Rosenthal, Lisa; Levy, Sheri R.
Theoretical models to date have fallen short of accounting for the alarming worldwide rates of HIV infection in women through heterosexual contact. In this article, social dominance theory and the four bases of gendered power--force, resource control, social obligations, and consensual ideologies--are used to organize and explain international…
Dickins, Thomas E.; Sergeant, Mark J.T.
Heterosexual males are reported to display higher levels of physical aggression and lower levels of empathy than homosexual males. A characteristic linked to both aggression and empathy is social dominance orientation (SDO). A significant sex difference has been reported for SDO, with heterosexual males scoring higher than heterosexual females. The precise relationship between dominance and aggression is currently contested. Given the association between SDO, aggression and empathy, and the d...
mutually exclusive of the consensus model, that dominance/DH is: same-sex only; present whenever, within one or both sexes, there is potential conflict over reproduction, and there is no mechanism to preclude this, but otherwise is absent; always associated with some degree of differential physiological reproductive suppression. This new conceptualization of dominance has major implications for the social as well as biological sciences, in that resource-competition models of the basis of sociality will have to give way to a thoroughgoing biological understanding that places centre-stage not resources but reproduction; with consequent radical revision of notions of 'power'.
This article reports the structure of dominance and its relationship with social grooming in wild lion-tailed macaque females. The strength of dominance hierarchy ... study of social organization (Thierry et al 2004). A key factor that helps understand social organization is the dominance relationships among individuals of a ...
Lepièce, Brice; Reynaert, Christine; van Meerbeeck, Philippe; Dory, Valérie
Understanding how medical students select their specialty is a fundamental issue for public health and educational policy makers. One of the factors that students take into account is a specialty's prestige which hinges partly on its focus on technique rather than whole person. We examine the potential of a psychological framework, social dominance theory, to explain why some students, and not others, are drawn to more prestigious, technique-oriented specialties, based on their desire for hierarchy. We conducted a cross-sectional study among medical students at Institution X (N = 359). We examined the link between medical students' characteristics i.e. social dominance orientation (SDO), gender, age, and their career intention. We also examined level of medical students' SDO at different stages of the curriculum. SDO scores were significantly associated with technique-oriented career intentions (OR 1.56; 95 % CI [1.18, 2.06]; p = 0.001). The effect was independent of gender. Medical students' SDO scores were significantly higher in later stages of the medical curriculum (F = 6.79; p = 0. 001). SDO is a significant predictor of medical students' career intention. SDO scores are higher in students during the clinical phase of the curriculum. Medical socialization, involving the internalization of implicit and explicit norms, particularly in hospital settings, is likely to underpin our findings. This theory illuminates consistent findings in the literature on specialty prestige and the influence of medical school on career choice.
Mascaro, Olivier; Csibra, Gergely
What are the origins of humans' capacity to represent social relations? We approached this question by studying human infants' understanding of social dominance as a stable relation. We presented infants with interactions between animated agents in conflict situations. Studies 1 and 2 targeted expectations of stability of social dominance. They revealed that 15-mo-olds (and, to a lesser extent, 12-mo-olds) expect an asymmetric relationship between two agents to remain stable from one conflict to another. To do so, infants need to infer that one of the agents (the dominant) will consistently prevail when her goals conflict with those of the other (the subordinate). Study 3 and 4 targeted the format of infants' representation of social dominance. In these studies, we found that 12- and 15-mo-olds did not extend their expectations of dominance to unobserved relationships, even when they could have been established by transitive inference. These results suggest that infants' expectation of stability originates from their representation of social dominance as a relationship between two agents rather than as an individual property. Infants' demonstrated understanding of social dominance reflects the cognitive underpinning of humans' capacity to represent social relations, which may be evolutionarily ancient, and may be shared with nonhuman species.
José van Dijck
Full Text Available Over the past decade, social media platforms have penetrated deeply into the mechanics of everyday life, affecting people's informal interactions, as well as institutional structures and professional routines. Far from being neutral platforms for everyone, social media have changed the conditions and rules of social interaction. In this article, we examine the intricate dynamic between social media platforms, mass media, users, and social institutions by calling attention to social media logic—the norms, strategies, mechanisms, and economies—underpinning its dynamics. This logic will be considered in light of what has been identified as mass media logic, which has helped spread the media's powerful discourse outside its institutional boundaries. Theorizing social media logic, we identify four grounding principles—programmability, popularity, connectivity, and datafication—and argue that these principles become increasingly entangled with mass media logic. The logic of social media, rooted in these grounding principles and strategies, is gradually invading all areas of public life. Besides print news and broadcasting, it also affects law and order, social activism, politics, and so forth. Therefore, its sustaining logic and widespread dissemination deserve to be scrutinized in detail in order to better understand its impact in various domains. Concentrating on the tactics and strategies at work in social media logic, we reassess the constellation of power relationships in which social practices unfold, raising questions such as: How does social media logic modify or enhance existing mass media logic? And how is this new media logic exported beyond the boundaries of (social or mass media proper? The underlying principles, tactics, and strategies may be relatively simple to identify, but it is much harder to map the complex connections between platforms that distribute this logic: users that employ them, technologies that
Kar, Fonti; Whiting, Martin J; Noble, Daniel W A
There is mounting evidence that social learning is not just restricted to group-living animals, but also occurs in species with a wide range of social systems. However, we still have a poor understanding of the factors driving individual differences in social information use. We investigated the effects of relative dominance on social information use in the eastern water skink (Eulamprus quoyii), a species with age-dependent social learning. We used staged contests to establish dominant-subordinate relationships in pairs of lizards and tested whether observers use social information to more quickly solve both an association and reversal learning task in situations where the demonstrator was either dominant or subordinate. Surprisingly, we found no evidence of social information use, irrespective of relative dominance between observer and demonstrator. However, dominant lizards learnt at a faster rate than subordinate lizards in the associative learning task, although there were no significant differences in the reversal task. In light of previous work in this species, we suggest that age may be a more important driver of social information use because demonstrators and observers in our study were closely size-matched and were likely to be of similar age.
Abril-de-Abreu, Rodrigo; Cruz, Ana S.; Oliveira, Rui F.
Group living animals may eavesdrop on signalling interactions between conspecifics and integrate it with their own past social experience in order to optimize the use of relevant information from others. However, little is known about this interplay between public (eavesdropped) and private social information. To investigate it, we first manipulated the dominance status of bystander zebrafish. Next, we either allowed or prevented bystanders from observing a fight. Finally, we assessed their behaviour towards the winners and losers of the interaction, using a custom-made video-tracking system and directional analysis. We found that only dominant bystanders who had seen the fight revealed a significant increase in directional focus (a measure of attention) towards the losers of the fights. Furthermore, our results indicate that information about the fighters' acquired status was collected from the signalling interaction itself and not from post-interaction status cues, which implies the existence of individual recognition in zebrafish. Thus, we show for the first time that zebrafish, a highly social model organism, eavesdrop on conspecific agonistic interactions and that this process is modulated by the eavesdroppers' dominance status. We suggest that this type of integration of public and private information may be ubiquitous in social learning processes. PMID:26361550
Jake A Funkhouser
Full Text Available Different aspects of sociality bear considerable weight on the individual- and group-level welfare of captive nonhuman primates. Social Network Analysis (SNA is a useful tool for gaining a holistic understanding of the dynamic social relationships of captive primate groups. Gaining a greater understanding of captive chimpanzees through investigations of centrality, preferred and avoided relationships, dominance hierarchy, and social network diagrams can be useful in advising current management practices in sanctuaries and other captive settings. In this study, we investigated the dyadic social relationships, group-level social networks, and dominance hierarchy of seven chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes at Chimpanzee Sanctuary Northwest. We used focal-animal and instantaneous scan sampling to collect 106.75 total hours of associative, affiliative, and agonistic data from June to September 2016. We analyzed our data using SOCPROG to derive dominance hierarchies and network statistics, and we diagrammed the group's social networks in NetDraw. Three individuals were most central in the grooming network, while two others had little connection. Through agonistic networks, we found that group members reciprocally exhibited agonism, and the group's dominance hierarchy was statistically non-linear. One chimpanzee emerged as the most dominant through agonism but was least connected to other group members across affiliative networks. Our results indicate that the conventional methods used to calculate individuals' dominance rank may be inadequate to wholly depict a group's social relationships in captive sanctuary populations. Our results have an applied component that can aid sanctuary staff in a variety of ways to best ensure the improvement of group welfare.
Funkhouser, Jake A; Mayhew, Jessica A; Mulcahy, John B
Different aspects of sociality bear considerable weight on the individual- and group-level welfare of captive nonhuman primates. Social Network Analysis (SNA) is a useful tool for gaining a holistic understanding of the dynamic social relationships of captive primate groups. Gaining a greater understanding of captive chimpanzees through investigations of centrality, preferred and avoided relationships, dominance hierarchy, and social network diagrams can be useful in advising current management practices in sanctuaries and other captive settings. In this study, we investigated the dyadic social relationships, group-level social networks, and dominance hierarchy of seven chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) at Chimpanzee Sanctuary Northwest. We used focal-animal and instantaneous scan sampling to collect 106.75 total hours of associative, affiliative, and agonistic data from June to September 2016. We analyzed our data using SOCPROG to derive dominance hierarchies and network statistics, and we diagrammed the group's social networks in NetDraw. Three individuals were most central in the grooming network, while two others had little connection. Through agonistic networks, we found that group members reciprocally exhibited agonism, and the group's dominance hierarchy was statistically non-linear. One chimpanzee emerged as the most dominant through agonism but was least connected to other group members across affiliative networks. Our results indicate that the conventional methods used to calculate individuals' dominance rank may be inadequate to wholly depict a group's social relationships in captive sanctuary populations. Our results have an applied component that can aid sanctuary staff in a variety of ways to best ensure the improvement of group welfare.
Schmidt, R C; Fitzpatrick, Paula; Caron, Robert; Mergeche, Joanna
Recently there has been much interest in social coordination of motor movements, or as it is referred to by some researchers, joint action. This paper reviews the cognitive perspective's common coding/mirror neuron theory of joint action, describes some of its limitations and then presents the behavioral dynamics perspective as an alternative way of understanding social motor coordination. In particular, behavioral dynamics' ability to explain the temporal coordination of interacting individuals is detailed. Two experiments are then described that demonstrate how dynamical processes of synchronization are apparent in the coordination underlying everyday joint actions such as martial art exercises, hand-clapping games, and conversations. The import of this evidence is that emergent dynamic patterns such as synchronization are the behavioral order that any neural substrate supporting joint action (e.g., mirror systems) would have to sustain. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
“Social business” refers to the utilization of online social channels to conduct business. This chapter situates the notion of social business in the relevant macro trends in technology, business, and society and discusses the three critical aspects of social business: social business engagement......, social media analytics, and social media management. Social media engagement concerns the organization’s strategic use of social media channels to interact with its internal and external stakeholders for purposes ranging from knowledge management to corporate social responsibility and marketing. Social...... with respect to the emerging paradigm of social business. This chapter concludes with a proposal for a large-scale collaborative research project on socially connected organizations and articulates a set of research questions, anticipated scientific advancements, and societal benefits....
The importance of social entrepreneurship in social, cultural and economic terms is increasingly acknowledged. Drawing on data from the second Social Entrepreneurship Monitor report published by the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) UK project, this article focuses on the social entrepreneurs who may grow the social enterprises of the future.…
José van Dijck; Thomas Poell
Over the past decade, social media platforms have penetrated deeply into the mechanics of everyday life, affecting people's informal interactions, as well as institutional structures and professional routines. Far from being neutral platforms for everyone, social media have changed the conditions and rules of social interaction. In this article, we examine the intricate dynamic between social media platforms, mass media, users, and social institutions by calling attention to social media log...
van Dijck, J.; Poell, T.
Over the past decade, social media platforms have penetrated deeply into the mechanics of everyday life, affecting people's informal interactions, as well as institutional structures and professional routines. Far from being neutral platforms for everyone, social media have changed the conditions
So, Nina; Franks, Becca; Lim, Sean; Curley, James P.
Modelling complex social behavior in the laboratory is challenging and requires analyses of dyadic interactions occurring over time in a physically and socially complex environment. In the current study, we approached the analyses of complex social interactions in group-housed male CD1 mice living in a large vivarium. Intensive observations of social interactions during a 3-week period indicated that male mice form a highly linear and steep dominance hierarchy that is maintained by fighting and chasing behaviors. Individual animals were classified as dominant, sub-dominant or subordinate according to their David’s Scores and I& SI ranking. Using a novel dynamic temporal Glicko rating method, we ascertained that the dominance hierarchy was stable across time. Using social network analyses, we characterized the behavior of individuals within 66 unique relationships in the social group. We identified two individual network metrics, Kleinberg’s Hub Centrality and Bonacich’s Power Centrality, as accurate predictors of individual dominance and power. Comparing across behaviors, we establish that agonistic, grooming and sniffing social networks possess their own distinctive characteristics in terms of density, average path length, reciprocity out-degree centralization and out-closeness centralization. Though grooming ties between individuals were largely independent of other social networks, sniffing relationships were highly predictive of the directionality of agonistic relationships. Individual variation in dominance status was associated with brain gene expression, with more dominant individuals having higher levels of corticotropin releasing factor mRNA in the medial and central nuclei of the amygdala and the medial preoptic area of the hypothalamus, as well as higher levels of hippocampal glucocorticoid receptor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA. This study demonstrates the potential and significance of combining complex social housing and intensive
Full Text Available Social status hierarchies are ubiquitous in vertebrate social systems, including humans. It is well known that social rank can influence quality of life dramatically among members of social groups. For example, high-ranking individuals have greater access to resources, including food and mating prerogatives that, in turn, have a positive impact on their reproductive success and health. In contrast low ranking individuals typically have limited reproductive success and may experience lasting social and physiological costs. Ultimately, social rank and behavior are regulated by changes in gene expression. However, little is known about mechanisms that transduce social cues into transcriptional changes. Since social behavior is a dynamic process, we hypothesized that a molecular mechanism such as DNA methylation might play a role these changes. To test this hypothesis, we used an African cichlid fish, Astatotilapia burtoni, in which social rank dictates reproductive access. We show that manipulating global DNA methylation state strongly biases the outcomes of social encounters. Injecting DNA methylating and de-methylating agents in low status animals competing for status, we found that animals with chemically increased methylation states were statistically highly likely to ascend in rank. In contrast, those with inhibited methylation processes and thus lower methylation levels were statistically highly unlikely to ascend in rank. This suggests that among its many roles, DNA methylation may be linked to social status and more generally to social behavior.
This article reports the structure of dominance and its relationship with social grooming in wild lion-tailed macaque females. The strength of dominance hierarchy was 0.79 on a scale of 0 to 1 indicating a moderate linearity in the ranking system. Dominance scores were converted into an ordinal as well as an interval scale.
Hoyt, Crystal L; B Forsyth, Rachel; Burnette, Jeni L
In this work, we examine whether differences in social dominance orientation (SDO) moderate the effectiveness of mindsets of intelligence messages. We suggest that SDO is a foundational ideological belief system, on which individuals vary, that maintains the desire to endorse fixed beliefs about the nature of human intelligence. Thus, attempts to change individuals' mindsets should be met with resistance from those who strongly endorse the social dominance ideology - individuals high on SDO. In contrast, individuals low on SDO are less likely to use mindsets of intelligence to justify an ideological belief system, and thus, mindset manipulations should be effective for them. We test these predictions across three experimental studies (N Study1 = 271, N Study2 = 207, N Study3 = 313). Across the studies, we find that individuals who are high, relative to low, on SDO have more fixed beliefs about the nature of intelligence and show smaller effects of manipulations of mindsets. However, when comparing to a control condition, there was no evidence that high-SDO participants resisted the growth message that contradicts their ideology more than the fixed one that supports it; additionally, low-SDO participants showed heightened responsiveness to a fixed message. We discuss implications for theoretical advances in our understanding of mindsets. © 2018 The British Psychological Society.
Olesen, Henning Salling; Weber, Kirsten
is based on a transformation of the "scenic understanding" from a clinical to a text interpretation, which seeks to understand collective unconscious meaning in text, and is presented with an illustration of the interpretation procedure from social research. Then follows a brief systematic account of key......»Sozialisation, Sprache und szenisches Verstehen. Alfred Lorenzers Beitrag zu einer psychosozialen Methodologie«. The article is a guided tour to Alfred Lorenzer's proposal for an "in-depth hermeneutic" cultural analysis methodology which was launched in an environment with an almost complete split...... between social sciences and psychology/psychoanalysis. It presents the background in his materialist socialization theory, which combines a social reinterpretation of the core insights in classical psychoanalysis – the unconscious, the drives – with a theory of language acquisition. His methodology...
Applies a conceptual framework drawn from Max Weber's ideas of domination to examine the ways by which domination of child victims is created and maintained in cases of institutional abuse. Suggests that a solution is to regulate institutional abuse by written guidance on procedures, by frequent inspections, and through copious recommendations…
Voyer, Anne-Pier; Nadeau, Line; Tessier, Réjean
Children with cerebral palsy tend to have poorer social competence outcomes than their peers without a disability in mainstream school settings. To understand their social competence, this study compared children with cerebral palsy with paired children without cerebral palsy with respect to their ability to access resources, defined here as "social dominance", in a problem-solving situation. Children with cerebral palsy were randomly paired to a peer (teammate) and put in a competitive context where each team of two children was instructed to solve an impossible problem. To control for social status, a sociometric measure was administered previously in the classroom (Social Preference score). Behaviors related to social dominance (prosocial and coercive behaviors) were coded using an observation scale validated for this study. The results showed that regardless of social status, children with cerebral palsy were less socially dominant than controls without cerebral palsy. Furthermore, their teams seemed to be less dominant than teams composed of two controls. The lower social competence in children with cerebral palsy could be partly explained by their reduced social dominance behavior in activities requiring speed and fluidity as an expression of executive functions. This might be viewed as a marker for social risks in the integration process at school. Implications for rehabilitation Gross Motor Function Classification System level I or II cerebral palsy is a condition that affects not only motor abilities but also social competence in children. Lower social competence in children with cerebral palsy could be partly explained by reduced social dominance behavior in activities such as problem solving with peers. To improve social competence, rehabilitation interventions should include social participation opportunities in which children with cerebral palsy are encouraged to take an active role in the activity.
Full Text Available Political ecology and cognate fields have highlighted the social constructedness of different water discourses, exposing them as the product of a particular view of nature with underpinning interests and political consequences. Integrated Water Resources Management, technical approaches, or the privatisation of drinking water services have enjoyed dominant positions, being able to determine what constitutes common sense. This has excluded numerous other alternative approaches, such as those championed by indigenous peoples. Social media, through its easy accessibility and its emphasis on visual, interactive, and short communication forms, bears the promise to challenge dominant discourses. Whether social media benefits dominant or alternative discourses has not yet been explored by the political ecology literature to which this article contributes. The article conducts a qualitative analysis of the use of two of the main social networking services (Facebook and Twitter by nine organisations working on water. Organisations were selected considering their likelihood to champion different water discourses. The article analyses the formats used, the place of communities, and the kind of language employed. It argues that while social media presents an interesting potential for alternative discourses, it also offers important tools for dominant discourses to consolidate themselves. The article concludes that social media does not structurally challenge the status quo and suggests avenues for future research.
Full Text Available Individuals in social species commonly form dominance relationships, where dominant individuals enjoy greater access to resources compared to subordinates. A range of factors such as sex, age, body size and prior experiences has to varying degrees been observed to affect the social status an individual obtains. Recent work on animal personality (i.e. consistent variation in behavioural responses of individuals demonstrates that personality can co-vary with social status, suggesting that also behavioural variation can play an important role in establishment of status. We investigated whether personality could predict the outcome of duels between pairs of morphologically matched male domestic fowl (Gallus gallus domesticus, a species where individuals readily form social hierarchies. We found that males that more quickly explored a novel arena, or remained vigilant for a longer period following the playback of a warning call were more likely to obtain a dominant position. These traits were uncorrelated to each other and were also uncorrelated to aggression during the initial part of the dominance-determining duel. Our results indicate that several behavioural traits independently play a role in the establishment of social status, which in turn can have implications for the reproductive success of different personality types.
Jones, Carolyn E; Monfils, Marie-H
Acquiring information about stimuli that predict danger, through either direct experience or inference from a social context, is crucial for individuals' ability to generate appropriate behaviors in response to threats. Utilizing a modified demonstrator-observer paradigm (fear conditioning by proxy) that allows for free interaction between subjects, we show that social dominance hierarchy, and the interactive social behaviors of caged rats, is predictive of social fear transmission, with subordinate rats displaying increased fear responses after interacting with a fear-conditioned dominant rat during fear retrieval. Fear conditioning by proxy conserves some of the pathways necessary for direct fear learning (e.g., lateral amygdala) but is unique in that it requires regions necessary for emotional regulation (e.g., anterior cingulate cortex), making this paradigm an important tool for evaluating learning and behavior in the laboratory setting.
Bayly, Karen L; Evans, Christopher S; Taylor, Alan
Measurement of social status is an important component of many behavioural studies. A variety of techniques have been developed and adopted, but while there have been some analyses of index properties using simulated data, the rationale for selecting a method remains poorly documented. As a first step in exploring the implications of index choice, we compared the characteristics of eight popular indices by applying each to the same data set from interactions between male fowl Gallus gallus, the system in which social hierarchies were first described. Data from eight social groups, observed over four successive breeding seasons, were analysed to determine whether different indices produced consistent dominance scores. These scores were then used in tests of the relation between social status and crowing to explore whether index choice affected the results obtained. We also examined the pattern of dominance index use over the last decade to infer whether this has likely been influenced by tradition, or by taxa of study animal. Overall agreement among methods was good when groups of birds had perfectly linear hierarchies, but results diverged when social structure was more complex, with either intransitive triads or reversals. While all regression analyses revealed a positive relationship between dominance and vocal behaviour, there were substantial differences in the amount of variance accounted for, even though the original data were identical in every case. Index selection can hence perturb estimates of the importance of dominance, relative to other factors. We also found that several methods have been adopted only by particular research teams, while the use of others has been taxonomically constrained, patterns implying that indices have not always been chosen solely upon their merits. Taken together, our results read as a cautionary tale. We suggest that selection of a dominance index requires careful consideration both of algorithm properties and of the factors
Golan, Matan; Levavi-Sivan, Berta
Tilapias are emerging as one of the most important fish in worldwide aquaculture and are also widely used as model fish in the study of reproduction and behavior. During the reproductive season, male tilapia are highly territorial and form spawning pits in which the dominant males court and spawn with available females. Non-territorial males stand a much lower chance of reproducing. Using transgenic tilapia in which follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) gonadotrophs were fluorescently labeled with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP), we studied the effect of social dominance on the hormonal profile and pituitary cell populations in dominant and non-dominant males. Immunofluorescence studies showed that FSH-EGFP-transgenic fish reliably express EGFP in FSH-secreting cells. EGFP expression pattern differed from that of luteinizing hormone. Dominant males had larger gonads as well as higher levels of androgens and gonadotropins in the plasma. Pituitaries of dominant males exhibited higher gonadotropin content and gene expression. Flow cytometry revealed pituitary hyperplasia as well as FSH cell hyperplasia and increased granulation. Taken together, these findings suggest that gonadotroph hyperplasia as well as increased production by individual cells underlie the increased reproductive activity of dominant tilapia males. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Harrod, Wendy J
This study tested whether a measure of Social Dominance Orientation was associated with opinions about America's most serious social problem. 150 undergraduates enrolled in social problems classes responded to the 14-item scale and to an open-ended question, "In your opinion, what is the most serious social problem in our country today?". Analysis shows that mean scale scores differed significantly across social problem responses. Correspondence analysis, plotting association between scale scores and social problem responses, was interpreted as support for social dominance theory. Higher scale scores were associated with problems of crime and negative values and lower scores with problems of education and racism.
Tse, Wai S; Bond, Alyson J
Deficiencies in serotonin function have been associated with irritability and aggression but enhancing serotonin has also been shown to promote social status and affiliative behaviour in non-human primates and more recently in humans. To investigate the effects of citalopram, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), on social behaviour with a flatmate and a stranger. Ten pairs of healthy volunteers took part in a randomized double-blind crossover study of 2 weeks treatment with citalopram (20 mg/day) and placebo with a 2-week washout period. In each pair, one person (subject) took the tablets and the other (flatmate) received no treatment. On the last day of each treatment period, the subjects socially interacted with a confederate behaving as a responsive person in a stranger-dyadic social interaction paradigm. After the interaction, subjects played the Mixed-motive game, which measures cooperative behaviour and communication, with the confederate. The flatmates evaluated the social behaviour of the subjects before and at the end of the treatment periods. On citalopram, the subjects were rated as significantly less submissive by their flatmates and they showed a dominant pattern of eye contact in the stranger-dyadic social interaction paradigm. They also reduced the number of points they awarded themselves and sent more cooperative messages during the game. These results indicate that administration of an SSRI can modify social status in different interactions and increase affiliative behaviour. They implicate a role for serotonin in modulating social aspects of behaviour.
Reijntjes, Albert; Vermande, Marjolijn; Thomaes, Sander; Goossens, Frits; Olthof, Tjeert; Aleva, Liesbeth; Van der Meulen, Matty
A few previous studies have shown that narcissistic traits in youth are positively associated with bullying. However, research examining the developmental relationship between narcissism and bullying is lacking. Moreover, it is unclear whether narcissists constitute a homogeneous group and whether the bullying of narcissistic youth results in establishing social dominance over peers. The present work addresses these gaps. Children (N = 393; M age = 10.3; 51% girls) were followed during the last 3 years of primary school. Person-centered analyses were used to examine whether groups with distinct developmental trajectories for narcissism and two bullying forms (direct and indirect) can be identified, and how these trajectories are related. Multiple groups emerged for all constructs examined. For girls, higher narcissism was neither related to more intense bullying, nor to higher social dominance. In contrast, highly narcissistic boys were more likely than their peers to show elevated direct bullying, and in particular elevated indirect bullying. Hence, high narcissism is a risk factor for bullying in boys, but not in girls. However, narcissism is not always accompanied by high bullying, given that many boys on the high bullying trajectories were not high in narcissism. Results show that among narcissistic youth only those who engage in high levels of bullying are high in social dominance.
Full Text Available Social Dominance Theory (Sidanius & Pratto, 1999 stress that systematic inter group discrimination is related to social ideologies that contribute to coordinate institutions and individuals behaviors. The acceptance of inequity legitimating ideologies is partially determined for individuals general desire of group based domination. This desire is captured by Social Orientation Domination construct -SDO. Pursuing the objective of exploring SDO levels and its relationship with variables such ideological positioning and values, a descriptive correlation study, with a non experimental design, was carried out based on a convenience sample composed by 254 college students from Buenos Aires city surroundings . Results show that SDO is positively associated with Power and Achievement values and negatively with Benevolence and Universalism. SDO is stronger in participants right side ideologically positioned. Participants show a low SDO, emphasize self- trascendence and openness to change values and tend to a left side ideological positioning. Age, participant’s quality of “students” and prevailed career orientation can be seen as factors conditioning a more hierarchies attenuating believes and behaviors.
Hytten, Kathy; Bettez, Silvia C.
It has become increasingly common for education scholars to claim a social justice orientation in their work. At the same time, education programs seem to be adding statements about the importance of social justice to their mission, and a growing number of teacher education programs are fundamentally oriented around a vision of social justice.…
Kattari, Shanna K.
In most societies, some social identity groups hold a disproportionate amount of social, cultural, and economic power, while other groups hold little. In contemporary U.S. society, examples of this power are evident around issues of ability/disability, with able-bodied individuals wielding social dominance and people with disabilities experiencing…
Despite the swift spread of social network concepts and their applications and the rising use of network analysis in social science, there is no book that provides a thorough general introduction for the serious reader. "Understanding Social Networks" fills that gap by explaining the big ideas that underlie the social network phenomenon.…
Anggriani, N.; Aryani, I.; Darmawati, Supriatna, A. K.
It has been known that characteristic of social life within ant colonies includes efficient class division, harmonious appearance, but also competition within nestmates. Conflict between queens, male and female labors frequently occurs due to different interest among class members. A mathematical model for interaction between queens, male and female workers in ant colonies is discussed here. Interesting phenomena such as male-male competition and queen dominance are analyzed and stable coexistence is shown. It is also shown that heavy competition is even necessary to maintain a certain level of coexistence in the colonies.
Gan, Chunmei; Tan, Chee-Wee
Despite the increasing popularity and growing trend of mobile social media in China, factors affecting users’ continued usage behavior remains unclear and deserves further scholarly attention. Synthesizing theories of expectation confirmation as well as uses and gratification, we advance a uses...... and gratification expectancy model that depicts how confirmation, perceived usability and gratification affect users’ continuance intention towards mobile social media. Empirical findings from an online survey of 247 respondents reveal that continuance intention is determined by a range of gratifications, including...... information sharing, media appeal and perceived enjoyment. In addition, confirmation of expectations and perceptions of usefulness gleaned through prior usage of mobile social media have significant effects on gratifications of information sharing, perceived enjoyment, social interaction, passing time...
Olesen, Henning Salling; Weber, Kirsten
. Presenta los antecedentes en su teoría materialista de la socialización, lo que combina una reinterpretación social del pensamiento central en el psicoanálisis clásico – el inconsciente, la pulsión – con una teoría de la adquisición del lenguaje. Su metodología se basa en una transformación de la...... e ideas clave – formas de interacción, engramas, experiencia, simbolización, juego del lenguaje, imaginación utópica – con una mirada a las conexiones de teoría social a la escuela de Frankfurt. El procedimiento de la interpretación práctica basada en una investigación psicosocial de LORENZER, es...... to contemporary epistemological issues. LORENZER's approach to theorize and research the subject as a socially produced entity appears as a psycho-societal alternative to mainstream social constructivism. Resumen: Socialización, lenguaje y comprensión escénica. La contribución de Alfred Lorenzer a una metodología...
Chen, Jacqueline M; Hamilton, David L
Two studies investigated how people define and perceive diversity in the historically majority-group dominated contexts of business and academia. We hypothesized that individuals construe diversity as both the numeric representation of racial minorities and the social acceptance of racial minorities within a group. In Study 1, undergraduates' (especially minorities') perceptions of campus diversity were predicted by perceived social acceptance on a college campus, above and beyond perceived minority representation. Study 2 showed that increases in a company's representation and social acceptance independently led to increases in perceived diversity of the company among Whites. Among non-Whites, representation and social acceptance only increased perceived diversity of the company when both qualities were high. Together these findings demonstrate the importance of both representation and social acceptance to the achievement of diversity in groups and that perceiver race influences the relative importance of these two components of diversity. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.
Chase, Ivan D; Tovey, Craig; Spangler-Martin, Debra; Manfredonia, Michael
Linear hierarchies, the classical pecking-order structures, are formed readily in both nature and the laboratory in a great range of species including humans. However, the probability of getting linear structures by chance alone is quite low. In this paper we investigate the two hypotheses that are proposed most often to explain linear hierarchies: they are predetermined by differences in the attributes of animals, or they are produced by the dynamics of social interaction, i.e., they are self-organizing. We evaluate these hypotheses using cichlid fish as model animals, and although differences in attributes play a significant part, we find that social interaction is necessary for high proportions of groups with linear hierarchies. Our results suggest that dominance hierarchy formation is a much richer and more complex phenomenon than previously thought, and we explore the implications of these results for evolutionary biology, the social sciences, and the use of animal models in understanding human social organization.
Buwalda, Bauke; Koolhaas, Jaap M.; de Boer, Sietse F
Hierarchical social status greatly influences health and well-being in mammals, including humans. The social rank of an individual is established during competitive encounters with conspecifics. Intuitively, therefore, social dominance and aggressiveness may seem intimately linked. Yet, whether an
Salomons, H. M.; Dijkstra, C.; Verhulst, S.
We studied primary sex ratio of clutches in relation to social dominance for 6 years in a colony of free-living jackdaws, a small corvid. Social dominance was strongly associated with clutch sex ratio, with the difference in clutch sex ratio between the most and least dominant pairs being 30-40%. To
Pow, Janette; Gayen, Kaberi; Elliott, Lawrie; Raeside, Robert
The aim of this paper is to raise the awareness of social network analysis as a method to facilitate research in nursing research. The application of social network analysis in assessing network properties has allowed greater insight to be gained in many areas including sociology, politics, business organisation and health care. However, the use of social networks in nursing has not received sufficient attention. Review of literature and illustration of the application of the method of social network analysis using research examples. First, the value of social networks will be discussed. Then by using illustrative examples, the value of social network analysis to nursing will be demonstrated. The method of social network analysis is found to give greater insights into social situations involving interactions between individuals and has particular application to the study of interactions between nurses and between nurses and patients and other actors. Social networks are systems in which people interact. Two quantitative techniques help our understanding of these networks. The first is visualisation of the network. The second is centrality. Individuals with high centrality are key communicators in a network. Applying social network analysis to nursing provides a simple method that helps gain an understanding of human interaction and how this might influence various health outcomes. It allows influential individuals (actors) to be identified. Their influence on the formation of social norms and communication can determine the extent to which new interventions or ways of thinking are accepted by a group. Thus, working with key individuals in a network could be critical to the success and sustainability of an intervention. Social network analysis can also help to assess the effectiveness of such interventions for the recipient and the service provider. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Doorn, van G.S.; Hengeveld, G.M.; Weissing, F.J.
A difference in dominance rank is an often-used cue to resolve conflicts between two animals without escalated fights. At the group level, adherence to a dominance convention efficiently reduces the costs associated with conflicts, but from an individual's point of view, it is difficult to explain
Van Doorn, G.S.; Hengeveld, G.M.; Weissing, F.J.
A difference in dominance rank is an often-used cue to resolve conflicts between two animals without escalated fights. At the group level, adherence to a dominance convention efficiently reduces the costs associated with conflicts, but from an individual's point of view, it is difficult to explain
Li, D; Chokka, P; Tibbo, P
Our objective was to examine the neurobiology of social phobia from the perspectives of basic sciences, genetics, immunology, neuroendocrinology, neurotransmission and neuroimaging and to provide an integrated understanding of social phobia in the framework of a hypothetical neural circuit. Family and twin studies provide evidence that social phobia is heritable with significant genetic influence, and molecular genetics offers possibilities in understanding the nature of the trait that is transmitted. The biologic distinctiveness of social phobia from anxiety disorders and physiological validation of differences between generalized and discrete social phobia subtypes have been implicated in genetic, naturalistic and chemical challenge studies. Evidence of specific dysfunction of dopaminergic, serotonergic, noradrenergic and GABAergic (gamma-aminobutyric acid) neurotransmitter systems has been presented in animal models, challenge studies and treatment investigations. Preliminary neuroimaging research supports previous studies suggesting striatal dopaminergic dysfunction in social phobia and suggests the importance of functional circuits. A neural circuit involving the striatum, thalamus, amygdala and cortical structures may provide a framework for integrating much of the current knowledge on the neurobiology of social phobia. PMID:11394189
Pratto, F.; Cidam, A.; Stewart, E.L.; Bou Zeinedinne, F.; Aranda, M.; Aiello, M.; Chryssochoou, X.; Cichocka, A.; Cohrs, C.; Durrheim, K.; Eicher, V.; Foels, R.; Górska, P.; Lee, I-C; Licata, L.; Liu, L.; Liu, J.H.; Meyer, I.; Morselli, D.; Muldoon, O.; Muluk, H.; Petrovic, I.; Petrovic, N.; Prati, F.; Papastamou, S.; Prodromitis, G.; Rubini, M.; Saab, R.; van Stekelenburg, J.; Sweetman, J.; Zheng, W.; Henkel, K.
We tested the internal reliability and predictive validity of a new 4-item Short Social Dominance Orientation (SSDO) scale among adults in 20 countries, using 15 languages (N = 2,130). Low scores indicate preferring group inclusion and equality to dominance. As expected, cross-nationally, the lower
Psychologica and social adjustment to blindness: Understanding from two groups of blind people in Ilorin, Nigeria. ... Background: Blindness can cause psychosocial distress leading to maladjustment if not mitigated. Maladjustment is a secondary burden that further reduces quality of life of the blind. Adjustment is often ...
Weidman, John C.; DeAngelo, Linda; Bethea, Kathryn A.
This chapter describes the contribution of current research using the Weidman model of undergraduate socialization to understanding student identity development in college. It illustrates ways in which the framework can be used flexibly and adapted for studying impacts of multiple aspects of the college experience on diverse groups of students.
The aim of this article is to improve understanding of self-effects in social media, and to compare self-effects with reception effects. Self-effects are the effects of messages the cognitions, emotions, attitudes, and behaviors of the message creators/senders themselves. A total of 4 theories have
Weimer, Amy A; Gasquoine, Philip G
Belief reasoning and emotion understanding were measured among 102 Mexican American bilingual children ranging from 4 to 7 years old. All children were tested in English and Spanish after ensuring minimum comprehension in each language. Belief reasoning was assessed using 2 false and 1 true belief tasks. Emotion understanding was measured using subtests from the Test for Emotion Comprehension. The influence of family background variables of yearly income, parental education level, and number of siblings on combined Spanish and English vocabulary, belief reasoning, and emotion understanding was assessed by regression analyses. Age and emotion understanding predicted belief reasoning. Vocabulary and belief reasoning predicted emotion understanding. When the sample was divided into language-dominant and balanced bilingual groups on the basis of language proficiency difference scores, there were no significant differences on belief reasoning or emotion understanding. Language groups were demographically similar with regard to child age, parental educational level, and family income. Results suggest Mexican American language-dominant and balanced bilinguals develop belief reasoning and emotion understanding similarly.
Full Text Available Social Stratification can be described as “differentiation of a certain population hierarchically, namely, classes being located one after another in social terms”. As at present time, in the past periods as well, one of the most important factors that affected the social stratification was the posts of the persons, that is to say, the occupations and economic power they had. In Ottoman State, human communities living in cities were composed of different groups in general. It has been possible to arrange human groups especially with respect to their jobs or their economical situations and educational positions. As in the other Ottoman cities, in the city and the province of Diyarbakır, those groups constituted the social stratums. In this study, about social stratification in Diyarbakir city and state are given. Family and women issues form the main core of these layers are discussed in detail. Of the pillars of society throughout history and despite being one of the cornerstones of the nuclear family; this aspect of women in various cultures and periods or have been denied or ignored by hovering, has been reduced to a passive position. Islamic period, together with the woman, a former compared to a more realistic status gained Although, many Muslim states and cultures, traditions from a Ways must be, the status of women of Islam aiming at the level could be reached. In this study, which is expected to serve as an example to the status of women in the family and provincial organizations, in Diyarbakir Province were discussed between the situation of women in the social structure.Diyarbakir şeriyye sicils, social history and family gives important information about the woman. However, other resources will also be made. However, the issue constitutes the main source of şeriyye sicils. Diyarbakir when dealing with the family’s location in the social structure; first marriage and the family traditions and handled accordingly; Formation of
Andrew C. Gallup
Full Text Available Handgrip strength (HGS is highly heritable and a good overall measure of strength and muscle function. Indicative of blood testosterone levels and fat-free body mass, HGS is also highly sexually dimorphic. Recent psychological research shows that HGS is correlated with a number of social variables, but only in males. We conducted three studies to further investigate the relationship between HGS and measures of aggression and social competition among adolescents. Consistent with previous reports, correlations were almost exclusive to males, but this was only visible during late adolescence (i.e., high school. These findings support evolutionary hypotheses regarding grip strength in male-male competition and suggest that similar to measures of testosterone, HGS is a measure that is predictive of social behavior in older adolescent males.
Full Text Available The task of examining the origins and development of social work is fraught with competing narratives. In South Africa individualist, liberal, colonial, masculine and “white” discourses prevail. The dialectical-historical perspective, rather than chronological “progress”, shows how socio-political and economic dynamics are formative of societal conditions and of social work, which in turn has a role in shaping these dynamics. The fiction of purely historical records of progress and freedom of choice is challenged, and hegemonic and counter-hegemonic discourses uncovered. Social workers are urged to be engaged with the full complexity of events emerging from the class and race-based antagonisms of South African society
Mascaro, Olivier; Csibra, Gergely
We tested 15-month-olds' capacity to represent social-dominance hierarchies with more than two agents. Our results showed that infants found it harder to memorize dominance relations that were presented in an order that hindered the incremental formation of a single structure (Study 1). These results suggest that infants attempt to build structures incrementally, relation by relation, thereby simplifying the complex problem of recognizing a social structure. Infants also found circular dominance structures harder to process than linear dominance structures (Study 2). These expectations about the shape of structures may facilitate learning. Our results suggest that infants attempt to represent social structures composed of social relations. They indicate that human infants go beyond learning about individual social partners and their respective relations and form hypotheses about how social groups are organized.
Full Text Available In travel domains, decision support systems provide support to tourists in the planning of their vacation. In particular, when the number of possible Points of Interest (POI to visit is large, the system should help tourists providing recommendations on the POI that could be more interesting for them. Since traveling is, usually, an activity that involves small groups of people, the system should take simultaneously into account the preferences of each group's member. At the same time, it also should model possible intra-group relationships, which can have an impact in the group decision-making process. In this paper, we model this problem as a multi-agent aggregation of preferences by using weighted social choice functions, whereas such weights are automatically evaluated by analyzing the interactions of the group's members on Online Social Networks.
Guimond, Serge; Crisp, Richard J; De Oliveira, Pierre; Kamiejski, Rodolphe; Kteily, Nour; Kuepper, Beate; Lalonde, Richard N; Levin, Shana; Pratto, Felicia; Tougas, Francine; Sidanius, Jim; Zick, Andreas
In contrast to authors of previous single-nation studies, we propose that supporting multiculturalism (MC) or assimilation (AS) is likely to have different effects in different countries, depending on the diversity policy in place in a particular country and the associated norms. A causal model of intergroup attitudes and behaviors, integrating both country-specific factors (attitudes and perceived norms related to a particular diversity policy) and general social-psychological determinants (social dominance orientation), was tested among participants from countries where the pro-diversity policy was independently classified as low, medium, or high (N = 1,232). Results showed that (a) anti-Muslim prejudice was significantly reduced when the pro-diversity policy was high; (b) countries differed strongly in perceived norms related to MC and AS, in ways consistent with the actual diversity policy in each country and regardless of participants' personal attitudes toward MC and AS; (c) as predicted, when these norms were salient, due to subtle priming, structural equation modeling with country included as a variable provided support for the proposed model, suggesting that the effect of country on prejudice can be successfully accounted by it; and (d) consistent with the claim that personal support for MC and AS played a different role in different countries, within-country mediation analyses provided evidence that personal attitudes toward AS mediated the effect of social dominance orientation on prejudice when pro-diversity policy was low, whereas personal attitudes toward MC was the mediator when pro-diversity policy was high. Thus, the critical variables shaping prejudice can vary across nations. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
Höglund, Erik; Åberg Andersson, Madelene
There is general consensus that low levels of brain serotonin are associated with aggression and social dominance. However, most of the studies investigating the relationship between serotonin (5-HT) and aggressive behavior have been performed in animals with previous social experience. Studies...... performed on socially naive animals, predisposed to different levels of aggression, are needed to investigate to which extent inherited differences in 5-HTergic transmission underlie this behavioral variability. In this work we show that rainbow trout larvae, having a large yolk during emergence from...... the spawning nests, also have higher probability to become social dominant. Furthermore, newly emerged socially naïve individuals with larger yolk also had lower brain 5-HT levels. This demonstrates a propensity to social dominance, which is associated with lower brain serotonin levels, in larvae that emerge...
Szell, Michael; Sinatra, Roberta; Petri, Giovanni; Thurner, Stefan; Latora, Vito
Despite the recent availability of large data sets on human movements, a full understanding of the rules governing motion within social systems is still missing, due to incomplete information on the socio-economic factors and to often limited spatio-temporal resolutions. Here we study an entire society of individuals, the players of an online-game, with complete information on their movements in a network-shaped universe and on their social and economic interactions. Such a ``socio-economic laboratory'' allows to unveil the intricate interplay of spatial constraints, social and economic factors, and patterns of mobility. We find that the motion of individuals is not only constrained by physical distances, but also strongly shaped by the presence of socio-economic areas. These regions can be recovered perfectly by community detection methods solely based on the measured human dynamics. Moreover, we uncover that long-term memory in the time-order of visited locations is the essential ingredient for modeling the trajectories.
Full Text Available Contemporary research, often with looking-time tasks, reveals that infants possess foundational understandings of their social worlds. However, few studies have examined how these early social cognitions relate to the child’s social interactions and behavior in early development. Does an early understanding of the social world relate to how an infant interacts with his or her parents? Do early social interactions along with social-cognitive understandings in infancy predict later preschool social competencies? In the current paper, we propose a theory in which children’s later social behaviors and their understanding of the social world depend on the integration of early social understanding and experiences in infancy. We review several of our studies, as well as other research, that directly examine the pathways between these competencies to support a hypothesized network of relations between social-cognitive development and social-interactive behaviors in the development from infancy to childhood. In total, these findings reveal differences in infant social competences that both track the developmental trajectory of infants’ understanding of people over the first years of life and provide external validation for the large body of social-cognitive findings emerging from laboratory looking-time paradigms.
Jana, S.; Rajagopalan, B.; Ray, A. J.
Summer monsoon rains contribute more than half of the total annual rainfall in the semi-arid region of Southwest United States, also providing important input to river systems like the Colorado River. The North American Monsoon region or Southwest United States experiences great climatic variability on a range of spatial and temporal scales. This region has also been experiencing significant climate and hydroclimate changes over the last few years. Understanding the interannual variability of moisture delivery in this region will help in natural resources management such as water resources, ecology, etc.. In this study, we investigate the major sources of moisture and their interannual variability during the monsoon season. To this end we selected eight locations in the region from the states of Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado and Utah to cover the monsoon region of U.S and generated backward moisture trajectories for each wet day during the monsoon season (Jun-Sep) over the historical period 1964-2013, using the HYSPLIT model developed by NOAA. The tracks show clear source preferences. Gulf of Mexico is the dominant source for south eastern part of the domain, Gulf of California is dominant for the south western domain, a combination of these for regions in between and the Pacific provides the source for northern part of the domain. Decreasing trends in the frequency of the dominant moisture source events corresponds well with the decreasing trends in the rainfall over the domain. The frequencies when correlated with large scale climate variables indicate coherent patterns in the tropical Pacific and Atlantic. Furthermore, the population means for each source during El Nino and La Nina years were found to be significantly different. Since the moisture from the dominant sources is also responsible for causing extreme rainfall in this region, these trajectories will provide potential predictability of monsoon rainfall and extremes.
Ohme, Jakob; Albæk, Erik
Is there a connection between increased use of digital media and changing patterns of political participation? This study tests how use of online media for different purposes (social interaction, creative expression, online news use, social media news use) is related to three types of political...... online survey waves and a smartphone-based media diary that documents respondents’ social media use. Results indicate support for a new pathway to participation, but the relationship depends on whether citizens are socialized in a digital media environment....... participation. It examines whether mobilizing effects are partly indirect due to different understandings of citizenship (dutiful, optional, individual, collective) that may be fostered by digital media use. The study is based on a survey of a sample of the Danish population (n=1322), including data from two...
Ferri, Francesca; Ebisch, Sjoerd J. H.; Costantini, Marcello; Salone, Anatolia; Arciero, Giampiero; Mazzola, Viridiana; Ferro, Filippo Maria; Romani, Gian Luca; Gallese, Vittorio
In social life actions are tightly linked with emotions. The integration of affective- and action-related information has to be considered as a fundamental component of appropriate social understanding. The present functional magnetic resonance imaging study aimed at investigating whether an emotion (Happiness, Anger or Neutral) dynamically expressed by an observed agent modulates brain activity underlying the perception of his grasping action. As control stimuli, participants observed the same agent either only expressing an emotion or only performing a grasping action. Our results showed that the observation of an action embedded in an emotional context (agent’s facial expression), compared with the observation of the same action embedded in a neutral context, elicits higher neural response at the level of motor frontal cortices, temporal and occipital cortices, bilaterally. Particularly, the dynamic facial expression of anger modulates the re-enactment of a motor representation of the observed action. This is supported by the evidence that observing actions embedded in the context of anger, but not happiness, compared with a neutral context, elicits stronger activity in the bilateral pre-central gyrus and inferior frontal gyrus, besides the pre-supplementary motor area, a region playing a central role in motor control. Angry faces not only seem to modulate the simulation of actions, but may also trigger motor reaction. These findings suggest that emotions exert a modulatory role on action observation in different cortical areas involved in action processing. PMID:23349792
Teisl, Michael; Rogosch, Fred A; Oshri, Assaf; Cicchetti, Dante
Recent perspectives on social dominance in normative populations have suggested a developmental progression from using primarily coercive strategies to incorporation of more socially competent strategies to attain material and social resources. Parental influences on the resource control strategies children use have been proposed but not investigated empirically. The present study examined age- and gender-related differences in dominance strategies in 470 children from high-risk neighborhoods who were between 6 and 13 years of age, approximately half of whom had experienced maltreatment. A Q-sort measure of social dominance was developed and received preliminary support. Consistent with predictions from resource control theory, age-related differences in dominance-related behavior were demonstrated in both nonmaltreated and maltreated children. Maltreated children were more likely than nonmaltreated children to be identified as dominant bullies at any age. Dominance and bullying were not more likely to be associated for children who had experienced physical and sexual abuse relative to those who were neglected or emotionally maltreated. Results are discussed in terms of the influence of maltreatment on the social development of children, and intervention approaches for limiting these deleterious effects are recommended. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.
Ostrov, Jamie M.; Collins, W. Andrew
The study of social dominance has a long tradition within the peer relationships literature, but rarely has the topic been investigated observationally and longitudinally within other salient close relationships. The present study investigated the role of experiences in social relationships and adjustment indices in childhood in predicting later…
Gispen, W.H.; Veenema, H.C.; Spruijt, B.M.; Vanhooff, J.A.R.A.M.
The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the dominance history of socially housed Java-monkeys on the aging process. In monkeys, social subordinance is generally associated with elevated levels of cortisol, which, in turn, have been suggested to influence cognitive decline. As
Popova, Yanna B
This paper proposes an understanding of literary narrative as a form of social cognition and situates the study of such narratives in relation to the new comprehensive approach to human cognition, enaction. The particular form of enactive cognition that narrative understanding is proposed to depend on is that of participatory sense-making, as developed in the work of Di Paolo and De Jaegher. Currently there is no consensus as to what makes a good literary narrative, how it is understood, and why it plays such an irreplaceable role in human experience. The proposal thus identifies a gap in the existing research on narrative by describing narrative as a form of intersubjective process of sense-making between two agents, a teller and a reader. It argues that making sense of narrative literature is an interactional process of co-constructing a story-world with a narrator. Such an understanding of narrative makes a decisive break with both text-centered approaches that have dominated both structuralist and early cognitivist study of narrative, as well as pragmatic communicative ones that view narrative as a form of linguistic implicature. The interactive experience that narrative affords and necessitates at the same time, I argue, serves to highlight the active yet cooperative and communal nature of human sociality, expressed in the many forms than human beings interact in, including literary ones.
Küpper, Beate; Zick, Andreas
Across cultures studies show that men score higher on social dominance orientation than women. This gender gap is considered invariant, but conflicting explanations are discussed: Some authors refer to evolutionary psychology and perceive the gender gap to be driven by sociobiological factors. Other authors argue that social roles or gender-stereotypical self-construals encouraged by intergroup comparisons are responsible for attitudinal gender difference. In Study 1 we analyzed sex differences in social dominance orientation in three German probability surveys (each n > 2300). Unexpectedly, the analyses yielded an inverse gender gap with higher values for social dominance orientation in women than in men. Interactions with age, education, political conservatism, and perceived inequity indicated that the inverse gender gap can be mainly attributed to older, conservative, (and less educated) respondents, and those who feel they get their deserved share. In Study 2 we replicated the well-known gender gap with men scoring higher than women in social dominance orientation among German students. Results are interpreted on the basis of biocultural interaction, which integrates the sociobiological, social role, and self-construal perspectives. Our unusual findings seem to reflect a struggle for status by members of low-status groups who consider group-based hierarchy the most promising option to improve their status. While younger women take advantage of a relational, feminine self-construal that leads to lower social dominance orientation in young women than in young men, older women are supposed to profit from an agentic self-construal that results in stronger social dominance orientation values. Specific characteristics of the culture in Germany seem to promote this strategy. Here, we discuss the female ideal of the national socialist period and the agentic female social role in the post-war era necessitated by the absence of men.
Fang, Qi; Zhang, Yao-Hua; Shi, Yao-Long; Zhang, Jin-Hua; Zhang, Jian-Xu
Phenotypic variation and its epigenetic regulations within the inbred isogenic mice have long intrigued biologists. Here, we used inbred C57BL/6 mice to examine the individual differences and the inheritance of social dominance and male pheromones, expecting to create a model for studying the underlying epigenetic mechanisms for the evolution of these traits. We used a repeated male-male contest paradigm to form stable dominance-submission relationships between paired males and make superior or inferior quality manifest. Females showed olfactory preferences for the urine of dominant males to that of subordinate opponents. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometer analysis revealed that dominance-related or superior quality related pheromones were actually exaggerated male pheromone components (e.g., E-β-farnesene, hexadecanol, and 1-hexadecanol acetate) of preputial gland origin. Although the socially naïve sons of both dominant and subordinate males elicited the same female attraction when reaching adulthood, the former could dominated over the latter during undergoing the male-male competition and then gained more attraction of females. Our results demonstrated that social dominance or superior quality and the related pheromones were heritable and could be expressed through the interaction between aggression-related epigenotypes and male-male contests. It suggested that the evolution of sexually selected traits could be epigenetically determined and promoted through female mate choice. The epigenetic mechanisms driving the individual differences in behavior and male pheromones deserve further studies. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available In this paper, we explored the in-group and outer-group social distance towards sex workers and its relations to authoritarianism, social dominance orientation and self-respect. The sample consisted of 92 participants from the general population and 45 female sex workers (age 18-50. The instruments used were the Bogardus social distance scale, the Authoritarianism scale UPA-S, the Social dominance orientation scale and the Rosenberg self-respect scale. The results indicate a rather high social distance towards sex workers, including the distance by the general population being higher than the distance of the sex workers towards their own group. The correlation of authoritarianism and social distance was significant, as was the correlation between authoritarian aggressiveness and stoicism and social distance. The relationship between social dominance orientation and self-respect and social distance in our research has been statistically insignificant, however it demonstrates the expected trends. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. ON179002: Efekti egzistencijalne nesigurnosti na pojedinca i porodicu u Srbiji
Lasley, Chandra Y; Durtschi, Jared
Attitude toward women and relationship violence in Chinese societies has been shaped by a history of Confucian patriarchy. Studies suggest that this patriarchal orientation continues to influence modern-day dating behaviors and rates of relationship violence. This study examined through the lens of the intergenerational transmission of violence theory the effects of dominance and jealousy on the likelihood of physical assault and how violent socialization moderates these effects. A maximum likelihood path analysis with robust standard errors was conducted for a total of 915 individuals from Beijing, Shanghai, and Taiwan who participated in the International Dating Violence Study from 2001 to 2006. Results revealed that dominance and violent socialization were significantly associated with assault victimization and perpetration. Violent socialization also significantly amplified the associations between dominance and both minor and severe assault victimization. Jealousy, however, was only associated with severe assault perpetration. Clinical implications and further research directions are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.
A social navigation system collects data from its users--its community--about what they are doing, their opinions, and their decisions, aggregates this data, and provides the aggregated data--community data--back to individuals so that they can use it to guide behavior and decisions. Social navigation systems empower users with the ability to…
Lynne U Sneddon
Full Text Available Theoretical and empirical studies have sought to explain the formation and maintenance of social relationships within groups. The resulting dominance hierarchies have significant fitness and survival consequences dependent upon social status. We hypothesised that each position or rank within a group has a distinctive brain gene expression profile that correlates with behavioural phenotype. Furthermore, transitions in rank position should determine which genes shift in expression concurrent with the new dominance status. We used a custom cDNA microarray to profile brain transcript expression in a model species, the rainbow trout, which forms tractable linear hierarchies. Dominant, subdominant and submissive individuals had distinctive transcript profiles with 110 gene probes identified using conservative statistical analyses. By removing the dominant, we characterised the changes in transcript expression in sub-dominant individuals that became dominant demonstrating that the molecular transition occurred within 48 hours. A strong, novel candidate gene, ependymin, which was highly expressed in both the transcript and protein in subdominants relative to dominants, was tested further. Using antibody injection to inactivate ependymin in pairs of dominant and subdominant zebrafish, the subdominant fish exhibited a substantial increase in aggression in parallel with an enhanced competitive ability. This is the first study to characterise the molecular signatures of dominance status within groups and the first to implicate ependymin in control of aggressive behaviour. It also provides evidence for indirect genetic effect models in which genotype/phenotype of an individual is influenced by conspecific interactions within a group. The variation in the molecular profile of each individual within a group may offer a new explanation of intraspecific variation in gene expression within undefined groups of animals and provides new candidates for empirical
Christopher, Andrew N.; Wojda, Mark R.
This study examined how social dominance orientation (SDO) and right-wing authoritarianism (RWA) were related to two different forms of prejudice against working women: employment skepticism and traditional role preference. Three hundred forty-nine American adults completed measures of SDO, RWA, employment skepticism, traditional role preference,…
Studies female engineers' characteristics, how they were socialized into engineering, and coping mechanisms for a male-dominated work world. Interviews with 29 women and 3 men suggest that women choose engineering because of the challenge, interest, and parental influence. Many female engineers experience gender discrimination and problems with…
Hess, Chelsie A.; Gray, Jennifer M.; Nunez, Narina L.
Previous research has suggested the use of corporal punishment is widely endorsed in our society (Straus, 2000; Straus & Stewart, 1999). Furthermore, perceptions of what constitutes corporal punishment vary. The present study examined social dominance orientation (SDO) and age of child as potential factors that may influence perceptions of what is…
Vargas-Salfate, Salvador; Paez, Dario; Liu, James H; Pratto, Felicia; Gil de Zúñiga, Homero
This study tests specific competing hypotheses from social dominance theory/realistic conflict theory (RCT) versus system justification theory about the role of social status. In particular, it examines whether system justification belief and effects are stronger among people with low socioeconomic status, and in less socially developed and unequal nations than among better-off people and countries. A cross-national survey was carried out in 19 nations from the Americas, Western and Eastern Europe, Asia, and Oceania using representative online samples ( N = 14,936, 50.15% women, M age = 41.61 years). At the individual level, system justification beliefs, right-wing authoritarianism, social dominance orientation, national identification, sociopolitical conservatism, sex, age, and social status were measured. At the national level, the human development index and the Gini index were used. Multilevel analyses performed indicated that results fit better with the social dominance/RCT approach, as system justification was higher in high-status and developed nations; further, associations between legitimizing ideologies and system justification were stronger among high-status people.
Full Text Available In this essay I argue that social media need to be understood as part of complex environments of communicative opportunities which I conceptualize as polymedia. This approach shifts our attention from social media as discrete platforms to the ways users navigate environments of affordances in order to manage their social relationships. Ethnography emerges as the most appropriate method to capture the relational dynamics that underpin social media practices within polymedia.
Miller, Patricia H.; DeMarie-Dreblow, Darlene
This study aimed to describe developmental differences in five-, seven-, and nine-year-olds' understanding of displaced aggression and to identify social and cognitive correlates of these differences. Understanding of displaced aggression increased significantly with age. (RH)
Full Text Available This paper extends the social dominance perspective to the Indian context by examining the role of belief in Karma (sanchita in the justification of the Indian caste system. Using social dominance theory (Sidanius & Pratto, 1999 and the dual process model (Duckitt, 2001 as guiding theoretical frameworks, we tested four related hypotheses within a sample of 385 Indian university students. In particular we expected that social dominance orientation (SDO and right-wing authoritarianism (RWA would both make relatively strong and independent contributions to participants’ endorsement of Karma (H1, as well as their support for antiegalitarian social policies and conventions (H2. We also predicted that endorsement of Karma, itself, would be strongly related to support for these policies, net of the influence of SDO, RWA, as well as generalized prejudice (H3. Finally, and consistent with the notion that Karma functions as a legitimizing ideology, we hypothesized that it would at least partially mediate, net of generalized prejudice, the relationships between SDO and RWA, on the one hand, and antiegalitarian and conventional social policies, on the other (H4. Results of latent variable structural equation modeling provided support for all four hypotheses. The theoretical implications of these findings are discussed.
MacDougall, Arlene G; Vandermeer, Matthew R J; Norman, Ross M G
Self-esteem plays a role in the formation and maintenance of symptoms and in the recovery from psychotic illness. This study examines the relative contribution of perceived social dominance and other known predictors in determining self-esteem in 102 individuals in an early intervention program for psychosis. Regression analysis demonstrated that scores on the Perceived Relational Evaluation Scale (PRES), depressed mood, social dominance, gender and positive symptoms significantly contributed to the prediction of scores on the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale (RSES), whereas self-stigma and negative symptoms did not. Our study suggests that low self-esteem in early psychosis can be understood in part as a reflection of low levels of perceived social value and status. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Herrera, Mauricio; Armelini, Guillermo; Salvaj, Erica
There are many studies in the marketing and diffusion literature of the conditions in which social contagion affects adoption processes. Yet most of these studies assume that social interactions do not change over time, even though actors in social networks exhibit different likelihoods of being influenced across the diffusion period. Rooted in physics and epidemiology theories, this study proposes a Susceptible Infectious Susceptible (SIS) model to assess the role of social contagion in adoption processes, which takes changes in social dynamics over time into account. To study the adoption over a span of ten years, the authors used detailed data sets from a community of consumers and determined the importance of social contagion, as well as how the interplay of social and non-social influences from outside the community drives adoption processes. Although social contagion matters for diffusion, it is less relevant in shaping adoption when the study also includes social dynamics among members of the community. This finding is relevant for managers and entrepreneurs who trust in word-of-mouth marketing campaigns whose effect may be overestimated if marketers fail to acknowledge variations in social interactions.
Full Text Available There are many studies in the marketing and diffusion literature of the conditions in which social contagion affects adoption processes. Yet most of these studies assume that social interactions do not change over time, even though actors in social networks exhibit different likelihoods of being influenced across the diffusion period. Rooted in physics and epidemiology theories, this study proposes a Susceptible Infectious Susceptible (SIS model to assess the role of social contagion in adoption processes, which takes changes in social dynamics over time into account. To study the adoption over a span of ten years, the authors used detailed data sets from a community of consumers and determined the importance of social contagion, as well as how the interplay of social and non-social influences from outside the community drives adoption processes. Although social contagion matters for diffusion, it is less relevant in shaping adoption when the study also includes social dynamics among members of the community. This finding is relevant for managers and entrepreneurs who trust in word-of-mouth marketing campaigns whose effect may be overestimated if marketers fail to acknowledge variations in social interactions.
El uso de las redes sociales es cada vez más común en todo el mundo. Sin embargo, poco se sabe acerca de lo que conforma el uso de las redes socia - les, especialmente en las regiones en desarrollo del mundo. Este proyecto de investigación tiene por objeto dilucidar los determinantes del uso de las redes sociales en ocho países de América Latina contiguos desde México hasta Colombia utilizando los datos de la encuesta de Opinión Pública La - tinoamericana de Proyectos 2012. El uso de las ...
Lim, Eric T. K.; Cyr, Dianne; Tan, Chee-Wee
, socializing with others and much more. This study therefore endeavors to shed light on this growing trend by decomposing members’ motives for participating within SNSs into identity-based, bondbased and comparison-based attachments. Each of these forms of attachment in turn affects members’ cooperative......Social Networking Sites (SNSs) are pervasive phenomena in today’s society. With greater connectivity and interactivity enabled through emerging technologies, SNSs provide communication platforms for individuals to bridge spatial and temporal differences when making friends, sharing experiences...
Du Plessis, C
Full Text Available This paper builds on earlier ecological approaches to urban development, as well as more recent thinking in the fields of sustainability science, resilience thinking and complexity theory, to propose a conceptual framework for understanding cities...
Bronfman, Nicolás C.; Jiménez, Raquel B.; Arévalo, Pilar C.; Cifuentes, Luis A.
Social acceptability is a determinant factor in the failure or success of the government's decisions about which electricity generation sources will satisfy the growing demand for energy. The main goal of this study was to validate a causal trust-acceptability model for electricity generation sources. In the model, social acceptance of an energy source is directly caused by perceived risk and benefit and also by social trust in regulatory agencies (both directly and indirectly, through perceived risk and benefit). Results from a web-based survey of Chilean university students demonstrated that data for energy sources that are controversial in Chilean society (fossil fuels, hydro, and nuclear power) fit the hypothesized model, whereas data for non conventional renewable energy sources (solar, wind, geothermal and tidal) did not. Perceived benefit had the greatest total effect on acceptability, thus emerging as a key predictive factor of social acceptability of controversial electricity generation sources. Further implications for regulatory agencies are discussed. - Highlights: ► We tested a causal trust-acceptability model for electricity generation sources in Chile. ► Data for controversial energy sources in the Chilean society (fossil fuels, hydro and nuclear power) fit the hypothesized model. ► Data for non conventional renewable energy sources did not fit the data. ► Perceived benefit showed the greatest total effect on acceptability.
Jun 15, 2011 ... a pro forma designed by the authors to assess the psychosocial problems and risk factors in some blind people in. Ilorin metropolis. .... visually impaired.. Ideally for any blind patient, the eye doctor should look for maladjustment in social-economic functioning (unemployment, difficulty in unaided mobility ...
Full Text Available El uso de las redes sociales es cada vez más común en todo el mundo. Sin embargo, poco se sabe acerca de lo que conforma el uso de las redes socia - les, especialmente en las regiones en desarrollo del mundo. Este proyecto de investigación tiene por objeto dilucidar los determinantes del uso de las redes sociales en ocho países de América Latina contiguos desde México hasta Colombia utilizando los datos de la encuesta de Opinión Pública La - tinoamericana de Proyectos 2012. El uso de las redes sociales para efectos de defender una posición política se emplea como variable dependiente con una serie de características a nivel individual incluidas como variables inde - pendientes. Los resultados del modelo de regresión multinomial explican los determinantes del uso de las redes sociales para la recolección o difu - sión de la información política como individuos más capaces e interesados en emplear esos medios de comunicación que sus contrapartes menos ca - paces o interesados. Los resultados salen desde investigaciones previas que se centraron en el uso general de Internet para la recopilación de noticias, dado que la percepción de la nueva industria de medios de comunicación domésticos no afecta el uso de las redes sociales de este tipo.
Buwalda, Bauke; Koolhaas, Jaap M; de Boer, Sietse F
Hierarchical social status greatly influences health and well-being in mammals, including humans. The social rank of an individual is established during competitive encounters with conspecifics. Intuitively, therefore, social dominance and aggressiveness may seem intimately linked. Yet, whether an aggressive personality trait may predispose individuals to a particular rank in a social colony setting remains largely unclear. Here we tested the hypothesis that high trait aggressiveness in Wildtype Groningen (WTG) rats, as assessed in a classic resident-intruder offensive aggression paradigm predicts social dominance in a mixed-sex colony housing using the Visible Burrow System (VBS). We also hypothesized that hierarchical steepness, as reflected in the number and intensity of the social conflicts, positively correlates with the average level of trait aggressiveness of the male subjects in the VBS. Clear and stable hierarchical ranking was formed within a few days in VBS colonies as indicated and reflected by a rapid loss of body weight in subordinates which stabilized after 2-3days. Social conflicts, that occurred mainly during these first few days, also resulted in bite wounds in predominantly subordinate males. Data clearly showed that trait aggressiveness does not predict dominance status. The most aggressive male in a mixed sex group of conspecifics living in a closed VBS environment does not always become the dominant male. In addition, data did not convincingly indicate that in colonies with only highly aggressive males, agonistic interactions were more intense. Number of bite wounds and body weight loss did not positively correlate with trait-aggressiveness of subordinates. In this study, rats from this wild-derived rat strain behave differently from Long-Evans laboratory rats that have been studied up till now in many experiments using the VBS. Strain dependent differences in the capacity to display appropriate social behavior fitting an adaptive strategy to
Laustsen, Lasse; Petersen, Michael Bang; A. Klofstad, Casey
in modern elections with lower-pitched voices are generally more successful. As lower-pitched voices are perceived as stronger and more dominant, these findings have been taken to indicate a general preference for dispositional abilities in leaders to protect and prevail in conflicts. Here we extend upon...... among liberal Democrats. In a third study we show that preferences for lower-pitched candidate voices stem from individual differences in Social Dominance Orientation (SDO). Importantly, across all three studies subjects’ party affiliation, ideology, and SDO only predict references for male candidate...
Understanding Social Freedom and Humanism in Odera Oruka's Philosophy. O Nyarwath. Abstract. H. Odera Oruka's philosophy, as can be discerned from his various works, revolves around the issue of social justice. In this paper I seek to show how Oruka's idea of social justice is inextricably bound up with his ...
Herschbach, Mitchell Albert
Folk psychology is the ability to interpret people's mental states (beliefs, desires, etc.) and use this information to explain and predict their behavior. While folk psychology has traditionally been seen as fundamental to human social understanding, philosophers drawing on the phenomenological tradition have recently argued that most of our everyday social interactions do not involve folk psychology. I defend the role of folk psychology in human social understanding against these phenomenol...
Williamson, Cait M; Romeo, Russell D; Curley, James P
Social competence - the ability of animals to dynamically adjust their social behavior dependent on the current social context - is fundamental to the successful establishment and maintenance of social relationships in group-living species. The social opportunity paradigm, where animals rapidly ascend a social hierarchy following the removal of more dominant individuals, is a well-established approach for studying the neural and neuroendocrine mechanisms underlying socially competent behavior. In the current study, we demonstrate that this paradigm can be successfully adapted for studying socially competent behavior in laboratory mice. Replicating our previous reports, we show that male laboratory mice housed in a semi-natural environment form stable linear social hierarchies. Novel to the current study, we find that subdominant male mice immediately respond to the removal of the alpha male from a hierarchy by initiating a dramatic increase in aggressive behavior towards more subordinate individuals. Consequently, subdominants assume the role of the alpha male. Analysis of brain gene expression in individuals 1h following social ascent indicates elevated gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) mRNA levels in the medial preoptic area (mPOA) of the hypothalamus compared to individuals that do not experience a social opportunity. Moreover, hormonal analyses indicate that subdominant individuals have increased circulating plasma testosterone levels compared to subordinate individuals. Our findings demonstrate that male mice are able to dynamically and rapidly adjust both behavior and neuroendocrine function in response to changes in social context. Further, we establish the social opportunity paradigm as an ethologically relevant approach for studying social competence and behavioral plasticity in mammals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Juhlin, Jonas A.; Richardson, John
Social media has become a dominating feature in modern life. Platforms like Facebook, Twitter, and Google have users all over the world. People from all walks of life use social media. For the intelligence services, social media is an element that cannot be ignored. It holds immense amount of information, and the potential to extract useful intelligence cannot be ignored. Social media has been around for sufficient time that most intelligence services recognize the fact that social media needs some form of attention. However, for the intelligence collector and analyst several aspects must be uncovered in order to fully exploit social media for intelligence purposes. This paper will present Project Avatar, an experiment in obtaining effective intelligence from social media sources, and several emerging analytic techniques to expand the intelligence gathered from these sources.
Juhlin, Jonas Alastair
Social media has become a dominating feature in modern life. Platforms like Facebook, Twitter, and Google have users all over the world. People from all walks of life use social media. For the intelligence services, social media is an element that cannot be ignored. It holds immense amount...... of information, and the potential to extract useful intelligence cannot be ignored. Social media has been around for sufficient time that most intelligence services recognize the fact that social media needs some form of attention. However, for the intelligence collector and analyst several aspects must...... be uncovered in order to fully exploit social media for intelligence purposes. This paper will present Project Avatar, an experiment in obtaining effective intelligence from social media sources, and several emerging analytic techniques to expand the intelligence gathered from these sources....
Kravetz, S; Faust, M; Lipshitz, S; Shalhav, S
This study used Baron and Kenny's (1986) criteria for mediation to investigate the extent to which interpersonal understanding mediates the relation between learning disabilities (LD) and social adaptation in the classroom. Twenty-two children with and 22 children without a diagnosis of LD completed a semistructured developmental clinical interview measure of interpersonal understanding. They were also rated by their fourth- and fifth-grade teachers on a measure of social adaptation in the classroom. Interpersonal understanding and social adaptation in the classroom were found to be positively correlated. Children with LD exhibited less interpersonal understanding and social adaptation. Although this group difference on social adaptation was greatly reduced when interpersonal understanding was statistically controlled, it remained statistically significant. These results suggest that reduced social adaptation in the classroom and lower interpersonal understanding are both associated with a diagnosis of LD. However, they do not conclusively support the claim that interpersonal understanding mediates the relation between LD and social adaptation. Thus, whether the social difficulties of people with LD stem from the same complex phenomena that produce these people's learning problems remains an open question.
Martínez, Carmen; Saiz, José; Angosto, Josefa
This study examines differences in prejudice, perceived similarity, and social dominance in members of the majority who favor integration as a means of minority acculturation. A total of 342 non-Gypsy Spanish participants filled out a questionnaire about their relationship to one of three outgroups: Maghrebians, Gypsies, and Latin Americans. Hierarchical cluster analysis showed that a three-cluster solution was most fitting for every outgroup. ANOVAs applied to the three clusters indicated significant differences in prejudice, perceived similarity, and social dominance. Referring to Gypsies the largest effect size was observed in manifest prejudice (η2 = .63), in Maghrebians, the largest effect size was observed in subtle prejudice (η2 =.77), while for Latin Americans, perceived similarity had the largest effect size η2 ( = .60). The results reveal a need to modify existing measures of integration; we recommend using questionnaires to measure behaviors that members of the majority would be willing to implement.
Sakata, Kiriko; Iwanaga, Makoto
The purpose of this paper is to examine effects of dominant social-psychological factors on paranormal belief. I focused three explanatory variables : attitude toward science, mass media use and interpersonal communication about paranormal phenomena. Four hundred and eighty-two undergraduates (225 women and 257 men) completed the paranormal belief scale, the attitude toward science scale, questions about their mass media use, and questions about their interpersonal communication about paranor...
This study is a path analysis study on the ability of the community on reforestation and their perceptions of the functions of the forest who live around the forest Protected Mangunan Village, District Dlingo, Bantul, Yogyakarta Special Province with the application of management concepts and using a scale behavior of dominant social attitudes paradgm. The study looked at the behavior of the people who live around the village protected forest Mangunan to conclude anti-environmental stance or ...
Rojas Mora, Alfonso; Meniri, Magali; Ciprietti, Sabrina; Helfenstein, Fabrice
Comparative studies suggest that sperm competition exerts stabilizing selection towards an optimal sperm design - e.g., the relative size and covariation of different sperm sections or a quantitative measure of sperm shape - that maximizes male fertility, which results in reduced levels of within-male variation in sperm morphology. Yet, these studies also reveal substantial amounts of unexplained within-ejaculate variance, and the factors presiding to the maintenance of such within-male variation in sperm design at the population level still remain to be identified. Sperm competition models predict that males should progressively invest more resources in their germline as their mating costs increase, i.e., the soma/germline allocation trade-off hypothesis. When access to fertile females is determined by social dominance, the soma/germline allocation trade-off hypothesis predicts that dominant males should invest less in the control of spermatogenesis. Hence, dominance should positively correlate with within-male variance in sperm design. In support of this hypothesis, we found that dominant house sparrow males produce ejaculates with higher levels of within-ejaculate variation in sperm design compared to subordinate males. However, after experimentally manipulating male social status, this pattern was not maintained. Our results suggest that males might control variation in sperm design according to their social status to some extent. Yet, it seems that such within-ejaculate variation in sperm design cannot be rapidly adjusted to a new status. While variation in sperm design could result from various non-exclusive sources, we discuss how strategic allocation of resources to the somatic vs. the germline functions could be an important process shaping the relationship between within-male variation in sperm design and social status.
Mellard, Daryl F.; Anthony, Jason L.; Woods, Kari L.
This study extends the literature on the component skills involved in oral reading fluency. Dominance analysis was applied to assess the relative importance of seven reading-related component skills in the prediction of the oral reading fluency of 272 adult literacy learners. The best predictors of oral reading fluency when text difficulty was…
Full Text Available Canines represent an essential component of the dentition for any heterodont mammal. In primates, like many other mammals, canines are frequently used as weapons. Hence, tooth size and wear may have significant implications for fighting ability, and consequently for social dominance rank, reproductive success, and fitness. We evaluated sources of variance in canine growth and length in a well-studied wild primate population because of the potential importance of canines for male reproductive success in many primates. Specifically, we measured maxillary canine length in 80 wild male baboons (aged 5.04-20.45 years from the Amboseli ecosystem in southern Kenya, and examined its relationship with maturation, age, and social dominance rank. In our analysis of maturation, we compared food-enhanced baboons (those that fed part time at a refuse pit associated with a tourist lodge with wild-feeding males, and found that food-enhanced males achieved long canines earlier than wild-feeding males. Among adult males, canine length decreased with age because of tooth wear. We found some evidence that, after controlling for age, longer canines were associated with higher adult dominance rank (accounting for 9% of the variance in rank, but only among relatively high-ranking males. This result supports the idea that social rank, and thus reproductive success and fitness, may depend in part on fighting ability mediated by canine size.
Vervaecke, H.; Vries, Han de; Elsacker, Linda van
Bonobos have been described as a relatively egalitarian and female dominant species. The exact nature and quality of their dominance relationships and the existence of female dominance are current topics of dispute. We investigated the consistency across social contexts, the stability in time,
Adams, Ryan E.; Bartlett, Nancy H.; Bukowski, William M.
The current study examined social dominance and peer victimization as possible intervening and moderating variables of the association between peer liking and relational aggression because previous findings suggest that social dominance and peer victimization are important for predicting the acceptableness and success of aggression. A total of 367…
At both a micro-information level and a macro-societal level, the concepts of “knowledge” and “wisdom” are complementary – in both decisions and in social structures and institutions. At the decision level, knowledge is concerned with how to make a proper choice of means, where “best” is measured as the efficiency toward achieving an end. Wisdom is concerned with how to make a proper choice of ends that attain “best” values. At a societal level, knowledge is managed through science/technology and innovation. And while science/technology is society's way to create new means with high efficiencies, they reveal nothing about values. Technology can be used for good or for evil, to make the world into a garden or to destroy all life. It is societal wisdom which should influence the choice of proper ends -- ends to make the world a garden. How can society make progress in wisdom as well as knowledge? Historically, the disciplines of the physical sciences and biology have provided sci...
Miranda-de la Lama, G C; Pascual-Alonso, M; Guerrero, A; Alberti, P; Alierta, S; Sans, P; Gajan, J P; Villarroel, M; Dalmau, A; Velarde, A; Campo, M M; Galindo, F; Santolaria, M P; Sañudo, C; María, G A
The aim of this study was to assess the effect of social dominance on some indicators of welfare, production and meat quality of young bulls. A total of 60 bulls of the Gasconne breed, 9 months old, housed indoors were used. Indices of success order were calculated to reflect social dominance of each bull into three ranking categories (low, middle and high). Blood samples were taken to measure cortisol, lactate, glucose, creatine kinase, non-esterified fatty acid and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (N/L). M. longissimus samples were analysed in terms of pH, water holding capacity (WHC), texture, colour and sensorial attributes. Social rank influenced cattle stress response, which had an effect on productive performance but not on meat quality traits, with the exception of the sensory traits. These results emphasize the importance of implementing best management practices during pre-harvest handling of cattle in order to modulate any possible risk factor for social stress. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Naud, Alexandre; Chailleux, Eloise; Kestens, Yan; Bret, Céline; Desjardins, Dominic; Petit, Odile; Ngoubangoye, Barthélémy; Sueur, Cédric
Although there exist advantages to group-living in comparison to a solitary lifestyle, costs and gains of group-living may be unequally distributed among group members. Predation risk, vigilance levels and food intake may be unevenly distributed across group spatial geometry and certain within-group spatial positions may be more or less advantageous depending on the spatial distribution of these factors. In species characterized with dominance hierarchy, high-ranking individuals are commonly observed in advantageous spatial position. However, in complex social systems, individuals can develop affiliative relationships that may balance the effect of dominance relationships in individual's spatial distribution. The objective of the present study is to investigate how the group spatial distribution of a semi-free ranging colony of Mandrills relates to its social organization. Using spatial observations in an area surrounding the feeding zone, we tested the three following hypothesis: (1) does dominance hierarchy explain being observed in proximity or far from a food patch? (2) Do affiliative associations also explain being observed in proximity or far from a food patch? (3) Do the differences in rank in the group hierarchy explain being co-observed in proximity of a food patch? Our results showed that high-ranking individuals were more observed in proximity of the feeding zone while low-ranking individuals were more observed at the boundaries of the observation area. Furthermore, we observed that affiliative relationships were also associated with individual spatial distributions and explain more of the total variance of the spatial distribution in comparison with dominance hierarchy. Finally, we found that individuals observed at a same moment in proximity of the feeding zone were more likely to be distant in the hierarchy while controlling for maternal kinship, age and sex similarity. This study brings some elements about how affiliative networks and dominance
Full Text Available Although there exist advantages to group-living in comparison to a solitary lifestyle, costs and gains of group-living may be unequally distributed among group members. Predation risk, vigilance levels and food intake may be unevenly distributed across group spatial geometry and certain within-group spatial positions may be more or less advantageous depending on the spatial distribution of these factors. In species characterized with dominance hierarchy, high-ranking individuals are commonly observed in advantageous spatial position. However, in complex social systems, individuals can develop affiliative relationships that may balance the effect of dominance relationships in individual’s spatial distribution. The objective of the present study is to investigate how the group spatial distribution of a semi-free ranging colony of Mandrills relates to its social organization. Using spatial observations in an area surrounding the feeding zone, we tested the three following hypothesis: (1 does dominance hierarchy explain being observed in proximity or far from a food patch? (2 Do affiliative associations also explain being observed in proximity or far from a food patch? (3 Do the differences in rank in the group hierarchy explain being co-observed in proximity of a food patch? Our results showed that high-ranking individuals were more observed in proximity of the feeding zone while low-ranking individuals were more observed at the boundaries of the observation area. Furthermore, we observed that affiliative relationships were also associated with individual spatial distributions and explain more of the total variance of the spatial distribution in comparison with dominance hierarchy. Finally, we found that individuals observed at a same moment in proximity of the feeding zone were more likely to be distant in the hierarchy while controlling for maternal kinship, age and sex similarity. This study brings some elements about how affiliative networks
Nijholt, Antinus; Heylen, Dirk K.J.; Rienks, R.J.; Whitworth, Brian; de Moor, Aldo
In this chapter we discuss a particular approach to the creation of Social Technical Systems for the meeting domain. Besides presenting a methodology this chapter will present applications that have been constructed on the basis of the method and applications that can be envisioned. Throughout the
Courses: Intercultural Communication, Communication and Identity, Interpersonal Communication. Objectives: After completing this semester-long activity, students should be able to (1) discuss and apply the concepts of social identities; (2) analyze the influence of self-identities on online communication practices of self to others and others to…
Despite close relationships between men and women in daily lives, gender inequality is ubiquitous and often supported by sexist ideology. The understanding of potential bases of sexist ideology is thus important. According to Duckitt's dual-process model (2001), different worldviews may explain different types of sexist ideology. Individuals who hold a "competitive world" worldview tend to endorse group-based dominance. This lends itself to the endorsement of hostile sexism, because hostile sexism is an obvious form of male dominance. Conversely, individuals who hold a "dangerous world" worldview tend to adhere to social cohesion, collective security, and social traditions. This lends itself to the endorsement of benevolent sexism, because benevolent sexism values women who conform to gender norms. As predicted by Duckitt's model, research has shown that social dominance orientation, a general orientation towards the endorsement of group-based dominance, is closely associated with hostile sexism. Furthermore, right-wing authoritarianism, which measures adherence to social traditions, is closely associated with benevolent sexism. Due to the interdependent nature of gender relationships, the current research proposed that a relationship-based belief in hierarchy, deferential family norms, and norms depicting proper manners among family members should predict the endorsement of hostile and benevolent sexism, after controlling for social dominance orientation and right-wing authoritarianism. As predicted, according to student samples collected in Taiwan and the US, the endorsement of deferential family norms predicted the endorsement of hostile sexism and of benevolent sexism, respectively. In addition, among men and women, social dominance orientation predicted hostile sexism more strongly (as opposed to benevolent sexism), whereas right-wing authoritarianism predicted benevolent sexism more strongly (as opposed to hostile sexism). Implications regarding relationship
Nandi, Anjan K; Sumana, Annagiri; Bhattacharya, Kunal
Social insects provide an excellent platform to investigate flow of information in regulatory systems since their successful social organization is essentially achieved by effective information transfer through complex connectivity patterns among the colony members. Network representation of such behavioural interactions offers a powerful tool for structural as well as dynamical analysis of the underlying regulatory systems. In this paper, we focus on the dominance interaction networks in the tropical social wasp Ropalidia marginata-a species where behavioural observations indicate that such interactions are principally responsible for the transfer of information between individuals about their colony needs, resulting in a regulation of their own activities. Our research reveals that the dominance networks of R. marginata are structurally similar to a class of naturally evolved information processing networks, a fact confirmed also by the predominance of a specific substructure-the 'feed-forward loop'-a key functional component in many other information transfer networks. The dynamical analysis through Boolean modelling confirms that the networks are sufficiently stable under small fluctuations and yet capable of more efficient information transfer compared to their randomized counterparts. Our results suggest the involvement of a common structural design principle in different biological regulatory systems and a possible similarity with respect to the effect of selection on the organization levels of such systems. The findings are also consistent with the hypothesis that dominance behaviour has been shaped by natural selection to co-opt the information transfer process in such social insect species, in addition to its primal function of mediation of reproductive competition in the colony. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.
Papachristos, Andrew V
Most sociological theories consider murder an outcome of the differential distribution of individual, neighborhood, or social characteristics. And while such studies explain variation in aggregate homicide rates, they do not explain the social order of murder, that is, who kills whom, when, where, and for what reason. This article argues that gang murder is best understood not by searching for its individual determinants but by examining the social networks of action and reaction that create it. In short, the social structure of gang murder is defined by the manner in which social networks are constructed and by people's placement in them. The author uses a network approach and incident-level homicide records to recreate and analyze the structure of gang murders in Chicago. Findings demonstrate that individual murders between gangs create an institutionalized network of group conflict, net of any individual's participation or motive. Within this network, murders spread through an epidemic-like process of social contagion as gangs evaluate the highly visible actions of others in their local networks and negotiate dominance considerations that arise during violent incidents.
Richards, K. Andrew R.; McLoughlin, Gabriella M.; Ivy, Victoria Nicole; Gaudreault, Karen Lux
Purpose: Despite an abundance of research on doctoral student socialization in higher education, little attention has been paid to physical education doctoral students. This study sought to understand physical education doctoral students' perceptions of their socialization as preparation for faculty roles. Method: Participants included 32 physical…
Ruths, Derek; Shultz, Thomas
The proposed framework is insufficient to categorize and understand current evidence on decision making. There are some ambiguities in the questions asked that require additional distinctions between correctness and accuracy, decision making and learning, accuracy and confidence, and social influence and empowerment. Social learning techniques are not all the same: Behavior copying is quite different from theory passing. Sigmoidal acquisition curves are not unique to social learning and are often mistaken for other accelerating curves.
Liu, Jenny H.; Shi, Wei; Elrahman, O.A. (Sam); Ban, Xuegang (Jeff); Reilly, Jack M.
Social media has been gaining prominence in public transit agencies in their communication strategies and daily management. This study aims to better understand recent trends in social media usage in public transit agencies, to examine which agencies use what kind of social media programs for what purposes, and how they measure their programs. A survey was conducted of the top transit agencies in the nation, and results are examined through descriptive statistical analysis, correlation analys...
Peters, Brett J; Hammond, Matthew D; Reis, Harry T; Jamieson, Jeremy P
Testosterone reactivity has been conceptualized as a marker of social submission at low levels and social dominance at high levels. However, hormonal fluctuations in response to romantic partners remain largely unknown. Towards this end, 88 couples (N=176) discussed an emotional video. Prior to the conversation, one member of the dyad (the "agent") was instructed to regulate affective displays in a specific way (express or suppress). The other dyad member (the "partner") was given no special instruction and was unaware of regulation instructions given to the agent. Agents who regulated affective displays were expected to exhibit decreased testosterone from baseline because they were prevented from tuning their emotional responses to their partners. Furthermore, we expected declines in testosterone would be moderated by partners' authoritativeness: People would be particularly submissive to more dominant partners. Predictions were supported for females and partially supported for males. Agents exhibited decreases in testosterone from baseline relative to partners. For females, this main effect was moderated by partners' trait-level authoritativeness: Females interacting with partners higher in authority exhibited larger decreases in testosterone when instructed to restrict their emotion regulation strategies. This research is the first to document testosterone reactivity in existing romantic relationships and underscores the importance of taking into account social and relational contexts when examining hormonal regulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Halpern, Jodi; Jutte, Douglas; Colby, Jackie; Boyce, W Thomas
Recent research shows that by age 5, children form rigid social hierarchies, with some children consistently subordinated, and then later, bullied. Further, several studies suggest that enduring mental and physical harm follow. It is time to analyze the health burdens posed by early social dominance and to consider the ethical implications of ongoing socially caused harms. First, we reviewed research demonstrating the health impact of early childhood subordination. Second, we used philosophical conceptions of children's rights and social justice to consider whether children have a right to protection and who has an obligation to protect them from social harms. Collectively, recent studies show that early subordination is instantiated biologically, increasing lifetime physical and mental health problems. The pervasive, and enduring nature of these harms leads us to argue that children have a right to be protected. Further, society has a role responsibility to protect children because society conscripts children into schools. Society's promise to parents that schools will be fiduciaries entails an obligation to safeguard each child's right to a reasonably open future. Importantly, this role responsibility holds independently of bearing any causal responsibility for the harm. This new argument based on protecting from harm is much stronger than previous equality of opportunity arguments, and applies broadly to other social determinants of health. Social institutions have a role responsibility to protect children that is not dependent on playing a causal role in the harm. Children's rights to protection from social harms can be as strong as their rights to protection from direct bodily harms. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Is Inspiring Group Members an Effective Predictor of Social Dominance in Early Adolescence? Direct and Moderated Effects of Behavioral Strategies, Social Skills, and Gender on Resource Control and Popularity.
Vermande, Marjolijn M; Gilholm, Patricia A; Reijntjes, Albert H A; Hessen, Dave J; Sterck, Elisabeth H M; Overduin-de Vries, Anne M
Dominance in the peer group is important for adolescents. Resource Control Theory posits that both coercive and prosocial (positively assertive) strategies are associated with dominance. Combining Resource Control Theory with Socioanalytic Theory on personality, we hypothesized that inspiring group members would be an additional effective strategy. This study examined whether the three behavioral strategies and two types of social skills (social competence and manipulation) predicted dominance (resource control and popularity). Participants were 619 Dutch adolescents (M age = 13.1; 47% female) in the first grade of secondary school. They completed peer reports (behavioral strategies and dominance) and self-reports (social skills). Only inspirational and coercive strategies substantially predicted dominance. Main effects of social skills emerged. Moderation between strategies and social skills was only observed for girls (e.g., coercive strategy use was associated with more popularity for girls with higher levels of social manipulation skills). This study furthered our understanding of the predictors of dominance in adolescence by including inspirational behavior and examining prosocial and antisocial skills.
Rebekkah Lauren Gross
Full Text Available We examined how individual differences in social understanding contribute to variability in early-appearing prosocial behavior. Moreover, potential sources of variability in social understanding were explored and examined as additional possible predictors of prosocial behavior. Using a multi-method approach with both observed and parent-report measures, 325 children aged 18 to 30 months were administered measures of social understanding (e.g. use of emotion words; self-understanding, prosocial behavior (in separate tasks measuring instrumental helping, empathic helping, and sharing, as well as parent-reported prosociality at home, temperament (fearfulness, shyness, and social fear, and parental socialization of prosocial behavior in the family. Individual differences in social understanding predicted variability in empathic helping and parent-reported prosociality, but not instrumental helping or sharing. Parental socialization of prosocial behavior was positively associated with toddlers’ social understanding, prosocial behavior at home, and instrumental helping in the lab, and negatively associated with sharing (possibly reflecting parents’ increased efforts to encourage children who were less likely to share. Further, socialization moderated the association between social understanding and prosocial behavior, such that social understanding was less predictive of prosocial behavior among children whose parents took a more active role in socializing their prosociality. None of the dimensions of temperament was associated with either social understanding or prosocial behavior. Parental socialization of prosocial behavior is thus an important source of variability in children’s early prosociality, acting in concert with early differences in social understanding, with different patterns of influence for different subtypes of prosocial behavior.
Ruffman, Ted; Taumoepeau, Mele; Perkins, Chris
Many authors have argued that infants understand goals, intentions, and beliefs. We posit that infants' success on such tasks might instead reveal an understanding of behaviour, that infants' proficient statistical learning abilities might enable such insights, and that maternal talk scaffolds children's learning about the social world as well. We…
Selene S C Nogueira
Full Text Available Grunt-like calls are present in the vocal repertoire of many group-living mammals and seem to facilitate social interactions between lower and higher-ranking members. The white-lipped peccary (Tayassu pecari lives in stable hierarchical mixed-sex groups and like non-human primates, usually emits grunt-like calls following aggressive interactions, mainly during feeding contexts. We investigated the possible functions of peccaries' grunt-like calls and their relationship to the individuals' social rank, identity, and sexual dimorphism. We observed that low-ranking individuals emitted grunt-like calls more often than high-ranking ones, and that the alpha male never emitted this vocalization. Moreover, the mean minimum frequency of grunt-like calls decreased as the peccary's rank increased. The findings revealed differences among individual grunts, but the low accuracy of cross-validation (16% suggests that individual recognition in peccaries may be less important than an honest signal of individual social status. In addition, the absence of differences in the acoustic parameters of grunt-like calls between males and females points to the lack of sexual dimorphism in this species. We verified that after hearing grunt calls, dominant opponents were more likely to cease attacking a victim, or at least delay the continuation of conflict, probably decreasing the severity of agonistic interactions. Our findings are particularly important to improve the current understanding of the role of grunt-like calls in herd-living mammals with linear dominant hierarchies, and strongly suggest that they are involved in the maintenance of herd social stability and cohesion.
Nogueira, Selene S C; Caselli, Christini B; Costa, Thaise S O; Moura, Leiliany N; Nogueira-Filho, Sérgio L G
Grunt-like calls are present in the vocal repertoire of many group-living mammals and seem to facilitate social interactions between lower and higher-ranking members. The white-lipped peccary (Tayassu pecari) lives in stable hierarchical mixed-sex groups and like non-human primates, usually emits grunt-like calls following aggressive interactions, mainly during feeding contexts. We investigated the possible functions of peccaries' grunt-like calls and their relationship to the individuals' social rank, identity, and sexual dimorphism. We observed that low-ranking individuals emitted grunt-like calls more often than high-ranking ones, and that the alpha male never emitted this vocalization. Moreover, the mean minimum frequency of grunt-like calls decreased as the peccary's rank increased. The findings revealed differences among individual grunts, but the low accuracy of cross-validation (16%) suggests that individual recognition in peccaries may be less important than an honest signal of individual social status. In addition, the absence of differences in the acoustic parameters of grunt-like calls between males and females points to the lack of sexual dimorphism in this species. We verified that after hearing grunt calls, dominant opponents were more likely to cease attacking a victim, or at least delay the continuation of conflict, probably decreasing the severity of agonistic interactions. Our findings are particularly important to improve the current understanding of the role of grunt-like calls in herd-living mammals with linear dominant hierarchies, and strongly suggest that they are involved in the maintenance of herd social stability and cohesion.
Wolf, Debra M; Olszewski, Kimberly
Social media is a buzzword frequently referred to in marketing materials, general media, and personal conversations. Although many refer to the term social media, some individuals do not understand its meaning or how it affects their daily lives at work and home. Since the expansion of the Internet to web 2.0, multiple platforms of communication occur virtually through various social media. Understanding and learning how to use these platforms are essential to stay connected with friends, family, and colleagues; advance connections to professional organizations; and extend educational opportunities. This article presents basic information for occupational health nurses to improve their understanding of social media and how to communicate virtually using different platforms safely and securely. © 2015 The Author(s).
Full Text Available It is generally accepted that there is not a single school of thought that is called social constructivism, and ideas and assumptions from various disciplines in different fields are being incorporated into the social constructivist understanding. In this paper, a Bakhtinian perspective of social constructivism on education and language learning is discussed and studies that have explored Bakhtinian concepts in education have been reviewed. It is recommended that examining the structure of social interaction in the classroom based on the Bakhtinian concepts discussed (i.e., dialogism, monologism, recitation can help us see the classrooms from a different perspective and provide insights that are not available from other perspectives.
Moon, Katie; Blackman, Deborah
Natural scientists are increasingly interested in social research because they recognize that conservation problems are commonly social problems. Interpreting social research, however, requires at least a basic understanding of the philosophical principles and theoretical assumptions of the discipline, which are embedded in the design of social research. Natural scientists who engage in social science but are unfamiliar with these principles and assumptions can misinterpret their results. We developed a guide to assist natural scientists in understanding the philosophical basis of social science to support the meaningful interpretation of social research outcomes. The 3 fundamental elements of research are ontology, what exists in the human world that researchers can acquire knowledge about; epistemology, how knowledge is created; and philosophical perspective, the philosophical orientation of the researcher that guides her or his action. Many elements of the guide also apply to the natural sciences. Natural scientists can use the guide to assist them in interpreting social science research to determine how the ontological position of the researcher can influence the nature of the research; how the epistemological position can be used to support the legitimacy of different types of knowledge; and how philosophical perspective can shape the researcher's choice of methods and affect interpretation, communication, and application of results. The use of this guide can also support and promote the effective integration of the natural and social sciences to generate more insightful and relevant conservation research outcomes. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.
Haith-Cooper, Melanie; Bradshaw, Gwendolen
Current literature has indicated a concern about standards of maternity care experienced by pregnant women who are seeking asylum. As the next generation of midwives, it is important that students are educated in a way that prepares them to effectively care for these women. To understand how this can be achieved, it is important to explore what asylum seeking means to midwifery students. This article is the first of three parts and reports on one objective from a wider doctorate study. It identifies dominant discourses that influenced the perceptions of a group of midwifery students' about the pregnant asylum seeking woman. The study was designed from a social constructivist perspective, with contextual knowledge being constructed by groups of people, influenced by underpinning dominant discourses, depending on their social, cultural and historical positions in the world. In a United Kingdom University setting, during year two of a pre-registration midwifery programme, eleven midwifery students participated in the study. Two focus group interviews using a problem based learning scenario as a trigger for discussion were conducted. In addition, three students were individually interviewed to explore issues in more depth and two students' written reflections on practice were used to generate data. Following a critical discourse analysis, dominant discourses were identified which appeared to influence the way in which asylum seekers were perceived. The findings suggested an underpinning ideology around the asylum seeker being different and of a criminal persuasion. Although the pregnant woman seeking asylum was considered as deserving of care, the same discourses appeared to influence the way in which she was constructed. However, as the study progressed, through reading alternative sources of literature, some students appeared to question these discourses. These findings have implications for midwifery education in encouraging students to challenge negative discourses
Jenny H. Liu
Full Text Available Social media has been gaining prominence in public transit agencies in their communication strategies and daily management. This study aims to better understand recent trends in social media usage in public transit agencies, to examine which agencies use what kind of social media programs for what purposes, and how they measure their programs. A survey was conducted of the top transit agencies in the nation, and results are examined through descriptive statistical analysis, correlation analysis and regression modeling. We found that while most agencies still lack clearly-defined goals and performance metrics to guide their social media development, many are increasing their social media capacity with more structural components. Public transit service usage and the level of transit service provision are the most significant determinants of agencies’ social media programming and resource investments. In contrast, the measurement of social media usage and outcomes is more significantly related to city attributes and demographic characteristics. We anticipate an increase in the usage of social media to convey transit related stories and livability benefits, such as environmental sensitivity or safety improvements, as these programs expand. Public transit agencies’ commitment to measuring social media outcomes underscores the future research need to develop best practices for measuring the impacts and performance of social media communications and investments.
Social movements typically consist of several diverse organizations, with each using subtly different tactics to advance a similar, but not equivalent, vision of social change. The landscape of powerful social institutions in which a movement is situated affects which tactics become dominant among these organizations (and thus, within the movement) and which tactics are sidelined, discredited, or not even considered. The mainstream media is one example of a social institution that may have ...
Fang, Lin; Mishna, Faye; Zhang, Vivian F; Van Wert, Melissa; Bogo, Marion
Accompanying the multiple benefits and innovations of social media are the complex ethical and pedagogical issues that challenge social work educators. Without a clear understanding of the blurred boundaries between public and private, the potentially limitless and unintended audiences, as well as the permanency of the information shared online, social work students who use social media can find themselves in difficult situations in their personal and professional lives. In this article, we present three scenarios that illustrate issues and complexities involving social media use by social work students, followed by a discussion and recommendations for social work educators.
Borovok, Natalia; Nesher, Elimelech; Reichenstein, Michal; Tikhonova, Tatiana; Levin, Yishai; Pinhasov, Albert; Michaelevski, Izhak
Psychiatric conditions, in many cases, arise from social interactions necessary for optimal mental functioning. Dominance and submissiveness are two opposite poles of behavior, stemming from processes of social interactions between members inside one group or species. Extreme dominance and submissiveness expressions in humans is accompanied by mental impairments, including mania and depression. Here, taking advantage of animals bred selectively for traits of dominance and submissiveness, we assess protein expression profiles in dominant and submissive mice in the context of social interaction. Proteins extracted from hippocampi of naïve and social interaction subjected dominant, submissive and wild type mice (15 mice per each group) are quantified using label-free quantitative LC/MS/MS analysis. Complexity of social interaction-related protein expression is resolved by factor analysis and enriched with GO and protein-protein interaction functional network analyses. In total, 1146 proteins exhibiting expression changes in the wild type mice, as well as dominant and submissive mice are enriched in protein datasets responsible for: 1) socially triggered dominance (90 proteins), 2) inherent submissiveness (75 proteins), 3) socially triggered submissiveness (117 proteins), and 4) social interaction triggered protein expression changes, related to resilience/adaptation to stress (69 proteins). Among the most enriched categories, extensive changes are found in proteins related to presynaptic release, ion channel regulation, circadian rhythm, MAPK, ErbB and NF-kB pathways. Data extracted from this first extensive proteomic study of a social interaction paradigm may facilitate decoding of molecular mechanisms responsible for pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
This study aims at investigating social studies student teachers' levels of understanding sociology concepts within social studies curriculum. Study group of the research consists of 266 teacher candidates attending the Department of Social Studies, Faculty of Education, Kastamonu University during 2012 to 2013 education year. A semi-structured…
Montañés-Rada, F; Ramírez, J M; De Lucas Taracena, M T
The major risk determinants of violence are to be young and male, to have low socioeconomic status and suffering substance abuse. This is true whether it occurs in the context of a concurrent mental illness or not; i.e., mental disorders are neither necessary, nor sufficient causes for violence. Intense motivation is a facilitating factor for violence in clinical and non clinical samples. This explains why 'normal' people, are implicated in planned violence at higher rates than mentally ill (e.g. in criminal acts against property). However mentally ill patients are more easily implicated in impulsive violence or in violence without obvious cause due to veiled motivation fuelled by unidentified symptoms. Subjective or real awareness of competitive disadvantage increases motivation for violence (e.g. paranoid, narcissistic symptoms, etc.). Many psychiatric disorders as antisocial disorder, borderline, schizophrenia, have most of the factors that facilitate the appearance of violence. Antisocial disorder is a good model to study determinants of violence in normal samples as it is present in young males that do not have any psychotic symptom, have stable symptomatology, self control under scrutiny, and their motivations are similar to normal samples. Our evolutionary model suggests that there is a non random association of genetic factors (genes, pseudogenes, promoting areas, etc.), that is, a genetic cluster (cluster DO), whose phylogenetic function is to motivate to be the dominant in social relationships. To be the dominant is a major psychological feature present in many social groups of animals, included primates. DO cluster have sense from an evolutionary viewpoint: when expressed in no pathological way it increases inclusive fitness (transmission of the genes of a person genotype whether by oneself or by relatives reproduction). Features of cluster DO in humans are expressed differently according to sex, age, moral education, level of intelligence, etc. Cluster
Lambert, Alan J; Payne, B Keith; Jacoby, Larry L; Shaffer, Lara M; Chasteen, Alison L; Khan, Saera R
This article challenges the highly intuitive assumption that prejudice should be less likely in public compared with private settings. It proposes that stereotypes may be conceptualized as a type of dominant response (C. L. Hull, 1943; R. B. Zajonc, 1965) whose expression may be enhanced in public settings, especially among individuals high in social anxiety. Support was found for this framework in an impression formation paradigm (Experiment 1) and in a speeded task designed to measure stereotypic errors in perceptual identification (Experiment 2). Use of the process dissociation procedure (B. K. Payne, L. L. Jacoby, & A. J. Lambert, in press) demonstrated that these effects were due to decreases in cognitive control rather than increases in stereotype accessibility. The findings highlight a heretofore unknown and ironic consequence of anticipated public settings: Warning people that others may be privy to their responses may actually increase prejudice among the very people who are most worried about doing the wrong thing in public.
Xin, Ziqiang; Chi, Liping
Most investigations of individuals' social dominance orientation (SDO) have used the 16-item SDO scale developed by F. Pratto, J. Sidanius, L. M. Stallworth, and B. F. Malle (1994). The scale's authors believed it to be a unidimensional scale, but other researchers have found the scale has 2 or more factors. The present authors proposed a new hypothesis: The controversy of the scale structure was related to the wording effect of the scale. Based on a sample of Americans, Canadians, and Chinese, the present study indicated that what the scale measured was not only 1 trait of SDO, but also a negative-wording effect factor and that the scale structure was invariant across the 3 cultural groups. The existence of a wording effect reminds us to be cautious of the construct validity of the scale and interpretations of results.
Undurraga, Eduardo A; Zebrowitz, Leslie; Eisenberg, Dan T A; Reyes-García, Victoria; Godoy, Ricardo A
Research in industrial countries suggests that, with no other knowledge about a person, positive traits are attributed to taller people and correspondingly, that taller people have slightly better socioeconomic status (SES). However, research in some non-industrialized contexts has shown no correlation or even negative correlations between height and socioeconomic outcomes. It remains unclear whether positive traits remain attributed to taller people in such contexts. To address this question, here we report the results of a study in a foraging-farming society of native Amazonians in Bolivia (Tsimane')--a group in which we have previously shown little association between height and socioeconomic outcomes. We showed 24 photographs of pairs of Tsimane' women, men, boys, and girls to 40 women and 40 men >16 years of age. We presented four behavioral scenarios to each participant and asked them to point to the person in the photograph with greater strength, dominance, social concern, or knowledge. The pairs in the photographs were of the same sex and age, but one person was shorter. Tsimane' women and men attributed greater strength, dominance, and knowledge to taller girls and boys, but they did not attribute most positive traits to taller adults, except for strength, and more social concern only when women assessed other women in the photographs. These results raise a puzzle: why would Tsimane' attribute positive traits to tall children, but not tall adults? We propose three potential explanations: adults' expectations about the more market integrated society in which their children will grow up, height as a signal of good child health, and children's greater variation in the traits assessed corresponding to maturational stages.
Eduardo A Undurraga
Full Text Available Research in industrial countries suggests that, with no other knowledge about a person, positive traits are attributed to taller people and correspondingly, that taller people have slightly better socioeconomic status (SES. However, research in some non-industrialized contexts has shown no correlation or even negative correlations between height and socioeconomic outcomes. It remains unclear whether positive traits remain attributed to taller people in such contexts. To address this question, here we report the results of a study in a foraging-farming society of native Amazonians in Bolivia (Tsimane'--a group in which we have previously shown little association between height and socioeconomic outcomes. We showed 24 photographs of pairs of Tsimane' women, men, boys, and girls to 40 women and 40 men >16 years of age. We presented four behavioral scenarios to each participant and asked them to point to the person in the photograph with greater strength, dominance, social concern, or knowledge. The pairs in the photographs were of the same sex and age, but one person was shorter. Tsimane' women and men attributed greater strength, dominance, and knowledge to taller girls and boys, but they did not attribute most positive traits to taller adults, except for strength, and more social concern only when women assessed other women in the photographs. These results raise a puzzle: why would Tsimane' attribute positive traits to tall children, but not tall adults? We propose three potential explanations: adults' expectations about the more market integrated society in which their children will grow up, height as a signal of good child health, and children's greater variation in the traits assessed corresponding to maturational stages.
Batel, Susana; Devine-Wright, Patrick
In the past few years, social research has been examining what contributes to the attitude-behaviour gap in people's responses to large-scale renewable energy technologies. The NIMBY explanation for the gap has long dominated that area of research, but has also been criticised. Alternative proposals to NIMBY were advanced, but it is still evident that some of those maintain presuppositions of NIMBY and that this area of research needs more integration, namely at a theoretical level. In this paper we argue that to overcome those aspects it is relevant, first, to situate the promotion of renewable energy production as a social change process in today's societies, and, second, to therefore consider the socio-psychological aspects involved in people's responses to social change. We discuss specifically how the Theory of Social Representations may help us with that and contribute to a better understanding of people's responses to renewable energy technologies. © The Author(s) 2014.
Everyday financial dilemmas require us to draw on social, interdisciplinary, and mathematical understandings simultaneously and in synergy if we are to make informed financial decisions. Financial literacy is enjoying an elevated status across the "Australian Curriculum." This paper reviews some of the literature on financial literacy,…
Harris, Frank, III; Harper, Shaun R.
Social scientists, educational researchers, postsecondary educators (including student affairs professionals), and others have attempted to understand problematic behavioral trends and developmental outcomes among undergraduate men. Little attention has been devoted to examining the masculine identities and ideals about manhood that these students…
Attempts to capture the process of understanding and questioning deforestation through process drama (in which students and teacher work both in and out of role to explore a problem, situation, or theme). Notes that moving topics such as the destruction of a rainforest into process drama introduces complexity into social issues. Considers how…
Sevdalis, Vassilis; Keller, Peter E.
In this review article, we summarize the main findings from empirical studies that used dance-related forms of rhythmical full body movement as a research tool for investigating action understanding and social cognition. This work has proven to be informative about behavioral and brain mechanisms that mediate links between perceptual and motor…
Carr, G.; Kuil, L., Jr.
Many interesting and exciting socio-hydrological models have been developed in recent years. Such models often aim to capture the dynamic interplay between people and water for a variety of hydrological settings. As such, peoples' behaviours and decisions are brought into the models as drivers of and/or respondents to the hydrological system. To develop and run such models over a sufficiently long time duration to observe how the water-human system evolves the human component is often simplified according to one or two key behaviours, characteristics or decisions (e.g. a decision to move away from a drought or flood area; a decision to pump groundwater, or a decision to plant a less water demanding crop). To simplify the social component, socio-hydrological modellers often pull knowledge and understanding from existing social science theories. This requires them to negotiate complex territory, where social theories may be underdeveloped, contested, dynamically evolving, or case specific and difficult to generalise or upscale. A key question is therefore, how can this process be supported so that the resulting socio-hydrological models adequately describe the system and lead to meaningful understanding of how and why it behaves as it does? Collaborative interdisciplinary research teams that bring together social and natural scientists are likely to be critical. Joint development of the model framework requires specific attention to clarification to expose all underlying assumptions, constructive discussion and negotiation to reach agreement on the modelled system and its boundaries. Mutual benefits to social scientists can be highlighted, i.e. socio-hydrological work can provide insights for further exploring and testing social theories. Collaborative work will also help ensure underlying social theory is made explicit, and may identify ways to include and compare multiple theories. As socio-hydrology progresses towards supporting policy development, approaches that
Crowson, Howard Michael; Brandes, Joyce A
Historically, much of the research on right-wing authoritarianism and social dominance orientation has proceeded from the assumption that they are unidimensional. Recently, researchers have begun to seriously consider the possibility that they are multidimensional in nature and should be measured as such. Several studies have examined the unique relationships between right-wing authoritarianism and social dominance orientation facets and social and political outcome measures of interest. However, there have been no efforts to include the full slate of right-wing authoritarianism and social dominance orientation facets as predictors in the same model. This is problematic when investigating the discriminant validity of these facets, given the potential empirical overlap among the facets both within and across scales. We included facets of right-wing authoritarianism and social dominance orientation as predictors of U.S. voters' intentions to vote for Hillary Clinton versus Donald Trump in the 2016 Presidential Election. Data were collected in September 2016. We found evidence for the discriminant validity of several of the right-wing authoritarianism and social dominance orientation facets.
Duriez, Bart; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Soenens, Bart; De Witte, Hans
Self-determination theory's distinction between extrinsic and intrinsic goal pursuits offers a possible explanation for ethnic and racial prejudice. Because extrinsic relative to intrinsic goal pursuits (E/I) stimulate interpersonal competition, they were expected to predict social dominance orientation (SDO), which, in turn, would predict racial and ethnic prejudice. Results of a first cross-sectional study showed that E/I goal pursuits are positively associated with prejudice and that SDO partially mediates this association. In a second longitudinal study, we replicated these results. In addition, however, we found evidence for a reciprocal relationship between E/I goal pursuit and SDO. Moreover, both E/I goal pursuit and SDO had an independent effect on increases in prejudice. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Au, Al K C; Lam, Shui-Fong
Previous works on the effect of self-construal in interpersonal behaviours tend to adopt a main effect approach. The present research proposes an interactive approach in understanding two response patterns in dyadic conflict by combining self-construal and the stance of the opponent. Independent self-construal was hypothesised to be associated with a self-centred pattern of conflict response, which is characterised by taking contending responses regardless of whether the stance of the opponent is dominant or submissive. Relational self-construal was hypothesised to be associated with a tuning-in pattern of conflict response, which is characterised by showing contending responses when the opponent is submissive but yielding responses when the opponent is dominant. With trait self-construal measured and opponent's stance manipulated, Study 1 provided initial support for the hypotheses. Study 2 showed a three-way interaction effect between trait self-construal, manipulated self-construal and the opponent's stance on actual conflict responses during discussion of a scenario. The effect of self-construal manipulation was only observed among people who were low in trait independent self-construal and average in trait relational self-construal. The results pinpoint the importance of considering personal and opponent factors simultaneously in understanding the dynamics of dyadic conflict processes. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.
Mehta, Pranjal H; Jones, Amanda C; Josephs, Robert A
Past research suggests that individuals high in basal testosterone are motivated to gain high status. The present research extends previous work by examining endocrinological and behavioral consequences of high and low status as a function of basal testosterone. The outcome of a competition--victory versus defeat--was used as a marker of status. In Study 1, high testosterone men who lost in a dog agility competition rose in cortisol, whereas high testosterone men who won dropped in cortisol. Low testosterone men's cortisol changes did not depend on whether they had won or lost. Study 2 replicated this pattern of cortisol changes in women who participated in an experimental laboratory competition, and Study 2 extended the cortisol findings to behavior. Specifically, high testosterone winners chose to repeat the competitive task, whereas high testosterone losers chose to avoid it. In contrast, low testosterone winners and losers did not differ in their task preferences. These results provide novel evidence in humans that basal testosterone predicts cortisol reactivity and behavior following changes in social status. Implications for the social endocrinology of dominance are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved).
Watkins, Jennifer H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mackerrow, Edward P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Patelli, Paolo G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Eberhardt, Ariane [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stradling, Seth G [Los Alamos National Laboratory
Understanding the process that enables political violence is of great value in reducing the future demand for and support of violent opposition groups. Methods are needed that allow alternative scenarios and counterfactuals to be scientifically researched. Computational social simulation shows promise in developing 'computer experiments' that would be unfeasible or unethical in the real world. Additionally, the process of modeling and simulation reveals and challenges assumptions that may not be noted in theories, exposes areas where data is not available, and provides a rigorous, repeatable, and transparent framework for analyzing the complex dynamics of political violence. This paper demonstrates the computational modeling process using two simulation techniques: system dynamics and agent-based modeling. The benefits and drawbacks of both techniques are discussed. In developing these social simulations, we discovered that the social science concepts and theories needed to accurately simulate the associated psychological and social phenomena were lacking.
Wykowska, Agnieszka; Chaminade, Thierry; Cheng, Gordon
In this paper, we propose that experimental protocols involving artificial agents, in particular the embodied humanoid robots, provide insightful information regarding social cognitive mechanisms in the human brain. Using artificial agents allows for manipulation and control of various parameters of behaviour, appearance and expressiveness in one of the interaction partners (the artificial agent), and for examining effect of these parameters on the other interaction partner (the human). At the same time, using artificial agents means introducing the presence of artificial, yet human-like, systems into the human social sphere. This allows for testing in a controlled, but ecologically valid, manner human fundamental mechanisms of social cognition both at the behavioural and at the neural level. This paper will review existing literature that reports studies in which artificial embodied agents have been used to study social cognition and will address the question of whether various mechanisms of social cognition (ranging from lower- to higher-order cognitive processes) are evoked by artificial agents to the same extent as by natural agents, humans in particular. Increasing the understanding of how behavioural and neural mechanisms of social cognition respond to artificial anthropomorphic agents provides empirical answers to the conundrum 'What is a social agent?' © 2016 The Authors.
Hellman, Ann N; Cass, Cary; Cathey, Heather; Smith, Sarah L; Hurley, Shelia
This article presents results of an exploratory qualitative study examining gains in empathy and social justice beliefs among undergraduate nursing students. As undergraduate nursing education provides the foundation for future forensic nurses, developing successful methods to increase beliefs and behaviors of social empathy and social justice among nursing students will have a beneficial effect on the specialty of forensic nursing. As such, a team of nursing researchers explored the effects of a poverty simulation on the social empathy and social justice beliefs held by undergraduate students. The research team conducted an exploratory qualitative study of student reflective journals. Using an inductive interpretive process, the researchers performed a content analysis of student responses. The researchers identified three constitutive patterns and eight supporting themes as reflected in the students' reflective journals after participation in poverty simulation sessions. This research study found that, when nursing students participate in poverty simulation experiences, they gain an increased understanding of the vulnerability and complexities of living in poverty and are motivated to both advocate for patients and become change agents. Such increases in social empathy and promotion of social justice will inevitably positively affect their future practice and inform their development as forensic nurses.
Kwak, Doyeon; Kim, Wonjoon
It is important to consider the interweaving nature of online and offline social networks when we examine social network evolution. However, it is difficult to find any research that examines the process of social tie formation from an integrated perspective. In our study, we quantitatively measure offline interactions and examine the corresponding evolution of online social network in order to understand the significance of interrelationship between online and offline social factors in generating social ties. We analyze the radio signal strength indicator sensor data from a series of social events to understand offline interactions among the participants and measure the structural attributes of their existing online Facebook social networks. By monitoring the changes in their online social networks before and after offline interactions in a series of social events, we verify that the ability to develop an offline interaction into an online friendship is tied to the number of social connections that participants previously had, while the presence of shared mutual friends between a pair of participants disrupts potential new connections within the pre-designed offline social events. Thus, while our integrative approach enables us to confirm the theory of preferential attachment in the process of network formation, the common neighbor theory is not supported. Our dual-dimensional network analysis allows us to observe the actual process of social network evolution rather than to make predictions based on the assumption of self-organizing networks.
S. K. Kostiuchkov
Full Text Available This paper examines the position of the biopolitical nature of man as a biosocial being given supplies of both the two spheres of life – natural, biological and social. The necessity of understanding of human nature, which by definition are bio-social importance of the approach to the definition of man as an integral, binary-konnotovanoyi of the «social individual – a species» which is characterized by symmetrical opposition – upposition social and biological. It was found that the main task of modern political science, and in particular bio-political studies presented appeals to rethink the political picture of the world in order to predict the development of a new order or a new chaos. Understanding the formation of a new global civilization worldview is today one of the most important problems, which is connected with the main problem of the modern world – the task of preserving life on the planet. It is concluded that the contradictions of human nature – between the biological and the social, physical and spiritual, universal and the particular, natural and artificial, rational and emotional – in today’s conditions are extremely sharp. The said situation requires more in-depth scientific analysis of human nature, the study of the structural level as human biosocial system.
McGuire, Mark; Kampf, Constance Elizabeth
projects, technical communicators can listen to their external users and identify areas of importance with greater accuracy. While other methods of sentiment analysis look for a solution that leads to artificial intelligence in the program, this paper identifies the present needs of a human interaction......Social media communication is changing the opportunities for technical communicators to really understand audiences when these audiences are active about issues on social media platforms. Through applying ad-hoc corpus building processes to create word lists relevant to specific organizational...
Kim, Ar Ryum; Lee, Seung Woo; Seong, Poong Hyun; Park, Jin Kyun
An important aspect of human behavior in nuclear power plants (NPPs) is team interaction since operating NPPs involves the coordination of several team members among and within workplaces. Since operators in main control room (MCR) get a great deal of information through communication to perform a task, communication is one of the important characteristics for team characteristics. Many researchers have been studying how to understand the characteristics of communication. Social network analysis (SNA) which is considered as an objective and easily applicable method has been already applied in many fields to investigate characteristics of team communication. Henttonen (2010) has struggled to perform the research on the impact of social networks in a team and he found some team communication characteristics could be obtained using some properties of SNA. In this paper, SNA is used to understand communication characteristics within operators in NPPs
Grunspan, Daniel Z.; Wiggins, Benjamin L.; Goodreau, Steven M.
Social interactions between students are a major and underexplored part of undergraduate education. Understanding how learning relationships form in undergraduate classrooms, as well as the impacts these relationships have on learning outcomes, can inform educators in unique ways and improve educational reform. Social network analysis (SNA)…
Conclusions: Both visual and verbal masculine stimuli were again judged as more dominant than feminine stimuli. However, SDO, PGB and sex seemed to have no effect on judgements of dominance. Further research on participant characteristics that may influence judgements of dominance is recommended.
Cheng, Joey T; Tracy, Jessica L; Foulsham, Tom; Kingstone, Alan; Henrich, Joseph
The pursuit of social rank is a recurrent and pervasive challenge faced by individuals in all human societies. Yet, the precise means through which individuals compete for social standing remains unclear. In 2 studies, we investigated the impact of 2 fundamental strategies-Dominance (the use of force and intimidation to induce fear) and Prestige (the sharing of expertise or know-how to gain respect)-on the attainment of social rank, which we conceptualized as the acquisition of (a) perceived influence over others (Study 1), (b) actual influence over others' behaviors (Study 1), and (c) others' visual attention (Study 2). Study 1 examined the process of hierarchy formation among a group of previously unacquainted individuals, who provided round-robin judgments of each other after completing a group task. Results indicated that the adoption of either a Dominance or Prestige strategy promoted perceptions of greater influence, by both group members and outside observers, and higher levels of actual influence, based on a behavioral measure. These effects were not driven by popularity; in fact, those who adopted a Prestige strategy were viewed as likable, whereas those who adopted a Dominance strategy were not well liked. In Study 2, participants viewed brief video clips of group interactions from Study 1 while their gaze was monitored with an eye tracker. Dominant and Prestigious targets each received greater visual attention than targets low on either dimension. Together, these findings demonstrate that Dominance and Prestige are distinct yet viable strategies for ascending the social hierarchy, consistent with evolutionary theory.
Qiao, Xufeng; Yan, Yating; Wu, Ruiyong; Tai, Fadao; Hao, Ping; Cao, Yan; Wang, Jianli
The dominant-subordinate hierarchy in animals often needs to be established via agonistic encounters and consequently affects reproduction and survival. Differences in brain neuropeptides and sociality among dominant and subordinate males and females remain poorly understood. Here we explore neuropeptide levels and sociality during agonistic encounter tests in mandarin voles. We found that dominant mandarin voles engaged in higher levels of approaching, investigating, self-grooming and exploring behavior than subordinates. Dominant males habituated better to a stimulus vole than dominant females. Dominant males displayed significantly less oxytocin-immunoreactive neurons in the paraventricular nuclei and more vasopressin-immunoreactive neurons in the paraventricular nuclei, supraoptic nuclei, and the lateral and anterior hypothalamus than subordinates. Dominant females displayed significantly more vasopressin-immunoreactive neurons in the lateral hypothalamus and anterior hypothalamus than subordinates. Sex differences were found in the level of oxytocin and vasopressin. These results indicate that distinct parameters related to central nervous oxytocin and vasopressin are associated with behaviors during agonistic encounters in a sex-specific manner in mandarin voles.
Full Text Available Social and developmental psychologists have stressed the pervasiveness and strength of humans’ tendencies to conform and to imitate, and social anthropologists have argued that these tendencies are crucial to the formation of cultures. Research from four domains is reviewed and elaborated to show that divergence is also pervasive and potent, and is interwoven with convergence in a complex set of dynamics that is often unnoticed or minimized. First, classic research in social conformity is reinterpreted in terms of truth, trust, and social solidarity, revealing that dissent is its most salient feature. Second, recent studies of children’s use of testimony to guide action reveal a surprisingly sophisticated balance of trust and prudence, and a concern for truth and charity. Third, new experiments indicate that people diverge from others even under conditions where conformity seems assured. Fourth, current studies of imitation provide strong evidence that children are both selective and faithful in who, what, and why they follow others. All of the evidence reviewed points toward children and adults as being engaged, embodied partners with others, motivated to learn and understand the world, others, and themselves in ways that go beyond goals and rules, prediction and control. Even young children act as if they are in a dialogical relationship with others and the world, rather than acting as if they are solo explorers or blind followers. Overall, the evidence supports the hypothesis that social understanding cannot be reduced to convergence or divergence, but includes ongoing activities that seek greater comprehensiveness and complexity in the ability to act and interact effectively, appropriately, and with integrity.
Hodges, Bert H
Social and developmental psychologists have stressed the pervasiveness and strength of humans' tendencies to conform and to imitate, and social anthropologists have argued that these tendencies are crucial to the formation of cultures. Research from four domains is reviewed and elaborated to show that divergence is also pervasive and potent, and it is interwoven with convergence in a complex set of dynamics that is often unnoticed or minimized. First, classic research in social conformity is reinterpreted in terms of truth, trust, and social solidarity, revealing that dissent is its most salient feature. Second, recent studies of children's use of testimony to guide action reveal a surprisingly sophisticated balance of trust and prudence, and a concern for truth and charity. Third, new experiments indicate that people diverge from others even under conditions where conformity seems assured. Fourth, current studies of imitation provide strong evidence that children are both selective and faithful in who, what, and why they follow others. All of the evidence reviewed points toward children and adults as being engaged, embodied partners with others, motivated to learn and understand the world, others, and themselves in ways that go beyond goals and rules, prediction and control. Even young children act as if they are in a dialogical relationship with others and the world, rather than acting as if they are solo explorers or blind followers. Overall, the evidence supports the hypothesis that social understanding cannot be reduced to convergence or divergence, but includes ongoing activities that seek greater comprehensiveness and complexity in the ability to act and interact effectively, appropriately, and with integrity.
Miller, P H; DeMarie-Dreblow, D
The purpose of this research was (1) to provide a detailed description of developmental differences in the understanding of displaced aggression during the grade school years and (2) to identify social-cognitive correlates of this development. Seventy-two children aged 5, 7, and 9 viewed, and answered questions about, four videotaped stories involving displaced aggression. In another session they were given three tests of social cognition. One was a person perception task which tapped the tendency to refer to physical or psychological attributes. A second was a recursive thinking task which assessed their awareness that people can think about each other. Third, Selman's puppy story was used to assess their awareness that words or facial expressions do not always reflect the way a person feels, and that a person may not always know what he or someone else really feels. The understanding of displaced aggression increased significantly with increasing age. This understanding was significantly related to the person perception task for 5-year-olds, and to the Selman task for 7- and 9-year-olds. The results were discussed in terms of a developing awareness of possible discrepancies between feelings and physical behavior, facial expressions, or words.
Hasson-Ohayon, Ilanit; Avidan-Msika, Moran; Mashiach-Eizenberg, Michal; Kravetz, Shlomo; Rozencwaig, Silvio; Shalev, Hadar; Lysaker, Paul H
While some studies view metacognition and social cognition as representing the same phenomenon, others suggest that they represent distinctive sets of abilities that are related to different outcomes. The current study used a cross-sectional design that includes samples of persons with schizophrenia (N=39) and healthy individuals (N=60) to further explore the distinction between social cognition and metacognition and their associations with social quality of life. The Face Emotion Identification Task (FEIT), Faux-Pas Task, Indiana Psychiatric Illness Interview (IPII), Metacognition Assessment Scale - Abbreviated (MAS-A), and Social Quality of Life Scale were administrated to all participants. Correlations, t-tests and regressions were conducted. Results showed that persons with schizophrenia performed more poorly on all measures than healthy controls. Social cognition and metacognition measures were related for the combined total sample, but only a few associations were found among both sub-samples. A diagnosis of schizophrenia and metacognitive capacity, but not social cognition, predicted social quality of life. Self-reflectivity had a negative relationship to social quality of life while understanding of others' minds had a positive relation to social quality of life. The current study provides evidence that many with schizophrenia experience deficits in both social cognition and metacognition and that those deficits may be distinct and have different kinds of relationships with social quality of life. Clinical implications include the need to emphasize narrative aspects of psychotherapy in order to promote metacognition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This is a multidisciplinary study investigating how a virtual rather than face-to-face field trip can be conducted in a real-world setting and how students respond to such a social learning opportunity. Our participants followed a story of a stroke patient at her virtual home and in a virtual hospital via a teaching vignette. They were then given a new case and got on a virtual trip via a multiuser virtual environment. They played the roles of patients, relatives, doctors, or nurses, experiencing the emotional, physical, or social impacts those stakeholders may go through. Our study finds the overall participation of the Virtual Group is 50% more than the Text Group. Although the Virtual Group generates much more nodes in total, they focused much less on knowledge sharing and comparing than the Text Group (46 vs. 67, but more on other higher-level aspects of social interactions, such as knowledge discovery (57 vs. 42, co-construction (66 vs. 39, testing and modification (58 vs. 24 and application of newly constructed meaning (60 vs. 16. Analysis of students’ virtual field activities and in-depth discussions of important issues implied are included to help understand social learning behaviors during a virtual field trip. Sustainability of such systems is discussed.
Full Text Available Abstract Background To understand how infectious agents disseminate throughout a population it is essential to capture the social model in a realistic manner. This paper presents a novel approach to modeling the propagation of the influenza virus throughout a realistic interconnection network based on actual individual interactions which we extract from online social networks. The advantage is that these networks can be extracted from existing sources which faithfully record interactions between people in their natural environment. We additionally allow modeling the characteristics of each individual as well as customizing his daily interaction patterns by making them time-dependent. Our purpose is to understand how the infection spreads depending on the structure of the contact network and the individuals who introduce the infection in the population. This would help public health authorities to respond more efficiently to epidemics. Results We implement a scalable, fully distributed simulator and validate the epidemic model by comparing the simulation results against the data in the 2004-2005 New York State Department of Health Report (NYSDOH, with similar temporal distribution results for the number of infected individuals. We analyze the impact of different types of connection models on the virus propagation. Lastly, we analyze and compare the effects of adopting several different vaccination policies, some of them based on individual characteristics -such as age- while others targeting the super-connectors in the social model. Conclusions This paper presents an approach to modeling the propagation of the influenza virus via a realistic social model based on actual individual interactions extracted from online social networks. We implemented a scalable, fully distributed simulator and we analyzed both the dissemination of the infection and the effect of different vaccination policies on the progress of the epidemics. The epidemic values
Grundy, Gillian; Beeching, Nicholas
The aim of this research is to gain a more complete understanding of the impact of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) on women. This research used qualitative methods. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with eight HCV-positive women. The interviews explored counselling and testing, social stigma, treatment options, transmission and gender roles, and the influence of reductionism on the experience of HCV-positive women attending services. All the women experienced significant difficulties coming to terms with the diagnosis. Many had worries about transmission and stigma--these worries affected their relationships, including those with sexual partners, family members and children. Most of the women had mixed feelings about knowing their diagnosis and varying levels of satisfaction with treatments and services provided. Women appear to have individual anxieties related to the transmission of HCV and their ability to carry out their social roles. They were particularly concerned about social stigma, sexual transmission, pregnancy and childcare. These worries affected their close relationships and resulted in concerns about their ability to fulfil expected gender roles.
Yoon, Hong-Jun [ORNL; Tourassi, Georgia [ORNL
Analyzing the contents of online social networks is an effective process for monitoring and understanding peoples behaviors. Since the nature of conversation and information propagation is similar to traditional conversation and learning, one of the popular socio-cognitive methods, social cognitive theory was applied to online social networks to. Two major news topics about colon cancer were chosen to monitor traffic of Twitter messages. The activity of leaders on the issue (i.e., news companies or people will prior Twitter activity on topics related to colon cancer) was monitored. In addition, the activity of followers , people who never discussed the topics before, but replied to the discussions was also monitored. Topics that produce tangible benefits such as positive outcomes from appropriate preventive actions received dramatically more attention and online social media traffic. Such characteristics can be explained with social cognitive theory and thus present opportunities for effective health campaigns.
Yoon, Hong-Jun; Tourassi, Georgia
Analyzing the contents of online social networks is an effective process for monitoring and understanding peoples' behaviors. Since the nature of conversation and information propagation is similar to traditional conversation and learning, one of the popular socio-cognitive methods, social cognitive theory was applied to online social networks to. Two major news topics about colon cancer were chosen to monitor traffic of Twitter messages. The activity of "leaders" on the issue (i.e., news companies or people will prior Twitter activity on topics related to colon cancer) was monitored. In addition, the activity of "followers", people who never discussed the topics before, but replied to the discussions was also monitored. Topics that produce tangible benefits such as positive outcomes from appropriate preventive actions received dramatically more attention and online social media traffic. Such characteristics can be explained with social cognitive theory and thus present opportunities for effective health campaigns.
Full Text Available Throughout its history, reflection on human society has been torn apart by the opposing views of atomism and holism. Traditional societies, the city state of ancient Greece as well as the medieval perfect society apparently resemble a whole with its parts. Early modernity continued this holistic inclination for a while, but soon reverted to atomistic theories of the (hypothetical social contract. Modern humanism dominated the subsequent views articulated in terms of the dialectical tension between nature and freedom (science ideal and personality ideal – including mechanistic and vitalistic approaches as well as the more recent acknowledgment of irreducibly complex systems (Behe, 2003. In Wiener’s (1954; 1956 “technologicism” human responsibility and freedom are sacrificed. An alternative view is advanced in terms of the normativity of societal life as well as its many-sidedness. It is shown that theories of social systems increasingly tend to explore avenues transcending the limitations of the atomistic additive approach and the boundary-leveling whole-parts scheme entailed in social systems theory. This development is used as a starting point for the classification of social interaction and for underscoring the scope of the principle of sphere-sovereignty for a multidisciplinary understanding of social systems.
Full Text Available We developed an empirical approach to consider social-ecological system change and transformation by drawing on resource users' knowledge and perceptions. We applied this approach in the Cau Hai lagoon, a coastal area dominated by small-scale fisheries in central Vietnam. Nine focus groups with more than 70 fishers were used to gather information about key social-ecological system elements and interactions, historical social-ecological dynamics, and possible thresholds between distinct social-ecological system identities. The patterns of change in livelihoods and resource exploitation in the Cau Hai lagoon are similar to those seen in other coastal lagoon and small-scale fishery contexts. Our findings show some promise for the use of local knowledge and the perceptions of resource user communities to understand and characterize social-ecological transformations. Importantly, however, we also demonstrate how social-ecological transformations are complicated processes driven by many factors beyond the control of any singular individual or group. We argue that (1 the occurrence of social-ecological transformations can result in either positive or negative outcomes and (2 that we need to direct our thinking away from drawing tidy conclusions about if and when social-ecological transformations take place. Our research also encourages scholars to carefully consider how we frame the benefits of participatory, community-based governance initiatives. Importantly, we need to examine the ways that governance initiatives will be beneficial for some people and detrimental for others, and we need to be fully aware of locally contested interests and acknowledge competing priorities for fisheries management and human well-being. Community-oriented assessments informed by resilience thinking can help to open up questions about economic, political, cultural, and environmental aspects of undesirable path dependencies and traps.
This article addresses the socialization of emotion expression in infancy. It argues that in order to adequately understand emotion development we need to consider the appraisal of emotion expression through caregivers in mundane, everyday interactions. Drawing on sociocultural and Bakhtinian...... theorizing, it claims that caregivers’ appraisals of infants’ emotion expression are dialogically intertwined with broader speech genres or “communicative genres” of a community and the emotional-volitional tone and normative orientations embedded in them. It aims to investigate how communicative genres......’ expression of negative affect. We found distinct patterns of coconstructing the interaction that point to different normative ori- entations and communicative genres that can be considered to be specific to the two sociocultural contexts. These communicative genres were found to be in line with broader...
Jesus, Maria Cristina Pinto de; Silva, Marcelo Henrique da; Cordeiro, Samara Macedo; Kortchmar, Estela; Zampier, Vanderleia Soeli de Barros; Merighi, Miriam Aparecida Barbosa
The aim of this paper is to understand the experience of smokers in view of unsuccessful attempts to quit smoking. This study is based on social phenomenology. Between November and December of 2014, nine interviews were conducted with people that had attempted to quit smoking. The content of these interviews was analyzed and discussed based on the related literature. Unsuccessful attempts to quit smoking are related to tobacco addiction; cigarettes are seen as a support to cope with everyday stressful situations. Attempts to quit the smoking habits were based on the need of health improvement and insistence of family and friends. Smokers reported the use of habit cessation strategies learned in support groups, but they also express expectation of specialized psychological support. The study points out the need to expand the strategies of approaching smokers, and reinforcing psychological support in order to achieve success in the attempt to quit smoking.
Martin, Carmel M; Peterson, Chris
health systems is taking place without an understanding and discourse about the nature of their construction. Ad hoc eclectism with unquestioning adoption of the dominant EBM paradigm is driving a new health culture based on disease-based performance incentives, which is intrusive beyond the medical model and pays little attention to narratives of illness and even less to the whole social reconstruction of illness and wellness. Health care systems cannot afford to avoid, and should actively embrace the critiques of social theory and analyses in the transformations of health systems to improve chronic care. Creative tensions between empirical and intellectual critique, and a synthetic middle ground are likely to lead to more realistic and innovative approaches spanning the nature of chronicity and the transformation of Primary Care.
Simoes, Jose; Magedanz, Thomas
Over the last years, with the rapid advance in technology, it is becoming increasingly feasible for people to take advantage of the devices and services in the surrounding environment to remain "connected" and continuously enjoy the activity they are engaged in, be it sports, entertainment, or work. Such a ubiquitous computing environment will allow everyone permanent access to the Internet anytime, anywhere and anyhow . Nevertheless, despite the evolution of services, social aspects remain in the roots of every human behavior and activities. Great examples of such phenomena are online social networks, which engage users in a way never seen before in the online world. At the same time, being aware and communicating context is a key part of human interaction and is a particularly powerful concept when applied to a community of users where services can be made more personalized and useful. Altogether, harvesting context to reason and learn about user behavior will further enhance the future multimedia vision where services can be composed and customized according to user context. Moreover, it will help us to understand users in a better way.
Anelise Rebelato Mozzato
Full Text Available Different organizational settings have been gaining ground in the world economy, resulting in a proliferation of different forms of strategic alliances that translate into a growth in the number of organizations that have started to deal with interorganizational relationships with different actors. These circumstances reinforce Crossan, Lane, White and Djurfeldt (1995 and Crossan, Mauer and White (2011 in exploring what authors refer to as the fourth, interorganizational, level of learning. These authors, amongst others, suggest that the process of interorganizational learning (IOL warrants investigation, as its scope of analysis needs widening and deepening. Therefore, this theoretical essay is an attempt to understand IOL as a dynamic process found in interorganizational cooperative relationships that can take place in different structured and unstructured social spaces and that can generate learning episodes. According to this view, IOL is understood as part of an organizational learning continuum and is analyzed within the framework of practical rationality in an approach that is less cognitive and more social-behavioral.
Eibach, Richard P; Keegan, Thomas
White Americans tend to believe that there has been greater progress toward racial equality than do Black Americans. The authors explain this difference by combining insights from prospect theory and social dominance theory. According to prospect theory, changes seem greater when framed as losses rather than gains. Social dominance theory predicts that White Americans tend to view increases in equality as losses, whereas Black Americans view them as gains. In Studies 1 and 2, the authors experimentally tested whether groups judge the same change differently depending on whether it represents a loss or gain. In Studies 3-6, the authors used experimental methods to test whether White participants who frame equality-promoting changes as losses perceive greater progress toward racial equality. The authors discuss theoretical and political implications for progress toward a just society. Copyright (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved.
Mills, Jane; Hallinan, Christine
In Australia, the number of practice nurses is growing at a rapid rate. On the nursing landscape, this group of nurses stand out because of their relationship with the Australian Government who both fund them, and concern themselves with their continuing professional development. This paper provides a construction of the social world of Australian practice nurses, identifying stakeholders in the business of practice nursing. Literature produced by the various social world segments is analysed for the influence of medical dominance on the role, image, power and politics of practice nurses.
Valentine, Alissa; Kurczek, Jake
Neuroscience is young and still developing. It is quickly adapting to a number of emerging changes in science and education. Not only have neuroscientists been at the forefront of the open access publishing movement, but many prominent neuroscientists continue to push towards making science more accessible and understandable to the broader public. Social media is a global phenomenon that is changing the way that we talk about research and education. Researchers, students, and the public alike can leverage social media to find updates in research and higher education. Social media also provides pathways to connect with experts and non-experts in a way never been seen before. Two major trends are appearing in education and social media: 1) providing more engaging teaching activities, and 2) providing opportunities for community engagement using teaching activities that leverage social media. In this article, we describe a semester long teaching activity that challenged students to use social media in their learning process. We provide initial evaluation and feedback from the students on their social media experience in class, and suggestions for how to improve the project in future implementations.
Hiadlovská, Zuzana; Mikula, Ondřej; Macholán, Miloš; Hamplová, P.; Vošlajerová Bímová, Barbora; Daniszová, K.
Roč. 223, č. 1 (2015), s. 16-26 ISSN 0016-6480 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/11/1792 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : aggression * corticosterone * dominance Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.667, year: 2015
Hiadlovská, Z.; Mikula, O.; Macholán, M.; Hamplová, P.; Vošlajerová Bímová, Barbora; Daniszová, Kristina
Roč. 223, November (2015), s. 16-26 ISSN 0016-6480 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/11/1792; GA MŠk EE2.3.35.0026 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Aggression * Corticosterone * Dominance * House mouse * Ontogeny * Testosterone Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.667, year: 2015
Social Perception and Social Reality (Jussim 2012) reviews the evidence in social psychology and related fields and reaches three conclusions: (1) Although errors, biases, and self-fulfilling prophecies in person perception are real, reliable, and occasionally quite powerful, on average, they tend to be weak, fragile, and fleeting. (2) Perceptions of individuals and groups tend to be at least moderately, and often highly accurate. (3) Conclusions based on the research on error, bias, and self-fulfilling prophecies routinely greatly overstate their power and pervasiveness, and consistently ignore evidence of accuracy, agreement, and rationality in social perception. The weight of the evidence - including some of the most classic research widely interpreted as testifying to the power of biased and self-fulfilling processes - is that interpersonal expectations relate to social reality primarily because they reflect rather than cause social reality. This is the case not only for teacher expectations, but also for social stereotypes, both as perceptions of groups, and as the bases of expectations regarding individuals. The time is long overdue to replace cherry-picked and unjustified stories emphasizing error, bias, the power of self-fulfilling prophecies, and the inaccuracy of stereotypes, with conclusions that more closely correspond to the full range of empirical findings, which includes multiple failed replications of classic expectancy studies, meta-analyses consistently demonstrating small or at best moderate expectancy effects, and high accuracy in social perception.
Hareli, Shlomo; David, Shlomo; Hess, Ursula
Individuals who show anger are rated as higher in dominance and lower in affiliation, whereas those who express sadness are rated lower in dominance and higher in affiliation. Little is known about situations where people show both expressions in sequence as happens when a first emotional reaction is followed by a second, different one. This question was examined in two studies. Overall, we found that the last emotion shown had a strong impact on perceived behavioural intentions. However, the information about the previously shown emotion was also integrated. The specific mode of integration was dependent on the salience of the change and naive theories about the type of person who changes their emotion in the face of changing events.
Terranova, Joseph I; Song, Zhimin; Larkin, Tony E; Hardcastle, Nathan; Norvelle, Alisa; Riaz, Ansa; Albers, H Elliott
There are profound sex differences in the incidence of many psychiatric disorders. Although these disorders are frequently linked to social stress and to deficits in social engagement, little is known about sex differences in the neural mechanisms that underlie these phenomena. Phenotypes characterized by dominance, competitive aggression, and active coping strategies appear to be more resilient to psychiatric disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) compared with those characterized by subordinate status and the lack of aggressiveness. Here, we report that serotonin (5-HT) and arginine-vasopressin (AVP) act in opposite ways in the hypothalamus to regulate dominance and aggression in females and males. Hypothalamic injection of a 5-HT1a agonist stimulated aggression in female hamsters and inhibited aggression in males, whereas injection of AVP inhibited aggression in females and stimulated aggression in males. Striking sex differences were also identified in the neural mechanisms regulating dominance. Acquisition of dominance was associated with activation of 5-HT neurons within the dorsal raphe in females and activation of hypothalamic AVP neurons in males. These data strongly indicate that there are fundamental sex differences in the neural regulation of dominance and aggression. Further, because systemically administered fluoxetine increased aggression in females and substantially reduced aggression in males, there may be substantial gender differences in the clinical efficacy of commonly prescribed 5-HT-active drugs such as selective 5-HT reuptake inhibitors. These data suggest that the treatment of psychiatric disorders such as PTSD may be more effective with the use of 5-HT-targeted drugs in females and AVP-targeted drugs in males.
Dmitry S. Grigoryev
Full Text Available Objective. The article describes a short version of the dual process model scales by J. Duckitt that allow elaborating on an integrated exploratory approach for the assessment of authoritarianism. Background. This area of research is not widespread in Russia in contrast to foreign social psychology. Unfortunately, there are only a few studies in Russia that advance our understanding of the indicated problems, and these few studies likely put more questions than give answers. It can be partly explained by the lack of appropriate available, reliable and valid measures in Russian. Dual process model for the study of authoritarianism offers the scales designed to measure: (1 right-wing authoritarianism that reflects the motivation and attitudes to maintain and preservation of the social cohesion, order, stability, and collective security; (2 social dominance orientation that reflects the motivation and attitudes to maintain and preservation of the dominance and superiority; (3 dangerous worldview that reflects views of the social world as the dangerous and threatening; and (4 competitive worldview that reflects views of the social world as the competitive and ferocious. Design. The data for the analysis were collected in the survey of 241 participants, mostly residents of Moscow (Central Federal District, Russia, and Ulyanovsk (Volga Federal District, Russia. Using confirmatory factor analysis the four measurement models containing the different number of dimensions of the short version of the dual process model scales were tested. Also, cross-validation was performed (N = 576. Results. The tested measurement models had acceptable reliability and validity indices. However, the best fit was shown by the model with multidimensional structure in which all the subfactors were as separate constructs. Conclusion. The short version of scales was successfully compiled, the measures can be considered a reliable and valid measure to study of authoritarianism
Goldfeld, Sharon; O'Connor, Meredith; Cloney, Dan; Gray, Sarah; Redmond, Gerry; Badland, Hannah; Williams, Katrina; Mensah, Fiona; Woolfenden, Sue; Kvalsvig, Amanda; Kochanoff, Anita T
Child health and developmental inequities exist in all countries. Comprehensive and robust concepts of disadvantage are fundamental to growing an evidence base that can reveal the extent of inequities in childhood, and identify modifiable leverage points for change. We conceptualise and test a multidimensional framework of child disadvantage aligned to a social determinants and bioecological perspective. The Longitudinal Study of Australian Children is a nationally representative sample of two cohorts of Australian children, including the birth cohort of 5107 infants, which commenced in May 2004. The analysis focused on disadvantage indicators collected at age 4-5 years. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to test a theoretically informed model of disadvantage. Concurrent validity was examined through associations with academic performance at 8-9 years. The model comprising four latent factors of sociodemographic (10 indicators), geographical environments (three indicators), health conditions (three indicators) and risk factors (14 indicators) was found to provide a better fit for the data than alternative models. Each factor was associated with academic performance, providing evidence of concurrent validity. The study provides a theoretically informed and empirically tested framework for operationalising relative child disadvantage. Understanding and addressing inequities will be facilitated by capturing the complexity of children's experiences of disadvantage across the multiple environments in which their development unfolds. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Dufort, Francine; Boucher, Kathleen; Guilbert, Edith; Saint-Laurent, Louise; Fortin-Pellerin, Laurence
This study was undertaken to gather information on the social representations of teenage pregnancy among adolescents, aged between 15 and 17. Eighteen focus groups were conducted among 150 boys and girls. The data were subjected to a qualitative content analysis. Results show that youths did not form homogeneous groups. The points of view expressed gave rise to 4 dimensions (emotive, reflexive, psychobiological, economic-social) and 4 positions (negative, positive, ambivalent and dynamic). From these dimensions and positions, 4 representations of teenage pregnancy were identified: pregnancy as a problem, pregnancy as a project, pregnancy as a source of tension, and pregnancy as a source of power. This study illustrates the importance of educative strategies such as going beyond alarmist preventive messages, opening dialogue with and between youngsters, and promoting social support and mutual aid.
Falk, Emily B.; Way, Baldwin M.; Jasinska, Agnes J.
Normative social influences shape nearly every aspect of our lives, yet the biological processes mediating the impact of these social influences on behavior remain incompletely understood. In this Hypothesis, we outline a theoretical framework and an integrative research approach to the study of social influences on the brain and genetic moderators of such effects. First, we review neuroimaging evidence linking social influence and conformity to the brain's reward system. We next review neuro...
Emily eFalk; Emily eFalk; Baldwin eWay; Agnes eJasinska
Normative social influences shape nearly every aspect of our lives, yet the biological processes mediating the impact of these social influences on behavior remain incompletely understood. In this Hypothesis, we outline a theoretical framework and an integrative research approach to the study of social influences on the brain and genetic moderators of such effects. First, we review neuroimaging evidence linking social influence and conformity to the brain’s reward system. We next review neur...
Miyake, Yoshie; Okamoto, Yuri; Jinnin, Ran; Yashiki, Hisako; Uchino, Teiji; Isobe, Noriko; Takata, Jun; Kojima, Nanae; Nihonmatsu, Misato; Yokosaki, Yasuyuki; Hiyama, Toru; Yoshihara, Masaharu
Social anxiety disorder is an important cause of psychosocial morbidity in adolescents and young adults. Problems in adolescents and young adults with social anxiety disorder would be a topic in recent years in campus mental health. We examined the opinion of social anxiety disorder on university students. We found that many students felt anxiety in various social scenes, and some students were worried about their anxiety. Most of the students understood the importance of mental treatment for...
Kraaijeveld, K; Gregurke, J; Hall, C; Komdeur, J; Mulder, RA
We investigated the adaptive significance of a sexually monomorphic ornament in the black swan Cygnus atratus. Both sexes grow curled feathers on their wings (range 7-22 curled feathers per wing), which are displayed prominently in a range of social interactions. The number of curled feathers
Vock, M.; van Dolen, W.; de Ruyter, K.
The authors investigate how perceived customer value can be translated into economic returns for online social network sites (SNS). The (joint) impact of two value propositions, social capital and entitativity, is assessed. Perceived economic and social customer value are investigated as outcomes of
The opportunities social media provide for agential expressions of subjectivity and experiential learning, relative to social media's role in reproducing digital-era capitalism, are the subject of keen debate. There is now a burgeoning academic literature which suggests that social media users are, to a greater or lesser degree, alienated by…
Wong, Nichol M L; Yeung, Patcy P S; Lee, Tatia M C
Loneliness is prevalent in adolescents. Although it can be a normative experience, children and adolescents who experience loneliness are often at risk for anxiety, depression, and suicide. Research efforts have been made to identify the neurobiological basis of such distressful feelings in our social brain. In adolescents, the social brain is still undergoing significant development, which may contribute to their increased and differential sensitivity to the social environment. Many behavioral studies have shown the significance of attachment security and social skills in adolescents' interactions with the social world. In this review, we propose a developmental social neuroscience model that extends from the social neuroscience model of loneliness. In particular, we argue that the social brain and social skills are both important for the development of adolescents' perceived loneliness and that adolescents' familial attachment sets the baseline for neurobiological development. By reviewing the related behavioral and neuroimaging literature, we propose a developmental social neuroscience model to explain the heightened perception of loneliness in adolescents using social skills and attachment style as neurobiological moderators. We encourage future researchers to investigate adolescents' perceived social connectedness from the developmental neuroscience perspective.
Bornholt, L. J.
It is apparent from current research and professional experience that body image has a strong social basis, but the form of such comparisons is unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study is to examine likely forms of the social basis of adolescent body image. This study compares two approaches to the social basis of body image to ask to what extent…
Tan, Xuyun; Liu, Li; Zheng, Wenwen; Huang, Zhenwei
Previous research suggested that dominance orientation and authoritarianism may be associated with corruption, but little research has verified this assumption or uncovered its psychological processes. In this article, we examined empirically the relationships between social dominance orientation (SDO), right-wing authoritarianism (RWA) and corrupt intention and explored the mediating role of moral outrage on these relationships. A total of 677 college students participated in the study and completed measures of SDO, RWA, moral outrage and corrupt intention. Our findings demonstrated that both SDO and RWA were positively associated with corrupt intention. Additionally, moral outrage partially mediated the relation between SDO and corrupt intention and fully mediated the relation between RWA and corrupt intention. Specifically, the results indicated that higher SDO or RWA was associated with reduced moral outrage and increased corrupt intention. This implies that the enhancement of morality and moral outrage may inhibit corrupt intention. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.
van Riper, Carena J.; van Riper, Charles; Kyle, Gerard T.; Lee, Martha E.
Social networking is a key benefit derived from participation in conferences that bind the ties of a professional community. Building social networks can lead to satisfactory experiences while furthering participants' long- and short-term career goals. Although investigations of social networking can lend insight into how to effectively engage individuals and groups within a professional cohort, this area has been largely overlooked in past research. The present study investigates the relationship between social networking and satisfaction with the 10th Biennial Conference of Research on the Colorado Plateau using structural equation modelling. Results partially support the hypothesis that three dimensions of social networking – interpersonal connections, social cohesion, and secondary associations – positively contribute to the performance of various conference attributes identified in two focus group sessions. The theoretical and applied contributions of this paper shed light on the social systems formed within professional communities and resource allocation among service providers.
Phipps, Marcus James
This thesis investigates ideological change in Melbourne's household water marketplace. Drawing from consumer culture theory, macromarketing, anti-consumption and social marketing literature, the research explored a paradigm shift that occurred in how individuals used and consumed water. Using a grounded theory approach, data collection involved historic secondary sources, newspaper articles, Google Trends, photographs, field notes as well as in-depth interviews with three grou...
Stewart, A.L.; Pratto, F.; Bou Zeineddine, F.; Sweetman, J.; Eicher, V.; Licata, L.; Morselli, D.; Saab, R.; Aiello, A.; Chryssochoou, X.; Cichocka, A.; Cidam, A.; Foels, R.; Giguére, B.; Li, L.; Prati, F.; van Stekelenburg, J.
Inspired by the popular Arab protests against oppressive regimes that began in 2010, people around the world protested in sympathy with the Arab peoples. The present research draws on two major theories of intergroup relations to develop an initial integrative model of sympathetic collective action.
Falk, Emily B; Way, Baldwin M; Jasinska, Agnes J
Normative social influences shape nearly every aspect of our lives, yet the biological processes mediating the impact of these social influences on behavior remain incompletely understood. In this Hypothesis, we outline a theoretical framework and an integrative research approach to the study of social influences on the brain and genetic moderators of such effects. First, we review neuroimaging evidence linking social influence and conformity to the brain's reward system. We next review neuroimaging evidence linking social punishment (exclusion) to brain systems involved in the experience of pain, as well as evidence linking exclusion to conformity. We suggest that genetic variants that increase sensitivity to social cues may predispose individuals to be more sensitive to either social rewards or punishments (or potentially both), which in turn increases conformity and susceptibility to normative social influences more broadly. To this end, we review evidence for genetic moderators of neurochemical responses in the brain, and suggest ways in which genes and pharmacology may modulate sensitivity to social influences. We conclude by proposing an integrative imaging genetics approach to the study of brain mediators and genetic modulators of a variety of social influences on human attitudes, beliefs, and actions.
Full Text Available Normative social influences shape nearly every aspect of our lives, yet the biological processes mediating the impact of these social influences on behavior remain incompletely understood. In this Hypothesis, we outline a theoretical framework and an integrative research approach to the study of social influences on the brain and genetic moderators of such effects. First, we review neuroimaging evidence linking social influence and conformity to the brain’s reward system. We next review neuroimaging evidence linking social punishment (exclusion to brain systems involved in the experience of pain, as well as evidence linking exclusion to conformity. We suggest that genetic variants that increase sensitivity to social cues may predispose individuals to be more sensitive to either social rewards or punishments (or potentially both, which in turn increases conformity and susceptibility to normative social influences more broadly. To this end, we review evidence for genetic moderators of neurochemical responses in the brain, and suggest ways in which genes and pharmacology may modulate sensitivity to social influences. We conclude by proposing an integrative imaging genetics approach to the study of brain mediators and genetic modulators of a variety of social influences on human attitudes, beliefs, and actions.
Falk, Emily B.; Way, Baldwin M.; Jasinska, Agnes J.
Normative social influences shape nearly every aspect of our lives, yet the biological processes mediating the impact of these social influences on behavior remain incompletely understood. In this Hypothesis, we outline a theoretical framework and an integrative research approach to the study of social influences on the brain and genetic moderators of such effects. First, we review neuroimaging evidence linking social influence and conformity to the brain's reward system. We next review neuroimaging evidence linking social punishment (exclusion) to brain systems involved in the experience of pain, as well as evidence linking exclusion to conformity. We suggest that genetic variants that increase sensitivity to social cues may predispose individuals to be more sensitive to either social rewards or punishments (or potentially both), which in turn increases conformity and susceptibility to normative social influences more broadly. To this end, we review evidence for genetic moderators of neurochemical responses in the brain, and suggest ways in which genes and pharmacology may modulate sensitivity to social influences. We conclude by proposing an integrative imaging genetics approach to the study of brain mediators and genetic modulators of a variety of social influences on human attitudes, beliefs, and actions. PMID:22701416
Harmon, Janis; Antuna, Marcos; Juarez, Lucinda; Wood, Karen D.; Vintinner, Jean
This qualitative study focused on high school social studies teachers' understandings of and perspectives about vocabulary acquisition and instruction. The research questions were the following: (1) What do high school social studies teachers understand about vocabulary instruction? and (2) How do high school social studies teachers support…
Objectives: The purpose of this article is to present a theoretical frame of reference for the study and assessment of social work from the perspective of a history of ideas. Method: The study employed an analysis of primary and secondary historical sources. Results: Social work as a practice and research field is embedded in the genesis of modern…
Hunecke, Claudia; Engler, Alejandra; Jara-Rojas, Roberto; Poortvliet, Marijn
Recently, social capital has gained importance in explaining technology adoption decisions by farmers. In this paper, we examine the impact of social capital on the adoption of irrigation technology and irrigation scheduling among wine producers in Central Chile. We propose three hypotheses: that
van Zoonen, W.; Verhoeven, J.W.M.; Vliegenthart, R.
Social media has slowly become ubiquitous in the workplace; however, the use of these technologies has been associated with both positive and negative consequences. Using the JD-R model, this study examines these positive and negative consequences of the public social media use for work. Survey data
Yan, Ruoh-Nan; Xu, Huimin
Taking the perspective of consumer socialization theory, this study examined the influences of different socialization agents on consumers' purchases of green products. A total of 224 surveys were distributed to students enrolled in a business-related course at a major university in the northeastern United States. The objectives were twofold. The…
Lennon, Sean M.
Online social networks such as Facebook have changed the context and definitions of socialization. Focusing on teacher use, this article considers the size and impact of these forums and the importance many young professionals feel toward them. Themed as a common sense approach, the author uses anecdotal points and discussions with…
This thesis carried out two major investigations on how the geographical information generated by users in social media can be used to model and predict human behaviours. The first investigation regards the mobility patterns of social media users, which utilizes the relations between geographical
van Zoonen, W.
The multivalent involvement of public social media platforms (e.g., Facebook, Twitter, etc.) in both social and organizational life has raised a number of questions about how, and to what extent and effects organizational members use these technologies for work-related purposes. Yet research has
van den Berg, A.C.; Verhoeven, J.W.M.
Purpose – The rise of social media such as Facebook and Twitter has provided employees with means to share work-related information. Increasingly, social media governance policies are implemented to negotiate the risks and opportunities of such behaviors. The purpose of this paper is to unveil the
Jung, Merel Madeleine
Touch is an important nonverbal form of interpersonal interaction which is used to communicate emotions and other social messages. As interactions with social robots are likely to become more common in the near future these robots should also be able to engage in tactile interaction with humans.
Lucas, R E; Diener, E
Extraversion is a broad, multifaceted trait, yet researchers are still unsure of its defining characteristics. One possibility is that the essential feature of extraversion is the tendency to enjoy social situations. An alternative possibility is that extraversion represents sensitivity to rewards and the tendency to experience pleasant affect. In three studies, participants rated situations that varied on two dimensions: (a) whether they were social or nonsocial and (b) whether they were very pleasant, moderately pleasant, moderately unpleasant, or very unpleasant. Extraverts only rated social situations more positively than introverts did when the situations were pleasant, and extraverts also rated nonsocial situations more positively than introverts did if the situations were pleasant. Thus, the pleasantness of situations was more important than whether they were social or nonsocial in determining extraverts' and introverts' enjoyment.
De Jaegher, Hanne
This paper comments on Gallagher's recently published direct perception proposal about social cognition [Gallagher, S. (2008a). Direct perception in the intersubjective context. Consciousness and Cognition, 17(2), 535-543]. I show that direct perception is in danger of being appropriated by the very cognitivist accounts criticised by Gallagher (theory theory and simulation theory). Then I argue that the experiential directness of perception in social situations can be understood only in the context of the role of the interaction process in social cognition. I elaborate on the role of social interaction with a discussion of participatory sense-making to show that direct perception, rather than being a perception enriched by mainly individual capacities, can be best understood as an interactional phenomenon.
Happé, Francesca; Conway, Jane R
Social interaction is affected in many different developmental disorders; indeed, the new Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders has introduced social cognition as one of six core components of neurocognitive functioning. Social cognition is not one thing, but a wide range of putative processes, which may be differentially affected in different clinical groups. This review focuses on recent advances in one aspect of social cognition, 'theory of mind' (ToM, representing what people think), and one core clinical group, autism spectrum disorder (ASD). It is 30 years since impaired ToM was proposed as an explanation for ASD social difficulties, and recently there has been a widening of interest to other clinical groups. ToM has been found to be distinct from emotion recognition and empathy. Recent research on ASD has focused increasingly on atypical sensory responses and commonly comorbid conditions. Interventions for social deficits, including ToM training and oxytocin, have shown mixed results to date. Heterogeneity poses a major obstacle to current research. Theoretical and empirical refinements are needed to elucidate neurocognitive and aetiological underpinnings of sociocognitive processes and inform clinical advances.
Hybholt, Lisbeth; Mørck, Line Lerche
This paper theoretically and empirically explores critical psychological conceptualisations of conduct of everyday life and social self-understanding. The analysis of conduct of everyday life for people who have been hospitalized with depression shows experiences of doubleness. We understand...
Bratt, Christopher; Sidanius, Jim; Sheehy-Skeffington, Jennifer
Social dominance orientation (SDO) has been theorized as a stable, early-emerging trait influencing outgroup evaluations, a view supported by evidence from cross-sectional and two-wave longitudinal research. Yet, the limitations of identifying causal paths with cross-sectional and two-wave designs are increasingly being acknowledged. This article presents the first use of multi-wave data to test the over-time relationship between SDO and outgroup affect among young people. We use cross-lagged and latent growth modeling (LGM) of a three-wave data set employing Norwegian adolescents (over 2 years, N = 453) and a five-wave data set with American university students (over 4 years, N = 748). Overall, SDO exhibits high temporal rank-order stability and predicts changes in outgroup affect. This research represents the strongest test to date of SDO's role as a stable trait that influences the development of prejudice, while highlighting LGM as a valuable tool for social and political psychology. © 2016 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.
Environmental governance systems are under greater pressure to adapt and to cope with increased social and ecological uncertainty from stressors like climate change. We review principles of social cognition and decision making that shape and constrain how environmental governance systems adapt. We focus primarily on the interplay between key decision makers in society and legal systems. We argue that adaptive governance must overcome three cooperative dilemmas to facilitate adaptation: (1) encouraging collaborative problem solving, (2) garnering social acceptance and commitment, and (3) cultivating a culture of trust and tolerance for change and uncertainty. However, to do so governance systems must cope with biases in people’s decision making that cloud their judgment and create conflict. These systems must also satisfy people’s fundamental needs for self-determination, fairness, and security, ensuring that changes to environmental governance are perceived as legitimate, trustworthy, and acceptable. We discuss the implications of these principles for common governance solutions (e.g., public participation, enforcement) and conclude with methodological recommendations. We outline how scholars can investigate the social cognitive principles involved in cases of adaptive governance. Social-ecological stressors place significant pressure on major societal systems, triggering adaptive reforms in human governance and environmental law. Though potentially benefici
Luo, Wei; Yin, Peifeng; Di, Qian; Hardisty, Frank; MacEachren, Alan M.
The world has become a complex set of geo-social systems interconnected by networks, including transportation networks, telecommunications, and the internet. Understanding the interactions between spatial and social relationships within such geo-social systems is a challenge. This research aims to address this challenge through the framework of geovisual analytics. We present the GeoSocialApp which implements traditional network analysis methods in the context of explicitly spatial and social...
Mengiste, Shegaw Anagaw; Aanestad, Margunn
This paper adopts a novel learning perspective on information systems development. Building on the works of Anselm Strauss we conceptualize development processes as “negotiated orders” where members from different “social worlds” encounter and negotiate differences and tensions. We argue...... participation, politics and learning in IS implementation and use. We consider learning to be an integral part of the social practice, and it occurs mainly through encounters and negotiations between actors from different social worlds who might have competing interests and values. The paper also analysed how...... that processes of inquiry and action are interwoven, and this is what facilitates and stimulates learning. Based on a case study where different versions of open source software was customized, further developed and implemented in the Ethiopian public health care system, this paper explores the interplay between...
Andreasen, Lars Birch; Buhl, Mie
During only a few years, MOOCs have been widespread adopted and accepted as part of the educational agenda. The massive aspect, the social networking, and the idea of new student roles where the student is the main responsible for selforganizing her or his participation are main drivers......, which are well-known and not yet solved issues in e-learning (Bayne and Ross, 2013, p. 8). We therefore wish to discuss MOOCs from more multiple perspectives and raise issues which emerge from the current reports on practices with MOOCs. A social constructivist perspective on learning acknowledges both...
Moffa, Christine; Longo, Joy
Workplace mistreatment can be viewed as a social injustice that prohibits one from achieving optimal well-being. Cognitive and interpersonal skills required of nurses can be impacted by workplace mistreatment, thus extending injustices by violating the rights of patients to optimal care. The purpose of this article is to view workplace mistreatment through the lens of Powers and Faden's theory of social justice. Workplace mistreatment is explored through the 6 dimensions of well-being, including health, personal security, reasoning, respect, attachment, and self-determination, identified in the theory. The implications for practice and policy are discussed and recommendations for research made.
Full Text Available In recent decades, social capital has been a key element within academic discourses and social policy programs. However, the operationalization of the concept varies from one place to another, thus generating debates regarding its likely contributions —both theoretical and empirical—. The paper argues that a contextual definition of the term contributes to the construction of a more sophisticated idea regarding poverty alleviation, supporting other academic work, which questionstraditional approaches. The latter is shown through the results of ethnographic fieldwork in Monterrey, Nuevo León, México, which included in depth interviews to household members defined as representatives of different poverty levels by a previous survey.
This article considers the evolution of women\\'s rights in international human rights law. It then moves on to consider the gender dimension of economic, social and cultural rights before examining constraints to their enjoyment and enforcement. East African Journal of Peace and Human Rights Vol. 12 (2) 2006: pp. 232-253 ...
Cizel, A; Boonstra, A.; Langley, D.J.; Tan, C.W.
In this paper we explore the state of current knowledge about online social networks (OSNs), and their role in precipitating changes in existing market structures. We do so by reviewing more than 30 recent papers from top-ranked journals in the relevant fields of study. We begin by providing a
Rwanda Journal, Series D, Volume 1, 2016, Life and Natural Sciences: Special issue II. Using Social Network Analysis ... SNA provides a structured means to quantitatively describe and analyse the extent to which diverse ..... organisations to use their physical proximity to wetland site in bamboo nursery and dissemination.
Full Text Available Social media play increasingly important roles as a marketing platform. In today’s world, more and more retailers’ use social media to target teenagers and young adults as a result importance of bringing social networking sites (SNSs as a part of daily life transactions cannot be underplayed. In the present paper the emphasis is upon the analyses of the social media mindset of consumers in India, and examining the impact of various variables of extended TAM in order to explain the variables that influence level of acceptance of SNS by Indian consumers. Results indicated positive and significant effects of perceived usefulness while perceived risk influenced negatively. Further, perceived ease of use and personal fit with brands both found to have a positive effect on marketing through SNS but were not significant. The results of present study in India pointed out that establishing personal fit with consumers and providing user-friendly web sites, and reducing the perceived risk has impact on developing positive attitudes.
Federal land managers and the public engage in many decisions about stewardship of wilderness in the United States, including decisions about stewardship of fire. To date, social science research lacks a holistic examination of the decision-making context of managers and the public about stewardship of fire inside wilderness and across its boundaries. A conceptual...
Chang, Steve W C; Platt, Michael L
Converging evidence from humans and non-human animals indicates that the neurohypophysial hormone oxytocin (OT) evolved to serve a specialized function in social behavior in mammals. Although OT-based therapies are currently being evaluated as remedies for social deficits in neuropsychiatric disorders, precisely how OT regulates complex social processes remains largely unknown. Here we describe how a non-human primate model can be used to understand the mechanisms by which OT regulates social cognition and thereby inform its clinical application in humans. We focus primarily on recent advances in our understanding of OT-mediated social cognition in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), supplemented by discussion of recent work in humans, other primates, and rodents. Together, these studies endorse the hypothesis that OT promotes social exploration both by amplifying social motivation and by attenuating social vigilance. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Oxytocin and Social Behav. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.
Kunst, Jonas R.; Sidanius, Jim; Thomsen, Lotte
Whether and how societal structures shape individual psychology is a foundational question of the social sciences. Combining insights from evolutionary biology, economy, and the political and psychological sciences, we identify a central psychological process that functions to sustain group-based hierarchies in human societies. In study 1, we demonstrate that macrolevel structural inequality, impaired population outcomes, socio-political instability, and the risk of violence are reflected in the endorsement of group hegemony at the aggregate population level across 27 countries (n = 41,824): The greater the national inequality, the greater is the endorsement of between-group hierarchy within the population. Using multilevel analyses in study 2, we demonstrate that these psychological group-dominance motives mediate the effects of macrolevel functioning on individual-level attitudes and behaviors. Specifically, across 30 US states (n = 4,613), macrolevel inequality and violence were associated with greater individual-level support of group hegemony. Crucially, this individual-level support, rather than cultural-societal norms, was in turn uniquely associated with greater racism, sexism, welfare opposition, and even willingness to enforce group hegemony violently by participating in ethnic persecution of subordinate out-groups. These findings suggest that societal inequality is reflected in people’s minds as dominance motives that underpin ideologies and actions that ultimately sustain group-based hierarchy. PMID:28484013
Kunst, Jonas R; Fischer, Ronald; Sidanius, Jim; Thomsen, Lotte
Whether and how societal structures shape individual psychology is a foundational question of the social sciences. Combining insights from evolutionary biology, economy, and the political and psychological sciences, we identify a central psychological process that functions to sustain group-based hierarchies in human societies. In study 1, we demonstrate that macrolevel structural inequality, impaired population outcomes, socio-political instability, and the risk of violence are reflected in the endorsement of group hegemony at the aggregate population level across 27 countries ( n = 41,824): The greater the national inequality, the greater is the endorsement of between-group hierarchy within the population. Using multilevel analyses in study 2, we demonstrate that these psychological group-dominance motives mediate the effects of macrolevel functioning on individual-level attitudes and behaviors. Specifically, across 30 US states ( n = 4,613), macrolevel inequality and violence were associated with greater individual-level support of group hegemony. Crucially, this individual-level support, rather than cultural-societal norms, was in turn uniquely associated with greater racism, sexism, welfare opposition, and even willingness to enforce group hegemony violently by participating in ethnic persecution of subordinate out-groups. These findings suggest that societal inequality is reflected in people's minds as dominance motives that underpin ideologies and actions that ultimately sustain group-based hierarchy.
Roitman, Yaakov; Gilboa-Schechtman, Eva
According to Rapee (1997), maternal social anxiety (SA) is directly associated with adolescent SA because maternal SA causes overprotective and controlling parental behavior. A total of 127 adolescents who were in the process of transitioning to a boarding school for at-risk youth as well as their mothers participated in the current study, 30% of the adolescents had experienced at least one depressive episode; 17.5% had been diagnosed with SA. We analyzed an expanding model of mediation, of maternal SA and depression in which specifically, adolescent self-perception was constructed as a latent factor that was formed by self-reported dominance and self-criticism. The results supported our hypotheses that maternal SA is not directly associated with adolescent SA. Rather, these relationships are mediated by adolescents' self-perception (i.e., dominance and self-criticism). The results call into question Rapee's theoretical arguments and support Gilbert's evolutionary theory. Copyright © 2014 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Intellectual property affects an increasingly large range of social life. Despite the breadth of goods and activities affected by intellectual property schemas, policy-makers, legislators, jurists and even many social theorists have a narrow understanding of the basis for instituting intellectual property rights and understanding their limits:…
Osterhaus, Christopher; Koerber, Susanne; Sodian, Beate
Do social cognition and epistemological understanding promote elementary school children's experimentation skills? To investigate this question, 402 children (ages 8, 9, and 10) in 2nd, 3rd, and 4th grades were assessed for their experimentation skills, social cognition (advanced theory of mind [AToM]), epistemological understanding (understanding…
Dee Winn; Michael Groenendyk; Melissa Rivosecchi
The majority of academic libraries currently use one or more social media websites in their efforts to communicate and engage with students. Some of the most widely used sites are Facebook, Twitter, YouTube and Instagram. Education students at the University of British Columbia were surveyed and asked to rank whether they preferred receiving Library communications from Facebook, Twitter or WordPress (blogs). The results indicate that students ranked Facebook first, WordPress second and Twitte...
Taridala, S. A. A.; Abdullah, W. G.; Suaib; Wahyuni, S.; Wianti, N. I.; Zani, M.; Jabuddin, L. O.; Yusria, W. O.; Limi, M. A.; Ekaputri, A. S.
The objectives of this study were to (1) analyze the socio-economic characteristics of upland rice farmers, and (2) to analyze the productivity of farming in South Konawe Regency of Southeast Sulawesi Province, Indonesia. The analysis used in this research was combine economic research through quantitative and qualitative analysis. This research was conducted by survey method. The results showed that (1) farmers are generally in productive age, dominated by men, with low formal education level, and moderate family members, (2) upland rice farming is cultivated in medium land area, with fixed costs higher than variable cost, productivity that has been increased but still lower than rice paddy, and the price of rice production is relatively higher than rice paddy production price, and (3) feasible to cultivate dryland rice, and has a high efficiency value.
Authors in this collection offer both critique and contextualist counterpoint to the standard, "official" histories of the field-successive editions of the Handbook of Social Psychology in 1954, 1968, 1985, and 1998. Unlike mainstream histories, the collected studies do not together constitute a seamless chronicle of continual progress for practitioners in a research area seeking social science status, viability, and legitimacy. Rather the authors focus on choice points, crises, and debates (some still ongoing), pay special heed to non-mainstream branches and voices, question numerous assumptions concerning the interrelationships among social psychological methodology, ontology (Danziger; MacMartin & Winston; Stam, Radtke, & Lubek), boundaries (Good), and individualisms (moral, political, and/or methodological). The specific contributions of Floyd and Gordon Allport are discussed from several perspectives as they helped define and shape and write the history of the field (Lubek & Apfelbaum; Parkovnick; Greenwood; Chung), and bridge it to neighboring areas (personality) and disciplines (psychology and sociology) (Nicholson; Barenbaum; Cherry). The constraints, origin myths, insensitivities, and omissions of standard histories are pointed out (Samelson), some partial correctives are advanced, and a more generative role for future historical studies is suggested. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Cross, Jennifer Riedl; Cross, Tracy L.; Finch, Holmes
Social dominance orientation (SDO), right-wing authoritarianism (RWA), and socially desirable responding were examined among a sample of self-identified supporters of gifted education (N = 341), 70% of whom had an official role in gifted education as researchers, teachers, or gifted-talented (G/T) trainers. The sample was primarily female, White,…
Bieroza, M. Z.; Heathwaite, A. L.
Developments in high-frequency water quality measurements enable capturing of fine structure of temporal variations in river biogeochemistry. Understanding of the temporal variation in the nutrient source and in-stream processes is critical in restoration of the good ecological and chemical status of river ecosystems. However, to date the in-stream temporal variability of macronutrients captured by high-frequency sampling is poorly understood (Scholefield et al., 2005; Milne et al., 2009; Harris and Heathwaite, 2011). Typically, river water quality monitoring is based on coarse sampling or storm event targeting strategies that miss the low flow water quality dynamics when in-stream processes and chemical-biological interactions may be of the greatest importance. This paper investigates the temporal dynamics and interdependencies between multiple high-frequency (hourly) nutrient and water quality time series collated for the River Leith, a tributary of the River Eden (Cumbria, UK). In-stream nutrients (total phosphorus TP, soluble reactive phosphorus SRP, nitrate nitrogen NO3N) and water quality parameters (turbidity, specific conductivity, pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen, redox potential) were measured by an automated remote mobile lab. A 54 km2 catchment of the River Leith is of mixed geology with Carboniferous limestone overlain by Penrith Sandstone and glacial till deposits. Permeable riverbed deposits create an active groundwater-surface water interface with hyporheic processes potentially exerting control over nutrient cycling. The temporal variation in in-stream nutrients and water quality variables was analysed. Diurnal patterns were observed during low flow conditions for both nutrients and water quality time series. Possible physical and biogeochemical controls on nutrients short-term dynamics were discussed. Antecedent and contemporaneous interdependencies between nutrients, water quality and hydrometric time series were explored in more detail using
Paay, Jeni; Kjeldskov, Jesper
these and their situated interactions. In response, this paper addresses the challenge of informing design of mobile services for fostering social connections by using the concept of place for studying and understanding peoples’ social activities in a public built environment. We present a case study of social experience...... of a physical place providing an understanding of peoples’ situated social interactions in public places of the city derived through a grounded analysis of small groups of friends socialising out on the town. Informed by this, we describe the design and evaluation of a mobile prototype system facilitating......Ubiquitous and mobile computer technologies are increasingly being appropriated to facilitate people’s social life outside the work domain. Designing such social and collaborative technologies requires an understanding of peoples’ physical and social context, and the interplay between...
us now address complex systems which include a substantial social component. We may start with economics and theory of finance. Given the long memory ...Entropy: A Unifying Path for Understanding Complexity in Natural, Artificial and Social Systems * Constantino Tsallis Centro Brasileiro de...Path for Understanding Complexity in Natural, Artificial and Social Systems 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA23861114006 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT
textabstractConsumers often share experiences, opinions or certain content with others. For example, they suggest restaurants, recommend article posts, share online videos, pass along rumors and complain about customer services. Such word of mouth determines what catches on and become popular among consumers. While research has shown that word of mouth is frequent and important, there has been limited work on understanding what makes certain content more shared than others. This dissertation ...
Throughout recent decades, socially-mixed neighbourhoods have become a key element of urban policy and debate. This paper argues, with Amsterdam as an empirical case, that the design, layout and everyday use of social space—including public and private space—is of key importance in understanding the
Full Text Available Crowd-powered search is a new form of search and problem solving scheme that involves collaboration among a potentially large number of voluntary Web users. Human flesh search (HFS, a particular form of crowd-powered search originated in China, has seen tremendous growth since its inception in 2001. HFS presents a valuable test-bed for scientists to validate existing and new theories in social computing, sociology, behavioral sciences, and so forth.In this research, we construct an aggregated HFS group, consisting of the participants and their relationships in a comprehensive set of identified HFS episodes. We study the topological properties and the evolution of the aggregated network and different sub-groups in the network. We also identify the key HFS participants according to a variety of measures.We found that, as compared with other online social networks, HFS participant network shares the power-law degree distribution and small-world property, but with a looser and more distributed organizational structure, leading to the diversity, decentralization, and independence of HFS participants. In addition, the HFS group has been becoming increasingly decentralized. The comparisons of different HFS sub-groups reveal that HFS participants collaborated more often when they conducted the searches in local platforms or the searches requiring a certain level of professional knowledge background. On the contrary, HFS participants did not collaborate much when they performed the search task in national platforms or the searches with general topics that did not require specific information and learning. We also observed that the key HFS information contributors, carriers, and transmitters came from different groups of HFS participants.
Pearson, RaeAnne M; Pillow, Bradford H
The authors investigated the relationship between mother-child conversation and children's social understanding during middle childhood. Thirty-eight mother-child pairs participated, including a younger group (5-7 years old) and an older group (8-10 years old). Children completed 2 measures of social understanding and mothers and children discussed 4 stories involving social dilemmas. Results indicated that compared to the younger group, the older group (a) performed better on both measures of social understanding and (b) produced more basic mental talk (i.e., talk about beliefs, emotions, personality traits, and desires), and more advanced mental talk (i.e., talk about contrasting perspectives, recursion and relationship between mental states, and advanced emotions). Mothers of older children also produced more basic and advanced mental talk. Mothers' advanced mental talk predicted both children's social understanding and children's advanced mental talk.
Malti, Tina; Gasser, Luciano; Gutzwiller-Helfenfinger, Eveline
The study investigated interpretive understanding, moral judgments, and emotion attributions in relation to social behaviour in a sample of 59 5-year-old, 123 7-year-old, and 130 9-year-old children. Interpretive understanding was assessed by two tasks measuring children's understanding of ambiguous situations. Moral judgments and emotion…
Jensen, Kirstine Brøgger
This paper debates how to understand architectural quality when working with social housing areas. The concept is discussed through three approaches: 1) Social housing is debated in relation to societal and historical contributions. 2) Well known definitions (from the old-timer Vitruvius...... to the current sustainability agenda) are outlined according to their pros´n cons when working with social housing areas. 3) On the ground of interviews with practitioners the everyday use and understanding of the concept is scrutinized In this vein the paper agitates that architectural quality in social housing...
Cui, Liang-Wei; Sun, Qing-Lei; Li, Bao-Guo
Different types of dominance hierarchies reflect different social relationships in primates. In this study, we clarified the hierarchy and social relationships in a one-male unit of captive Rhinopithecus bieti observed between August 1998 and March 1999. Mean frequency of agonistic behaviour among adult females was 0.13 interactions per hour. Adult females exhibited a linear hierarchy with a reversal of 10.9%, indicating an unstable relationship; therefore, R. bieti appears to be a relaxed/tolerant species. The lack of a relationship between the agonistic ratio of the adult male towards adult females and their ranks indicated that males did not show increased aggression towards low-ranking females. Differentiated female affiliative relationships were loosely formed in terms of the male, and to some extent influenced by female estrus, implying that relationships between the male and females is influenced by estrus and not rank alone. A positive correlation between the agonistic ratio of adult females and their ranks showed that the degree to which one female negatively impacted others decreased with reduction in rank. Similarly, a positive correlation between the agonistic ratio of females and differences in rank suggests that a female had fewer negative effects on closely ranked individuals than distantly ranked ones. These data indicate that rank may influence relationships between females. A steeper slope of regression between the agonistic ratio and inter-female rank differences indicated that the extent of the power difference in high-ranking females exerting negative effects on low-ranking ones was larger during the mating season than the birth season, suggesting that rank may influence the mating success of females.
Reiter, Andrea M. F.; Kanske, Philipp; Eppinger, Ben; Li, Shu-Chen
Research in younger adults dissociates cognitive from affective facets of social information processing, rather than promoting a monolithic view of social intelligence. An influential theory on adult development suggests differential effects of aging on cognitive and affective functions. However, this dissociation has not been directly tested in the social domain. Employing a newly developed naturalistic paradigm that disentangles facets of the social mind within an individual, we show multi-...
Full Text Available The majority of academic libraries currently use one or more social media websites in their efforts to communicate and engage with students. Some of the most widely used sites are Facebook, Twitter, YouTube and Instagram. Education students at the University of British Columbia were surveyed and asked to rank whether they preferred receiving Library communications from Facebook, Twitter or WordPress (blogs. The results indicate that students ranked Facebook first, WordPress second and Twitter third. Students also provided explanations for their rankings, and Facebook was the top choice because it is the most widely used as well as the most convenient way to access Library information. Additional research in this area should be conducted at other academic libraries. La plupart des bibliothèques utilisent actuellement un ou plusieurs sites web des médias sociaux en essayant de communiquer et d’interagir avec les étudiants. Certains des sites les plus utilisés sont Facebook, Twitter, YouTube et Instagram. Un sondage a demandé aux utilisateurs de la bibliothèque éducative de l’Université de Colombie-Britannique s’ils préféraient recevoir les communications via Facebook, Twitter, ou WordPress (les blogs. Les résultats indiquent que les étudiants ont classé Facebook au premier rang, suivi de WordPress et Twitter au troisième rang. Les étudiants ont aussi expliqué leurs classements: Facebook est le premier choix, car il est le plus utilisé et aussi le moyen le plus pratique pour accéder aux informations de la bibliothèque. Les recherches supplémentaires traitant cette question devraient être menées par d’autres bibliothèques académiques.
Hoedebecke, Kyle; Beaman, Lindsey; Mugambi, Joy; Shah, Sanam; Mohasseb, Marwa; Vetter, Cheyanne; Yu, Kim; Gergianaki, Irini; Couvillon, Emily
Background : Low health literacy is associated with decreased patient compliance and worse outcomes - with clinicians increasingly relying on printed materials to lower such risks. Yet, many of these documents exceed recommended comprehension levels. Furthermore, patients look increasingly to social media (SoMe) to answer healthcare questions. The character limits built into Twitter encourage users to publish small quantities of text, which are more accessible to patients with low health literacy. The present authors hypothesize that SoMe posts are written at lower grade levels than traditional medical sources, improving patient health literacy. Methods: The data sample consisted of the first 100 original tweets from three trending medical hashtags, leading to a total of 300 tweets. The Flesch-Kincaid Readability Formula (FKRF) was used to derive grade level of the tweets. Data was analyzed via descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: The readability scores for the data sample had a mean grade level of 9.45. A notable 47.6% of tweets were above ninth grade reading level. An independent-sample t-test comparing FKRF mean scores of different hashtags found differences between the means of the following: #hearthealth versus #diabetes (t = 3.15, p = 0.002); #hearthealth versus #migraine (t = 0.09, p = 0.9); and #diabetes versus #migraine (t = 3.4, p = 0.001). Conclusions: Tweets from this data sample were written at a mean grade level of 9.45, signifying a level between the ninth and tenth grades. This is higher than desired, yet still better than traditional sources, which have been previously analyzed. Ultimately, those responsible for health care SoMe posts must continue to improve efforts to reach the recommended reading level (between the sixth and eighth grade), so as to ensure optimal comprehension of patients.
Hayfield, N.; Clarke, V.; Halliwell, E.
Drawing on interviews with 20 self-identified bisexual women, this paper contributes to the limited psychological literature on bisexual women by exploring their experiences of social marginalisation. These (mainly white and middle class) British bisexual women reported that they did not feel at home in either lesbian or lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender communities, nor in the wider (heteronormative) society. They identified a number of understandings – bisexuality as a temporary phase ...
Golec de Zavala, Agnieszka; Guerra, Rita; Simão, Cláudia
The Leave campaign in the U.K., which advocated exiting the European Union, emphasized anxiety over immigration and the need to take control of the U.K.'s borders. Citizens who expressed concerns about immigration to the U.K. were more likely to vote to leave. Two correlational studies examined the previously unexplored question of whether the Brexit vote and support for the outcome of the E.U. referendum were linked to individual predictors of prejudice toward foreigners: British collective narcissism (a belief in national greatness), right wing authoritarianism, and social dominance orientation. The results converged to indicate that all three variables were independently related to the perceived threat of immigrants and, via this variable, to the Brexit vote and a support for the outcome of the E.U. referendum. These variables explained the variance in the perceived threat of immigrants and support for the Brexit vote over and above other previously examined predictors such as age, education, or ethnicity, as well as, national identification and national attachment. PMID:29230185
Golec de Zavala, Agnieszka; Guerra, Rita; Simão, Cláudia
The Leave campaign in the U.K., which advocated exiting the European Union, emphasized anxiety over immigration and the need to take control of the U.K.'s borders. Citizens who expressed concerns about immigration to the U.K. were more likely to vote to leave. Two correlational studies examined the previously unexplored question of whether the Brexit vote and support for the outcome of the E.U. referendum were linked to individual predictors of prejudice toward foreigners: British collective narcissism (a belief in national greatness), right wing authoritarianism, and social dominance orientation. The results converged to indicate that all three variables were independently related to the perceived threat of immigrants and, via this variable, to the Brexit vote and a support for the outcome of the E.U. referendum. These variables explained the variance in the perceived threat of immigrants and support for the Brexit vote over and above other previously examined predictors such as age, education, or ethnicity, as well as, national identification and national attachment.
Agnieszka Golec de Zavala
Full Text Available The Leave campaign in the U.K., which advocated exiting the European Union, emphasized anxiety over immigration and the need to take control of the U.K.'s borders. Citizens who expressed concerns about immigration to the U.K. were more likely to vote to leave. Two correlational studies examined the previously unexplored question of whether the Brexit vote and support for the outcome of the E.U. referendum were linked to individual predictors of prejudice toward foreigners: British collective narcissism (a belief in national greatness, right wing authoritarianism, and social dominance orientation. The results converged to indicate that all three variables were independently related to the perceived threat of immigrants and, via this variable, to the Brexit vote and a support for the outcome of the E.U. referendum. These variables explained the variance in the perceived threat of immigrants and support for the Brexit vote over and above other previously examined predictors such as age, education, or ethnicity, as well as, national identification and national attachment.
Yan, Guanhua [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Eidenbenz, Stephan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chen, Guanling [U OF MASSACHUSETTS LOWELL; Li, Nan [U OF MASSACHUSETTS LOWELL
Online social networks, which have been expanding at a blistering speed in the recent years, have emerged as a popular communication infrastructure for Internet users. Meanwhile, malware that specifically targets these online social networks are also on the rise. In this work, we aim to investigate the characteristics of malware propagation in online social networks. Our study is based on a dataset collected from a real-world location-based online social network. We analyze the social structure and user activity patterns of this network. We further use extensive trace-driven simulation to study the impact of initial infection, user click probability, social structure, and activity patterns on malware propagation in online social networks. The results from this work has greatly deepened our understanding of the nature of online social network malware and also shed light on how to defend against them effectively.
Caste has remained a subject of intense academic inquiry. Lately, new discourses have emerged under the thematic of ‘social exclusion’ that simply extend the scope of academic discussion on caste. This paper assumes that such discourses are relatively less applied to understanding the caste system and for the same attempts to juxtapose thinking on social exclusion to understanding caste in India. Thematically, these methodological issues are dealt with by firstly, presenting a brief backgrou...
Turan, Bulent; Tackett, Jennifer L; Lechtreck, Maria T; Browning, Wesley R
For many people, competitions, status challenges, and being evaluated by others result in increases in cortisol as well as testosterone. It is argued that physiological processes work in a coordinated fashion when facing social evaluative-competitive situations. Such a coordinated response may be part of an evolved system, monitoring and responding to threats to one's social status. In two studies, using within-person multi-level analyses, we tested the hypothesis that adult men, pre/early pubertal boys, and pre/early pubertal girls show a coordinated response in cortisol and testosterone (i.e., coupling of cortisol and testosterone responses) during a social evaluative situation. In Study 1, 85 men delivered speeches and performed difficult arithmetic tasks in front of critical evaluators, prepared for a competition, and provided multiple saliva samples throughout the procedure for cortisol and testosterone assays. In Study 2, 79 boys and 74 girls underwent similar procedures as in Study 1. Within-person analyses suggested that cortisol and testosterone responses were indeed positively associated for all three groups (men, boys, and girls). That is, on average a participant's cortisol and testosterone levels tended to rise and fall together throughout the procedure, suggesting that cortisol and testosterone show coordinated activation and deactivation (coupling) during social status threats. Furthermore, men with higher anxiety during the stressor tasks (Study 1; coded by raters from video recordings) and both boys and girls with higher parent reported trait negative affectivity (Study 2) had stronger coupling. Men (Study 1) higher in self-reported trait dominance and verbal dominance (coded by raters from video recordings during the stressor), and lower in basal testosterone had weaker coupling. A coordinated hormone response may have important adaptive functions when dealing with status threats; cortisol can mobilize energy resources and testosterone can
Le Mens, Gaël
Bentley et al. make the deliberate choice to blur the distinction between learning and decision making. This obscures the social influence mechanisms that operate in the various empirical settings that their map aims to categorize. Useful policy prescriptions, however, require an accurate understanding of the social influence mechanisms that underlie the dynamics of popularity.
Lahman, Caroline D.
The purpose of this dissertation was to examine the successful implementation of social media strategies in multiple organizations. Examining the factors an organization used to implement social media can provide the understanding of the benefits and risks associated with this technology. Some businesses are considered successful using social…
Gregory Larson; Vita Wright; Cade Spaulding; Kelly Rossetto; Georgi Rausch; Andrea Richards; Stephanie Durnford
The wildland fire community has spent the past decade trying to understand and account for the role of human factors in wildland fire organizations. Social research that is relevant to managing fire organizations can be found in disciplines such as social psychology, management, and communication. However, such research has been published primarily for scientific and...
Nishizawa, K; Izawa, E-I; Watanabe, S
Large-billed crows (Corvus macrorhynchos), highly social birds, form stable dominance relationships based on the memory of win/loss outcomes of first encounters and on individual discrimination. This socio-cognitive behaviour predicts the existence of neural mechanisms for integration of social behaviour control and individual discrimination. This study aimed to elucidate the neural substrates of memory-based dominance in crows. First, the formation of dominance relationships was confirmed between males in a dyadic encounter paradigm. Next, we examined whether neural activities in 22 focal nuclei of pallium and subpallium were correlated with social behaviour and stimulus familiarity after exposure to dominant/subordinate familiar individuals and unfamiliar conspecifics. Neural activity was determined by measuring expression level of the immediate-early-gene (IEG) protein Zenk. Crows displayed aggressive and/or submissive behaviour to opponents less frequently but more discriminatively in subsequent encounters, suggesting stable dominance based on memory, including win/loss outcomes of the first encounters and individual discrimination. Neural correlates of aggressive and submissive behaviour were found in limbic subpallium including septum, bed nucleus of the striae terminalis (BST), and nucleus taeniae of amygdala (TnA), but also those to familiarity factor in BST and TnA. Contrastingly, correlates of social behaviour were little in pallium and those of familiarity with exposed individuals were identified in hippocampus, medial meso-/nidopallium, and ventro-caudal nidopallium. Given the anatomical connection and neural response patterns of the focal nuclei, neural networks connecting pallium and limbic subpallium via hippocampus could be involved in the integration of individual discrimination and social behaviour control in memory-based dominance in the crow. Copyright Â© 2011 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Elmose-Østerlund, Karsten; Van der Roest, Jan-Willem
A central claim in Robert Putnam’s theory of social capital is that participation in voluntary organizations can foster social trust among members that are active and engaged. Based on this claim, this article examines how duration of membership and member participation impacts upon levels...
Tsai, Ming-Tien; Cheng, Nai-Chang
The research includes various constructs based on social exchange theory and social cognitive theory. This study mainly explored the relationships among organisational justice, trust, commitment and knowledge-sharing cognition and verified their mediating effects through two variables of trust and commitment. A survey utilising a questionnaire was…
Chilenski, Sarah M; Syvertsen, Amy K; Greenberg, Mark T
Rural communities make up much of America's heartland, yet we know little about their social organization, and how elements of their social organization relate to crime rates. The current study sought to remedy this gap by examining the associations between two measures of social organization - collective efficacy and social trust - with a number of structural community characteristics, local crime rates, and perceptions of safety in a sample of 27 rural and small town communities in two states. Measures of collective efficacy, social trust, and perceived safety, were gathered from key community members in 2006; other measures were drawn from the 2000 Census and FBI Uniform Crime Reporting system. A series of competing hypotheses were tested to examine the relative importance of social trust and collective efficacy in predicting local crime rates. Results do not support the full generalization of the social disorganization model. Correlational analyses showed that neither collective efficacy nor social trust had a direct association with community crime, nor did they mediate the associations between community structural characteristics and crime. However, perceived safety mediated the association between community crime and both measures of social organization. Analyses suggest that social trust may be more important than collective efficacy when understanding the effect of crime on a community's culture in rural areas. Understanding these associations in rural settings can aid decision makers in shaping policies to reduce crime and juvenile delinquency.
Williamson, Rebecca A.; Brooks, Rechele; Meltzoff, Andrew N.
Understanding others' perceptions is a fundamental aspect of social cognition. Children's construal of visual perception is well investigated, but there is little work on children's understanding of others' auditory perception. The current study assesses toddlers' recognition that producing different sounds can affect others…
Maria da Glória Franco
Full Text Available This study analyzes the relationship between emotion understanding and school achievement in children of primary school, considering age, gender, fluid intelligence, mother’s educational level and social competence. In this study participated 406 children of primary school. The instruments used were the Test of Emotion Comprehension, Colored Progressive Matrices of Raven, Socially Action and Interpersonal Problem Solving Scale. The structural equation model showed the relationship between the emotion understanding and school performance depends on a mediator variable that in the context of the study was designated social competence. Age appear as an explanatory factor of the differences found, the mother’s educational level only predicts significantly social emotional competence, fluid intelligence is a predictor of emotion understanding, school achievement and social emotional competence. Regarding the influence of sex, emotional understanding does not emerge as a significant predictor of social emotional competence in girls or boys. Multiple relationships between the various factors associated with school achievement and social emotional competence are discussed as well as their implications in promoting child development and school success.
Franco, Maria da Glória; Beja, Maria J.; Candeias, Adelinda; Santos, Natalie
This study analyzes the relationship between emotion understanding and school achievement in children of primary school, considering age, gender, fluid intelligence, mother’s educational level and social competence. In this study participated 406 children of primary school. The instruments used were the Test of Emotion Comprehension, Colored Progressive Matrices of Raven, Socially Action and Interpersonal Problem Solving Scale. The structural equation model showed the relationship between the emotion understanding and school performance depends on a mediator variable that in the context of the study was designated social competence. Age appear as an explanatory factor of the differences found, the mother’s educational level only predicts significantly social emotional competence, fluid intelligence is a predictor of emotion understanding, school achievement and social emotional competence. Regarding the influence of sex, emotional understanding does not emerge as a significant predictor of social emotional competence in girls or boys. Multiple relationships between the various factors associated with school achievement and social emotional competence are discussed as well as their implications in promoting child development and school success. PMID:28861014
Franco, Maria da Glória; Beja, Maria J; Candeias, Adelinda; Santos, Natalie
This study analyzes the relationship between emotion understanding and school achievement in children of primary school, considering age, gender, fluid intelligence, mother's educational level and social competence. In this study participated 406 children of primary school. The instruments used were the Test of Emotion Comprehension, Colored Progressive Matrices of Raven, Socially Action and Interpersonal Problem Solving Scale. The structural equation model showed the relationship between the emotion understanding and school performance depends on a mediator variable that in the context of the study was designated social competence. Age appear as an explanatory factor of the differences found, the mother's educational level only predicts significantly social emotional competence, fluid intelligence is a predictor of emotion understanding, school achievement and social emotional competence. Regarding the influence of sex, emotional understanding does not emerge as a significant predictor of social emotional competence in girls or boys. Multiple relationships between the various factors associated with school achievement and social emotional competence are discussed as well as their implications in promoting child development and school success.
Masses of colonial workers are situating their free-for-all labor efforts in a global context due to dominant forms of organization based on a neoliberalist and corporate market economy. New social movements that show concern for democracy and human rights are challenging capitalist priorities of "efficiency" and exploitation. In some…
Osterhaus, Christopher; Koerber, Susanne; Sodian, Beate
Do social cognition and epistemological understanding promote elementary school children's experimentation skills? To investigate this question, 402 children (ages 8, 9, and 10) in 2nd, 3rd, and 4th grades were assessed for their experimentation skills, social cognition (advanced theory of mind [AToM]), epistemological understanding (understanding the nature of science), and general information-processing skills (inhibition, intelligence, and language abilities) in a whole-class testing procedure. A multiple indicators multiple causes model revealed a significant influence of social cognition (AToM) on epistemological understanding, and a McNemar test suggested that children's development of AToM is an important precursor for the emergence of an advanced, mature epistemological understanding. Children's epistemological understanding, in turn, predicted their experimentation skills. Importantly, this relation was independent of the common influences of general information processing. Significant relations between experimentation skills and inhibition, and between epistemological understanding, intelligence, and language abilities emerged, suggesting that general information processing contributes to the conceptual development that is involved in scientific thinking. The model of scientific thinking that was tested in this study (social cognition and epistemological understanding promote experimentation skills) fitted the data significantly better than 2 alternative models, which assumed nonspecific, equally strong relations between all constructs under investigation. Our results support the conclusion that social cognition plays a foundational role in the emergence of children's epistemological understanding, which in turn is closely related to the development of experimentation skills. Our findings have significant implications for the teaching of scientific thinking in elementary school and they stress the importance of children's epistemological understanding in
Vancouver, J B
Living systems theories have been used to model human, organization, and communication processes. This paper attempts to describe these models and to highlight the isomorphisms among the models. Particular emphasis is given to self-regulating properties of humans as a subsystem of social systems. Attention is given to the advantages of generalizing across levels and phenomena and integrating the middle-range theories that dominate the field of organizational behavior. Three broad recommendations for future research are discussed.
Henning Salling Olesen
Full Text Available The article is a guided tour to Alfred LORENZER's proposal for an "in-depth hermeneutic" cultural analysis methodology which was launched in an environment with an almost complete split between social sciences and psychology/psychoanalysis. It presents the background in his materialist socialization theory, which combines a social reinterpretation of the core insights in classical psychoanalysis—the unconscious, the drives—with a theory of language acquisition. His methodology is based on a transformation of the "scenic understanding" from a clinical to a text interpretation, which seeks to understand collective unconscious meaning in text, and is presented with an illustration of the interpretation procedure from social research. Then follows a brief systematic account of key concepts and ideas—interaction forms, engrams, experience, symbolization, language game, utopian imagination—with an outlook to the social theory connections to the Frankfurt School. The practical interpretation procedure in a LORENZER-based psycho-societal research is briefly summarized, emphasizing the role of the researcher subjects in discovering socially unconscious meaning in social interaction. Finally an outlook to contemporary epistemological issues. LORENZER's approach to theorize and research the subject as a socially produced entity appears as a psycho-societal alternative to mainstream social constructivism. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1203229
Koski, Jessica; Xie, Hongling; Olson, Ingrid R.
Social groups across species rapidly self-organize into hierarchies, where members vary in their level of power, influence, skill, or dominance. In this review we explore the nature of social hierarchies and the traits associated with status in both humans and nonhuman primates, and how status varies across development in humans. Our review finds that we can rapidly identify social status based on a wide range of cues. Like monkeys, we tend to use certain cues, like physical strength, to make status judgments, although layered on top of these more primitive perceptual cues are socio-cultural status cues like job titles and educational attainment. One's relative status has profound effects on attention, memory, and social interactions, as well as health and wellness. These effects can be particularly pernicious in children and adolescents. Developmental research on peer groups and social exclusion suggests teenagers may be particularly sensitive to social status information, but research focused specifically on status processing and associated brain areas is very limited. Recent evidence from neuroscience suggests there may be an underlying neural network, including regions involved in executive, emotional, and reward processing, that is sensitive to status information. We conclude with questions for future research as well as stressing the need to expand social neuroscience research on status processing to adolescents. PMID:25697184
Koski, Jessica E; Xie, Hongling; Olson, Ingrid R
Social groups across species rapidly self-organize into hierarchies, where members vary in their level of power, influence, skill, or dominance. In this review, we explore the nature of social hierarchies and the traits associated with status in both humans and nonhuman primates, and how status varies across development in humans. Our review finds that we can rapidly identify social status based on a wide range of cues. Like monkeys, we tend to use certain cues, like physical strength, to make status judgments, although layered on top of these more primitive perceptual cues are sociocultural status cues like job titles and educational attainment. One's relative status has profound effects on attention, memory, and social interactions, as well as health and wellness. These effects can be particularly pernicious in children and adolescents. Developmental research on peer groups and social exclusion suggests teenagers may be particularly sensitive to social status information, but research focused specifically on status processing and associated brain areas is very limited. Recent evidence from neuroscience suggests that there may be an underlying neural network, including regions involved in executive, emotional, and reward processing, that is sensitive to status information. We conclude with questions for future research as well as stressing the need to expand social neuroscience research on status processing to adolescents.
Hoffman, Beth A.
This investigation of conceptual understanding in computer-based physics instruction found that preconceptions are powerful predictors of performance; pair composition is related to paired, but not individualized performance; and efficient partner resolution strategies lead to improved performance. Seventy-six high school physics students were pretested individually and paired on the basis of similarity or difference in their initial level of conceptions. Pairs performed a series of computer-based exercises, after which students were individually posttested. Students' self-reports and researcher observations measured the nature and frequency of social interaction in which their pair engaged. Students who began with a more sophisticated understanding of force and motion performed significantly better than those with low Pretest scores. Those with initially lower scores improved more after instruction, but their Posttest scores rarely surpassed the scores of those who started out higher. Lower scoring students were dominated by higher scoring partners during paired learning. Pairs' performance measures therefore reflected the conceptions of the higher level student. Conversely, individual performance measures following paired instruction were unrelated to a partner's ability level. Pairing students by ability level did not affect performance except in the context of the pair. Results imply that educators need not pair students by ability level when their goal is to improve the individual's performance. Students with the most efficient resolution strategies performed significantly better than those whose resolution strategies were less sophisticated. Conflicts were constructive or destructive depending on how they were resolved. The ability to effectively negotiate solutions was associated with higher achievement, implying that educators consider training students to hone their resolution skills prior to collaborative instruction. Computer-based instruction is a
Jorge Eliécer Martínez Posada
Full Text Available The study of social imaginaries and collective representations from a sociological perspective involves agencying interpretative exercises of image reconstruction, whether mental or pictorial images. Thus, the theoretical path followed in this text points to the understanding of social imaginaries and collective representations, as knowledge tradition socially constructed, and social images, which become historically symbolic points of reference of social action.
Barman-Adhikari, Anamika; Rice, Eric
Little is known about the factors associated with use of employment services among homeless youth. Social network characteristics have been known to be influential in motivating people's decision to seek services. Traditional theoretical frameworks applied to studies of service use emphasize individual factors over social contexts and interactions. Using key social network, social capital, and social influence theories, this paper developed an integrated theoretical framework that could capture the social network processes that act as barriers or facilitators of use of employment services by homeless youth, and understand empirically, the salience of each of these constructs in influencing the use of employment services among homeless youth. We used the “Event based-approach” strategy to recruit a sample of 136 homeless youth at one drop-in agency serving homeless youth in Los Angeles, California in 2008. The participants were queried regarding their individual and network characteristics. Data were entered into NetDraw 2.090 and the spring embedder routine was used to generate the network visualizations. Logistic regression was used to assess the influence of the network characteristics on use of employment services. The study findings suggest that social capital is more significant in understanding why homeless youth use employment services, relative to network structure and network influence. In particular, bonding and bridging social capital were found to have differential effects on use of employment services among this population. The results from this study provide specific directions for interventions aimed to increase use of employment services among homeless youth. PMID:24780279
Jupp, Bianca; Murray, Jennifer E; Jordan, Emily R; Xia, Jing; Fluharty, Meg; Shrestha, Saurav; Robbins, Trevor W; Dalley, Jeffrey W
Studies in human and non-human primates demonstrate that social status is an important determinant of cocaine reinforcement. However, it is unclear whether social rank is associated with other traits that also predispose to addiction and whether social status similarly predicts cocaine self-administration in rats. The objective of this study is to investigate whether social ranking assessed using a resource competition task affects (i) the acquisition, maintenance and reinstatement of cocaine self-administration; (ii) the dopaminergic markers in the striatum; and (iii) the expression of ancillary traits for addiction. Social ranking was determined in group-housed rats based upon drinking times during competition for a highly palatable liquid. Rats were then evaluated for cocaine self-administration and cue-induced drug reinstatement or individual levels of impulsivity, anxiety and novelty-induced locomotor activity. Finally, dopamine content, dopamine transporter (DAT) and dopamine D2/D3 (D2/3) receptor binding were measured postmortem in the dorsal and ventral striatum. Rats deemed socially dominant showed enhanced novelty reactivity but were neither more impulsive nor anxious compared with subordinate rats. Dominant rats additionally maintained higher rates of cocaine self-administration but showed no differences in the acquisition, extinction and reinstatement of this behaviour. D2/3 binding was elevated in the nucleus accumbens shell and dorsal striatum of dominant rats when compared to subordinate rats, and was accompanied by elevated DAT and reduced dopamine content in the nucleus accumbens shell. These findings show that social hierarchy influences the rate of self-administered cocaine but not anxiety or impulsivity in rats. Similar to non-human primates, these effects may be mediated by striatal dopaminergic systems.
Franco, Maria da Glória; Beja, Maria J.; Candeias, Adelinda; Santos, Natalie
This study analyzes the relationship between emotion understanding and school achievement in children of primary school, considering age, gender, fluid intelligence, mother’s educational level and social competence. In this study participated 406 children of primary school. The instruments used were the Test of Emotion Comprehension, Colored Progressive Matrices of Raven, Socially Action and Interpersonal Problem Solving Scale. The structural equation model showed the relationship between the...
Rulifson, Gregory A.
Engineers impact the lives of every person every day, and need to have a strong sense of social responsibility. Understanding what students think about social responsibility in engineering and their futures is very important. Further, by identifying influences that change these ideas and shape their conceptualizations, we can intervene to help prepare students for their responsibilities as part of the profession in the future. This thesis presents the experiences, in their own words, of 34 students who started in engineering. The study is composed of three parts: (i) engineering students' ideas about socially responsible engineering and what influenced these ideas, (ii) how students see themselves as future socially responsible engineers and how this idea changes over their first three years of college, and (iii) what social responsibility-related reasons students who leave engineering have for choosing a new major. Results show that students are complicated and have varied paths through and out of engineering studies. Students came up with their own ideas about socially responsible engineering that converged over the years on legal and safety related aspects of the profession. Relatedly, students identified with the engineering profession through internships and engineering courses, and rarely described socially responsible aspirations that could be accomplished with engineering. More often, those students who desired to help the disadvantaged through their engineering work left engineering. Their choice to leave was a combination of an unsupportive climate, disinterest in their classes, and a desire to combine their personal and professional social responsibility ambitions. If we want engineering students to push the engineering profession forward to be more socially responsible, we can identify the effective influences and develop a curriculum that encourages critical thinking about the social context and impacts of engineering. Additionally, a social
Tavakoli Taba, Seyedamir; Hossain, Liaquat; Heard, Robert; Brennan, Patrick; Lee, Warwick; Lewis, Sarah
Rationale and objectives: Observer performance has been widely studied through examining the characteristics of individuals. Applying a systems perspective, while understanding of the system's output, requires a study of the interactions between observers. This research explains a mixed methods approach to applying a social network analysis (SNA), together with a more traditional approach of examining personal/ individual characteristics in understanding observer performance in mammography. Materials and Methods: Using social networks theories and measures in order to understand observer performance, we designed a social networks survey instrument for collecting personal and network data about observers involved in mammography performance studies. We present the results of a study by our group where 31 Australian breast radiologists originally reviewed 60 mammographic cases (comprising of 20 abnormal and 40 normal cases) and then completed an online questionnaire about their social networks and personal characteristics. A jackknife free response operating characteristic (JAFROC) method was used to measure performance of radiologists. JAFROC was tested against various personal and network measures to verify the theoretical model. Results: The results from this study suggest a strong association between social networks and observer performance for Australian radiologists. Network factors accounted for 48% of variance in observer performance, in comparison to 15.5% for the personal characteristics for this study group. Conclusion: This study suggest a strong new direction for research into improving observer performance. Future studies in observer performance should consider social networks' influence as part of their research paradigm, with equal or greater vigour than traditional constructs of personal characteristics.
Elaine P. Congress
Full Text Available Recognizing ethical issues and dilemmas that arise in professional practice is crucial for social work practitioners, educators, and students. After a discussion about the limited, although growing, literature on social work ethics, the ten main tenets form the most current NASW Code of Ethics are presented. These topics include limits to confidentiality, confidentiality and technology, confidentiality in family and group work, managed care, cultural competence, dual relationships, sexual relationships, impairment and incompetence of colleagues, application to administrators and relevance to social work educators. In addition to understanding the Code of Ethics, social workers can use the ETHIC model of decision making for resolving ethical dilemmas. This easy to use five step process includes examining personal, agency, client, and professional values, thinking about ethical standards and relevant laws, hypothesizing about consequences, identifying the most vulnerable, and consulting with supervisors and colleagues. A case example involving confidentiality, HIV/AIDS and family therapy demonstrates how social workers can use the ETHIC model.
Long, Jennifer; Harré, Niki; Atkinson, Quentin D
Understanding how communities change requires examining how individuals' beliefs and behaviors are shaped by those around them. This paper investigates behavior change across a large social network following a recycling intervention in a New Zealand high school community. We used a mixed methods design, combining focus group data with social network analysis from two waves of a questionnaire that measured friendship networks; recycling and littering behaviors; perceived behavioral norms; and teacher, friend, and parent encouragement for these behaviors. Recycling behavior increased significantly over the course of our study. Supporting the importance of social networks in this context, both littering and recycling behavior showed clear social clustering. Further, the degree of change in an individuals' littering and recycling behavior across time was predicted by friends' prior behavior. Focus group data provided insight into students' perceptions of social interactions and how these contributed to littering and recycling behavior.
Maller, Cecily Jane
The importance of recognising structure and agency in health research to move beyond methodological individualism is well documented. To progress incorporating social theory into health, researchers have used Giddens' and Bourdieu's conceptualisations of social practice to understand relationships between agency, structure and health. However, social practice theories have more to offer than has currently been capitalised upon. This article delves into contemporary theories of social practice as used in consumption and sustainability research to provide an alternative, and more contextualised means, of understanding and explaining human action in relation to health and wellbeing. Two key observations are made. Firstly, the latest formulations of social practice theory distinguish moments of practice performance from practices as persistent entities across time and space, allowing empirical application to explain practice histories and future trajectories. Secondly, they emphasise the materiality of everyday life, foregrounding things, technologies and other non-humans that cannot be ignored in a technologically dependent social world. In concluding, I argue the value of using contemporary social practice theories in health research is that they reframe the way in which health outcomes can be understood and could inform more effective interventions that move beyond attitudes, behaviour and choices. © 2015 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2015 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Barbara Lou da Costa Veloso Dias
Full Text Available This article has as his main object of study the juridification process of sexuality and its relationship with the male symbolic violence. Therefore, initially it was made explanations about sexuality juridification process, with the illustration of that process by analyzing three bills; followed by exposure of the main aspects of the Pierre Bourdieu's theory of male domination, especially the concepts of Symbolic Domination, Symbolic Power, Symbolic Violence and Habitus; highlighting, at a later time, the incorporation of that domination by subversive movements; to the end, analyze a possible relationship between the quoted sexuality juridification process and symbolic violence, in accordance with the wisdom of Pierre Bourdieu. The objectives are, initially, conceptualize and illustrate the sexuality of juridification process; expose the main elements of the Male Domination's theory written by Pierre Bourdieu; examine the idea of incorporation of domination from the theoretical background discussed in the previous section; and to investigate the relationship between that sexuality juridification process and the male symbolic violence. These objectives have the purpose of analyze the hypothesis of this present article, which consists of the view that the jurification of sexuality process incorporates a male symbolic violence, even this having a subversive nature.
Li, Wanqing; Mai, Xiaoqin; Liu, Chao
The Default Mode Network (DMN) has been found to be involved in various domains of cognitive and social processing. The present article will review brain connectivity results related to the DMN in the fields of social understanding of others: emotion perception, empathy, theory of mind, and morality. Most of the reviewed studies focused on healthy subjects with no neurological and psychiatric disease, but some studies on patients with autism and psychopathy will also be discussed. Common results show that the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) plays a key role in the social understanding of others, and the subregions of the MPFC contribute differently to this function according to their roles in different subsystems of the DMN. At the bottom, the ventral MPFC in the medial temporal lobe (MTL) subsystem and its connections with emotion regions are mainly associated with emotion engagement during social interactions. Above, the anterior MPFC (aMPFC) in the cortical midline structures (CMS) and its connections with posterior and anterior cingulate cortex contribute mostly to making self-other distinctions. At the top, the dorsal MPFC (dMPFC) in the dMPFC subsystem and its connection with the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) are primarily related to the understanding of other's mental states. As behaviors become more complex, the related regions in frontal cortex are located higher. This reflects the transfer of information processing from automatic to cognitive processes with the increase of the complexity of social interaction. Besides the MPFC and TPJ, the connectivities of posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) also show some changes during tasks from the four social fields. These results indicate that the DMN is indispensable in the social understanding of others. PMID:24605094
Full Text Available The Default Mode Network (DMN has been found to be involved in various domains of cognitive and social processing. The present article will review brain connectivity results related to the DMN in the fields of social understanding of others: emotion perception, empathy, theory of mind, and morality. Most of the reviewed studies focused on healthy subjects with no neurological and psychiatric disease, but some studies on patients with autism and psychopathy will also be discussed. Common results show that the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC plays a key role in the social understanding of others, and the subregions of the MPFC contribute differently to this function according to their roles in different subsystems of the DMN. At the bottom, the ventral MPFC in the medial temporal lobe subsystem and its connections with emotion regions are mainly associated with emotion engagement during social interactions. Above, the anterior MPFC (aMPFC in the cortical midline structures and its connections with posterior and anterior cingulate cortex contribute mostly to making self-other distinctions. At the top, the dorsal MPFC (dMPFC in the dMPFC subsystem and its connection with the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ are primarily related to the understanding of other’s mental states. As behaviors become more complex, the related regions in frontal cortex are located higher. This reflects the transfer of information processing from automatic to cognitive processes with the increase of the complexity of social interaction. Besides the MPFC and TPJ, the connectivities of posterior cingulate cortex also show some changes during tasks from the four social fields. These results indicate that the DMN is indispensable in the social understanding of others.
Full Text Available Even though prejudice toward male homosexuality is one of the main reasons for discrimination in Argentina, there is no valid measure to assess it. The aim of this study was to analyze the psychometric properties of the Attitudes Toward Gay Men Scale (ATG and to examine the influence of sex, right wing authoritarianism, and social dominance orientation on anti-gay attitudes. Data were collected with a convenience sample of 436 undergraduate students from University of Buenos Aires. Analysis of the data showed adequate psychometric properties for the ATG Scale and the moderating effect of sex, right wing uthoritarianism and social dominance orientation on anti-gay attitudes. Implications of these findings were discussed.
Dhont, Kristof; Makwana, Arti P.
Abstract Previous research has obtained mixed findings as to whether feelings of self‐worth are positively or negatively related to right‐wing ideological beliefs and prejudice. We propose to clarify the link between self‐worth and ideology by distinguishing between narcissistic and non‐narcissistic self‐evaluations as well as between different dimensions of ideological attitudes. Four studies, conducted in three different socio‐political contexts: the UK (Study 1, N = 422), the US (Studies 2 and 3, Ns = 471 and 289, respectively), and Poland (Study 4, N = 775), investigated the associations between narcissistic and non‐narcissistic self‐evaluations, social dominance orientation (SDO), right‐wing authoritarianism (RWA), and ethnic prejudice. Confirming our hypotheses, the results consistently showed that after controlling for self‐esteem, narcissistic self‐evaluation was positively associated with SDO (accounting for RWA), yet negatively associated with RWA (accounting for SDO). These associations were similar after controlling for psychopathy and Machiavellianism (Study 3) as well as collective narcissism and Big Five personality characteristics (Study 4). Studies 2–4 additionally demonstrated that narcissistic self‐evaluation was indirectly positively associated with prejudice through higher SDO (free of RWA) but indirectly negatively associated with prejudice through lower RWA (free of SDO). Implications for understanding the role of self‐evaluation in right‐wing ideological attitudes and prejudice are discussed. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. European Journal of Personality published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of European Association of Personality Psychology PMID:28983151
Etchezahar, Edgardo; CIIPME Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Universidad Nacional de Lomas de Zamora, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Córdoba, Argentina.; Ungaretti, Joaquín; CIIPME Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Universidad Nacional de Lomas de Zamora, Buenos Aires, Argentina.; Prado Gascó, Vicente; Universidad Europea de Valencia, Valencia, España; Brusino, Silvina; CONICET, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Córdoba, Argentina.
Even though prejudice toward male homosexuality is one of the main reasons for discrimination in Argentina, there is no valid measure to assess it. The aim of this study was to analyze the psychometric properties of the Attitudes Toward Gay Men Scale (ATG) and to examine the influence of sex, right wing authoritarianism, and social dominance orientation on anti-gay attitudes. Data were collected with a convenience sample of 436 undergraduate students from University of Buenos Aires. Analysis ...
Luo, Wei; Yin, Peifeng; Di, Qian; Hardisty, Frank; MacEachren, Alan M.
The world has become a complex set of geo-social systems interconnected by networks, including transportation networks, telecommunications, and the internet. Understanding the interactions between spatial and social relationships within such geo-social systems is a challenge. This research aims to address this challenge through the framework of geovisual analytics. We present the GeoSocialApp which implements traditional network analysis methods in the context of explicitly spatial and social representations. We then apply it to an exploration of international trade networks in terms of the complex interactions between spatial and social relationships. This exploration using the GeoSocialApp helps us develop a two-part hypothesis: international trade network clusters with structural equivalence are strongly ‘balkanized’ (fragmented) according to the geography of trading partners, and the geographical distance weighted by population within each network cluster has a positive relationship with the development level of countries. In addition to demonstrating the potential of visual analytics to provide insight concerning complex geo-social relationships at a global scale, the research also addresses the challenge of validating insights derived through interactive geovisual analytics. We develop two indicators to quantify the observed patterns, and then use a Monte-Carlo approach to support the hypothesis developed above. PMID:24558409
Luo, Wei; Yin, Peifeng; Di, Qian; Hardisty, Frank; MacEachren, Alan M
The world has become a complex set of geo-social systems interconnected by networks, including transportation networks, telecommunications, and the internet. Understanding the interactions between spatial and social relationships within such geo-social systems is a challenge. This research aims to address this challenge through the framework of geovisual analytics. We present the GeoSocialApp which implements traditional network analysis methods in the context of explicitly spatial and social representations. We then apply it to an exploration of international trade networks in terms of the complex interactions between spatial and social relationships. This exploration using the GeoSocialApp helps us develop a two-part hypothesis: international trade network clusters with structural equivalence are strongly 'balkanized' (fragmented) according to the geography of trading partners, and the geographical distance weighted by population within each network cluster has a positive relationship with the development level of countries. In addition to demonstrating the potential of visual analytics to provide insight concerning complex geo-social relationships at a global scale, the research also addresses the challenge of validating insights derived through interactive geovisual analytics. We develop two indicators to quantify the observed patterns, and then use a Monte-Carlo approach to support the hypothesis developed above.
This article addresses the socialization of emotion expression in infancy. It argues that in order to adequately understand emotion development we need to consider the appraisal of emotion expression through caregivers in mundane, everyday interactions. Drawing on sociocultural and Bakhtinian theorizing, it claims that caregivers' appraisals of…
Zou, L.; Lam, N.; Cai, H.
Coastal communities are facing multiple threats from natural hazards, such as hurricanes, flooding, and storm surge, and show uneven response and recovery behaviors. To build a sustainable coast, it is critical to understand how coastal hazards affect humans and how to enhance disaster resilience. However, understanding community resilience remains challenging, due to the lack of real-time data describing community's response and recovery behaviors during disasters. Public discussion through social media platforms provides an opportunity to understand these behaviors by categorizing real-time social media data into three main phases of emergency management - preparedness, response, and recovery. This study analyzes the spatial-temporal patterns of Twitter use and content during Hurricane Isaac, which struck coastal Louisiana on August 29, 2012. The study area includes counties affected by Hurricane Isaac in Louisiana and Mississippi. The objectives are three-fold. First, we will compute a set of Twitter indices to quantify the Twitter activities during Hurricane Issac and the results will be compared with those of Hurricane Sandy to gain a better understanding of human response in extreme events. Second, county-level disaster resilience in the affected region will be computed and evaluated using the Resilience Inference Measurement (RIM) model. Third, we will examine the relationship between the geographical and social disparities in Twitter use and the disparities in disaster resilience and evaluate the role of Twitter use in disaster resilience. Knowledge gained from this study could provide valuable insights into strategies for utilizing social media data to increase resilience to disasters.
McGrail, Ewa; Rieger, Alicja
Research supports the inclusion of children with disabilities in general education classrooms as a way to boost academic and social development, not only for children with disabilities, but also for typically developing children. A wide variety of perspectives and abilities in the classroom builds empathy, understanding, and creativity--all…
This qualitative phenomenological research study explored the social categorization diversity management experiences of NCAA Division I, II and III athletic coaches. The research study used a combination of questionnaire, observation and coaching interviews to obtain an understanding of the skills, tools and techniques that these coaches used to…
The main purpose of this paper is to explore and discuss youth reflections toward digital leadership for social justice activism. Besides, this paper aims to explore the evidence and truth that meant for understanding silent dialogues through critical pedagogy in a digital society. In this study, the strategies and principles of their leaderships…
Studies of science communication and use in the fire management community suggest manager's access research via informal information networks and that these networks vary by both agency and position. We used a phone survey followed by traditional statistical analyses to understand the informal social networks of fire professionals in two western regions of the...
Peruta, Adam; Shields, Alison B.
This study provides an understanding of the current social media landscape for higher education institutions. While it is recognized that consistency in school branding across all communications with stakeholders is important to attract and retain students, relatively little work has been done to determine specifically what type of content should…
Sun, X.; Truong, Khiet Phuong; Nijholt, Antinus; Pantic, Maja; D' Mello, S.; Graesser, A.; Schuller, B.; Martin, J-C.
Human mimicry is one of the important behavioral cues displayed during social interaction that inform us about the interlocutors' interpersonal states and attitudes. For example, the absence of mimicry is usually associated with negative attitudes. A system capable of analyzing and understanding
The focus in this article is on issues of social cohesion and citizenship as they relate to students' understandings of religion and religious identity. The article draws on data gathered from a study conducted at a highly diverse English comprehensive school and is set amid broader anxieties about religion, community disharmony and national…
Popliger, Mina; Talwar, Victoria; Crossman, Angela
Children tell prosocial lies for self- and other-oriented reasons. However, it is unclear how motivational and socialization factors affect their lying. Furthermore, it is unclear whether children's moral understanding and evaluations of prosocial lie scenarios (including perceptions of vignette characters' feelings) predict their actual prosocial…
Graham, Sandra; Hoehn, Susan
Three studies examined children's ability to differentiate aggression and social withdrawal using attributional constructs. Found that even very young children understand the meaning of responsibility and are capable of using it to act as intuitive judges, weighing the evidence to make inferences about responsibility and then meting out judgments…
Vita Wright; Andrea Thode; Anne Mottek-Lucas; Jacklynn Fallon; Megan Matonis
Studies of science communication and use in the fire management community suggest manager's access research via informal information networks and that these networks vary by both agency and position. We used a phone survey followed by traditional statistical analyses to understand the informal social networks of fire professionals in two western regions of the...
Purpose This paper seeks to understand the strategic behaviour of researchers when producing knowledge in two scientific fields – nanotechnology and social sciences. Design/methodology/approach The author conducted semi-structured interviews with 43 researchers to analyse the needs for strategic
Jung, Merel Madeleine; Poel, Mannes; Reidsma, Dennis; Heylen, Dirk K.J.
Social robots should be able to automatically understand and respond to human touch. The meaning of touch does not only depend on the form of touch but also on the context in which the touch takes place. To gain more insight into the factors that are relevant to interpret the meaning of touch within
Callaghan, Lynne; Doherty, Alan; Lea, Susan J; Webster, Daniel
Students on health and social care degree programmes spend 50% of their time on practice placements. Because of the diversity of settings and the need to evidence their work, it is vital to understand the information and resource needs of placement students. The aim of this investigation was to understand the needs of placement students in terms of accessing resources whilst they are in the field in order to inform a guide to meet these needs. Focus groups were conducted with students on midwifery, social work and post-registration health professions degree programmes on three different sites across the region. Data were analysed using Thematic Content Analysis. Three themes emerged from the data: inequality, user education needs and students' solutions and strategies. It is essential to speak to placement students in order to understand their needs in terms of accessing and using library resources. The timing and content of information skills training is key to meeting student needs while on placement.
Katherine L. Fiori
Full Text Available This study examines the associations among interpersonal dependency, social support, and crying proneness, since crying is a behavior that is particularly relevant to the affiliative interpersonal goals characterizing maladaptive forms of dependency (Keltner & Kring, 1998. Data were collected from 305 first-year university students (M age = 18 years. A series of hierarchical linear regressions, controlling for gender, commuting status, romantic relationship status, stress, loneliness, and depressive symptoms, partially supported our hypotheses. That is, we found that a measure of maladaptive dependency (destructive overdependence, or DO and crying proneness were positively correlated, and that DO moderated the associations between social support and crying proneness. Specifically, we found that social support and crying were more closely positively associated among individuals high on DO compared to individuals low on DO. Our findings imply that interpersonal dependency may be an important factor in understanding individual differences in crying, and in determining whether crying is a successful elicitor of social support.
Barman-Adhikari, Anamika; Rice, Eric
Little is known about the factors associated with use of employment services among homeless youth. Social network characteristics have been known to be influential in motivating people's decision to seek services. Traditional theoretical frameworks applied to studies of service use emphasize individual factors over social contexts and interactions. Using key social network, social capital, and social influence theories, this paper developed an integrated theoretical framework that capture the social network processes that act as barriers or facilitators of use of employment services by homeless youth, and understand empirically, the salience of each of these constructs in influencing the use of employment services among homeless youth. We used the "Event based-approach" strategy to recruit a sample of 136 homeless youth at one drop-in agency serving homeless youth in Los Angeles, California in 2008. The participants were queried regarding their individual and network characteristics. Data were entered into NetDraw 2.090 and the spring embedder routine was used to generate the network visualizations. Logistic regression was used to assess the influence of the network characteristics on use of employment services. The study findings suggest that social capital is more significant in understanding why homeless youth use employment services, relative to network structure and network influence. In particular, bonding and bridging social capital were found to have differential effects on use of employment services among this population. The results from this study provide specific directions for interventions aimed to increase use of employment services among homeless youth. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sacker, Amanda; Ross, Andy; MacLeod, Catherine A; Netuveli, Gopal; Windle, Gill
Social exclusion of the elderly is a key policy focus but evidence on the processes linking health and social exclusion is hampered by the variety of ways that health is used in social exclusion research. We investigated longitudinal associations between health and social exclusion using an analytical framework that did not conflate them. Data employed in this study came from 4 waves of Understanding Society, the UK Household Longitudinal Study 2009-2013. The sample comprised all adults who took part in all 4 waves, were 65 years or more in Wave 3, and had complete data on our variables of interest for each analysis. We used linear regression to model the relationship between Wave 2/3 social exclusion and Wave1-2 health transitions (N=4312) and logistic regression to model the relationship between Wave2/3 social exclusion and Wave 4 health states, conditional on Wave 3 health (N=4244). There was a dose-response relationship between poor health in Waves 1 and 2 and later social exclusion. Use of a car, mobile phone and the internet moderated the association between poor health and social exclusion. Given the health status in Wave 3, those who were more socially excluded had poorer outcomes on each of the three domains of health in Wave 4. Use of the internet and technology protected older adults in poor health from social exclusion. Age-friendly hardware and software design might have public health benefits. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Full Text Available Faced with numerous seemingly intractable social and environmental challenges, many scholars and practitioners are increasingly interested in understanding how to actively engage and transform the existing systems holding such problems in place. Although a variety of analytical models have emerged in recent years, most emphasize either the social or ecological elements of such transformations rather than their coupled nature. To address this, first we have presented a definition of the core elements of a social-ecological system (SES that could potentially be altered in a transformation. Second, we drew on insights about transformation from three branches of literature focused on radical change, i.e., social movements, socio-technical transitions, and social innovation, and gave consideration to the similarities and differences with the current studies by resilience scholars. Drawing on these findings, we have proposed a framework that outlines the process and phases of transformative change in an SES. Future research will be able to utilize the framework as a tool for analyzing the alteration of social-ecological feedbacks, identifying critical barriers and leverage points and assessing the outcome of social-ecological transformations.
The complex relationship between globalization and health calls for research from many disciplinary and methodological perspectives. This editorial gives an overview of the content trajectory of the interdisciplinary journal ‘Globalization and Health’ over the first six years of production, 2005 to 2010. The findings show that bio-medical and population health perspectives have been dominant but that social science perspectives have become more evident in recent years. The types of paper published have also changed, with a growing proportion of empirical studies. A special issue on ‘Health systems, health economies and globalization: social science perspectives’ is introduced, a collection of contributions written from the vantage points of economics, political science, psychology, sociology, business studies, social policy and research policy. The papers concern a range of issues pertaining to the globalization of healthcare markets and governance and regulation issues. They highlight the important contribution that can be made by the social sciences to this field, and also the practical and methodological challenges implicit in the study of globalization and health. PMID:22938504
Murray, Susan F; Bisht, Ramila; Baru, Rama; Pitchforth, Emma
The complex relationship between globalization and health calls for research from many disciplinary and methodological perspectives. This editorial gives an overview of the content trajectory of the interdisciplinary journal 'Globalization and Health' over the first six years of production, 2005 to 2010. The findings show that bio-medical and population health perspectives have been dominant but that social science perspectives have become more evident in recent years. The types of paper published have also changed, with a growing proportion of empirical studies. A special issue on 'Health systems, health economies and globalization: social science perspectives' is introduced, a collection of contributions written from the vantage points of economics, political science, psychology, sociology, business studies, social policy and research policy. The papers concern a range of issues pertaining to the globalization of healthcare markets and governance and regulation issues. They highlight the important contribution that can be made by the social sciences to this field, and also the practical and methodological challenges implicit in the study of globalization and health.
Galindo, Claudia; Fuller, Bruce
We know that social competence contributes to young children's adaptation to, and cognitive learning within, classroom settings. Yet initial evidence is mixed on the social competencies that Latino children bring to kindergarten and the extent to which these skills advance cognitive growth. Building from ecocultural and developmental-risk theory, this paper shows children's social competence to be adaptive to the normative expectations and cognitive requirements of culturally bounded settings in both the home and classroom. Latino socialization in the home may yield social competencies that teachers value rather than reflect "risk factors" that constrain children's school readiness. We draw on the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, kindergarten cohort (N = 19,590) to detail 5 social competencies at entry to school--self-control, interpersonal skills, approaches to learning, internalizing and externalizing problem behaviors--and to examine variability among Latino subgroups. We then test the extent to which baseline variation in social competence accounts for children's cognitive growth during the kindergarten year. We find that Latino children from poor, but not middle-class, families display weaker social competencies vis-à-vis White children (all relationships p cognitive growth, which is shaped most strongly by positive approaches to learning. The disparities in competencies observed for Latino children from poor families, relative to White children, are significant yet much smaller than gaps in baseline levels of mathematical understanding. We discuss how the consonance or mismatch between competencies acquired at home and those valued by teachers must consider cultural differences, social-class position, and variation among diverse Latino subgroups. 2010 APA, all rights reserved
Green-Thompson, Lionel P; McInerney, Patricia; Woollard, Bob
Social accountability is defined as the responsibility of institutions to respond to the health priorities of a community. There is an international movement towards the education of health professionals who are accountable to communities. There is little evidence of how communities experience or articulate this accountability. In this grounded theory study eight community based focus group discussions were conducted in rural and urban South Africa to explore community members' perceptions of the social accountability of doctors. The discussions were conducted across one urban and two rural provinces. Group discussions were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Initial coding was done and three main themes emerged following data analysis: the consultation as a place of love and respect (participants have an expectation of care yet are often engaged with disregard); relationships of people and systems (participants reflect on their health priorities and the links with the social determinants of health) and Ubuntu as engagement of the community (reflected in their expectation of Ubuntu based relationships as well as part of the education system). These themes were related through a framework which integrates three levels of relationship: a central community of reciprocal relationships with the doctor-patient relationship as core; a level in which the systems of health and education interact and together with social determinants of health mediate the insertion of communities into a broader discourse. An ubuntu framing in which the tensions between vulnerability and power interact and reflect rights and responsibility. The space between these concepts is important for social accountability. Social accountability has been a concept better articulated by academics and centralized agencies. Communities bring a richer dimension to social accountability through their understanding of being human and caring. This study also creates the connection between ubuntu and social
Full Text Available In the present study, without resorting to a broad historical analysis, we consider two categories of privileged population - the mazili and ruptaşi and identify the changes in their social status and the fiscal imposition under the Tsarist rule. Analysis of unpublished archival documents allows us to conclude that mazili represented a social category and ruptaşi - a fiscal one, both of which were inherited by Bessarabia from the Principality of Moldavia For many years they were forced to make significant efforts to confirm the titles and tax and social status they had before the annexation of the region to the Russian Empire. Although mazili enjoyed certain privileges, imperial administration did not accepted them and did everything possible to suppress this social category, seeing them as a national bourgeois element (national rural bourgeoisie. Tsarism tried to promote the policy begun by Constantine Mavrocordatos, which aimed at limiting the number of privileged social groups, particularly those that did not come from the aristocracy, which, at that time, mazili and ruptaşi were part. These measures were in line with the Russian imperial policy of liquidation of local peculiarities and of social and administrative unification of the newly annexed province. Eventually the rights of mazili were limited; they were required to perform certain duties and pay taxes along with other categories. This becomes evident in the tax censuses, during which mazili and ruptaşi were required to present documents confirming their social and fiscal status. Despite this, the tsarist government used the services of mazili. Due to the special personal qualities - honesty, skills, knowledge, impeccable behavior and ability to cope with any situation, mazili were attracted to different services they were proud of, considering it their privilege. They enjoyed prestige among the local population, and in the case of riots they at the request of the authorities were
This paper has point of departure in a planning process on energy infrastructure in Denmark and focuses on a particular public hearing meeting characterised by trenchant opposition and distrust to the authorities among the public. It points at the need to understand the interaction between author...... of such a public meeting and the importance of trust and openness in the social processes in a public hearing....... authorities and the public in such planning often characterised by conflict. A sense-making framework is developed based on Karl Weick's theory to investigate how participants at the meeting change their understanding aspects like other actors' opinions and the infrastructure project. Through interviews...
Li, Xin; Gray, Kathleen; Verspoor, Karin; Barnett, Stephen
Online social networks (OSN) enable health professionals to learn informally, for example by sharing medical knowledge, or discussing practice management challenges and clinical issues. Understanding the learning context in OSN is necessary to get a complete picture of the learning process, in order to better support this type of learning. This study proposes critical contextual factors for understanding the learning context in OSN for health professionals, and demonstrates how these contextual factors can be used to analyse the learning context in a designated online learning environment for health professionals.
van Dijk, Eric; de Kwaadsteniet, Erik W; De Cremer, David
Previous research has indicated that in social dilemmas, people tacitly coordinate their decisions by using the equal division rule. In 3 experimental studies, the authors investigated the extent to which a common understanding about task and behavioral requirements is essential for the tacit coordination process. The results show that people are less likely to coordinate on the equal division rule when collective feedback on past performance (Study 1), the distribution of information within the group (Study 2), or expected behavioral variance (Study 3) suggests that a common understanding in the group is lacking. Moreover, the results indicate that under these conditions, rather than adhering to the equal division rule, people base their decisions on their own social value orientations. The findings support the view that if situations provide insufficient cues for tacit coordination, people are more likely to decide on the basis of their personal characteristics.
In this paper, we extend our generalized Lagrangian dynamics (i.e., S-Lagrangian dynamics, which can be applied equally to physical and non-physical systems as per Sandler (2014)) to many-body systems. Unlike common Lagrangian dynamics, this is not a trivial task. For many-body systems with S-dependent Lagrangians, the Lagrangian and the corresponding Hamiltonian or energy become vector functions, conjugated momenta become second-order tensors, and the system inevitably develops a hierarchical structure, even if all bodies initially have similar status and Lagrangians. As an application of our theory, we consider dominance and hierarchy formation, which is present in almost all communities of living species. As a biological basis for this application, we assume that the primary motivation of a groups activity is to attempt to cope with stress arising as pressure from the environment and from intrinsic unmet needs of individuals. It has been shown that the S-Lagrangian approach to a group's evolution naturally leads to formation of linear or despotic dominance hierarchies, depending on differences between individuals in coping with stress. That is, individuals that cope more readily with stress take leadership roles during the evolution. Experimental results in animal groups which support our assumption and findings are considered.
Phytoplanktonic associations: a tool to understanding dominance events in a tropical Brazilian reservoir Associações fitoplanctônicas: uma ferramenta para entendimento de eventos de dominância em um reservatório tropical brasileiro
Ariadne do Nascimento Moura
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to characterize phytoplankton associations, as well as discuss controlling factors determining algal dominance in a eutrophic tropical reservoir, Mundaú, Pernambuco, Brazil. Water samples were collected during the dry period (January/2005 and the rainy period (June/2005. The samples were collected from both limnetic and littoral regions, and the phytoplankton assemblages identified from current literature after preservation in formaldehyde 4%. At the same time as sampling was done, in situ measurements of water temperature, transparency, dissolved oxygen, and pH were also taken. Total phosphorus, total nitrogen concentration and the Trophic State Index were subsequently determined in the laboratory. Phytoplankton density (ind. L-1 was estimated using an inverted Zeiss microscope. Grouping of the phytoplankton associations was carried out using the Reynolds phytosociological classification. During the dry period, reservoir water showed low dissolved oxygen concentrations, alkaline pH and was relatively turbid compared to the situation during the rainy season. Reservoir water is limited by nitrogen during both seasonal periods. The Trophic State Index is classified as determining eutrophic conditions. Phytoplankton was represented by 70 infrageneric taxa grouped in 16 functional associations, with the majority typical of eutrophic systems. This fact is supported by quantitative analysis, which shows the dominance of S associations comprising exclusively R-strategist cyanobacteria.O objetivo deste estudo foi caracterizar as associações fitoplanctônicas, bem como discutir os fatores controladores determinantes da dominância algal em um reservatório eutrófico, Mundaú, Pernambuco, Brasil. As amostras foram coletadas durante dois períodos sazonais, seco (janeiro/2005 e chuvoso (junho/2005. As amostras foram coletadas nas regiões limnética e litorânea, seguidas pela identificação através de literatura espec
Noise-resistant and nuanced, COGBASE makes 10 million pieces of commonsense data and a host of novel reasoning algorithms available via a family of semantically-driven prior probability distributions. Machine learning, Big Data, natural language understanding/processing, and social AI can draw on COGBASE to determine lexical semantics, infer goals and interests, simulate emotion and affect, calculate document gists and topic models, and link commonsense knowledge to domain models and social, spatial, cultural, and psychological data. COGBASE is especially ideal for social Big Data, which tends to involve highly implicit contexts, cognitive artifacts, difficult-to-parse texts, and deep domain knowledge dependencies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Williams, David R; Mohammed, Selina A; Shields, Alexandra E
Black women have a higher incidence of breast cancer before the age of 40 years, more severe disease at all ages, and an elevated mortality risk in comparison with white women. There is limited understanding of the contribution of social factors to these patterns. Elucidating the role of the social determinants of health in breast cancer disparities requires greater attention to how risk factors for breast cancer unfold over the lifecourse and to the complex ways in which socioeconomic status and racism shape exposure to psychosocial, physical, chemical, and other individual and community-level assaults that increase the risk of breast cancer. Research that takes seriously the social context in which black women live is also needed to maximize the opportunities to prevent breast cancer in this underserved group. Cancer 2016;122:2138-49. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.
Hubbell, Bryan J; Kaufman, Amanda; Rivers, Louie; Schulte, Kayla; Hagler, Gayle; Clougherty, Jane; Cascio, Wayne; Costa, Dan
Lower-cost air quality sensors (hundreds to thousands of dollars) are now available to individuals and communities. This technology is undergoing a rapid and fragmented evolution, resulting in sensors that have uncertain data quality, measure different air pollutants and possess a variety of design attributes. Why and how individuals and communities choose to use sensors is arguably influenced by social context. For example, community experiences with environmental exposures and health effects and related interactions with industry and government can affect trust in traditional air quality monitoring. To date, little social science research has been conducted to evaluate why or how sensors, and sensor data, are used by individuals and communities, or how the introduction of sensors changes the relationship between communities and air quality managers. This commentary uses a risk governance/responsible innovation framework to identify opportunities for interdisciplinary research that brings together social scientists with air quality researchers involved in developing, testing, and deploying sensors in communities. Potential areas for social science research include communities of sensor users; drivers for use of sensors and sensor data; behavioral, socio-political, and ethical implications of introducing sensors into communities; assessing methods for communicating sensor data; and harnessing crowdsourcing capabilities to analyze sensor data. Social sciences can enhance understanding of perceptions, attitudes, behaviors, and other human factors that drive levels of engagement with and trust in different types of air quality data. New transdisciplinary research bridging social sciences, natural sciences, engineering, and design fields of study, and involving citizen scientists working with professionals from a variety of backgrounds, can increase our understanding of air sensor technology use and its impacts on air quality and public health. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Roby, Erin; Scott, Rose M
It was long assumed that the capacity to represent false beliefs did not emerge until at least age four, as evidenced by children's performance on elicited-response tasks. However, recent evidence that infants appear to demonstrate false-belief understanding when tested with alternative, non-elicited-response measures has led some researchers to conclude that the capacity to represent beliefs emerges in the 1st year of life. This mentalistic view has been criticized for failing to offer an explanation for the well-established positive associations between social factors and preschoolers' performance on elicited-response false-belief tasks. In this paper, we address this criticism by offering an account that reconciles these associations with the mentalistic claim that false-belief understanding emerges in infancy. We propose that rather than facilitating the emergence of the capacity to represent beliefs, social factors facilitate the use of this ability via effects on attention, inference, retrieval, and response production. Our account predicts that the relationship between social factors and false-belief understanding should not be specific to preschoolers' performance in elicited-response tasks: this relationship should be apparent across the lifespan in a variety of paradigms. We review an accumulating body of evidence that supports this prediction.
Full Text Available It was long assumed that the capacity to represent false beliefs did not emerge until at least age four, as evidenced by children’s performance on elicited-response tasks. However, recent evidence that infants appear to demonstrate false-belief understanding when tested with alternative, non-elicited-response measures has led some researchers to conclude that the capacity to represent beliefs emerges in the first year of life. This mentalistic view has been criticized for failing to offer an explanation for the well-established positive associations between social factors and preschoolers’ performance on elicited-response false-belief tasks. In this paper, we address this criticism by offering an account that reconciles these associations with the mentalistic claim that false-belief understanding emerges in infancy. We propose that rather than facilitating the emergence of the capacity to represent beliefs, social factors facilitate the use of this ability via effects on attention, inference, retrieval, and response production. Our account predicts that the relationship between social factors and false-belief understanding should not be specific to preschoolers’ performance in elicited-response tasks: this relationship should be apparent across the lifespan in a variety of paradigms. We review an accumulating body of evidence that supports this prediction.
Stewart, Samuel Alan; Abidi, Syed Sibte Raza
Knowledge Translation (KT) plays a vital role in the modern health care community, facilitating the incorporation of new evidence into practice. Web 2.0 tools provide a useful mechanism for establishing an online KT environment in which health practitioners share their practice-related knowledge and experiences with an online community of practice. We have implemented a Web 2.0 based KT environment--an online discussion forum--for pediatric pain practitioners across seven different hospitals in Thailand. The online discussion forum enabled the pediatric pain practitioners to share and translate their experiential knowledge to help improve the management of pediatric pain in hospitals. The goal of this research is to investigate the knowledge sharing dynamics of a community of practice through an online discussion forum. We evaluated the communication patterns of the community members using statistical and social network analysis methods in order to better understand how the online community engages to share experiential knowledge. Statistical analyses and visualizations provide a broad overview of the communication patterns within the discussion forum. Social network analysis provides the tools to delve deeper into the social network, identifying the most active members of the community, reporting the overall health of the social network, isolating the potential core members of the social network, and exploring the inter-group relationships that exist across institutions and professions. The statistical analyses revealed a network dominated by a single institution and a single profession, and found a varied relationship between reading and posting content to the discussion forum. The social network analysis discovered a healthy network with strong communication patterns, while identifying which users are at the center of the community in terms of facilitating communication. The group-level analysis suggests that there is strong interprofessional and interregional
Thirion-Marissiaux, Anne-Françoise; Nader-Grosbois, Nathalie
Patterns of development of ToM belief abilities in intellectually disabled (ID) children and typically developing (TD) children matched on their developmental age were investigated. The links between cognition, language, social understanding and ToM belief abilities were examined. EDEI-R [Perron-Borelli M. (1996). Echelles Différentielles d'Efficiences Intellectuelles. Forme Révisée (EDEI-R). Paris: Editions et Applications Psychologiques.] was used to match participants and to assess social understanding. ECOSSE [Lecocq P. (1996). L'E.CO.S.SE. Une épreuve de compréhension syntaxico-sémantique. Paris: Presses Universitaires du Septentrion.] assessed the level of syntactic and semantic comprehension of French speaking, to ensure a good comprehension of the questions in false belief tasks. Five tasks assessed the ability in visual perspective taking and in understanding of false belief. A difference in the global ToM ability was found between both groups (difference hypothesis in ID participants). Specific abilities in different ToM tasks showed developmental patterns partially different and partially similar, between ID and TD groups. The interest to assess the understanding of belief by means of several tasks is confirmed. Positive links between cognition, language and ToM abilities were found in both groups, but the impact of cognition and language on abilities in each ToM task is different in both groups. Finally, the specific impact of social understanding and of chronological age on abilities in false belief in ID group is discussed.
José Fernando Domene Verdú
Full Text Available This article attempts to answer the question: what role have religious and patroness festivities in society, now and throughout history? They belong to what is called popular religiosity, are utilitarian —because they were used as a solution to natural and epidemic calamities— and are mainly a symbol of local or regional identity. But besides this, they have always had a social and ideological role, which can be summarized as maintaining the established social order, mainly by making that a part of the population identifies itself with the Crown and the ruling aristocracy. The parallel between God, the Virgin and the saints with the kings, feudal lords and members of the nobility in general favored that the same attitudes of obedience and submission that common people had toward the religious figures, they also had them to the social ruling figures (the nobility, the clergy and the subsequent absolute monarchy. Therefore, religious festivities (Easter, Christmas, Kings and, especially, the patron-saints’ festivities were the most suitable cultural event to promote that the common people adopt these attitudes towards religious figures and, indirectly, also towards the civilian ones.
Sanda, M-A; Johansson, J; Johansson, B; Abrahamsson, L
The purpose of this article is to develop knowledge and learning on the best way to automate organisational activities in deep mines that could lead to the creation of harmony between the human, technical and the social system, towards increased productivity. The findings showed that though the introduction of high-level technological tools in the work environment disrupted the social relations developed over time amongst the employees in most situations, the technological tools themselves became substitute social collaborative partners to the employees. It is concluded that, in developing a digitised mining production system, knowledge of the social collaboration between the humans (miners) and the technology they use for their work must be developed. By implication, knowledge of the human's subject-oriented and object-oriented activities should be considered as an important integral resource for developing a better technological, organisational and human interactive subsystem when designing the intelligent automation and digitisation systems for deep mines. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: This study focused on understanding the social collaboration between humans and the technologies they use to work in underground mines. The learning provides an added knowledge in designing technologies and work organisations that could better enhance the human-technology interactive and collaborative system in the automation and digitisation of underground mines.
Shutts, Kristin; Kinzler, Katherine D; DeJesus, Jasmine M
Developmental psychologists have devoted significant attention to investigating how children learn from others' actions, emotions, and testimony. Yet most of this research has examined children's socially guided learning about artifacts. The present article focuses on a domain that has received limited attention from those interested in the development of social cognition: food. We begin by reviewing the available literature on infants' and children's development in the food domain and identify situations in which children evidence both successes and failures in their interactions with foods. We focus specifically on the role that other people play in guiding what children eat and argue that understanding patterns of successes and failures in the food domain requires an appreciation of eating as a social phenomenon. We next propose a series of questions for future research and suggest that examining food selection as a social phenomenon can shed light on mechanisms underlying children's learning from others and provide ideas for promoting healthy social relationships and eating behaviors early in development.
Forder, S. E.; Welstead, C.; Pritchard, M.
A glance through the Harvard Business Review reveals many suggestions and research pieces reviewing sales and marketing techniques. Most educators will be familiar with the notion that making accurate first impressions and being responsive, whilst maintaining pace is critical to engaging an audience. There are lessons to be learnt from industry that can significantly impact upon our teaching. Eisenkraft, in his address to the NSTA, proposed four essential questions. This presentation explores one of those questions: 'Why should I care?', and discusses why this question is crucial for engaging students by giving a clear purpose for developing their scientific understanding. Additionally, this presentation explores how The ISF Academy has adapted the NGSS, using the 14 Grand Engineering Challenges and the IB MYP, to provide current, authentic global contexts, in order to give credibility to the concepts, understandings and skills being learnt. The provision of global contexts across units and within lessons supports a platform for students to have the freedom to explore their own sense of social responsibility. The Science Department believes that planning lessons with tasks that elaborate on the student's new conceptualisations, has helped to transfer the student's new understanding into social behavior beyond the classroom. Furthermore, extension tasks have been used to transfer conceptual understanding between different global contexts.
Stott, Clifford; Drury, John
This article explores the origins and ideology of classical crowd psychology, a body of theory reflected in contemporary popularised understandings such as of the 2011 English 'riots'. This article argues that during the nineteenth century, the crowd came to symbolise a fear of 'mass society' and that 'classical' crowd psychology was a product of these fears. Classical crowd psychology pathologised, reified and decontextualised the crowd, offering the ruling elites a perceived opportunity to control it. We contend that classical theory misrepresents crowd psychology and survives in contemporary understanding because it is ideological. We conclude by discussing how classical theory has been supplanted in academic contexts by an identity-based crowd psychology that restores the meaning to crowd action, replaces it in its social context and in so doing transforms theoretical understanding of 'riots' and the nature of the self. © The Author(s) 2016.
Ornaghi, Veronica; Brockmeier, Jens; Grazzani, Ilaria
We investigated whether training school-age children in emotion understanding had a significant effect on their social cognition. Participants were 110 children (mean age=7 years 3 months) assigned to training and control conditions. Over a 2-month intervention program, after the reading of illustrated scenarios based on emotional scripts, the training group was engaged in conversations on emotion understanding, whereas the control group was simply asked to produce a drawing about the story. The training group outperformed the control group on emotion comprehension, theory of mind, and empathy, and the positive training outcomes for emotion understanding remained stable over 6 months. Implications of the findings are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Martin, Solange; Gaspard, Albane
Beyond broad policy declarations, the implementation of ecological transition - which consists mainly in curbing consumption of energy and raw materials in our societies - requires substantial behavioural change at the collective, but also, quite obviously, the individual level. Yet, though there is general consensus around the principle of embarking on the path to transition, things get more complicated when it comes to changing our practices and habits. Can we act on individual behaviour and collective dynamics in respect of this particular aim of ecological transition, and, if so, how are we to go about it? Solange Martin and Albane Gaspard have examined this question for the French Environment and Energy Management Agency (ADEME) and offer us the fruit of their labours here. They show, for example, how the social and human sciences help to understand behaviour both at the individual level and in its collective dimensions, and they outline different possible lines of action to modify it. But, given the entanglement between various levels, it is essential, if we are to act effectively on behaviour, to combine approaches, tools and actors, and to analyse and understand social practices thoroughly before implementing political projects or measures
Thirion-Marissiaux, Anne-Françoise; Nader-Grosbois, Nathalie
Patterns of development of ToM-emotion abilities in intellectually disabled (ID) children and typically developing (TD) children matched on their developmental age were investigated. The links between cognition, language, social understanding and ToM-emotion abilities were examined. EDEI-R (Perron-Borelli, M. (1996). Echelles Différentielles d'Efficiences Intellectuelles. Forme Révisée (EDEI-R). Paris: Editions et Applications Psychologiques) was used to match participants and to assess social understanding. ECOSSE (Lecocq, P. (1996). L'E.CO.S.SE. Une épreuve de compréhension syntaxico-sémantique. Paris: Presses Universitaires du Septentrion) assessed the level of syntactic and semantic comprehension of French speaking, to ensure a good comprehension of the questions in ToM-emotion tasks. Adapted tasks of the understanding of causes and consequences of emotions (Quintal, G. (2001). La compréhension des émotions chez les enfants d'âge préscolaire dans le cadre d'une théorie de l'esprit. Un-published master's thesis, University of Montreal, Québec) assessed ToM-emotion abilities (Nader-Grosbois, N., Thirion-Marissiaux, A.-F., & Grosbois, M. (2003). Adapted tests for assessment of the Theory of Mind of causes and consequences of emotions (unpublished documents). Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium). Similarities in the development of ToM-emotion abilities and social understanding were found, respectively, in both groups (delay hypothesis in ID participants). Some differences between groups were observed in the links between social understanding and ToM-emotion abilities. Significant correlations between developmental characteristics (verbal and non-verbal cognition) and ToM-emotion abilities were obtained for both groups. Verbal cognition explained an important part of the variance of ToM results (understanding of causes and consequences of emotions). The impact of chronological age on ToM-emotion abilities was also examined and is discussed.
Xu, Ronghua; Zhang, Qingpeng
Mental health problems have become increasingly prevalent in the past decade. With the advance of Web 2.0 technologies, social media present a novel platform for Web users to form online health groups. Members of online health groups discuss health-related issues and mutually help one another by anonymously revealing their mental conditions, sharing personal experiences, exchanging health information, and providing suggestions and support. The conversations in online health groups contain valuable information to facilitate the understanding of their mutual help behaviors and their mental health problems. We aimed to characterize the conversations in a major online health group for major depressive disorder (MDD) patients in a popular Chinese social media platform. In particular, we intended to explain how Web users discuss depression-related issues from the perspective of the social networks and linguistic patterns revealed by the members' conversations. Social network analysis and linguistic analysis were employed to characterize the social structure and linguistic patterns, respectively. Furthermore, we integrated both perspectives to exploit the hidden relations between them. We found an intensive use of self-focus words and negative affect words. In general, group members used a higher proportion of negative affect words than positive affect words. The social network of the MDD group for depression possessed small-world and scale-free properties, with a much higher reciprocity ratio and clustering coefficient value as compared to the networks of other social media platforms and classic network models. We observed a number of interesting relationships, either strong correlations or convergent trends, between the topological properties and linguistic properties of the MDD group members. (1) The MDD group members have the characteristics of self-preoccupation and negative thought content, according to Beck's cognitive theory of depression; (2) the social structure
Jiang, J.; Lu, D.; Jiang, Y.; Lee, Z.; Zhang, Y.; Yu, J.
The relevant research on swarm behavior has focused on the facts that when individuals agree with other members in the system globally consistent behaviors are generated and that individual decisions are completely dominated by other members. In fact, when individuals generate their own behavior strategies, they tend to consider not only the influences of other members but also autonomically consider their current environment. For example, in the social foraging of flocks, the behavior strategy of each individual animal is influenced by the food distribution, and individual movement patterns are characterized by a highly efficient search strategy-Lévy walks. To investigate this, this paper proposes using an environment-driven social force perspective to explore the Lévy walks of individuals in a group in patchy food environments. This model adopts the concept of social force to quantify the social effects and the interactions between individuals and food. The coordination between forces is a key in the formation of individual behavior strategies. Our simulation results show a power-law frequency distribution for agent flight lengths that conforms to Lévy walks and verifies the hypothesis of a relationship between food density and the Lévy index. In our model, the flock still exhibits collective consistency and cohesion and yields a high value for the order parameter and population density when moving between food patches. In addition, our model explains the intraspecific cooperation and competition that occurs during foraging as proposed in related work. The simulation also validates the impact of two inducements for individual behaviors compared with several benchmark models.
Rheingans, Rowan; Hollands, Robert
Utilising an in-depth case study of a student occupation at Newcastle University as its focus, this article makes a critical appraisal of Beck, Giddens and Inglehart's ideas about youth and political agency in late modernity. In short, we argue that when considering the case of the 2010 UK student occupation movement, dominant theoretical thinking…
Schabert, Jasmin; Browne, Jessica L; Mosely, Kylie; Speight, Jane
A comprehensive understanding of the social and psychological impact of diabetes mellitus is important for informing policy and practice. One potentially significant, yet under-researched, issue is the social stigma surrounding diabetes. This narrative review draws on literature about health-related stigma in diabetes and other chronic conditions in order to develop a framework for understanding diabetes-related stigma. Our review of the literature found that people who do not have diabetes assume that diabetes is not a stigmatized condition. In contrast, people with diabetes report that stigma is a significant concern to them, experienced across many life domains, e.g., in the workplace, in relationships. The experience of diabetes-related stigma has a significant negative impact on many aspects of psychological well-being and may also result in sub-optimal clinical outcomes for people with diabetes. We propose a framework that highlights the causes (attitudes of blame, feelings of fear and disgust, and the felt need to enforce social norms and avoid disease), experiences (being judged, rejected, and discriminated against), and consequences (e.g., distress, poorer psychological well-being, and sub-optimal self-care) of diabetes-related stigma and also identifies potential mitigating strategies to reduce diabetes-related stigma and/or enhance coping and resilience amongst people with diabetes. The systematic investigation of the experiences, causes, and consequences of diabetes-related stigma is an urgent research priority.
Fox, Andrew S; Kalin, Ned H
This review brings together recent research from molecular, neural circuit, animal model, and human studies to help understand the neurodevelopmental mechanisms underlying social anxiety disorder. Social anxiety disorder is common and debilitating, and it often leads to further psychopathology. Numerous studies have demonstrated that extremely behaviorally inhibited and temperamentally anxious young children are at marked risk of developing social anxiety disorder. Recent work in human and nonhuman primates has identified a distributed brain network that underlies early-life anxiety including the central nucleus of the amygdala, the anterior hippocampus, and the orbitofrontal cortex. Studies in nonhuman primates have demonstrated that alterations in this circuit are trait-like in that they are stable over time and across contexts. Notably, the components of this circuit are differentially influenced by heritable and environmental factors, and specific lesion studies have demonstrated a causal role for multiple components of the circuit. Molecular studies in rodents and primates point to disrupted neurodevelopmental and neuroplastic processes within critical components of the early-life dispositional anxiety neural circuit. The possibility of identifying an early-life at-risk phenotype, along with an understanding of its neurobiology, provides an unusual opportunity to conceptualize novel preventive intervention strategies aimed at reducing the suffering of anxious children and preventing them from developing further psychopathology.
Colineau, Nathalie; Paris, Cécile
The internet has become a participatory place where everyone can contribute and interact with others. In health in particular, social media have changed traditional patient-physician relationships. Patients are organising themselves in groups, sharing observations and helping each other, although there is still little evidence of the effectiveness of these online communities on people's health. To understand why and how people use health-related sites, we studied these sites and identified three dimensions characterising most of them: informational/supportive; general/focused; and new relationships/existing ones. We conducted an online survey about the use of health-related social networking (SN) sites and learnt that, consistent with previous research, most patients were seeking information about their medical condition online, while, at the same time, still interacting with health professionals to talk about sensitive information and complex issues. We also found that, while people's natural social network played an important role for emotional support, sometimes, people chose to not involve their family, but instead interact with peers online because of their perceived support and ability to understand someone's experience, and also to maintain a comfortable emotional distance. Finally, our results show that people using general SN sites do not necessarily use health-related sites and vice versa.
Clark-Polner, Elizabeth; Clark, Margaret S
Scientists have increasingly turned to the brain and to neuroscience more generally to further an understanding of social and emotional judgments and behavior. Yet, many neuroscientists (certainly not all) do not consider the role of relational context. Moreover, most have not examined the impact of relational context in a manner that takes advantage of conceptual and empirical advances in relationship science. Here we emphasize that: (1) all social behavior takes place, by definition, within the context of a relationship (even if that relationship is a new one with a stranger), and (2) relational context shapes not only social thoughts, feelings, and behaviors, but also some seemingly non-social thoughts, feelings, and behaviors in profound ways. We define relational context and suggest that accounting for it in the design and interpretation of neuroscience research is essential to the development of a coherent, generalizable neuroscience of social behavior. We make our case in two ways: (a) we describe some existing neuroscience research in three substantive areas (perceiving and reacting to others' emotions, providing help, and receiving help) that already has documented the powerful impact of relational context. (b) We describe some other neuroscience research from these same areas that has not taken relational context into account. Then, using findings from social and personality psychology, we make a case that different results almost certainly would have been found had the research been conducted in a different relational context. We neither attempt to review all evidence that relational context shapes neuroscience findings nor to put forward a theoretical analysis of all the ways relational context ought to shape neuroscience findings. Our goal is simply to urge greater and more systematic consideration of relational context in neuroscientific research.
Full Text Available Scientists have increasingly turned to the brain and to neuroscience more generally to further an understanding of social and emotional judgments and behavior. Yet, many neuroscientists (certainly not all do not consider the role of relational context. Moreover, most have not examined the impact of relational context in a manner that takes advantage of conceptual and empirical advances in relationship science. Here we emphasize that: (1 all social behavior takes place, by definition, within the context of a relationship (even if that relationship is a new one with a stranger, and (2 relational context shapes not only social thoughts, feelings and behaviors, but also some seemingly non-social thoughts, feelings and behaviors in profound ways. We define relational context and suggest that accounting for it in the design and interpretation of neuroscience research is essential to the development of a coherent, generalizable neuroscience of social behavior. We make our case in two ways: a We describe some existing neuroscience research in three substantive areas (perceiving and reacting to others’ emotions, providing help and receiving help that already has documented the powerful impact of relational context. b We describe some other neuroscience research from these same areas that has not taken relational context into account. Then, using findings from social and personality psychology, we make a case that different results almost certainly would have been found had the research been conducted in a different relational context. We neither attempt to review all evidence that relational context shapes neuroscience findings nor to put forward a theoretical analysis of all the ways relational context ought to shape neuroscience findings. Our goal is simply to urge greater and more systematic consideration of relational context in neuroscientific research.
National and transnational health care systems are rapidly evolving with current processes of globalisation. What is the contribution of the social sciences to an understanding of this field? A structured scoping exercise was conducted to identify relevant literature using the lens of India – a ‘rising power’ with a rapidly expanding healthcare economy. A five step search and analysis method was employed in order to capture as wide a range of material as possible. Documents published in English that met criteria for a social science contribution were included for review. Via electronic bibliographic databases, websites and hand searches conducted in India, 113 relevant articles, books and reports were identified. These were classified according to topic area, publication date, disciplinary perspective, genre, and theoretical and methodological approaches. Topic areas were identified initially through an inductive approach, then rationalised into seven broad themes. Transnational consumption of health services; the transnational healthcare workforce; the production, consumption and trade in specific health-related commodities, and transnational diffusion of ideas and knowledge have all received attention from social scientists in work related to India. Other themes with smaller volumes of work include new global health governance issues and structures; transnational delivery of health services and the transnational movement of capital. Thirteen disciplines were found represented in our review, with social policy being a clear leader, followed by economics and management studies. Overall this survey of India-related work suggests a young and expanding literature, although hampered by inadequacies in global comparative data, and by difficulties in accessing commercially sensitive information. The field would benefit from further cross-fertilisation between disciplines and greater application of explanatory theory. Literatures around stem cell research and health
Bisht, Ramila; Pitchforth, Emma; Murray, Susan F
National and transnational health care systems are rapidly evolving with current processes of globalisation. What is the contribution of the social sciences to an understanding of this field? A structured scoping exercise was conducted to identify relevant literature using the lens of India - a 'rising power' with a rapidly expanding healthcare economy. A five step search and analysis method was employed in order to capture as wide a range of material as possible. Documents published in English that met criteria for a social science contribution were included for review. Via electronic bibliographic databases, websites and hand searches conducted in India, 113 relevant articles, books and reports were identified. These were classified according to topic area, publication date, disciplinary perspective, genre, and theoretical and methodological approaches. Topic areas were identified initially through an inductive approach, then rationalised into seven broad themes. Transnational consumption of health services; the transnational healthcare workforce; the production, consumption and trade in specific health-related commodities, and transnational diffusion of ideas and knowledge have all received attention from social scientists in work related to India. Other themes with smaller volumes of work include new global health governance issues and structures; transnational delivery of health services and the transnational movement of capital. Thirteen disciplines were found represented in our review, with social policy being a clear leader, followed by economics and management studies. Overall this survey of India-related work suggests a young and expanding literature, although hampered by inadequacies in global comparative data, and by difficulties in accessing commercially sensitive information. The field would benefit from further cross-fertilisation between disciplines and greater application of explanatory theory. Literatures around stem cell research and health
Nora Elise Hesby Mathé
be actively encouraged and maintained also in successful democracies. Little is known, however, about how students understand and explain democracy as a subject-specific concept. Such knowledge may be valuable for social studies teachers and teacher educators to fulfil the purpose of the social studies curriculum. The present article investigates 16-year-old students’ understanding of the concept of democracy. In social studies, the concept of democracy is essential not only for disciplinary understanding and discourse, but also for students’ out-of-school democratic participation. To investigate students’ understanding of this concept, semi-structured group interviews were conducted with a total of 23 students at three different Norwegian upper secondary schools. A central finding is that students primarily expressed a liberal understanding of democracy focusing on voting in elections as the main political activity. Students also demonstrated more or less limited or elaborate understanding. In addition to presenting and discussing students’ understandings of the concept of democracy, this article considers implications for teacher education in social studies. One implication is that teacher educators need to engage actively in discussing and defining core concepts with their students. This is related to supporting student teachers’ professional development and in turn developing adolescents’ opportunities for democratic participation. Such a dual focus can provide a knowledge base to help student teachers in their professional development in their first years as practicing teachers.Keywords: democracy, concepts, understanding, teacher education, social studies, democratic theory
De Jesus, Maria
Understanding the social context and realities of Cape Verdean women in the U.S. as well as other immigrant and ethnic/racial groups is important to promote their overall health and well-being more effectively. The aim of this study was to gain a contextual understanding from the perspectives of health promoters who work with marginalized women. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with nine Cape Verdean women health promoters about their perspectives and experiences of health promotion practice with immigrant women in their community. Using a Glaserian grounded theory approach to analysis, six salient themes describing women's social context emerged: community and domestic violence, loss and isolation, economic injustice, immigration-related issues and abuse, unequal gender-based power relations, and cultural taboos. These findings challenge health researchers and practitioners to understand health problems and health promotion not only at an individual level, but at multiple levels of influence including interpersonal, family, neighborhood, and structural levels.
Hanson, Carl L; West, Josh; Thackeray, Rosemary; Barnes, Michael D; Downey, Jordan
The use of social media by health care organizations is growing and provides Web-based tools to connect patients, caregivers, and providers. The aim was to determine the use and factors predicting the use of social media for health care-related purposes among medically underserved primary care patients. A cross-sectional survey was administered to 444 patients of a federally qualified community health center. Community health center patients preferred that their providers use email, cell phones for texting, and Facebook and cell phone apps for sharing health information. Significantly more Hispanic than white patients believed their providers should use Facebook (P=.001), YouTube (P=.01), and Twitter (P=.04) for sharing health information. Use and intentions to use social media for health-related purposes were significantly higher for those patients with higher subjective norm scores. Understanding use and factors predicting use can increase adoption and utilization of social media for health care-related purposes among underserved patients in community health centers.
Carey, Gemma; Malbon, Eleanor; Crammond, Brad; Pescud, Melanie; Baker, Philip
Lifestyle drift is increasingly seen as a barrier to broad action on the social determinants of health. The term is currently used in the population health literature to describe how broad policy initiatives for tackling inequalities in health that start off with social determinants (upstream) approach drift downstream to largely individual lifestyle factors, as well as the general trend of investing a the individual level. Lifestyle drift occurs despite the on-going efforts of public health advocates, such as anti-obesity campaigners, to draw attention to the social factors which shape health behavior and outcomes. In this article, we explore whether the sociology of social problems can help understand lifestyle drift in the context of obesity. Specifically, we apply Jamrozik and Nocella's residualist conversion model to the problem of obesity in order to explore whether such an approach can provide greater insight into the processes that underpin lifestyle drift and inform our attempts to mitigate it. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Sabina B. Gesell
Full Text Available Background. Antiobesity interventions have generally failed. Research now suggests that interventions must be informed by an understanding of the social environment. Objective. To examine if new social networks form between families participating in a group-level pediatric obesity prevention trial. Methods. Latino parent-preschool child dyads (N=79 completed the 3-month trial. The intervention met weekly in consistent groups to practice healthy lifestyles. The control met monthly in inconsistent groups to learn about school readiness. UCINET and SIENA were used to examine network dynamics. Results. Children’s mean age was 4.2 years (SD=0.9, and 44% were overweight/obese (BMI≥85th percentile. Parents were predominantly mothers (97%, with a mean age of 31.4 years (SD=5.4, and 81% were overweight/obese (BMI≥25. Over the study, a new social network evolved among participating families. Parents selectively formed friendship ties based on child BMI z-score, (t=2.08; P<.05. This reveals the tendency for mothers to form new friendships with mothers whose children have similar body types. Discussion. Participating in a group-level intervention resulted in new social network formation. New ties were greatest with mothers who had children of similar body types. This finding might contribute to the known inability of parents to recognize child overweight.
J C M�ller
Full Text Available This� article can be described as� a social constructionist, narrative understanding of a group of selected South African white Christians� experience and perceptions regarding sexual morality in the context of heterosexual couples. In this article we will encounter alternative descriptions of sex, sexuality and marriage. The assertion is made that sexual morality should be understood within a relational contextual view of human interaction. This entails a shift away from act-centred, universally right or wrong sexually moral behaviour. These contentions are grounded in a thickened description of sex, sexuality and marriage,through which the thin, act-centred discourse of sex as coitus and marriage as ceremonial consent is deconstructed. A few guidelines are also being made in view of the church and parents. The authors use the metaphor of the board game �snakes and ladders� to enlighten the underlying worldview� and findings, thereby situating sexual morality within the sphere of human social interaction and reality.
Laing, Catherine M; Moules, Nancy J
To determine whether the methodology of social return on investment (SROI) could be a way in which the value of a healthcare-related program (children's cancer camp) could be captured, evaluated, and communicated. The value of healthcare goes beyond what can be captured in financial terms; however, this is the most common type of value that is measured. The SROI methodology accounts for a broader concept of value by measuring social, environmental, and economic outcomes and uses monetary values to represent them. The steps/stages of an SROI analysis were applied to the context of a children's camp for this article. Applying the SROI methodology to this healthcare-related program was feasible and provided insight and understanding related to the impacts of this program. Because of SROI's flexibility, it is a tool that has great potential in a healthcare environment and for leaders to evaluate programmatic return on investment.
Thorsen, Anne Vibeke
sustainability of an F&V intervention at five worksites and uses a combination of social shaping and a worksites policy process perspective as a framework for understanding sustainable interventions. The aims of this thesis were to: 1. Investigate if the meals served in the worksite canteens are healthy...... the sustainability if this implies frequent changes of worksite employees and new employees question the F&V intensive food supply. The engagement of the canteen manager and the ability to develop strategies for integration of more F&V in the food supply and good cooperation with the F&V suppliers also play...... by the involved local actors' ideas of health and nutrition and also by their concepts of how these ideas interrelate with the worksite’s working conditions and working performance. A combination of a social shaping approach and a worksite policy process approach to the shaping and embedding of healthy worksite...
Cantey, Danette S; Randolph, Schenita D; Molloy, Margory A; Carter, Brigit; Cary, Michael P
National and global initiatives to address the social determinants of health (SDH) are on the rise. On a parallel trajectory, increased cultural awareness is emerging as an integral strategy to improve the understanding of these social contributions to disease states, health inequities, and health disparities. Undergraduate nursing students developed modalities and role-played simulations as a teaching and learning strategy. The simulations demonstrated how nurses assess patients' unique needs and offer support and resources regarding patients' socioeconomic, cultural, and environmental needs. The student-developed simulations were an interactive teaching and learning strategy that offered several benefits, such as improved interpersonal skills, learned specific nursing roles, and improved cultural awareness. Student-developed simulations are an innovative teaching strategy for improving cultural awareness and learning more about SDH. [J Nurs Educ. 2017;56(4):243-246.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.
Li, Xin; Verspoor, Karin; Gray, Kathleen; Barnett, Stephen
Online social networks (OSNs) enable health professionals to learn informally, for example by sharing medical knowledge, or discussing practice management challenges and clinical issues. Understanding how learning occurs in OSNs is necessary to better support this type of learning. Through a cross-sectional survey, this study found that learning interaction in OSNs is low in general, with a small number of active users. Some health professionals actively used OSNs to support their practice, including sharing practical and experiential knowledge, benchmarking themselves, and to keep up-to-date on policy, advanced information and news in the field. These health professionals had an overall positive learning experience in OSNs.
Given to the remarkable profitability of digital items in social virtual worlds (SVWs), such as SecondLife, Cyworld, and Habbo Hotel, it has become crucial to understand SVW users' postadoption behaviors toward digital items. This study develops a theoretical framework to examine key antecedents of users' intentions to repurchase and recommend digital items. Data collected from 256 users of digital items were empirically tested against the research model. The analysis results indicate that both user satisfaction and a perceived value play an important role in establishing users' postadoption intentions about digital items. Moreover, the results clearly show what roles perceived usefulness, perceived enjoyment, and perceived fee play in SVW environments.
Hirsch, Gary B; Levine, Ralph; Miller, Robin Lin
Community psychologists have a long history of interest in understanding social systems and how to bring about enduring positive change in these systems. However, the methods that community psychologists use to anticipate and evaluate the changes that result from system change efforts are less well developed. In the current paper, we introduce readers to system dynamics modeling, an action research approach to studying complex systems and the consequences of system change. We illustrate this approach by describing a system dynamics model of educational reform. We provide readers with an introduction to system dynamics modeling, as well as describe the strengths and limitations of the approach for application to community psychology.
Madsen, Line Valdorff; Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten
Thermal comfort is central to energy consumption in housing and one of the main drivers behind worldwide GHG emissions. Research on residential energy consumption has therefore addressed comfort in relation to indoor temperatures. This paper argues that by widening the focus of comfort to include...... other aspects such as air, light and materials, more sustainable ideas of residential comfort might be developed. The paper takes a practice theoretical perspective but argues that the senses should be better incorporated into the approach to understand different aspects of comfort. The paper...... investigates how comfort can be understood as sensorial within theories of practice. This implies understanding how the senses are incorporated in embodied and routinised social practices, through which comfort is sensed and interpreted. Comfort is related to a range of everyday practices in the home...
Full Text Available The role that student friendship groups play in learning was investigated here. Employing a critical realist design, two focus groups on undergraduates were conducted to explore their experience of studying. Data from the ‘case-by-case’ analysis suggested student-to-student friendships produced social contexts which facilitated conceptual understanding through discussion, explanation and application to ‘real life’ contemporary issues. However, the students did not conceive this as a learning experience or suggest the function of their friendships involved learning. These data therefore challenge the perspective that student groups in higher education are formed and regulated for the primary function of learning. Given these findings, further research is needed to assess the role student friendships play in developing disciplinary conceptual understanding.
R. Cynthia. Neudoerffer
Full Text Available As part of developing an international network of community-based ecosystem approaches to health, a project was undertaken in a densely populated and socio-economically diverse area of Kathmandu, Nepal. Drawing on hundreds of pages of narrative reports based on surveys, interviews, secondary data, and focus groups by trained Nepalese facilitators, the authors created systemic depictions of relationships between multiple stakeholder groups, ecosystem health, and human health. These were then combined to examine interactions among stakeholders, activities, concerns, perceived needs, and resource states (ecosystem health indicators. These qualitative models have provided useful heuristics for both community members and research scholars to understand the eco-social systems in which they live; many of the strategies developed by the communities and researchers to improve health intuitively drew on this systemic understanding. The diagrams enabled researchers and community participants to explicitly examine relationships and conflicts related to health and environmental issues in their community.
Sammel, Alison J.
How do five new teachers understand and enact counter-hegemonic pedagogies in their own classes? This study developed from this question. The question arose as I taught critical environmental education, a counter-hegemonic pedagogy, to preservice science teachers. I encouraged the exploration of social and environmental injustices and how they function to reproduce dominant economic agendas. To understand how five teachers, in the second year of their practice and my former students, made sense of the critical environmental education I taught them, I used Gadamer's hermeneutic phenomenology as my research frame. Gadamer argues that meaning develops through dialogue, so data collection occurred mainly through lively research conversations over leisurely dinners. As practicing teachers, the six of us jointly explored taken-for-granted meanings and actions in our everyday pedagogical experiences. In these conversations we made meaning (the hermeneutic aspect) of the lived experiences (phenomenological aspect) of incorporating critical environmental education into our practices. This led me to a deeper understanding and increased awareness of how science education reform agendas have influenced and shaped our individual science pedagogies. The analytic lens of critical education showed that these teachers were strongly influenced by the dominant science reform agenda. Regardless of the science curriculum, or the strong social and environmental beliefs some of these teachers held, they did not perceive the teaching of the social and environmental justice issues to be 'critical' or 'their job.' They demonstrated a belief that it was 'critical' to teach well-defined, "hard science" facts. Student success, hence teacher success, involved playing the academic game well and gaining long-term financial security. Re/viewing the data stories through the additional analytic lens of feminist poststructuralism, I saw how dominant discourse constructs the identity of teachers
Kristin F. Hurst
Full Text Available Grassland to woodland conversion, also known as woody plant encroachment (WPE, is a global-scale phenomena caused in large part by changes in social processes that affect rural land use patterns. Woody plant encroachment has raised serious concerns for species conservation, provision of ecosystem services, and viability of rural livelihoods and cultures. We examined the social drivers of WPE using a case study of rangelands in a semi-arid watershed. We employed the life course framework to understand how ranchers have made land ranch management decisions in the context of time, culture, and social change. We interviewed landowners whose families have been on the land for at least two generations to examine (1 the social context influencing a landowner's decision to increase or decrease their involvement in ranching over their life span, and (2 the historical events that facilitated constrained involvement. We relate these changes in involvement to the expansion of woody plants. Three major turning points were related to changes in ranching involvement: graduating high school, retirement, and infirmity of a parent. We found that changes in ranching involvement were influenced by large-scale shifts in culture, market regulations, and land values throughout the 20th century. These shifts led to three behavioral changes on the land that facilitated WPE: (1 changes in livestock following the collapse of the sheep and goat market, (2 increased popularity of hunting, and (3 decreased labor availability on the ranch. These observations illustrate the complex social and ecological forces at work throughout the 20th century that have led to land transformation in central Texas.
Cené, Crystal W; Akers, Aletha Y; Lloyd, Stacey W; Albritton, Tashuna; Powell Hammond, Wizdom; Corbie-Smith, Giselle
African Americans (AA) and rural communities often suffer disproportionately from poorer health. Theory-guided research examining how individual- and community-level factors influence health behaviors and contribute to disparities is needed. To understand how a social network model that captures the interplay between individual and community factors might inform community-based interventions to reduce HIV risk in rural AA communities. Qualitative study. Eleven focus groups with 38 AA 16-24 year olds, 42 adults over age 25, and 13 formerly incarcerated individuals held in community settings in two rural, predominantly AA counties in North Carolina. Thirty-seven semi-structured interviews with multiethnic key informants. Semi-structured interviews and focus groups with open-ended questions assessed a) perceptions of multi-level HIV risk determinants from a social network model (individual, interpersonal, social, economic, political and structural) identified through literature review and b) community needs and assets affecting local HIV rates. Qualitative data was analyzed using directive content analysis guided by a social network model. We identified four themes regarding the interaction between individuals and their communities that mediate HIV risk: interpersonal processes, community structural environment, social disorder, and civic engagement. Communities were characterized as having a high degree of cohesiveness, tension, and HIV-related stigma. The community structural environment-characterized by neighborhood poverty, lack of skilled jobs, segregation, political disenfranchisement and institutional racism-was felt to reduce the availability and accessibility of resources to combat HIV. Adults noted an inability to combat social problems due to social disorder, which fuels HIV risk behaviors. Civic engagement as a means of identifying community concerns and developing solutions is limited by churches' reluctance to address HIV-related issues. To combat HIV
Roy, Heather; Abdelzaher, Tarek; Bowman, Elizabeth K.; Al Amin, Md. Tanvir
This paper describes characteristics of information flow on social channels, as a function of content type and relations among individual sources, distilled from analysis of Twitter data as well as human subject survey results. The working hypothesis is that individuals who propagate content on social media act (e.g., decide whether to relay information or not) in accordance with their understanding of the content, as well as their own beliefs and trust relations. Hence, the resulting aggregate content propagation pattern encodes the collective content interpretation of the underlying group, as well as their relations. Analysis algorithms are described to recover such relations from the observed propagation patterns as well as improve our understanding of the content itself in a language agnostic manner simply from its propagation characteristics. An example is to measure the degree of community polarization around contentious topics, identify the factions involved, and recognize their individual views on issues. The analysis is independent of the language of discourse itself, making it valuable for multilingual media, where the number of languages used may render language-specific analysis less scalable.
Jacob M. Vigil
Full Text Available I recently proposed a socio-relational framework that suggests that phenotypic variation in the expression of discrete affect behaviors (e.g., expressed anger vs. sadness may reflect two basic dimensions of behavioral response. The first dimension is the motivation to selectively attract or avoid interactions with different people. The second dimension is the behavioral display of either personal capacity or trustworthiness cues, often through the expression of dominant and submissive behaviors, respectively (Vigil, in press. Sex differences in affect behaviors (e.g., externalizing vs. internalizing displays may reflect developmental sensitivities to advertise capacity and trustworthiness cues somewhat differently, due to the unique social dynamics and relational constraints under which males and females evolved. In this study, I use a series of self-report questionnaires to examine two basic assumptions of the framework. The first assumption is that sex differences in nonverbal affect behaviors (aggression vs. crying reflect the desire for, and are effective for causing other people to either avoid or comfort the individual, respectively. I hypothesized that males would report a greater likelihood of responding to various distress moods with aggressive, rather than crying behaviors, and that males would desire, and believe male peers similarly desire distancing responses from others when feeling these moods. Instead, females were hypothesized to report more crying behaviors, and to desire, and believe female peers desire more comforting responses from others. The second assumption is that people are more accurate at inferring the desired social responses (i.e., to be left alone or comforted when experiencing distress of same-sex, rather than opposite-sex peers. I hypothesized that people's beliefs of same-sex peers are more similar to the self-reported desires of the male and female participants, themselves, than their beliefs of opposite
Swearer, Susan M; Hymel, Shelley
With growing recognition that bullying is a complex phenomenon, influenced by multiple factors, research findings to date have been understood within a social-ecological framework. Consistent with this model, we review research on the known correlates and contributing factors in bullying/victimization within the individual, family, peer group, school and community. Recognizing the fluid and dynamic nature of involvement in bullying, we then expand on this model and consider research on the consequences of bullying involvement, as either victim or bully or both, and propose a social-ecological, diathesis-stress model for understanding the bullying dynamic and its impact. Specifically, we frame involvement in bullying as a stressful life event for both children who bully and those who are victimized, serving as a catalyst for a diathesis-stress connection between bullying, victimization, and psychosocial difficulties. Against this backdrop, we suggest that effective bullying prevention and intervention efforts must take into account the complexities of the human experience, addressing both individual characteristics and history of involvement in bullying, risk and protective factors, and the contexts in which bullying occurs, in order to promote healthier social relationships. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Schuch, Johanna Claire; de Hernandez, Brisa Urquieta; Williams, Lacey; Smith, Heather A; Sorensen, Janni; Furuseth, Owen J; Dulin, Michael F
Understanding the social determinants underlying health disparities benefits from a mixed-methods, participatory research approach. Photovoice was used in a research project seeking to identify and validate existing data and models used to address socio-spatial determinants of health in at-risk neighborhoods. High-risk neighborhoods were identified using geospatial models of pre-identified social determinants of health. Students living within these neighborhoods were trained in Photovoice, and asked to take pictures of elements that influence their neighborhood's health and to create narratives explaining the photographs. Students took 300 photographs showing elements that they perceived affected community health. Negative factors included poor pedestrian access, inadequate property maintenance, pollution, and evidence of gangs, criminal activity, and vagrancy. Positive features included public service infrastructure and outdoor recreation. Photovoice data confirmed and contextualized the geospatial models while building community awareness and capacity. Photovoice can be a useful research tool for building community capacity and validating quantitative data describing social determinants of health.
Selfa, Theresa L; Goe, Richard; Kulcsar, Laszlo; Middendorf, Gerad; Bain, Carmen
The aim of this research was an in-depth analysis of the impacts of biofuels industry and ethanol plants on six rural communities in the Midwestern states of Kansas and Iowa. The goal was to provide a better understanding of the social, cultural, and economic implications of biofuels development, and to contribute to more informed policy development regarding bioenergy.Specific project objectives were: 1. To understand how the growth of biofuel production has affected and will affect Midwestern farmers and rural communities in terms of economic, demographic, and socio-cultural impacts; 2. To determine how state agencies, groundwater management districts, local governments and policy makers evaluate or manage bioenergy development in relation to competing demands for economic growth, diminishing water resources, and social considerations; 3. To determine the factors that influence the water management practices of agricultural producers in Kansas and Iowa (e.g. geographic setting, water management institutions, competing water-use demands as well as producers attitudes, beliefs, and values) and how these influences relate to bioenergy feedstock production and biofuel processing; 4. To determine the relative importance of social-cultural, environmental and/or economic factors in the promotion of biofuels development and expansion in rural communities; The research objectives were met through the completion of six detailed case studies of rural communities that are current or planned locations for ethanol biorefineries. Of the six case studies, two will be conducted on rural communities in Iowa and four will be conducted on rural communities in Kansas. A multi-method or mixed method research methodology was employed for each case study.
Full Text Available In this article we intend to analyze central aspects of Moishe Postone’s thinking, in special some ideas of his book Time, Labor and Social Domination (1993. Postone is an original historian and thinker in critical social theory, whose researches undertake to reinterpret Karl Marx, particularly the mature Marx of the Grundrisse. According to Postone, traditional Marxism has proven historically unable to perceive the distinctions between value and wealth as well as distribution and consumption. Moreover, Postone’s critical theory proposes an understanding of domination that differs considerably from traditional Marxism’s, posing significant challenges for contemporary social theory.
Full Text Available Purpose: We propose and apply a simplified nowcasting model to understand the correlations between social attention and topic trends of scientific publications. Design/methodology/approach: First, topics are generated from the obesity corpus by using the latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA algorithm and time series of keyword search trends in Google Trends are obtained. We then establish the structural time series model using data from January 2004 to December 2012, and evaluate the model using data from January 2013. We employ a state-space model to separate different non-regression components in an observational time series (i.e. the tendency and the seasonality and apply the “spike and slab prior” and stepwise regression to analyze the correlations between the regression component and the social media attention. The two parts are combined using Markov-chain Monte Carlo sampling techniques to obtain our results. Findings: The results of our study show that (1 the number of publications on child obesity increases at a lower rate than that of diabetes publications; (2 the number of publication on a given topic may exhibit a relationship with the season or time of year; and (3 there exists a correlation between the number of publications on a given topic and its social media attention, i.e. the search frequency related to that topic as identified by Google Trends. We found that our model is also able to predict the number of publications related to a given topic. Research limitations: First, we study a correlation rather than causality between topics' trends and social media. As a result, the relationships might not be robust, so we cannot predict the future in the long run. Second, we cannot identify the reasons or conditions that are driving obesity topics to present such tendencies and seasonal patterns, so we might need to do “field” study in the future. Third, we need to improve the efficiency of our model by finding more efficient
Matias, Jorge Eduardo Fouto
To provide information in the maturation process of the general conception of social inclusion and solidarity. The following official CAPES sources were consulted: resolutions of the Technical-Scientific Council; models of evaluation forms; current legislation and ordinances; relationship with the Great Area courses; Dinter and Minter evaluation projects; and the assessment application. Social inclusion and solidarity are recent and innovative parameters to be developed by postgraduate programs and evaluated by area committees organized by Capes. There is need for better understanding by the postgraduate faculty of Medicine III the characteristics of relevant actions on social inclusion. The basic theme of life support help in understanding how Medicine III can expand its operations in basic education without compromising the innovative and transformer character of postgraduate. Postgraduate must innovate its insertion in teaching processes, managed care or any other field. What is sought is the power of social transformation, inherent to its spirit and exercise. Proporcionar informações que sejam de auxílio no amadurecimento da concepção geral sobre inserção social e solidariedade. Foram consultadas as seguintes fontes oficiais da CAPES: resoluções do Conselho Técnico-Científico; modelos das fichas de avaliação; legislação e portarias vigentes; relação dos cursos da Grande Área; avaliação de projetos Dinter e Minter; e o aplicativo de avaliação. Inserção social e solidariedade são parâmetros recentes e inovadores como ações a serem desenvolvidas por programas de pós-graduação e avaliadas pelos comitês de áreas organizados pela Capes. Há necessidade de melhor compreensão por parte dos professores de pós-graduação da Medicina III das características de ações relevantes de inserção social. O tema de suporte básico de vida ajuda na compreensão de como a área da Medicina III pode ampliar sua atuação em educação b
Phillips, R.; Brzostek, E. R.; Fisher, J. B.; Sulman, B. N.; Midgley, M.; Craig, M.; Keller, A. B.
While it has long been known that ecosystems dominated by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) plants (e.g., grasslands, tropical forests) cycle carbon (C) and nutrients differently than those dominated by ectomycorrhizal (ECM) plants (e.g., boreal and subarctic forests), demonstrations of these patterns in ecosystems where both mycorrhizal types co-occur are rare. We tested the hypothesis that variation between AM and ECM nutrient use traits (e.g., litter quality) promote distinct microbial traits that track biogeochemical syndromes in temperate forests. We then explored whether such belowground dynamics influence ecosystem responses to elevated CO2. To do this, we calculated the C to N ratios of litter, soil microbes and soil organic matter in AM- and ECM-dominated forests throughout the temperate region. We then used these data to parameterize a coupled plant uptake-microbial decomposition model, in order to determine how belowground interactions feedback to affect ecosystem C and N cycling in forests exposed to elevated CO2. We found support for our hypothesis: AM litters decomposed 50% faster than ECM litters (p litter decay rates were negatively correlated with the C:N of soils (including the microbial biomass and mineral soil; p < 0.05 for both) and positively correlated with net nitrification rates (p < 0.01). However, faster nitrogen (N) cycling in AM plots was also associated with a greater amount of physcially protected N in soil, suggesting that nutrient stabilizing mechanisms may constrain NPP in response to elevated CO2. Our model results supported this prediction. We found that while the C cost of acquiring of N is cheaper for AM trees than ECM trees, this cost difference is reduced under rising atmospheric CO2 owing to the enhanced protection of soil N in AM soils. Taken together, our results demonstrate that variation in AM- and ECM-associated plant and microbial traits promote predictable biogeochemical syndromes in temperate forests that can impact
The purpose of this study is to assess the ways in which mass media play a significant role in constructing the public's understanding of breast cancer as a social problem, a disease, and personal illness experience...
The purpose of this study is to assess the ways in which mass media play a significant role in constructing the public's understanding of breast cancer as a social problem, a disease, and personal illness experience...
Asselin, Martha Jo
With the rising number of major crises on college campuses today (Security on Campus Inc., 2009), institutions of higher education can benefit from understanding of how social networks may be used in times of emergency. What is currently known about the usage of social networks is not integral to the current practices of crisis management that are…
Oliveira, Rute Sofia Matos de
The emergence and importance of social media and, in particular, social networking sites (SNS), has made it possible for an accessible integration between consumers and brands, by providing unlimited reasons for users to express, share and create content. The aim of this dissertation is to explore what motivates consumers to interact with brands on social media and to understand the relevance of those variables in explaining consumers’ loyalty toward a brand. Members of two distinct genera...
Jarret T. Crawford
Full Text Available Employing a dual process motivational (DPM model perspective, we found that how political messages are framed influences the differential effects of right-wing authoritarianism (RWA and social dominance orientation (SDO on political candidate support in the United States. Study 1 (N = 85 found that RWA and SDO differentially predicted support for right-wing candidates who used cohesion and group status threats to frame same-sex marriage, respectively. Study 2 (N = 89 largely replicated those findings on immigration policy. In Study 3 (N = 128, the hypothesis that RWA and SDO negatively predicted support for left-wing candidates who framed same-sex marriage in terms of individual liberty and social equality, respectively, received partial support. Additional analyses indicated that the effects of RWA on candidate support in these studies were driven by specific theoretically-relevant dimensions of RWA. Together, these results indicate that candidates can enhance their appeal by strategically employing value-based political messages targeting different subsets of their constituency.
Muldoon, Orla T
The present paper reviews the literature that has assessed the psychological impact of political violence on children. Concern for those growing up in situations of political violence has resulted in two areas of research within psychology: the first considers children as victims of conflict and considers the mental health consequences of political violence. The second considers children as protagonists or aggressors in conflict and considers related moral and attitudinal consequences of exposure to political violence. These two literatures are most often considered separately. Here the two strands of research are brought together using a social identity framework, allowing apparently divergent findings to be integrated into a more coherent understanding of the totality of consequences for children and young people growing up in situations of armed conflict. © 2013.
Braun, Dieter; Schmitt, Matthias; Schacker, Andreas
Understanding how money shapes and memorizes our social interactions is central to modern life. There are many schools of thought on as to how monetary systems contribute to crises or boom/bust cycles and how monetary policy can try to avert them. We find that statistical physics gives a refreshing perspective. We analyze how credit mechanisms introduce non-locality and time-heterogeneity to the monetary memory. Motivated by an analogy to particle physics, locality and time-homogeneity can be imposed to monetary systems. As a result, a full reserve banking system is complemented with a bi-currency system of non-bank assets (``money'') and bank assets (``antimoney''). Payment can either be made by passing on money or by receiving antimoney. As a result, a free floating exchange rate between non-bank assets and bank assets is established. Interestingly, this monetary memory allows for credit creation by the simultaneous transfer of money and antimoney at a negotiated exchange rate. We analyze this novel mechanism of liquidity transfer in a model of random social interactions, yielding analytical results for all relevant distributions and the price of liquidity under the conditions of a fully transparent credit market.
This thesis examines community engagement as a form of conflict prevention in order to obtain the social license to operate (SLO) in Alberta's oil and gas industry. It does this by answering the question: what are the key elements of the Social License to Operate and how can these elements be applied to community engagement/consultation in a way that prevents conflicts in Alberta's oil and gas industry? The underlying assumption of this thesis is that building good relationships and working collaboratively functions as a form of conflict prevention and that this in turn leads to the SLO. This thesis outlines the key features of both successful community engagement and of the SLO, to provide a guideline for what is needed to obtain the SLO. Data was collected from semi-structured interviews and through a literature review. The data analysis concluded that there are direct parallels between the key elements of effective community engagement and the key elements of the SLO as identified in the interviews. These parallels are: knowing the community, addressing community needs, corporate social responsibility, relationship building, follow through and evidence for what has been done, executive buy-in, excellent communication, and open dialogue, all within a process which is principled (there is trust, understanding, transparency and respect), inclusive, dynamic, flexible, ongoing, and long-term. Moreover, the key elements of effective community engagement and of the SLO identified in the interviews also overlapped with those found in the literature review, with only one exception. The literature review explicitly named early involvement as a key element of both effective community engagement and the SLO, whereas the interview participants only explicitly indicated it as a key factor of community engagement and implied it to be a key element of the SLO.
Copyright @ 2008 Olufemi Amao. The social contract theory has been advanced as a theoretical basis for explaining the emerging practice of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) by corporations. Since the 17th century the social contract concept has also been used to justify human rights. The concept is the constitutional foundation of many western states starting with England, US and France. Business ethicists and philosophers have tried to construct and analyse the social responsibility o...
van Schaik, Johanna E; Hunnius, Sabine
During adult interactions, behavioral mimicry, the implicit copying of an interaction partner's postures and mannerisms, communicates liking and affiliation. While this social behavior likely develops during early childhood, it is unclear which factors contribute to its emergence. Here, the roles of inhibitory control and social understanding on 5-year-olds' behavioral mimicry were investigated. Following a social manipulation in which one experimenter shared a sticker with the child and the other experimenter kept two stickers for herself, children watched a video in which these experimenters each told a story. During this story session, children in the experimental group (n = 28) observed the experimenters perform face and hand rubbing behaviors whereas the control group (n = 23) did not see these behaviors. Children's inhibitory control was assessed using the day-night task and their social understanding was measured through a parental questionnaire. Surprisingly, group-level analyses revealed that the experimental group performed the behaviors significantly less than the control group (i.e. a negative mimicry effect) for both the sticker-sharer and sticker-keeper. Yet, the hypothesized effects of inhibitory control and social understanding were found. Inhibitory control predicted children's selective mimicry of the sticker-keeper versus sticker-sharer and children's overall mimicry was correlated with social understanding. These results provide the first indications to suggest that factors of social and cognitive development dynamically influence the emergence and specificity of behavioral mimicry during early childhood.
Taylor, Lorian M; Raine, Kim D; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Vallance, Jeff K; Sharma, Arya M; Spence, John C
Despite well-documented evidence implicating physical activity (PA) in the prevention of type 2 diabetes, the overwhelming majority of individuals with prediabetes are not physically active enough. The purpose of this study was to investigate the applicability of the social cognitive theory (SCT) in understanding PA behaviour in individuals with prediabetes. Individuals with prediabetes (N = 232) completed a mailed questionnaire assessing demographics, self-reported PA (MET.min/wk) and SCT constructs for PA MET.min/wk. For PA MET.min/wk, scheduling and task efficacy both had significant effects on PA (β = .30 and .22, respectively). Goal formation also had a direct effect on PA for scheduling, coping and task efficacy (β = .20, .34 and .30, respectively). Task, coping and scheduling efficacy explained a significant portion of the variance in PA behaviour. Overall, SCT appears to have merit as a model for understanding PA in individuals with prediabetes. Further evaluative inquiry is needed to establish support for the use of the SCT as a framework for developing, implementing and evaluating PA behaviour change interventions in this population.
Murphy, Lyn Stankiewicz
Prostitution involves the exchange of sexual services for economic compensation. Due to the sexual promiscuity surrounding prostitution, women involved in prostitution constitute a high-risk group for contracting and transmitting STDs, including HIV. Prostitution is not only a public health concern, but also an economic one. Cities throughout the United States spent an average of $7.5 to $16 million per year enforcing prostitution laws and addressing negative outcomes associated with prostitution. Thus, women involved in prostitution are a cause for concern from both public health and economic perspectives. However, little is known about why women remain in this type of behavior given the risks prostitution presents, and even less is known about how to intervene and interrupt the complex cycle of prostitution. Thus, the purpose of this study was to understand what factors contribute to a woman's decision to remain in prostitution. A series of interviews were conducted with 12 women engaged in street-level prostitution. Results of the study revealed that drug use not only spurs entry into prostitution, but also contributes to the tenure of prostitution. Further, social support and economic stability are plausible reasons for women remaining in prostitution. These findings lead us to recommendations for policy and program development. Women involved in prostitution are a highly marginalized population, rarely recognized as individuals with life histories. Understanding why women remain in prostitution is important, because until these determinants are known, intervention programs designed to interrupt the cycle, and ultimately prevent prostitution, cannot be formulated.
Knott, Fiona; Dunlop, Aline-Wendy; Mackay, Tommy
Social interaction and understanding in autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) are key areas of concern to practitioners and researchers alike. However, there is a relative lack of information about the skills and competencies of children and young people with ASD who access ordinary community facilities including mainstream education. In particular, contributions by parents and their children have been under-utilized. Using two structured questionnaires, 19 children with ASD reported difficulties with social skills including social engagement and temper management and also reported difficulties with social competence, affecting both friendships and peer relationships. Parents rated the children's social skill and competence as significantly worse than did the children themselves, but there was considerable agreement about the areas that were problematic. Using an informal measure to highlight their children's difficulties, parents raised issues relating to conversation skills, social emotional reciprocity and peer relationships. The implications for assessment and intervention are discussed.
Barman-Adhikari, Anamika; Rice, Eric
Little is known about the factors associated with use of employment services among homeless youth. Social network characteristics have been known to be influential in motivating people's decision to seek services. Traditional theoretical frameworks applied to studies of service use emphasize individual factors over social contexts and interactions. Using key social network, social capital, and social influence theories, this paper developed an integrated theoretical framework that could captu...
Tutin, C E
The risk of transmission of primate viruses to humans is great because of their genetic proximity. It is now clear that the HIV group of retroviruses came from primates and that the origin of HIV1 is the chimpanzee subspecies of Central Africa, Pan troglodytes troglodytes. Many African primates are natural hosts of retroviruses and details of the natural history of both hosts and viruses are essential to understand the evolution of the latter. Data on the demography, ecology and behaviour of three species of primates (gorillas, chimpanzees and mandrills), studied in the Lopé Reserve in Central Gabon since 1983, are analysed to identify the factors that allow, or favour, disease transmission within each species, between different species and between primates and humans. The comparison of the relative degree of risk suggests that of the three species, chimpanzees are the most susceptible to exposure to infection both from conspecifics and from other species. With respect to humans, the comparative analysis suggests greater exposure to viruses of mandrills and gorillas than to those of chimpanzees. For primates, major risk factors are: large social groups; bites inflicted in fights; social grooming; and predation on mammals. However, given that contacts between social groups of the same species are rare, the spread of a virus through a population will be slow and uncertain. Hunting wild animals is the behaviour most likely to provide transmission routes for primate viruses into human populations because of the high probability of blood-blood contact. Not only the hunters themselves, but also women who prepare bush meat for cooking and people involved in trade of carcasses are at high risk of transmission of pathogens. Hunting of bush meat is increasing in Central Africa due to the economic recession and the spread of logging into the forests of the interior of the region. To counter the significant risk of transmission of known, as well as new, diseases from primates
Popliger, Mina; Talwar, Victoria; Crossman, Angela
Children tell prosocial lies for self- and other-oriented reasons. However, it is unclear how motivational and socialization factors affect their lying. Furthermore, it is unclear whether children's moral understanding and evaluations of prosocial lie scenarios (including perceptions of vignette characters' feelings) predict their actual prosocial behaviors. These were explored in two studies. In Study 1, 72 children (36 second graders and 36 fourth graders) participated in a disappointing gift paradigm in either a high-cost condition (lost a good gift for a disappointing one) or a low-cost condition (received a disappointing gift). More children lied in the low-cost condition (94%) than in the high-cost condition (72%), with no age difference. In Study 2, 117 children (42 preschoolers, 41 early elementary school age, and 34 late elementary school age) participated in either a high- or low-cost disappointing gift paradigm and responded to prosocial vignette scenarios. Parents reported on their parenting practices and family emotional expressivity. Again, more children lied in the low-cost condition (68%) than in the high-cost condition (40%); however, there was an age effect among children in the high-cost condition. Preschoolers were less likely than older children to lie when there was a high personal cost. In addition, compared with truth-tellers, prosocial liars had parents who were more authoritative but expressed less positive emotion within the family. Finally, there was an interaction between children's prosocial lie-telling behavior and their evaluations of the protagonist's and recipient's feelings. Findings contribute to understanding the trajectory of children's prosocial lie-telling, their reasons for telling such lies, and their knowledge about interpersonal communication. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Young, C.; Blomberg, B.; Kolker, A.; Nguyen, U.; Page, C. M.; Sherchan, S. P.; Tobias, V. D.; Wu, H.
Coastal communities in the Gulf of Mexico are facing new and complex challenges as their physical environment is altered by climate warming and sea level rise. To effectively prepare for environmental changes, coastal communities must build resilience in both physical structures and social structures. One measure of social structure resilience is how much social capital a community possesses. Social capital is defined as the connections among individuals which result in networks with shared norms, values and understandings that facilitate cooperation within or among groups. Social capital exists in three levels; bonding, bridging and linking. Bonding social capital is a measure of the strength of relationships amongst members of a network who are similar in some form. Bridging social capital is a measure of relationships amongst people who are dissimilar in some way, such as age, education, or race/ethnicity. Finally Linking social capital measures the extent to which individuals build relationships with institutions and individuals who have relative power over them (e.g local government, educational institutions). Using census and American Community Survey data, we calculated a Social Capital index value for bonding, bridging and linking for 60 Gulf of Mexico coastal counties for the years 2000, and 2010 to 2015. To investigate the impact of social capital on community resilience we coupled social capital index values with physical datasets of land-use/land cover, sea level change, climate, elevation and surface water quality for each coastal county in each year. Preliminary results indicate that in Gulf of Mexico coastal counties, increased bonding social capital results in decreased population change. In addition, we observed a multi-year time lag in the effect of increased bridging social capital on population stability, potentially suggesting key linkages between the physical and social environment in this complex coupled-natural human system. This
MacIntyre, Tadhg E; Igou, Eric R; Campbell, Mark J; Moran, Aidan P; Matthews, James
For over a century, psychologists have investigated the mental processes of expert performers - people who display exceptional knowledge and/or skills in specific fields of human achievement. Since the 1960s, expertise researchers have made considerable progress in understanding the cognitive and neural mechanisms that underlie such exceptional performance. Whereas the first modern studies of expertise were conducted in relatively formal knowledge domains such as chess, more recent investigations have explored elite performance in dynamic perceptual-motor activities such as sport. Unfortunately, although these studies have led to the identification of certain domain-free generalizations about expert-novice differences, they shed little light on an important issue: namely, experts' metacognitive activities or their insights into, and regulation of, their own mental processes. In an effort to rectify this oversight, the present paper argues that metacognitive processes and inferences play an important if neglected role in expertise. In particular, we suggest that metacognition (including such processes as "meta-attention," "meta-imagery" and "meta-memory," as well as social aspects of this construct) provides a window on the genesis of expert performance. Following a critique of the standard empirical approach to expertise, we explore some research on "metacognition" and "metacognitive inference" among experts in sport. After that, we provide a brief evaluation of the relationship between psychological skills training and metacognition and comment on the measurement of metacognitive processes. Finally, we summarize our conclusions and outline some potentially new directions for research on metacognition in action.
Khan, M. R. H.; Jutla, A.; Colwell, R. R.
Diarrheal diseases continue to pose a severe health threat in regions where sanitation facilities remain marginal and are prone to destruction. With limited efficacy of vaccines, it is important to device alternate methods to determine environmental conditions favorable for diarrheal diseases. Several vibrios (V. cholerae., V. vulnificus, V. parahaemolyticus) have characteristic signatures that are associated with large scale climatic processes. The interactions of vibrios with humans eventually lead to outbreak of diseases. Here, using cholera as one of the signature diarrheal disease, we present a framework coupling social, hydrological and microbiological understanding with satellite remote sensing data to predict environmental conditions associated with outbreak of disease in several regions of sub-Saharan Africa. Hydroclimatic processes, primarily precipitation and temperature are found to be strongly associated with epidemic and episodic outbreak of cholera. We will present an algorithm to classify regions susceptible to risks of outbreak cholera using profile method in five epidemic regions of Mozambique, Central African Republic, Cameroon, South Sudan and Rwanda. Conditions for occurrence of cholera were detectable at least one month in advance. Using spatial land surface temperature (LST) data from satellites along with water accessibility data and population data, the implementation of the algorithm aid in classification of cholera risk regions.
Chang, Hsin-Li; Lai, Chi-Yen
This study introduces self-determination theory (SDT) to refine previous models of vehicle usage motivation. We add travel socialization theory regarding parental influence on vehicle usage to enhance previous structural models describing motorcycle usage behavior. Our newly developed model was empirically verified in a sample of 721 motorcycle users in Taiwan. In addition to instrumental, symbolic, and affective motivations, perceived parental attitudes (PPAs) towards motorcycle riding were found to have a significant effect on individuals' motorcycle use habits. Additionally, participants who perceived their parents to have more positive attitudes toward motorcycles were found to have more experience being chauffeured on motorcycles by their parents. Based on these results, we suggest means to confront the challenges brought on by the rapid growth of motorcycle usage, especially serious motorcycle traffic accidents. These results improve our understanding motorcycle usage in Taiwan and can be used by transportation professionals who are seeking solutions to the rapid growth of motorcycle usage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Maxwell, Yvonne; Day, Andrew; Casey, Sharon
Social and emotional wellbeing (SEWB) is a term used to refer to the state of an individual's overall wellbeing. This review aims to consider the importance of understanding and assessing SEWB in prisoner populations, and identify potentially important differences between groups of prisoners, including those who identify as from minority cultural backgrounds (Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander in Australia), protective custody prisoners, remand prisoners, prisoners identified with an intellectual disability, and prisoners with an acquired brain injury. The paper is a general review of the published literature, with a specific focus on work conducted with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities in Australia. Eight domains of SEWB are identified across which Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander prisoners, along with those in protection units, remandees, and prisoners with intellectual disabilities or acquired brain injuries are likely to experience particularly low levels of functioning. Few programs have been developed to address these needs, although attending to low levels of SEWB has the potential to make a positive contribution to prisoner health, prison management, and offender rehabilitation. Relatively little literature has considered this topic previously and, as a result, the paper is necessarily descriptive. Nonetheless, issues of SEWB appear to warrant further consideration, particularly in relation to those prisoners who identify with minority cultural groups.
Anna D. Rowe
Full Text Available The role of emotions in adult learning and achievement has received increasing attention in recent years. However, much of the emphasis has been on test anxiety, rather than the wider spectrum of negative emotions such as sadness, grief, boredom and anger. This paper reports findings of a qualitative study exploring the experience and functionality of negative emotions at university. Thirty-six academic staff and students from an Australian university were interviewed about emotional responses to a range of learning events. Data analysis was informed by a prototype approach to emotion research. Four categories of discrete negative emotions (anger, sadness, fear, boredom were considered by teachers and students to be especially salient in learning, with self-conscious emotions (guilt, embarrassment, shame mentioned by more students than staff. While negative emotions were frequently viewed as detrimental to motivation, performance and learning, they were also construed under some circumstances as beneficial. The findings are discussed in relation to the value of social functional approaches for a better understanding of the diverse roles of negative emotions in learning and achievement.
Rowe, Anna D; Fitness, Julie
The role of emotions in adult learning and achievement has received increasing attention in recent years. However, much of the emphasis has been on test anxiety, rather than the wider spectrum of negative emotions such as sadness, grief, boredom and anger. This paper reports findings of a qualitative study exploring the experience and functionality of negative emotions at university. Thirty-six academic staff and students from an Australian university were interviewed about emotional responses to a range of learning events. Data analysis was informed by a prototype approach to emotion research. Four categories of discrete negative emotions (anger, sadness, fear, boredom) were considered by teachers and students to be especially salient in learning, with self-conscious emotions (guilt, embarrassment, shame) mentioned by more students than staff. While negative emotions were frequently viewed as detrimental to motivation, performance and learning, they were also construed under some circumstances as beneficial. The findings are discussed in relation to the value of social functional approaches for a better understanding of the diverse roles of negative emotions in learning and achievement.
Full Text Available Background Patriarchy dominates not only the mind-set and behavioural patterns of both males and females in India in general but also has a far-reaching impact on work culture as well as quality of work life. Indians not only suffer the archaic gender patterns but also are burdened with a unique system of caste that discriminates people based on their birth in a particular section of society. The government has made an effort to eradicate the adverse impacts of the caste system by making a unique reservation policy (a form of affirmative action in work and education that tries to promote social justice. Participants and procedure The present research study was conducted to assess the perception of public-sector employees of the diversity climate of their organizations (in terms of the diversity created by the affirmative action and the psychological impact of this perception. Three hundred participants (all employed in public-sector organizations were categorized into four groups, namely General Category Men, Reserved Category Men, General Category Women and Reserved Category Women. Participants in the reserved category were those who had directly benefitted from the affirmative action. All the participants were given questionnaires to assess perceived diversity climate, work-family conflict and alienation from work. Thirty percent of the participants were interviewed with semi-structured open-ended questions. Quantitative data were analysed using both descriptive and inferential (ANOVA statistics. Results The study’s findings revealed that women in the two categories hold contrasting perceptions of their organisations’ diversity climates. While among the four categories General Category Women hold the worst perception, Reserved Category Women hold the best. The former suffer from severe psychological consequences. Qualitative analysis via thematic analysis of individual interviews revealed themes that explain the findings of the study
Ryberg, Thomas; Larsen, Malene Charlotte
In this article we take up a critique of the concept of Communities of Practice voiced by several authors, who suggest that network may provide a better metaphor to understand social forms of organisation and learning. This critique we situate within a broader theoretical movement in socio-cultural learning theories. From this we identify some theoretical and analytical challenges to the network metaphor, which we explore and elaborate through an analysis of a Danish social networking site.
Johnson, B C
Though the benefits derived from verbal communication between practitioner and patient often are beyond the control of most health care marketers, this encounter includes nearly all of the personality and social appeals that are critical to the development of a successful and long-lasting marketing exchange. To enable marketers of health care to understand more fully the communication context in which practitioners operate, the author reviews the social implications of therapeutic communicator style.
Environmental governance systems are under greater pressure to adapt and to cope with increased social and ecological uncertainty from stressors like climate change. We review principles of social cognition and decision making that shape and constrain how environmental governance...
Klostermeyer William F.
Full Text Available Eternal and m-eternal domination are concerned with using mobile guards to protect a graph against infinite sequences of attacks at vertices. Eternal domination allows one guard to move per attack, whereas more than one guard may move per attack in the m-eternal domination model. Inequality chains consisting of the domination, eternal domination, m-eternal domination, independence, and clique covering numbers of graph are explored in this paper.
Frier, Amanda; Barnett, Fiona; Devine, Sue; Barker, Ruth
The purpose of this study was to investigate how an individual's social determinants of health are affected by the acquisition of physical disability in adulthood. The secondary aim was to report the described facilitators and barriers to living with a disability. This qualitative study used an exploratory, descriptive approach. Nine individuals with a neurologically derived disability were purposively recruited from a rehabilitation center in northern Queensland. Participation in the study involved semi-structured interviews. QSR NVivo was used for the data analysis process. Changes to social determinants of health resulting from the acquisition of disability had substantial flow-on consequences in all aspects of life for the individual and those close to them. Income had the greatest influence over the other social determinant of health. Following the acquisition of disability, the reduced inflow and increased outflow of finances had subsequent negative effects on housing, transport and social interactions, and also personal relationships. When considering changes to the social determinants of health resulting from disability acquisition, it is impractical to view these changes and those affected in isolation. Consideration of this multidimensional effect on life associated with the acquisition of disability will be useful in disability research, advocacy and support services. Implications for Rehabilitation Social determinants of health are known to have a direct influence on health status. As social determinants of health decrease, morbidity and mortality rates increase. Following the acquisition of disability, there is a decline in social determinants of health. This decline affects quality of life for individuals' with a disability, and those closest to them. The effects of declining social determinants of health may inhibit the rehabilitation process. Thus, it is important to acknowledge the multifaceted impact the acquisition of disability has on peoples
Patrícia Junqueira Grandino
Full Text Available This paper rescues Social Education practices that emerged by the work of social educators in the 1980s, emphasizing the relational dimension considering the formation of bonds of trust and building horizontal relationships between educators and pupils. From this, the paper clarifies some processes in the light of Psychoanalysis and reflects on contributions of this subject to the field of Social EducationKey words: Social education; children and adolescentes; psychoanalysis
Belkofer, Christopher M.; McNutt, Jill V.
This article discusses ethics in the context of the participatory culture of social media as it relates to art therapy. The authors present the view that social media formats are important venues for expression that contribute to interpersonal connections and social learning via the active participation of their members. To make informed ethical…
van Zoonen, W.; Verhoeven, J.W.M.; Elving, W.J.L.
This study examines the motives of employees to engage in work related social media use - i.e. the use of personal social media accounts to communicate about work-related issues. The theory of planned behavior (TPB) was used to explain this behavior. Because social media can enable users to express
Buijs, A.E.; Hovardas, T.; Figari, H.; Castro, P.; Devine-Wright, P.; Fischer, A.; Mouro, C.; Selge, S.
Ongoing fragmentation between social groups on the appropriate targets and relevant actors for nature conservation signals the need for further advancements in theorizing about the human–nature interaction. Through a focus on the complexity of social thought and confrontations between social groups,
Morganson, Valerie J.; Jones, Meghan P.; Major, Debra A.
Enrollment of women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) majors is disproportionately small and declining. This study examines social coping to explain the gender gap. Women undergraduates reported using significantly more social coping than did men. Multiple regression analyses revealed that social coping was a stronger…
A.E. Lugo; C.M. Concepcion; L.E. Santiago-Acevedo; T.A. Munoz-Erickson; J.C. Verdejo Ortiz; R. Santiago-Bartolomei; J. Forero-Montana; C.J. Nytch; H. Manrique; W. Colon-Cortes
This essay describes our effort to develop a practical approach to the integration of the social and ecological sciences in the context of a Latin-American city such as San Juan, Puerto Rico. We describe our adaptive social-ecological approach in the historical context of the developing paradigms of the Anthropocene, new integrative social and ecological sciences, and...
Dawn M. Elmer; Harriet H. Christensen; Ellen M. Donoghue; [Compilers].
This bibliography focuses on the links between social system well-being and ecosystem health. It is intended for public land managers and scientists and students of social and natural sciences. Multidisciplinary science that addresses the interconnections between the social system and the ecosystem is presented. Some of the themes and strategies presented are policy...
Munger, Felix; MacLeod, Tim; Loomis, Colleen
Community psychology has long been concerned with social justice. However, deployments of this term are often vague and undertheorized. To address this weakness in the field's knowledge body we explored John Rawls's theory of social justice and Amartya Sen's economic theory of the capabilities approach and evaluated each for its applicability to community psychology theory, research, and action. Our unpacking of the philosophical and political underpinnings of Rawlsian theory of social justice resulted in identifying characteristics that limit the theory's utility in community psychology, particularly in its implications for action. Our analysis of the capability approach proposed by Amartya Sen revealed a framework that operationalizes social justice in both research and action, and we elaborate on this point. Going beyond benefits to community psychology in adopting the capabilities approach, we posit a bi-directional relationship and discuss how community psychology might also contribute to the capabilities approach. We conclude by suggesting that community psychology could benefit from a manifesto or proclamation that provides a historical background of social justice and critiques the focus on the economic, sociological, and philosophical theories that inform present-day conceptualizations (and lack thereof) of social justice for community psychology. © Society for Community Research and Action 2016.
Jacob M. Vigil
I recently proposed a socio-relational framework that suggests that phenotypic variation in the expression of discrete affect behaviors (e.g., expressed anger vs. sadness) may reflect two basic dimensions of behavioral response. The first dimension is the motivation to selectively attract or avoid interactions with different people. The second dimension is the behavioral display of either personal capacity or trustworthiness cues, often through the expression of dominant and submissive behavi...
Antimo L. Farro
Full Text Available Comment appréhender aujourd’hui la structuration des mouvements sociaux et plus particulièrement de l’altermondialisme ? Après avoir rappelé son parcours de recherche et les distances prises avec la tradition sociologique centrée sur le conflit, l’auteur souligne la nécessité de construire des modèles heuristiques à partir desquels il est possible d’expliquer les relations et les tensions existant entre la rationalisation et l’affirmation subjective. Ces modèles devraient permettre d’expliquer comment la culture s’affirme comme l’élément par lequel l’économie et la politique se redéfinissent. Cette construction nécessite une prise de distance avec l’approche basée sur la mobilisation des ressources. Elle suppose en outre un travail systématique sur les conditions de l’apparition de l’action collective et sur les flux de communication qui la caractérisent afin de mieux rendre compte de l’importance que recouvrent l’affirmation subjective et la culture dans la construction de l’altermondialisme.The question is “How to understand the structuring of social movements in general and altermondialism in particular?”. Detailing his previous research and his distancing from the classical sociology of conflict, the author dwells on the necessity of creating heuristic models making for an explanation of the tense relations between rationalisation and self affirmation. These models, distancing themselves from their “mobilisation of resources” counterparts, should help fathom how culture is the key to a redefinition of politics and economics. They imply too analysis of the conditions favouring the emergence of collective action and the communicatory flow concerned, thus fostering a deeper understanding of the importance of self affirmation and culture in the building up of altermondialism.
Tadhg Eoghan Macintyre
Full Text Available For over a century, psychologists have investigated the mental processes of expert performers - people who display exceptional knowledge and/or skills in specific fields of human achievement. Since the 1960s, expertise researchers have made considerable progress in understanding the cognitive and neural mechanisms that underlie such exceptional performance. Whereas the first modern studies of expertise were conducted in relatively formal knowledge domains such as chess, more recent investigations have explored elite performance in dynamic perceptual-motor activities such as sport. Unfortunately, although these studies have led to the identification of certain domain-free generalizations about expert-novice differences, they shed little light on an important issue: namely, experts’ metacognitive activities or their insights into, and regulation of, their own mental processes. In an effort to rectify this oversight, the present paper argues that metacognitive processes and inferences play an important if neglected role in expertise. In particular, we suggest that metacognition (including such processes as ‘meta-attention’, ‘meta-imagery’ and ‘meta-memory’, as well as social aspects of this construct provides a window on the genesis of expert performance. Following a critique of the standard empirical approach to expertise, we explore some research on ‘metacognition’ and ‘metacognitive inference’ among experts in sport. After that, we provide a brief evaluation of the relationship between psychological skills training and metacognition and comment on the measurement of metacognitive processes. Finally, we summarize our conclusions and outline some potentially new directions for research on metacognition in action.
MacIntyre, Tadhg E.; Igou, Eric R.; Campbell, Mark J.; Moran, Aidan P.; Matthews, James
For over a century, psychologists have investigated the mental processes of expert performers – people who display exceptional knowledge and/or skills in specific fields of human achievement. Since the 1960s, expertise researchers have made considerable progress in understanding the cognitive and neural mechanisms that underlie such exceptional performance. Whereas the first modern studies of expertise were conducted in relatively formal knowledge domains such as chess, more recent investigations have explored elite performance in dynamic perceptual-motor activities such as sport. Unfortunately, although these studies have led to the identification of certain domain-free generalizations about expert-novice differences, they shed little light on an important issue: namely, experts’ metacognitive activities or their insights into, and regulation of, their own mental processes. In an effort to rectify this oversight, the present paper argues that metacognitive processes and inferences play an important if neglected role in expertise. In particular, we suggest that metacognition (including such processes as “meta-attention,” “meta-imagery” and “meta-memory,” as well as social aspects of this construct) provides a window on the genesis of expert performance. Following a critique of the standard empirical approach to expertise, we explore some research on “metacognition” and “metacognitive inference” among experts in sport. After that, we provide a brief evaluation of the relationship between psychological skills training and metacognition and comment on the measurement of metacognitive processes. Finally, we summarize our conclusions and outline some potentially new directions for research on metacognition in action. PMID:25360126
Seiler, Gale A.
Schools and science classrooms within schools continue to contribute to social reproduction and to the disenfranchisement of inner city African American students though attempts have been made to remedy the situation through standards, high-stakes testing, and compensatory programs. Such reforms ignore the sociocultural, political, and economic contexts of the individual students in the schools they are impacting. They do not take into account the uniqueness and diversity of the learners in these settings and have not included the voices of the students. Another possibility was studied here; that of starting with the cultural capital of the learner rather than with external standards. In a non-required science course at a local high school two coteachers endeavored to enact a student-emergent curriculum as a way to foster student agency and to counteract the reproductive nature of schools. The class was examined as a field within multiple other fields. The dialectical relationship between structure and agency in the class was used to frame the analysis and the tension between them was examined at several levels through video and audio analysis. Structural and rational choice views of action were abandoned in favor of an understanding hinged upon strategies of action that actors construct from cultural toolkits in and through practice. In this setting the students and teachers co-constructed a class that can be described and characterized in certain ways yet contained many counter-examples and alternative characterizations. A continuum of successes and failures, agency and subjectivity can be found in the trends and counter-trends in the course. The contradictions were examined to portray the complexity of the interactions and the possibilities for agency within them.
Yenny Hernández Sánchez
Full Text Available The main focus of the investigation from which this article is derived, is to question the recruitment practices as a power device, which means trying to unveiling them as socially accepted instruments of domination that end up in abuses on the participating candidates. These processes, which are part of the human management and administrative duties, are questioned from a hermeneutic perspective, which have its foundations rooted in psychology from where it takes some not contextualized tools. The work is presented synthetically and outlines some final thoughts, not without first addressing some theories from authors that allow in some cases, contextualizing the problem, and in others, sustaining the ethical position which is reflected in this written, establishing intercommunication with some philosophers, being the most important to the analysis: Follett, Weber, Foucault and Deleuze.El objetivo central de la investigación de la cual se deriva el artículo, es interrogar las prácticas de selección de personal en tanto dispositivo de poder, es decir, se pretende develarlas como instrumentos de dominación socialmente aceptados, con los cuales se incurre en abusos sobre los candidatos participantes. Estos procesos –que hacen parte de la gestión humana y el quehacer administrativo- se cuestionan desde una perspectiva hermenéutica, los cuales tienen sus fundamentos arraigados en la Psicología, de donde toma algunas herramientas con un uso descontextualizado. El trabajo realizado se presenta sintéticamente y se esbozan algunas consideraciones finales, no sin antes abordar algunas teorías de autores que permiten poner en contexto el problema, en algunos casos, y sustentar la postura ética que se trasluce en el escrito, en otros, de suerte que se establece una intercomunicación con teóricos siendo los más relevantes en el análisis: Follet, Weber, Foucault y Deleuze.
Schry, Amie R; White, Susan W
Many college students use alcohol, and most of these students experience problems related to their use. Emerging research indicates that socially anxious students face heightened risk of experiencing alcohol-related problems, although the extant research on alcohol use and social anxiety in this population has yielded inconsistent findings. This meta-analysis was conducted to examine the relationship between social anxiety and alcohol variables in college students. A literature search was used to identify studies on college students that included measures of social anxiety and at least one of the alcohol variables of interest. All analyses were conducted using random effects models. We found that social anxiety was negatively correlated with alcohol use variables (e.g., typical quantity and typical frequency), but significantly positively correlated with alcohol-related problems, coping, conformity, and social motives for alcohol use, and positive and negative alcohol outcome expectancies. Several moderators of effect sizes were found to be significant, including methodological factors such as sample ascertainment approach. Given that social anxiety was negatively related to alcohol use but positively related to alcohol-related problems, research is needed to address why individuals high in social anxiety experience more problems as a result of their alcohol use. Avoidance of social situations among socially anxious students should also be taken into account when measuring alcohol use. The primary limitation of this study is the small number of studies available for inclusion in some of the analyses. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The concept of social capital is becoming increasingly common in community psychology and elsewhere. However, the multiple conceptual and operational definitions of social capital challenge its utility as a theoretical tool. The goals of this paper are to clarify two forms of social capital (bridging and bonding), explicitly link them to the structural characteristics of small world networks, and explore the behavioral and ecological prerequisites of its formation. First, I use the tools of network science and specifically the concept of small-world networks to clarify what patterns of social relationships are likely to facilitate social capital formation. Second, I use an agent-based model to explore how different ecological characteristics (diversity and segregation) and behavioral tendencies (homophily and proximity) impact communities' potential for developing social capital. The results suggest diverse communities have the greatest potential to develop community social capital, and that segregation moderates the effects that the behavioral tendencies of homophily and proximity have on community social capital. The discussion highlights how these findings provide community-based researchers with both a deeper understanding of the contextual constraints with which they must contend, and a useful tool for targeting their efforts in communities with the greatest need or greatest potential.
Hall, Brian J; Tol, Wietse A; Jordans, Mark J D; Bass, Judith; de Jong, Joop T V M
Little is known about the role of cognitive social capital among war-affected youth in low- and middle-income countries. We examined the longitudinal association between cognitive social capital and mental health (depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms), functioning, and received social support of children in Burundi. Data were obtained from face-to-face interviews with 176 children over three measurement occasions over the span of 4-months. Cognitive social capital measured the degree to which children believed their community was trustworthy and cohesive. Mental health measures included the Depression Self-Rating Scale (DSRS) (Birleson, 1981), the Child Posttraumatic Symptom Scale (Foa et al., 2001), and a locally constructed scale of functional impairment. Children reported received social support by listing whether they received different types of social support from self-selected key individuals. Cross-lagged path analytic modeling evaluated relationships between cognitive social capital, symptoms and received support separately over baseline (T1), 6-week follow-up (T2), and 4-month follow-up (T3). Each concept was treated and analyzed as a continuous score using manifest indicators. Significant associations between study variables were unidirectional. Cognitive social capital was associated with decreased depression between T1 and T2 (B = -.22, p PTSD symptoms at either time point. Cognitive social capital was associated with increased social support between T1 and T2 (β = .16, p = .002) and T2 and T3 (β = .16, p = .002). In this longitudinal study, cognitive social capital was related to a declining trajectory of children's mental health problems and increases in social support. Interventions that improve community relations in war-affected communities may alter the trajectories of resource loss and gain with conflict-affected children. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hall, Brian J.; Tol, Wietse A.; Jordans, Mark J.D.; Bass, Judith; de Jong, Joop T.V.M.
Little is known about the role of cognitive social capital among war-affected youth in low- and middle-income countries. We examined the longitudinal association between cognitive social capital and mental health (depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms), functioning, and received social support of children in Burundi. Data were obtained from face-to-face interviews with 176 children over three measurement occasions over the span of 4-months. Cognitive social capital measured the degree to which children believed their community was trustworthy and cohesive. Mental health measures included the Depression Self-Rating Scale (DSRS) (Birleson, 1981), the Child Posttraumatic Symptom Scale (Foa, Johnson, & Feeny, 2001), and a locally constructed scale of functional impairment. Children reported received social support by listing whether they received different types of social support from self-selected key individuals. Cross-lagged path analytic modeling evaluated relationships between cognitive social capital, symptoms and received support separately over baseline (T1), 6-week follow-up (T2), and 4-month follow-up (T3). Each concept was treated and analyzed as a continuous score using manifest indicators. Significant associations between study variables were unidirectional. Cognitive social capital was associated with decreased depression between T1 and T2 (B=−0.22, pCognitive social capital was associated with increased social support between T1 and T2 (β=0.16, p=.002) and T2 and T3 (β=0.16, p=.002). In this longitudinal study, cognitive social capital was related to a declining trajectory of children’s mental health problems and increases in social support. Interventions that improve community relations in war-affected communities may alter the trajectories of resource loss and gain with conflict-affected children. PMID:24922609
Roberts-MacDonald, Miesha; Razack, Saleem
Social distance between patients and physicians has been shown to affect the quality of care that patients receive. Little is known about how social distance between students and patients is experienced by learners during early clinical exposures in medical school. This study aims to explore students' stories of experiencing social distance with patients with concordant and discordant social characteristics as themselves, respectively, as well as students' needs from medical curricula regarding developing social competence. Semi-structured interviews of medical students [n = 16] were performed, and a post-interview survey and a visual analog scale were completed. The interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed. The written transcripts were coded using the constant comparison method and analyzed for emerging themes. Students experience social distance with patients; yet, they are not taught explicitly by their preceptors how to manage these experiences. Students identified their needs for the curriculum in regard to developing social competence and proposed various strategies and curriculum recommendations. Our results support that students believe that social competence training is important for their professional development to improve relationship-building with diverse patients. As such, it would be valuable to incorporate student recommendations in the formation of a social competence curriculum.
Bisung, Elijah; Elliott, Susan J
In recent years, there has been considerable interest in social capital theory in both research and policy arenas. Social capital has been associated with many aspects of improvements in health, environment and development. This paper assesses the theoretical support for a social capital based analysis of environment and health issues with a focus on the water-health nexus in low and middle income countries. We review conceptualisation of social capital by Pierre Bourdieu in relation to his concepts of "fields" and "habitus" as well as other conceptualisations of social capital by James Coleman and Robert Putnam. We integrate these authors' ideas with ecosocial analysis of social and geographical patterns of access to safe water, adequate sanitation and hygiene and the resulting health impacts. Further, we develop a conceptual framework for linking social capital and health through the water-health nexus. The framework focuses on the role of social capital in improving water-related knowledge, attitudes and practices as well as facilitating collective action towards improving access to water and sanitation. The proposed framework will facilitate critical engagement with the pathways through which social processes and interactions influence health within the context of access to water, sanitation and hygiene in low and middle income countries. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Moonier III, James E; Baker, Spencer L; Greene, Mark L
.... The formation of effective partnerships is influenced greatly by trust. Trust sets the stage for necessary factors for collaboration such as social interaction, communication, negotiation, and cooperation...
Full Text Available This study examined the development of social-pragmatic comprehension in 170 Finnish four- to eight-year-old children. The children were asked to respond to socially and contextually demanding questions targeting their social-pragmatic language processing, and to explain their correct answers in order to elicit their awareness of how they had derived the answers from the context. The results showed that the number of correct answers increased especially between the ages of four and seven years. We found that questions demanding contextual processing without mind-reading were the easiest to understand, followed by questions demanding processing of feelings of others and false beliefs. The questions demanding understanding of relevant language use and processing of contextual factors including mental states and intentions were the most challenging for the children. Between four and five years of age there was a remarkable developmental phase in children’s ability to give proper explanations.
Karimi, Azadeh; Tulloch, Ayesha I T; Brown, Greg; Hockings, Marc
Conservation success is contingent on assessing social and environmental factors so that cost-effective implementation of strategies and actions can be placed in a broad social-ecological context. Until now, the focus has been on how to include spatially explicit social data in conservation planning, whereas the value of different kinds of social data has received limited attention. In a regional systematic conservation planning case study in Australia, we examined the spatial concurrence of a range of spatially explicit social values and land-use preferences collected using a public participation geographic information system and biological data. We used Zonation to integrate the social data with the biological data in a series of spatial-prioritization scenarios to determine the effect of the different types of social data on spatial prioritization compared with biological data alone. The type of social data (i.e., conservation opportunities or constraints) significantly affected spatial prioritization outcomes. The integration of social values and land-use preferences under different scenarios was highly variable and generated spatial prioritizations 1.2-51% different from those based on biological data alone. The inclusion of conservation-compatible values and preferences added relatively few new areas to conservation priorities, whereas including noncompatible economic values and development preferences as costs significantly changed conservation priority areas (48.2% and 47.4%, respectively). Based on our results, a multifaceted conservation prioritization approach that combines spatially explicit social data with biological data can help conservation planners identify the type of social data to collect for more effective and feasible conservation actions. © 2017 Society for Conservation Biology.
Tsay, Crystal Han-Huei
The contemporary business world demands adaptive individuals (Friedman & Wyman, 2005). Adaptation is essential for any life transition. It often involves developing coping mechanisms, strategies, and seeking of social support. Adaptation occurs in many settings from moving to a new culture, taking a new job, starting or finishing an…
Kristensen, Karen-Lis; Mørck, Line Lerche
This paper addresses some of the contradictions, dilemmas, and struggles in a Danish primary school practice involved in medicating children diagnosed with ADHD. It draws on a social practice research study of a 7-year-old boy diagnosed with ADHD, who was medicated against his will. It focuses on his struggles when being medicated, and…
Fiszdon, Joanna M; Roberts, David L; Penn, David L; Choi, Kee-Hong; Tek, Cenk; Choi, Jimmy; Bell, Morris D
In this proof-of-concept trial, we examined the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of Understanding Social Situations (USS), a new social-cognitive intervention that targets higher level social-cognitive skills using methods common to neurocognitive remediation, including drill and practice and hierarchically structured training, which may compensate for the negative effects of cognitive impairment on learning. Thirty-eight individuals with schizophrenia spectrum disorders completed the same baseline assessment of cognitive and social-cognitive functioning twice over a 1-month period to minimize later practice effects, then received 7-10 sessions of USS training, and then completed the same assessment again at posttreatment. USS training was well tolerated and received high treatment satisfaction ratings. Large improvements on the USS Skills Test, which contained items similar to but not identical to training stimuli, suggest that we were effective in teaching specific training content. Content gains generalized to improvements on some of the social-cognitive tasks, including select measures of attributional bias and theory of mind. Importantly, baseline neurocognition did not impact the amount of learning during USS (as indexed by the USS Skills Test) or the amount of improvement on social-cognitive measures. USS shows promise as a treatment for higher level social-cognitive skills. Given the lack of relationship between baseline cognition and treatment effects, it may be particularly appropriate for individuals with lower range cognitive function. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Deng, Zhaohua; Liu, Shan
This study integrates the risk perception attitude framework and social support to examine factors influencing consumers' intentions to seek health information in mobile social media websites. We develop a research model consisting of four social support dimensions, perceived health risk, health self-efficacy, and health information-seeking intention. A survey is conducted among patients with non-serious conditions. A two-step approach of structural equation modeling is used to test the research model. Among the four dimensions of social support, tangible support and appraisal support significantly influence perceived risk, whereas emotional support and esteem support significantly influence health self-efficacy. Perceived health risk and health self-efficacy significantly influence the health information-seeking behavior intention of consumers. Specifically, health self-efficacy significantly moderates the relationship between perceived risk and behavior intention. This study highlights the integrated effects of social capital and risk perception attitude framework on health information-seeking intention. It examines relationships among perceived health risk, health self-efficacy, and behavior intention in the mobile social media context. The findings help understand effects of social capital factors on perceived health risk and health self-efficacy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Heslinga, Jasper; Groote, Peter D.; Vanclay, Francis
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to look at the potential synergies between tourism and landscapes and examine the potential contribution of tourism to build social-ecological resilience in the Dutch Wadden. Design/methodology/approach The authors reveal how a social-ecological systems
Hall, B.J.; Tol, W.A.; Jordans, M.J.D.; Bass, J.; de Jong, J.T.V.M.
Little is known about the role of cognitive social capital among war-affected youth in low- and middle-income countries. We examined the longitudinal association between cognitive social capital and mental health (depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms), functioning, and
Daniel T Blumstein
Full Text Available Social interactions among conspecifics are a fundamental and adaptively significant component of the biology of numerous species. Such interactions give rise to group living as well as many of the complex forms of cooperation and conflict that occur within animal groups. Although previous conceptual models have focused on the ecological causes and fitness consequences of variation in social interactions, recent developments in endocrinology, neuroscience, and molecular genetics offer exciting opportunities to develop more integrated research programs that will facilitate new insights into the physiological causes and consequences of social variation. Here, we propose an integrative framework of social behavior that emphasizes relationships between ultimate-level function and proximate-level mechanism, thereby providing a foundation for exploring the full diversity of factors that underlie variation in social interactions, and ultimately sociality. In addition to identifying new model systems for the study of human psychopathologies, this framework provides a mechanistic basis for predicting how social behavior will change in response to environmental variation. We argue that the study of non-model organisms is essential for implementing this integrative model of social behavior because such species can be studied simultaneously in the lab and field, thereby allowing integration of rigorously controlled experimental manipulations with detailed observations of the ecological contexts in which interactions among conspecifics occur.
Xie, Bo; Watkins, Ivan; Golbeck, Jen; Huang, Man
An exploratory study was conducted to answer the following questions: What are older adults' perceptions of social media? What educational strategies can facilitate their learning of social media? A thematic map was developed to illustrate changing perceptions from the initial unanimous, strong negative to the more positive but cautious, and to…
Eisenberger, Naomi I; Way, Baldwin M; Taylor, Shelley E; Welch, William T; Lieberman, Matthew D
Although research indicates a relationship between the monoamine oxidase-A (MAOA) gene and aggression, the intervening neural and psychological mechanisms are unknown. Individuals with the low expression allele (MAOA-L) of a functional polymorphism in the MAOA gene might be prone to aggression because they are socially or emotionally hyposensitive and thus care less about harming others or because they are socially or emotionally hypersensitive and thus respond to negative social experiences with defensively aggressive behavior. We investigated the relationships between the MAOA polymorphism, trait aggression, trait interpersonal hypersensitivity, and neural responses to social exclusion in 32 healthy men and women. The MAOA-L individuals (men and women) reported higher trait aggression than individuals with the high expression allele (MAOA-H). The MAOA-L individuals reported higher trait interpersonal hypersensitivity and showed greater dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) activity (associated with rejection-related distress) to social exclusion compared with MAOA-H individuals, consistent with a social hypersensitivity hypothesis. Moreover, the MAOA-aggression relationship was mediated by greater dACC reactivity to social exclusion, suggesting that MAOA might relate to aggression through socioemotional hypersensitivity. These data suggest that the relationship between MAOA and aggression might be due to a heightened rather than a reduced sensitivity to negative socioemotional experiences like social rejection.
Blumstein, Daniel T.; Ebensperger, Luis A.; Hayes, Loren D.; Vásquez, Rodrigo A.; Ahern, Todd H.; Burger, Joseph Robert; Dolezal, Adam G.; Dosmann, Andy; González-Mariscal, Gabriela; Harris, Breanna N.; Herrera, Emilio A.; Lacey, Eileen A.; Mateo, Jill; McGraw, Lisa A.; Olazábal, Daniel; Ramenofsky, Marilyn; Rubenstein, Dustin R.; Sakhai, Samuel A.; Saltzman, Wendy; Sainz-Borgo, Cristina; Soto-Gamboa, Mauricio; Stewart, Monica L.; Wey, Tina W.; Wingfield, John C.; Young, Larry J.
Social interactions among conspecifics are a fundamental and adaptively significant component of the biology of numerous species. Such interactions give rise to group living as well as many of the complex forms of cooperation and conflict that occur within animal groups. Although previous conceptual models have focused on the ecological causes and fitness consequences of variation in social interactions, recent developments in endocrinology, neuroscience, and molecular genetics offer exciting opportunities to develop more integrated research programs that will facilitate new insights into the physiological causes and consequences of social variation. Here, we propose an integrative framework of social behavior that emphasizes relationships between ultimate-level function and proximate-level mechanism, thereby providing a foundation for exploring the full diversity of factors that underlie variation in social interactions, and ultimately sociality. In addition to identifying new model systems for the study of human psychopathologies, this framework provides a mechanistic basis for predicting how social behavior will change in response to environmental variation. We argue that the study of non-model organisms is essential for implementing this integrative model of social behavior because such species can be studied simultaneously in the lab and field, thereby allowing integration of rigorously controlled experimental manipulations with detailed observations of the ecological contexts in which interactions among conspecifics occur. PMID:20661457
Ali, Saba Rasheed; Fall, Kevin; Hoffman, Tina
Unemployment is a stark reality in today's economic climate, and many Americans report a fear of loss or decrease in social status as a result of unexpected unemployment. Despite vocational psychology's emphasis on work as a domain of life, very little exploration on how social class shifts impact workers has been conducted. One way to rectify the…
Ahlers, Kaitlyn P.; Gabrielsen, Terisa P.; Lewis, Danielle; Brady, Anna M.; Litchford, April
Core deficits in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) center around social communication and behavior. For those with ASD, these deficits complicate the task of learning how to cope with and manage complex social emotional issues. Although individuals with ASD may receive sufficient academic and basic behavioral support in school settings, supports for…
Full Text Available Despite the global diffusion of the term social inclusion, as well as the use of sport to promote it, questions have been raised regarding the extent to which sport is able to contribute to transforming the exclusive nature of the social structure. The lack of analytical clarity of the concept has not helped to address these questions. This article proposes a conceptual framework based on Amartya Sen’s capability approach, considering social exclusion as the denial of social relations that leads to serious deprivation of important capabilities. A person’s capabilities could potentially be improved through micro-, meso-, and macro-level social processes. At the micro level, sport-based social inclusion programmes could offer such social relations to varying degrees, though sport’s values are only relative to other leisure activities. The scale of impact depends primarily on the meso-level processes, in which the size and quality of each programme can be improved through organisational learning, and secondarily on the macro-level processes whereby the organisational population is institutionalised. It is argued that more research needs to be done on the meso and macro levels, as they are concerned with the ultimate potential of sport to facilitate structural transformation towards more socially inclusive society.
Brett J. Butler; Mary Tyrrell; Geoff Feinberg; Scott VanManen; Larry Wiseman; Scott Wallinger
Social marketing--the use of commercial marketing techniques to effect positive social change--is a promising means by which to develop more effective and efficient outreach, policies, and services for family forest owners. A hierarchical, multivariate analysis based on landowners' attitudes reveals four groups of owners to whom programs can be tailored: woodland...
Crain, Marcelle M.; Finch, Cambra L.; Foster, Sharon L.
Two studies examined whether social information-processing variables predict relational aggression in girls. In Study 1, fourth- through sixth-grade girls reported their intent attributions, social goals, outcome expectancies for relational aggression, and the likelihood that they would choose a relationally aggressive response in response to…
From the perspective of evolutionary psychology music can be seen as problematic. Despite its ubiquity there is still no clearly agreed function in terms of improving the fitness of the species. Is it therefore fairer to judge it as 'auditory cheesecake' (see ) rather than attributing it with any specific purpose? An alternative argument is that it plays a fundamental role in the formation of human social bonds, and the authors of ;Music, empathy, and cultural understanding; concur with the view that music has a unique capacity to help people connect with others . There is now evidence that even in the modern world there is a significant effect of our social bonds on health and longevity , suggesting that our hominid ancestors might have relied heavily on their social network for survival. If music has the capacity to encourage the formation of these social bonds it could form a powerful tool in the success of our species.
Marsh, Ben; Milofsky, Carl; Kissam, Edward; Arcury, Thomas A
Differences in social advantage significantly influence health conditions and life expectancy within any population. Such factors reproduce historic class, race, and ethnic disparities in community success. Few populations in the United States face more social and economic disadvantage than farmworkers, and farmworker housing has significant potential to ameliorate or amplify the health impact of those disadvantages. Drawing on the limited direct research on farmworkers, and on additional research about poor, isolated, and immigrant societies, we propose four mechanisms through which housing can be expected to affect farmworker health: quality of social capital within farmworker communities, stress effects of poor housing situations, effects of housing on social support for healthy behaviors, and interactions among these factors, especially effects on children that can last for generations. Policy and planning definitions of "adequate" farmworker housing should take a more holistic view of housing needs to support specific social and community benefits in design decisions. © The Author(s) 2015.
Nakano, Akiko; Shimomura, Tatsuo
Many studies have shown that lesions of the dominant thalamus precipitate language disorders in a similar manner to transcortical aphasias, in a phenomenon known as "thalamic aphasia." In some cases, however, aphasia may not occur or may appear transiently following thalamic lesions. Furthermore, dominant thalamic lesions can produce changes in character, as observed in patients with amnesic disorder. Previous work has explored the utility of thalamic aphasia as a discriminative feature for classification of aphasia. Although the thalamus may be involved in the function of the brainstem reticular activating system and play a role in attentional network and in memory of Papez circuit or Yakovlev circuit, the mechanism by which thalamic lesion leads to the emergence of aphasic disorders is unclear. In this review, we we survey historical and recent literature on thalamic aphasia in an attempt to understand the neural processes affected by thalamic lesions.
Inheritance - sex-linked dominant; Genetics - sex-linked dominant; X-linked dominant; Y-linked dominant ... can be either an autosomal chromosome or a sex chromosome. It also depends on whether the trait ...
O'Brien, Kerry S; Shovelton, Heather; Latner, Janet D
We examined levels of, and reasons for, anti-gay and anti-lesbian prejudice (homophobia) in pre-service physical education (PE) and non-physical education (non-PE) university students. Participants (N = 409; 66% female; N = 199 pre-service physical educators) completed questionnaires assessing anti-gay and lesbian prejudice, authoritarianism, social dominance orientation (SDO), physical/athletic identity and self-concept, and physical attributes. ANCOVAs revealed that PE students had higher levels of anti-gay (p = .004) and lesbian prejudice than non-PE students (p = .008), respectively. Males reported greater anti-gay prejudice (p Authoritarian aggression was positively associated with greater anti-gay (β = .49) and lesbian prejudice (β = .37) among male participants. Among females, higher authoritarian aggression and SDO was associated with greater anti-gay (β = .34 and β = .25, respectively) and lesbian (β = .26 and β = .16, respectively) prejudice. The physical identity-related constructs of athletic self-concept (β = .-15) and perceived upper body strength (β = .39) were associated with anti-gay attitudes among male participants. Physical attractiveness (β = -.29) and upper body strength (β = .29) were also associated with male participants' anti-lesbian prejudice. Regression analyses showed that the differences between PE and non-PE students in anti-gay and lesbian prejudice were largely mediated by authoritarianism and SDO. The present study is the first to examine the relationship between investment in physical/sporting identity and attributes and anti-gay and lesbian prejudice in PE/sport participants. In the present sample, anti-gay and lesbian prejudice was greater in pre-service PE students than non-PE students, but these differences appear to be explained by differences in conservative ideological traits. Additionally, physical identity and athletic attributes based around masculine
Han, Kyungsik; Volkova, Svitlana; Corley, Courtney D.
Research indicates positive effects of social media in academia and education. However its main populations have been faculty, teachers, high school or college students, and its primary contexts have been course or classroom settings. We realized there exists a lack of studies on how Ph.D. (broadly graduate) students use social media for academic purposes and how its use is associated with academic motivation, engagement, and satisfaction, which are salient factors for the success of their graduate degrees and life. Based on the survey responses from 91 current Ph.D. students, our study results highlight that (1) students mainly use social media for broadcasting and keeping up with up-to-date academic and research information; yet, making connections and developing professional networks is one of the primary reasons, and (2) social media use is positively associated with their academic engagement and satisfaction. We discuss implications and future work of our study.
Spiro, Emma S; Monroy-Hernández, Andrés
In this paper we examine two protests characterized by substantial social media presence and distributed participation frameworks via two core questions: what roles did organizations and individuals play, and how did participants' social interactions change over the course of the protests? To answer these questions, we analyzed a large Twitter activity dataset for the #YoSoy132 student uprising in Mexico and Brazil's "bus rebellion." Results indicate that individuals initially took prominence at the protests but faded in importance as the movements dwindled and organizations took over. Regarding the dynamics and structure of the interactions, we found that key time points with unique social structures often map to exogenous events such as coordinated protests in physical locations. Our results have important consequences for the visibility of such social movements and their ability to attract continued participation by individuals and organizations.
O'Connor, Mary Katherine; Netting, F. Ellen
... and development to implementation. Approaching the topic from an analytical and research-based perspective, the authors help readers make better, informed choices for successfully dealing with the complexities of social policy...
Higher education literature has focused narrowly on social responsibility to the exclusion of personal responsibility. This chapter challenges higher education researchers and practitioners to include behaviors related to personal responsibility in their research and educational agendas.
Verhoef, Lise M; Van de Belt, Tom H; Engelen, Lucien J L P G; Schoonhoven, Lisette; Kool, Rudolf B
Insight into the quality of health care is important for any stakeholder including patients, professionals, and governments. In light of a patient-centered approach, it is essential to assess the quality of health care from a patient's perspective, which is commonly done with surveys or focus groups. Unfortunately, these "traditional" methods have significant limitations that include social desirability bias, a time lag between experience and measurement, and difficulty reaching large groups of people. Information on social media could be of value to overcoming these limitations, since these new media are easy to use and are used by the majority of the population. Furthermore, an increasing number of people share health care experiences online or rate the quality of their health care provider on physician rating sites. The question is whether this information is relevant to determining or predicting the quality of health care. The goal of our research was to systematically analyze the relation between information shared on social media and quality of care. We performed a scoping review with the following goals: (1) to map the literature on the association between social media and quality of care, (2) to identify different mechanisms of this relationship, and (3) to determine a more detailed agenda for this relatively new research area. A recognized scoping review methodology was used. We developed a search strategy based on four themes: social media, patient experience, quality, and health care. Four online scientific databases were searched, articles were screened, and data extracted. Results related to the research question were described and categorized according to type of social media. Furthermore, national and international stakeholders were consulted throughout the study, to discuss and interpret results. Twenty-nine articles were included, of which 21 were concerned with health care rating sites. Several studies indicate a relationship between information
Centelles, L; Assaiante, C; Etchegoyhen, K; Bouvard, M; Schmitz, C
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterized by difficulties in social interaction and verbal and non verbal reciprocal communication. Face and gaze direction, which participate in non verbal communication, are described as atypical in ASD. Also body movements carry multiple social cues. Under certain circumstances, for instance when seeing two persons from far, they constitute the only support that allows the grasping of a social content. Here, we investigated the contribution of whole-body motion processing in social understanding. The aim of the study was to evaluate whether children with ASD make use of information carried by body motion to categorize dynamic visual scenes that portrayed social interactions. In 1973, Johansson devised a technique for studying the perception of biological motion that minimizes static form information from the stimulus, but retains motion information. In these point-light displays, the movement figure, such as a body, is represented by a small number of illuminated dots positioned to highlight the motion of the body parts. We used Johansson's model to explore the ability of children with ASD to understand social interactions based on human movement analysis. Three-second silent point-light displays were created by videotaping two actors. The two actors were either interacting together or moving side by side without interacting. A large range of social interaction displays were used to cover social scenes depicting social norms (conventional gestures and courteous attitudes), emotional situations (carrying positive or negative valences) and scenes from games (sports, dance, etc.). Children were asked to carefully watch the stimuli and to classify them according to the question "Are the two persons communicating or not?". Four sessions of 3 minutes were performed by each child. Children with ASD were compared with typically developing control children matched with either non verbal mental age or chronological age. Response and
Manoochehri, Houman; Lolaty, Hamideh Azimi; Hassani, Parkhideh; Arbon, Paul; Shorofi, Seyed Afshin
This study aimed to explore the role of social capital within the context of the nursing profession in Iran, based on the experience and perspectives of senior nursing managers. The study was conducted using the Graneheim and Lundman content analysis method. Using purposive sampling, 26 senior nursing managers from the Ministry of Health and Medical Education, the College of Nursing and Midwifery, the Iranian Nursing Organization, nursing associations and hospitals were selected, who participated in semi-structured in-depth interviews. Content analysis revealed three main themes (social capital deficit, applying multiple strategies, and cultivating social capital) as well as eight categories which included professional remoteness, deficiency in professional potency, deficiency in professional exchanges, accumulation of personal social capital, accumulation of professional social capital, socio-political strategies, psychological-cognitive strategies, and ethical/spiritual strategies. The results show the perceived level of social capital in nursing in Iran, the application of some key strategies, and the principal rewards accrued from active participation in improving the social capital in nursing environment and profession. Efforts should be made to strengthen the social capital and apply key strategies with the aim of achieving personal and professional benefits for nurses, their patients, and co-workers, and for the delivery of healthcare in general. In this respect, the role of senior managers is vital in stimulating collective action within the profession, planning for the development of a culture of participation in healthcare services, helping to develop all fields of the profession, and developing and strengthening intra- and inter-professional exchanges and networking.
Academic social networking sites (SNS) seek to bring the benefits of online networking to an academic audience. Currently, the two largest sites are Academia.edu and ResearchGate. The ability to make connections to others is a defining affordance of SNS, but what are the characteristics of the network structures being facilitated by academic SNS, and how does this relate to their professional use by academics?\\ud \\ud This study addressed this question through mixed methods social network anal...
The goal of this study is to provide an illustrative framework for synthesizing derived from a growing body of crucial studies on parental emotional socialization behaviors and processes with regard to children’s emotional competence. This explanatory perspective has also been tried to be established with other relevant parental characteristics. Explaining the parental emotional socialization behaviors are firstly established upon the parental styles which is one of the basic conc...
Hogan, John; Timoney, Nicola
Read before the society, 14 January 2016 Employing the critical juncture theory (CJT), a discursive institutionalist approach, this paper examines the nature of the changes to social partnership policy at the end of the decade of the 2000s. Did these changes constitute a transformation in social partnership policy, or were they a continuation of a previously established policy pathway? The CJT consists of three elements – economic crisis, ideational change, and the nature of the policy cha...
Tikka, Pia; Vaeljamaee, Aleksander; de Borst, Aline W.; Pugliese, Roberto; Ravaja, Niklas; Kaipainen, Mauri; Takala, Tapio
We outline general theoretical and practical implications of what we promote as enactive cinema for the neuroscientific study of online socio-emotional interaction. In a real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (rt-fMRI) setting, participants are immersed in cinematic experiences that simulate social situations. While viewing, their physiological reactions—including brain responses—are tracked, representing implicit and unconscious experiences of the on-going social situations. These r...
Ballmann, J. E.; Bohon, W.; Bartel, B. A.
The clear, timely communication of natural hazards information is critical to providing the public with the tools and information they need to make informed decisions before, during, and after events such as earthquakes, tsunamis, and volcanic eruptions. For the geohazards community, this is a multi-sector collaboration involving partners from national, state, and local governments, businesses, educational organizations, non-profit groups, and scientific institutions, for the benefit and participation of the whole community. Communications channels must be clear, consistent, and unified for the sake of maximum reach. One method of public communication that has proven to be particularly effective in disseminating hazards-related information is social media. The broad social and geographic reach of social media coupled with its ubiquitous use in all age groups makes it a powerful way to reach large segments of the population. Social media is already widely used by mass media and scientific organizations to communicate science and hazards. However, it is important that science organizations present a united and clear message, particularly about hazards preparation and response. The Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC), UNAVCO, and the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS) have created a Joint Social Media Task Force. The objective of this collaboration is 1) to build social media communities and improve the reach of science messaging, 2) to create and present consistent and clear messaging across social media platforms and regional facilities, 3) to promote outstanding products and educational information , 4) to assist and collaborate in regional, national and international efforts (TweetChats, Reddit fora, ShakeOut, etc.) and 5) to assist and support the efforts of FEMA, the USGS and other partner organizations during crisis situations. Here, we outline the difficulties and successes of creating such an alliance and provide a road map
Pérez-Bustos, Tania; Franco Avellaneda, Manuel; Lozano Borda, Marcela; Falla, Sigrid; Papagayo, Diana
Is aimed at broadening Colombia's understanding of the social appropriation of science and technology, particularly the types of actors who promote initiatives in this sphere. Using a chain referral sampling methodology, a hundred such initiatives in Colombia were identified and documented, which were promoted by civil society, the State, business, the research community and mediators. The article further analyzes these iniciatives and indicates the challenges they represent, especially in breaking down the traditional approach to the social appropriation of science and technology in Colombia and replacing it with more participative strategies.
Brockie, Lauren; Miller, Evonne
The purpose of this study was to explore how social capital or the impact of life and previous disaster experience facilitated resilience in older adults who experienced the 2011 and 2013 floods in Brisbane, Australia. Data were drawn from in-depth interviews of 10 older adults from Brisbane who were evacuated in both the 2011 and 2013 floods. A combined qualitative approach drawing from the methods of constructivist grounded theory and narrative inquiry was applied and the data were analyzed by using (inductive) line-by-line and axial coding. The narratives of the older adults revealed a strong theme of resilience linked to social capital (bonding, bridging, and linking) and previous disaster experience. The results reflected the changing face of disaster management strategies and sources of social capital. Changes in disaster management polices (toward self-reliance) and more formalized sources of social capital highlight the need to build strong and healthy resilient communities that are capable of positively recovering from natural disasters. The results from this research emphasize the importance of initiatives that enhance social cohesion, trust, and social capital within local communities. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:72-79).
A dominating set in a graph G is a set S of vertices of G such that every vertex not in S is adjacent to a vertex of S. The domination number of G is the minimum cardinality of a dominating set of G. For a positive integer b, a set S of vertices in a graph G is a b-disjunctive dominating set in G if every vertex v not in S is adjacent ...
Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this work is to confront the social expectations of the TTIP, and how it effects the so-called "expert knowledge". Defining a mismatch between the social expectations and expert knowledge may contribute to better understanding of the controversies related to the TTIP. Using the NAFTA case study, we investigate if there is a significant gap between ex-ante and ex-post analysis of the Free Trade Agreement (FTA. Design/methodology/approach: We rely on Eurobarometer (2014, 2015 and Bertelsmann Foundation (2016 surveys to describe the TTIP-related social expectations. We make a critical overview of the global CGE models, which are the main source of ex-ante estimations of TTIP macro effects. We also use the NAFTA case study as a TTIP reference point that allows for a comparison of ex-ante with ex-post analysis results. Findings: Social expectations regarding the economic effects of the TTIP are ambiguous on both sides of the Atlantic. The CGE models have many limiting assumptions. They are, however, a useful tool for exploring the effects of the TTIP, bearing in mind all restrictions and limitations of ex-ante analyses. The NAFTA case study indicates that most ex-ante models tend to overestimate benefits and underestimate disadvantages arising from free trade. Research limitations/implications: Many such surveys have been conducted recently. The results should be developed upon, for a more detailed, country-specific and time variant understanding of possible sources of social conflicts in the context of the TTIP (or FTA implementation. Originality/value: The analysis tends to prove the existence of a mismatch between social and expert knowledge on the TTIP, which may result in generating social conflicts. A practical and original outcome of our work is a well-supported recommendation to make the TTIP realistic effects much more transparent to the public, which should be important to those supporting the TTIP (and generally
Price, Sheri Lynn; Aston, Megan; Monaghan, Joelle; Sim, Meaghan; Tomblin Murphy, Gail; Etowa, Josephine; Pickles, Michelle; Hunter, Andrea; Little, Victoria
The postpartum period is an exciting yet stressful time for first-time mothers, and although the experience may vary, all mothers need support during this crucial period. In Canada, there has been a shift for universal postpartum services to be offered predominantly online. However, due to a paucity of literature, it is difficult to determine the degree to which mothers' needs are being effectively addressed. The aim of this study was to examine and understand how first-time mothers accessed support and information (online and offline) during the first 6 months of their postpartum period. Using feminist poststructuralism methodology, data were collected from focus groups and e-interviews, and analyzed using discourse analysis. Findings indicate that peer support is greatly valued, and mothers often use social media to make in-person social connections. Findings highlight how accessing support and information is socially and institutionally constructed and provide direction for health professionals to provide accessible postpartum care.
Simone P.W. Haller
Full Text Available Social anxiety disorder represents a debilitating condition that has large adverse effects on the quality of social connections, educational achievement and wellbeing. Age-of-onset data suggests that early adolescence is a developmentally sensitive juncture for the onset of social anxiety. In this review, we highlight the potential of using a developmental cognitive neuroscience approach to understand (i why there are normative increases in social worries in adolescence and (ii how adolescence-associated changes may ‘bring out’ neuro-cognitive risk factors for social anxiety in a subset of individuals during this developmental period. We also speculate on how changes that occur in learning and plasticity may allow for optimal acquisition of more adaptive neurocognitive strategies through external interventions. Hence, for the minority of individuals who require external interventions to target their social fears, this enhanced flexibility could result in more powerful and longer-lasting therapeutic effects. We will review two novel interventions that target information-processing biases and their neural substrates via cognitive training and visual feedback of neural activity measured through functional magnetic resonance imaging.
Haller, Simone P W; Cohen Kadosh, Kathrin; Scerif, Gaia; Lau, Jennifer Y F
Social anxiety disorder represents a debilitating condition that has large adverse effects on the quality of social connections, educational achievement and wellbeing. Age-of-onset data suggests that early adolescence is a developmentally sensitive juncture for the onset of social anxiety. In this review, we highlight the potential of using a developmental cognitive neuroscience approach to understand (i) why there are normative increases in social worries in adolescence and (ii) how adolescence-associated changes may 'bring out' neuro-cognitive risk factors for social anxiety in a subset of individuals during this developmental period. We also speculate on how changes that occur in learning and plasticity may allow for optimal acquisition of more adaptive neurocognitive strategies through external interventions. Hence, for the minority of individuals who require external interventions to target their social fears, this enhanced flexibility could result in more powerful and longer-lasting therapeutic effects. We will review two novel interventions that target information-processing biases and their neural substrates via cognitive training and visual feedback of neural activity measured through functional magnetic resonance imaging. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Baum, Fran; Graycar, Adam; Delany-Crowe, Toni; de Leeuw, Evelyne; Bacchi, Carol; Popay, Jennie; Orchard, Lionel; Colebatch, Hal; Friel, Sharon; MacDougall, Colin; Harris, Elizabeth; Lawless, Angela; McDermott, Dennis; Fisher, Matthew; Harris, Patrick; Phillips, Clare; Fitzgerald, Jane
There is strong, and growing, evidence documenting health inequities across the world. However, most governments do not prioritize policies to encourage action on the social determinants of health and health equity. Furthermore, despite evidence concerning the benefits of joined-up, intersectoral policy to promote health and health equity, it is rare for such policy approaches to be applied systematically. To examine the usefulness of political and social science theory in understanding the reasons for this disjuncture between evidence and practice, researchers and public servants gathered in Adelaide for an Academy of the Social Sciences in Australia (ASSA) Workshop. This paper draws together the learnings that emerged from the Workshop, including key messages about the usefulness of various theories as well as insights drawn from policy practice. Discussions during the Workshop highlighted that applying multiple theories is particularly helpful in directing attention to, and understanding, the influence of all stages of the policy process; from the construction and framing of policy problems, to the implementation of policy and evaluation of outcomes, including those outcomes that may be unintended. In addition, the Workshop emphasized the value of collaborations among public health researchers, political and social scientists and public servants to open up critical discussion about the intersections between theory, research evidence and practice. Such critique is vital to render visible the processes through which particular sources of knowledge may be privileged over others and to examine how political and bureaucratic environments shape policy proposals and implementation action.
Abdelzaher, Tarek; Roy, Heather; Wang, Shiguang; Giridhar, Prasanna; Al Amin, Md. Tanvir; Bowman, Elizabeth K.; Kolodny, Michael A.
Signal processing techniques such as filtering, detection, estimation and frequency domain analysis have long been applied to extract information from noisy sensor data. This paper describes the exploitation of these signal processing techniques to extract information from social networks, such as Twitter and Instagram. Specifically, we view social networks as noisy sensors that report events in the physical world. We then present a data processing stack for detection, localization, tracking, and veracity analysis of reported events using social network data. We show using a controlled experiment that the behavior of social sources as information relays varies dramatically depending on context. In benign contexts, there is general agreement on events, whereas in conflict scenarios, a significant amount of collective filtering is introduced by conflicted groups, creating a large data distortion. We describe signal processing techniques that mitigate such distortion, resulting in meaningful approximations of actual ground truth, given noisy reported observations. Finally, we briefly present an implementation of the aforementioned social network data processing stack in a sensor network analysis toolkit, called Apollo. Experiences with Apollo show that our techniques are successful at identifying and tracking credible events in the physical world.
Lawless, Angela; Lane, Anna; Lewis, Felicity-Ann; Baum, Fran; Harris, Patrick
To examine the awareness and perceptions of local government staff about the social determinants of health (SDoH) and health inequity and use of these ideas to shape policy and practice. 96 staff at 17 councils in South Australia or New South Wales responded to questions in a pilot online survey concerning: sources of knowledge about, familiarity with the evidence on, attitudes towards, and uses of ideas about the social determinants of health. Eight of 68 SA councils and 16 of 152 NSW councils were randomly selected stratified by state and metropolitan status. Differences between states and metropolitan/non-metropolitan status were explored. The majority of respondents (88.4%) reported some familiarity with ideas about the broad determinants of health and 90% agreed that the impact of policy action on health determinants should be considered in all major government policy and planning initiatives. Research articles, government/professional reports, and professional contacts were rated as important sources of knowledge about the social determinants of health. Resources need to be dedicated to systematic research on practical implementation of interventions on social determinants of health inequities and towards providing staff with more practical information about interventions and tools to evaluate those interventions. The findings suggest there is support for action addressing the social determinants of health in local government. The findings extend similar research regarding SDoH and government in NZ and Canada to Australian local government. © 2016 Public Health Association of Australia.
Despite previous research suggesting that social class influences experiences of and attitudes to abortion, there is a dearth of research which studies the intersection of abortion and social class in England. Across the UK, abortion rates and experiences differ by region and socio-economic status, reflecting broader health inequalities. Contemporary austerity in the UK creates an imperative for new research which contextualises the experience of abortion within this socio-historical moment, and the worsening inequalities which have accompanied it. Whilst work on abortion and social inequality exists, it has often approached class as an a priori category. I argue that contemporary post-structural work on class provides a framework to go beyond this approach by examining how these social classifications occur; who has the power to classify; and how these classifications might be resisted. This framework is demonstrated with emerging findings from a life history study of abortion experiences in England. The applications of this to the work on abortion are potentially rich, because the act of ending a pregnancy invites classification from many quarters, from the legal (legal/illegal) to the medical (early/late) to the moral (deserved/undeserved). This work, therefore, speaks to public health concerns about access to and stigma around abortion and social inequalities.
Ari, I. R. D.; Hasyim, A. W.; Pratama, B. A.; Helmy, M.; Sheilla, M. N.
Poverty is a problem that requires attention from the government especially in developing countries such as Indonesia. This Research takes Place at Kasembon District because it has 53,19% family below poverty line in the region. The purpose of this research is to measure poverty based on 3 poverty indicators published by World Bank and 1 multidimensional poverty index. Furthermore, this research invesitigas the relationship between poverty with social and infrastructure in Kasembon District. This study using social network analysis, hot spots analysis, and regression analysis with ordinary least squares. From the poverty indicators known that Pondokagung Village has the highest poverty rate compared to another region. Results from regression model indicate that social and infrastructure affecting poverty in Kasembon District. Social parameter that affecting poverty is density. Infrastructure parameter that affecting poverty is length of paved road. Coefficient value of density is the largest in the model. Therefore it can be concluded that social factors can give more opportunity to reduce poverty rates in Kasembon District. In the local model of paved road coefficient, it is known that the coefficient for each village has not much different value from the global model.
In this study, we leverage human evaluations, content analysis, and computational modeling to generate a comprehensive analysis of readers' evaluations of authors' communication quality in social media with respect to four factors: author credibility, interpersonal attraction, communication competence, and intent to interact. We review previous research on the human evaluation process and highlight its limitations in providing sufficient information for readers to assess authors' communication quality. From our analysis of the evaluations of 1,000 Twitter authors' communication quality from 300 human evaluators, we provide empirical evidence of the impact of the characteristics of the reader (demographic, social media experience, and personality), author (profile and social media engagement), and content (linguistic, syntactic, similarity, and sentiment) on the evaluation of an author's communication quality. In addition, based on the author and message characteristics, we demonstrate the potential for building accurate models that can indicate an author's communication quality.
In this study, we leverage human evaluations, content analysis, and computational modeling to generate a comprehensive analysis of readers’ evaluations of authors’ communication quality in social media with respect to four factors: author credibility, interpersonal attraction, communication competence, and intent to interact. We review previous research on the human evaluation process and highlight its limitations in providing sufficient information for readers to assess authors’ communication quality. From our analysis of the evaluations of 1,000 Twitter authors’ communication quality from 300 human evaluators, we provide empirical evidence of the impact of the characteristics of the reader (demographic, social media experience, and personality), author (profile and social media engagement), and content (linguistic, syntactic, similarity, and sentiment) on the evaluation of an author’s communication quality. In addition, based on the author and message characteristics, we demonstrate the potential for building accurate models that can indicate an author’s communication quality. PMID:29389979
Full Text Available In this study, we leverage human evaluations, content analysis, and computational modeling to generate a comprehensive analysis of readers' evaluations of authors' communication quality in social media with respect to four factors: author credibility, interpersonal attraction, communication competence, and intent to interact. We review previous research on the human evaluation process and highlight its limitations in providing sufficient information for readers to assess authors' communication quality. From our analysis of the evaluations of 1,000 Twitter authors' communication quality from 300 human evaluators, we provide empirical evidence of the impact of the characteristics of the reader (demographic, social media experience, and personality, author (profile and social media engagement, and content (linguistic, syntactic, similarity, and sentiment on the evaluation of an author's communication quality. In addition, based on the author and message characteristics, we demonstrate the potential for building accurate models that can indicate an author's communication quality.
Emery, Clifton R; Nguyen, Hai Trung; Kim, Jaeyop
This study aimed to understand the role of low self-control, stress, depression, experience of intimate partner violence (IPV) and child abuse, and social support and child care support in the etiology of child abuse and neglect in Hanoi, Vietnam. The study estimated the prevalence of child maltreatment in a randomly selected, representative cluster sample of 269 Hanoi families. Among these families, 21% reported severe abuse of their children in the past year, 12% reported neglect. Low self-control was found to be strongly associated with child abuse. Life stressors were found to be strongly associated with neglect, but only indirectly with child abuse. Counter-intuitively, a positive interaction between social support and low self-control was found, suggesting that social support of parents low in self-control is associated with more maltreatment. Implications for research, intervention, and criminological theory are discussed.
Lohiniva, Anna L.; Mokhtar, Alaa; Azer, Ashraf; Elmoghazy, Esaam; Kamal, Eman; Benkirane, Manal; Dueger, Erica
Limited data are available about the challenges of non-national TB patients undergoing long-term treatment courses in an urban setting. This study aimed to understand the financial and social cost of adherence of non-national TB patients in Cairo, Egypt as a means to inform the development of context-specific interventions to support treatment adherence. In 2011, 22 in-depth interviews were conducted with TB patients from Sudan, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Somalia and Djibouti to obtain qualitative da...
Part 7: Shorter Papers; International audience; Extant Research on e-government projects has shown that multiple stakeholders are at play always, each with their own divergent interests. And many a time, differences in stakeholder expectations from a project has resulted in projects failing or being abandoned after initial usage. Social Construction of Technology (SCOT) studies look at the development history of a technology in order to understand how that particular technology has evolved, b...
Bowie, Bonnie H
This study explored the associations among childhood emotion regulation, overt aggression, relational aggression, and adolescent deviant social behaviors. Data were drawn from the Family Health Project, a longitudinal study conducted over 4 years. The sample consisted of 111 children at Time 1 who ranged in age from 51/2 to 12 years at Time 1 and 8 to 14 years at Time 3. A significant finding was that, for girls, lower emotion regulation predicted later relational aggression (beta = -2.95, P skills coupled with relational aggression were associated with deviant social behaviors. 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Anderies, John M
I present a general mathematical modeling framework that can provide a foundation for the study of sustainability in social- ecological systems (SESs). Using basic principles from feedback control and a sequence of specific models from bioeconomics and economic growth, I outline several mathematical and empirical challenges associated with the study of sustainability of SESs. These challenges are categorized into three classes: (1) the social choice of performance measures, (2) uncertainty, and (3) collective action. Finally, I present some opportunities for combining stylized dynamical systems models with empirical data on human behavior and biophysical systems to address practical challenges for the design of effective governance regimes (policy feedbacks) for highly uncertain natural resource systems.
Savas, Jessica A; Huang, Karen E; Tuchayi, Sara Moradi; Feldman, Steven R
Atopic dermatitis is a very common chronic skin disease. With increasing number of patients searching social media outlets such as Facebook for medical information, social media can be used by physicians as a powerful educational tool. We analyzed the unmoderated Q&A series on Facebook begun by members of National Eczema Association Scientific Advisory Committee. Four respondents accounted for more than 50% of all responses and the most common were negative posts about topical steroids (61%). Possible strategies to accomplish the safe dissemination of information in a public forum may include a moderator role for physicians.
Pathak, Neetu; Henry, Michael J.; Volkova, Svitlana
Social media is a powerful data source for researchers interested in understanding population-level behavior, having been successfully leveraged in a number of different application areas including flu and illness prediction models, detecting civil unrest, and measuring public sentiment towards a given topic of interest within the public discourse. In this work, we present a study of a large collection of Twitter data centered on the social conversation around global cli- mate change during the UN Climate Change Conference, held in Paris, France during December 2015 (COP21). We first developed a mechanism for distinguishing between personal and non-personal accounts. We then analyzed demographics and emotion and opinion dynamics over time and location in order to understand how the different user types converse around meaningful topics on social media. This methodology offers an in-depth insight into the behavior and opinions around a topic where multiple distinct narratives are present, and lays the groundwork for future work in studying narratives in social media.
Establishing the decision context for a management problem is the critical first step for effective decision analysis. Understanding the decision context allow stakeholders and decision-makers to integrate the societal, environmental, and economic considerations that must be con...
O'Connor, Mary Katherine; Netting, F. Ellen
"This unique volume outlines the different frameworks of policy analysis and explains how readers can use research and critical thinking skills to understand the different models from their formation...
Tuzel, Sait; Hobbs, Renee
Although we live in a global society, educators face many challenges in finding meaningful ways to connect students to people of other cultures. This paper offers a case study of a collaboration between teachers in the US and Turkey, where 7th grade students interacted with each other via online social media as a means to promote cultural…
Draper, Ciara; Houghton, Jack; Read, Beth; Bird, Danny; Tatten, J. J.
This article is written by young people who attend an open-access youth project in the city centre of Hull. Although they describe themselves as "educational failures" (the "black holes"), they argue that they have a significant contribution to make to discussions about how to develop socially just education in schools. In the…
Heavey, Lisa; Phillips, Wendy; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Rutter, Michael
Fourteen adults with high-functioning autism, 2 with Asperger syndrome, and 10 controls matched for intellectual ability and reading competence were shown excerpts of films showing characters in social situations. Adults with autism and Asperger syndrome were most impaired in their ability to answer questions about the films requiring mind-reading…
Tétreault, S; Freeman, A; Carrière, M; Beaupré, P; Gascon, H; Marier Deschênes, P
In 2003, Quebec's Ministry of Health and Social Services (MSSS) and the Ministry of Education, Recreation and Sports (MELS) concluded the Agreement for the complementarity of services between the health and social services network and the education network. The objectives of the current investigation were to evaluate the implementation of this Agreement and its impact upon renewal of practices and services, and to investigate the consequences for children with special needs and their families. The specific focus of this article is to describe parents' perspectives regarding the impact of this Agreement upon them and their children. Interviews were conducted with 56 parents of children with disabilities, social maladjustment or learning difficulties across the province of Quebec. Data were analysed using content analysis. Most parents were not directly aware of any contact between school staff and health or social professionals, although discussions might have been held without their knowledge. The intervention plans seemed to be the main vehicle through which some parents perceived collaboration to be occurring. For parents, the impact upon actual practices or collaborative work is either minimal or non-existent. School inclusion of children with special needs is a challenge for all societies. The Agreement illustrates the Quebec government's intent to promote an alliance between two complex networks and has the potential to greatly benefit children and their families. However, more concrete action is required in order to realize specific changes regarding work cohesion and service organization for these groups. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Sim, Jasmine B.-Y.
One of the challenges of teaching citizenship is that it can be understood in a variety of quite different ways. Singapore has a centralized education system, where political leaders wield direct influence over citizenship education. Social studies is a major vehicle for citizenship education, with a focus on nation-building. The official…
Dell, Paul F.
Offers a study guide for translating the work of Gregory Bateson and Humberto R. Maturana. Demonstrates that their work is highly compatible. Highlights their essential message: social systems and all human endeavor must be understood in light of our existence as biological entities. (BH)
Sulsky, Lorne M.; Kline, Theresa J. B.
Employing the social learning theory (SLT) perspective on training, we analysed the effects of alternative frame-of-reference (FOR) training protocols on various criteria of training effectiveness. Undergraduate participants (N = 65) were randomly assigned to one of four FOR training conditions and a control condition. Training effectiveness was…
Rientjes, B.; Beausaert, S.; Grohnert, T.; Niemantsverdriet, S.; Kommers, Petrus A.M.
More than 3 million students study outside their home country, primarily at a Western university. A common belief among educators is that international students are insufficiently adjusted to higher education in their host country, both academically and socially. Furthermore, several groups of
Zimmerman, Jamie M.; Baur, Silvia
Digital Social Payments (DSPs) offer a variety of potential benefits over traditional cash, voucher, or in-kind methods. Proponents most often cite increased efficiency, reduced leakage, and faster, more convenient and more secure payments to recipients. When linked to bank accounts or mobile wallets that offer store-of-value opportunities or access to additional financial services, DSPs t...
Lawrence, Shawn; Hazlett, Rebekah; Hightower, Peggy
The childhood and adolescent overweight and obesity rates are rising at an alarming rate. Numerous individual, family, community, and social factors contribute to overweight and obesity in children and are explored. If left unaddressed, the epidemic of childhood and adolescent overweight and obesity may lead to amplified problems for individual…
Spino, Margie A.; Dinnebeil, Laurie A.; McInerney, William F.
The purpose of this article is to introduce and describe a model of social power and influence developed by Erchul and Raven (1997). This model describes the decision-making process a consultant would engage in to choose, implement, evaluate as well as the use of strategies that they might use to influence another person to act in a particular…
You, Sukkyung; Kim, Ann Y.
In recent years, increase in adolescent crime in the Republic of Korea has put adolescent aggression in the spotlight. This study examines whether the quality of attachment to parents and peers influences aggressive behaviors and whether social emotional competencies serve as significant mediators for middle school students. These relationships…
Zellmann, Karen T.; Madden, Elissa E.; Aguiniga, Donna M.
Bachelor-level social work students (n = 198) at a midsized Midwestern public university were surveyed to evaluate their attitudes toward those with mental health concerns. Additionally, students were surveyed regarding their willingness to seek treatment for their own mental health needs. Results of the analyses suggest that the majority of…
Vinik, Julia; Johnston, Megan; Grusec, Joan E.; Farrell, Renee
The narratives that emerging adults wrote about a time when they learned an important moral, value or lesson were explored in order to determine the characteristics of events that lead to internalized values as well as to compare the way different kinds of moral values are socialized. Lessons resulting from misbehavior were reported most…
Laura A. Warner
Full Text Available A substantial amount of water is applied to Florida landscapes, and encouraging water conservation through irrigation practices has been identified as a priority programming area where there is great opportunity to positively affect the state’s water resources. Florida Extension addresses this priority area through educational programming. Social marketing has been identified as a promising approach to changing behaviors that influence environmental issues, such as water-saving irrigation technologies and practices. This approach recognizes that there are barriers that prevent individuals from engaging in positive behavior changes. This study evaluated an irrigation seminar using a retrospective pretest-posttest design that incorporated elements of a social marketing intercept survey. Thirty-four attendees participated and primarily represented green industry professional and government sectors. Study objectives were to evaluate the workshop and describe the audience using social marketing principles for future program planning based on audience research. The audience rated their descriptive norms, a strong predictor of behavioral change, lower than their injunctive norms, a less robust predictor. The majority planned to adopt at least one water-conservation best management practice as a result of the workshop. We make recommendations for applying social marketing principles to Extension programming.
Whitted, Kathryn S.
A growing number of children are entering kindergarten without the skills that enable them to be successful in an academic setting. However, it is not children's cognitive skills that concern educators; it is their social and emotional skill deficits that are most troublesome. This article discusses how family and community risk factors can…
Jun, Mikyoung; Agley, Jon; Huang, Chunfeng; Gassman, Ruth A.
The extent to which social norms (injunctive and descriptive) are associated with collegiate alcohol use--including binge drinking--has been examined at length, but studies examining the efficacy of interventions derived thereof have reported mixed outcomes. This study examines data from 5,124 college students at 13 different colleges collected by…
Callahan, Caitlin N.; Libarkin, Julie C.; McCallum, Carmen M.; Atchison, Christopher L.
In this commentary, we argue that social capital theory, the idea that membership in a group creates opportunities to acquire valuable information and resources from other group members, is a useful framework in which to consider ways to increase diversity in the Earth System Sciences (ESS) and in the science, technology, engineering, and…
Mohamed, A.A.; Van Nes, A.; Salheen, M.A.; Khalifa, M.A.; Hamhaber, J.
As it turns out, social factors are significantly correlated with the spatial structure of the street grid on a metropolitan scale level. On a local scale, disadvantaged areas have a high locally integrated spatial structure, but lack accessibility to the surrounding areas and the whole city.