychotherapy. Results: As hypothesized, among the relatively healthiest group of patients the stable SCC increase was related to positive treatment outcome, while more disturbed patients benefited from the fluctuations and “V” shape of SCC change. Conclusions: The findings support the idea that for different personality dispositions either a monotonic increase or transient destabilization of SCC is a sign of a good treatment prognosis. PMID:26579001

  1. Allostatic load: A theoretical model for understanding the relationship between maternal posttraumatic stress disorder and adverse birth outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Rosemberg, Marie-Anne Sanon; Seng, Julia S

    2018-07-01

    Adverse birth outcomes such as preterm birth and low birth weight are significant public health concerns and contribute to neonatal morbidity and mortality. Studies have increasingly been exploring the predictive effects of maternal posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on adverse birth outcomes. However, the biological mechanisms by which maternal PTSD affects birth outcomes are not well understood. Allostatic load refers to the cumulative dysregulations of the multiple physiological systems as a response to multiple social-ecological levels of chronic stress. Allostatic load has been well documented in relation to both chronic stress and adverse health outcomes in non-pregnant populations. However, the mediating role of allostatic load is less understood when it comes to maternal PTSD and adverse birth outcomes. To propose a theoretical model that depicts how allostatic load could mediate the impact of maternal PTSD on birth outcomes. We followed the procedures for theory synthesis approach described by Walker and Avant (2011), including specifying focal concepts, identifying related factors and relationships, and constructing an integrated representation. We first present a theoretical overview of the allostatic load theory and the other 4 relevant theoretical models. Then we provide a brief narrative review of literature that empirically supports the propositions of the integrated model. Finally, we describe our theoretical model. The theoretical model synthesized has the potential to advance perinatal research by delineating multiple biomarkers to be used in future. After it is well validated, it could be utilized as the theoretical basis for health care professionals to identify high-risk women by evaluating their experiences of psychosocial and traumatic stress and to develop and evaluate service delivery and clinical interventions that might modify maternal perceptions or experiences of stress and eliminate their impacts on adverse birth outcomes. Copyright

  2. The understanding of the concept of business in terms of the concepts of GAME/SPORT with the example of business English idioms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milošević Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the potential understanding of the concept of BUSINESS in terms of the concepts of GAME and SPORT with the examples of Business English idioms (idiomatic expressions. Namely, in the light of the cognitive linguistics, meaning is considered to be not only a linguistic phenomenon, but a conceptual phenomenon as well. Such vantage point enables a lexico-semantic interpretation of linguistic units from a conceptual perspective, which includes the forming of correspondences between two concepts, with one concept being understood in terms of the other. The analysis includes 24 Business English idioms which stem from the conceptual domain of GAME/SPORT and is aimed at establishing the conceptual mapping (primarily via a cognitive mechanism known as the conceptual metaphor between the above stated source and the target domains, which prove a potential understanding of the concept of BUSINESS on the basis of the concepts of SPORT and GAME.

  3. The Effects of Hands-On Learning Stations on Building American Elementary Teachers' Understanding about Earth and Space Science Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulunuz, Nermin; Jarrett, Olga S.

    2010-01-01

    Research on conceptual change indicates that not only children, but also teachers have incomplete understanding or misconceptions on science concepts. This mixed methods study was concerned with in-service teachers' understanding of four earth and space science concepts taught in elementary school: reason for seasons, phases of the moon, rock…

  4. Theoretical Conceptions in Musicology as a Potential Obstacle to Musical Comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levon Hakobian

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The core of the history of musical thought consists of large-scale doctrines striving to explain the multitude of observed phenomena in terms of immutable categories and universals. All such doctrines are based on the belief of their authors that all the complex and differentiated phenomena have their origins in simple principles. Accordingly, any music that cannot be convincingly reduced to these principles is either ignored or declared ‘abnormal’. Any doctrine inevitably stops before what in music is not quite ‘system-defined’. Though doctrines may point to ‘irregularities’, they can hardly justify them aesthetically. The by-effect of their influence is the growth of prejudices around anything that is new and unusual.A huge array of musicological literature, developing the methodological principles of ‘big’ classical conceptions or propounding new conceptions that also claim to be scientific and universal, can hardly help the reader to clarify his perception of the unfamiliar or to discover new meanings in what is well known (the present paper illustrates this using several examples from different brands of musicology, both Russian and non-Russian. This arguably means that the ‘scientistic’ (reductionist paradigm in musicology has been exhausted and the new, deeper knowledge of music has to be acquired through alternative, not strictly scientific – perhaps rather literary, openly subjective, authority-free – ways.

  5. A THEORETICAL APPROACH OF THE CONCEPT OF SOCIAL CAPITAL IN SUPPORTING ECONOMIC PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boldea Monica

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Any activity requires the presence of labor resources. If centuries ago the concept was that their presence was enough, now it takes a lot more. Moreover, since Aristotle the issue was taking into consideration all aspects of the community life that can lead to a "better life". In the current conditions we may consider resources in the broader context of the human factor and of the relations established within a society. Thus social capital was conceptualized. As opportunities of economic growth - based purely on the quantitative aspects of the determinants – were limited, the need occurred to reconsider the qualitative and structural components. Social capital considers a number of the integrative components of social life. These refer to the relations established at family level up to the level of societal institutions. It is necessary that these relationships be well established, and for the proper performance it is necessary that aspects of education and health should be properly valued and assessed. This helps setting up strong institutions. Developed countries have the ability to create a proper environment for the manifestations of social capital; in these countries one can observe the growing importance of formal and more impersonal relations. But this just reinforces the occurrence and development of economic activities based on efficiency criteria leading to the countries’ economic development. The interpretations of economic development issues have undergone changes in recent decades. If previously it was considered that the essential difference between rich and poor countries is reflected in the amount of physical capital per person, later on the concept of capital has been expanded to include as well human capital, the lack of which was considered a serious obstacle to development, particularly in the case of poor countries. And given the fact that the transactions within an economic system take place in an

  6. Choosing Appropriate Theories for Understanding Hospital Reporting of Adverse Drug Events, a Theoretical Domains Framework Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalviri, Gloria; Yazdizadeh, Bahareh; Mirbaha, Fariba; Gholami, Kheirollah; Majdzadeh, Reza

    2018-01-01

    Adverse drug events (ADEs) may cause serious injuries including death. Spontaneous reporting of ADEs plays a great role in detection and prevention of them; however, underreporting always exists. Although several interventions have been utilized to solve this problem, they are mainly based on experience and the rationale for choosing them has no theoretical base. The vast variety of behavioural theories makes it difficult to choose appropriate theory. Theoretical domains framework (TDF) is suggested as a solution. The objective of this study was to select the best theory for evaluating ADE reporting in hospitals based on TDF. We carried out three focus group discussions with hospital pharmacists and nurses, based on TDF questions. The analysis was performed through five steps including coding discussions transcript, extracting beliefs, selecting relevant domains, matching related constructs to the extracted beliefs, and determining the appropriate theories in each domain. The theory with the highest number of matched domains and constructs was selected as the theory of choice. A total of six domains were identified relevant to ADE reporting, including "Knowledge", "Skills", "Beliefs about consequences", "Motivation and goals", "Environmental context and resources" and "Social influences". We found theory of planned behavior as the comprehensive theory to study factors influencing ADE reporting in hospitals, since it was relevant theory in five out of six relevant domains and the common theory in 55 out of 75 identified beliefs. In conclusion, we suggest theory of planned behavior for further studies on designing appropriate interventions to increase ADE reporting in hospitals.

  7. Instructional games: Scientific language use, concept understanding, and attitudinal development of middle school learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mongillo, Geraldine

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to discover the influence of instructional games on middle school learners' use of scientific language, concept understanding, and attitude toward learning science. The rationale for this study stemmed from the lack of research concerning the value of play as an instructional strategy for older learners. Specifically, the study focused on the ways in which 6 average ability 7th grade students demonstrated scientific language and concept use during gameplay. The data were collected for this 6-week study in a southern New Jersey suburban middle school and included audio recordings of the 5 games observed in class, written documents (e.g., student created game questions, self-evaluation forms, pre- and post-assessments, and the final quiz) interviews, and researcher field notes. Data were coded and interpreted borrowing from the framework for scientific literacy developed by Bybee (1997). Based on the findings, the framework was modified to reflect the level of scientific understanding demonstrated by the participants and categorized as: Unacquainted, Nominal, Functional, and Conceptual. Major findings suggested that the participants predominantly achieved the Functional level of scientific literacy (i.e., the ability to adequately and appropriately use scientific language in both written and oral discourse) during games. Further, it was discovered that the participants achieved the Conceptual level of scientific literacy during gameplay. Through games participants were afforded the opportunity to use common, everyday language to explore concepts, promoted through peer collaboration. In games the participants used common language to build understandings that exceeded Nominal or token use of the technical vocabulary and concepts. Additionally, the participants reported through interviews and self-evaluation forms that their attitude (patterns included: Motivation, Interest, Fun, Relief from Boredom, and an Alternate Learning

  8. Chronotope Disruption as a Sensitizing Concept for Understanding Chronic Illness Narratives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This article aims to elaborate chronotope disruption —a changed relation to time and space— as a sensitizing concept for understanding chronic illness narratives. Methods: Sixteen men and 16 women with Type 2 diabetes were purposefully sampled. Each was interviewed about his or her experience of diabetes self-management using the biographical-narrative interview method. Transcripts were inspected for key moments defined as emotionally laden stories relevant to the purpose of the research. We present dialogically inflected discursive analysis of exemplar extracts. Results: The analysis demonstrates how the concept of chronotope disruption helps identify, and understand, important aspects of patients’ chronic illness narratives. First, we investigate how medical advice can conflict with embodied experience and how progressive bodily deterioration can provoke a reevaluation of past illness (self-mis)management. Second, the increasing temporal and spatial intrusion of chronic illness into participants’ lives is examined. Finally, we focus on the masquerade of health as an attempt to manage, hide, or deny that one is physically challenged. Conclusions: Chronotope disruption offers a useful sensitizing concept for approaching chronic illness narratives and around which to organize analytical insights and to develop practice. Chronotope analysis fills an important gap in the science through compensating current health sciences’ focus on rationality, cognition, and prospective time (prediction) with a patient-oriented focus on emotionality, embodiment, and retrospective time (nostalgia). Chronotope disruption could be used to develop practice by gaining empathic understanding of patients’ life-worlds and provides a tool to examine how new technologies change the way in which the chronically ill have “being” in the world. PMID:25197985

  9. The Nature and Meaning of Body Concepts in Everyday Language and Theoretical Discourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollio, Howard R; Finn, Mike; Custer, Morgun

    2016-06-01

    Within phenomenological philosophy four topics, (1) Body, (2) Time, (3) Others and the Social Order and (4) World serve as the major contexts in which human perception, action and reflection take place. At present only three of these domains have been studied from an empirical perspective, leaving Body as the one domain requiring further analysis. Given this state of affairs, the purpose of the present study is to determine the everyday and theoretical meanings of body. To accomplish this task participants coded randomly selected body- related words into groups on the basis of having similar meanings. Once these groupings were established they were then evaluated by statistical clustering and multidimensional scaling procedures. Results indicated that it was possible to define the everyday meaning of the human experience of the human body in terms of the following set of themes: (1) inside/outside, (2) visible/not visible, (3) vitality and activity, (4) instrument and object and (5) appearance and self-expression. Concerns about the representativeness of the words studied led to the development and use of individual word pools from which a set of 50 partially different words was randomly selected for each participant. Results indicated little difference between themes produced in the present study when compared with those of an earlier study. The specific themes derived from the present study were then related to embodiment issues as reflected in the philosophical writings of Merleau-Ponty, the psycholinguistic analyses of Lakoff and Johnson and experimental psychology.

  10. Seeking Systematicity in Variation: Theoretical and Methodological Considerations on the “Variety” Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghyselen, Anne-Sophie; De Vogelaer, Gunther

    2018-01-01

    One centennial discussion in linguistics concerns whether languages, or linguistic systems, are, essentially, homogeneous or rather show “structured heterogeneity.” In this contribution, the question is addressed whether and how sociolinguistically defined systems (or ‘varieties’) are to be distinguished in a heterogeneous linguistic landscape: to what extent can structure be found in the myriads of language variants heard in everyday language use? We first elaborate on the theoretical importance of this ‘variety question’ by relating it to current approaches from, among others, generative linguistics (competing grammars), sociolinguistics (style-shifting, polylanguaging), and cognitive linguistics (prototype theory). Possible criteria for defining and detecting varieties are introduced, which are subsequently tested empirically, using a self-compiled corpus of spoken Dutch in West Flanders (Belgium). This empirical study demonstrates that the speech repertoire of the studied West Flemish speakers consists of four varieties, viz. a fairly stable dialect variety, a more or less virtual standard Dutch variety, and two intermediate varieties, which we will label ‘cleaned-up dialect’ and ‘substandard.’ On the methodological level, this case-study underscores the importance of speech corpora comprising both inter- and intra-speaker variation on the one hand, and the merits of triangulating qualitative and quantitative approaches on the other. PMID:29632503

  11. Seeking Systematicity in Variation: Theoretical and Methodological Considerations on the "Variety" Concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghyselen, Anne-Sophie; De Vogelaer, Gunther

    2018-01-01

    One centennial discussion in linguistics concerns whether languages, or linguistic systems, are, essentially, homogeneous or rather show "structured heterogeneity." In this contribution, the question is addressed whether and how sociolinguistically defined systems (or 'varieties') are to be distinguished in a heterogeneous linguistic landscape: to what extent can structure be found in the myriads of language variants heard in everyday language use? We first elaborate on the theoretical importance of this 'variety question' by relating it to current approaches from, among others, generative linguistics (competing grammars), sociolinguistics (style-shifting, polylanguaging), and cognitive linguistics (prototype theory). Possible criteria for defining and detecting varieties are introduced, which are subsequently tested empirically, using a self-compiled corpus of spoken Dutch in West Flanders (Belgium). This empirical study demonstrates that the speech repertoire of the studied West Flemish speakers consists of four varieties, viz. a fairly stable dialect variety, a more or less virtual standard Dutch variety, and two intermediate varieties, which we will label 'cleaned-up dialect' and 'substandard.' On the methodological level, this case-study underscores the importance of speech corpora comprising both inter- and intra-speaker variation on the one hand, and the merits of triangulating qualitative and quantitative approaches on the other.

  12. Dhat syndrome: Evolution of concept, current understanding, and need of an integrated approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujita Kumar Kar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dhat syndrome has often been construed as a culture-bound sexual neurosis of the Indian subcontinent. Symptoms similar to that of Dhat syndrome has been described in other cultures across different time periods. The present paper looks at the evolution of the concept of Dhat syndrome in India. The review also takes an overview of the current understanding of this syndrome in terms of nosological status as a distinct entity and its "culture-bound" status. The narrative finally attempts to discuss the integrated approach for the treatment of this disorder.

  13. Gender Structure and Women's Agency: Toward Greater Theoretical Understanding of Education for Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stromquist, Nelly P.

    2015-01-01

    Under the research radar, and yet highly influential in transformation of practices concerning the social understanding and enactment of gender, are women-led non-governmental organizations (WNGOs). Their continued efforts to reconfigure gender identities and their impact on public policy formation have expanded notions of citizenship and…

  14. Revisiting Understanding of The Whistleblowing Concept In The Context of Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilham Nurhidayat

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The conduct of this study came in the backdrop of thinking of the need for opening a discussion for a more comprehensive and contextual concept of whistleblowing  for Indonesia from the vantage point of existing theoretical perspectives, regulations and practices. There is a lot of misunderstanding and bias about the concept of whistleblowing in public and private organizations in Indonesia. This study is largely based on previous literature and observation of the implementation of whistleblowing system (WBS in several institutions that the author considered credible enough to be best practices. The study used descriptive qualitative approach and used various reference sources that were drawn from library research. This research has produced several formulations. First, the synonym or equivalent phrase in the Indonesian language for the term whistleblower is Pengungkap dugaan kecurangan, (revealer of alleged fraud and Pengungkap dugaan pelanggaraan (revealer of alleged violation or Pengungkap dugaan perbuatan tidak benar (wrongdoing (revealer of alleged wrongdoing. Secondly, the most appropriate equivalence to the phrase whistleblowing system (WBS in the context of Indonesia is “Sistem Pengungkapan Dugaan Pelanggaran” (alleged violation disclosure system. Third, the object of the report or complaints of whistleblowing (wrongdoing is classifying into seventeen types of behavior that are in turn categorized into seven groups. WBS development and implementation in a number of government and private sector institutions emphasize seven key points. Research findings fill a mainstream research gap on whistleblowing in  Indonesia, which has for long been plagued by misunderstanding  between  WBS and  complaints handling system that is evident in several institutions and  government agencies in Indonesia. The expectation is that research results will make some contribution to government policy making in the realm of whistleblowing system by

  15. Theoretical concepts of fractal geometry semkow by radon emanation in solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz G, H.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this work is to introduce the fractal geometry concept to the study of gaseous emanations in solids, specially with reference to radon emission in mineral grains. The basic elements of fractals theory are developed. A fractal is defined as an auto similar subassembly, which fractal dimension is greater than the topological dimension. Starting from this, and making a brief description of the physicals basis of radon emission in solids, a model between emanation power (E R ) and the ratio s/v (surface to volume), is founded. A Gaussian model is assumed for extent of recoil from alpha decay of Ra-226. Using the results of Pfeifer it is obtained that distribution of pore size is scaled like Br -D-1 , where D: fractal[dimension, B: constant and r: pore radius. After an adequate mathematics expansion, it is found that the expression for emanation power is scaled like r 0 D-3 (r 0 grain radius). We may concluded that if we have a logarithmic graph of E R vs size of grain we can deduce the fractal dimension of the emanation surface. The experimental data of different materials provides an interval into fractal dimension D , between 2.1 to 2.86. (author). 5 refs., 1 tab

  16. The emergence of understanding in a computer model of concepts and analogy-making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Melanie; Hofstadter, Douglas R.

    1990-06-01

    This paper describes Copycat, a computer model of the mental mechanisms underlying the fluidity and adaptability of the human conceptual system in the context of analogy-making. Copycat creates analogies between idealized situations in a microworld that has been designed to capture and isolate many of the central issues of analogy-making. In Copycat, an understanding of the essence of a situation and the recognition of deep similarity between two superficially different situations emerge from the interaction of a large number of perceptual agents with an associative, overlapping, and context-sensitive network of concepts. Central features of the model are: a high degree of parallelism; competition and cooperation among a large number of small, locally acting agents that together create a global understanding of the situation at hand; and a computational temperature that measures the amount of perceptual organization as processing proceeds and that in turn controls the degree of randomness with which decisions are made in the system.

  17. Demystifying the Biochemistry: Theoretical Concepts and Practical Activities for High School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.S. Bard

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The education goes through a crisis in their teaching-learning process, due to the fact that their contents are developed out of context, merely theoretical activities. Several scholars warn about the importance of working with experiential activities to enhance and stimulate student learning, seeking a more meaningful than we have seen in recent times. The objectives of this work are installation of a laboratory for teaching science in public school, ISEPAM, at North of Rio de Janeiro, formation of multipliers agents and promoting a Scientific Week/Exhibition involving all school community. MATERIALS AND METHODS:First, we perform the spatial organization of the laboratory, including purchase of materials/equipment. In a second step, experimental activities involving identification of Macromolecules in foods were prepared and tested. From this, we promote short courses in biochemistry for teachers to forming multiplier agents. As a conclusion of the activities of this project a Scientific Week/Exhibition was promoted in school. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Practical classes on fermentation, identification of lipids, proteins and carbohydrates were performed by teachers and students from ISEPAM. We observed in the biochemistry course which the participants have established relationships between theory and practice and also they showed interest in the insertion of experiments in their work routine.. Regarding the Scientific Week/Exhibition, students of elementary and high school participated. They were encouraged and integrated with experiment activities and thereby new talents for scientific and technological interest were identified. CONCLUSION: It was observed that the experimental activities become more attractive and challenging the search for knowledge.

  18. Understanding consumers’ acceptance of mobile payments : a theoretical model and empirical validation

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Jiajun

    2007-01-01

    This research investigates consumer acceptance of mobile payments. Mobile payments offer an alternative payment method for consumers, and allow consumers to make point-of-sales payments through mobile devices, such as mobile phones and Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs). It aims to present a better understanding of mobile payments, developing a consumer acceptance model for mobile payments. Moreover, it offers a reference and a source of literature for the industry and academic researchers in...

  19. Nursing Students’ Understanding of the Concept of Self-Esteem: a Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamanzadeh, Vahid; Valizadeh, Leila; Badri Gargari, Rahim; Ghahramanian, Akram; Jabbarzadeh Tabriz, Faranak; Crowley, Maureen

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The concept of self-esteem has several definitions in different paradigms. Nursing has a unique and combined paradigm; therefore it is necessary to explore nursing students’ understanding of the concept of self-esteem. The present study aimed to discover the extent and characteristics of the concept of self-esteem from the perspective of Iranian nursing students through a qualitative approach. Methods: This study was conducted using the conventional content analysis method with the participation of 14 nursing students. Purposive sampling was used to recruit participants and data were collected through in-depth semi-structured interviews and analyzed simultaneously. Results: Study findings showed that the nursing students’ self-esteem is related to the sense of worthy they perceived as being a nursing student. Nursing students’ self-esteem was determined through sense of worthy related to their perceived professionalism level, socialization into the profession, and enthusing of them about being a nursing student. Conclusion: If a nursing student was proud of her or his nursing role, then he or she would enjoy the nursing course and all that entailed; such as communication with colleagues, performing the tasks and, generally her or his career. PMID:26989664

  20. Understanding God images and God concepts: Towards a pastoral hermeneutics of the God attachment experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Counted

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The author looks at the God image experience as an attachment relationship experience with God. Hence, arguing that the God image experience is borne originally out of a parent�child attachment contagion, in such a way that God is often represented in either secure or insecure attachment patterns. The article points out that insecure God images often develop head-to-head with God concepts in a believer�s emotional experience of God. On the other hand, the author describes God concepts as indicators of a religious faith and metaphorical standards for regulating insecure attachment patterns. The goals of this article, however, is to highlight the relationship between God images and God concepts, and to provide a hermeneutical process for interpreting and surviving the God image experience.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: Given that most scholars within the discipline of Practical Theology discuss the subject of God images from cultural and theological perspectives, this article has discussed God images from an attachment perspective, which is a popular framework in psychology of religion. This is rare. The study is therefore interdisciplinary in this regards. The article further helps the reader to understand the intrapsychic process of the God image experience, and thus provides us with hermeneutical answers for dealing with the God image experience from methodologies grounded in Practical Theology and pastoral care.

  1. Queueing theoretic analysis of labor and delivery : Understanding management styles and C-section rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gombolay, Matthew; Golen, Toni; Shah, Neel; Shah, Julie

    2017-09-04

    Childbirth is a complex clinical service requiring the coordinated support of highly trained healthcare professionals as well as management of a finite set of critical resources (such as staff and beds) to provide safe care. The mode of delivery (vaginal delivery or cesarean section) has a significant effect on labor and delivery resource needs. Further, resource management decisions may impact the amount of time a physician or nurse is able to spend with any given patient. In this work, we employ queueing theory to model one year of transactional patient information at a tertiary care center in Boston, Massachusetts. First, we observe that the M/G/∞ model effectively predicts patient flow in an obstetrics department. This model captures the dynamics of labor and delivery where patients arrive randomly during the day, the duration of their stay is based on their individual acuity, and their labor progresses at some rate irrespective of whether they are given a bed. Second, using our queueing theoretic model, we show that reducing the rate of cesarean section - a current quality improvement goal in American obstetrics - may have important consequences with regard to the resource needs of a hospital. We also estimate the potential financial impact of these resource needs from the hospital perspective. Third, we report that application of our model to an analysis of potential patient coverage strategies supports the adoption of team-based care, in which attending physicians share responsibilities for patients.

  2. New theoretical concept regarding the oil deposit as an object of working

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krylov, A.P.; Abasov, M.T.; Buryakovskiy, L.A.; Sultanov, Ch.A.

    1979-01-01

    This article is based on the principle of materialistic dialectrics regarding the interrelationship between all objects and phenomena of the material world. One should make a historical approach to an understanding of the national system, i.e., study them in development, and that any interrelationship can be expressed in a mathematical form. This creates prerequisites for modeling the oil deposit as a relatively isolated natural system. Within the actual system (deposit) the principle of interrelationship of individual elements (properties) is manifest, therefore it is necessary to pass to a more encompassing model which describes as a whole the natural system, the oil deposit. This is the object of technological effect. In such models the time difference between the geological-physical properties of the deposit and the technological factors must be mutually balanced, and one can adopt as the model parameter as the function of response the coefficient of final oil extraction as the most encompassing information indicator both regarding geological-physical and technological factors which are manifest with exchange of information between the oil deposit and the external world. Since the influence on oil output of both the geological-physical and technological factors is equivalent, then regulation of working can be implemented by modifying any factor. As in any other sciences, mathematical or any other model makes it possible to predict the behavior of the oil deposit based on comparatively low quantity of factual material.

  3. Cell organisation in the colonic crypt: a theoretical comparison of the pedigree and niche concepts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard C van der Wath

    Full Text Available The intestinal mucosa is a monolayer of rapidly self-renewing epithelial cells which is not only responsible for absorption of water and nutrients into the bloodstream but also acts as a protective barrier against harmful microbes entering the body. New functional epithelial cells are produced from stem cells, and their proliferating progeny. These stem cells are found within millions of crypts (tubular pits spaced along the intestinal tract. The entire intestinal epithelium is replaced every 2-3 days in mice (3-5 days in humans and hence cell production, differentiation, migration and turnover need to be tightly regulated. Malfunctions in this regulation are strongly linked to inflammatory bowel diseases and to the formation of adenomas and ultimately cancerous tumours. Despite a great deal of biological experimentation and observation, precisely how colonic crypts are regulated to produce mature colonocytes remains unclear. To assist in understanding how cell organisation in crypts is achieved, two very different conceptual models of cell behaviour are developed here, referred to as the 'pedigree' and the 'niche' models. The pedigree model proposes that crypt cells are largely preprogrammed and receive minimal prompting from the environment as they move through a routine of cell differentiation and proliferation to become mature colonocytes. The niche model proposes that crypt cells are primarily influenced by the local microenvironments along the crypt, and that predetermined cell behaviour plays a negligible role in their development. In this paper we present a computational model of colonic crypts in the mouse, which enables a comparison of the quality and controllability of mature coloncyte production by crypts operating under these two contrasting conceptual models of crypt regulation.

  4. Toward understanding macrocycle specificity of iron on the dioxygen-binding ability: a theoretical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yong; Chen, Kexian; Jia, Lu; Li, Haoran

    2011-08-14

    In an effort to examine the interaction between dioxygen and iron-macrocyclic complexes, and to understand how this interaction was affected by those different macrocyclic ligands, dioxygen binding with iron-porphyrin, iron-phthalocyanine, iron-dibenzotetraaza[14]annulene, and iron-salen complexes is investigated by means of quantum chemical calculations utilizing Density Functional Theory (DFT). Based on the analysis of factors influencing the corresponding dioxygen binding process, it showed that different macrocyclic ligands possess different O-O bond distances, and different electronic configurations for the bound O(2) and non-aromatic macrocyclic ligands favor dioxygen activation. Furthermore, the smaller the energy gap between the HOMO of iron-macrocyclic complexes and the LUMO of dioxygen, the more active the bound O(2) becomes, with a longer O-O bond distance and a shorter Fe-O bond length.

  5. Understanding the impact of political violence in childhood: a theoretical review using a social identity approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muldoon, Orla T

    2013-12-01

    The present paper reviews the literature that has assessed the psychological impact of political violence on children. Concern for those growing up in situations of political violence has resulted in two areas of research within psychology: the first considers children as victims of conflict and considers the mental health consequences of political violence. The second considers children as protagonists or aggressors in conflict and considers related moral and attitudinal consequences of exposure to political violence. These two literatures are most often considered separately. Here the two strands of research are brought together using a social identity framework, allowing apparently divergent findings to be integrated into a more coherent understanding of the totality of consequences for children and young people growing up in situations of armed conflict. © 2013.

  6. Adaptation of the concept of varying time of concentration within flood modelling: Theoretical and empirical investigations across the Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michailidi, Eleni Maria; Antoniadi, Sylvia; Koukouvinos, Antonis; Bacchi, Baldassare; Efstratiadis, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    The time of concentration, tc, is a key hydrological concept and often is an essential parameter of rainfall-runoff modelling, which has been traditionally tackled as a characteristic property of the river basin. However, both theoretical proof and empirical evidence imply that tc is a hydraulic quantity that depends on flow, and thus it should be considered as variable and not as constant parameter. Using a kinematic method approach, easily implemented in GIS environment, we first illustrate that the relationship between tc and the effective rainfall produced over the catchment is well-approximated by a power-type law, the exponent of which is associated with the slope of the longest flow path of the river basin. Next, we take advantage of this relationship to adapt the concept of varying time of concentration within flood modelling, and particularly the well-known SCS-CN approach. In this context, the initial abstraction ratio is also considered varying, while the propagation of the effective rainfall is employed through a parametric unit hydrograph, the shape of which is dynamically adjusted according to the runoff produced during the flood event. The above framework is tested in a number of Mediterranean river basins in Greece, Italy and Cyprus, ensuring faithful representation of most of the observed flood events. Based on the outcomes of this extended analysis, we provide guidance for employing this methodology for flood design studies in ungauged basins.

  7. The Ease of Language Understanding (ELU model: theoretical, empirical, and clinical advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerker eRönnberg

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Working memory is important for online language processing during conversation. We use it to maintain relevant information, to inhibit or ignore irrelevant information, and to attend to conversation selectively. Working memory helps us to keep track of and actively participate in conversation, including taking turns and following the gist. This paper examines the Ease of Language Understanding model (i.e., the ELU model, Rönnberg, 2003; Rönnberg et al., 2008 in light of new behavioral and neural findings concerning the role of working memory capacity (WMC in uni-modal and bimodal language processing. The new ELU model is a meaning prediction system that depends on phonological and semantic interactions in rapid implicit and slower explicit processing mechanisms that both depend on WMC albeit in different ways. A revised ELU model is proposed based on findings that address the relationship between WMC and (a early attention processes in listening to speech, (b signal processing in hearing aids and its effects on short-term memory, (c inhibition of speech maskers and its effect on episodic long-term memory, (d the effects of hearing impairment on episodic and semantic long-term memory, and finally, (e listening effort. New predictions and clinical implications are outlined. Comparisons with other WMC and speech perception models are made.

  8. Research and Teaching: Correlations between Students' Written Responses to Lecture-Tutorial Questions and Their Understandings of Key Astrophysics Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckenrode, Jeffrey; Prather, Edward E.; Wallace, Colin S.

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on an investigation into the correlations between students' understandings of introductory astronomy concepts and the correctness and coherency of their written responses to targeted Lecture-Tutorial questions.

  9. Teaching and Understanding the Concept of Critical Thinking Skills within Michigan Accredited Associate Degree Dental Hygiene Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beistle, Kimberly S.

    2012-01-01

    This study explores dental hygiene faculty's perceptions regarding the issues surrounding the concept of critical thinking skills integration within Michigan accredited associate degree dental hygiene programs. The primary research goals are to determine faculty understanding of the concept of critical thinking, identify personal and departmental…

  10. In search of a theoretical structure for understanding motivation in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medalia, Alice; Brekke, John

    2010-09-01

    This themed issue considers different ways to conceptualize the motivational impairment that is a core negative symptom of schizophrenia. Motivational impairment has been linked to poor functional outcome, thus it is important to understand the nature and causes of motivational impairment in order to develop better treatment strategies to enhance motivation and engage patients in the process of recovery. Motivation refers to the processes whereby goal-directed activities are instigated and sustained and can be thought of as the product of a complex interaction of physiological processes and social contextual variables. In this issue, the physiological processes of motivation are the focus of Barch and Dowd, who highlight the role of prefrontal and subcortical mesolimbic dopamine systems in incentive-based learning and the difficulties people with schizophrenia have using internal representations of relevant experiences and goals to drive the behavior that should allow them to obtain desired outcomes. The articles in this issue by Choi et al., Nakagami et al., and Silverstein, focus on social contextual or environmental variables that can shape behavior and motivation. Together, these articles highlight the impact of external cues and goal properties on the expectations and values attached to goal outcomes. Expectancy-value and Self-Determination theories provide an overarching framework to accommodate the perspectives and data provided in all these articles. In the following introduction we show how the articles in this themed issue both support the role of expectancies and value in motivation in schizophrenia and elucidate possible deficiencies in the way expectations and value get assigned.

  11. [Understanding local concepts of equity to formulate public health policies in Burkina Faso].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridde, Valéry

    2006-01-01

    Equity is an essential health promotion concept and must be included at the heart of public health policy making. However, equity, which can also be referred to as social justice, is a polysemic and contextual term which definition must stem from the discourse and values of the society where the policies are implemented. Using a case study from Burkina Faso, we try to show that the non-acknowledgement of the local concept of social justice in the policy making process partly explains the resulting policies' relative failure to achieve social justice. Data collection methods vary (individual and group interviews, concept mapping, participant observation, document analyses) and there are qualitative and quantitative analyses. The four groups of actors who generally participate in the policy making process participated in the data collection. With no intention to generalise the results to the entire country, the results show that mass social mobilisation for justice is egalitarian in type. Health or social inequalities are understood by individuals as facts which we cannot act upon, while the inequalities to access care are qualified as unjust, and it is possible to intervene to reduce them if incentive measures to this effect are taken. We also observed a certain social difficulty to conceive sub-groups of population and fierce will to not destabilise social peace, which can be provoked when looking for justice for the impoverished sectors of the population. This research allows better understanding about the emic aspect of equity and seems to confirm the importance of taking into account local values, especially social justice, when determining public policy.

  12. The effect of Phet Simulation media for physics teacher candidate understanding on photoelectric effect concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supurwoko Supurwoko

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Indonesian new Curriculum for senior high school students required student-centered learning. One of the curriculum implementation constraint was the difficulty of providing learning media. PhET simulations media is one of the options that can help implementation of new curriculum on learning. However, the use of this media in Indonesia still needs to be studied comprehensively. The learning was conducted on students of physics education Study Program in sebelas maret university in 2013. The sample consisted of 62 students that was taking quantum physics course. The method that was used in the research was descriptive qualitative.  The method that was used in learning was demonstration’s method that used PhET media and accompanied by a question and answer and groups discussion. The data was collected using multiple choice test and interview through email. We found that any students still did not understand about photoelectric effect concept. They were confused when asked about the thick material and cross section of the targets as related with the regardless of electrons in the photoelectric effect event. Other than that, the concept of the waves as a particle and its relation with the kinetic energy of the electrons was not understood by most students.

  13. Does an Emphasis on the Concept of Quantum States Enhance Students' Understanding of Quantum Mechanics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greca, Ileana Maria; Freire, Olival

    Teaching physics implies making choices. In the case of teaching quantum physics, besides an educational choice - the didactic strategy - another choice must be made, an epistemological one, concerning the interpretation of quantum theory itself. These two choices are closely connected. We have chosen a didactic strategy that privileges the phenomenological-conceptual approach, with emphasis upon quantum features of the systems, instead of searching for classical analogies. This choice has led us to present quantum theory associated with an orthodox, yet realistic, interpretation of the concept of quantum state, considered as the key concept of quantum theory, representing the physical reality of a system, independent of measurement processes. The results of the mplementation of this strategy, with three groups of engineering students, showed that more than a half of them attained a reasonable understanding of the basics of quantum mechanics (QM) for this level. In addition, a high degree of satisfaction was attained with the classes as 80% of the students of the experimental groups claimed to have liked it and to be interested in learning more about QM.

  14. Understanding creep in sandstone reservoirs - theoretical deformation mechanism maps for pressure solution in granular materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hangx, Suzanne; Spiers, Christopher

    2014-05-01

    Subsurface exploitation of the Earth's natural resources removes the natural system from its chemical and physical equilibrium. As such, groundwater extraction and hydrocarbon production from subsurface reservoirs frequently causes surface subsidence and induces (micro)seismicity. These effects are not only a problem in onshore (e.g. Groningen, the Netherlands) and offshore hydrocarbon fields (e.g. Ekofisk, Norway), but also in urban areas with extensive groundwater pumping (e.g. Venice, Italy). It is known that fluid extraction inevitably leads to (poro)elastic compaction of reservoirs, hence subsidence and occasional fault reactivation, and causes significant technical, economic and ecological impact. However, such effects often exceed what is expected from purely elastic reservoir behaviour and may continue long after exploitation has ceased. This is most likely due to time-dependent compaction, or 'creep deformation', of such reservoirs, driven by the reduction in pore fluid pressure compared with the rock overburden. Given the societal and ecological impact of surface subsidence, as well as the current interest in developing geothermal energy and unconventional gas resources in densely populated areas, there is much need for obtaining better quantitative understanding of creep in sediments to improve the predictability of the impact of geo-energy and groundwater production. The key problem in developing a reliable, quantitative description of the creep behaviour of sediments, such as sands and sandstones, is that the operative deformation mechanisms are poorly known and poorly quantified. While grain-scale brittle fracturing plus intergranular sliding play an important role in the early stages of compaction, these time-independent, brittle-frictional processes give way to compaction creep on longer time-scales. Thermally-activated mass transfer processes, like pressure solution, can cause creep via dissolution of material at stressed grain contacts, grain

  15. Toward theoretical understanding of the fertility preservation decision-making process: Examining information processing among young women with cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershberger, Patricia E.; Finnegan, Lorna; Altfeld, Susan; Lake, Sara; Hirshfeld-Cytron, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Background Young women with cancer now face the complex decision about whether to undergo fertility preservation. Yet little is known about how these women process information involved in making this decision. Objective The purpose of this paper is to expand theoretical understanding of the decision-making process by examining aspects of information processing among young women diagnosed with cancer. Methods Using a grounded theory approach, 27 women with cancer participated in individual, semi-structured interviews. Data were coded and analyzed using constant-comparison techniques that were guided by five dimensions within the Contemplate phase of the decision-making process framework. Results In the first dimension, young women acquired information primarily from clinicians and Internet sources. Experiential information, often obtained from peers, occurred in the second dimension. Preferences and values were constructed in the third dimension as women acquired factual, moral, and ethical information. Women desired tailored, personalized information that was specific to their situation in the fourth dimension; however, women struggled with communicating these needs to clinicians. In the fifth dimension, women offered detailed descriptions of clinician behaviors that enhance or impede decisional debriefing. Conclusion Better understanding of theoretical underpinnings surrounding women’s information processes can facilitate decision support and improve clinical care. PMID:24552086

  16. Toward theoretical understanding of the fertility preservation decision-making process: examining information processing among young women with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershberger, Patricia E; Finnegan, Lorna; Altfeld, Susan; Lake, Sara; Hirshfeld-Cytron, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Young women with cancer now face the complex decision about whether to undergo fertility preservation. Yet little is known about how these women process information involved in making this decision. The purpose of this article is to expand theoretical understanding of the decision-making process by examining aspects of information processing among young women diagnosed with cancer. Using a grounded theory approach, 27 women with cancer participated in individual, semistructured interviews. Data were coded and analyzed using constant-comparison techniques that were guided by 5 dimensions within the Contemplate phase of the decision-making process framework. In the first dimension, young women acquired information primarily from clinicians and Internet sources. Experiential information, often obtained from peers, occurred in the second dimension. Preferences and values were constructed in the third dimension as women acquired factual, moral, and ethical information. Women desired tailored, personalized information that was specific to their situation in the fourth dimension; however, women struggled with communicating these needs to clinicians. In the fifth dimension, women offered detailed descriptions of clinician behaviors that enhance or impede decisional debriefing. Better understanding of theoretical underpinnings surrounding women's information processes can facilitate decision support and improve clinical care.

  17. Scientific approach as an understanding and applications of hydrological concepts of tropical rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haryanto, Z.; Setyasih, I.

    2018-04-01

    East Kalimantan has a variety of biomes, one of which is tropical rain forests. Tropical rain forests have enormous hydrological potential, so it is necessary to provide understanding to prospective teachers. Hydrology material cannot be separated from the concept of science, for it is needed the right way of learning so students easily understand the material. This research uses descriptive method with research subject is geography education students taking hydrology course at Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, Mulawarman University. The results showed that the students were able to observe, ask question, collect data, give reason, and communicate the hydrological conditions of tropical rain forest biomes, especially related to surface ground water and groundwater conditions. Tropical rainforests are very influenced by the hydrological conditions of the region and the availability of water is affected by the forest area as a catchment area. Therefore, the tropical rainforest must be maintained in condition and its duration, so that there is no water crisis and hydrological related disasters.

  18. Force, Velocity, and Work: The Effects of Different Contexts on Students' Understanding of Vector Concepts Using Isomorphic Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barniol, Pablo; Zavala, Genaro

    2014-01-01

    In this article we compare students' understanding of vector concepts in problems with no physical context, and with three mechanics contexts: force, velocity, and work. Based on our "Test of Understanding of Vectors," a multiple-choice test presented elsewhere, we designed two isomorphic shorter versions of 12 items each: a test with no…

  19. The Identification of Variation in Students' Understandings of Disciplinary Concepts: The Application of the SOLO Taxonomy within Introductory Accounting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Ursula; Mladenovic, Rosina

    2009-01-01

    Insights into students' understandings of disciplinary concepts are fundamental to effective curriculum development. This paper argues that a rounded picture of students' understandings is required to support such development. It is argued that one element of this picture may be provided through the use of the Structure of Observed Learning…

  20. Implications of the Integration of Computing Methodologies into Conventional Marketing Research upon the Quality of Students' Understanding of the Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayman, Umut; Serim, Mehmet Cenk

    2004-01-01

    It has been an ongoing concern among academicians teaching social sciences to develop a better methodology to ease understanding of students. Since verbal emphasis is at the core of the concepts within such disciplines it has been observed that the adequate or desired level of conceptual understanding of the students to transforms the theories…

  1. Using Two-Tier Test to Identify Primary Students' Conceptual Understanding and Alternative Conceptions in Acid Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayrak, Beyza Karadeniz

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify primary students' conceptual understanding and alternative conceptions in acid-base. For this reason, a 15 items two-tier multiple choice test administered 56 eighth grade students in spring semester 2009-2010. Data for this study were collected using a conceptual understanding scale prepared to include…

  2. The social accountability of doctors: a relationship based framework for understanding emergent community concepts of caring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green-Thompson, Lionel P; McInerney, Patricia; Woollard, Bob

    2017-04-12

    Social accountability is defined as the responsibility of institutions to respond to the health priorities of a community. There is an international movement towards the education of health professionals who are accountable to communities. There is little evidence of how communities experience or articulate this accountability. In this grounded theory study eight community based focus group discussions were conducted in rural and urban South Africa to explore community members' perceptions of the social accountability of doctors. The discussions were conducted across one urban and two rural provinces. Group discussions were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Initial coding was done and three main themes emerged following data analysis: the consultation as a place of love and respect (participants have an expectation of care yet are often engaged with disregard); relationships of people and systems (participants reflect on their health priorities and the links with the social determinants of health) and Ubuntu as engagement of the community (reflected in their expectation of Ubuntu based relationships as well as part of the education system). These themes were related through a framework which integrates three levels of relationship: a central community of reciprocal relationships with the doctor-patient relationship as core; a level in which the systems of health and education interact and together with social determinants of health mediate the insertion of communities into a broader discourse. An ubuntu framing in which the tensions between vulnerability and power interact and reflect rights and responsibility. The space between these concepts is important for social accountability. Social accountability has been a concept better articulated by academics and centralized agencies. Communities bring a richer dimension to social accountability through their understanding of being human and caring. This study also creates the connection between ubuntu and social

  3. Differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS and air mass factor concept for a multiply scattering vertically inhomogeneous medium: theoretical consideration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Rozanov

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS technique is widely used to retrieve amounts of atmospheric species from measurements of the direct solar light transmitted through the Earth's atmosphere as well as of the solar light scattered in the atmosphere or reflected from the Earth's surface. For the transmitted direct solar light the theoretical basis of the DOAS technique represented by the Beer-Lambert law is well studied. In contrast, scarcely investigated is the theoretical basis and validity range of the DOAS method for those cases where the contribution of the multiple scattering processes is not negligible. Our study is intended to fill this gap by means of a theoretical investigation of the applicability of the DOAS technique for the retrieval of amounts of atmospheric species from observations of the scattered solar light with a non-negligible contribution of the multiple scattering.

    Starting from the expansion of the intensity logarithm in the functional Taylor series we formulate the general form of the DOAS equation. The thereby introduced variational derivative of the intensity logarithm with respect to the variation of the gaseous absorption coefficient, which is often referred to as the weighting function, is demonstrated to be closely related to the air mass factor. Employing some approximations we show that the general DOAS equation can be rewritten in the form of the weighting function (WFDOAS, the modified (MDOAS, and the standard DOAS equations. For each of these forms a specific equation for the air mass factor follows which, in general, is not suitable for other forms of the DOAS equation. Furthermore, the validity range of the standard DOAS equation is quantitatively investigated using a suggested criterion of a weak absorption.

    The results presented in this study are intended to provide a basis for a better understanding of the applicability range of different forms of the DOAS equation as

  4. Understanding small biomolecule-biomaterial interactions: a review of fundamental theoretical and experimental approaches for biomolecule interactions with inorganic surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Dominique; Garrain, Pierre-Alain; Baaden, Marc

    2013-04-01

    Interactions between biomolecules and inorganic surfaces play an important role in natural environments and in industry, including a wide variety of conditions: marine environment, ship hulls (fouling), water treatment, heat exchange, membrane separation, soils, mineral particles at the earth's surface, hospitals (hygiene), art and buildings (degradation and biocorrosion), paper industry (fouling) and more. To better control the first steps leading to adsorption of a biomolecule on an inorganic surface, it is mandatory to understand the adsorption mechanisms of biomolecules of several sizes at the atomic scale, that is, the nature of the chemical interaction between the biomolecule and the surface and the resulting biomolecule conformations once adsorbed at the surface. This remains a challenging and unsolved problem. Here, we review the state of art in experimental and theoretical approaches. We focus on metallic biomaterial surfaces such as TiO(2) and stainless steel, mentioning some remarkable results on hydroxyapatite. Experimental techniques include atomic force microscopy, surface plasmon resonance, quartz crystal microbalance, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, fluorescence microscopy, polarization modulation infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy, sum frequency generation and time of flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy. Theoretical models range from detailed quantum mechanical representations to classical forcefield-based approaches. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Exploring the practicing-connections hypothesis: using gesture to support coordination of ideas in understanding a complex statistical concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Ji Y; Ramos, Priscilla; DeWolf, Melissa; Loftus, William; Stigler, James W

    2018-01-01

    In this article, we begin to lay out a framework and approach for studying how students come to understand complex concepts in rich domains. Grounded in theories of embodied cognition, we advance the view that understanding of complex concepts requires students to practice, over time, the coordination of multiple concepts, and the connection of this system of concepts to situations in the world. Specifically, we explore the role that a teacher's gesture might play in supporting students' coordination of two concepts central to understanding in the domain of statistics: mean and standard deviation. In Study 1 we show that university students who have just taken a statistics course nevertheless have difficulty taking both mean and standard deviation into account when thinking about a statistical scenario. In Study 2 we show that presenting the same scenario with an accompanying gesture to represent variation significantly impacts students' interpretation of the scenario. Finally, in Study 3 we present evidence that instructional videos on the internet fail to leverage gesture as a means of facilitating understanding of complex concepts. Taken together, these studies illustrate an approach to translating current theories of cognition into principles that can guide instructional design.

  6. Influence of Cultural Belief and Values on Secondary School Students' Understanding of Atmospheric Related Physics Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, Theodora Olufunke

    2015-01-01

    The study identified the different cultural concepts that secondary school students' believe in and determined the belief and idea of students about the cultural concepts. It also investigated students' source of information about the cultural concepts and determined the influence of these cultural believes on students' academic performance in…

  7. Using Concept Mapping to Improve Poor Readers' Understanding of Expository Text

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morfidi, Eleni; Mikropoulos, Anastasios; Rogdaki, Aspasia

    2018-01-01

    The present study examined whether the use of concept mapping is more effective in teaching expository material in comparison to a traditional, lecture only, approach. Its objective was threefold. First, to determine if multimedia concept mapping produces differential learning outcomes compared to digital text-based concept mapping. Secondly, to…

  8. Using Metasynthesis to Develop Sensitising Concepts to Understand Torres Strait Islander Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinnitta Patricia Mosby

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Emerging research indicates that more and more Indigenous peoples will be forced to migrate due to climate change. Current responses focus on mitigation and adaptation strategies. One such group, Torres Strait Islander people are already moving for other reasons and existing vulnerabilities compound levels of disadvantage when moving. It will be important to understand Torres Strait Islander people’s experiences of contemporary movements in order to inform policy development and facilitate the process of migration and resettlement as movement increases. A synthesis of existing studies would allow the development of sensitising concepts that could inform future research in the Torres Strait Islander context. This article presents a metasynthesis of six qualitative studies of the experiences of different Indigenous and minority groups at various stages of migration, displacement and resettlement. Articles were selected on contemporary movements (2001-2011 and importantly the inclusion of first person voice. Reciprocal translation was used to synthesise common themes and a core construct. The overarching construct that became apparent from the metasynthesis was ‘continuity of being’ through staying connected to self, family and culture. Three themes emerged: ‘freedom to be’, ‘staying close’ and ‘forming anchor’. These were enacted through people valuing their personal, social, religious and political freedom and recognising the importance of maintaining or forming strong social and family networks. When researching the experiences of Torres Strait Islanders it will be necessary to focus on motivations for moving, and understand the processes for staying connected to kin and homeland in order to achieve the desired outcomes of successful resettlement under conditions of uncertainty.

  9. Understanding Mathematic Concept in Relation and Function Method through Active Learning Type Group to Group Distributed LKS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudri, F.; Rahmi, R.; Haryono, Y.

    2018-04-01

    This research is motivated by the lack of understanding of mathematical concepts students and teachers have not familiarize students discussed in groups. This researchaims to determine whether an understanding of mathematical concepts junior class VIII SMPN 2 in Ranah Batahan Kabupaten Pasaman Barat by applying active learning strategy group to group types with LKS better than conventional learning. The type of research is experimental the design of randomized trials on the subject. The population in the study were all students VIII SMPN 2 Ranah Batahan Kabupaten Pasaman Barat in year 2012/2013 which consists of our class room experiment to determine the grade and control class with do nerandomly, so that classes VIII1 elected as a experiment class and class VIII4 as a control class. The instruments used in the test empirically understanding mathematical concepts are shaped by the essay with rt=0,82 greater than rt=0,468 means reliable tests used. The data analysis technique used is the test with the help of MINITAB. Based on the results of the data analisis known that both of the sample are normal and homogenity in real rate α = 0,05, so the hypothesis of this research is received. So, it can be concluded students’ understanding mathematical concept applied the active Group to Group learning strategy with LKS is better than the students’ understanding mathematical concept with Conventional Learning.

  10. The acrophysis: a unifying concept for understanding enchondral bone growth and its disorders. II. Abnormal growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oestreich, Alan E.

    2004-01-01

    In order to discuss and illustrate the effects common to normal and abnormal enchondral bone at the physes and at all other growth plates of the developing child, the term ''acrophysis'' was proposed. Acrophyses include the growth plates of secondary growth centers including carpals and tarsals and apophyses, and the growth plates at the nonphyseal ends of small tubular bones. Abnormalities at acrophyseal sites are analogous to those at the physeal growth plates and their metaphyses. For example, changes relating to the zone of provisional calcification (ZPC) are often important to the demonstration of such similarities. Lead lines were an early example of the concept of analogy from abnormality due to physeal and to acrophyseal disturbance. The ZPC is a key factor in understanding patterns of rickets and its healing. Examples (including hypothyroidism, scurvy and other osteoporosis, Ollier disease, achondroplasia, and osteopetrosis, as well as the family of frostbite, Kashin-Beck disease, and rat bite fever) illustrate the acrophysis principle and in turn their manifestations are explained by that principle. (orig.)

  11. The acrophysis: a unifying concept for understanding enchondral bone growth and its disorders. II. Abnormal growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oestreich, Alan E. [Department of Radiology, Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, 3333 Burnet Avenue, OH 45229-3039, Cincinnati (United States)

    2004-03-01

    In order to discuss and illustrate the effects common to normal and abnormal enchondral bone at the physes and at all other growth plates of the developing child, the term ''acrophysis'' was proposed. Acrophyses include the growth plates of secondary growth centers including carpals and tarsals and apophyses, and the growth plates at the nonphyseal ends of small tubular bones. Abnormalities at acrophyseal sites are analogous to those at the physeal growth plates and their metaphyses. For example, changes relating to the zone of provisional calcification (ZPC) are often important to the demonstration of such similarities. Lead lines were an early example of the concept of analogy from abnormality due to physeal and to acrophyseal disturbance. The ZPC is a key factor in understanding patterns of rickets and its healing. Examples (including hypothyroidism, scurvy and other osteoporosis, Ollier disease, achondroplasia, and osteopetrosis, as well as the family of frostbite, Kashin-Beck disease, and rat bite fever) illustrate the acrophysis principle and in turn their manifestations are explained by that principle. (orig.)

  12. 'It's like taking a bit of masculinity away from you': towards a theoretical understanding of men's experiences of infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, Alan; Lomas, Tim; Ghobara, Tarek; Hartshorne, Geraldine

    2017-07-01

    In the UK, nearly half of all cases of infertility involve a 'male-factor'. Yet, little empirical work has explored how men as men negotiate this terrain. Three interrelated concepts; 'hegemonic masculinity', 'embodied masculinity' and the linkages between 'masculinities' and male help-seeking, provide the theoretical framework that guided a qualitative study conducted with 22 men experiencing infertility. The paper explores men's propensity to delay their help-seeking in relation to infertility despite their desire for children. It also demonstrates how, in the context of infertility, the male body can be defined as both a failed entity in itself (unable to father a child) and a subordinated social entity (unable to measure up to hegemonic ideals) that characterises men's masculine identities. The paper also illustrates how men appear willing to accept responsibility for their infertility and adopt aspects of hitherto subordinate masculine practice. This does not, however, constitute the total unravelling of well understood and accepted expressions of masculinity. Finally, the paper demonstrates how infertility is perceived as having the potential to fracture current and even future relationships. Moreover, regardless of how well men measured up to other hegemonic ideals, ultimately they can do little to counteract the threat of other (fertile) men. © 2017 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Foundation for SHIL.

  13. Early Understanding of the Concept of Living Things: An Examination of Young Children's Drawings of Plant Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarroel, José Domingo; Infante, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    This paper looks at the drawings of a sample of 118 children aged between 4 and 7 years old on the topic of plant life and relates the content to their knowledge of the concept of living things. The research project uses two types of tests: a task to analyse the level of understanding of the concept of living things and a free drawing activity.…

  14. Understanding environmental contributions to autism: Causal concepts and the state of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertz-Picciotto, Irva; Schmidt, Rebecca J; Krakowiak, Paula

    2018-04-01

    The complexity of neurodevelopment, the rapidity of early neurogenesis, and over 100 years of research identifying environmental influences on neurodevelopment serve as backdrop to understanding factors that influence risk and severity of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This Keynote Lecture, delivered at the May 2016 annual meeting of the International Society for Autism Research, describes concepts of causation, outlines the trajectory of research on nongenetic factors beginning in the 1960s, and briefly reviews the current state of this science. Causal concepts are introduced, including root causes; pitfalls in interpreting time trends as clues to etiologic factors; susceptible time windows for exposure; and implications of a multi-factorial model of ASD. An historical background presents early research into the origins of ASD. The epidemiologic literature from the last fifteen years is briefly but critically reviewed for potential roles of, for example, air pollution, pesticides, plastics, prenatal vitamins, lifestyle and family factors, and maternal obstetric and metabolic conditions during her pregnancy. Three examples from the case-control CHildhood Autism Risks from Genes and the Environment Study are probed to illustrate methodological approaches to central challenges in observational studies: capturing environmental exposure; causal inference when a randomized controlled clinical trial is either unethical or infeasible; and the integration of genetic, epigenetic, and environmental influences on development. We conclude with reflections on future directions, including exposomics, new technologies, the microbiome, gene-by-environment interaction in the era of -omics, and epigenetics as the interface of those two. As the environment is malleable, this research advances the goal of a productive and fulfilling life for all children, teen-agers and adults. Autism Res 2018, 11: 554-586. © 2018 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc

  15. Emotional Abuse: How the Concept Sheds Light on the Understanding of Psychological Harassment (in Quebec

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Harvey

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the concept of emotional abuse in the workplace and applies relevant findings and concepts to psychological harassment as defined in the legislation enacted in Quebec beginning June 1, 2004. It is noted that the terms are highly related by definition and that a clear similarity exists. Accordingly, a prospective look is taken at the challenges involved in the understanding and application of psychological harassment based on seven dimensions commonly studied and referred to in the academic literature on emotional abuse. The conclusion is that the determination of psychological harassment involves a multidimensional consideration of factors and that this gives rise to several challenges in applying the new legislation.Cet article s’intéresse au concept d’abus émotif au travail et à son application à des problèmes de harcèlement psychologique, tel que défini par la législation promulguée au Québec en juin 2004. Les définitions des deux termes sont rapprochées ce qui suggère qu’il s’agit de problèmes similaires. À des fins de prospective, l’article étudie les implications pratiques de l’application au harcèlement psychologique des sept dimensions associées à l’abus émotif dans la littérature scientifique. L’article arrive à la conclusion qu’un diagnostic de harcèlement psychologique requiert la prise en compte de facteurs multidimensionnels, ce qui soulève des difficultés multiples en ce qui a trait à l’application de la législation récente.Este artículo se interesa al concepto de abuso emotivo en el trabajo y a su aplicación a los problemas de acoso psicológico, según la definición que figura en la legislación promulgada en Québec en junio del 2004. Las definiciones de los dos términos son próximas lo que sugiere que se trata de problemas similares. Con fines prospectivos, el artículo estudia las implicaciones prácticas de la aplicación de siete dimensiones asociadas al

  16. Student understanding development in chemistry concepts through constructivist-informed laboratory and science camp process in secondary school

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathommapas, Nookorn

    2018-01-01

    Science Camp for Chemistry Concepts was the project which designed to provide local students with opportunities to apply chemistry concepts and thereby developing their 21st century skills. The three study purposes were 1) to construct and develop chemistry stations for encouraging students' understandings in chemistry concepts based on constructivist-informed laboratory, 2) to compare students' understandings in chemistry concepts before and after using chemistry learning stations, and 3) to study students' satisfactions of using their 21st century skills in science camp activities. The research samples were 67 students who attended the 1-day science camp. They were levels 10 to 11 students in SumsaoPittayakarn School, UdonThani Province, Thailand. Four constructivist-informed laboratory stations of chemistry concepts were designed for each group. Each station consisted of a chemistry scenario, a question, answers in tier 1 and supporting reasons in tier 2, and 4 sets of experimental instruments. Four to five-member subgroups of four student groups parallel participated in laboratory station for an hour in each station. Student activities in each station concluded of individual pretest, group prediction, experimental design, testing out and collection data, interpreting the results, group conclusion, and individual post-test. Data collection was done by station mentors using two-tier multiple choice questions, students' written work and interviews. Data triangulation was used for interpreting and confirming students' understandings of chemistry concepts which divided into five levels, Sound Understanding (SU), Partial Understanding (PU), Specific Misconception (SM), No Understanding (NU) and No Response (NR), before and after collaborating at each station. The study results found the following: 1) four constructivist-laboratory stations were successfully designed and used to investigate student' understandings in chemistry concepts via collaborative workshop of

  17. Understanding The Impact of Formative Assessment Strategies on First Year University Students’ Conceptual Understanding of Chemical Concepts

    OpenAIRE

    Mehmet Aydeniz; Aybuke Pabuccu

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of formative assessment strategies on students’ conceptual understanding in a freshmen college chemistry course in Turkey. Our sample consists of 96 students; 27 males, 69 females. The formative assessment strategies such as reflection on exams, and collective problem solving sessions were used throughout the course. Data were collected through pre and post-test methodology. The findings reveal that the formative assessment strategies used in this study led...

  18. The Impact of an Operational Definition of the Weight Concept on Students' Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Hana; Galili, Igal

    2015-01-01

    Several researches in physics education have demonstrated the problematic status of teaching the subject of gravitation and weight and students' knowledge of these concepts. This paper presents findings of a study of students' knowledge following instruction within a changed conceptual framework of the weight concept in several 9th grade classes…

  19. Children and Adolescents' Understandings of Family Resemblance: A Study of Naive Inheritance Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Joanne M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to provide developmental data on two connected naive inheritance concepts and to explore the coherence of children's naive biology knowledge. Two tasks examined children and adolescents' (4, 7, 10, and 14 years) conceptions of phenotypic resemblance across kin (in physical characteristics, disabilities, and personality traits). The…

  20. 11th Grade Students' Conceptual Understanding about Torque Concept: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostan Sarioglan, Ayberk; Küçüközer, Hüseyin

    2014-01-01

    In this study, it is aimed to reveal the effect of instruction on students' ideas about torque before instruction, after instruction and fifteen weeks after instruction. The working group consists of twenty five high school eleventh grade students. To reveal these students' ideas about the concept of torque a concept test consisting of seven…

  1. Relations between Representational Consistency, Conceptual Understanding of the Force Concept, and Scientific Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieminen, Pasi; Savinainen, Antti; Viiri, Jouni

    2012-01-01

    Previous physics education research has raised the question of "hidden variables" behind students' success in learning certain concepts. In the context of the force concept, it has been suggested that students' reasoning ability is one such variable. Strong positive correlations between students' preinstruction scores for reasoning…

  2. Rounding Out a Concept of Operational Art: Using Theory to Understand Operational Art’s Purpose, Structure, and Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    slightly different is that the “intent” comes from politics. Additionally, understanding the strategic purpose, and indeed some political fluency , is...There is an additional reason why understanding strategic purpose and political fluency are necessary. In less than ideal circumstances, it is entirely...general nature of the ADP does not cement that link. Previously, in FM 3-0 the concept of levels of war was used to “clarify the relationship between

  3. Profile of Metacognition of Mathematics Pre-Service Teachers in Understanding the Concept of Integral Calculus with Regard Gender Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misu, L.; Budayasa, I. K.; Lukito, A.

    2018-01-01

    This research is to describe metacognition profile of female and male mathematics’ pre-service teachers in understanding the concept of integral calculus. The subjects of this study are one female and 1 male mathematics’ pre-service teachers who have studied integral calculus. This research type is an explorative study with the qualitative approach. The main data collection of this research was obtained by using Interview technique. In addition, there are supporting data which is the result of the written work of research subjects (SP) in understanding the question of integral calculus. The results of this study are as follows: There is a difference in metacognition profiles between male and female mathematics’ pre-service teachers in the understanding concept of integral calculus in the interpreting category, especially the definite integral concept. While in the category of exemplifying, there is no difference in metacognition profile between male and female mathematics’ pre-service teachers either the definite integral concept and the indefinite integral concept.

  4. Pre-College Deaf Students' Understanding of Fractional Concepts: What We Know and What We Do Not Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousley, Keith; Kurz, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Mathematical knowledge and skills are crucial to success in academics and the workplace. The Common Core State Standards emphasizes fraction teaching and learning in elementary school. This mixed-method study explores fraction concept understanding among 14 deaf and hard of hearing participants between the ages of 8 and 16, as quantitatively…

  5. Drama-Based Science Teaching and Its Effect on Students' Understanding of Scientific Concepts and Their Attitudes towards Science Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abed, Osama H.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of drama-based science teaching on students' understanding of scientific concepts and their attitudes towards science learning. The study also aimed to examine if there is an interaction between students' achievement level in science and drama-based instruction. The sample consisted of (87) of 7th grade students…

  6. Facilitating Conceptual Change in Understanding State of Matter and Solubility Concepts by Using 5E Learning Cycle Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceylan, Eren; Geban, Omer

    2009-01-01

    The main purpose of the study was to compare the effectiveness of 5E learning cycle model based instruction and traditionally designed chemistry instruction on 10th grade students' understanding of state of matter and solubility concepts. In this study, 119 tenth grade students from chemistry courses instructed by same teacher from an Anatolian…

  7. Exploring Effects of High School Students' Mathematical Processing Skills and Conceptual Understanding of Chemical Concepts on Algorithmic Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gultepe, Nejla; Yalcin Celik, Ayse; Kilic, Ziya

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of students' conceptual understanding of chemical concepts and mathematical processing skills on algorithmic problem-solving skills. The sample (N = 554) included grades 9, 10, and 11 students in Turkey. Data were collected using the instrument "MPC Test" and with interviews. The MPC…

  8. Addressing Pre-Service Teachers' Understandings and Difficulties with Some Core Concepts in the Special Theory of Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selcuk, Gamze Sezgin

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate pre-service teachers' understanding of and difficulties with some core concepts in the special theory of relativity. The pre-service teachers (n = 185) from the Departments of Physics Education and Elementary Science Education at Dokuz Eylul University (in Turkey) participated. Both quantitative and…

  9. The Impact of Three-Dimensional Computational Modeling on Student Understanding of Astronomy Concepts: A Qualitative Analysis. Research Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, John A.; Barnett, Michael; MaKinster, James G.; Keating, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    In this study, we explore an alternate mode for teaching and learning the dynamic, three-dimensional (3D) relationships that are central to understanding astronomical concepts. To this end, we implemented an innovative undergraduate course in which we used inexpensive computer modeling tools. As the second of a two-paper series, this report…

  10. The Effect of Three Levels of Inquiry on the Improvement of Science Concept Understanding of Elementary School Teacher Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artayasa, I. Putu; Susilo, Herawati; Lestari, Umie; Indriwati, Sri Endah

    2018-01-01

    This research aims to compare the effect of the implementation of three levels of inquiry: level 2 (structured inquiry), level 3 (guided inquiry), and level 4 (open inquiry) toward science concept understanding of elementary school teacher candidates. This is a quasi experiment research with pre-test post-test nonequivalent control group design.…

  11. The Effect of Cooperative Learning Approach Based on Conceptual Change Condition on Students' Understanding of Chemical Equilibrium Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgin, Ibrahim; Geban, Omer

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of the cooperative learning approach based on conceptual change conditions over traditional instruction on 10th grade students' conceptual understanding and achievement of computational problems related to chemical equilibrium concepts. The subjects of this study consisted of 87 tenth grade…

  12. From Words to Concepts: Focusing on Word Knowledge When Teaching for Conceptual Understanding within an Inquiry-Based Science Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, Berit S.; Ødegaard, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative video study explores how two elementary school teachers taught for conceptual understanding throughout different phases of science inquiry. The teachers implemented teaching materials with a focus on learning science key concepts through the development of word knowledge. A framework for word knowledge was applied to examine the…

  13. Mundane science use in a practice theoretical perspective: Different understandings of the relations between citizen-consumers and public communication initiatives build on scientific claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halkier, Bente

    2015-08-13

    Public communication initiatives play a part in placing complicated scientific claims in citizen-consumers' everyday contexts. Lay reactions to scientific claims framed in public communication, and attempts to engage citizens, have been important subjects of discussion in the literatures of public understanding and public engagement with science. Many of the public communication initiatives, however, address lay people as consumers rather than citizens. This creates specific challenges for understanding public engagement with science and scientific citizenship. The article compares five different understandings of the relations between citizen-consumers and public issue communication involving science, where the first four types are widely represented in the Public Understanding of Science discussions. The fifth understanding is a practice theoretical perspective. The article suggests how the public understanding of and engagement in science literature can benefit from including a practice theoretical approach to research about mundane science use and public engagement. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Holistic Mathematics Instruction: Interactive Problem Solving and Real Life Situations Help Learners Understand Math Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archambeault, Betty

    1993-01-01

    Holistic math focuses on problem solving with numbers and concepts. Whole math activities for adults include shopping for groceries, eating in restaurants, buying gas, taking medicine, measuring a room, estimating servings, and compiling a family cookbook. (SK)

  15. A concept mapping approach to guide and understand dissemination and implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Amy E; Fettes, Danielle L; Aarons, Gregory A

    2012-10-01

    Many efforts to implement evidence-based programs do not reach their full potential or fail due to the variety of challenges inherent in dissemination and implementation. This article describes the use of concept mapping-a mixed method strategy-to study implementation of behavioral health innovations and evidence-based practice (EBP). The application of concept mapping to implementation research represents a practical and concise way to identify and quantify factors affecting implementation, develop conceptual models of implementation, target areas to address as part of implementation readiness and active implementation, and foster communication among stakeholders. Concept mapping is described and a case example is provided to illustrate its use in an implementation study. Implications for the use of concept mapping methods in both research and applied settings towards the dissemination and implementation of behavioral health services are discussed.

  16. On the Concept of Force: How Understanding Its History Can Improve Physics Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Ricardo Lopes

    2010-01-01

    Some physicists have pointed out that we do not know what force is. The most common definition of force in textbooks has been criticized for more than two centuries. Many studies have shown that the concept of force is a problem for teaching. How to conceive force on the basis of the concepts and criticism of force in the works of Newton, Euler,…

  17. Energy Concept Understanding of High School Students: A Cross-Grade Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaoglu, Zeynep Baskan

    2018-01-01

    Energy is a difficult concept to be understood by students of all levels. Thus, the aim of the study is to determine how high school students at different levels perceive the energy and related concepts. In line with this purpose, 173 students in total of which 57 ones of the 9th grade, 94 ones of the 10th grade and 22 ones of the 11th grade…

  18. A Concept Mapping Approach to Guide and Understand Dissemination and Implementation

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Amy E.; Fettes, Danielle L.; Aarons, Gregory A.

    2012-01-01

    Many efforts to implement evidence-based programs do not reach their full potential or fail due to the variety of challenges inherent in dissemination and implementation. This article describes the use of concept mapping—a mixed method strategy—to study implementation of behavioral health innovations and evidence-based practice (EBP). The application of concept mapping to implementation research represents a practical and concise way to identify and quantify factors affecting implementation, ...

  19. Culture of peace and care for the Planet Earth as predictors of students’ understanding of chemistry concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngozi Okafor

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on how culture of peace and care for the planet earth variables predicted public coeducational secondary school students understanding of chemistry concepts in Anambra State of Nigeria. Three research questions guided the study. It was a survey and correlational research designs that involved sample of 180 drawn from six schools through a three-stage sampling procedures. Culture of Peace and Care for the Planet Earth Questionnaire (CPCPEQ and Chemistry Understanding Test (CUT were used for data collection. Their validity and reliability were determined using Cronbach alpha and Kuder-Richardson formula 20 which gave indices of r=.71 and r= 0.78 respectively. Linear regression and bivariate correlation analyses as well as One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA were used in data analysis. The results showed that for culture of peace, tolerance significantly predicted higher chemistry concepts scores while social movement significantly predicted lower concepts scores on chemistry understanding test. On care for the planet earth, adjusting thermostat significantly predicted higher scores while saving water significantly predicted lower scores on chemistry understanding test. The study recommended setting- up of Visionary Chemists for Environment and Peace Culture (VCEPC in all schools that would sensitize students on how to shun hostility, indoctrination and embracing effective methods of waste disposal. It concludes that everybody should go green, plant more trees, and promote mutual understanding, tolerance, peaceful co-existence and friendly environments as fundamental tips of peace culture and care for the planet earth that foster meaningful understanding of chemistry concepts among secondary school students.

  20. Resilience as a concept for understanding family caregiving of adults with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Francesca; Bagnasco, Annamaria; Aleo, Giuseppe; Kendall, Sally; Sasso, Loredana

    2017-04-01

    This paper was a report of the synthesis of evidence on examining the origins and definitions of the concept of resilience, investigating its application in chronic illness management and exploring its utility as a means of understanding family caregiving of adults with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. Resilience is a concept that is becoming relevant to understanding how individuals and families live with illness, especially long-term conditions. Caregivers of adults with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease must be able to respond to exacerbations of the condition and may themselves experience cognitive imbalances. Yet, resilience as a way of understanding family caregiving of adults with COPD is little explored. Literature review - integrative review. CINAHL, PubMed, Google Scholar and EBSCO were searched between 1989-2015. The principles of rapid evidence assessment were followed. We identified 376 relevant papers: 20 papers reported the presence of the concept of resilience in family caregivers of chronic diseases patients but only 12 papers reported the presence of the concept of resilience in caregivers of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease patients and have been included in the synthesis. The term resilience in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease caregiving is most often understood using a deficit model of health.

  1. Biological Principles and Threshold Concepts for Understanding Natural Selection. Implications for Developing Visualizations as a Pedagogic Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibell, Lena A. E.; Harms, Ute

    2017-11-01

    Modern evolutionary theory is both a central theory and an integrative framework of the life sciences. This is reflected in the common references to evolution in modern science education curricula and contexts. In fact, evolution is a core idea that is supposed to support biology learning by facilitating the organization of relevant knowledge. In addition, evolution can function as a pivotal link between concepts and highlight similarities in the complexity of biological concepts. However, empirical studies in many countries have for decades identified deficiencies in students' scientific understanding of evolution mainly focusing on natural selection. Clearly, there are major obstacles to learning natural selection, and we argue that to overcome them, it is essential to address explicitly the general abstract concepts that underlie the biological processes, e.g., randomness or probability. Hence, we propose a two-dimensional framework for analyzing and structuring teaching of natural selection. The first—purely biological—dimension embraces the three main principles variation, heredity, and selection structured in nine key concepts that form the core idea of natural selection. The second dimension encompasses four so-called thresholds, i.e., general abstract and/or non-perceptual concepts: randomness, probability, spatial scales, and temporal scales. We claim that both of these dimensions must be continuously considered, in tandem, when teaching evolution in order to allow development of a meaningful understanding of the process. Further, we suggest that making the thresholds tangible with the aid of appropriate kinds of visualizations will facilitate grasping of the threshold concepts, and thus, help learners to overcome the difficulties in understanding the central theory of life.

  2. Understanding the physical and chemical nature of the warfarin drug binding site in human serum albumin: experimental and theoretical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Zied, Osama K

    2015-01-01

    Human serum albumin (HSA) is one of the major carrier proteins in the body and constitutes approximately half of the protein found in blood plasma. It plays an important role in lipid metabolism, and its ability to reversibly bind a large variety of pharmaceutical compounds makes it a crucial determinant of drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. This review deals with one of the protein's major binding sites "Sudlow I" which includes a binding pocket for the drug warfarin (WAR). The binding nature of this important site can be characterized by measuring the spectroscopic changes when a ligand is bound. Using several drugs, including WAR, and other drug-like molecules as ligands, the results emphasize the nature of Sudlow I as a flexible binding site, capable of binding a variety of ligands by adapting its binding pockets. The high affinity of the WAR pocket for binding versatile molecular structures stems from the flexibility of the amino acids forming the pocket. The binding site is shown to have an ionization ability which is important to consider when using drugs that are known to bind in Sudlow I. Several studies point to the important role of water molecules trapped inside the binding site in molecular recognition and ligand binding. Water inside the protein's cavity is crucial in maintaining the balance between the hydrophobic and hydrophilic nature of the binding site. Upon the unfolding and refolding of HSA, more water molecules are trapped inside the binding site which cause some swelling that prevents a full recovery from the denatured state. Better understanding of the mechanism of binding in macromolecules such as HSA and other proteins can be achieved by combining experimental and theoretical studies which produce significant synergies in studying complex biochemical phenomena.

  3. Towards a Theoretical Framework for the Comparative Understanding of Globalisation, Higher Education, the Labour Market and Inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupfer, Antonia

    2011-01-01

    This paper is a theoretical examination of three major empirical trends that affect many people: globalisation, increasingly close relations between higher education (HE) and labour markets, and increasing social inequality. Its aim is to identify key theoretical resources and their contribution to the development of a comparative theoretical…

  4. A theoretical understanding on the CO-tolerance mechanism of the WC(0001) supported Pt monolayer: Some improvement strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xilin [College of Physics and Materials Science, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang, 453007 (China); Lu, Zhansheng [College of Physics and Materials Science, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang, 453007 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Nano Functional Materials and Applications, Henan Province (China); Yang, Zongxian, E-mail: yzx@henannu.edu.cn [College of Physics and Materials Science, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang, 453007 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Nano Functional Materials and Applications, Henan Province (China)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • The mechanism of CO tolerance and oxidation on Pt{sub ML}/WC(0001) is clarified. • The high tolerance of Pt{sub ML}/WC(0001) to CO originate from the weak adsorption. • The minimum energy path and the rate-determining step are identified. • The activity of Pt{sub ML}/WC(0001) to CO oxidation is comparable to that of Pt(111). • Some probable strategies are proposed to improve the activity of Pt{sub ML}/WC(0001). - Abstract: The deposition of platinum on the tungsten carbide (Pt/WC) have been achieved and proved with high stability, activity and CO-tolerance toward some reactions in experiments. Although a lot of experimental efforts have been focused on understanding the activity, stability and CO-tolerance of Pt/WC, the relevant theoretical works related to the CO-tolerance mechanism are still scarce. In current study, the adsorption and oxidation of CO on the Pt monolayer supported on WC(0001) surface (Pt{sub ML}/WC(0001)) are investigated using density functional theory calculations. It is found that the oxidation of CO on Pt{sub ML}/WC(0001) proceeds preferably along the Langmuir-Hinshelwood mechanism. The energy barrier of 1.06 eV for the rate-determining step of OOCO formation is almost equal to that (1.05 eV) for CO oxidation by atomic O on Pt(111), while the adsorption energy of 1.59 eV for CO on Pt{sub ML}/WC(0001) is smaller than that on Pt(111) (1.85 eV), indicating that the high resistance to CO poisoning of Pt{sub ML}/WC(0001) may originate from the weak interaction between them. To further improve the CO tolerance, some probable strategies are proposed based on the relevant kinetics results. The current results are helpful to understanding the origin of the highly resistant to CO poisoning of Pt{sub ML}/WC(0001) and rationally designing catalysts to improve the CO oxidation activity.

  5. Examining the Conceptual Understandings of Geoscience Concepts of Students with Visual Impairments: Implications of 3-D Printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, Karen E.

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the use of 3-D printed models as an instructional tool in a middle school science classroom for students with visual impairments and compare their use to traditional tactile graphics for aiding conceptual understanding of geoscience concepts. Specifically, this study examined if the students' conceptual understanding of plate tectonics was different when 3-D printed objects were used versus traditional tactile graphics and explored the misconceptions held by students with visual impairments related to plate tectonics and associated geoscience concepts. Interview data was collected one week prior to instruction and one week after instruction and throughout the 3-week instructional period and additional ata sources included student journals, other student documents and audio taped instructional sessions. All students in the middle school classroom received instruction on plate tectonics using the same inquiry-based curriculum but during different time periods of the day. One group of students, the 3D group, had access to 3-D printed models illustrating specific geoscience concepts and the group of students, the TG group, had access to tactile graphics illustrating the same geoscience concepts. The videotaped pre and post interviews were transcribed, analyzed and coded for conceptual understanding using constant comparative analysis and to uncover student misconceptions. All student responses to the interview questions were categorized in terms of conceptual understanding. Analysis of student journals and classroom talk served to uncover student mental models and misconceptions about plate tectonics and associated geoscience concepts to measure conceptual understanding. A slight majority of the conceptual understanding before instruction was categorized as no understanding or alternative understanding and after instruction the larger majority of conceptual understanding was categorized as scientific or scientific

  6. [AVIATION MEDICINE: THEORETICAL CONCEPTS AND FOCAL FUNDAMENTAL AND PRACTICAL ISSUES (for the 80th anniversary of the Research Test Center of Aerospace Medicine and Military Ergonomics)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhdanko, I M; Pisarev, A A; Vorona, A A; Lapa, V V; Khomenko, M N

    2015-01-01

    The article discloses postulates of theoretical concepts that make the methodological basis for addressing the real-world aviation medicine challenges of humanizing aviator's environment, labor content and means, and health and performance maintenance. Under consideration are focal fundamental and practical issues arising with the technological progress in aviation and dealt with at the AF CRI Research Test Center of Aerospace Medicine and Military Ergonomics.

  7. Designing and Redesigning a Framework for Assessing Students' Understanding of Foundational Fractions Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendiburo, Maria; Williams, Laura; Henson, Robert; Hasselbring, Ted

    2013-01-01

    The fact that research has shown that fractions are among the most difficult mathematical concepts for elementary school students to master (Behr, Harel, Post, & Lesh, 1992; Bezuk & Cramer, 1989; Moss & Case, 1999) provides a compelling motivation for research and innovation focused on improving the available assessment and…

  8. Enhancing Students' Understanding of Algebra Concepts through Cooperative Computer Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambari, Amos Isiaka; Shittu, Ahmed Tajudeen; Taiwo, Oladipupo Abimbola

    2016-01-01

    Values are the personal convictions which one finds important. Three different aspects which are associated with mathematics education differently are identified, namely, values through mathematics education, values of mathematics education, and values for mathematics. These are paired with Bishop's (1996) conceptions of general educational,…

  9. Early Science Education: Exploring Familiar Contexts To Improve the Understanding of Some Basic Scientific Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Isabel P.; Veiga, Luisa

    2001-01-01

    Argues that science education is a fundamental tool for global education and that it must be introduced in early years as a first step to a scientific culture for all. Describes testing validity of a didactic strategy for developing the learning of concepts, which was based upon an experimental work approach using everyday life contexts. (Author)

  10. Towards Understanding EFL Teachers' Conceptions of Research: Findings from Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banegas, Darío Luis

    2018-01-01

    This paper investigates the conceptions of research held by English as a foreign language teachers in Argentina. Quantitative data from 622 participants from an online questionnaire were followed by qualitative data from online interviews with 40 of those participants. Results show that the teachers conceptualised research through conventional…

  11. Improving Student Understanding of Lipids Concepts in a Biochemistry Course Using Test-Enhanced Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Savannah; Hernick, Marcy

    2015-01-01

    Test-enhanced learning has successfully been used as a means to enhance learning and promote knowledge retention in students. We have examined whether this approach could be used in a biochemistry course to enhance student learning about lipids-related concepts. Students were provided access to two optional learning modules with questions related…

  12. Perceptions of Leadership: An Examination of College Students' Understandings of the Concept of Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haber, Paige

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to examine how college students define the concept of leadership and to identify gender, racial, and age differences within these definitions. Participants were 1100 undergraduate students drawn from a national sample. Participants were asked to detail their definitions of leadership, which were analyzed…

  13. Levels of abstraction in students' understanding of the concept of algorithm : the qualitative perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perrenet, J.C.; Kaasenbrood, E.J.S.

    2006-01-01

    In a former, mainly quantitative, study we defined four levels of abstraction in Computer Science students' thinking about the concept of algorithm. We constructed a list of questions about algorithms to measure the answering level as an indication for the thinking level. The answering level

  14. Developing Conceptions of Fair Contest Procedures and the Understanding of Skill and Luck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorkildsen, Theresa A.; White-McNulty, Lisa

    2002-01-01

    Contrary to assumptions about aversive effects of competition on achievement motivation, in this study young people saw academic contests as fair. When participants completed structural interviews on fair ways to organize science contests and on differentiation of skill and luck, age-related trends in their conceptions of procedural justice were…

  15. High School Students' Understanding of Acid-Base Concepts: An Ongoing Challenge for Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damanhuri, Muhd Ibrahim Muhamad; Treagust, David F.; Won, Mihye; Chandrasegaran, A. L.

    2016-01-01

    Using a quantitative case study design, the "Acids-Bases Chemistry Achievement Test" ("ABCAT") was developed to evaluate the extent to which students in Malaysian secondary schools achieved the intended curriculum on acid-base concepts. Responses were obtained from 260 Form 5 (Grade 11) students from five schools to initially…

  16. An Assessment of Students' Understanding of Ecosystem Concepts: Conflating Ecological Systems and Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Rebecca; Gray, Steven; Demeter, Marylee; Lui, Lei; Hmelo-Silver, Cindy E.

    2009-01-01

    Teaching ecological concepts in schools is important in promoting natural science and environmental education for young learners. Developing educational programs is difficult, however, because of complicated ecological processes operating on multiple levels, the unlimited nature of potential system interactions (given the openness of systems), and…

  17. Relations between representational consistency, conceptual understanding of the force concept, and scientific reasoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasi Nieminen

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Previous physics education research has raised the question of “hidden variables” behind students’ success in learning certain concepts. In the context of the force concept, it has been suggested that students’ reasoning ability is one such variable. Strong positive correlations between students’ preinstruction scores for reasoning ability (measured by Lawson’s Classroom Test of Scientific Reasoning and their learning of forces [measured by the Force Concept Inventory (FCI] have been reported in high school and university introductory courses. However, there is no published research concerning the relation between students’ ability to interpret multiple representations consistently (i.e., representational consistency and their learning of forces. To investigate this, we collected 131 high school students’ pre- and post-test data of the Representational Variant of the Force Concept Inventory (for representational consistency and the FCI. The students’ Lawson pretest data were also collected. We found that the preinstruction level of students’ representational consistency correlated strongly with student learning gain of forces. The correlation (0.51 was almost equal to the correlation between Lawson prescore and learning gain of forces (0.52. Our results support earlier findings which suggest that scientific reasoning ability is a hidden variable behind the learning of forces. In addition, we suggest that students’ representational consistency may also be such a factor, and that this should be recognized in physics teaching.

  18. Chinese Grade Eight Students' Understanding about the Concept of Global Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jing

    2017-01-01

    China is one of the world's biggest greenhouse gas emitters. Chinese students' awareness and understanding about global warming have a significant impact on the future of mankind. This study, as an initial research of this kind in Mainland China, uses clinical interviews to survey 37 grade eight students on their understanding about global…

  19. Understanding Decision-Making in Specialized Domestic Violence Courts: Can Contemporary Theoretical Frameworks Help Guide These Decisions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinchevsky, Gillian M

    2016-05-22

    This study fills a gap in the literature by exploring the utility of contemporary courtroom theoretical frameworks-uncertainty avoidance, causal attribution, and focal concerns-for explaining decision-making in specialized domestic violence courts. Using data from two specialized domestic violence courts, this study explores the predictors of prosecutorial and judicial decision-making and the extent to which these factors are congruent with theoretical frameworks often used in studies of court processing. Findings suggest that these theoretical frameworks only partially help explain decision-making in the courts under study. A discussion of the findings and implications for future research is provided. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. The Affordable Care Act: a case study for understanding and applying complexity concepts to health care reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, D Justin; Swanson, R Chad; Fuller, Spencer; Cortese, Denis A

    2016-02-01

    The current health system in the United States is the result of a history of patchwork policy decisions and cultural assumptions that have led to persistent contradictions in practice, gaps in coverage, unsustainable costs, and inconsistent outcomes. In working toward a more efficient health system, understanding and applying complexity science concepts will allow for policy that better promotes desired outcomes and minimizes the effects of unintended consequences. This paper will consider three applied complexity science concepts in the context of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA): developing a shared vision around reimbursement for value, creating an environment for emergence through simple rules, and embracing transformational leadership at all levels. Transforming the US health system, or any other health system, will be neither easy nor quick. Applying complexity concepts to health reform efforts, however, will facilitate long-term change in all levels, leading to health systems that are more effective, efficient, and equitable. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Addressing pre-service teachers' understandings and difficulties with some core concepts in the special theory of relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selcuk, Gamze Sezgin

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate pre-service teachers' understanding of and difficulties with some core concepts in the special theory of relativity. The pre-service teachers (n = 185) from the Departments of Physics Education and Elementary Science Education at Dokuz Eylul University (in Turkey) participated. Both quantitative and qualitative research methods were used in this study. Students' understanding of and difficulties with core elements (time, length, mass and density) were tested using a paper-and-pencil questionnaire (including four questions) and in-depth interviews after the instruction of related modern physics topics. The analyses of the collected data were based on quantitative and qualitative techniques. The results indicate that pre-service teachers at different academic levels have specific and considerable difficulties with proper time, time dilation, proper length, mass and relativistic density concepts. In this paper, the conclusions of the study and implications for physics teaching are discussed.

  2. Theoretical strengthening of the concept of appealing in analysed sermons on Matthew 25:31–46 in the context of poverty in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hennie J.C. Pieterse

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available From a qualitative grounded theory analysis in a sample of 26 sermons with Matthew 25:31–46 as sermon text, a rhetorical structure of how the preachers try to convince their listeners to care for the poor emerged. The homiletical concept of appealingrelated to all the categories borne out of the analysis of the inner world of the 26 sermons, and also to the categories showing this rhetorical structure in the sermons. The article discusses what the dimensions are in the concept of appealingborne out of the sermons in which the rhetorical structure was apparent, which rhetorical theory would fit as theoretical base for the concept of appealing in its relationship with the rhetorical structure in the sermons, and what dilemma the preachers face when they try to convince their listeners to participate in the care for the poor. The rhetorical theory of deliberative rhetoric (Aristotle and the classical theory with the three dimensions logos, ethosand pathosis discussed in this article as theoretical thickening of the concept of appealingto the listeners of the sermons. This article attempts to demonstrate how to go about theorising from a grounded theory analysis of sermons with Matthew 25:31–46 as a sermon text with, as result, a theory that could help preachers in preaching from this text in the context of poverty in South Africa.

  3. Implementing Geographical Key Concepts: Design of a Symbiotic Teacher Training Course Based on Empirical and Theoretical Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fögele, Janis; Mehren, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    A central desideratum for the professionalization of qualified teachers is an improved practice of further teacher education. The present work constitutes a course of in-service training, which is built upon both a review of empirical findings concerning the efficacy of in-service training courses for teachers and theoretical assumptions about the…

  4. Understanding Value as a Key Concept in Sustaining the Perioperative Nursing Workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapaale, Chaluza C

    2018-03-01

    Perioperative nursing is faced with a staffing crisis attributed in part to minimal numbers of newly graduated nurses choosing a career in this specialty. This article analyzes and applies the concept of value to explore how to maintain an adequate perioperative nursing workforce; recruit newly graduated nurses; and encourage career professional, nurse educator, and student collaboration to generate meaningful value for perioperative nursing. This analysis revealed that value co-creation for perioperative nursing could lead to newly graduated nurses increasingly choosing perioperative nursing as a career, and enjoying satisfying perioperative nursing careers while providing high-quality patient care. © AORN, Inc, 2018.

  5. Duhem’s Critical Analysis of Mechanicism and his Defense of a Formal Conception of Theoretical Physics

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    José R. N. Chiappin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present Duhem’s critical view of the dynamical development of mechanics according to two principles of his theory of the development of physics: the continuous and the rational development of physics. These two principles impose a formal conception of physics that aims at demarcating physics from the metaphysical view on the one hand and the pragmatist/conventionalist view on the other hand. Duhem pursues an intermediary conception of physics, a representational system of empirical laws based upon formal principles. This formal conception of physics will adjust to his idea of scientific progress in the form of a sequence of representational systems as structures of increasing comprehensiveness of empirical laws, which leads him to defend a convergent structural realism pointing to an ideal physical theory.

  6. Design e-learning with flipped learning model to improve layout understanding the concepts basic of the loop control structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handayani, D. P.; Sutarno, H.; Wihardi, Y.

    2018-05-01

    This study aimed in design and build e-learning with classroom flipped model to improve the concept of understanding of SMK students on the basic programming subject. Research and development obtained research data from survey questionnaire given to students of SMK class X RPL in SMK Negeri 2 Bandung and interviews to RPL productive teacher. Data also obtained from questionnaire of expert validation and students' assessment from e-learning with flipped classroom models. Data also obtained from multiple-choice test to measure improvements in conceptual understanding. The results of this research are: 1) Developed e- learning with flipped classroom model considered good and worthy of use by the average value of the percentage of 86,3% by media experts, and 85,5% by subjects matter experts, then students gave judgment is very good on e-learning either flipped classroom model with a percentage of 79,15% votes. 2) e-learning with classroom flipped models show an increase in the average value of pre-test before using e-learning 26.67 compared to the average value post-test after using e- learning at 63.37 and strengthened by the calculation of the index gains seen Increased understanding of students 'concepts by 50% with moderate criteria indicating that students' understanding is improving.

  7. Building an Understanding of Heat Transfer Concepts in Undergraduate Chemical Engineering Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nottis, Katharyn E. K.; Prince, Michael J.; Vigeant, Margot A.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the distinctions among heat, energy and temperature can be difficult for students at all levels of instruction, including those in engineering. Misconceptions about heat transfer have been found to persist, even after students successfully complete relevant coursework. New instructional methods are needed to address these…

  8. A process approach to children's understanding of scientific concepts : A longitudinal case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Steen, Steffie; Steenbeek, Henderien; van Dijk, Marijn; van Geert, Paul

    In order to optimally study changes in the complexity of understanding, microgenetic measures are needed, and a coupling of these to longer-term measures. We focus on the interaction dynamics between a 4-year old boy and a researcher while they work on tasks about air pressure in three subsequent

  9. The Effect of a Conceptual Change Approach on Understanding of Students' Chemical Equilibrium Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atasoy, Basri; Akkus, Huseyin; Kadayifci, Hakki

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a conceptual change approach over traditional instruction on tenth-grade students' conceptual achievement in understanding chemical equilibrium. The study was conducted in two classes of the same teacher with participation of a total of 44 tenth-grade students. In this study, a…

  10. Exploring Young Children's Understanding of Risks Associated with Internet Usage and Their Concepts of Management Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ey, Lesley-Anne; Cupit, C. Glenn

    2011-01-01

    The Internet provides remarkable opportunities for children's learning and development. Nevertheless, it is unregulated and hard to control, which potentially places children at risk of exploitation. This study examined five-eight-year-old children's understanding of dangers associated with the Internet, management strategies and sources of their…

  11. "Boss of the United States" Kindergarteners' Concept of Voting: Five Scaffolded Lessons that Build Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulrey, Betty C.; Ackerman, Ann T.; Howson, Patricia H.

    2012-01-01

    In any U.S. presidential election year, classroom teachers integrate lessons into their curriculum that help students understand their privileges, responsibilities, and rights as good citizens. Teaching about the electoral process and voting in primary classrooms is one way to build a foundation that promotes civic engagement. In this article, the…

  12. Effects of Jigsaw and Animation Techniques on Students' Understanding of Concepts and Subjects in Electrochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doymus, Kemal; Karacop, Ataman; Simsek, Umit

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of jigsaw cooperative learning and animation versus traditional teaching methods on students' understanding of electrochemistry in a first-year general chemistry course. This study was carried out in three different classes in the department of primary science education during the 2007-2008 academic year. The…

  13. A Theoretical Study of two Novel Concept Systems for Maximum Thermal-Chemical Conversion of Biomass to Hydrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob N. Chung

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Two concept systems that are based on the thermochemical process of high-temperature steam gasification of lignocellulosic biomass and municipal solid waste are introduced. The primary objectives of the concept systems are 1 to develop the best scientific, engineering, and technology solutions for converting lignocellulosic biomass, as well as agricultural, forest and municipal waste to clean energy (pure hydrogen fuel, and 2 to minimize water consumption and detrimental impacts of energy production on the environment (air pollution and global warming. The production of superheated steam is by hydrogen combustion using recycled hydrogen produced in the first concept system while in the second concept system concentrated solar energy is used for the steam production. A membrane reactor that performs the hydrogen separation and water gas shift reaction is involved in both systems for producing more pure hydrogen and CO2 sequestration. Based on obtaining the maximum hydrogen production rate the hydrogen recycled ratio is around 20% for the hydrogen combustion steam heating system. Combined with pure hydrogen production, both high temperature steam gasification systems potentially possess more than 80% in first law overall system thermodynamic efficiencies.

  14. A Theoretical Study of Two Novel Concept Systems for Maximum Thermal-Chemical Conversion of Biomass to Hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, J. N., E-mail: jnchung@ufl.edu [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2014-01-02

    Two concept systems that are based on the thermochemical process of high temperature steam gasification of lignocellulosic biomass and municipal solid waste are introduced. The primary objectives of the concept systems are (1) to develop the best scientific, engineering, and technology solutions for converting lignocellulosic biomass, as well as agricultural, forest, and municipal waste to clean energy (pure hydrogen fuel), and (2) to minimize water consumption and detrimental impacts of energy production on the environment (air pollution and global warming). The production of superheated steam is by hydrogen combustion using recycled hydrogen produced in the first concept system while in the second concept system concentrated solar energy is used for the steam production. A membrane reactor that performs the hydrogen separation and water gas shift reaction is involved in both systems for producing more pure hydrogen and CO{sub 2} sequestration. Based on obtaining the maximum hydrogen production rate the hydrogen recycled ratio is around 20% for the hydrogen combustion steam heating system. Combined with pure hydrogen production, both high temperature steam gasification systems potentially possess more than 80% in first law overall system thermodynamic efficiencies.

  15. Medical Students’ View about the Effects of Practical Courses on Learning the General Theoretical Concepts of Basic Medical Sciences

    OpenAIRE

    Leila Roshangar; Fariba Salek Ranjbarzadeh; Reza Piri; Mahdi Karimi Shoar; Leila Rasi Marzabadi

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The basic medical sciences section requires 2.5 years in the medical education curriculum. Practical courses complement theoretical knowledge in this period to improve their appreciation. Despite spending lots of disbursement and time, this period’s efficacy is not clearly known. Methods: One hundred thirty-three General Practitioner (GP) students have been included in this descriptive cross-sectional study and were asked by questionnaire about the positive impact of practical c...

  16. Reflective Writing for a Better Understanding of Scientific Concepts in High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Helou, Joseph; Kalman, Calvin S.

    2018-02-01

    Science teachers can always benefit from efficient tools that help students to engage with the subject and understand it better without significantly adding to the teacher's workload nor requiring too much of class time to manage. Reflective writing is such a low-impact, high-return tool. What follows is an introduction to reflective writing, and more on its usefulness for teachers is given in the last part of this article.

  17. Cultural influences on children's understanding of the human body and the concept of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagiotaki, Georgia; Nobes, Gavin

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed to identify the age by which children begin to demonstrate a biological understanding of the human body and the idea that the purpose of body functioning is to maintain life. The study also explored the influence of education, culturally specific experiences and religion on knowledge acquisition in this domain. Children aged between 4 and 7 years from three different cultural backgrounds (White British, British Muslim, and Pakistani Muslim) were interviewed about the human body and its functioning. At least half of the 4- to 5-year-olds in each cultural group, and almost all 6- to 7-year-olds, referred to the maintenance of life when explaining organs' functions and so were classified as 'life theorizers'. Pakistani Muslim children gave fewer biological responses to questions about organs' functions and the purpose of eating and breathing, but referred to life more than their British counterparts. Irrespective of cultural group, older children understood organ location and function better than younger children. These findings support Jaakkola and Slaughter's (2002, Br. J. Dev. Psychol., 20, 325) view that children's understanding of the body as a 'life machine' emerges around the ages of 4-5 years. They also suggest that, despite many similarities in children's ideas cross-culturally, different educational input and culturally specific experiences influence aspects of their biological understanding. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  18. Everyday conceptions of object fall: explicit and tacit understanding during middle childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Christine; Taylor Tavares, Joana; Devine, Amy

    2012-03-01

    Adults make erroneous predictions about object fall despite recognizing when observed displays are correct or incorrect. Prediction requires explicit engagement with conceptual knowledge, whereas recognition can be achieved through tacit processing. Therefore, it has been suggested that the greater challenge imposed by explicit engagement leads to elements of conceptual understanding being omitted from prediction that are included in recognition. Acknowledging that research with children provides a significant context for exploring this "omission hypothesis" further, this article reports two studies with 6- to 10-year-olds, each of which used prediction and recognition tasks. Study 1 (N=137) focused on understanding of direction of fall, and Study 2 (N=133) addressed speed. Although performance on the recognition tasks was generally superior to performance on the prediction tasks, qualitative differences also emerged. These differences argue against interpreting explicit level understanding purely in terms of omission of tacit constructs, and the article outlines alternative models that may account for the data. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Financial Literacy; Strategies and Concepts in Understanding the Financial Planning With Self-EfficacyTheory and Goal SettingTheory of Motivation Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Mu’izzuddin, -; Taufik, -; Ghasarma, Reza; Putri, Leonita; Adam, Mohamad

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses the strategies and concepts in understanding the financial literacy with the approach of self-efficacy theory and goal setting theory of motivation. The discussion begins with the concept of behavioral finance that discusses links between financial concepts to the behavior, and then proceed with the concept and measurement of financial literacy of individuals altogether with some approaches and factors that may affect it. Self-efficacy theory and goal setting theory of ...

  20. What does "brief" mean? A theoretical critique of the concept of brief therapy from a psychoanalytic viewpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migone, Paolo

    2014-08-01

    The concept of "brief therapy" contains internal contradictions. The techniques suggested by brief therapists are the same techniques that have been discussed historically in debates on theory of technique, both within and without psychoanalysis (e.g., the experiential factor at the center of the Freud-Ferenczi confrontation is also an important aspect of Gestalt therapy). A time limit is the only operational criterion that allows a rigorous definition of brief therapy; without this criterion it is impossible to discriminate between "brief" and simply "good" therapies (i.e., those in which patients are successfully treated in a short time). An important question is why, with a given patient, a therapist should decide, a priori, to terminate a treatment within a set time. Two clinical examples are presented, illustrating the usefulness of Eissler's concept of parameters as a heuristic framework to identify the potentially defensive nature of both "brief" and "long-term" therapy. © 2014 by the American Psychoanalytic Association.

  1. THE EFFECTIVENESS OF E-LAB TO IMPROVE GENERIC SCIENCE SKILLS AND UNDERSTANDING THE CONCEPT OF PHYSICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Siswanto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aimed of this sudy are: (1 investigate the effectiveness of E-Lab to improve generic science skills and understanding the concepts oh physics; and (2 investigate the effect of generic science skills towards understanding the concept of students after learning by using the E-Lab. The method used in this study is a pre-experimental design with one group pretest-posttest. Subjects were students of Physics Education in University PGRI Semarang with methode random sampling. The results showed that: (1 learning to use E-Lab effective to increase generic science skills of students; and (2 Generic science skills give positive effect on student conceptual understanding on the material of the photoelectric effect, compton effect, and electron diffraction. Tujuan penelitian ini yaitu: (1 menyelidiki efektifitas E-Lab untuk meningkatkan keterampilan generik sains dan pemahaman konsep mahasiswa; dan (2  menyelidiki pengaruh keterampilan generik sains terhadap pemahaman konsep mahasiswa setelah dilakukan pembelajaran dengan menggunakan E-Lab. Metode penelitian yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah pre-experimental dengan desain one group pretest-posttest. Subjek penelitian adalah mahasiswa Program Studi Pendidikan  Fisika  Universitas PGRI Semarang, dengan metode pengambilan sampel penelitian secara random. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa bahwa: (1 pembelajaran menggunakan E-Lab efektif untuk meningkatkan keterampilan generik sains mahasiswa; dan  (2 Keterampilan generik sains berpengaruh positif terhadap pemahaman konsep mahasiswa pada materi efek fotolistrik, efek compton, dan difraksi elektron. 

  2. Implementation of basic chemistry experiment based on metacognition to increase problem-solving and build concept understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuhaida, A.

    2018-04-01

    Implementation of the experiment have the three aspects of the goal: 1) develop basic skills of experimenting; 2) develop problem-solving skills with a scientific approach; 3) improve understanding of the subject matter. On the implementation of the experiment, students have some weaknesses include: observing, identifying problems, managing information, analyzing, and evaluating. This weakness is included in the metacognition indicator.The objective of the research is to implementation of Basic Chemistry Experiment based on metacognition to increase problem-solving skills and build concept understanding for students of Science Education Department. The method of this research is a quasi- experimental method with pretest-posttest control group design. Problem-solving skills are measured through performance assessments using rubrics from problem solving reports, and results presentation. The conceptual mastery is measured through a description test. The result of the research: (1) improve the problem solving skills of the students with very high category; (2) increase the students’ concept understanding better than the conventional experiment with the result of N-gain in medium category, and (3) increase student's response positively for learning implementation. The contribution of this research is to extend the implementation of practical learning for some subjects, and to improve the students' competence in science.

  3. Relationship of beliefs, epistemology, and alternate conceptions to college student understanding of evolution and common descent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joyce Catherine

    Quantitative and qualitative methodologies were combined to explore the relationships between an understanding of evolution and 4 epistemology factors: (a) control of learning, (b) speed of learning , (c) stability of knowledge, and (d) belief in evolution/creationism. A 17-item instrument was developed that reliably measured a belief in creationism and subtle differences between this belief and an acceptance of evolution. The subjects were 45 students enrolled in a biology course at a 2-year community college. Evolution was taught in a traditional format, and common descent was taught in an inquiry-based laboratory session consisting of: (a) a comparison of hemoglobin DNA sequences of the human, chimpanzee, and gorilla; and (b) a comparison of 8 primate skull casts, including the modern human, chimpanzee, gorilla, and five prehistoric fossils. Prior to instruction the students completed an epistemology questionnaire and a knowledge test about evolution. Five weeks after instruction, the students completed a posttest. A t-test revealed no differences between the pretest and the posttest. However, the group of students that scored higher on the posttest than on the pretest was found to have a stronger belief in the uncertainty of knowledge. Pearson r was computed to check for relationships between the 4 epistemological factors and the understanding of evolution. There was a significant relationship between a belief in creationism and a lessor understanding of evolution as measured on both the pretest and the posttest (ps humans evolved from the chimpanzee. Additionally, students grouped the 8 primate skulls into just 2 categories: human and animals. Other misconceptions included a nonevolutionary use of the term, related, and the use of naive organizers leading to incorrect conclusions about the relatedness of certain organisms, such as a connection between fish and whales. These organizers included: (a) similarity of traits, (b) environment, (c) relative size, (d

  4. Theoretical explanations and practices regarding the distinction between the concepts: judicial error, error of law and fundamental vice in the legislation of the Republic of Moldova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilisa Muntean

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In the research, a doctrinal and legal analysis of the concept of legal error is carried out. The author provides a self-defined definition of the concept addressed and highlights the main causes and conditions for the occurrence of judicial errors. At present, in the specialized legal doctrine of the Republic of Moldova, the problem of defining the judicial error has been little approached. In this respect, this scientific article is a scientific approach aimed at elucidating the theoretical and normative deficiencies and errors that occur in the area of reparation of the prejudice caused by judicial errors. In order to achieve our goal, we aim to create a core of ideas and referral mechanisms that ensure a certain interpretative and decisional homogeneity in the doctrinal and legal characterization of the phrase "judicial error".

  5. Munazza's story: Understanding science teaching and conceptions of the nature of science in Pakistan through a life history study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halai, Nelofer

    In this study I have described and tried to comprehend how a female science teacher understands her practice. Additionally, I have developed some understanding of her understanding of the nature of science. While teaching science, a teacher projects messages about the nature of science that can be captured by observations and interviews. Furthermore, the manner is which a teacher conceptualizes science for teaching, at least in part, depends on personal life experiences. Hence, I have used the life history method to understand Munazza's practice. Munazza is a young female science teacher working in a private, co-educational school for children from middle income families in Karachi, Pakistan. Her stories are central to the study, and I have represented them using a number of narrative devices. I have woven in my own stories too, to illustrate my perspective as a researcher. The data includes 13 life history interviews and many informal conversations with Munazza, observations of science teaching in classes seven and eight, and interviews with other science teachers and administrative staff of the school. Munazza's personal biography and experiences of school and undergraduate courses has influenced the way she teaches. It has also influenced the way she does not teach. She was not inspired by her science teachers, so she has tried not to teach the way she was taught science. Contextual factors, her conception of preparation for teaching as preparation for subject content and the tension that she faces in balancing care and control in her classroom are some factors that influence her teaching. Munazza believes that science is a stable, superior and value-free way of knowing. In trying to understand the natural world, observations come first, which give reliable information about the world leading inductively to a "theory". Hence, she relies a great deal on demonstrations in the class where students "see" for themselves and abstract the scientific concept from the

  6. "Intelligent" design of molecular materials: Understanding the concepts of design in supramolecular synthesis of network solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulton, Brian D.

    This work endeavors to delineate modern paradigms for crystal engineering, i.e. the design and supramolecular synthesis of functional molecular materials. Paradigms predicated on an understanding of the geometry of polygons and polyhedra are developed. The primary focus is on structural determination by single crystal X-ray crystallography, structural interpretation using a suite of graphical visualization and molecular modeling software, and on the importance of proper graphical representation in the presentation and explanation of crystal structures. A detailed analysis of a selected series of crystal structures is presented. The reduction of these molecular networks to schematic representations that illustrate their fundamental connectivity facilitates the understanding of otherwise complex supramolecular solids. Circuit symbols and Schlafli notation are used to describe the network topologies, which enables networks of different composition and metrics to be easily compared. This reveals that molecular orientations in the crystals and networks are commensurate with networks that can be derived from spherical close packed lattices. The development of a logical design strategy for a new class of materials based on our understanding of the chemical composition and topology of these networks is described. The synthesis and crystal structure of a series of new materials generated by exploitation of this design strategy is presented, in addition to a detailed analysis of the topology of these materials and their relationship to a 'parent' structure. In summary, this dissertation demonstrates that molecular polygons can self-assemble at their vertexes to produce molecular architectures and crystal structures that are consistent with long established geometric dogma. The design strategy represents a potentially broad ranging approach to the design of nanoporous structures from a wide range of chemical components that are based on molecular shape rather than chemical

  7. Stakeholders understanding of the concept of benefit sharing in health research in Kenya: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lairumbi, Geoffrey M; Parker, Michael; Fitzpatrick, Raymond; Mike, English C

    2011-10-03

    The concept of benefit sharing to enhance the social value of global health research in resource poor settings is now a key strategy for addressing moral issues of relevance to individuals, communities and host countries in resource poor settings when they participate in international collaborative health research.The influence of benefit sharing framework on the conduct of collaborative health research is for instance evidenced by the number of publications and research ethics guidelines that require prior engagement between stakeholders to determine the social value of research to the host communities. While such efforts as the production of international guidance on how to promote the social value of research through such strategies as benefit sharing have been made, the extent to which these ideas and guidelines have been absorbed by those engaged in global health research especially in resource poor settings remains unclear. We examine this awareness among stakeholders involved in health related research in Kenya. We conducted in-depth interviews with key informants drawn from within the broader health research system in Kenya including researchers from the mainstream health research institutions, networks and universities, teaching hospitals, policy makers, institutional review boards, civil society organisations and community representative groups. Our study suggests that although people have a sense of justice and the moral aspects of research, this was not articulated in terms used in the literature and the guidelines on the ethics of global health research. This study demonstrates that while in theory several efforts can be made to address the moral issues of concern to research participants and their communities in resource poor settings, quick fixes such as benefit sharing are not going to be straightforward. We suggest a need to pay closer attention to the processes through which ethical principles are enacted in practice and distil lessons on how best

  8. Stakeholders understanding of the concept of benefit sharing in health research in Kenya: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitzpatrick Raymond

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The concept of benefit sharing to enhance the social value of global health research in resource poor settings is now a key strategy for addressing moral issues of relevance to individuals, communities and host countries in resource poor settings when they participate in international collaborative health research. The influence of benefit sharing framework on the conduct of collaborative health research is for instance evidenced by the number of publications and research ethics guidelines that require prior engagement between stakeholders to determine the social value of research to the host communities. While such efforts as the production of international guidance on how to promote the social value of research through such strategies as benefit sharing have been made, the extent to which these ideas and guidelines have been absorbed by those engaged in global health research especially in resource poor settings remains unclear. We examine this awareness among stakeholders involved in health related research in Kenya. Methods We conducted in-depth interviews with key informants drawn from within the broader health research system in Kenya including researchers from the mainstream health research institutions, networks and universities, teaching hospitals, policy makers, institutional review boards, civil society organisations and community representative groups. Results Our study suggests that although people have a sense of justice and the moral aspects of research, this was not articulated in terms used in the literature and the guidelines on the ethics of global health research. Conclusion This study demonstrates that while in theory several efforts can be made to address the moral issues of concern to research participants and their communities in resource poor settings, quick fixes such as benefit sharing are not going to be straightforward. We suggest a need to pay closer attention to the processes through which

  9. THE INDONESIA BEST SUSTAINABILITY REPORT AS A STUDENT’S ACCOUNTING TOOL TO UNDERSTAND CSR CONCEPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranto P. Sihombing

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Guideline Reporting Initiatives has long become the guidance for making sustainability report (SR.  It contains the company’s Corporate Social Responsibilities (CSR activities. By using these guidelines, the CSR activities of the company can be focused on and directed to minimize the negative impact. CSR activities will be grouped into three bottom lines of activities that are profit, people and planet. SR analyzed were the ones from companies associated with the exploration of natural resources which are the best in publishing the reports and conducting the CSR programs. The data obtained from questionnaire and interviews of accounting students from environmental and social accounting class in which there are also students from Slovenia, Lithuania and Ukraine. The results of this study found that students can understand easily the meaning of CSR in a comprehensive manner. They know both aspect of disclosure and report of the sustainability report.

  10. Patients' and physicians' understanding of health and biomedical concepts: relationship to the design of EMR systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vimla L; Arocha, José F; Kushniruk, André W

    2002-02-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine knowledge organization and reasoning strategies involved in physician-patient communication and to consider how these are affected by the use of computer tools, in particular, electronic medical record (EMR) systems. In the first part of the paper, we summarize results from a study in which patients were interviewed before their interactions with physicians and where physician-patient interactions were recorded and analyzed to evaluate patients' and physicians' understanding of the patient problem. We give a detailed presentation of one of such interaction, with characterizations of physician and patient models. In a second set of studies, the contents of both paper and EMRs were compared and in addition, physician-patient interactions (involving the use of EMR technology) were video recorded and analyzed to assess physicians' information gathering and knowledge organization for medical decision-making. Physicians explained the patient problems in terms of causal pathophysiological knowledge underlying the disease (disease model), whereas patients explained them in terms of narrative structures of illness (illness model). The data-driven nature of the traditional physician-patient interaction allows physicians to capture the temporal flow of events and to document key aspects of the patients' narratives. Use of electronic medical records was found to influence the way patient data were gathered, resulting in information loss and disruption of temporal sequence of events in assessing patient problem. The physician-patient interview allows physicians to capture crucial aspects of the patient's illness model, which are necessary for understanding the problem from the patients' perspective. Use of computer-based patient record technology may lead to a loss of this relevant information. As a consequence, designers of such systems should take into account information relevant to the patient comprehension of medical problems, which will

  11. THE PHYSICAL LABORATORY ACTIVITIES WITH PROBLEM SOLVING APPROACH TO INCREASE CRITICAL THINKING SKILL AND UNDERSTANDING STUDENT CONCEPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eli Trisnowati

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the description of the improvement of students’ critical thinking skills and the concept understanding by implementing the problem-solving approach. This study was in laboratory activities. This study was done in four times meeting. The try out subjects was 31 students of grades X of MAN Yogyakarta III. This research is using the quasi experimental method with the pretest-posttest design. The data were collected by using multiple choices tests with assessment rubric and observation sheets. The data are analyzed by using multivariate analysis. Based on the result, the gain standard value of students’ conceptual understanding and students’ critical thinking skills for grade X who learned through student’s worksheet with a problem-solving approach, called treatment class, are higher than students who learned without student’s worksheet with a problem-solving approach, called control class.

  12. Global Survey of the Concepts and Understanding of the Interfaces Between Nuclear Safety, Security, and Safeguards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovacic, Don N.; Stewart, Scott; Erickson, Alexa R.; Ford, Kerrie D.; Mladineo, Stephen V.

    2015-07-15

    There is increasing global discourse on how the elements of nuclear safety, security, and safeguards can be most effectively implemented in nuclear power programs. While each element is separate and unique, they must nevertheless all be addressed in a country’s laws and implemented via regulations and in facility operations. This topic is of particular interest to countries that are currently developing the infrastructure to support nuclear power programs. These countries want to better understand what is required by these elements and how they can manage the interfaces between them and take advantages of any synergies that may exist. They need practical examples and guidance in this area in order to develop better organizational strategies and technical capacities. This could simplify their legal, regulatory, and management structures and avoid inefficient approaches and costly mistakes that may not be apparent to them at this early stage of development. From the perspective of IAEA International Safeguards, supporting Member States in exploring such interfaces and synergies provides a benefit to them because it acknowledges that domestic safeguards in a country do not exist in a vacuum. Instead, it relies on a strong State System of Accounting and Control that is in turn dependent on a capable and independent regulatory body as well as a competent operator and technical staff. These organizations must account for and control nuclear material, communicate effectively, and manage and transmit complete and correct information to the IAEA in a timely manner. This, while in most cases also being responsible for the safety and security of their facilities. Seeking efficiencies in this process benefits international safeguards and nonproliferation. This paper will present the results of a global survey of current and anticipated approaches and practices by countries and organizations with current or future nuclear power programs on how they are implementing, or

  13. Towards an understanding of students’ thinking in learning new and unfamiliar concepts: Focus on the factorial function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satsope Maoto

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study used participant observation to explore students’ thinking when learning the concept of factorial functions. First-year university students undertaking a mathematics methodology course were asked to find the number of ways in which five people could sit around a circular table with five seats. Using grounded theory as a qualitative research strategy, we analysed student responses and written reflections according to the sequence of their experiential realities: practical and textual experiences. This was followed by an analysis of their reflections on both experiences in a pedagogical context. We found that the way basic mathematics operations are learned impacts on the student’s ability to experience components of new problems as familiar. Consequently, they encounter these problems as new and unfamiliar. At the same time we found that engagement with practical experience does allow for the emergence of representations that have the potential to be used as foundations for learning new and unfamiliar concepts. The blending of practical, textual and teaching experiences provoked students’ thinking and ultimately their understanding of a given new and unfamiliar mathematics concept.

  14. Medical Students’ View about the Effects of Practical Courses on Learning the General Theoretical Concepts of Basic Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Roshangar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The basic medical sciences section requires 2.5 years in the medical education curriculum. Practical courses complement theoretical knowledge in this period to improve their appreciation. Despite spending lots of disbursement and time, this period’s efficacy is not clearly known. Methods: One hundred thirty-three General Practitioner (GP students have been included in this descriptive cross-sectional study and were asked by questionnaire about the positive impact of practical courses on learning theoretical knowledge. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics. Result: The agreement in “Practical Head and Neck Anatomy” was 40.91% ± 29.45, in “Practical Trunk Anatomy” was 63.62% ± 2.32 and in “Practical Anatomy of Extremities” was 56.16% ± 2.57. In “Practical Histology”, agreement was 69.50%±2.19; “Practical Biophysics” was 45.97%±2.25, “Practical Physiology” 61.75%±2.17; “Practical Biochemistry” 36.28%±2.42; “Practical Pathology” 59.80%±2.53; “Practical Immunology” 56.25%±26.40; “Practical Microbiology and Virology” 60.39%±2.27 and “Practical Mycology and Parasitology” 68.2%± 2.16.Conclusion: GP students in Tabriz University of Medical Sciences are not optimistic about the applicability of practical courses of basic medical sciences lessons.

  15. Tumour biology of obesity-related cancers: understanding the molecular concept for better diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teoh, Seong Lin; Das, Srijit

    2016-11-01

    Obesity continues to be a major global problem. Various cancers are related to obesity and proper understanding of their aetiology, especially their molecular tumour biology is important for early diagnosis and better treatment. Genes play an important role in the development of obesity. Few genes such as leptin, leptin receptor encoded by the db (diabetes), pro-opiomelanocortin, AgRP and NPY and melanocortin-4 receptors and insulin-induced gene 2 were linked to obesity. MicroRNAs control gene expression via mRNA degradation and protein translation inhibition and influence cell differentiation, cell growth and cell death. Overexpression of miR-143 inhibits tumour growth by suppressing B cell lymphoma 2, extracellular signal-regulated kinase-5 activities and KRAS oncogene. Cancers of the breast, uterus, renal, thyroid and liver are also related to obesity. Any disturbance in the production of sex hormones and insulin, leads to distortion in the balance between cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. The possible mechanism linking obesity to cancer involves alteration in the level of adipokines and sex hormones. These mediators act as biomarkers for cancer progression and act as targets for cancer therapy and prevention. Interestingly, many anti-cancerous drugs are also beneficial in treating obesity and vice versa. We also reviewed the possible link in the mechanism of few drugs which act both on cancer and obesity. The present review may be important for molecular biologists, oncologists and clinicians treating cancers and also pave the way for better therapeutic options.

  16. Leitura de imagens e cultura visual: desenredando conceitos para a prática educativa Image reading and critical understanding of the visual culture: unraveling concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Emilia Sardelich

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Quase tudo do pouco que conhecemos, em relação ao conhecimento produzido, nos chega pelos meios de informação e comunicação. Estes, por sua vez, também constroem imagens do mundo. Imagens para deleitar, entreter, vender, com mensagens sobre o que devemos vestir, comer, aparentar, pensar. Em nossa sociedade contemporânea discute-se a necessidade de uma alfabetização visual que se expressa em várias designações como: leitura de imagens e compreensão crítica da cultura visual. Freqüentes mudanças de expressões e conceitos dificultam o entendimento dessas propostas para o currículo escolar, a definição do/a professor/a responsável por tal conhecimento e o referencial teórico do mesmo. Este artigo apresenta os conceitos que fundamentam as propostas da leitura de imagens e cultura visual, sinalizando suas proximidades e distâncias. Contrasta alguns referenciais teóricos da antropologia, arte, educação, história, sociologia, e sugere linhas de trabalho em ambientes de aprendizagem com o intuito de refletir sobre nossa permanente formação como docentes.Almost everything from the little we know relating to manufactured knowledge comes to us by means of information and communication. This in turn also build images of the world. Images for pleasure, entertainment, trade, telling us what to wear, to eat, to think, how to look. In our contemporary society there is a debate about the need of a visual education that expresses itself in different denominations such as image reading and critical understanding of the visual culture. Frequent changes in expressions and concepts cause more difficulties in understanding these propositions in the national curriculum, the definition of the teachers responsible for this knowledge and the theoretical reference of it. This article intends to unravel the concepts that establish these different propositions, pointing out their similarities and differences. It contrasts theoretical references

  17. Theoretical concepts and practical applications of hypnosis in the treatment of children and adolescents with dental fear and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, A J; Niven, N

    1996-01-06

    Dental fear and anxiety in children and adolescents is a common problem. Hypnosis has been shown to be useful in the treatment of these patients. This paper briefly reviews conventional management skills before considering the application of hypnosis. Following a definition of hypnosis, the concepts of relaxation, restricted awareness, blunting of critical faculties and the enhanced capacity to respond to suggestion are outlined. Consideration is given to the induction of hypnosis and its general application in an informal and formal manner. The application of more specific techniques, such as the use of hypnoanalgesia to reduce physical discomfort and the development of coping strategies to help children overcome their fears, are discussed. It has been widely shown that hypnosis is a useful adjunct in dentistry. However, it is unfortunate that hypnosis is not more widely used as it has the potential for making conventional dental management more acceptable and reducing the number of children requiring general anaesthesia.

  18. The three-hit concept of vulnerability and resilience: toward understanding adaptation to early-life adversity outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daskalakis, Nikolaos P; Bagot, Rosemary C; Parker, Karen J; Vinkers, Christiaan H; de Kloet, E R

    2013-09-01

    Stressful experiences during early-life can modulate the genetic programming of specific brain circuits underlying emotional and cognitive aspects of behavioral adaptation to stressful experiences later in life. Although this programming effect exerted by experience-related factors is an important determinant of mental health, its outcome depends on cognitive inputs and hence the valence an individual assigns to a given environmental context. From this perspective we will highlight, with studies in rodents, non-human primates and humans, the three-hit concept of vulnerability and resilience to stress-related mental disorders, which is based on gene-environment interactions during critical phases of perinatal and juvenile brain development. The three-hit (i.e., hit-1: genetic predisposition, hit-2: early-life environment, and hit-3: later-life environment) concept accommodates the cumulative stress hypothesis stating that in a given context vulnerability is enhanced when failure to cope with adversity accumulates. Alternatively, the concept also points to the individual's predictive adaptive capacity, which underlies the stress inoculation and match/mismatch hypotheses. The latter hypotheses propose that the experience of relatively mild early-life adversity prepares for the future and promotes resilience to similar challenges in later-life; when a mismatch occurs between early and later-life experience, coping is compromised and vulnerability is enhanced. The three-hit concept is fundamental for understanding how individuals can either be prepared for coping with life to come and remain resilient or are unable to do so and succumb to a stress-related mental disorder, under seemingly identical circumstances. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. From theoretical concepts to policies and applied programmes: the landscape of integration of oral health in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnagea, Hermina; Lamothe, Lise; Couturier, Yves; Esfandiari, Shahrokh; Voyer, René; Charbonneau, Anne; Emami, Elham

    2018-02-15

    Despite its importance, the integration of oral health into primary care is still an emerging practice in the field of health care services. This scoping review aims to map the literature and provide a summary on the conceptual frameworks, policies and programs related to this concept. Using the Levac et al. six-stage framework, we performed a systematic search of electronic databases, organizational websites and grey literature from 1978 to April 2016. All relevant original publications with a focus on the integration of oral health into primary care were retrieved. Content analyses were performed to synthesize the results. From a total of 1619 citations, 67 publications were included in the review. Two conceptual frameworks were identified. Policies regarding oral heath integration into primary care were mostly oriented toward common risk factors approach and care coordination processes. In general, oral health integrated care programs were designed in the public health sector and based on partnerships with various private and public health organizations, governmental bodies and academic institutions. These programmes used various strategies to empower oral health integrated care, including building interdisciplinary networks, training non-dental care providers, oral health champion modelling, enabling care linkages and care coordinated process, as well as the use of e-health technologies. The majority of studies on the programs outcomes were descriptive in nature without reporting long-term outcomes. This scoping review provided a comprehensive overview on the concept of integration of oral health in primary care. The findings identified major gaps in reported programs outcomes mainly because of the lack of related research. However, the results could be considered as a first step in the development of health care policies that support collaborative practices and patient-centred care in the field of primary care sector.

  20. How do health services researchers understand the concept of patient-centeredness? Results from an expert survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scholl I

    2014-08-01

    indicator for the fuzziness of a theoretical concept. All in all, this study has shown that the conceptual ambiguity found in the literature on patient-centeredness is partly reflected in the conceptualizations of German researchers working in that field. This calls for more conceptual work, eg, developing an integrative model on patient-centeredness grounded in the international literature. Keywords: patient-centered care, concept analysis, expert survey

  1. Research and Teaching: An Investigation of the Evolution of High School and Undergraduate Student Researchers' Understanding of Key Science Ethics Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabrouk, Patricia Ann

    2013-01-01

    High school and undergraduate research students were surveyed over the 10-week period of their summer research programs to investigate their understanding of key concepts in science ethics and whether their understanding changed over the course of their summer research experiences. Most of the students appeared to understand the issues relevant to…

  2. Application of the Theoretical Domains Framework and the Behaviour Change Wheel to Understand Physicians' Behaviors and Behavior Change in Using Temporary Work Modifications for Return to Work: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horppu, Ritva; Martimo, K P; MacEachen, E; Lallukka, T; Viikari-Juntura, E

    2018-03-01

    Purpose Applying the theoretical domains framework (TDF) and the Behaviour Change Wheel (BCW) to understand physicians' behaviors and behavior change in using temporary work modifications (TWMs) for return to work (RTW). Methods Interviews and focus group discussions were conducted with 15 occupational physicians (OPs). Responses were coded using the TDF and the BCW. Results Key behaviors related to applying TWMs were initiating the process with the employee, making recommendations to the workplace, and following up the process. OP behaviors were influenced by several factors related to personal capability and motivation, and opportunities provided by the physical and social environment. Capability comprised relevant knowledge and skills related to applying TWMs, remembering to initiate TWMS and monitor the process, and being accustomed to reflective practice. Opportunity comprised physical resources (e.g., time, predefined procedures, and availability of modified work at companies), and social pressure from stakeholders. Motivation comprised conceptions of a proper OP role, confidence to carry out TWMs, personal RTW-related goals, beliefs about the outcomes of one's actions, feedback received from earlier cases, and feelings related to applying TWMs. OPs' perceived means to target these identified factors were linked to the following BCW intervention functions: education, training, persuasion, environmental restructuring, and enablement. The results suggest that at least these functions should be considered when designing future interventions. Conclusions Our study illustrates how theoretical frameworks TDF and BCW can be utilized in a RTW context to understand which determinants of physicians' behavior need to be targeted, and how, to promote desired behaviors.

  3. A Review of the Historical, Criminological, and Theoretical Understandings of the Cambodian American Population: A Call for More Comprehensive Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chheang, Dany; Connolly, Eric J

    2017-09-01

    The collective view of Asian Americans as model minorities is evident with the extensive amount of statistical data showing support for the academic and socioeconomic success of Asian Americans in the United States. This perception, however, often presents an inaccurate portrayal of Asian Americans, in general, as it overlooks many of the difficulties and hardships experienced by Asian American ethnic groups such as Southeast Asians. Within this group, Cambodian Americans are at the highest risk for experiencing socioeconomic hardships, behavioral health problems, substance use disorders, and contact with the criminal justice system, with deportation also being a prevailing issue. Unfortunately, research in this area is scant and contemporary research on Cambodian Americans has several limitations. To begin to address this issue, the present article merges information from existing research on this population from a sociohistorical, criminological, and theoretical standpoint to call for more comprehensive research on Cambodian Americans.

  4. Combined experimental and theoretical approach to understand the reactivity of a mononuclear Cu(II)-hydroperoxo complex in oxygenation reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamachi, Takashi; Lee, Yong-Min; Nishimi, Tomonori; Cho, Jaeheung; Yoshizawa, Kazunari; Nam, Wonwoo

    2008-12-18

    A copper(II) complex bearing a pentadentate ligand, [Cu(II)(N4Py)(CF(3)SO(3))(2)] (1) (N4Py = N,N-bis(2-pyridylmethyl)bis(2-pyridyl)methylamine), was synthesized and characterized with various spectroscopic techniques and X-ray crystallography. A mononuclear Cu(II)-hydroperoxo complex, [Cu(II)(N4Py)(OOH)](+) (2), was then generated in the reaction of 1 and H(2)O(2) in the presence of base, and the reactivity of the intermediate was investigated in the oxidation of various substrates at -40 degrees C. In the reactivity studies, 2 showed a low oxidizing power such that 2 reacted only with triethylphosphine but not with other substrates such as thioanisole, benzyl alcohol, 1,4-cyclohexadiene, cyclohexene, and cyclohexane. In theoretical work, we have conducted density functional theory (DFT) calculations on the epoxidation of ethylene by 2 and a [Cu(III)(N4Py)(O)](+) intermediate (3) at the B3LYP level. The activation barrier is calculated to be 39.7 and 26.3 kcal/mol for distal and proximal oxygen attacks by 2, respectively. This result indicates that the direct ethylene epoxidation by 2 is not a plausible pathway, as we have observed in the experimental work. In contrast, the ethylene epoxidation by 3 is a downhill and low-barrier process. We also found that 2 cannot be a precursor to 3, since the homolytic cleavage of the O-O bond of 2 is very endothermic (i.e., 42 kcal/mol). On the basis of the experimental and theoretical results, we conclude that a mononuclear Cu(II)-hydroperoxo species bearing a pentadentate N5 ligand is a sluggish oxidant in oxygenation reactions.

  5. MO-E-18C-04: Advanced Computer Simulation and Visualization Tools for Enhanced Understanding of Core Medical Physics Concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naqvi, S

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Most medical physics programs emphasize proficiency in routine clinical calculations and QA. The formulaic aspect of these calculations and prescriptive nature of measurement protocols obviate the need to frequently apply basic physical principles, which, therefore, gradually decay away from memory. E.g. few students appreciate the role of electron transport in photon dose, making it difficult to understand key concepts such as dose buildup, electronic disequilibrium effects and Bragg-Gray theory. These conceptual deficiencies manifest when the physicist encounters a new system, requiring knowledge beyond routine activities. Methods: Two interactive computer simulation tools are developed to facilitate deeper learning of physical principles. One is a Monte Carlo code written with a strong educational aspect. The code can “label” regions and interactions to highlight specific aspects of the physics, e.g., certain regions can be designated as “starters” or “crossers,” and any interaction type can be turned on and off. Full 3D tracks with specific portions highlighted further enhance the visualization of radiation transport problems. The second code calculates and displays trajectories of a collection electrons under arbitrary space/time dependent Lorentz force using relativistic kinematics. Results: Using the Monte Carlo code, the student can interactively study photon and electron transport through visualization of dose components, particle tracks, and interaction types. The code can, for instance, be used to study kerma-dose relationship, explore electronic disequilibrium near interfaces, or visualize kernels by using interaction forcing. The electromagnetic simulator enables the student to explore accelerating mechanisms and particle optics in devices such as cyclotrons and linacs. Conclusion: The proposed tools are designed to enhance understanding of abstract concepts by highlighting various aspects of the physics. The simulations serve as

  6. MO-E-18C-04: Advanced Computer Simulation and Visualization Tools for Enhanced Understanding of Core Medical Physics Concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naqvi, S [Saint Agnes Cancer Institute, Department of Radiation Oncology, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Most medical physics programs emphasize proficiency in routine clinical calculations and QA. The formulaic aspect of these calculations and prescriptive nature of measurement protocols obviate the need to frequently apply basic physical principles, which, therefore, gradually decay away from memory. E.g. few students appreciate the role of electron transport in photon dose, making it difficult to understand key concepts such as dose buildup, electronic disequilibrium effects and Bragg-Gray theory. These conceptual deficiencies manifest when the physicist encounters a new system, requiring knowledge beyond routine activities. Methods: Two interactive computer simulation tools are developed to facilitate deeper learning of physical principles. One is a Monte Carlo code written with a strong educational aspect. The code can “label” regions and interactions to highlight specific aspects of the physics, e.g., certain regions can be designated as “starters” or “crossers,” and any interaction type can be turned on and off. Full 3D tracks with specific portions highlighted further enhance the visualization of radiation transport problems. The second code calculates and displays trajectories of a collection electrons under arbitrary space/time dependent Lorentz force using relativistic kinematics. Results: Using the Monte Carlo code, the student can interactively study photon and electron transport through visualization of dose components, particle tracks, and interaction types. The code can, for instance, be used to study kerma-dose relationship, explore electronic disequilibrium near interfaces, or visualize kernels by using interaction forcing. The electromagnetic simulator enables the student to explore accelerating mechanisms and particle optics in devices such as cyclotrons and linacs. Conclusion: The proposed tools are designed to enhance understanding of abstract concepts by highlighting various aspects of the physics. The simulations serve as

  7. [Sustainable Implementation of Evidence-Based Programmes in Health Promotion: A Theoretical Framework and Concept of Interactive Knowledge to Action].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rütten, A; Wolff, A; Streber, A

    2016-03-01

    This article discusses 2 current issues in the field of public health research: (i) transfer of scientific knowledge into practice and (ii) sustainable implementation of good practice projects. It also supports integration of scientific and practice-based evidence production. Furthermore, it supports utilisation of interactive models that transcend deductive approaches to the process of knowledge transfer. Existing theoretical approaches, pilot studies and thoughtful conceptual considerations are incorporated into a framework showing the interplay of science, politics and prevention practice, which fosters a more sustainable implementation of health promotion programmes. The framework depicts 4 key processes of interaction between science and prevention practice: interactive knowledge to action, capacity building, programme adaptation and adaptation of the implementation context. Ensuring sustainability of health promotion programmes requires a concentrated process of integrating scientific and practice-based evidence production in the context of implementation. Central to the integration process is the approach of interactive knowledge to action, which especially benefits from capacity building processes that facilitate participation and systematic interaction between relevant stakeholders. Intense cooperation also induces a dynamic interaction between multiple actors and components such as health promotion programmes, target groups, relevant organisations and social, cultural and political contexts. The reciprocal adaptation of programmes and key components of the implementation context can foster effectiveness and sustainability of programmes. Sustainable implementation of evidence-based health promotion programmes requires alternatives to recent deductive models of knowledge transfer. Interactive approaches prove to be promising alternatives. Simultaneously, they change the responsibilities of science, policy and public health practice. Existing boundaries

  8. Theoretical study of chromophores for biological sensing: Understanding the mechanism of rhodol based multi-chromophoric systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Jacquez, Hector J.; Masunov, Artëm E.

    2018-06-01

    Development of two-photon fluorescent probes can aid in visualizing the cellular environment. Multi-chromophore systems display complex manifolds of electronic transitions, enabling their use for optical sensing applications. Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory (TDDFT) methods allow for accurate predictions of the optical properties. These properties are related to the electronic transitions in the molecules, which include two-photon absorption cross-sections. Here we use TDDFT to understand the mechanism of aza-crown based fluorescent probes for metals sensing applications. Our findings suggest changes in local excitation in the rhodol chromophore between unbound form and when bound to the metal analyte. These changes are caused by a charge transfer from the aza-crown group and pyrazol units toward the rhodol unit. Understanding this mechanism leads to an optimized design with higher two-photon excited fluorescence to be used in medical applications.

  9. Information-Theoretic Approach May Shed a Light to a Better Understanding and Sustaining the Integrity of Ecological-Societal Systems under Changing Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J.

    2016-12-01

    Considering high levels of uncertainty, epistemological conflicts over facts and values, and a sense of urgency, normal paradigm-driven science will be insufficient to mobilize people and nation toward sustainability. The conceptual framework to bridge the societal system dynamics with that of natural ecosystems in which humanity operates remains deficient. The key to understanding their coevolution is to understand `self-organization.' Information-theoretic approach may shed a light to provide a potential framework which enables not only to bridge human and nature but also to generate useful knowledge for understanding and sustaining the integrity of ecological-societal systems. How can information theory help understand the interface between ecological systems and social systems? How to delineate self-organizing processes and ensure them to fulfil sustainability? How to evaluate the flow of information from data through models to decision-makers? These are the core questions posed by sustainability science in which visioneering (i.e., the engineering of vision) is an essential framework. Yet, visioneering has neither quantitative measure nor information theoretic framework to work with and teach. This presentation is an attempt to accommodate the framework of self-organizing hierarchical open systems with visioneering into a common information-theoretic framework. A case study is presented with the UN/FAO's communal vision of climate-smart agriculture (CSA) which pursues a trilemma of efficiency, mitigation, and resilience. Challenges of delineating and facilitating self-organizing systems are discussed using transdisciplinary toold such as complex systems thinking, dynamic process network analysis and multi-agent systems modeling. Acknowledgments: This study was supported by the Korea Meteorological Administration Research and Development Program under Grant KMA-2012-0001-A (WISE project).

  10. Theoretical Foundations of the Web: Cognition, Communication, and Co-Operation. Towards an Understanding of Web 1.0, 2.0, 3.0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Bichler

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Currently, there is much talk of Web 2.0 and Social Software. A common understanding of these notions is not yet in existence. The question of what makes Social Software social has thus far also remained unacknowledged. In this paper we provide a theoretical understanding of these notions by outlining a model of the Web as a techno-social system that enhances human cognition towards communication and co-operation. According to this understanding, we identify three qualities of the Web, namely Web 1.0 as a Web of cognition, Web 2.0 as a Web of human communication, and Web 3.0 as a Web of co-operation. We use the terms Web 1.0, Web 2.0, Web 3.0 not in a technical sense, but for describing and characterizing the social dynamics and information processes that are part of the Internet.

  11. Iron Carbides in Fischer–Tropsch Synthesis: Theoretical and Experimental Understanding in Epsilon-Iron Carbide Phase Assignment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xing-Wu; Cao, Zhi; Zhao, Shu; Gao, Rui

    2017-01-01

    As active phases in low-temperature Fischer–Tropsch synthesis for liquid fuel production, epsilon iron carbides are critically important industrial materials. However, the precise atomic structure of epsilon iron carbides remains unclear, leading to a half-century of debate on the phase assignment of the ε-Fe 2 C and ε’-Fe 2.2 C. Here, we resolve this decades-long question by a combining theoretical and experimental investigation to assign the phases unambiguously. First, we have investigated the equilibrium structures and thermal stabilities of ε-Fe x C, (x = 1, 2, 2.2, 3, 4, 6, 8) by first-principles calculations. We have also acquired X-ray diffraction patterns and Mössbauer spectra for these epsilon iron carbides, and compared them with the simulated results. These analyses indicate that the unit cell of ε-Fe 2 C contains only one type of chemical environment for Fe atoms, while ε’-Fe 2.2 C has six sets of chemically distinct Fe atoms.

  12. The Effect of the Conceptual Change Oriented Instruction through Cooperative Learning on 4th Grade Students' Understanding of Earth and Sky Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celikten, Oksan; Ipekcioglu, Sevgi; Ertepinar, Hamide; Geban, Omer

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of the conceptual change oriented instruction through cooperative learning (CCICL) and traditional science instruction (TI) on 4th grade students' understanding of earth and sky concepts and their attitudes toward earth and sky concepts. In this study, 56 fourth grade students from the…

  13. Social risk, stigma and space: key concepts for understanding HIV vulnerability among black men who have sex with men in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Caroline M; Garcia, Jonathan; Philbin, Morgan M; Wilson, Patrick A; Parker, Richard G; Hirsch, Jennifer S

    2017-03-01

    Black men who have sex with men in the USA face disproportionate incidence rates of HIV. This paper presents findings from an ethnographic study conducted in New York City that explored the structural and socio-cultural factors shaping men's sexual relationships with the goal of furthering understandings of their HIV-related vulnerability. Methods included participant observation and in-depth interviews with 31 Black men who have sex with men (three times each) and 17 key informants. We found that HIV vulnerability is perceived as produced through structural inequalities including economic insecurity, housing instability, and stigma and discrimination. The theoretical concepts of social risk, intersectional stigma, and the social production of space are offered as lenses through which to analyse how structural inequalities shape HIV vulnerability. We found that social risk shaped HIV vulnerability by influencing men's decisions in four domains: 1) where to find sexual partners, 2) where to engage in sexual relationships, 3) what kinds of relationships to seek, and 4) whether to carry and to use condoms. Advancing conceptualisations of social risk, we show that intersectional stigma and the social production of space are key processes through which social risk generates HIV vulnerability among Black men who have sex with men.

  14. Technology in the curriculum: A vehicle for the development of children's understanding of science concepts through problem solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jane, Beverley; Smith, Leanne

    1992-12-01

    This research was carried out over a period of ten months with children in Grades 2 and 3 (aged 7 and 8) who were participating in a sequence of technology activities. Since the introduction into Victorian primary schools of The Technology Studies Framework P-10 (Crawford, 1988), more teachers are including technology studies in their classrooms and by so doing may assist children's understanding of science concepts. Children are being exposed to science phenomena related to the technology activities and Technology Studies may be a way of providing children with science experiences. ‘Technology Studies’ in this context refers to children carrying out practical problem solving tasks which can be completed without any particular scientific knowledge. Participation in the technology activities may encourage children to become actively involved, thereby facilitating an exploration of the related science concepts. The project identified the importance of challenge in relation to the children's involvement in the technology activities and the conference paper (available from the first author) discusses particular topics in terms of the balance between cognitive/metacognitive and affective influences (Baird et al., 1990)

  15. Vulnerability assessment of water resources - Translating a theoretical concept to an operational framework using systems thinking approach in a changing climate: Case study in Ogallala Aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anandhi, Aavudai; Kannan, Narayanan

    2018-02-01

    Water is an essential natural resource. Among many stressors, altered climate is exerting pressure on water resource systems, increasing its demand and creating a need for vulnerability assessments. The overall objective of this study was to develop a novel tool that can translate a theoretical concept (vulnerability of water resources (VWR)) to an operational framework mainly under altered temperature and precipitation, as well as for population change (smaller extent). The developed tool had three stages and utilized a novel systems thinking approach. Stage-1: Translating theoretical concept to characteristics identified from studies; Stage-2: Operationalizing characteristics to methodology in VWR; Stage-3: Utilizing the methodology for development of a conceptual modeling tool for VWR: WR-VISTA (Water Resource Vulnerability assessment conceptual model using Indicators selected by System's Thinking Approach). The specific novelties were: 1) The important characteristics in VWR were identified in Stage-1 (target system, system components, scale, level of detail, data source, frameworks, and indicator); 2) WR-VISTA combined two vulnerability assessments frameworks: the European's Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response framework (DPSIR) and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's framework (IPCC's); and 3) used systems thinking approaches in VWR for indicator selection. The developed application was demonstrated in Kansas (overlying the High Plains region/Ogallala Aquifer, considered the "breadbasket of the world"), using 26 indicators with intermediate level of detail. Our results indicate that the western part of the state is vulnerable from agricultural water use and the eastern part from urban water use. The developed tool can be easily replicated to other regions within and outside the US.

  16. The Theoretical Foundations of Formation of the Essence of Concept of «Ensuring the Economic Security of Enterprise in the Conditions of Raiding»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pysarevskyi Mykola I.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at the scientific substantiation of the theoretical aspects of formation of an effective mechanism for ensuring the economic security of enterprise in the conditions of raiding. The conceptual approaches to determining the main features of individual elements of the conceptual apparatus, namely, the concepts of «economic security of enterprise» and «raiding» were analyzed. The author’s own definition of ensuring the economic security of enterprise in the conditions of raiding has been formed, which provides an opportunity to develop a complex of organizational and economic measures aimed at maintaining the sustainable functioning and development of enterprise in the current and future periods. Prospect for further research in this direction is a critical analysis of the approaches to assessing threats to the economic security of enterprise in the context of raiding, thus broadening the theoretical basis for an effective response mechanism and establishing a qualitative methodical basis for research. Application of new scientific and methodical approaches to the integrated assessment of the level of economic security in the conditions of raiding will ensure the development and implementation of efficient managerial decisions aimed at establishing a system of preventive measures to address threats to the economic security of enterprise.

  17. Theoretical astrophysics an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Bartelmann, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    A concise yet comprehensive introduction to the central theoretical concepts of modern astrophysics, presenting hydrodynamics, radiation, and stellar dynamics all in one textbook. Adopting a modular structure, the author illustrates a small number of fundamental physical methods and principles, which are sufficient to describe and understand a wide range of seemingly very diverse astrophysical phenomena and processes. For example, the formulae that define the macroscopic behavior of stellar systems are all derived in the same way from the microscopic distribution function. This function it

  18. Young children’s environmental judgement and its relationship with their understanding of the concept of living things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villarroel José Domingo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Do young children think that plants deserve morally-based respect or, on the contrary, do they feel that respect for plant life is nothing more than another behavioural norm similar to, for instance, one that states that you should not pick your nose in public? This study examines how dilemmas involving environmental, moral and socio-conventional situations are comprehended in early childhood so as to investigate the issue of whether young children attach a significant degree of severity to transgressions against plant life in comparison with disregarding socially accepted rules. Additionally, young children’s judgements are put into perspective alongside their understanding of the concept of living things in order to shed light on the role that grasping essential biological notions might play in the emergence of young children’s assessments of actions that pose a threat to the environment. The sample of the study consists of 328 children (162 girls and 166 boys who attend Early Years Education or Primary Education and the data examined comes from the individual interviews conducted with the children. The results are discussed in connection with the current understanding of the source of ethical judgements which emphasises the importance that emotions seem to play in the construction of moral thinking.

  19. Piloting a Geoscience Literacy Exam for Assessing Students' Understanding of Earth, Climate, Atmospheric and Ocean Science Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steer, D. N.; Iverson, E. A.; Manduca, C. A.

    2013-12-01

    This research seeks to develop valid and reliable questions that faculty can use to assess geoscience literacy across the curriculum. We are particularly interested on effects of curricula developed to teach Earth, Climate, Atmospheric, and Ocean Science concepts in the context of societal issues across the disciplines. This effort is part of the InTeGrate project designed to create a population of college graduates who are poised to use geoscience knowledge in developing solutions to current and future environmental and resource challenges. Details concerning the project are found at http://serc.carleton.edu/integrate/index.html. The Geoscience Literacy Exam (GLE) under development presently includes 90 questions. Each big idea from each literacy document can be probed using one or more of three independent questions: 1) a single answer, multiple choice question aimed at basic understanding or application of key concepts, 2) a multiple correct answer, multiple choice question targeting the analyzing to analysis levels and 3) a short essay question that tests analysis or evaluation cognitive levels. We anticipate multiple-choice scores and the detail and sophistication of essay responses will increase as students engage with the curriculum. As part of the field testing of InTeGrate curricula, faculty collected student responses from classes that involved over 700 students. These responses included eight pre- and post-test multiple-choice questions that covered various concepts across the four literacies. Discrimination indices calculated from the data suggest that the eight tested questions provide a valid measure of literacy within the scope of the concepts covered. Student normalized gains across an academic term with limited InTeGrate exposure (typically two or fewer weeks of InTeGrate curriculum out of 14 weeks) were found to average 16% gain. A small set of control data (250 students in classes from one institution where no InTeGrate curricula were used) was

  20. BOX MEDIA MODEL THROUGH THE USE OF CONTEXTUAL UNDERSTANDING TO IMPROVE STUDENT LEARNING CONCEPTS IN VOLUME BEAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dede Rohaeni

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. This research is motivated Cilengkrang Elementary School fifth grade students in the learning of the beam volume is still experiencing difficulties. This happens because the learning process that takes place is conventional. Learning by applying a contextual model chosen researchers by reason students will know if the learning is associated with the real world of students. The method used in this research is a classroom action research methods to the design of the research procedure refers to the spiral model Kemmis and MC. Tujuanpenelitianini is to obtain an overview of the planning, implementation and improvement of students' understanding of the results of the application of the concept model of contextual learning in the classroom beam volume V Elementary School Cilengkrang. The method used in this research is a classroom action research methods to the design of the research procedure refers to the spiral model Kemmis and MC. Taggart. Based on the implementation of the actions performed by three cycles, as a whole has shown an increase from the initial data, both process and outcomes of learning. So that the application of contextual models can enhance students' understanding of class V SDN Cilengkrang Northern District of Sumedang Sumedang district of the concept of the beam volume.   Keywords: Contextual Model, Mathematics, Mathematics Learning Objectives     Abstrak. Penelitian ini dilatarbelakangi siswa kelas V SDN Cilengkrang dalam pembelajaran volume balok masih mengalami kesulitan. Ini terjadi karena proses pembelajaran yang berlangsung bersifat konvensional. Pembelajaran dengan menerapkan model kontekstual dipilih peneliti dengan alasan siswa akan paham jika pembelajaran dikaitkan dengan dunia nyata siswa. Metode penelitian yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah metode penelitian tindakan kelas dengan rancangan prosedur penelitiannya mengacu pada model spiral Kemmis dan MC. Tujuanpenelitianini yaitu untuk memperoleh

  1. SHARED UNDERSTANDING ON THE CONCEPT OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP EDUCATION BY TEACHERS AND BUSINESSMEN / THE CONCEPT OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP EDUCATION IN LITHUANIAN SCHOOLS SHARED BY TEACHERS AND BUSINESSMEN

    OpenAIRE

    Žibėnienė, Gintautė; Virbalienė, Rita

    2015-01-01

    The article highlights the importance of entrepreneurship education in a modern day educational institution. Strategic documents of the EU invite the educational institutions to cooperate more actively with the business world in order to have the best quality entrepreneurship education. So the main aim of the research is to determine the concept of entrepreneurship shared by teachers and businessmen. Firstly, the concept of entrepreneurship and its development is reviewed, taking into account...

  2. Theoretical Molecular Biophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Scherer, Philipp

    2010-01-01

    "Theoretical Molecular Biophysics" is an advanced study book for students, shortly before or after completing undergraduate studies, in physics, chemistry or biology. It provides the tools for an understanding of elementary processes in biology, such as photosynthesis on a molecular level. A basic knowledge in mechanics, electrostatics, quantum theory and statistical physics is desirable. The reader will be exposed to basic concepts in modern biophysics such as entropic forces, phase separation, potentials of mean force, proton and electron transfer, heterogeneous reactions coherent and incoherent energy transfer as well as molecular motors. Basic concepts such as phase transitions of biopolymers, electrostatics, protonation equilibria, ion transport, radiationless transitions as well as energy- and electron transfer are discussed within the frame of simple models.

  3. Ferenczi's concept of identification with the aggressor: understanding dissociative structure with interacting victim and abuser self-states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Elizabeth F

    2014-03-01

    No one has described more passionately than Ferenczi the traumatic induction of dissociative trance with its resulting fragmentation of the personality. Ferenczi introduced the concept and term, identification with the aggressor in his seminal "Confusion of Tongues" paper, in which he described how the abused child becomes transfixed and robbed of his senses. Having been traumatically overwhelmed, the child becomes hypnotically transfixed by the aggressor's wishes and behavior, automatically identifying by mimicry rather than by a purposeful identification with the aggressor's role. To expand upon Ferenczi's observations, identification with the aggressor can be understood as a two-stage process. The first stage is automatic and initiated by trauma, but the second stage is defensive and purposeful. While identification with the aggressor begins as an automatic organismic process, with repeated activation and use, gradually it becomes a defensive process. Broadly, as a dissociative defense, it has two enacted relational parts, the part of the victim and the part of the aggressor. This paper describes the intrapersonal aspects (how aggressor and victim self-states interrelate in the internal world), as well as the interpersonal aspects (how these become enacted in the external). This formulation has relevance to understanding the broad spectrum of the dissociative structure of mind, borderline personality disorder, and dissociative identity disorder.

  4. GeoWall use in an Introductory Geology laboratory: Impacts in Student Understanding of Field Mapping Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, L. E.; Kelly, M.; Springer, A. E.

    2003-12-01

    In the Fall semester of 2003, Northern Arizona University will introduce the GeoWall to its introductory geology courses. This presents an opportunity to assess the impact of this new technology on students' understanding of basic topographic concepts and the spatial relationships between geology, topography, and hydrology on a field trip. Introductory Geology fulfills the Lab Science component of the Liberal Studies Program at Northern Arizona University. The class is open to all Northern Arizona University students, and is most commonly taken by non-science majors. In this class students learn to: locate their position using maps, identify common minerals and rocks, recognize the relationship between geology and geomorphology, visualize how rocks exposed at the surface continue into the subsurface, and to draw conclusions about possible geologic hazards in different settings. In this study we will report how a GeoWall 3D visualization technology was used in a field study of a graben south of Flagstaff. The goal of the field exercise is to improve students' ability to synthesize data collected at field stops into a conceptual model of the graben, linking geology, geomorphology and hydrology. We plan to present a quantitative assessment of the GeoWall learning objectives from data collected from a paired test and control group of students. Teaching assistants (TAs) with two or more lab classes have been identified; these TAs will participate in both GeoWall and non-GeoWall lab exercises. The GeoWall use will occur outside of normal lab hours to avoid disrupting the lab schedule during the eighth week of lab. This field preparation exercise includes a 3D visualization of the Lake Mary graben rendered with the ROMA software. The following week, all students attend the graben field trip; immediately following the trip, students will interviewed about their gain in understanding of the geologic features illustrated during the field trip. The results of the post

  5. Theoretical strengthening of the concept of appealing in analysed sermons on Matthew 25:31–46 in the context of poverty in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hennie J.C. Pieterse

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available From a qualitative grounded theory analysis in a sample of 26 sermons with Matthew 25:31–46 as sermon text, a rhetorical structure of how the preachers try to convince their listeners to care for the poor emerged. The homiletical concept of appealing related to all the categories borne out of the analysis of the inner world of the 26 sermons, and also to the categories showing this rhetorical structure in the sermons. The article discusses what the dimensions are in the concept of appealing borne out of the sermons in which the rhetorical structure was apparent, which rhetorical theory would fit as theoretical base for the concept of appealing in its relationship with the rhetorical structure in the sermons, and what dilemma the preachers face when they try to convince their listeners to participate in the care for the poor. The rhetorical theory of deliberative rhetoric (Aristotle and the classical theory with the three dimensions logos, ethos and pathosis discussed in this article as theoretical thickening of the concept of appealing to the listeners of the sermons. This article attempts to demonstrate how to go about theorising from a grounded theory analysis of sermons with Matthew 25:31–46 as a sermon text with, as result, a theory that could help preachers in preaching from this text in the context of poverty in South Africa. Vanuit ’n kwalitatief-gegronde teorie-ontleding (grounded theory analysis van 26 preke met Matteus 25:31–46 as preekteks, het ’n retoriese struktuur na vore gekom waarmee predikers hulle toehoorders wil oorreed om armes te versorg. Die homiletiese konsep van appèl, hou verband met al die kategorieë wat uit die inhoudsanalise van die binnewêreld van die 26 preke na vore gekom het, asook die kategorieë waarin die retoriese struktuur sigbaar is. Die artikel bespreek die dimensies in die konsep van appèl wat na vore kom uit die preke waarin die retoriese struktuur duidelik is, welke retoriese teorie as

  6. Phases and Actions of the Evolution of the Concept of Quality in Canada and Australia – A Theoretical Modelling of the Development of Knowledge in Business Performance in the XXI Century - The Approach to Excellence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Raluca Popescu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In the paper “Phases and Actions of the Evolution of the Concept of Quality in Canada and Australia – A Theoretical Modelling of the Development of Knowledge in Business Performance in the XXI Century - The Approach to Excellence” the authors present the basic features of the phases and actions of the evolution of the concept of quality in Canada and Australia, as a theoretical modelling of the development of knowledge in business performance in the XXI century in order to improve the organizational processes so that excellence can be achieved.

  7. Vulnerable self, poor understanding of others' minds, threat anticipation and cognitive biases as triggers for delusional experience in schizophrenia: a theoretical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvatore, Giampaolo; Lysaker, Paul H; Popolo, Raffaele; Procacci, Michele; Carcione, Antonino; Dimaggio, Giancarlo

    2012-01-01

    It remains unclear what processes lead to the establishment of persecutory delusions in acute phases of schizophrenia. Recently, it has been argued that persecutory delusions arise from an interaction among a range of emotional, cognitive and social factors. In this work, we explored this possibility by first discussing the relevant aspects of recent theoretical models of the causes of persecutory delusions. Then, we offered an analysis of the literature, illustrated with clinical observations suggesting that persecutory delusions are triggered during stressful intersubjective transactions by the interactions of (a) an alteration in empathetic perspective taking and in pragmatic understanding of others' minds; (b) a perception/representation of the self as vulnerable or subordinate and of the other as dominant and threatening; and (c) a hyperfunctioning of the threat/self-protection system when faced with perceived danger. Implications for future research and treatment of people suffering from this symptom are discussed. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Use of the theoretical domains framework to further understanding of what influences application of fluoride varnish to children's teeth: a national survey of general dental practitioners in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnich, Wendy; Bonetti, Debbie; Sherriff, Andrea; Sharma, Shilpi; Conway, David I; Macpherson, Lorna M D

    2015-06-01

    Despite recent improvements in the oral health of Scotland's population, the persistence of childhood dental caries underscores a need to reduce the disease burden experienced by children living in Scotland. Application of fluoride varnish (FV) to children's teeth provides an evidence-based approach to achieving this goal. Despite policy, health service targets and professional recommendations supporting application, not all children receive FV in line with guidance. The objective of this study was to use the theoretical domains framework (TDF) to further an understanding of what may influence fluoride varnish application (FVA) in General Dental Practice in Scotland. A postal questionnaire assessing current behaviour (frequency of FVA) and theoretical domains (TDs) was sent to all General Dental Practitioners (GDPs) in Scotland. Correlations and linear regression models were used to examine the association between FVA and the TDs. One thousand and ninety (53.6%) eligible GDPs responded. Respondents reported applying FV more frequently to increased risk and younger children (aged 2-5 years). Higher scores in eight TDs (Knowledge, Social/professional role and identity, Beliefs about consequences, Motivation and goals, Environmental context and resources, Social influences, Emotion and Behavioural regulation) were associated with greater frequency of FVA. Four beliefs in particular appear to be driving GDPs' decision to apply FV (recognizing that FVA is a guideline recommended behaviour (Knowledge), that FVA is perceived as an important part of the GDPs' professional role (Professional role/identity), that FV is something parents want for their children (Social influences) and that FV is something GDPs really wanted to do (Emotion). The findings of this study support the use of the TDF as a tool to understand GDPs application of FV and suggest that a multifaceted intervention, targeting dental professionals and families, and more specifically those domains and items

  9. Understanding the physical and chemical changes on the three levels of the presentation of chemical concepts in students primary education

    OpenAIRE

    Bregar, Anja

    2017-01-01

    Physical and chemical changes are learning contents that address the essential chemical concepts in processes at particle level. When explaining chemical concepts at particle level, it is necessary to use various and appropriate visualization elements, such as (1) pictures, (2) photographs, (3) film excerpts (4) 2D or 3D stationary submicroscopic representations, (5) 2D and 3D dynamic contamination schemes, etc. This way, teachers can explain and interpret a chemical concept on three presenta...

  10. On the usefulness of Heidegger's concept of "thrownness" for understanding how people think and act in organisations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars

    used, extended and is echoed in the work of scholars interested in how people think and act in organisations. It is also considered what insights the concept of thrownness gives rise to in the context of a concrete research project concerned with food retailers' buying behaviour.......This paper considers what Heidegger's concept of thrownness can help organisation scholars say about how people think and act in organisations. It presents the concept of thrownness in the context in which it was proposed, the epoch-making Sein und Zeit, and takes a look at how the concept has been...

  11. Evaluation: theoretical underpinnings and web resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman, Donna R

    2012-01-01

    Librarians may benefit from understanding research theory more fully, looking at the services they offer as a program, and using program evaluation to understand the program value more completely. The process of program evaluation is research, and, as such, it should be situated within theory. This article reviews two of the basic theoretical concepts of research: ontology and epistemology. These concepts work together to help craft the research questions, and the questions drive the selection of methodology. The article also provides a list of web resources useful for understanding research theory in evaluation.

  12. Opportunities to Learn in School and at Home: How can they predict students' understanding of basic science concepts and principles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Su; Liu, Xiufeng; Zhao, Yandong

    2012-09-01

    As the breadth and depth of economic reforms increase in China, growing attention is being paid to equalities in opportunities to learn science by students of various backgrounds. In early 2009, the Chinese Ministry of Education and Ministry of Science and Technology jointly sponsored a national survey of urban eighth-grade students' science literacy along with their family and school backgrounds. The present study focused on students' understanding of basic science concepts and principles (BSCP), a subset of science literacy. The sample analyzed included 3,031 students from 109 randomly selected classes/schools. Correlation analysis, one-way analysis of variance, and two-level linear regression were conducted. The results showed that having a refrigerator, internet, more books, parents purchasing books and magazines related to school work, higher father's education level, and parents' higher expectation of the education level of their child significantly predicted higher BSCP scores; having siblings at home, owning an apartment, and frequently contacting teachers about the child significantly predicted lower BSCP scores. At the school level, the results showed that being in the first-tier or key schools, having school libraries, science popularization galleries, computer labs, adequate equipment for teaching, special budget for teacher training, special budget for science equipment, and mutual trust between teachers and students significantly predicated higher BSCP scores; and having science and technology rooms, offering science and technology interest clubs, special budget for science curriculum development, and special budget for science social practice activities significantly predicted lower BSCP scores. The implications of the above findings are discussed.

  13. The Ever-Evolving Concept of the Gene: The Use of RNA/Protein Experimental Techniques to Understand Genome Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Cipriano

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The completion of the human genome sequence together with advances in sequencing technologies have shifted the paradigm of the genome, as composed of discrete and hereditable coding entities, and have shown the abundance of functional noncoding DNA. This part of the genome, previously dismissed as “junk” DNA, increases proportionally with organismal complexity and contributes to gene regulation beyond the boundaries of known protein-coding genes. Different classes of functionally relevant nonprotein-coding RNAs are transcribed from noncoding DNA sequences. Among them are the long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs, which are thought to participate in the basal regulation of protein-coding genes at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. Although knowledge of this field is still limited, the ability of lncRNAs to localize in different cellular compartments, to fold into specific secondary structures and to interact with different molecules (RNA or proteins endows them with multiple regulatory mechanisms. It is becoming evident that lncRNAs may play a crucial role in most biological processes such as the control of development, differentiation and cell growth. This review places the evolution of the concept of the gene in its historical context, from Darwin's hypothetical mechanism of heredity to the post-genomic era. We discuss how the original idea of protein-coding genes as unique determinants of phenotypic traits has been reconsidered in light of the existence of noncoding RNAs. We summarize the technological developments which have been made in the genome-wide identification and study of lncRNAs and emphasize the methodologies that have aided our understanding of the complexity of lncRNA-protein interactions in recent years.

  14. ‘It’s a can of worms’: understanding primary care practitioners’ behaviours in relation to HPV using the theoretical domains framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McSherry Lisa A

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationship between infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV and cervical cancer is transforming cervical cancer prevention. HPV tests and vaccinations have recently become available. In Ireland, as elsewhere, primary care practitioners play a key role in prevention. ATHENS (A Trial of HPV Education and Support aims to develop a theory-based intervention to support primary care practitioners in their HPV-related practice. This study, the first step in the intervention development process, aimed to: identify HPV-related clinical behaviours that the intervention will target; clarify general practitioners’ (GPs’ and practice nurses’ roles and responsibilities; and determine factors that potentially influence clinical behaviour. A secondary objective was to informally assess the utility of the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF in understanding clinical behaviours in an area with an evolving evidence-base. Methods In-depth semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with GPs and practice nurses. The topic guide, which contained open questions and HPV-related clinical scenarios, was developed through literature review and clinical experience. Interview transcripts were content-analysed using the TDF as the coding framework. Results 19 GPs and 14 practice nurses were interviewed. The major HPV-related clinical behaviours were: initiating a discussion about HPV infection with female patients; offering/recommending HPV vaccination to appropriate patients; and answering patients’ questions about HPV testing. While the responsibility for taking smears was considered a female role, both male and female practitioners dealt with HPV-related issues. All 12 theoretical domains arose in relation to HPV infection; the domains judged to be most important were: knowledge, emotion, social influences, beliefs about capabilities and beliefs about consequences. Eleven domains emerged in relation to HPV vaccination

  15. THE APPLICATION OF RECIPROCAL TEACHING METHOD FOR IMPROVING THE UNDERSTANDING OF MATHEMATICS CONCEPT OF 7TH GRADE STUDENTS SMP NEGERI 2 DEPOK.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatag Bagus Argikas

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to: (1 describe the implementation of learning mathematics with Reciprocal Teaching methods that is for improving the concept of learning understanding mathematic in class VIIA SMP Negeri 2 Depok. (2 Knowing the increased understanding of student learning in class VIIA SMP Negeri 2 Depok use Reciprocal Teaching methods. This research constitutes an action in class that is according along the teacher. The data of research was collated by sheet observations and each evaluation of cycles. That is done in two cycles. The first was retrieved the average value of student learning achievement of 70.96%. The second was retrieved achievement of 90.32%. Thus this learning model can increase student learning understanding.   Key word: The understanding of Mathematical Concept, Reciprocal Teaching Method.

  16. The Effect of Concept Cartoon-Embedded Worksheets on Grade 9 Students' Conceptual Understanding of Newton's Laws of Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atasoy, Sengül; Ergin, Serap

    2017-01-01

    Background: A substantial review study of concept cartoons reports that few studies have indicated their functions. For this reason, the present study illuminates the extent to which concept cartoon-embedded worksheets (through constructivist context) accomplish these functions in conceptual learning. Purpose: The purpose of the study is to…

  17. Measuring University students' understanding of the greenhouse effect - a comparison of multiple-choice, short answer and concept sketch assessment tools with respect to students' mental models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, A. U.; Harris, S. E.

    2013-12-01

    The greenhouse effect comes up in most discussions about climate and is a key concept related to climate change. Existing studies have shown that students and adults alike lack a detailed understanding of this important concept or might hold misconceptions. We studied the effectiveness of different interventions on University-level students' understanding of the greenhouse effect. Introductory level science students were tested for their pre-knowledge of the greenhouse effect using validated multiple-choice questions, short answers and concept sketches. All students participated in a common lesson about the greenhouse effect and were then randomly assigned to one of two lab groups. One group explored an existing simulation about the greenhouse effect (PhET-lesson) and the other group worked with absorption spectra of different greenhouse gases (Data-lesson) to deepen the understanding of the greenhouse effect. All students completed the same assessment including multiple choice, short answers and concept sketches after participation in their lab lesson. 164 students completed all the assessments, 76 completed the PhET lesson and 77 completed the data lesson. 11 students missed the contrasting lesson. In this presentation we show the comparison between the multiple-choice questions, short answer questions and the concept sketches of students. We explore how well each of these assessment types represents student's knowledge. We also identify items that are indicators of the level of understanding of the greenhouse effect as measured in correspondence of student answers to an expert mental model and expert responses. Preliminary data analysis shows that student who produce concept sketch drawings that come close to expert drawings also choose correct multiple-choice answers. However, correct multiple-choice answers are not necessarily an indicator that a student produces an expert-like correlating concept sketch items. Multiple-choice questions that require detailed

  18. Theoretical physics. Quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebhan, Eckhard

    2008-01-01

    From the first in two comprehensive volumes appeared Theoretical Physics of the author by this after Mechanics and Electrodynamics also Quantum mechanics appears as thinner single volume. First the illustrative approach via wave mechanics is reproduced. The more abstract Hilbert-space formulation introduces the author later by postulates, which are because of the preceding wave mechanics sufficiently plausible. All concepts of quantum mechanics, which contradict often to the intuitive understanding formed by macroscopic experiences, are extensively discussed and made by means of many examples as well as problems - in the largest part provided with solutions - understandable. To the interpretation of quantum mechanics an extensive special chapter is dedicated. this book arose from courses on theoretical physics, which the author has held at the Heinrich-Heine University in Duesseldorf, and was in numerous repetitions fitted to the requirement of the studyings. it is so designed that it is also after the study suited as reference book or for the renewing. All problems are very thoroughly and such extensively studied that each step is separately reproducible. About motivation and good understandability is cared much

  19. Kindergarten Students' Levels of Understanding Some Science Concepts and Scientific Inquiry Processes According to Demographic Variables (The Sampling of Kilis Province in Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilhan, Nail; Tosun, Cemal

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the kindergarten students' levels of understanding some science concepts (LUSSC) and scientific inquiry processes (SIP) and compare their LUSSC and SIP in terms of some demographic variables. Also, another purpose of this study is to identify the predictive power of those demographic variables over the…

  20. Conceptions of Knowledge in Research on Students' Understanding of the Greenhouse Effect: Methodological Positions and Their Consequences for Representations of Knowing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsson, Anders; Makitalo, Asa; Saljo, Roger

    2009-01-01

    Much of the research on students' understanding of the greenhouse effect and global warming reports poor results. Students are claimed to hold misconceptions and naive beliefs, and the impact of teaching on their conceptions is also low. In the present study, these results are called into question, and it is argued that they may to a large extent…

  1. Implementation of cooperative learning model type STAD with RME approach to understanding of mathematical concept student state junior high school in Pekanbaru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurhayati, Dian Mita; Hartono

    2017-05-01

    This study aims to determine whether there is a difference in the ability of understanding the concept of mathematics between students who use cooperative learning model Student Teams Achievement Division type with Realistic Mathematic Education approach and students who use regular learning in seventh grade SMPN 35 Pekanbaru. This study was quasi experiments with Posttest-only Control Design. The populations in this research were all the seventh grade students in one of state junior high school in Pekanbaru. The samples were a class that is used as the experimental class and one other as the control class. The process of sampling is using purposive sampling technique. Retrieval of data in this study using the documentation, observation sheets, and test. The test use t-test formula to determine whether there is a difference in student's understanding of mathematical concepts. Before the t-test, should be used to test the homogeneity and normality. Based in the analysis of these data with t0 = 2.9 there is a difference in student's understanding of mathematical concepts between experimental and control class. Percentage of students experimental class with score more than 65 was 76.9% and 56.4% of students control class. Thus be concluded, the ability of understanding mathematical concepts students who use the cooperative learning model type STAD with RME approach better than students using the regular learning. So that cooperative learning model type STAD with RME approach is well used in learning process.

  2. The Contribution of Constructivist Instruction Accompanied by Concept Mapping in Enhancing Pre-Service Chemistry Teachers' Conceptual Understanding of Chemistry in the Laboratory Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Sevgi; Aydemir, Nurdane; Boz, Yezdan; Cetin-Dindar, Ayla; Bektas, Oktay

    2009-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate whether a chemistry laboratory course called "Laboratory Experiments in Science Education" based on constructivist instruction accompanied with concept mapping enhanced pre-service chemistry teachers' conceptual understanding. Data were collected from five pre-service chemistry teachers at a university…

  3. Exploring Young Children's Understanding about the Concept of Volume through Engineering Design in a STEM Activity: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Do-Yong; Park, Mi-Hwa; Bates, Alan B.

    2018-01-01

    This case study explores young children's understanding and application of the concept of volume through the practices of engineering design in a STEM activity. STEM stands for science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. However, engineering stands out as a challenging area to implement. In addition, most early engineering education…

  4. The Development of the Redox Concept Inventory as a Measure of Students' Symbolic and Particulate Redox Understandings and Confidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandriet, Alexandra R.; Bretz, Stacey Lowery

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the development of the Redox Concept Inventory (ROXCI) as a measure of students' understandings and confidence of both the symbolic and particulate domains of oxidation-reduction (redox) reactions. The ROXCI was created using a mixed-methods design in which the items were developed based upon themes that emerged from…

  5. Comparison between the Understanding Levels of Boys and Girls on the Concepts of Environmental Degradation, Meteorology and Climate Change in Tanzanian Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kira, Ernest S.; Komba, Sotco C.

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed to determine whether there was any significant difference in understanding levels between secondary school boys and girls on the concepts of environmental degradation, meteorology and climate change. Both structured survey and focus group discussions were used to collect information from 480 students, sampled randomly from 12…

  6. Teaching Trajectories and Students' Understanding of Difficult Concepts in Biology in Obio/Akpor Local Government Area in Rivers State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumuni, Abosede Anthonia Olufemi; Dike, John Worlu; Uzoma-Nwogu, Azibaolanari

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of teaching trajectories on students' understanding of difficult concepts in Biology. Two research questions and two null hypotheses guided the study which was carried out in Obio/Akpor Local Government Area of Rivers State. Two public coeducational schools out of thirteen drawn through purposive sampling…

  7. Artificial Intelligence-Based Student Learning Evaluation: A Concept Map-Based Approach for Analyzing a Student's Understanding of a Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, G. Panka; Gurupur, Varadraj P.; Schroeder, Jennifer L.; Faulkenberry, Eileen D.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a tool coined as artificial intelligence-based student learning evaluation tool (AISLE). The main purpose of this tool is to improve the use of artificial intelligence techniques in evaluating a student's understanding of a particular topic of study using concept maps. Here, we calculate the probability distribution of…

  8. A Comparative Study of the Effects of a Concept Mapping Enhanced Laboratory Experience on Turkish High School Students' Understanding of Acid-Base Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozmen, Haluk; Demircioglu, Gokhan; Coll, Richard K.

    2009-01-01

    The research reported here consists of the introduction of an intervention based on a series of laboratory activities combined with concept mapping. The purpose of this intervention was to enhance student understanding of acid-base chemistry for tenth grade students' from two classes in a Turkish high school. An additional aim was to enhance…

  9. The Effect of Level of Information as Presented by Different Technologies on Students' Understanding of Acid, Base, and pH Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakhleh, Mary B.; Krajcik, Joseph S.

    Within high school chemistry the topic of acids, bases, and pH is particularly challenging because robust understanding of the topic depends heavily on the student possessing deep concepts of atoms, molecules, ions, and chemical reactions. Since knowledge is acquired and stored in a dynamic structure, it was investigated in this study how…

  10. Influence on Levels of Information as Presented by Different Technologies on Students' Understanding of Acid, Base, and pH Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakhleh, Mary B.; Krajcik, Joseph S.

    1994-01-01

    Involves secondary students in a study designed to allow investigation into how different levels of information presented by various technologies (chemical indicators, pH meters, and microcomputer-based laboratories-MBLs) affected students' understanding of acid, base, and pH concepts. Results showed that students using MBLs exhibited a greater…

  11. Designing field-controllable graphene-dot-graphene single molecule switches: A quantum-theoretical proof-of-concept under realistic operating conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pejov, Ljupčo; Petreska, Irina; Kocarev, Ljupčo

    2015-12-28

    A theoretical proof of the concept that a particularly designed graphene-based moletronics device, constituted by two semi-infinite graphene subunits, acting as source and drain electrodes, and a central benzenoid ring rotator (a "quantum dot"), could act as a field-controllable molecular switch is outlined and analyzed with the density functional theory approach. Besides the ideal (0 K) case, we also consider the operation of such a device under realistic operating (i.e., finite-temperature) conditions. An in-depth insight into the physics behind device controllability by an external field was gained by thorough analyses of the torsional potential of the dot under various conditions (absence or presence of an external gating field with varying strength), computing the torsional correlation time and transition probabilities within the Bloembergen-Purcell-Pound formalism. Both classical and quantum mechanical tunneling contributions to the intramolecular rotation were considered in the model. The main idea that we put forward in the present study is that intramolecular rotors can be controlled by the gating field even in cases when these groups do not possess a permanent dipole moment (as in cases considered previously by us [I. Petreska et al., J. Chem. Phys. 134, 014708-1-014708-12 (2011)] and also by other groups [P. E. Kornilovitch et al., Phys. Rev. B 66, 245413-1-245413-7 (2002)]). Consequently, one can control the molecular switching properties by an external electrostatic field utilizing even nonpolar intramolecular rotors (i.e., in a more general case than those considered so far). Molecular admittance of the currently considered graphene-based molecular switch under various conditions is analyzed employing non-equilibrium Green's function formalism, as well as by analysis of frontier molecular orbitals' behavior.

  12. Examining item content and structure in health status and health outcomes instruments: toward the development of a grammar for better understanding of the concepts being measured.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Pennifer; Willke, Richard J

    2013-06-01

    Health outcomes instruments assess diverse health concepts. Although item-level concepts are considered fundamental elements, the field lacks structures for evaluating and organizing them for decision making. This article proposes a grammar using item stems, response options, and recall periods to systematically identify item-level concepts. The grammar uses "core concept," "evaluative component," and "recall period" as intuitive terms for communicating with stakeholders. Better characterization of concepts is necessary for classifying instrument content and linking it to treatment benefit. Items in 2 generic and 21 disease-specific instruments were evaluated to develop and illustrate the use of the grammar. Concepts were assigned International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health codes for exploring the value that the grammar and a classification system add to the understanding of content across instruments. The 23 instruments include many core concepts; emotional function is the only concept assessed in all instruments. Concepts in disease-specific instruments show obvious patterns; for example, arthritis instruments focus on physical function. The majority of instruments used the same response options across all items, with five-point scales being the most common. Most instruments used one recall period for all items. Shorter recall periods were used for conditions associated with "flares," such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and "skin disease." Every diagnosis, however, showed variation across instruments in the recall period used. This analysis indicates the proposed grammar's potential for discerning the conceptual content within and between health outcomes instruments and illustrates its value for improving communication between stakeholders and for making decisions related to treatment benefit. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Theoretical Understanding the Relations of Melting-point Determination Methods from Gibbs Thermodynamic Surface and Applications on Melting Curves of Lower Mantle Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, K.; Belonoshko, A. B.; Zhou, H.; Lu, X.

    2016-12-01

    The melting temperatures of materials in the interior of the Earth has significant implications in many areas of geophysics. The direct calculations of the melting point by atomic simulations would face substantial hysteresis problem. To overcome the hysteresis encountered in the atomic simulations there are a few different melting-point determination methods available nowadays, which are founded independently, such as the free energy method, the two-phase or coexistence method, and the Z method, etc. In this study, we provide a theoretical understanding the relations of these methods from a geometrical perspective based on a quantitative construction of the volume-entropy-energy thermodynamic surface, a model first proposed by J. Willard Gibbs in 1873. Then combining with an experimental data and/or a previous melting-point determination method, we apply this model to derive the high-pressure melting curves for several lower mantle minerals with less computational efforts relative to using previous methods only. Through this way, some polyatomic minerals at extreme pressures which are almost unsolvable before are calculated fully from first principles now.

  14. Toward a better understanding of the magnetocaloric effect: An experimental and theoretical study of MnFe{sub 4}Si{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gourdon, Olivier, E-mail: gourdono@lanl.gov [Los Alamos Neutron Scattering Center, National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Gottschlich, Michael; Persson, Joerg [Jülich Center for Neutron Science JCNS-2 and Peter Grünberg Institut PGI-4, JARA-FIT, Forschungszentrum Jülich 52425 Jülich (Germany); Cruz, Clarina de la [Quantum Condensed Matter Division, Spallation Neutron Source, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Petricek, Vaclav [Institute of Physics ASCR v.v.i., Na Slovance 2, 182 21 Prague (Czech Republic); McGuire, Michael A. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Brückel, Thomas [Jülich Center for Neutron Science JCNS-2 and Peter Grünberg Institut PGI-4, JARA-FIT, Forschungszentrum Jülich 52425 Jülich (Germany)

    2014-08-15

    The intermetallic compound MnFe{sub 4}Si{sub 3} has been studied by high-resolution Time of Flight (TOF) neutron powder diffraction. MnFe{sub 4}Si{sub 3} crystallizes in the hexagonal space group P6{sub 3}/mcm with lattice constants of a=b=6.8043(4) Å and c=4.7254(2) Å at 310 K. Magnetic susceptibility measurements show clearly the magnetic transition from paramagnetism to ferromagnetism at about 302(2) K. Magnetic structure refinements based on neutron powder diffraction data with and without external magnetic field reveal strong evidence on the origin of the large magnetocaloric effect (MCE) in this material as a partial reordering of the spins between ∼270 K and 300 K. In addition, electronic structure calculations using the self-consistent, spin-polarized Tight Binding-Linear MuffinTin Orbital (TB-LMTO) method were also accomplished to address the “coloring problem” (Mn/Fe site preference) as well as the unique ferromagnetic behavior of this intermetallic compound. - Graphical abstract: Theoretical and experimental reinvestigation of the magnetic structure of MnFe{sub 4}Si{sub 3} for a better understanding of its large magnetocaloric effect (MCE). - Highlights: • Strong magnetic transition from paramagnetism to ferromagnetism at about 302(2) K. • MCE associated to a partial reordering of the spins between ∼270 K and 300 K. • DFT calculations show strong relation between MCE and spintronic materials.

  15. Assessment of primary school students’ level of understanding the concepts of 2nd grade life sciences course based on different variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altıntaş Gülşen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The course of Life Sciences is one of the pivot courses taught in the first three years of primary school. Ensuring children get to know their environment and gain correct information related to their problems by making them investigate their natural and socio-cultural environment as well as providing them with necessary information, skills and behaviors for environmental adaptation are among the main purposes of Life Sciences course. The concepts to be instilled in students in line with these purposes are important. Since concepts are mostly intellectual and non-physical, they can only exist tangibly through examples. This study aims to assess Primary School Students’ Level of Understanding the Concepts of 2nd Grade Life Sciences Course Based on Different Variables. 17 concepts included in the 2nd Grade Life Sciences course within the subject of School Excitement were addressed within the study, and students were requested to define and exemplify these concepts. A total of 102 students from five different primary schools of upper-middle and lower socioeconomic classes located in Manisa and Istanbul were included in the study in line with the intentional maximum diversity sample selection. The answers given by students for each concept were categorized and analyzed in terms of liking or disliking home, school, technology and the course of Life Sciences.

  16. The use of multi representative learning materials: definitive, macroscopic, microscopic, symbolic, and practice in analyzing students’ concept understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susilaningsih, E.; Wulandari, C.; Supartono; Kasmui; Alighiri, D.

    2018-03-01

    This research aims to compose learning material which contains definitive macroscopic, microscopic and symbolic to analyze students’ conceptual understanding in acid-base learning materials. This research was conducted in eleven grade, natural science class, senior high school 1 (SMAN 1) Karangtengah, Demak province, Indonesia as the low level of students’ conceptual understanding and the high level of students’ misconception. The data collecting technique is by test to assess the cognitive aspect, questionnaire to assess students’ responses to multi representative learning materials (definitive, macroscopic, microscopic, symbolic), and observation to assess students’ macroscopic aspects. Three validators validate the multi-representative learning materials (definitive, macroscopic, microscopic, symbolic). The results of the research show that the multi-representative learning materials (definitive, macroscopic, microscopes, symbolic) being used is valid in the average score 62 of 75. The data is analyzed using the descriptive qualitative method. The results of the research show that 72.934 % students understand, 7.977 % less understand, 8.831 % do not understand, and 10.256 % misconception. In comparison, the second experiment class shows 54.970 % students understand, 5.263% less understand, 11.988 % do not understand, 27.777 % misconception. In conclusion, the application of multi representative learning materials (definitive, macroscopic, microscopic, symbolic) can be used to analyze the students’ understanding of acid-base materials.

  17. Using Example Generation to Explore Students' Understanding of the Concepts of Linear Dependence/Independence in Linear Algebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Sinan

    2014-01-01

    Linear algebra is a basic mathematical subject taught in mathematics and science depar-tments of universities. The teaching and learning of this course has always been difficult. This study aims to contribute to the research in linear algebra education, focusing on linear dependence and independence concepts. This was done by introducing…

  18. "Keep Telling until Someone Listens": Understanding Prevention Concepts in Children's Picture Books Dealing with Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampert, Jo; Walsh, Kerryann

    2010-01-01

    Children's picture books dealing with the topic of child sexual abuse appeared in the 1980s with the aim of addressing the need for age-appropriate texts to teach sexual abuse prevention concepts and to provide support for young children who may be at risk of or have already experienced sexual abuse. Despite the apparent potential of children's…

  19. Understanding interprofessional collaboration in the context of chronic disease management for older adults living in communities: a concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bookey-Bassett, Sue; Markle-Reid, Maureen; Mckey, Colleen A; Akhtar-Danesh, Noori

    2017-01-01

    To report a concept analysis of interprofessional collaboration in the context of chronic disease management, for older adults living in communities. Increasing prevalence of chronic disease among older adults is creating significant burden for patients, families and healthcare systems. Managing chronic disease for older adults living in the community requires interprofessional collaboration across different health and other care providers, organizations and sectors. However, there is a lack of consensus about the definition and use of interprofessional collaboration for community-based chronic disease management. Concept analysis. Electronic databases CINAHL, Medline, HealthStar, EMBASE, PsychINFO, Ageline and Cochrane Database were searched from 2000 - 2013. Rodgers' evolutionary method for concept analysis. The most common surrogate term was interdisciplinary collaboration. Related terms were interprofessional team, multidisciplinary team and teamwork. Attributes included: an evolving interpersonal process; shared goals, decision-making and care planning; interdependence; effective and frequent communication; evaluation of team processes; involving older adults and family members in the team; and diverse and flexible team membership. Antecedents comprised: role awareness; interprofessional education; trust between team members; belief that interprofessional collaboration improves care; and organizational support. Consequences included impacts on team composition and function, care planning processes and providers' knowledge, confidence and job satisfaction. Interprofessional collaboration is a complex evolving concept. Key components of interprofessional collaboration in chronic disease management for community-living older adults are identified. Implications for nursing practice, education and research are proposed. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Understanding physical (in-) activity, overweight, and obesity in childhood: Effects of congruence between physical self-concept and motor competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utesch, T; Dreiskämper, D; Naul, R; Geukes, K

    2018-04-12

    Both the physical self-concept and actual motor competence are important for healthy future physical activity levels and consequently decrease overweight and obesity in childhood. However, children scoring high on motor competence do not necessarily report high levels of physical self-concept and vice versa, resulting in respective (in-) accuracy also referred to as (non-) veridicality. This study examines whether children's accuracy of physical self-concept is a meaningful predictive factor for their future physical activity. Motor competence, physical self-concept and physical activity were assessed in 3 rd grade and one year later in 4 th grade. Children's weight status was categorized based on WHO recommendations. Polynomial regression with Response surface analyses were conducted with a quasi-DIF approach examining moderating weight status effects. Analyses revealed that children with higher motor competence levels and higher self-perceptions show greater physical activity. Importantly, children who perceive their motor competence more accurately (compared to less) show more future physical activity. This effect is strong for underweight and overweight/obese children, but weak for normal weight children. This study indicates that an accurate self-perception of motor competence fosters future physical activity beyond single main effects, respectively. Hence, the promotion of actual motor competence should be linked with the respective development of accurate self-knowledge.

  1. Understanding fruit and vegetable consumption in children and adolescents. The contributions of affect, self-concept and habit strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albani, Viviana; Butler, Laurie T; Traill, W Bruce; Kennedy, Orla B

    2018-01-01

    Affective processes and the role of automaticity are increasingly recognised as critical in determining food choice. This study investigated the association of affective attitude, self-identity and habit with fruit and vegetable (FV) intentions and intake in children. Previous studies have not fully explored their implications for children of different age groups and have not considered their independent contribution as part of a coherent model of behaviour that also controls for other psychosocial and environmental determinants of intake. Data was collected through face-to-face interviews with 362 children, 9-15 years old. Children were asked to report on measures of affective attitude, cognitive attitude, self-concept, social norms and facilitating factors following Triandis' Theory of Interpersonal Behaviour (TIB). Three stage least squares was used to estimate the independent association of affective attitude and self-concept with intentions and of intentions and habit with intake. Self-concept had the most prominent role in explaining intentions irrespective of age for both fruit and vegetables. The importance of affective attitude varied by age and with fruit and vegetables, with greater importance for vegetables and for children aged 11-13 years. Cognitive attitude was more relevant than affective attitude for 14 to 15 year-olds' fruit intentions. Intake was more strongly associated with habit than intentions, with stronger associations for 14 to 15 year-olds. The current findings support the importance of self-concept for FV motivations and provide further evidence on the importance of habit to FV intake in young and older children and adolescents. Results also support a targeted usefulness of affective attitude for fruit and vegetable intentions. The discussion considers potential ways in which these constructs can be incorporated into interventions to increase FV intake in children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Feedbacks between geomorphology and biota controlling Earth surface processes and landforms: A review of foundation concepts and current understandings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corenblit, Dov; Baas, Andreas C. W.; Bornette, Gudrun; Darrozes, José; Delmotte, Sébastien; Francis, Robert A.; Gurnell, Angela M.; Julien, Frédéric; Naiman, Robert J.; Steiger, Johannes

    2011-06-01

    This review article presents recent advances in the field of biogeomorphology related to the reciprocal coupling between Earth surface processes and landforms, and ecological and evolutionary processes. The aim is to present to the Earth Science community ecological and evolutionary concepts and associated recent conceptual developments for linking geomorphology and biota. The novelty of the proposed perspective is that (1) in the presence of geomorphologic-engineer species, which modify sediment and landform dynamics, natural selection operating at the scale of organisms may have consequences for the physical components of ecosystems, and particularly Earth surface processes and landforms; and (2) in return, these modifications of geomorphologic processes and landforms often feed back to the ecological characteristics of the ecosystem (structure and function) and thus to biological characteristics of engineer species and/or other species (adaptation and speciation). The main foundation concepts from ecology and evolutionary biology which have led only recently to an improved conception of landform dynamics in geomorphology are reviewed and discussed. The biogeomorphologic macroevolutionary insights proposed explicitly integrate geomorphologic niche-dimensions and processes within an ecosystem framework and reflect current theories of eco-evolutionary and ecological processes. Collectively, these lead to the definition of an integrated model describing the overall functioning of biogeomorphologic systems over ecological and evolutionary timescales.

  3. Towards an understanding of Internet-based problem shopping behaviour: The concept of online shopping addiction and its proposed predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Susan; Dhandayudham, Arun

    2014-06-01

    Compulsive and addictive forms of consumption and buying behaviour have been researched in both business and medical literature. Shopping enabled via the Internet now introduces new features to the shopping experience that translate to positive benefits for the shopper. Evidence now suggests that this new shopping experience may lead to problematic online shopping behaviour. This paper provides a theoretical review of the literature relevant to online shopping addiction (OSA). Based on this selective review, a conceptual model of OSA is presented. The selective review of the literature draws on searches within databases relevant to both clinical and consumer behaviour literature including EBSCO, ABI Pro-Quest, Web of Science - Social Citations Index, Medline, PsycINFO and Pubmed. The article reviews current thinking on problematic, and specifically addictive, behaviour in relation to online shopping. The review of the literature enables the extension of existing knowledge into the Internet-context. A conceptual model of OSA is developed with theoretical support provided for the inclusion of 7 predictor variables: low self-esteem, low self-regulation; negative emotional state; enjoyment; female gender; social anonymity and cognitive overload. The construct of OSA is defined and six component criteria of OSA are proposed based on established technological addiction criteria. Current Internet-based shopping experiences may trigger problematic behaviours which can be classified on a spectrum which at the extreme end incorporates OSA. The development of a conceptual model provides a basis for the future measurement and testing of proposed predictor variables and the outcome variable OSA.

  4. As concepções teórico-analíticas e as proposições de política econômica de Keynes The theoretical and analytical conceptions of Keynes and economic proposals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Ferrari Filho

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo mostra, de forma cronológica, como a natureza revolucionária das concepções e proposições teóricas de Keynes é desenvolvida ao longo de sua obra.This article shows, in a chronological time, how the Keynesian revolutionary conceptions and theoretical proposals were developed in the main Keynes's works.

  5. Theoretical Physics 1. Theoretical Mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreizler, Reiner M.; Luedde, Cora S.

    2010-01-01

    After an introduction to basic concepts of mechanics more advanced topics build the major part of this book. Interspersed is a discussion of selected problems of motion. This is followed by a concise treatment of the Lagrangian and the Hamiltonian formulation of mechanics, as well as a brief excursion on chaotic motion. The last chapter deals with applications of the Lagrangian formulation to specific systems (coupled oscillators, rotating coordinate systems, rigid bodies). The level of this textbook is advanced undergraduate. The authors combine teaching experience of more than 40 years in all fields of Theoretical Physics and related mathematical disciplines and thorough knowledge in creating advanced eLearning content. The text is accompanied by an extensive collection of online material, in which the possibilities of the electronic medium are fully exploited, e.g. in the form of applets, 2D- and 3D-animations. (orig.)

  6. Theoretical Physics 1. Theoretical Mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreizler, Reiner M.; Luedde, Cora S. [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2010-07-01

    After an introduction to basic concepts of mechanics more advanced topics build the major part of this book. Interspersed is a discussion of selected problems of motion. This is followed by a concise treatment of the Lagrangian and the Hamiltonian formulation of mechanics, as well as a brief excursion on chaotic motion. The last chapter deals with applications of the Lagrangian formulation to specific systems (coupled oscillators, rotating coordinate systems, rigid bodies). The level of this textbook is advanced undergraduate. The authors combine teaching experience of more than 40 years in all fields of Theoretical Physics and related mathematical disciplines and thorough knowledge in creating advanced eLearning content. The text is accompanied by an extensive collection of online material, in which the possibilities of the electronic medium are fully exploited, e.g. in the form of applets, 2D- and 3D-animations. (orig.)

  7. Service quality: understanding and implementing the concept in the clinical laboratory. Match service quality to consumer expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, S J

    1989-01-01

    The increasingly competitive health-care marketplace has mandated that health-care managers pay careful attention to the issue of quality from the perspective of the consumer. The importance of this issue is underscored by the fact that numerous health-care institutions and associations have recently begun to recognize the urgent need to obtain a greater understanding of service quality in a health-care situation. This article suggests means to understand, identify, improve, and implement effective approaches to this vital aspect of the marketing mix.

  8. Fire and Water combined: Understanding the Relevance of Working Life Studies through a Concept of Practical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keijo Räsänen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available When I presented the basic ideas of this paper at a conference, a Swedish colleague commented: ‘you manage to combine water and fire.’ I understood his kind comment to mean that he used water and fire as metaphors for practice and theory. The comment puzzled me for a while. Water and fire obviously destroy each other, or at least radically transform each other. Then I realized that humans have actually managed to combine water and fire in several ways. One solution is the kettle. It makes possible to use fire in a controlled way for the human purpose of boiling water. Thus, this paper can be taken as an attempt at offering a kettle-like vehicle for bringing together practicetheoretical concepts and vocational practice. My kettle is a concept of practical activity. I am trying to boil up an answer to the following question: in what senses a study of work can be practically relevant to those who are doing the work being studied?

  9. Understanding groundwater - students' pre-conceptions and conceptual change by means of a theory-guided multimedia learning program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unterbruner, Ulrike; Hilberg, Sylke; Schiffl, Iris

    2016-06-01

    Education on the subject of groundwater is crucial for sustainability. Nevertheless, international studies with students across different age groups have shown that the basic hydrogeological concept of groundwater defined as water within porous and permeable rocks is not an established everyday notion. Drawing from international research, a multimedia learning program Zwischen Regenwolke und Wasserhahn (between the rain cloud and the tap) was developed, which incorporates specific insights from the fields of conceptual change research, multimedia research, and the model of educational reconstruction. The effectiveness of the learning program was ascertained by means of two studies with Austrian seventh grade pupils as well as teacher-training students from the fields of biology and geography in order to ascertain the effectiveness of the learning program. Using a quasi-experimental research design, the participants' conceptions and knowledge of groundwater were determined in a pre- and post-test. The pupils and students greatly benefitted from working through the learning software independently. Their knowledge of groundwater increased significantly compared to the control group and there was a highly significant increase in the number of scientifically correct notions of groundwater. The acceptance of the program was also generally very high. The results indicate that theory-guided multimedia learning programs can play an important role in the transfer of research results to classroom settings, especially in science education.

  10. Understanding groundwater - students' pre-conceptions and conceptual change by a theory-guided multimedia learning program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unterbruner, U.; Hilberg, S.; Schiffl, I.

    2015-11-01

    Groundwater is a crucial topic in education for sustainable development. Nevertheless, international studies with students of different ages have shown that the basic hydrogeological concept of groundwater defined as water within porous and permeable rocks is not an established everyday notion. Building upon international research a multimedia learning program ("Between the raincloud and the tap") was developed. Insights from the fields of conceptual change research, multimedia research, and the Model of Educational Reconstruction were specifically implemented. Two studies were conducted with Austrian pupils (7th grade) and teacher training students from the fields of biology and geography in order to ascertain the effectiveness of the learning program. Using a quasi-experimental research design, the participants' conceptions and knowledge regarding groundwater were determined in a pre- and post-test. The pupils and students greatly profited from independently working through the learning software. Their knowledge of groundwater increased significantly compared to the control group and there was a highly significant increase in the number of scientifically correct notions of groundwater. The acceptance of the program was also generally very high. The results speak for the fact that theory-guided multimedia learning programs can play an important role in the transfer of research results into the classroom, particularly in science education.

  11. The concept of "psychosomatic" in general practice. Reflections on body language and a tentative model for understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattsson, Bengt; Mattsson, Monica

    2002-09-01

    In medicine, the concept "psychosomatic" indicates both dualism and polarisation. "Could it mean something psychic or is it something somatic?" This artificial dichotomy and body/mind split is not as apparent in general practice as it is in other medical disciplines. In general practice, the prerequisites for a division are overlooked. Following the work of Piaget, the article outlines manifestations of a body/mind unity as exposed in the language. Words and expressions describing the way we move, stand and walk therefore indicate our attitude and state of mind. Our body language conveys a message. The importance of breathing and its relation to our emotions is highlighted. The function of breathing is said to represent a bridge between the conscious and the unconscious--breathing can be controlled by our will, but generally we breathe reflexively. Restricted breathing is not just a mechanical process; it is shown that there is a connection between breathing and our emotions. Finally, a model of the "human organism" is presented linking four concepts, "human activity", "organ functions", "physical body" and "neurophysiological functions". Activities within the different systems are linked and relate to each other. The model supports the necessity to overcome the body/mind split, which is one of the obstacles to the fulfillment of good quality general practice.

  12. SOME IMPLICATIONS OF A CONCEPT OF GROWTH MOTIVATION FOR ADULT EDUCATION THEORY AND PRACTICE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    NOREEN, DAVID SHELDON

    THIS STUDY EXAMINED GROWTH MOTIVATION AS A DEVELOPING CONCEPT AND AS A THEORETICAL CONSTRUCT, AND THE IMPLICATIONS OF THIS THEORY FOR ADULT EDUCATION THEORY AND PRACTICE. SPECIAL ATTENTION WAS GIVEN TO THE THEORETICAL CONSTRUCTS OF ABRAHAM MASLOW, TO THE NATURE OF GROWTH MOTIVATION CONCEPTS IN GENERAL, AND TO FORMS OF SELF UNDERSTANDING AND…

  13. Children’s understanding of scientific concepts : Combining a micro-developmental approach with a longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Steen, Steffie

    2015-01-01

    This paper shows that the social (teacher) and material environment (task) play an active part in children's learning process and cannot be viewed as a separate, outside-based influence on cognitive development. We illustrate this using a longitudinal study on children's understanding of scientific

  14. Evaluating College Students' Conceptual Knowledge of Modern Physics: Test of Understanding on Concepts of Modern Physics (TUCO-MP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akarsu, Bayram

    2011-01-01

    In present paper, we propose a new diagnostic test to measure students' conceptual knowledge of principles of modern physics topics. Over few decades since born of physics education research (PER), many diagnostic instruments that measure students' conceptual understanding of various topics in physics, the earliest tests developed in PER are Force…

  15. The Meanings and Dimensions of Citizens’ Political Identity: Approaching an Understanding of the Concept of Political Identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Nørgaard

    The present article seeks to explore approaches to political identity in order to discuss and suggest an understanding of the term. There are several reasons for such a focus related to the salience of political identities in political affairs, as well as how identities function in people’s lives...

  16. Remote sensing change detection tools for natural resource managers: Understanding concepts and tradeoffs in the design of landscape monitoring projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert E. Kennedy; Philip A. Townsend; John E. Gross; Warren B. Cohen; Paul Bolstad; Wang Y. Q.; Phyllis Adams

    2009-01-01

    Remote sensing provides a broad view of landscapes and can be consistent through time, making it an important tool for monitoring and managing protected areas. An impediment to broader use of remote sensing science for monitoring has been the need for resource managers to understand the specialized capabilities of an ever-expanding array of image sources and analysis...

  17. Using a Two-Tier Test to Assess Students' Understanding and Alternative Conceptions of Cyber Copyright Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Chien; Chan, Pei-Shan; Wu, Huan-Chueh

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore students' understanding of cyber copyright laws. This study developed a two-tier test with 10 two-level multiple-choice questions. The first tier presented a real-case scenario and asked whether the conduct was acceptable whereas the second-tier provided reasons to justify the conduct. Students in Taiwan…

  18. Understanding the Concept of Information Literacy Students--For Example, the City Library "Don Mihovil Pavlinovic" Imotski

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovic, Marija

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study on the understanding of the term information literacy of primary and secondary school students, from the fifth grade of elementary school to the fourth year of high school at the local level, and who are members of the City Library in Imotski. The study examined 98 members of the City Library, through a…

  19. The Role of Green Chemistry Activities in Fostering Secondary School Students' Understanding of Acid-Base Concepts and Argumentation Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpudewan, Mageswary; Roth, Wolff Michael; Sinniah, Devananthini

    2016-01-01

    In a world where environmental degradation is taking on alarming levels, understanding, and acting to minimize, the individual environmental impact is an important goal for many science educators. In this study, a green chemistry curriculum--combining chemistry experiments with everyday, environmentally friendly substances with a student-centered…

  20. Towards an understanding of Internet-based problem shopping behaviour: The concept of online shopping addiction and its proposed predictors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ROSE, SUSAN; DHANDAYUDHAM, ARUN

    2014-01-01

    Background: Compulsive and addictive forms of consumption and buying behaviour have been researched in both business and medical literature. Shopping enabled via the Internet now introduces new features to the shopping experience that translate to positive benefits for the shopper. Evidence now suggests that this new shopping experience may lead to problematic online shopping behaviour. This paper provides a theoretical review of the literature relevant to online shopping addiction (OSA). Based on this selective review, a conceptual model of OSA is presented. Method: The selective review of the literature draws on searches within databases relevant to both clinical and consumer behaviour literature including EBSCO, ABI Pro-Quest, Web of Science – Social Citations Index, Medline, PsycINFO and Pubmed. The article reviews current thinking on problematic, and specifically addictive, behaviour in relation to online shopping. Results: The review of the literature enables the extension of existing knowledge into the Internet-context. A conceptual model of OSA is developed with theoretical support provided for the inclusion of 7 predictor variables: low self-esteem, low self-regulation; negative emotional state; enjoyment; female gender; social anonymity and cognitive overload. The construct of OSA is defined and six component criteria of OSA are proposed based on established technological addiction criteria. Conclusions: Current Internet-based shopping experiences may trigger problematic behaviours which can be classified on a spectrum which at the extreme end incorporates OSA. The development of a conceptual model provides a basis for the future measurement and testing of proposed predictor variables and the outcome variable OSA. PMID:25215218

  1. Concepts of formal concept analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žáček, Martin; Homola, Dan; Miarka, Rostislav

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this article is apply of Formal Concept Analysis on concept of world. Formal concept analysis (FCA) as a methodology of data analysis, information management and knowledge representation has potential to be applied to a verity of linguistic problems. FCA is mathematical theory for concepts and concept hierarchies that reflects an understanding of concept. Formal concept analysis explicitly formalizes extension and intension of a concept, their mutual relationships. A distinguishing feature of FCA is an inherent integration of three components of conceptual processing of data and knowledge, namely, the discovery and reasoning with concepts in data, discovery and reasoning with dependencies in data, and visualization of data, concepts, and dependencies with folding/unfolding capabilities.

  2. Narcotic analgesic utilization amongst injured workers: using concept mapping to understand current issues from the perspectives of physicians and pharmacists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fortin Claire

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Work-related injuries result in considerable morbidity, as well as social and economic costs. Pain associated with these injuries is a complex, contested topic, and narcotic analgesics (NA remain important treatment options. Factors contributing to NA utilization patterns are poorly understood. This qualitative study sought to characterize the factors contributing to NA utilization amongst injured workers from the perspectives of physicians and pharmacists. Methods The study employed concept mapping methodology, a structured process yielding a conceptual framework of participants' views on a particular topic. A visual display of the ideas/concepts generated is produced. Eligible physicians and pharmacists (n = 22 serving injured workers in the province of Ontario (Canada were recruited via purposive sampling, and participated in concept mapping activities (consisting of brainstorming, sorting, rating, and map exploration. Participants identified factors influencing NA utilization, and sorted these factors into categories (clusters. Next, they rated the factors on two scales: 'strength of influence on NA over-utilization' and 'amenability to intervention'. During follow-up focus groups, participants refined the maps and discussed the findings and their implications. Results 82 factors were sorted into 7 clusters: addiction risks, psychosocial issues, social/work environment factors, systemic-third party factors, pharmacy-related factors, treatment problems, and physician factors. These clusters were grouped into 2 overarching categories/regions on the map: patient-level factors, and healthcare/compensation system-level factors. Participants rated NA over-utilization as most influenced by patient-level factors, while system-level factors were rated as most amenable to intervention. One system-level cluster was rated highly on both scales (treatment problems - e.g. poor continuity of care, poor interprofessional communication

  3. Understanding the Concept of Fit-For-Purpose Land Administration in Support of the Post 2015 Global Agenda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2015-01-01

    on top-end technical solutions and high accuracy surveys. Of course, such flexibility allows for land administration systems to be incrementally improved over time. This paper unfolds the Fit-For-Purpose concept by analysing the three core components: • The spatial framework (large scale land parcel......This paper argues that the fit-for-purpose approach to building land administration systems in less developed countries will enable provision of the basic administrative frameworks for managing the people to land relationship that is fundamental for meeting the upcoming post 2015 global agenda....... The term “Fit-For-Purpose Land Administration” indicates that the approach used for building land administration systems in less developed countries should be flexible and focused on serving the purpose of the systems (such as providing security of tenure and control of land use) rather than focusing...

  4. Myth Today: the Traditional Understanding of Myth in Critical Theories of Society and the Usefulness of Vernant's Concept of Ancient Greek Mythology for Contemporary Cultural Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jože Vogrinc

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available There is no shortage of speaking about »myths« in contemporary popular culture, and often ancient Greek myths are evoked. »Myth«, however, is usually taken to mean a widely distributed story or belief which is inexact, false and/or fabricated – typically, to manipulate the multitude. In critical theories of society after Marx there are hints of different, theoretically more productive accounts of modern heritage or modern correspondences with Greek mythology. Marx himself has influenced cultural theorists with his account of the relationship between Greek mythology and Greek art as given in his Grundrisse. In his view, mythology serves as the arsenal and foundation of art because in mythology »nature and social forms are already reworked in an unconsciously artistic way by the popular imagination«. This account, together with a hint that there exist (in newspapers modern correspondences with such a relationship, has led to various theoretical elaborations of contemporary popular culture and ideology (e.g. in A. Gramsci, R. Williams, L. Althusser, P. Macherey etc.. None of them, however, retains »myth« as a concept; the word, when used, refers to ideology. Even R. Barthes, who developed a semiological concept of myth, did not refer to its Greek cultural meaning but used it explicitly as a tool for analysing the ideological manipulation of popular culture. C. Lévi-Strauss in social anthropology in general and J.-P. Vernant in the anthropology of ancient worlds have, on the other hand, developed the structural analysis of myths as essential to a culture without reducing it disparagingly to ideology. In our view, it should be possible to transpose Vernant's treatment of myth as a variable and shifting popular account of topics vital to its consumers to the study of today's popular culture and media.

  5. Unification of Theoretical Models of Academic Self-Concept/Achievement Relations: Reunification of East and West German School Systems after the Fall of the Berlin Wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Herbert W.; Koller, Olaf

    2004-01-01

    Longitudinal data (five waves) from large cohorts of 7th grade students in East Germany ("n"=2,119) and West Germany ("n"=1,928) were collected from the start of the reunification of the school systems following the fall of the Berlin Wall. Here we integrate the two major theoretical models of relations between academic…

  6. The Relative Effectiveness of the Use of Static and Dynamic Mechanical Models in Teaching Elementary School Children the Theoretical Concept--The Particle Nature of Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Robert Edward

    This study is concerned with determining the relative effectiveness of a static and dynamic theoretical model in teaching elementary school students to use the particle idea of matter when explaining certain physical phenomena. A clinical method of personal individual interview-testing, teaching, and retesting of a random sample population from…

  7. Understanding of hysteresis behaviors at the L-H-L transitions in tokamak plasma based on bifurcation concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatthong, B. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkla (Thailand); Onjun, T. [School of Manufacturing Systems and Mechanical Engineering, Sirindhorn International Institute of Technology, Thammasat University, Pathum Thani (Thailand)

    2016-08-15

    The hysteresis behaviour at the L-H-L transitions in tokamak plasma is investigated based on bifurcation concept. The formation of an edge transport barrier (ETB) is modeled via thermal and particle transport equations with the flow shear suppression effect on anomalous transport included. The anomalous transport is modeled based on critical gradients threshold and the flow shear is calculated from the force balance equation, couples the two transport equations leading to a non-linear behaviour. Analytical investigation reveals that the fluxes versus gradients space exhibits bifurcation behaviour with s -curve soft bifurcation type. Apparently, the backward H-L transition occurs at lower values than that of the forward L-H transition, illustrating hysteresis behaviour. The hysteresis properties, i.e. locations of threshold fluxes, gradients and their ratios are analyzed as a function of neoclassical and anomalous transport values and critical gradients. It is found that the minimum heat flux for maintaining H -mode depends on several plasma parameters including the strength of anomalous transport and neoclassical transport. In particular, the hysteresis depth becomes larger when neoclassical transport decreases or anomalous transport increases. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  8. Wayfinding as a concept for understanding success among Native Americans in STEM: " learning how to map through life"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page-Reeves, Janet; Marin, Ananda; Moffett, Maurice; DeerInWater, Kathy; Medin, Douglas

    2018-03-01

    This paper discusses findings from 40 ethnographically inspired interviews with 21 Native science professionals conducted in two iterative phases (21 in Phase I and 19 in Phase II), and a structured dialogue workgroup session with a six-member subset of the interviewees. Interview and group questions were open-ended to allow the participants to drive the conversation. We approached our interpretation of the data as an opportunity for deriving insights into the nature and meanings of participant narratives and experiences, why they present their stories in a particular way, and what this can tell us about the research questions we are exploring. We identify how the way they view themselves and the way they engage with the world has been transformed through their experience in obtaining a STEM degree at historically white institutions and working as a STEM professional. We argue that these changes allow for repurposing of STEM content knowledge to (re)connect with culturally defined values and goals. We discuss this transformative process as involving wayfinding and the accumulation of what we call experiential wisdom. We contend that the dimensions of this process are not sufficiently captured in concepts widely used to discuss situations of intercultural encounter. Our research builds on research of indigenous scholars who have provided a new way of thinking about Native Americans and science education.

  9. Cross-country discrepancies on public understanding of stress concepts: evidence for stress-management psychoeducational programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza-Talarico, Juliana Nery; Wan, Nathalie; Santos, Sheila; Fialho, Patrícia Paes Araujo; Chaves, Eliane Corrêa; Caramelli, Paulo; Bianchi, Estela Ferraz; Santos, Aline Talita; Lupien, Sonia J

    2016-06-03

    Negative effects of stress have pose one of the major threats to the health and economic well being of individuals independently of age and cultural background. Nevertheless, the term "stress" has been globally used unlinked from scientificevidence-based meaning. The discrepancies between scientific and public stress knowledge are focus of concern and little is know about it. This is relevant since misconceptions about stress may influence the effects of stress-management psychoeducational programs and the development of best practices for interventions. The study aimed to analyze stress knowledge among the Canadian and Brazilian general public and to determine the extent to which scientific and popular views of stress differ between those countries. We evaluated 1156 healthy participants between 18 and 88 years of age recruited from Canada (n = 502) and Brazil (n = 654). To assess stress knowledge, a questionnaire composed of questions regarding stress concepts ("stress is bad" versus "stress-free life is good") and factors capable of triggering the stress response ("novelty, unpredictability, low sense of control and social evaluative threat versus "time pressure,work overload, conflict, unbalance and children") was used. Both Canadian and Brazilian participants showed misconceptions about stress and the factors capable of triggering a stress response. However, the rate of misconceptions was higher in Brazil than in Canada (p stress science and its variance according to a country's society. Psychoeducational programs and vulnerability of stress-related disorder are discussed.

  10. Current concepts on burn wound conversion – a review of recent advances in understanding the secondary progressions of burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salibian, Ara A.; Del Rosario, Angelica Tan; De Almeida Moura Severo, Lucio; Nguyen, Long; Banyard, Derek A.; Toranto, Jason D.; Evans, Gregory R.D.; Widgerow, Alan D.

    2016-01-01

    Burn wound conversion describes the process by which superficial partial thickness burns convert into deeper burns necessitating surgical intervention. Fully understanding and thus controlling this phenomenon continues to defy burn surgeons. However, potentially guiding burn wound progression so as to obviate the need for surgery while still bringing about healing with limited scarring is the major unmet challenge. Comprehending the pathophysiologic background contributing to deeper progression of these burns is an essential prerequisite to planning any intervention. In this study, a review of articles examining burn wound progression over the last five years was conducted to analyze trends in recent burn progression research, determine changes in understanding of the pathogenesis of burn conversion, and subsequently examine the direction for future research in developing therapies. The majority of recent research focuses on applying therapies from other disease processes to common underlying pathogenic mechanisms in burn conversion. While ischemia, inflammation, and free oxygen radicals continue to demonstrate a critical role in secondary necrosis, novel mechanisms such as autophagy have also been shown to contribute affect significantly burn progression significantly. Further research will have to determine whether multiple mechanisms should be targeted when developing clinical therapies. PMID:26787127

  11. Set-theoretic methods in control

    CERN Document Server

    Blanchini, Franco

    2015-01-01

    The second edition of this monograph describes the set-theoretic approach for the control and analysis of dynamic systems, both from a theoretical and practical standpoint.  This approach is linked to fundamental control problems, such as Lyapunov stability analysis and stabilization, optimal control, control under constraints, persistent disturbance rejection, and uncertain systems analysis and synthesis.  Completely self-contained, this book provides a solid foundation of mathematical techniques and applications, extensive references to the relevant literature, and numerous avenues for further theoretical study. All the material from the first edition has been updated to reflect the most recent developments in the field, and a new chapter on switching systems has been added.  Each chapter contains examples, case studies, and exercises to allow for a better understanding of theoretical concepts by practical application. The mathematical language is kept to the minimum level necessary for the adequate for...

  12. New concepts of nuclear reactors and fuel cycles: performing agile technometric studies to understand the promises and the current reality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reis Junior, Jose S.B.; Barroso, Antonio C.O., E-mail: jsreis@ipen.br, E-mail: barroso@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The progress of previous projects pointed out the need to face some problems of software for detecting emerging research and development trends from databases of scientific publication. Given the lack of efficient computing applications dedicated to this purpose that we consider to be an artifact of great usefulness to better planning R and D programs in institutions, which are obliged to manage and develop, with limited resources and within the realm of complex and multidisciplinary technology fields as is the case of the Brazilian nuclear sector. We performed a review of the currently available software in such a way that we could clearly delineate the opportunity to develop new tools. As a result, we developed a software called Cite snake, which was especially designed to help the detection and study of emerging trends from the analysis of networks of various types extracted from the scientific databases. Using this powerful and stable computational tool, we performed preliminary analyzes of emerging research and development trends in a few thematic fields. The case that concerns this paper is the one devoted to the eld of Generation IV Nuclear Power Generation Systems. We analyzed the productivity of authors, co-authorship networks, co-citation networks, development structure and emerging sub-areas of research. The idea was to nd what reactors and fuel cycles have evolved more over the past ten years, in such a way to compare the what from the most promising concepts selected from the Generation Four Initiative have better evolved to fulfill some of their promises. (author)

  13. New concepts of nuclear reactors and fuel cycles: performing agile technometric studies to understand the promises and the current reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reis Junior, Jose S.B.; Barroso, Antonio C.O.

    2013-01-01

    The progress of previous projects pointed out the need to face some problems of software for detecting emerging research and development trends from databases of scientific publication. Given the lack of efficient computing applications dedicated to this purpose that we consider to be an artifact of great usefulness to better planning R and D programs in institutions, which are obliged to manage and develop, with limited resources and within the realm of complex and multidisciplinary technology fields as is the case of the Brazilian nuclear sector. We performed a review of the currently available software in such a way that we could clearly delineate the opportunity to develop new tools. As a result, we developed a software called Cite snake, which was especially designed to help the detection and study of emerging trends from the analysis of networks of various types extracted from the scientific databases. Using this powerful and stable computational tool, we performed preliminary analyzes of emerging research and development trends in a few thematic fields. The case that concerns this paper is the one devoted to the eld of Generation IV Nuclear Power Generation Systems. We analyzed the productivity of authors, co-authorship networks, co-citation networks, development structure and emerging sub-areas of research. The idea was to nd what reactors and fuel cycles have evolved more over the past ten years, in such a way to compare the what from the most promising concepts selected from the Generation Four Initiative have better evolved to fulfill some of their promises. (author)

  14. The concept of transcortical cell assemblies: a key to the understanding of cortical lateralization and interhemispheric interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulvermüller, F; Mohr, B

    1996-01-01

    According to Hebb, elements of higher cognitive processes, such as concepts, words and mental images, are realized in the brain as cortical cell assemblies, i.e. large and strongly connected neuron populations that form functional units. Neurons belonging to such assemblies may be scattered over wide cortical areas, and some cell assemblies may even comprise neurons of both hemispheres (transcortical assemblies). If full activation (ignition) of an assembly leads to fast circulation of neuronal activity in the assembly, this process should be visible in high-frequency cortical responses. Some evidence will be reviewed that cell assembly ignition indeed leads to changes in high-frequency cortical responses which can be recorded in the EEG and MEG. Within the cell assembly-framework, the question of cortical laterality translates into the question of how neurons of transcortical assemblies are balanced between the hemispheres. This approach allows for different degrees of laterality. Recent evidence is summarized that the degree of laterality indeed differs between language units. For example, the cortical representation of certain words appears to be strongly lateralized to the left hemisphere while those of others are less lateralized. If neurons of both hemispheres are part of one assembly bihemispheric processing should lead to a processing advantage compared to processing in the dominant hemisphere alone. The latter appears to be the case for lexical processing, as revealed by recent behavioral studies. In conclusion, the cell assembly-framework suggests a more fine-grained description of the issue of cortical laterality; it is not appropriate to ask whether "modules" supporting higher cortical functions are located either in the left or right hemisphere. Rather, it appears fruitful to ask how the neurons of transcortical cell assemblies are balanced between the hemispheres.

  15. Development of the Exam of GeoloGy Standards, EGGS, to Measure Students' Conceptual Understanding of Geology Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guffey, S. K.; Slater, T. F.; Slater, S. J.

    2017-12-01

    Discipline-based geoscience education researchers have considerable need for criterion-referenced, easy-to-administer and easy-to-score, conceptual diagnostic surveys for undergraduates taking introductory science survey courses in order for faculty to better be able to monitor the learning impacts of various interactive teaching approaches. To support ongoing discipline-based science education research to improve teaching and learning across the geosciences, this study establishes the reliability and validity of a 28-item, multiple-choice, pre- and post- Exam of GeoloGy Standards, hereafter simply called EGGS. The content knowledge EGGS addresses is based on 11 consensus concepts derived from a systematic, thematic analysis of the overlapping ideas presented in national science education reform documents including the Next Generation Science Standards, the AAAS Benchmarks for Science Literacy, the Earth Science Literacy Principles, and the NRC National Science Education Standards. Using community agreed upon best-practices for creating, field-testing, and iteratively revising modern multiple-choice test items using classical item analysis techniques, EGGS emphasizes natural student language over technical scientific vocabulary, leverages illustrations over students' reading ability, specifically targets students' misconceptions identified in the scholarly literature, and covers the range of topics most geology educators expect general education students to know at the end of their formal science learning experiences. The current version of EGGS is judged to be valid and reliable with college-level, introductory science survey students based on both standard quantitative and qualitative measures, including extensive clinical interviews with targeted students and systematic expert review.

  16. Effective translation of current dietary guidance: understanding and communicating the concepts of minimal and optimal levels of dietary protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Nancy R; Miller, Sharon L

    2015-04-29

    Dietitians and health care providers have critical roles in the translation of the dietary guidance to practice. The protein content of diets for adults can be based on the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) of 0.80 g/kg per day. Alternatively, the most recent Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) for macronutrients reflect expanded guidance for assessing protein needs and consider the relative relation of absolute amounts of protein, carbohydrate, and fat to total energy intake in the context of chronic disease prevention. The Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range (AMDR) reflects the interrelation between the macronutrients and affords dietitians and clinicians additional flexibility in diet planning. Accounting for the caloric value of RDAs for carbohydrate and fat, "flexible calories" emerge as an opportunity to create varied eating plans that provide for protein intakes in excess of the RDA but within the AMDR. Protein Summit 2.0 highlighted the growing body of scientific evidence documenting the benefits of higher protein intakes at amounts approximating twice the RDA, which include promotion of healthy body weight and preservation of lean body mass and functional ability with age. The essential amino acid (EAA) density of a food also emerged as a novel concept analogous to "nutrient density," which can enable the practitioner to calculate the caloric cost associated with a specific protein source to attain the daily requirement of EAAs to accomplish various health outcomes because these indispensable nutrients have a significant role in protein utilization and metabolic regulation. Tailoring recommendations unique to an individual's varying goals and needs remains a challenge. However, flexibility within the application of DRIs to include consideration of the AMDR provides a sound framework to guide practitioners in effective translation of current dietary guidance with a specific regard for the documented benefits of higher protein intakes. © 2015

  17. Chapter 2: Theoretical Models for Understanding Physical Activity Behavior among Children and Adolescents--Social Cognitive Theory and Self-Determination Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motl, Robert W.

    2007-01-01

    The study of physical activity behavior in youth generally lacks a sufficient theoretical foundation for examining variables that influence that behavior. This is a major limitation because theory guides the search for determinants of behavior and the subsequent interplay between research findings and application. Theory offers a systematically…

  18. Senior Female Academics in the UK Academy: Theoretical Perspectives for Understanding the Impact of Education and Familial Influences on Career Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskins, Kate

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the theoretical perspectives I utilised in my doctoral research to uncover the role of class and gender in my respondents' stories and experiences of their career success. I argue that adopting an economic model for conceptualising the influence of social class and gender in the respondents' stories and experiences of their…

  19. Understanding Liking in Relation to Sensory Characteristics, Consumer Concept Associations, Arousal Potential and "Appropriateness for Use" Using Apple Juice as an Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolzenbach, Sandra; Bredie, Wender L P; Christensen, Rune Haubo Bojesen

    2016-01-01

    potential and appropriateness for use using apple juices as an application. First, a laboratory panel (n=15: F=10, M=5) determined the sensory profile of the apple juices using the methods Partial Napping and Ultra Flash Profiling based on taste and flavor. Next, consumers (n=196: F=136, M=60) evaluated key......It is crucial to understand influential parameters for acquisition of consumer liking to ensure succesful product introduction and competativeness in the marketplace. This article aims to study and understand liking in relation to sensory characteristics, consumer concept associations, arousal...... apple juice parameters. The basic tastes sweet and sour were key properties and played a central role in liking acquisition. Apple juices having a sweet/sour balance were most liked. The importance of balance in sensory properties was underlined by the fact that consumer liking was related...

  20. Numerical Study of Velocity Shear Stabilization of 3D and Theoretical Considerations for Centrifugally Confined Plasmas and Other Interchange-Limited Fusion Concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassam, Adil [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)

    2015-09-21

    We studied the feasibility of resonantly driving GAMs in tokamaks. A numerical simulation was carried out and showed the essential features and limitations. It was shown further that GAMs can damp by phase-mixing, from temperature gradients, or nonlinear detuning, thus broadening the resonance. Experimental implications of this were quantified. Theoretical support was provided for the Maryland Centrifugal Experiment, funded in a separate grant by DOE. Plasma diamagnetism from supersonic rotation was established. A theoretical model was built to match the data. Additional support to the experiment in terms of numerical simulation of the interchange turbulence was provided. Spectra from residual turbulence on account of velocity shear suppression were obtained and compared favorably to experiment. A new drift wave, driven solely by the thermal force, was identified.

  1. Evidence-based selection of theories for designing behaviour change interventions: using methods based on theoretical construct domains to understand clinicians' blood transfusion behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Jill J; Stockton, Charlotte; Eccles, Martin P; Johnston, Marie; Cuthbertson, Brian H; Grimshaw, Jeremy M; Hyde, Chris; Tinmouth, Alan; Stanworth, Simon J

    2009-11-01

    Many theories of behaviour are potentially relevant to predictive and intervention studies but most studies investigate a narrow range of theories. Michie et al. (2005) agreed 12 'theoretical domains' from 33 theories that explain behaviour change. They developed a 'Theoretical Domains Interview' (TDI) for identifying relevant domains for specific clinical behaviours, but the framework has not been used for selecting theories for predictive studies. It was used here to investigate clinicians' transfusion behaviour in intensive care units (ICU). Evidence suggests that red blood cells transfusion could be reduced for some patients without reducing quality of care. (1) To identify the domains relevant to transfusion practice in ICUs and neonatal intensive care units (NICUs), using the TDI. (2) To use the identified domains to select appropriate theories for a study predicting transfusion behaviour. An adapted TDI about managing a patient with borderline haemoglobin by watching and waiting instead of transfusing red blood cells was used to conduct semi-structured, one-to-one interviews with 18 intensive care consultants and neonatologists across the UK. Relevant theoretical domains were: knowledge, beliefs about capabilities, beliefs about consequences, social influences, behavioural regulation. Further analysis at the construct level resulted in selection of seven theoretical approaches relevant to this context: Knowledge-Attitude-Behaviour Model, Theory of Planned Behaviour, Social Cognitive Theory, Operant Learning Theory, Control Theory, Normative Model of Work Team Effectiveness and Action Planning Approaches. This study illustrated, the use of the TDI to identify relevant domains in a complex area of inpatient care. This approach is potentially valuable for selecting theories relevant to predictive studies and resulted in greater breadth of potential explanations than would be achieved if a single theoretical model had been adopted.

  2. Health Habit: A Concept Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opalinski, Andra S; Weglicki, Linda S; Gropper, Sareen S

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this article is to provide clarity of the concept of health habit. Using Walker and Avant's (1983; 2010) method for conducting a concept analysis, the authors identify the attributes and characteristics of health habit, its theoretical and practical application to nursing, and sample cases to further illustrate the concept. Empirical and conceptual literature was used to inform this concept analysis. Articles and one book from 1977 to 2014 were reviewed from PsycINFO, Medline, Cumulative Index to Nursing Health Literature (CINAHL), Science Direct, EBSCOhost and Web of Science. Offering a clear definition and conceptual model of health habit provide the foundation to identify/develop appropriate measures of the concept and guide further investigation of understanding the development and sustainability of healthy habits. Additional research is needed to test the conceptual relationships between health habits and outcome variables as they apply to different groups across the age continuum. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Understanding of Accountancy Graduates on the Relevant Concepts Taught in the Subject Accounting Theory at HEI in Greater Florianópolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Frigo Souza

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to identify the understanding of the undergraduate students in Accountancy about the relevant concepts taught in the discipline Accounting Theory. To reach this goal, a questionnaire was sent to selected institutions or applied in person, obtaining a total of 65 respondents who had already studied Accounting Theory. The results of this research show that students perceive the concepts related to the discipline in a way more linked to standardization and that, for most respondents, the discipline Accounting Theory was considered of fundamental importance and should not be eliminated. In addition, it cannot be affirmed that there is a relationship between the area and the time of action of the respondents and their perceptions regarding the concepts of the discipline. It was also observed that there is little discussion about some subjects, in which some students are totally unaware, like in the case of Agency Theory and Earnings Management, which may indicate a gap in the teaching of the discipline. For future research, the analysis of distance learning is suggested, as well as research that seeks to analyze the existence of this possible gap observed.

  4. Editorial: eHealth literacy: Emergence of a new concept for creating, evaluating and understanding online health resources for the public

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre W. Kushniruk (ACMI Fellow; CAHS Fellow

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The ability of consumers of health information to effectively understand, process and apply health information presented to them is a critical factor in improving health knowledge and developing effective health promotion strategies. Nowhere has this become more apparent than in efforts to apply information technology in the development of a range of systems and applications targeted for use by patients, and the general population. Indeed, success and failure of eHealth initiatives has been shown to depend on consideration of how to effectively design and deploy health information to consumers. Health literacy has become an important area of study that focuses on studying how health information can be understood and applied to improve health. In recent years the concept of eHealth literacy has also emerged, that sits at the intersection of health literacy and information technology literacy. In this special issue, a range of papers are presented that focus on the emerging concept of eHealth literacy. The papers in the special issue focus on basic definitional and conceptual issues as well as methodological approaches to studying health and eHealth literacy. A special focus of the issue is on how these concepts apply and can be adapted for improving health information technologies and applications.

  5. Understanding Key Mechanisms of Exercise-Induced Cardiac Protection to Mitigate Disease: Current Knowledge and Emerging Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo, Bianca C; Ooi, Jenny Y Y; Weeks, Kate L; Patterson, Natalie L; McMullen, Julie R

    2018-01-01

    The benefits of exercise on the heart are well recognized, and clinical studies have demonstrated that exercise is an intervention that can improve cardiac function in heart failure patients. This has led to significant research into understanding the key mechanisms responsible for exercise-induced cardiac protection. Here, we summarize molecular mechanisms that regulate exercise-induced cardiac myocyte growth and proliferation. We discuss in detail the effects of exercise on other cardiac cells, organelles, and systems that have received less or little attention and require further investigation. This includes cardiac excitation and contraction, mitochondrial adaptations, cellular stress responses to promote survival (heat shock response, ubiquitin-proteasome system, autophagy-lysosomal system, endoplasmic reticulum unfolded protein response, DNA damage response), extracellular matrix, inflammatory response, and organ-to-organ crosstalk. We summarize therapeutic strategies targeting known regulators of exercise-induced protection and the challenges translating findings from bench to bedside. We conclude that technological advancements that allow for in-depth profiling of the genome, transcriptome, proteome and metabolome, combined with animal and human studies, provide new opportunities for comprehensively defining the signaling and regulatory aspects of cell/organelle functions that underpin the protective properties of exercise. This is likely to lead to the identification of novel biomarkers and therapeutic targets for heart disease.

  6. Primary care practitioner and patient understanding of the concepts of multimorbidity and self-management: A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandra Kenning

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this article is to offer insight into how professionals and patients understand and experience multimorbidity and how these accounts differ, and how they affect attitudes and engagement with self-management. Methods: Semi-structured interviews with 20 primary healthcare practitioners and 20 patients with at least 2 long-term conditions (including coronary heart disease, diabetes, osteoarthritis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and depression. Thematic analysis was used, and themes were identified using an open-coding method. Results: Practitioners associated multimorbidity with complexity and uncertainty in the clinic, leading to emotional strain and ‘heart sink’. Patient accounts differed. Some described multimorbidity as problematic when it exacerbated their symptoms and caused emotional and psychological strain. Others did not perceive multimorbidity as problematic. Self-management was seen by practitioners and patients to be a key element of managing multiple conditions, but drivers for prompting and engaging in self-management differed between patients and practitioners. Conclusion: This study suggests that recommendations for clinical practice for multimorbid patients should take into account the gap in perceptions between practitioner and patients about experiences of multimorbidity. Not least, practice would need to reflect the tension between practitioners’ and patients’ accounts about the role and benefits of self-management in the presence of multimorbidity.

  7. Kindergarten students’ levels of understanding some science concepts and scientific inquiry processes according to demographic variables (the sampling of Kilis Province in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nail İlhan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to identify the kindergarten students’ levels of understanding some science concepts (LUSSC and scientific inquiry processes (SIP and compare their LUSSC and SIP in terms of some demographic variables. Also, another purpose of this study is to identify the predictive power of those demographic variables over the kindergarten students’ LUSSC and SIP. This study was conducted according to quantitative research design. The study group consisted of 335 kindergarten students from 20 different rural and urban schools. In the study, the scale for “Turkish Kindergarten Students’ Understandings of Scientific Concepts and Scientific Inquiry Processes” was used. According to some variables (such as mother’s education level and family structure, there was a statistically significant difference between students’ mean scores for LUSSC and between students’ mean scores for SIP. Within the scope of this study, it was found that among the predictor variables (age, family’s income level, and number of brother/sister were significant predictors for LUSSC, and number of brother/sister was a significant predictor for SIP.

  8. Introducing a New Elementary GLOBE Book on Climate: Supporting Educators and Students in their Understanding of the Concepts Underlying Climate and Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanitski, D.; Hatheway, B.; Gardiner, L. S.; Taylor, J.; Chambers, L. H.

    2016-12-01

    Much of the focus on climate literacy in K-12 occurs in middle and high school, where teachers and students can dig into the science in some depth. It is important, however, to introduce this topic at an early age, building on a child's natural curiosity about the world around them - but without overwhelming them with frightening climate change impacts. In some U.S. school systems, a recent focus on standardized testing has crowded out science instruction in order to bring up literacy scores. To give teachers a resource to maintain some science instruction under these conditions, a series of Elementary GLOBE books have been developed. These fictional stories describe sound science and engineering practices that are essential for students to learn the process of science while expanding literacy skills, strongly encouraged in the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS). The main concepts developed in a new Elementary GLOBE book on climate, titled "What in the World Is Happening to Our Climate?", will be introduced in this presentation. This book complements six other Earth System Science modules within the Elementary GLOBE curriculum and is freely available on the GLOBE website (www.globe.gov/elementaryglobe). The book discusses the concept that climate is changing in different ways and places around the world, and what happens to the climate in one place affects other locations across the globe. Supporting ideas clarify the difference between weather and climate, introduce climate science concepts, reveal the impacts of sea level rise, and help students understand that, while humans are contributing to climate change, they can also participate in solutions that address this challenge. Accompanying teacher's notes and companion classroom activities will be described to help elementary school teachers understand how to approach the subject of climate change with their students.

  9. Experimental and theoretical characterization of adsorbed water on self-assembled monolayers: Understanding the interaction of water with atmospherically relevant surfaces

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moussa, S. G.; McIntire, T. M.; Szöri, Milan; Roeselová, Martina; Tobias, D. J.; Grimm, R. L.; Hemminger, J. C.; Finlayson-Pitts, B. J.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 113, č. 10 (2009), s. 2060-2069 ISSN 1089-5639 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/06/1488; GA MŠk LC512; GA MŠk 1P05ME798 Grant - others:NSF(US) 0431312 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : molecular dynamics * hydrophobic * hydrophilic Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.899, year: 2009

  10. The pursuit of understanding: A study of exemplary high school students' conceptions of knowledge validation in science and history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boix Mansilla, Veronica Maria

    The study presented examined 16 award-winning high school students' beliefs about the criteria by which scientific theories and historical narratives are deemed trustworthy. It sought to (a) describe such beliefs as students reasoned within each discipline; (b) examine the degree to which such beliefs were organized as coherent systems of thought; and (c) explore the relationship between students' beliefs and their prior disciplinary research experience. Students were multiple-year award-winners at the Massachusetts Science Fair and the National History Day---two pre-collegiate State-level competitions. Two consecutive semi-structured interviews invited students to assess and enhance the trustworthiness of competing accounts of genetic inheritance and the Holocaust in science and history respectively. A combined qualitative and quantitative data analysis yielded the following results: (a) Students valued three standards of acceptability that were common across disciplines: e.g. empirical strength, explanatory power and formal and presentational strength. However, when reasoning within each discipline they tended to define each standard in disciplinary-specific ways. Students also valued standards of acceptability that were not shared across disciplines: i.e., external validity in science and human understanding in history. (b) In science, three distinct epistemological orientations were identified---i.e., "faith in method," "trusting the scientific community" and "working against error." In history students held two distinct epistemologies---i.e., "reproducing the past" and "organizing the past". Students' epistemological orientations tended to operate as collections of mutually supporting ideas about what renders a theory or a narrative acceptable. (c) Contrary to the standard position to date in the literature on epistemological beliefs, results revealed that students' research training in a particular discipline (e.g., science or history) was strongly related to

  11. A concept analysis of befriending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaam, Marie-Clare

    2015-01-01

    To report an analysis of the concept of befriending. Befriending is an intervention used in a range of nursing, health and social care settings to provide support for individuals who are socially isolated or lack social support. However, in many cases befriending and its impact remains poorly understood and under researched. Concept analysis provides clarification of the concept and basis for further research and development. Concept analysis. AMED, Psyc Articles, Psych Info, Medline, MedlinePlus, Social Science Index and CINHAL databases were searched for literature published between 1993-2013 using the search term Befriending. Walker and Avant's method of concept analysis was chosen. This combined with insights from Risjord's work produced a theoretical concept analysis which focused on the concept in peer reviewed academic literature. There are currently several ways the mechanisms of befriending and its effects on individuals and communities are understood. It is possible however to identify key attributes which define the concept and differentiate it from related concepts, such as peer support and mentoring. Key attributes are that it is an organised intervention, involving the creation of an emotionally connected friend-like relationship, where there is a negotiation of power. This concept analysis has clarified current understandings and uses of befriending. It provides the basis for widening the focus of research into the effectiveness and impact of befriending on those who are befriended, those who befriend and the communities where befriending takes place. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Theoretical Mechanics Theoretical Physics 1

    CERN Document Server

    Dreizler, Reiner M

    2011-01-01

    After an introduction to basic concepts of mechanics more advanced topics build the major part of this book. Interspersed is a discussion of selected problems of motion. This is followed by a concise treatment of the Lagrangian and the Hamiltonian formulation of mechanics, as well as a brief excursion on chaotic motion. The last chapter deals with applications of the Lagrangian formulation to specific systems (coupled oscillators, rotating coordinate systems, rigid bodies). The level of this textbook is advanced undergraduate. The authors combine teaching experience of more than 40 years in all fields of Theoretical Physics and related mathematical disciplines and thorough knowledge in creating advanced eLearning content. The text is accompanied by an extensive collection of online material, in which the possibilities of the electronic medium are fully exploited, e.g. in the form of applets, 2D- and 3D-animations. - A collection of 74 problems with detailed step-by-step guidance towards the solutions. - A col...

  13. Evolution of Theoretical Perspectives in My Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, Valerie K.

    2009-11-01

    Over the past 10 years I have been using socio-cultural theoretical perspectives to understand how people learn physics in a highly interactive, inquiry-based physics course such as Physics and Everyday Thinking [1]. As a result of using various perspectives (e.g. Distributed Cognition and Vygotsky's Theory of Concept Formation), my understanding of how these perspectives can be useful for investigating students' learning processes has changed. In this paper, I illustrate changes in my thinking about the role of socio-cultural perspectives in understanding physics learning and describe elements of my thinking that have remained fairly stable. Finally, I will discuss pitfalls in the use of certain perspectives and discuss areas that need attention in theoretical development for PER.

  14. The Theoretical Basis of the Concept of Using the Controlled Pyrotechnical Reaction Method as an Energy Source in Transportation from the Sea Bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiktor Filipek

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years we have observed the global growing interest in undersea exploitation of mineral deposits. Research on various concepts of operating systems on the seabed has been conducted, where different methods of transporting excavated material from the bottom to the surface are used. Great depths, where there are the most interesting resources (eg. IOM lot for the Clarion-Clipperton 4500 m set very high technical and technological demands which results in intensive search for solutions. The authors of the paper want to explain the concept of the use of pyrotechnic materials for transportation in the aquatic environment. The presented method is designed for the cyclic transport from great depths (less than 200 m from the seabed. The principle of operation of the relay unit is based on the change in the average density of the entire module which is inseparably connected with the force of buoyancy acting on the submerged body. Changing the density of the whole module to the given depth of immersion is strictly dependent on the amount of energy supplied to the system by a power source in the form of a controlled pyrotechnic reaction. However, during the ascent energy demand decreases. The problem of transport of spoil from depth not only boils down to such considerations as initiation of the process of ascent. One should also consider how to use the excess energy occurring during the movement of the object toward the surface. The authors of the paper present the concept of making the transport of cyclic depths (less than 200 m from the seabed taking into account the optimal use of energy from controlled pyrotechnic reaction.

  15. Basic concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorner, B.

    1999-01-01

    The basic concepts of neutron scattering as a tool for studying the structure and the dynamics of condensed matter. Theoretical aspects are outlined, the two different cases of coherent and incoherent scattering are presented. The issue of resolution, coherence volume and the role of monochromators are also discussed. (K.A.)

  16. Simple Concepts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Materna, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 3 (2013), s. 295-319 ISSN 0353-5150 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP401/10/0792 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : concept * constructions * set-theoretical paradigm Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  17. International Military Cooperation: From Concepts to Constructs

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Orazio, Vito

    2013-01-01

    International cooperation on issues of security is a central concept in many theoretical debates in international relations. This dissertation is an attempt to lay the foundation for measuring military cooperation and understanding the forces brought forth through its expansion. The central notion is that the set of policies related to military…

  18. Developing Agreed and Accepted Understandings of Spirituality and Spiritual Care Concepts among Members of an Innovative Spirituality Interest Group in the Republic of Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona Timmins

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A Spirituality Interest Group (SIG was set up in in the School of Nursing and Midwifery, Trinity College Dublin, Republic of Ireland (ROI, in March 2013. This paper reports on some of the journey and requirements involved in developing the group. It highlights the essential work of establishing agreed understandings in an objective way in order for the group to move forward with action. These agreed understandings have contributed to the group’s success. Outlining the group’s journey in arriving at agreements may be of use to others considering creating similar groups. One key action taken to determine the suitability of the group’s aims and terms of reference was the distribution of a Survey Monkey to group members (n = 28 in 2014. One early meeting of the group discussed future goals and direction using the responses of this anonymous survey. This paper reports on the results of the survey regarding the establishment of the SIG and the development of a shared understanding of spiritual care among the members. There is consensus in the group that the spiritual care required by clients receiving healthcare ought to be an integrated effort across the healthcare team. However, there is an acceptance that spirituality and spiritual care are not always clearly understood concepts in practice. By developing shared or at least accepted understandings of spirituality and spiritual care, SIG hopes to be able to underpin both research and practice with solid foundational conceptual understanding, and in the process also to meet essential prerequisites for achieving the group’s aims.

  19. Understanding the formation and growth of Ag nanoparticles on silver chromate induced by electron irradiation in electron microscope: A combined experimental and theoretical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabbro, Maria T.; Gracia, Lourdes; Silva, Gabriela S.; Santos, Luís P.S.; Andrés, Juan; Cordoncillo, Eloisa; Longo, E.

    2016-01-01

    Ag 2 CrO 4 microcrystals were synthesized using the co-precipitation method. These microcrystals were characterized through X-ray diffraction (XRD) with Rietveld analysis, field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), micro-Raman (MR). XRD patterns and Rietveld refinement data showed that the material exhibits an orthorhombic structure without any deleterious phases. FE-SEM and TEM micrographs revealed the morphology and the growth of Ag nanoparticles on Ag 2 CrO 4 microcrystals during electron beam irradiation. These events were directly monitored in real-time. Their optical properties were investigated using ultraviolet-visible (UV–vis) diffuse reflectance spectroscopy that allowed the calculation of the optical band gap energy. Theoretical analyses based on the density functional theory level indicate that the incorporation of electrons is responsible for structural modifications and formation of defects on the [AgO 6 ] and [AgO 4 ] clusters, generating ideal conditions for the growth of Ag nanoparticles. - Graphical abstract: Theoretical representation of the Ag 2 CrO 4 orthorhombic structure. Display Omitted - Highlights: • The Ag 2 CrO 4 microcrystals indicate an orthorhombic structure. • The formation of Ag 0 promotes Ag-nanoparticle growth on the surface of the Ag 2 CrO 4 . • Electron irradiation of the material induces the formation of Ag vacancies.

  20. Theoretical nuclear physics

    CERN Document Server

    Blatt, John M

    1979-01-01

    A classic work by two leading physicists and scientific educators endures as an uncommonly clear and cogent investigation and correlation of key aspects of theoretical nuclear physics. It is probably the most widely adopted book on the subject. The authors approach the subject as ""the theoretical concepts, methods, and considerations which have been devised in order to interpret the experimental material and to advance our ability to predict and control nuclear phenomena.""The present volume does not pretend to cover all aspects of theoretical nuclear physics. Its coverage is restricted to

  1. The "True and fair view" concept in Lithuanian accounting regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Rudžionienė, Kristina; Christauskas, Česlovas

    2010-01-01

    The "true and fair view" concept is very popular in the professional accountants’ language. After theoretical analysis of the "true and fair view" concept it was made research how understanding of this concept was created in Lithuanian accounting regulation. The stated purpose of financial statements is taken from the United Kingdom, and is different in the particular formulation. Additionally, it is not explained anywhere what it is and how to reach it. There are not specifically defined qua...

  2. Old Wine in New Bottles: A Response to Claims That Teaching Games for Understanding Was Not Developed as A Theoretically Based Pedagogical Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Stephen; Pill, Shane; Almond, Len

    2018-01-01

    Background: Teaching games for understanding (TGfU) has stimulated so much attention, research and debate since the 1980s that it is easy for its origins to become refracted and misunderstood. For example, in a recent edition of the "Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy" journal there was paper arguing a constraints-led approach (CLA)…

  3. Understanding differences in conception and abortion rates among under-20 year olds in Britain and France: Examining the contribution of social disadvantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Rachel H; Bajos, Nathalie; Slaymaker, Emma; Wellings, Kaye; Mercer, Catherine H

    2017-01-01

    Socioeconomic status has been shown to be associated with sexual activity, contraceptive-use, pregnancy and abortion among young people. Less is known about whether the strength of the association differs for each outcome, between men and women, or cross-nationally. We investigate this using contemporaneous national probability survey data from Britain and France. Data were analysed for 17-29 year-olds in Britain's third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3, n = 5959) undertaken 2010-2012, and the 2010 French Fertility, Contraception and Sexual Dysfunction survey (FECOND, n = 3027). For each country, we estimated the gender-specific prevalence of sex before-16, contraceptive-use, conception before-20, and abortion in the event of conception, and used logistic regression to examine associations between two measures of socioeconomic status-educational-level and parental socioeconomic-group-and each outcome. We tested for interactions between socioeconomic characteristics and country, and socioeconomic characteristics and gender, for each outcome. For each outcome, Britain and France differed with regard to prevalence but associations with socioeconomic characteristics were similar. Respondents of higher educational level, and, less consistently, with parents from higher socioeconomic-groups, were less likely to report sex before-16 (Britain, men: adjusted OR (aOR) 0.5, women: aOR 0.5; France, men: aOR 0.5, women: aOR 0.5), no contraception at first sex (Britain, men: aOR 0.4, women: aOR 0.6; France, men: aOR 0.4, women: aOR 0.4), pregnancy before-20 (Britain: aOR 0.3; France: aOR 0.1), and in Britain, a birth rather than an abortion in the event of conception (Britain: aOR 3.1). We found no strong evidence of variation in the magnitude of the associations with socioeconomic characteristics by country or gender. Population level differences in conception and abortion rates between the two countries may partly be driven by the larger proportion

  4. Understanding differences in conception and abortion rates among under-20 year olds in Britain and France: Examining the contribution of social disadvantage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel H Scott

    Full Text Available Socioeconomic status has been shown to be associated with sexual activity, contraceptive-use, pregnancy and abortion among young people. Less is known about whether the strength of the association differs for each outcome, between men and women, or cross-nationally. We investigate this using contemporaneous national probability survey data from Britain and France.Data were analysed for 17-29 year-olds in Britain's third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3, n = 5959 undertaken 2010-2012, and the 2010 French Fertility, Contraception and Sexual Dysfunction survey (FECOND, n = 3027. For each country, we estimated the gender-specific prevalence of sex before-16, contraceptive-use, conception before-20, and abortion in the event of conception, and used logistic regression to examine associations between two measures of socioeconomic status-educational-level and parental socioeconomic-group-and each outcome. We tested for interactions between socioeconomic characteristics and country, and socioeconomic characteristics and gender, for each outcome.For each outcome, Britain and France differed with regard to prevalence but associations with socioeconomic characteristics were similar. Respondents of higher educational level, and, less consistently, with parents from higher socioeconomic-groups, were less likely to report sex before-16 (Britain, men: adjusted OR (aOR 0.5, women: aOR 0.5; France, men: aOR 0.5, women: aOR 0.5, no contraception at first sex (Britain, men: aOR 0.4, women: aOR 0.6; France, men: aOR 0.4, women: aOR 0.4, pregnancy before-20 (Britain: aOR 0.3; France: aOR 0.1, and in Britain, a birth rather than an abortion in the event of conception (Britain: aOR 3.1. We found no strong evidence of variation in the magnitude of the associations with socioeconomic characteristics by country or gender.Population level differences in conception and abortion rates between the two countries may partly be driven by the larger

  5. Basic theoretical physics a concise overview

    CERN Document Server

    Krey, Uwe

    2007-01-01

    This concise treatment embraces, in four parts, all the main aspects of theoretical physics (I . Mechanics and Basic Relativity, II. Electrodynamics and Aspects of Optics, III. Non-relativistic Quantum Mechanics, IV. Thermodynamics and Statistical Physics). It summarizes the material that every graduate student, physicist working in industry, or physics teacher should master during his or her degree course. It thus serves both as an excellent revision and preparation tool, and as a convenient reference source, covering the whole of theoretical physics. It may also be successfully employed to deepen its readers' insight and add new dimensions to their understanding of these fundamental concepts. Recent topics such as holography and quantum cryptography are included, thus making this a unique contribution to the learning material for theoretical physics.

  6. Theoretical and Practical Study of the Concept of Social and Emotional Health by Michael J. Furlong Applied to the Selection of Teenagers and Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timofejeva Tatjana

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on the analysis of scientific research, it has been concluded that the methodology ‘Social Emotional Health Survey - Secondary’ (SEHS-S with meta-construct of covitality is a universal tool in order to define the social and emotional health of teenagers and young people; it has also been found that the meta-construct of covitality is essentially related to other psychological constructs, such as emotional intelligence, vitality, social competence and mental health. In the research that was conducted in Riga Teacher Training and Educational Management Academy (Timofejeva, 2015, the method of M.J. Furlong has been adapted to the Russian language, Latvian language interpretation of the notion of covitality has been proposed offering terms ‘Sociāli emocionālās veselības faktors’ or SEV (social and emotional health factor or ‘sinerģiskā vitalitāte’ (‘synergic vitality’. Furthermore, a theoretically constructive model of the author has been created. Within this model, a new correlation has been hypothetically predicted between meta-construct of covitality (SEV-factor and other scientifically acknowledged psycho-social constructs and notions: psycho-social prerequisites of the SEV factor and psychological options that depend on the level of the SEV factor. During the research, a selection of several teenagers and young people - students of comprehensive schools of Riga - with Russian as their native language was made (n=184. It was found that the applied methodology is valid for the selection of Russian-speaking teenagers/youth of Latvia and that it can be recommended to the psychologists of schools as a new psychometric tool for their professionally practical duties. The data obtained within the research is planned to be used for comparisons with a similar research conducted in Lithuania (Lithuanian University of Educational Sciences, led by doc. A. Petrulytė.

  7. Concepts and theoretical specifications of a Coastal Vulnerability Dynamic Simulator (COVUDS): A multi-agent system for simulating coastal vulnerability towards management of coastal ecosystem services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orencio, P. M.; Endo, A.; Taniguchi, M.

    2014-12-01

    Disaster-causing natural hazards such as floods, erosions, earthquakes or slope failures were particularly observed to be concentrated in certain geographical regions. In the Asia-pacific region, coastal ecosystems were suffering because of perennial threats driven by chronic fluctuations in climate variability (e.g., typhoons, ENSO), or by dynamically occurring events (e.g., earthquakes, tsunamis). Among the many people that were found prone to such a risky condition were the ones inhabiting near the coastal areas. Characteristically, aside from being located at the forefront of these events, the coastal communities have impacted the resource by the kind of behavioral patterns they exhibited, such as overdependence and overexploitation to achieve their wellbeing. In this paper, we introduce the development of an approach to an assessment of the coupled human- environment using a multi- agent simulation (MAS) model known as Coastal Vulnerability Dynamic Simulator (COVUDS). The COVUDS comprised a human- environmental platform consisting multi- agents with corresponding spatial- based dynamic and static variables. These variables were used to present multiple hypothetical future situations that contribute to the purpose of supporting a more rational management of the coastal ecosystem and their environmental equities. Initially, we present the theoretical and conceptual components that would lead to the development of the COVUDS. These consisted of the human population engaged in behavioral patterns affecting the conditions of coastal ecosystem services; the system of the biophysical environment and changes in patches brought by global environment and local behavioral variations; the policy factors that were important for choosing area- specific interventions; and the decision- making mechanism that integrates the first three components. To guide a future scenario-based application that will be undertaken in a coastal area in the Philippines, the components of the

  8. A review of recent theoretical developments in the understanding of the migration of helium in metals and its interaction with lattice defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, D.J.

    1977-01-01

    Recent theoretical calculations of the properties of rare gases, and in particular helium, in the common f.c.c. and b.c.c. metals, are reviewed from the viewpoint of the investigator concerned with the behaviour of rare gas in such radiation damage processes as surface blistering and void swelling. Particular attention is paid to mechanisms by which helium may migrate in a damaged metal lattice during irradiation and to the properties of small gas and vacancy clusters which may represent bubble or void nuclei. Initially the proposed rapid migration of interstitial helium is discussed together with the substitutional de-trapping mechanism, whereby thermally activated helium jumps from a substitutional to an interstitial position. This enables a mechanism of substitutional helium diffusion to be proposed which may proceed at temperatures below those of self-diffusion. The formation, binding, migration and dissociation energies of gas-vacancy clusters have been reviewed. The relevance of the predicted trend towards the optimum stability of clusters composed of equal numbers of gas atoms and vacancies is discussed. The limited data available concerned with the binding of a helium atom to a pure dislocation line is presented together with comments on the possible nature of the interaction of helium with the dislocation jog. (author)

  9. Concept - or no concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsson, Uffe

    1999-01-01

    Discussion about concept in industrial companies. A method for mapping of managerial concept in specific area is shown......Discussion about concept in industrial companies. A method for mapping of managerial concept in specific area is shown...

  10. Cultural Analysis - towards cross-cultural understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gullestrup, Hans

    The book considers intercultural understanding and co-action, partly by means of general insight into concept of culture and the dimensions which bring about cultural differences, and partly as a methodology to analyse a certain culture - whether one's own or others'. This leads towards an unders......The book considers intercultural understanding and co-action, partly by means of general insight into concept of culture and the dimensions which bring about cultural differences, and partly as a methodology to analyse a certain culture - whether one's own or others'. This leads towards...... a theoretical/abstract proposal for cultural understanding. The second part presents a theoretical/abstract proposal for under-standing intercultural plurality and complexity. The third part provides an empirical model for the analysis of intercultural co-action. Finally, the fourth part present and discusses...

  11. Student Connections of Linear Algebra Concepts: An Analysis of Concept Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapp, Douglas A.; Nyman, Melvin A.; Berry, John S.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the connections of linear algebra concepts in a first course at the undergraduate level. The theoretical underpinnings of this study are grounded in the constructivist perspective (including social constructivism), Vernaud's theory of conceptual fields and Pirie and Kieren's model for the growth of mathematical understanding.…

  12. Using the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) to understand adherence to multiple evidence-based indicators in primary care: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Rebecca; Heyhoe, Jane; Louch, Gemma; Ingleson, Emma; Glidewell, Liz; Willis, Thomas A; McEachan, Rosemary R C; Foy, Robbie

    2016-08-08

    There are recognised gaps between evidence and practice in general practice, a setting posing particular implementation challenges. We earlier screened clinical guideline recommendations to derive a set of 'high-impact' indicators based upon criteria including potential for significant patient benefit, scope for improved practice and amenability to measurement using routinely collected data. Here, we explore health professionals' perceived determinants of adherence to these indicators, examining the degree to which determinants were indicator-specific or potentially generalisable across indicators. We interviewed 60 general practitioners, practice nurses and practice managers in West Yorkshire, the UK, about adherence to four indicators: avoidance of risky prescribing; treatment targets in type 2 diabetes; blood pressure targets in treated hypertension; and anticoagulation in atrial fibrillation. Interview questions drew upon the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF). Data were analysed using framework analysis. Professional role and identity and environmental context and resources featured prominently across all indicators whilst the importance of other domains, for example, beliefs about consequences, social influences and knowledge varied across indicators. We identified five meta-themes representing more general organisational and contextual factors common to all indicators. The TDF helped elicit a wide range of reported determinants of adherence to 'high-impact' indicators in primary care. It was more difficult to pinpoint which determinants, if targeted by an implementation strategy, would maximise change. The meta-themes broadly underline the need to align the design of interventions targeting general practices with higher level supports and broader contextual considerations. However, our findings suggest that it is feasible to develop interventions to promote the uptake of different evidence-based indicators which share common features whilst also including

  13. An Expanded Theoretical Framework of Care Coordination Across Transitions in Care Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radwin, Laurel E; Castonguay, Denise; Keenan, Carolyn B; Hermann, Cherice

    2016-01-01

    For many patients, high-quality, patient-centered, and cost-effective health care requires coordination among multiple clinicians and settings. Ensuring optimal care coordination requires a clear understanding of how clinician activities and continuity during transitions affect patient-centeredness and quality outcomes. This article describes an expanded theoretical framework to better understand care coordination. The framework provides clear articulation of concepts. Examples are provided of ways to measure the concepts.

  14. Understanding the supply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aćimović Slobodan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Supply chain management represents new business philosophy and includes strategically positioned and much wider scope of activity in comparison with its "older brother" - management of logistics. Philosophy of the concept of supply chain is directed to more coordination of key business functions of every link in distribution chain in the process of organization of the flow of both goods and information, while logistic managing instruments are focused on internal optimum of flows of goods and information within one company. Applying the concept of integrated supply chain among several companies makes the importance of operative logistics activity even greater on the level of one company, thus advancing processes of optimum and coordination within and between different companies and confirms the importance of logistics performances for the company’s profitability. Besides the fact that the borders between companies are being deleted, this concept of supply chain in one distribution channel influences increasing of importance of functional, i.e. traditional business managing approaches but instead it points out the importance of process managing approaches. Although the author is aware that "there is nothing harder, more dangerous and with uncertain success, but to find a way for introducing some novelties (Machiavelli, it would be even his additional stimulation for trying to bring closer the concept and goals of supply chain implementation that are identified in key, relevant, modern, theoretical and consulting approaches in order to achieve better understanding of the subject and faster implementation of the concept of supply chain management by domestic companies.

  15. Understanding Socio Technical Modularity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Christian Langhoff; Kudsk, Anders; Hvam, Lars

    2011-01-01

    Modularity has gained an increasing popularity as a central concept for exploring product structure, process structure, organization structure and supply chain structure. With the offset in system theory the predominant understanding of modularity however faces difficulties in explaining the social...... dimension of modularity like irrational behaviors, cultural differences, learning processes, social organization and institutional influences on modularity. The paper addresses this gab offering a reinterpretation of the modularity concept from a socio-technical perspective in general and Actor Network...... Theory in particular. By formulating modularity from an ANT perspective covering social, material and process aspects, the modularity of a socio-technical system can be understood as an entanglement of product, process, organizational and institutional modularity. The theoretical framework is illustrated...

  16. [Patient-centered approaches to understanding, transformation and solution of team conflicts in the psychiatric clinic within the scope of the Balint group concept].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drees, A

    1987-08-01

    The working climate and therapeutic possibilities in a hospital are determined, among other factors, by emotional processes in everyday ward routine. Team conflicts and their solution are not infrequently reflections of the open-mindedness of a hospital towards the complexity of these processes. However, the complex interlocking of transference processes with rôle-specific and personality-conditioned behaviour patterns makes it more difficult to understand and make use of these emotional processes within the team. We present a specific attempt to working up emotional conflicts in a patient-centred approach via focussing on self-rating of the team workers in respect of mood, feeling tone and imagination. Specific internal Balint groups are the fulcrum. To distinguish this method from the theory of object-directed transference of emotions and constructions of relations, the theoretical basis of this group method is seen in the systemic paradigm with which patient-focussed solution functions are obtained in respect of process orientation and instrumental part functions of the team workers. In this connection it was explored to what extent the following factors can be interpreted as patient-induced phenomena: therapeutic and rôle behaviour, hospital structures and administrative squabbles, internal and external walls of a mental hospital.

  17. Development of Early Conceptions in Systems Thinking in an Environmental Context: An Exploratory Study of Preschool Students' Understanding of Stocks & Flows, Behavior Over Time and Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillmeister, Kristina M.

    Systems thinking allows learners to look at the world as a series of interconnected parts of a whole. A debate exists in early childhood research literature about whether or not children have the capacity to hold systems thinking conceptions due to the complex thought processing needed for systems thinking. Additionally, many researchers question whether children have enough life experience or cognitive schema to participate fully in systems thinking. However, this study's findings indicate that young children do show signs of more complex understanding in systems thinking than what previous literature suggests a young child has the ability to do. This three part research study was conducted in a universal pre-kindergarten (UPK) classroom in a first-ring suburb of a rust-belt city in the Northeastern United States. The study was grounded in a desire to uncover young children's understanding of systems thinking through everyday classroom activities. Twenty students participated in this qualitative study which utilized read-aloud, water play and the interpretation and creation of graphs through associated structured and semi-structured interviews. Data from student's observations and interviews was transcribed, segmented, coded and analyzed. This student-centered process approach (Gotwals & Alonzo, 2012) allowed for children's ideas to emerge naturally during the research tasks. Data was analyzed according to a three step analysis process using a real-world lens, a systems thinking skills lens, and the development of lower anchors for future learning progressions lens. Across a group of 20 preschool children there was an overarching theme that the ability to think in systems and utilize simple systems thinking tools, such as stock-flow maps, feedback loops and behavior over time graphs, was present. Since children are ready to reason using rudimentary systems thinking, then systems thinking opportunities should be incorporated into their informal and formal learning

  18. Crisis Communication in a Systems- and Medium Theoretical Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tække, Jesper

    conflict, risk, trust, public opinion and mass media in regard to this field, and, vice versa, how can we understand crisis communication with sociologically systems theoretical concepts? This paper tries to answer these questions and thereby to contribute to the understanding of the field. Hereto......The academic field of crisis communication is more relevant now than ever before because of the digital media revolution, setting new standards for how to react to critics. But what is this academic field in a systems theoretical perspective? How can we understand sociological concepts like...... the paper takes into account and discusses crisis communication in relation to the new medium environment and especially in regard to social media. The conclusion is that organizations now more than ever must be observant, reflected and responsive with regard to the public opinion, because of the new, more...

  19. The Influence of Teachers' Conceptions on Their Students' Learning: Children's Understanding of Sheet Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Íñiguez, Guadalupe; Pozo, Juan Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    Background: Despite increasing interest in teachers' and students' conceptions of learning and teaching, and how they influence their practice, there are few studies testing the influence of teachers' conceptions on their students' learning. Aims: This study tests how teaching conception (TC; with a distinction between…

  20. THEORETICAL ASPECTS OF FILMMUSIC STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egorova Tatiana K.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article, author analyzes the theoretical aspects of the film music study taking into account with modern realities in the development of world film-process and attempts to its scientific understanding. Need for innovation in this area is long overdue, because the existing on this topic nonfiction no longer meets the new aesthetic and art-practical achievements and innovations in the film music development at the XXI century. Related to the phenomenon of music in screen arts a number of new terms and concepts require a certain adjustment as well. Their range of action is not yet fully defined. Author of the article offered her version of their content-semantic interpretation (largely experimental designed to promote new research methods for the film music study.