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Sample records for understand infant representation

  1. Representation of stable social dominance relations by human infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascaro, Olivier; Csibra, Gergely

    2012-05-01

    What are the origins of humans' capacity to represent social relations? We approached this question by studying human infants' understanding of social dominance as a stable relation. We presented infants with interactions between animated agents in conflict situations. Studies 1 and 2 targeted expectations of stability of social dominance. They revealed that 15-mo-olds (and, to a lesser extent, 12-mo-olds) expect an asymmetric relationship between two agents to remain stable from one conflict to another. To do so, infants need to infer that one of the agents (the dominant) will consistently prevail when her goals conflict with those of the other (the subordinate). Study 3 and 4 targeted the format of infants' representation of social dominance. In these studies, we found that 12- and 15-mo-olds did not extend their expectations of dominance to unobserved relationships, even when they could have been established by transitive inference. These results suggest that infants' expectation of stability originates from their representation of social dominance as a relationship between two agents rather than as an individual property. Infants' demonstrated understanding of social dominance reflects the cognitive underpinning of humans' capacity to represent social relations, which may be evolutionarily ancient, and may be shared with nonhuman species.

  2. Infants generalize representations of statistically segmented words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf Estes, Katharine

    2012-01-01

    The acoustic variation in language presents learners with a substantial challenge. To learn by tracking statistical regularities in speech, infants must recognize words across tokens that differ based on characteristics such as the speaker's voice, affect, or the sentence context. Previous statistical learning studies have not investigated how these types of non-phonemic surface form variation affect learning. The present experiments used tasks tailored to two distinct developmental levels to investigate the robustness of statistical learning to variation. Experiment 1 examined statistical word segmentation in 11-month-olds and found that infants can recognize statistically segmented words across a change in the speaker's voice from segmentation to testing. The direction of infants' preferences suggests that recognizing words across a voice change is more difficult than recognizing them in a consistent voice. Experiment 2 tested whether 17-month-olds can generalize the output of statistical learning across variation to support word learning. The infants were successful in their generalization; they associated referents with statistically defined words despite a change in voice from segmentation to label learning. Infants' learning patterns also indicate that they formed representations of across word syllable sequences during segmentation. Thus, low probability sequences can act as object labels in some conditions. The findings of these experiments suggest that the units that emerge during statistical learning are not perceptually constrained, but rather are robust to naturalistic acoustic variation.

  3. Infants generalize representations of statistically segmented words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine eGraf Estes

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The acoustic variation in language presents learners with a substantial challenge. To learn by tracking statistical regularities in speech, infants must recognize words across tokens that differ based on characteristics such as the speaker’s voice, affect, or the sentence context. Previous statistical learning studies have not investigated how these types of surface form variation affect learning. The present experiments used tasks tailored to two distinct developmental levels to investigate the robustness of statistical learning to variation. Experiment 1 examined statistical word segmentation in 11-month-olds and found that infants can recognize statistically segmented words across a change in the speaker’s voice from segmentation to testing. The direction of infants’ preferences suggests that recognizing words across a voice change is more difficult than recognizing them in a consistent voice. Experiment 2 tested whether 17-month-olds can generalize the output of statistical learning across variation to support word learning. The infants were successful in their generalization; they associated referents with statistically defined words despite a change in voice from segmentation to label learning. Infants’ learning patterns also indicate that they formed representations of across-word syllable sequences during segmentation. Thus, low probability sequences can act as object labels in some conditions. The findings of these experiments suggest that the units that emerge during statistical learning are not perceptually constrained, but rather are robust to naturalistic acoustic variation.

  4. Understanding as Integration of Heterogeneous Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Sergio F.

    2014-03-01

    The search for understanding is a major aim of science. Traditionally, understanding has been undervalued in the philosophy of science because of its psychological underpinnings; nowadays, however, it is widely recognized that epistemology cannot be divorced from psychology as sharp as traditional epistemology required. This eliminates the main obstacle to give scientific understanding due attention in philosophy of science. My aim in this paper is to describe an account of scientific understanding as an emergent feature of our mastering of different (causal) explanatory frameworks that takes place through the mastering of scientific practices. Different practices lead to different kinds of representations. Such representations are often heterogeneous. The integration of such representations constitute understanding.

  5. Image understanding using sparse representations

    CERN Document Server

    Thiagarajan, Jayaraman J; Turaga, Pavan; Spanias, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Image understanding has been playing an increasingly crucial role in several inverse problems and computer vision. Sparse models form an important component in image understanding, since they emulate the activity of neural receptors in the primary visual cortex of the human brain. Sparse methods have been utilized in several learning problems because of their ability to provide parsimonious, interpretable, and efficient models. Exploiting the sparsity of natural signals has led to advances in several application areas including image compression, denoising, inpainting, compressed sensing, blin

  6. Understanding leader representations: Beyond implicit leadership theory

    OpenAIRE

    Knee, Robert Everett

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to establish evidence for the suggested integration of the theories of connectionism and leadership. Recent theoretical writings in the field of leadership have suggested that the dynamic representations generated by the connectionist perspective is an appropriate approach to understanding how we perceive leaders. Similarly, implicit leadership theory (ILT) explains that our cognitive understandings of leaders are based on a cognitive structure that we u...

  7. The error of representation: basic understanding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Hodyss

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Representation error arises from the inability of the forecast model to accurately simulate the climatology of the truth. We present a rigorous framework for understanding this kind of error of representation. This framework shows that the lack of an inverse in the relationship between the true climatology (true attractor and the forecast climatology (forecast attractor leads to the error of representation. A new gain matrix for the data assimilation problem is derived that illustrates the proper approaches one may take to perform Bayesian data assimilation when the observations are of states on one attractor but the forecast model resides on another. This new data assimilation algorithm is the optimal scheme for the situation where the distributions on the true attractor and the forecast attractors are separately Gaussian, and there exists a linear map between them. The results of this theory are illustrated in a simple Gaussian multivariate model.

  8. Infants Generalize Representations of Statistically Segmented Words

    OpenAIRE

    Graf Estes, Katharine

    2012-01-01

    The acoustic variation in language presents learners with a substantial challenge. To learn by tracking statistical regularities in speech, infants must recognize words across tokens that differ based on characteristics such as the speaker’s voice, affect, or the sentence context. Previous statistical learning studies have not investigated how these types of non-phonemic surface form variation affect learning. The present experiments used tasks tailored to two distinct developmental levels to...

  9. Understanding Tourism Development: A Representational Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Meliou, Elina; Maroudas, Leonidas

    2009-01-01

    The article investigates hotel employees and postgraduate students’ representations of “tourism development”, using social representations theory. Data from a sample of eighty participants were collected on Chios Island, Greece. To reveal social representations a word association procedure was applied followed by a correspondence analysis. The analysis attempts to map the meanings associated with “tourism development” and to pinpoint the links between those meanings. Results highlight differe...

  10. Understanding women's interpretations of infant formula advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, Kathleen; Taylor, Emily; Hall-Dardess, Pam; Walker, Marsha; Labbok, Miriam

    2013-06-01

    Exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months and continued breastfeeding for at least 1 year is recommended by all major health organizations. Whereas 74.6 percent of mothers initiate breastfeeding at birth, exclusivity and duration remain significantly lower than national goals. Empirical evidence suggests that exposure to infant formula marketing contributes to supplementation and premature cessation. The objective of this study was to explore how women interpret infant formula advertising to aid in an understanding of this association. Four focus groups were structured to include women with similar childbearing experience divided according to reproductive status: preconceptional, pregnant, exclusive breastfeeders, and formula feeders. Facilitators used a prepared protocol to guide discussion of infant formula advertisements. Authors conducted a thematic content analysis with special attention to women's statements about what they believed the advertisements said about how the products related to human milk (superior, inferior, similar) and how they reported reacting to these interpretations. Participants reported that the advertisements conveyed an expectation of failure with breastfeeding, and that formula is a solution to fussiness, spitting up, and other normal infant behaviors. Participants reported that the advertisements were confusing in terms of how formula-feeding is superior, inferior or the same as breastfeeding. This confusion was exacerbated by an awareness of distribution by health care practitioners and institutions, suggesting provider endorsement of infant formula. Formula marketing appears to decrease mothers' confidence in their ability to breastfeed, especially when provided by health care practitioners and institutions. Therefore, to be supportive of breastfeeding, perinatal educators and practitioners could be more effective if they did not offer infant formula advertising to mothers. © 2013, Copyright the Authors, Journal compilation © 2013

  11. Cognitive Dissonance as an Instructional Tool for Understanding Chemical Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corradi, David; Clarebout, Geraldine; Elen, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Previous research on multiple external representations (MER) indicates that sequencing representations (compared with presenting them as a whole) can, in some cases, increase conceptual understanding if there is interference between internal and external representations. We tested this mechanism by sequencing different combinations of scientific…

  12. Understanding Linear Functions and Their Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Pamela J.

    2015-01-01

    Linear functions are an important part of the middle school mathematics curriculum. Students in the middle grades gain fluency by working with linear functions in a variety of representations (NCTM 2001). Presented in this article is an activity that was used with five eighth-grade classes at three different schools. The activity contains 15 cards…

  13. Representational Classroom Practices that Contribute to Students' Conceptual and Representational Understanding of Chemical Bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Annette; Nichols, Kim

    2011-11-01

    Understanding bonding is fundamental to success in chemistry. A number of alternative conceptions related to chemical bonding have been reported in the literature. Research suggests that many alternative conceptions held by chemistry students result from previous teaching; if teachers are explicit in the use of representations and explain their content-specific forms and functions, this might be avoided. The development of an understanding of and ability to use multiple representations is crucial to students' understanding of chemical bonding. This paper draws on data from a larger study involving two Year 11 chemistry classes (n = 27, n = 22). It explores the contribution of explicit instruction about multiple representations to students' understanding and representation of chemical bonding. The instructional strategies were documented using audio-recordings and the teacher-researcher's reflection journal. Pre-test-post-test comparisons showed an improvement in conceptual understanding and representational competence. Analysis of the students' texts provided further evidence of the students' ability to use multiple representations to explain macroscopic phenomena on the molecular level. The findings suggest that explicit instruction about representational form and function contributes to the enhancement of representational competence and conceptual understanding of bonding in chemistry. However, the scaffolding strategies employed by the teacher play an important role in the learning process. This research has implications for professional development enhancing teachers' approaches to these aspects of instruction around chemical bonding.

  14. Infant Massage: Understand This Soothing Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and touch therapy in neonates: The current evidence. Indian Pediatrics. 2010;47:771. Cervasio C. Baby massage ... infant-and-toddler-health/in-depth/infant-massage/art-20047151 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and Terms ...

  15. Cross-cultural understanding through visual representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Beckman

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes international students’ drawings of their home countries’ essay assignments. These English as a Second Language (ESL students often have difficulty in meeting the local demands of our Writing Program, which centers on argumentative writing with thesis and support. Any part of an essay deemed irrelevant is censured as “off topic;” some students see this structure as too direct or even impolite. While not all students found visual representation easy, the drawings reveal some basic assumptions about writing embodied in their native cultures’ assignments. We discuss the drawings first for visual rhetorical content, then in the students’ own terms. Last, we consider how our own pedagogy has been shaped.

  16. Can Chimpanzee Infants ("Pan Troglodytes") Form Categorical Representations in the Same Manner as Human Infants ("Homo Sapiens")?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murai, Chizuko; Kosugi, Daisuke; Tomonaga, Masaki; Tanaka, Masayuki; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro; Itakura, Shoji

    2005-01-01

    We directly compared chimpanzee infants and human infants for categorical representations of three global-like categories (mammals, furniture and vehicles), using the familiarization-novelty preference technique. Neither species received any training during the experiments. We used the time that participants spent looking at the stimulus object…

  17. FATHERS' AND MOTHERS' REPRESENTATIONS OF THE INFANT: ASSOCIATIONS WITH PRENATAL RISK FACTORS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vreeswijk, Charlotte M J M; Rijk, Catharina H A M; Maas, A Janneke B M; van Bakel, Hedwig J A

    2015-01-01

    Parents' representations of their infants consist of parents' subjective experiences of how they perceive their infants. They provide important information about the quality of the parent-infant relationship and are closely related to parenting behavior and infant attachment. Previous studies have shown that parents' representations emerge during pregnancy. However, little is known about prenatal (risk) factors that are related to parents' representations. In a prospective study, 308 mothers and 243 fathers were followed during pregnancy and postpartum. Prenatal risk factors were assessed with an adapted version of the Dunedin Family Services Indicator (T.G. Egan et al., ; R.C. Muir et al., ). At 26 weeks' gestation and 6 months' postpartum, parents' representations of their children were assessed with the Working Model of the Child Interview (C.H. Zeanah, D. Benoit, L. Hirshberg, M.L. Barton, & C. Regan). Results showed stability between pre- and postnatal representations, with fathers having more disengaged representations than did mothers. In addition, prenatal risk factors of parenting problems were associated with the quality of parents' prenatal (only in mothers) and postnatal representations. This study provides valuable information concerning parents at risk of developing nonbalanced representations of their children. In clinical practice, these families could be monitored more intensively and may be supported in developing a more optimal parent-infant relationship. © 2015 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  18. 15-month-old infants fast map words but not representational gestures of multimodal labels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel ePuccini

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated whether 15-month-old infants fast map multimodal labels, and, when given the choice of two modalities, whether they preferentially fast map one better than the other. Sixty 15-month-old infants watched films where an actress repeatedly and ostensively labeled two novel objects using a spoken word along with a representational gesture. In the test phase, infants were assigned to one of three conditions: Word, Word + Gesture, or Gesture. The objects appeared in a shelf next to the experimenter and, depending on the condition, infants were prompted with either a word, a gesture, or a multimodal word-gesture combination. Using an infant eye tracker, we determined whether infants made the correct mappings. Results revealed that only infants in the Word condition had learned the novel object labels. When the representational gesture was presented alone or when the verbal label was accompanied by a representational gesture, infants did not succeed in making the correct mappings. Results reveal that 15-month-old infants do not benefit from multimodal labeling and that they prefer words over representational gestures as object labels in multimodal utterances. Findings put into question the role of multimodal labeling in early language development.

  19. High School Students' Representations and Understandings of Electric Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Ying; Brizuela, Bárbara M.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the representations and understandings of electric fields expressed by Chinese high school students 15 to 16 years old who have not received high school level physics instruction. The physics education research literature has reported students' conceptions of electric fields post-instruction as indicated by students'…

  20. Infants' Responses to Real Humans and Representations of Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heron, Michelle; Slaughter, Virginia

    2010-01-01

    Infants' responses to typical and scrambled human body shapes were assessed in relation to the realism of the human body stimuli presented. In four separate experiments, infants were familiarized to typical human bodies and then shown a series of scrambled human bodies on the test. Looking behaviour was assessed in response to a range of different…

  1. Clinical update: understanding jaundice in the breastfed infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Mary

    2013-06-01

    Breastfed infants are more likely to be jaundiced than infants who are formula fed. Community practitioners need to understand the physiology of jaundice and the issues associated with breastfeeding so that they can support parents. Visible jaundice is a result of hyperbilirubinaemia and, in most cases, is harmless and caused by normal physiological processes. It does, however, require detection monitoring and sometimes treatment to prevent rare but serious health complications. Although some debate remains over the association between breastfeeding and jaundice, the literature suggests that in the breastfed infant, early onset jaundice may be a result of insufficient intake of breast milk and prolonged jaundice may be related to a constituent of breast milk itself (breast milk jaundice). Early breastfeeding support to promote good positioning, attachment and baby-led feeding may help prevent early onset jaundice. Management of jaundice in the breastfed infant involves referral to local services to determine bilirubin levels and exclude pathologies.

  2. Plasticity of Ability to Form Cross-Modal Representations in Infant Japanese Macaques

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    Adachi, Ikuma; Kuwahata, Hiroko; Fujita, Kazuo; Tomonaga, Masaki; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

    2009-01-01

    In a previous study, Adachi, Kuwahata, Fujita, Tomonaga & Matsuzawa demonstrated that infant Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) form cross-modal representations of conspecifics but not of humans. However, because the subjects in the experiment were raised in a large social group and had considerably less exposure to humans than to…

  3. Maternal and paternal infant representations : A comparison between parents of term and preterm infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tooten, A.; Hall, R.A.S.; Hoffenkamp, H.N.; Braeken, J.; Vingerhoets, A.J.J.M.; van Bakel, A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Research on parental attachment representations after preterm birth is limited and inconclusive. The present study is the first in which maternal and paternal attachment representations after term, moderately and very preterm birth are compared. In addition, special attention was directed

  4. "Let's work together": what do infants understand about collaborative goals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Annette M E; Woodward, Amanda L

    2011-10-01

    Collaboration is fundamental to our daily lives, yet little is known about how humans come to understand these activities. The present research was conducted to fill this void by using a novel visual habituation paradigm to investigate infants' understanding of the collaborative-goal structure of collaborative action. The findings of the three experiments reported here suggest that 14-month-old infants understand that the actions of collaborative partners are complementary and critical to the attainment of a common collaborative goal. Importantly, 14-month-olds do not interpret the actions of two individuals in terms of a collaborative goal when their actions are not causally related. The implications of our findings for theories of collaboration and folk psychology are discussed. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Mathematical Representation by Students in Building Relational Understanding on Concepts of Area and Perimeter of Rectangle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, Rahmad Bustanul; Yuwono, Ipung; As'ari, Abdur Rahman; Sisworo; Dwi, Rahmawati

    2016-01-01

    Representation is an important aspect of learners in building a relational understanding of mathematical concepts. But the ability of a mathematical representation of students in building relational understanding is still very limited. The purpose of this research is to description of mathematical representation of students who appear in building…

  6. Ethical responsibilities of the Australian media in the representations of infant feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, Nicole

    2007-03-01

    Despite the fact that human milk is the ideal food for human babies, many Australian babies are still weaned sooner than the World Health Organization guidelines recommend. Australian mothers want to breastfeed--and initially do so. However, there is a rapid decline in the percentage of babies being offered breastmilk as newborns compared to six months old. Data collected in 2004 indicated that although 90% of newborn infants in NSW were put to the breast, or offered expressed milk, at least once, only 77% of infants were receiving at least some breastmilk regularly at the end of their first month. By six months of age only 4.6% of babies in NSW were being exclusively breastfed. This paper aims to analyse some of the reasons women in Australia prematurely wean their infants. Particular emphasis will be given to the representation of infant feeding in the media, how consumers use this information to make decisions about infant feeding, and the ethical responsibilities of said media in their portrayal of infant feeding.

  7. Using Instruments to Understand Argument Structure: Evidence for Gradient Representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rissman, Lilia; Rawlins, Kyle; Landau, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    The arguments of a verb are commonly assumed to correspond to the event participants specified by the verb. That is, drink has two arguments because drink specifies two participants: someone who drinks and something that gets drunk. This correspondence does not appear to hold, however, in the case of instrumental participants, e.g. John drank the soda with a straw. Verbs such as slice and write have been argued to specify an instrumental participant, even though instruments do not pattern like arguments given other criteria. In this paper, we investigated how instrumental verbs are represented, testing the hypothesis that verbs such as slice encode three participants in the same way that dative verbs such as lend encode three participants. In two experiments English-speakers reported their judgments about the number of participants specified by a verb, e.g. that drink specifies two participants. These judgments indicate that slice does not encode three distinct arguments. Nonetheless, some verbs were systematically more likely to elicit the judgment that the instrument is specified by the verb, a pattern that held across individual subjects. To account for these findings, we propose that instruments are not independent verbal arguments but are represented in a gradient away: an instrument may be a more or less salient part of the force exerted by an agent. These results inform our understanding of the relationship between argument structure and event representation, raising questions concerning the role of arguments in language processing and learning. PMID:26057832

  8. The role of visual representations in college students' understanding of mathematical notation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atagi, Natsuki; DeWolf, Melissa; Stigler, James W; Johnson, Scott P

    2016-09-01

    Developing understanding of fractions involves connections between nonsymbolic visual representations and symbolic representations. Initially, teachers introduce fraction concepts with visual representations before moving to symbolic representations. Once the focus is shifted to symbolic representations, the connections between visual representations and symbolic notation are considered to be less useful, and students are rarely asked to connect symbolic notation back to visual representations. In 2 experiments, we ask whether visual representations affect understanding of symbolic notation for adults who understand symbolic notation. In a conceptual fraction comparison task (e.g., Which is larger, 5 / a or 8 / a? ), participants were given comparisons paired with accurate, helpful visual representations, misleading visual representations, or no visual representations. The results show that even college students perform significantly better when accurate visuals are provided over misleading or no visuals. Further, eye-tracking data suggest that these visual representations may affect performance even when only briefly looked at. Implications for theories of fraction understanding and education are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved

  9. Understanding mid-level representations in visual processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peirce, Jonathan W.

    2015-01-01

    It is clear that early visual processing provides an image-based representation of the visual scene: Neurons in Striate cortex (V1) encode nothing about the meaning of a scene, but they do provide a great deal of information about the image features within it. The mechanisms of these “low-level” visual processes are relatively well understood. We can construct plausible models for how neurons, up to and including those in V1, build their representations from preceding inputs down to the level of photoreceptors. It is also clear that at some point we have a semantic, “high-level” representation of the visual scene because we can describe verbally the objects that we are viewing and their meaning to us. A huge number of studies are examining these “high-level” visual processes each year. Less well studied are the processes of “mid-level” vision, which presumably provide the bridge between these “low-level” representations of edges, colors, and lights and the “high-level” semantic representations of objects, faces, and scenes. This article and the special issue of papers in which it is published consider the nature of “mid-level” visual processing and some of the reasons why we might not have made as much progress in this domain as we would like. PMID:26053241

  10. Representation of Motherhood and Age Characteristics of Infants in Girls in their Late Teens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krys’ko A.A.,

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We describe and analyze data on changes in the representations of motherhood and age characteristics of infants under the influence of pregnancy and motherhood experiences with girls in their late teens (we studied three groups: having no children, pregnant women and young mothers. We used questionnaire “Representations of characteristics of children in each period of their development” (designed by M.E. Lantsburg, A.A. Krys’ko, pictorial projective test, “Me and my child”, projective technique “Mothers TAT”, with 5 reproductions of paintings “Motherhood” by S. Krasauskas representing parenting, motherhood and childbirth, selected as stimulus material. The results of analysis were used to identify the main trends for each of the three groups of subjects.

  11. A Description Logic Based Knowledge Representation Model for Concept Understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badie, Farshad

    2018-01-01

    This research employs Description Logics in order to focus on logical description and analysis of the phenomenon of ‘concept understanding’. The article will deal with a formal-semantic model for figuring out the underlying logical assumptions of ‘concept understanding’ in knowledge representation...

  12. Foundation of a Knowledge Representation System for Image Understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-10-01

    the tasks of the system is also basic in systems that use complete indexing, or Conniver, or Lisp. Systems like KRL [11], on the other hand, have a...Winograd, T., "An Overview of KRL , a Knowledge Representation Language," Cogn. Science, pp. 13-45, 1977. [12] Zadeh, L.A., "PRUF - A Memory

  13. Understanding media representations of homelessness in Metro Vancouver

    OpenAIRE

    Glover, Mary Ellen

    2010-01-01

    This project examines newsprint media’s coverage of homelessness in Metro Vancouver; specifically, documentation of its causes and solutions. I investigate how the media represented these, compared to causes and solutions proposed in the Regional Homelessness Plan, 3 Ways to Home: Housing, Income, and Support Services. This project includes an assessment of media representations-- causal attributions and proposed solutions/responses-- of homelessness and their potential to affect outcomes in ...

  14. Effects of Representation Sequences and Spatial Ability on Students' Scientific Understandings about the Mechanism of Breathing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hsin-Kai; Lin, Yu-Fen; Hsu, Ying-Shao

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of representation sequences and spatial ability on students' scientific understandings about the mechanism of breathing in human beings. 130 seventh graders were assigned to two groups with different sequential combinations of static and dynamic representations: SD group (i.e., viewing…

  15. Analogical processes in children's understanding of spatial representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Lei; Uttal, David; Gentner, Dedre

    2017-06-01

    We propose that map reading can be construed as a form of analogical mapping. We tested 2 predictions that follow from this claim: First, young children's patterns of performance in map reading tasks should parallel those found in analogical mapping tasks; and, second, children will benefit from guided alignment instructions that help them see the relational correspondences between the map and the space. In 4 experiments, 3-year-olds completed a map reading task in which they were asked to find hidden objects in a miniature room, using a corresponding map. We manipulated the availability of guided alignment (showing children the analogical mapping between maps and spaces; Experiments 1, 2, and 3a), the format of guided alignment (gesture or relational language; Experiment 2), and the iconicity of maps (Experiments 3a and 3b). We found that (a) young children's difficulties in map reading follow from known patterns of analogical development-for example, focusing on object similarity over relational similarity; and (b) guided alignment based on analogical reasoning led to substantially better performance. Results also indicated that children's map reading performance was affected by the format of guided alignment, the iconicity of the maps, and the order of tasks. The results bear on the developmental mechanisms underlying young children's learning of spatial representations and also suggest ways to support this learning. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Graphical representations of data improve student understanding of measurement and uncertainty: An eye-tracking study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susac, Ana; Bubic, Andreja; Martinjak, Petra; Planinic, Maja; Palmovic, Marijan

    2017-12-01

    Developing a better understanding of the measurement process and measurement uncertainty is one of the main goals of university physics laboratory courses. This study investigated the influence of graphical representation of data on student understanding and interpreting of measurement results. A sample of 101 undergraduate students (48 first year students and 53 third and fifth year students) from the Department of Physics, University of Zagreb were tested with a paper-and-pencil test consisting of eight multiple-choice test items about measurement uncertainties. One version of the test items included graphical representations of the measurement data. About half of the students solved that version of the test while the remaining students solved the same test without graphical representations. The results have shown that the students who had the graphical representation of data scored higher than their colleagues without graphical representation. In the second part of the study, measurements of eye movements were carried out on a sample of thirty undergraduate students from the Department of Physics, University of Zagreb while students were solving the same test on a computer screen. The results revealed that students who had the graphical representation of data spent considerably less time viewing the numerical data than the other group of students. These results indicate that graphical representation may be beneficial for data processing and data comparison. Graphical representation helps with visualization of data and therefore reduces the cognitive load on students while performing measurement data analysis, so students should be encouraged to use it.

  17. Longitudinal associations between maternal disrupted representations, maternal interactive behavior and infant attachment: a comparison between full-term and preterm dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, R A S; Hoffenkamp, H N; Tooten, A; Braeken, J; Vingerhoets, A J J M; van Bakel, H J A

    2015-04-01

    This prospective study examined whether or not a mother's representations of her infant were more often disrupted after premature childbirth. Furthermore, the study examined if different components of maternal interactive behavior mediated the relation between maternal disrupted representations and infant attachment. The participants were mothers of full-term (n = 75), moderately preterm (n = 68) and very preterm infants (n = 67). Maternal representations were assessed by the Working Model of the Child Interview at 6 months post-partum. Maternal interactive behavior was evaluated at 6 and 24 months post-partum, using the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Early Care Research Network mother-infant observation scales. Infant attachment was observed at 24 months post-partum and was coded by the Attachment Q-Set. The results reveal that a premature childbirth does not necessarily generate disrupted maternal representations of the infant. Furthermore, maternal interactive behavior appears to be an important mechanism through which maternal representations influence the development of infant attachment in full-term and preterm infants. Early assessment of maternal representations can identify mother-infant dyads at risk, in full-term and preterm samples.

  18. A Novel Technology to Investigate Students' Understandings of Enzyme Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linenberger, Kimberly J.; Bretz, Stacey Lowery

    2012-01-01

    Digital pen-and-paper technology, although marketed commercially as a bridge between old and new note-taking capabilities, synchronizes the collection of both written and audio data. This manuscript describes how this technology was used to improve data collection in research regarding students' learning, specifically their understanding of…

  19. Multiple Representations and the Understanding of Taylor Polynomials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habre, Samer

    2009-01-01

    The study of Maclaurin and Taylor polynomials entails the comprehension of various new mathematical ideas. Those polynomials are initially discussed at the college level in a calculus class and then again in a course on numerical methods. This article investigates the understanding of these polynomials by students taking a numerical methods class…

  20. Research in Knowledge Representation for Natural Language Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-10-01

    of RUS 157 157 160 161 SECTION 9. THE PRAGMATICS OF NON-ANAPHORIC NOUN PHRASES 9.1 Introduction 163 9.2 Setting the Stage: Previous views on... ANAPHORA , ELLIPSIS, DISCOURSE,... MRL DATA BASE TRANSLATOR DBMS COMMAND GENERATOR DBMS COMMANDS FIG. 1 ORGANIZATION OF THE IRUS SYSTEM 146...understanding system (such as semantics, pragmatics , and a dialogue expert) can be used to improve the performance of the parser. The production of the

  1. Early term birth: understanding the health risks to infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craighead, Debra Vela

    2012-01-01

    Early term birth, which occurs at 37 to 38 weeks gestation, is often elective and can carry significant health risks to infants, including short-term and long-term health outcomes. Nurses and other health care providers involved in the care of pregnant women and infants need to be aware of these infants' physiologic vulnerability and potential short- term and long-term care requirements. Nurses can educate patients and raise awareness of the risks associated with early term birth. © 2012 AWHONN.

  2. Understanding the Viscosity of Liquids used in Infant Dysphagia Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Jacqueline; Chestnut, Amanda H; Jackson, Arwen; Barbon, Carly E A; Steele, Catriona M; Pickler, Laura

    2016-10-01

    When assessing swallowing in infants, it is critical to have confidence that the liquids presented during the swallow study closely replicate the viscosity of liquids in the infant's typical diet. However, we lack research on rheological properties of frequently used infant formulas or breastmilk, and various forms of barium contrast media used in swallow studies. The aim of the current study was to provide objective viscosity measurements for typical infant liquid diet options and barium contrast media. A TA-Instruments AR2000 Advanced Rheometer was used to measure the viscosity of five standard infant formulas, three barium products, and two breastmilk samples. Additionally, this study measured the viscosity of infant formulas and breastmilk when mixed with powdered barium contrast in a 20 % weight-to-volume (w/v) concentration. The study findings determined that standard infant formulas and the two breastmilk samples had low viscosities, at the lower end of the National Dysphagia Diet (NDD) thin liquid range. Two specialty formulas tested had much thicker viscosities, close to the lower boundary of the NDD nectar-thick liquid range. The study showed differences in viscosity between 60 % w/v barium products (Liquid E-Z-Paque(®) and E-Z-Paque(®) powder); the powdered product had a much lower viscosity, despite identical barium concentration. When E-Z-Paque(®) powdered barium was mixed in a 20 % w/v concentration using water, standard infant formulas, or breastmilk, the resulting viscosities were at the lower end of the NDD thin range and only slightly thicker than the non-barium comparator liquids. When E-Z-Paque(®) powdered barium was mixed in a 20 % w/v concentration with the two thicker specialty formulas (Enfamil AR 20 and 24 kcal), unexpected alterations in their original viscosity occurred. These findings highlight the clinical importance of objective measures of viscosity as well as objective data on how infant formulas or breastmilk may change in

  3. Understanding kangaroo care and its benefits to preterm infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campbell-Yeo ML

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Marsha L Campbell-Yeo,1–4 Timothy C Disher,1 Britney L Benoit,1 C Celeste Johnston,2,4,5 1School of Nursing, Dalhousie University, 2Department of Pediatrics, IWK Health Centre, 3Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, Dalhousie University, 4Centre for Pediatric Pain Research, IWK Health Centre, Halifax, NS, 5Ingram School of Nursing, McGill University, Montréal, QC, Canada Abstract: The holding of an infant with ventral skin-to-skin contact typically in an upright position with the swaddled infant on the chest of the parent, is commonly referred to as kangaroo care (KC, due to its simulation of marsupial care. It is recommended that KC, as a feasible, natural, and cost-effective intervention, should be standard of care in the delivery of quality health care for all infants, regardless of geographic location or economic status. Numerous benefits of its use have been reported related to mortality, physiological (thermoregulation, cardiorespiratory stability, behavioral (sleep, breastfeeding duration, and degree of exclusivity domains, as an effective therapy to relieve procedural pain, and improved neurodevelopment. Yet despite these recommendations and a lack of negative research findings, adoption of KC as a routine clinical practice remains variable and underutilized. Furthermore, uncertainty remains as to whether continuous KC should be recommended in all settings or if there is a critical period of initiation, dose, or duration that is optimal. This review synthesizes current knowledge about the benefits of KC for infants born preterm, highlighting differences and similarities across low and higher resource countries and in a non-pain and pain context. Additionally, implementation considerations and unanswered questions for future research are addressed. Keywords: kangaroo care, skin-to-skin contact, infant, preterm, review

  4. Using Concrete & Representational Experiences to Understand the Structure of DNA: A Four-Step Instructional Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrell, Pamela Esprivalo; Richards, Debbie; Collins, James; Taylor, Sarah

    2005-01-01

    A description of learning experience that uses a four-step instrumentational framework involving concrete and representational experiences to promote conceptual understanding of abstract biological concepts by a series of closely-related activities is presented. The students are introduced to the structure and implications of DNA using four…

  5. Longitudinal associations between maternal disrupted representations, maternal interactive behavior and infant attachment: A comparison between full-term and preterm dyads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hall, R.A.S.; Hoffenkamp, H.N.; Tooten, A.; Braeken, J.; Vingerhoets, A.J.J.M.; van Bakel, H.J.A.

    2015-01-01

    This prospective study examined whether or not a mother’s representations of her infant were more often disrupted after premature childbirth. Furthermore, the study examined if different components of maternal interactive behavior mediated the relation between maternal disrupted representations and

  6. Emotion understanding, pictorial representations of friendship and reciprocity in school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laghi, Fiorenzo; Baiocco, Roberto; Di Norcia, Anna; Cannoni, Eleonora; Baumgartner, Emma; Bombi, Anna Silvia

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between emotional understanding, friendship representation and reciprocity in school-aged children. Two hundred and fifty-one Caucasian 6-year-old children (111 males and 140 females) took part in the study. The Test of Emotion Comprehension (TEC) and the Pictorial Assessment of Interpersonal Relationships (PAIR) were used. Children having a reciprocal friendship and children having a unilateral friendship with a child named as their "best friend" were compared on the emotional understanding task and on their pictorial representations of friendship. Multilevel analyses indicated that friendship status effects were not influenced by classroom-level differences. Results showed that children with reciprocal friendships drew themselves as more similar to and more cohesive with their best friends, and they showed better understanding of emotions, than children having a unilateral friendship. Finally, the implications of these findings for theoretical and empirical research development on friendship are discussed.

  7. How online learning modules can improve the representational fluency and conceptual understanding of university physics students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, M.; Sharma, M. D.; Johnston, H.

    2015-07-01

    The use of online learning resources as core components of university science courses is increasing. Learning resources range from summaries, videos, and simulations, to question banks. Our study set out to develop, implement, and evaluate research-based online learning resources in the form of pre-lecture online learning modules (OLMs). The aim of this paper is to share our experiences with those using, or considering implementing, online learning resources. Our first task was to identify student learning issues in physics to base the learning resources on. One issue with substantial research is conceptual understanding, the other with comparatively less research is scientific representations (graphs, words, equations, and diagrams). We developed learning resources on both these issues and measured their impact. We created weekly OLMs which were delivered to first year physics students at The University of Sydney prior to their first lecture of the week. Students were randomly allocated to either a concepts stream or a representations stream of online modules. The programme was first implemented in 2013 to trial module content, gain experience and process logistical matters and repeated in 2014 with approximately 400 students. Two validated surveys, the Force and Motion Concept Evaluation (FMCE) and the Representational Fluency Survey (RFS) were used as pre-tests and post-tests to measure learning gains while surveys and interviews provided further insights. While both streams of OLMs produced similar positive learning gains on the FMCE, the representations-focussed OLMs produced higher gains on the RFS. Conclusions were triangulated with student responses which indicated that they have recognized the benefit of the OLMs for their learning of physics. Our study shows that carefully designed online resources used as pre-instruction can make a difference in students’ conceptual understanding and representational fluency in physics, as well as make them more aware

  8. ShapeShop: Towards Understanding Deep Learning Representations via Interactive Experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohman, Fred; Hodas, Nathan; Chau, Duen Horng

    2017-05-01

    Deep learning is the driving force behind many recent technologies; however, deep neural networks are often viewed as "black-boxes" due to their internal complexity that is hard to understand. Little research focuses on helping people explore and understand the relationship between a user's data and the learned representations in deep learning models. We present our ongoing work, ShapeShop, an interactive system for visualizing and understanding what semantics a neural network model has learned. Built using standard web technologies, ShapeShop allows users to experiment with and compare deep learning models to help explore the robustness of image classifiers.

  9. ShapeShop: Towards Understanding Deep Learning Representations via Interactive Experimentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hohman, Frederick M.; Hodas, Nathan O.; Chau, Duen Horng

    2017-05-30

    Deep learning is the driving force behind many recent technologies; however, deep neural networks are often viewed as “black-boxes” due to their internal complexity that is hard to understand. Little research focuses on helping people explore and understand the relationship between a user’s data and the learned representations in deep learning models. We present our ongoing work, ShapeShop, an interactive system for visualizing and understanding what semantics a neural network model has learned. Built using standard web technologies, ShapeShop allows users to experiment with and compare deep learning models to help explore the robustness of image classifiers.

  10. Mother and Infant Talk about Mental States Relates to Desire Language and Emotion Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taumoepeau, Mele; Ruffman, Ted

    2006-01-01

    This study assessed the relation between mother mental state language and child desire language and emotion understanding in 15--24-month-olds. At both times point, mothers described pictures to their infants and mother talk was coded for mental and nonmental state language. Children were administered 2 emotion understanding tasks and their mental…

  11. Socializing infants towards a cultural understanding of expressing negative affect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demuth, Carolin

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses the socialization of emotion expression in infancy. It argues that in order to adequately understand emotion development we need to consider the appraisal of emotion expression through caregivers in mundane, everyday interactions. Drawing on sociocultural and Bakhtinian...... theorizing, it claims that caregivers’ appraisals of infants’ emotion expression are dialogically intertwined with broader speech genres or “communicative genres” of a community and the emotional-volitional tone and normative orientations embedded in them. It aims to investigate how communicative genres......’ expression of negative affect. We found distinct patterns of coconstructing the interaction that point to different normative ori- entations and communicative genres that can be considered to be specific to the two sociocultural contexts. These communicative genres were found to be in line with broader...

  12. Theoretical-methodological approach to social imaginary and collective representations: Notes for a sociological understanding of image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Eliécer Martínez Posada

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of social imaginaries and collective representations from a sociological perspective involves agencying interpretative exercises of image reconstruction, whether mental or pictorial images. Thus, the theoretical path followed in this text points to the understanding of social imaginaries and collective representations, as knowledge tradition socially constructed, and social images, which become historically symbolic points of reference of social action.

  13. A Case Study of Preservice Science Teachers with Different Argumentation Understandings: Their Views and Practices of Using Representations in Argumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namdar, Bahadir

    2017-01-01

    Representations are fundamental tools to support argumentation in science learning. However, little is known about how preservice science teachers (PSTs) with different argumentation understandings view and use representations in argumentation. Therefore, the purpose of this case study was to explore the views and practices of PSTs' use of…

  14. A framework for understanding the conditions of science representation and dissemination in museums

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achiam, Marianne; Marandino, Martha

    2014-01-01

    Museums are in a unique position to engage the public in conversations about science topics that matter. However, when we attempt to systematically study the representation and dissemination of science in museums, we are confounded by the numerous and diverse conditions and constraints...... that influence those processes. As a response, we adapt a framework from the field of science didactics, the framework of didactic co-determination, to the museum context. We illustrate how the framework can be applied to a case of exhibit development to understand the influences that shape the final product. We...

  15. Using digital technologies to enhance chemistry students' understanding and representational skills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilton, Annette

    Abstract Chemistry students need to understand chemistry on molecular, symbolic and macroscopic levels. Students find it difficult to use representations on these three levels to interpret and explain data. One approach is to encourage students to use writing-to-learn strategies in inquiry settings...... to present and interpret their laboratory results. This paper describes findings from a study on the effects on students’ learning outcomes of creating multimodal texts to report on laboratory inquiries. The study involved two senior secondary school chemistry classes (n = 22, n = 27). Both classes completed...

  16. At the mercy of strategies: the role of motor representations in language understanding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara eTomasino

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Classical cognitive theories hold that word representations in the brain are abstract and amodal, and are independent of the objects’ sensorimotor properties they refer to. An alternative hypothesis emphasises the importance of bodily processes in cognition: the representation of a concept appears to be crucially dependent upon perceptual-motor processes that relate to it. Thus, understanding action-related words would rely upon the same motor structures that also support the execution of the same actions. In this context, motor simulation represents a key component. Our approach is to draw parallels between the literature on mental rotation and the literature on action verb/sentence processing. Here we will discuss recent studies on mental imagery, mental rotation, and language that clearly demonstrate how motor simulation is neither automatic nor necessary to language understanding. These studies have shown that motor representations can or cannot be activated depending on the type of strategy the participants adopt to perform tasks involving motor phrases. On the one hand, participants may imagine the movement with the body parts used to carry out the actions described by the verbs (i.e., motor strategy; on the other, individuals may solve the task without simulating the corresponding movements (i.e., visual strategy. While it is not surprising that the motor strategy is at work when participants process action-related verbs, it is however striking that sensorimotor activation has been reported also for imageable concrete words with no motor content, for non-words with regular phonology, for pseudo-verb stimuli, and also for negations. Based on the extant literature, we will argue that implicit motor imagery is not uniquely used when a body-related stimulus is encountered, and that it is not the type of stimulus that automatically triggers the motor simulation but the type of strategy. Finally, we will also comment on the view that

  17. Infants' Cross-modal Transfer from Solid Objects to Their Graphic Representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Susan A.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    In three studies, 12-month-old infants were familiarized either tactually or visually with objects and were then tested for visual recognition memory using either (1) the familiar and a novel object, (2) colored pictures of the objects, or (3) outline drawings of the objects. (Author/MP)

  18. Stability of fathers' representations of their infants during the transition to parenthood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreeswijk, C.M.J.M.; Maas, A.J.B.M.; Rijk, C.H.A.M.; Braeken, J.; Bakel, van H.J.A.

    2014-01-01

    Studies investigating fathers' roles in child development have focused on a range of different aspects. However, few studies have focused on the early father-infant relationship, which already emerges before the child is born. The aim of this study is to examine the concordance of fathers'

  19. Multiple visions of Indonesia's mud volcano: understanding representations of disaster across discursive settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Phillip

    2016-04-01

    The Lapindo mudflow is one of the most controversial disasters in Indonesian history. Despite its unique biophysical features, most consider the mudflow a social disaster as scientific conflicts about its main trigger have evolved into legal disputes over accountability and rights. This paper examines this 'trigger debate', the stakes of scientific contention and the broader social and natural dynamics that shape the terms of this debate. A Latourian impulse drives this analysis, which aims to improve both understandings of--and responses to--complex disasters. This paper also notes that the stakes of representation extend to constructions of its stakeholders, especially to victims. As socionatural disasters become an increasingly common feature of the contemporary world, from mud volcanoes to extreme weather events caused by global warming, it is more important than ever to understand the dynamics of representing disasters and stakeholders. © 2016 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2016.

  20. Infants' eyewitness testimony: effects of postevent information on a prior memory representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovee-Collier, C; Borza, M A; Adler, S A; Boller, K

    1993-03-01

    In eyewitness testimony research, postevent information impairs retention of the original event and increases the probability that interpolated information will be identified as part of the original event. The present experiments studied these effects with 3-month-olds. Infants learned to kick to move a particular crib mobile and then were briefly exposed to information about a novel mobile. The novel postevent information impaired recognition of the original mobile when it immediately followed training but not when it was delayed by 1 day. Like adults, infants treated the postevent information as part of the original training event, continuing to do so for at least 2 weeks. We propose that postevent information displaces conflicting information coactive with it in primary memory and creates a new, updated memory token of the event. Once the new token leaves primary memory, however, it is protected; only a copy can be retrieved and modified in the future.

  1. The unique and shared contributions of arithmetic operation understanding and numerical magnitude representation to children's mathematics achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Terry Tin-Yau

    2017-12-01

    The current study examined the unique and shared contributions of arithmetic operation understanding and numerical magnitude representation to children's mathematics achievement. A sample of 124 fourth graders was tested on their arithmetic operation understanding (as reflected by their understanding of arithmetic principles and the knowledge about the application of arithmetic operations) and their precision of rational number magnitude representation. They were also tested on their mathematics achievement and arithmetic computation performance as well as the potential confounding factors. The findings suggested that both arithmetic operation understanding and numerical magnitude representation uniquely predicted children's mathematics achievement. The findings highlight the significance of arithmetic operation understanding in mathematics learning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Towards a better understanding of people's responses to renewable energy technologies: Insights from Social Representations Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batel, Susana; Devine-Wright, Patrick

    2015-04-01

    In the past few years, social research has been examining what contributes to the attitude-behaviour gap in people's responses to large-scale renewable energy technologies. The NIMBY explanation for the gap has long dominated that area of research, but has also been criticised. Alternative proposals to NIMBY were advanced, but it is still evident that some of those maintain presuppositions of NIMBY and that this area of research needs more integration, namely at a theoretical level. In this paper we argue that to overcome those aspects it is relevant, first, to situate the promotion of renewable energy production as a social change process in today's societies, and, second, to therefore consider the socio-psychological aspects involved in people's responses to social change. We discuss specifically how the Theory of Social Representations may help us with that and contribute to a better understanding of people's responses to renewable energy technologies. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Infants' sensitivity to emotion in music and emotion-action understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Tik-Sze Carrey; Cheung, Him

    2017-01-01

    Emerging evidence has indicated infants' early sensitivity to acoustic cues in music. Do they interpret these cues in emotional terms to represent others' affective states? The present study examined infants' development of emotional understanding of music with a violation-of-expectation paradigm. Twelve- and 20-month-olds were presented with emotionally concordant and discordant music-face displays on alternate trials. The 20-month-olds, but not the 12-month-olds, were surprised by emotional incongruence between musical and facial expressions, suggesting their sensitivity to musical emotion. In a separate non-music task, only the 20-month-olds were able to use an actress's affective facial displays to predict her subsequent action. Interestingly, for the 20-month-olds, such emotion-action understanding correlated with sensitivity to musical expressions measured in the first task. These two abilities however did not correlate with family income, parental estimation of language and communicative skills, and quality of parent-child interaction. The findings suggest that sensitivity to musical emotion and emotion-action understanding may be supported by a generalised common capacity to represent emotion from social cues, which lays a foundation for later social-communicative development.

  4. The Errors of Our Ways: Understanding Error Representations in Cerebellar-Dependent Motor Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa, Laurentiu S; Streng, Martha L; Hewitt, Angela L; Ebner, Timothy J

    2016-04-01

    The cerebellum is essential for error-driven motor learning and is strongly implicated in detecting and correcting for motor errors. Therefore, elucidating how motor errors are represented in the cerebellum is essential in understanding cerebellar function, in general, and its role in motor learning, in particular. This review examines how motor errors are encoded in the cerebellar cortex in the context of a forward internal model that generates predictions about the upcoming movement and drives learning and adaptation. In this framework, sensory prediction errors, defined as the discrepancy between the predicted consequences of motor commands and the sensory feedback, are crucial for both on-line movement control and motor learning. While many studies support the dominant view that motor errors are encoded in the complex spike discharge of Purkinje cells, others have failed to relate complex spike activity with errors. Given these limitations, we review recent findings in the monkey showing that complex spike modulation is not necessarily required for motor learning or for simple spike adaptation. Also, new results demonstrate that the simple spike discharge provides continuous error signals that both lead and lag the actual movements in time, suggesting errors are encoded as both an internal prediction of motor commands and the actual sensory feedback. These dual error representations have opposing effects on simple spike discharge, consistent with the signals needed to generate sensory prediction errors used to update a forward internal model.

  5. 'Touchpoints' by nurses: impact on maternal representations, child development, quality of mother-infant interaction, and mothers' perception of the quality of relationships with nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Hélia

    2016-05-09

    To investigate the effect of implementing the Touchpoints methodology by nurses in the following variables: quality of mother-infant interaction; infant development; maternal representations of child temperament and mothers' perception of the quality of relationship with nurses. Quasi-experimental longitudinal study, including 86 child-mother dyads distributed equally for: Group with Intervention (GI) (n=43), Group without Intervention (GWI) (n=43). These groups belonged to paired samples according to the following criteria: maternal age; socio-economic class; family structure; child health; parents' physical or psychological health; twins; family's nationality; risk during pregnancy; baby APGAR. Paired samples with the same routine visits allowed comparing the impact of Touchpoints intervention on the above mentioned variables. The monitoring of the two groups took place in a period of between 11 and 24 months of children's life (four moments of assessment), being held two Touchpoints sessions in the GI at 12 and 18 months. Two Touchpoints interventions sessions were applied in the GI as follows: the first time, at 12 months; the second time, at 24 months, child age. The instruments used for data collection were: Schedule of Growing Skills II (SGS II); CARE-Index; Temperament Scale; Parent-Caregiver Relationship Scale - parents' version. Infant Locomotor development (p=.036) and maternal representations about the child and motherhood (Z=5.737; p=.019) improved in the GI. No significant results were found for mother-infant interaction in this direct comparison. Nevertheless, findings indicate that maternal sensitivity and infant cooperative behaviour increased from 12 to 24 months in the GI [t(41)=4.513; pEmotional [t(84)= 2.334; pChildren at risk for developmental problems in the GI and GWI improved their development in Speech and Language (Z=4.772; pSocial (Z=4.0; pchildren at risk' for developmental problems when compared to the dyads of 'children at risk

  6. Understanding Racial and Ethnic Disparities in U.S. Infant Mortality Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mortality rates for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), congenital malformations, and unintentional injuries were also substantially higher for ... infant mortality rate. SIDS accounted for 6 percent, congenital malformations 5 percent, and unintentional injuries 4 percent of ...

  7. Explaining Newton's Laws of Motion: Using Student Reasoning through Representations to Develop Conceptual Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldrip, Bruce; Prain, Vaughan; Sellings, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The development of students' reasoning and argumentation skills in school science is currently attracting strong research interest. In this paper we report on a study where we aimed to investigate student learning on the topic of motion when students, guided by their teacher, responded to a sequence of representational challenges in which their…

  8. The Role of Multiple Representations in the Understanding of Ideal Gas Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Sean P.; Jones, Loretta L.; Rahm, Jrene

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the representational competence of students as they solved problems dealing with the temperature-pressure relationship for ideal gases. Seven students enrolled in a first-semester general chemistry course and two advanced undergraduate science majors participated in the study. The written work and transcripts from videotaped…

  9. Contemporary Multi-Modal Historical Representations and the Teaching of Disciplinary Understandings in History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Debra J.

    2018-01-01

    Traditional privileging of the printed text has been considerably eroded by rapid technological advancement and in Australia, as elsewhere, many History teaching programs feature an array of multi-modal historical representations. Research suggests that engagement with the visual and multi-modal constructs has the potential to enrich the pedagogy…

  10. Trafficking (in Representations: Understanding the recurring appeal of victimhood and slavery in neoliberal times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rutvica Andrijasevic

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Representations of trafficking and forced labour are pervasive within media, policymaking, and humanitarian debates, discourses and interventions. The terms exploitation and trafficking are increasingly used to characterise the work that migrants do in the sex industry and other irregular employment sectors. Of late, the notion of ‘modern slavery’ is on show in campaigns aiming to raise awareness about trafficking and funds for anti-trafficking initiatives among corporations and local enterprises as well as the general public. Celebrity interventions, militant documentaries, artistic works and fiction films have all become powerful vectors of the global distribution of the trafficking and ‘modern slavery’ rhetoric. These offer simplistic solutions to complex issues without challenging the structural and causal factors of inequality. Through fictional and narrow representations of ideal victims they tend to entrench racialised narratives and conflate all sex work with trafficking, which legitimates criminalising policies and interventions exacerbating the social vulnerability of sex workers. It is because of the under-researched role of representation in the development of anti-trafficking policies and initiatives that the Anti-Trafficking Review decided to devote a thematic issue on trafficking representations.

  11. Differentiating for Multiple Intelligences: A Study of Students' Understandings through the Use of Aesthetic Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crim, Courtney L.; Kennedy, Kimberley D.; Thornton, Jenifer S.

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews the relevant literature in regard to differentiation, multiple intelligences, and aesthetic representations. Next, it presents the methodology, reports findings, and discusses themes related to the authors' research questions. Finally, it concludes that tapping into students' multiple intelligence strength(s) is an excellent…

  12. The Effect of the Use of Number Lines Representations on Student Understanding of Basic Function Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, James R.

    Researchers and educators are calling for increased use of technology and attention to function concepts in school mathematics. Students often have considerable difficulty gleaning pointwise and global information from Cartesian (R squared) representations of functions, whether they are hand- or machine-produced. Described here is an interactive…

  13. Understanding movement control in infants through the analysis of limb intersegmental dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, K; Zernicke, R F; Ulrich, B D; Jensen, J L; Thelen, E

    1990-12-01

    One important component in the understanding of the control of limb movements is the way in which the central nervous system accounts for joint forces and torques that may be generated not only by muscle actions but by gravity and by passive reactions related to the movements of limb segments. In this study, we asked how the neuromotor system of young infants controls a range of active and passive forces to produce a stereotypic, nonintentional movement. We specifically analyzed limb intersegmental dynamics in spontaneous, cyclic leg movements (kicking) of varying intensity in supine 3-month-old human infants. Using inverse dynamics, we calculated the contributions of active (muscular) and passive (motion-dependent and gravitational) torque components at the hip, knee, and ankle joints from three-dimensional limb kinematics. To calculate joint torques, accurate estimates were needed of the limb's anthropometric parameters, which we determined using a model of the human body. Our analysis of limb intersegmental dynamics explicitly quantified the complex interplay of active and passive forces producing the simple, involuntary kicking movements commonly seen in 3-month-old infants. our results revealed that in nonvigorous kicks, hip joint reversal was the result of an extensor torque due to gravity, opposed by the combined flexor effect of the muscle torque and the total motion-dependent torque. The total motion-dependent torque increased as a hip flexor torque in more vigorous kicks; an extensor muscle torque was necessary to counteract the flexor influences of the total motion-dependent torque and, in the case of large ranges of motion, a flexor gravity torque as well. Thus, with changing passive torque influences due to motions of the linked segments, the muscle torques were adjusted to produce a net torque to reverse the kicking motion. As a consequence, despite considerable heterogeneity in the intensity, range of motion, coordination, and movement context of

  14. Understanding the physiology of sleep and promoting effective routines with infants in hospital and at home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Doreen

    2017-05-09

    Sleep is a biological necessity. Infants are unique individuals and what can be regarded as normal for one infant and his or her family may be considered a problem for another. Genetics, lifestyles, roles and responsibilities all influence sleep. This article explores the physiology of infant sleep and reviews how sleep is influenced by culture, events such as a hospital admission and parenting styles. It considers how the children's nurse can help and support a family who may feel that they have infant sleep-related issues. A good sleep pattern is essential for a child to succeed at school, reach their full potential and maintain their health and well-being.

  15. Improving Conceptual Understanding and Representation Skills Through Excel-Based Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Kathy L.; Schunn, Christian D.; Schuchardt, Anita M.

    2018-02-01

    The National Research Council framework for science education and the Next Generation Science Standards have developed a need for additional research and development of curricula that is both technologically model-based and includes engineering practices. This is especially the case for biology education. This paper describes a quasi-experimental design study to test the effectiveness of a model-based curriculum focused on the concepts of natural selection and population ecology that makes use of Excel modeling tools (Modeling Instruction in Biology with Excel, MBI-E). The curriculum revolves around the bio-engineering practice of controlling an invasive species. The study takes place in the Midwest within ten high schools teaching a regular-level introductory biology class. A post-test was designed that targeted a number of common misconceptions in both concept areas as well as representational usage. The results of a post-test demonstrate that the MBI-E students significantly outperformed the traditional classes in both natural selection and population ecology concepts, thus overcoming a number of misconceptions. In addition, implementing students made use of more multiple representations as well as demonstrating greater fascination for science.

  16. Understanding infants' and children's social learning about foods: previous research and new prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shutts, Kristin; Kinzler, Katherine D; DeJesus, Jasmine M

    2013-03-01

    Developmental psychologists have devoted significant attention to investigating how children learn from others' actions, emotions, and testimony. Yet most of this research has examined children's socially guided learning about artifacts. The present article focuses on a domain that has received limited attention from those interested in the development of social cognition: food. We begin by reviewing the available literature on infants' and children's development in the food domain and identify situations in which children evidence both successes and failures in their interactions with foods. We focus specifically on the role that other people play in guiding what children eat and argue that understanding patterns of successes and failures in the food domain requires an appreciation of eating as a social phenomenon. We next propose a series of questions for future research and suggest that examining food selection as a social phenomenon can shed light on mechanisms underlying children's learning from others and provide ideas for promoting healthy social relationships and eating behaviors early in development.

  17. Procedures as a Representation for Data in a Computer Program for Understanding Natural Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winograd, Terry

    This paper describes a system for the computer understanding of English. The system answers questions, executes commands, and accepts information in normal English dialogue. It uses semantic information and context to understand discourse and to disambiguate sentences. It combines a complete syntactic analysis of each sentence with a heuristic…

  18. Pre-Service Teachers' Understanding of Fraction Multiplication, Representational Knowledge, and Computational Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Ji-Won; Lee, Ji-Eun

    2016-01-01

    Despite the importance of teacher fractional knowledge, there are several areas of teacher understanding that are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to characterise profiles of pre-service teachers' (PSTs) mathematical competence on the topic of fraction multiplication by examining PSTs' understanding of multiplication of fractions…

  19. Parental Understanding of Infant Health Information: Health Literacy, Numeracy and the Parental Health Literacy Activities Test (PHLAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Disha; Sanders, Lee; Perrin, Eliana M.; Lokker, Nicole; Patterson, Baron; Gunn, Veronica; Finkle, Joanne; Franco, Vivian; Choi, Leena; Rothman, Russell L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To assess parental health literacy and numeracy skills in understanding instructions for caring for young children, and to develop and validate a new parental health literacy scale, the Parental Health Literacy Activities Test (PHLAT). Methods Caregivers of infants (age 9th-grade numeracy skills. Mean score on the PHLAT was 68% (SD 18); for example, only 47% of caregivers could correctly describe how to mix infant formula from concentrate, and only 69% could interpret a digital thermometer to determine if an infant had a fever. Higher performance on the PHLAT was significantly correlated (p<0.001) with education, literacy skill, and numeracy level (r=0.29, 0.38, and 0.55 respectively). Caregivers with higher PHLAT scores were also more likely to interpret age recommendations for cold medications correctly (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.02, 2.6). Internal reliability on the PHLAT was good (KR-20=0.76). The PHLAT-10 also demonstrated good validity and reliability. Conclusions Many parents do not understand common health information required to care for their infants. The PHLAT, and PHLAT-10 have good reliability and validity and may be useful tools for identifying parents who need better communication of health-related instructions. PMID:20674532

  20. The 'subjective' risk mapping: understanding of a technical risk representation by a professional group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertin, H.; Deleuze, G.

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents the application of a particular way to make risk maps, called 'subjective risk mapping'. It has been used to understand how the risk of tube rupture under pressure is understood, defined, and set in perspective with other risks in a professional group working in an industrial plant. (authors)

  1. Understanding How Reverse Engineers Make Sense of Programs from Assembly Language Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    disagreements. If codes had weak interrater reliability (0.4 or below), the categories would be removed or changed and the data was recoded. Disagreement and re... weaknesses in software to exploit organizational dependencies and lack of understanding of low-level technologies. Better trained Air Force personnel...Technical report, Department of Computer Science, University of Auckland , 1997. 51. Conrad F., Blair J., and Tracy E. “Verbal reports are data! A theoretical

  2. Aware Computing in Spatial Language Understanding Guided by Cognitively Inspired Knowledge Representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masao Yokota

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mental image directed semantic theory (MIDST has proposed an omnisensory mental image model and its description language Lmd. This language is designed to represent and compute human intuitive knowledge of space and can provide multimedia expressions with intermediate semantic descriptions in predicate logic. It is hypothesized that such knowledge and semantic descriptions are controlled by human attention toward the world and therefore subjective to each human individual. This paper describes Lmd expression of human subjective knowledge of space and its application to aware computing in cross-media operation between linguistic and pictorial expressions as spatial language understanding.

  3. Thinking processes of Filipino teachers representation of schema of some biology topics: Its effects to the students conceptual understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barquilla, Manuel B.

    2018-01-01

    This study is a qualitative-quantitative research, where the main concern is to investigate Content knowledge representation of Filipino Teachers in their schema (proposition, linear ordering and imagery) of some biology topics. The five biology topics includes: Photosynthesis, Cellular Respiration, human reproductive system, Mendelian genetics and NonMendelian genetics. The study focuses on the six (6) biology teachers and a total of 222 students in their respective classes. Of the Six (6) teachers, three (3) are under the Science curriculum and three (3) under regular curriculum in both public and private schools in Iligan city and Lanao del Norte, Philippines. The study utilizes interpretative case-study method, bracketing method, and concept analysis for qualitative part. For quantitative, it uses a nonparametric statistical tool, Kendall's Tau to determine congruence of students and teachers' concept maps and paired t-test for testing the significant differences of pre-and post-instruction concept maps to determine the effects of students' conceptual understanding before and after the teacher's representation of their schema that requires the teachers' thinking processes. The data were cross-validated with two or more techniques used in the study. The data collection entailed seven (7) months immersion: one (1) month for preliminary phase for the researcher to gain teachers' and students' confidence and the succeeding six (6) months for main observation and data collection. Results indicate that the teacher utilize six methods to construct meaning of concepts, three methods of representing classification, four methods to represent relationships, seven methods to represent transformation and three methods to represent causation in planning and implementing the lessons. They often modify definitions in the textbook and express these in lingua franca to be better understood by the students. Furthermore, the teachers' analogs given to student are sometimes far

  4. Infants' understanding of the definite/indefinite article in a third-party communicative situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, You-Jung; Song, Hyun-Joo; Luo, Yuyan

    2018-02-20

    The present study examines how infants use their emergent perspective-taking and language comprehension abilities to make sense of interactions between two human agents. In the study, one agent (Agent1) could see only one of two identical balls on an apparatus because of a screen obstructing her view while the infant and another agent (Agent2) could see both balls. 19-month-old English-learning monolingual infants seemed to expect Agent2 to grasp the ball visible to Agent1 when she said to Agent2 "Give me the ball" but not when she said "Give me a ball." 14-month-olds appeared to accept that Agent2 could grasp either ball when Agent1 said "Give me the ball." Therefore, by 19 months of age, English-learning infants seem to attend to the specific linguistic units used, e.g., the definite article, to identify the referent of others' speech. Possible reasons in connection with language acquisition processes and/or environmental factors for the two age groups' respective failures with the definite and the indefinite articles are discussed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Understanding Risk: Implications for Tracking High-Risk Infants and Making Early Service Delivery Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jens, Kenneth G.; Gordon, Betty N.

    1991-01-01

    This paper examines conceptualizations of risk, methods for identifying and tracking infants and children at risk, models developed for identifying and tracking these children, the concepts of vulnerability and resiliency as they relate to risk, and implications of the ways in which risk is defined and tracking programs are developed. (Author/JDD)

  6. Understanding the experiences of mothers who are breastfeeding an infant with tongue-tie: a phenomenological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmunds, Janet Elizabeth; Fulbrook, Paul; Miles, Sandra

    2013-05-01

    Tongue-tie or ankyloglossia is a congenital condition that negatively affects breastfeeding. The thickened, tightened, or shortened frenulum affects the infant's ability to suck and frequently results in sore and painful nipples. Although several studies have investigated outcomes associated with treatment of tongue-tie, none have investigated mothers' experiences of breastfeeding an infant with tongue-tie. This study aimed to understand the breastfeeding experiences of women whose infants have tongue-tie. A hermeneutic phenomenological design was employed. Data were collected using focused interviews and, following transcription, were analyzed in the phenomenological tradition. Ten women who presented at a breastfeeding clinic with feeding problems, and were diagnosed with tongue-tie, were interviewed on 2 occasions. The analysis revealed a common story of tension between the mothers' expectations and the breastfeeding challenges they faced. Their journey was characterized by 6 distinct phases described in the following themes: Expectations; Something is wrong; Questioning, seeking advice, no real answers; Symptoms and perseverance; Approaching the wall-it's all too much; and finally, Relief. The women in this study described a somewhat harrowing journey, which was at odds with the natural experience they had anticipated. They encountered health professionals who were found to have limited knowledge of tongue-tie and its potential effect on breastfeeding and were unable to provide appropriate advice concerning their breastfeeding difficulties. However, following treatment with frenotomy, their breastfeeding experience improved dramatically. The reported incidence of tongue-tie is significant, and early identification and prompt and effective management would contribute to improved breastfeeding.

  7. Socializing Infants toward a Cultural Understanding of Expressing Negative Affect: A Bakhtinian Informed Discursive Psychology Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demuth, Carolin

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses the socialization of emotion expression in infancy. It argues that in order to adequately understand emotion development we need to consider the appraisal of emotion expression through caregivers in mundane, everyday interactions. Drawing on sociocultural and Bakhtinian theorizing, it claims that caregivers' appraisals of…

  8. Teaching Transnationalism in the Caribbean: Toward an Understanding of Representation and Neo-Colonialism in Human Geography. Symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mains, Susan P.

    2004-01-01

    Undergraduate geography courses provide a significant entry way into representing and challenging dominant images of places and identities. Teaching geography in the Caribbean raises significant issues in terms of providing materials that explore representations of places and topics that are grounded in the region, while also moving beyond…

  9. The Assessment of Preterm Infants' Behavior (APIB): furthering the understanding and measurement of neurodevelopmental competence in preterm and full-term infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Als, Heidelise; Butler, Samantha; Kosta, Sandra; McAnulty, Gloria

    2005-01-01

    The Assessment of Preterm Infants' Behavior (APIB) is a newborn neurobehavioral assessment appropriate for preterm, at risk, and full-term newborns, from birth to 1 month after expected due date. The APIB is based in ethological-evolutionary thought and focuses on the assessment of mutually interacting behavioral subsystems in simultaneous interaction with the environment. The subsystems of functioning assessed include the autonomic (respiration, digestion, color), motor (tone, movement, postures), state organization (range, robustness, transition patterns), attention (robustness, transitions), and self-regulation (effort, success) systems as well as the degree of facilitation required to support reorganization and subsystem balance. The environment is represented by a sequence of distal, proximal, tactile, and vestibular challenges, derived from the BNBAS. The APIB conceptualizes infant competence as the degree of differentiation of subsystem function and degree of modulation of subsystem balance at any stage in infant development. Infants are understood as actively seeking their next differentiation, while counting on good enough environments to assure progressing developmental competence. In the case of interference such as premature birth, the mismatch of expectation and actual experience causes misalignment, which may become developmentally costly. The assessment is a finely tuned dialogue between examiner and infant, which requires training, skill and self-knowledge. The APIB has well established inter-rater-reliability, concurrent and construct validity, and is clinically relevant for behavioral intervention and individually appropriate and supportive care. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc

  10. Imitation of televised models by infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzoff, A N

    1988-10-01

    Studies indicate that infants in our culture are exposed to significant amounts of TV, often as a baby-sitting strategy by busy caretakers. The question arises whether TV viewing merely presents infants with a salient collection of moving patterns or whether they will readily pick up information depicted in this 2-D representation and incorporate it into their own behavior. Can infants "understand" the content of television enough to govern their real-world behavior accordingly? One way to explore this question is to present a model via television for infants to imitate. Infants' ability to imitate TV models was explored at 2 ages, 14 and 24 months, under conditions of immediate and deferred imitation. In deferred imitation, infants were exposed to a TV depiction of an adult manipulating a novel toy in a particular way but were not presented with the real toy until the next day. The results showed significant imitation at both ages, and furthermore showed that even the youngest group imitated after the 24-hour delay. The finding of deferred imitation of TV models has social and policy implications, because it suggests that TV viewing in the home could potentially affect infant behavior and development more than heretofore contemplated. The results also add to a growing body of literature on prelinguistic representational capacities. They do so in the dual sense of showing that infants can relate 2-D representations to their own actions on real objects in 3-D space, and moreover that the information picked up through TV can be internally represented over lengthy delays before it is used to guide the real-world action.

  11. Understanding representations of the roles of teachers and students of english as a foreign language in different contexts in the light of transitivity analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange Teresinha Ricardo de Castro

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the contributions of transitivity analysis to the comprehension of how individuals from both the educational and the professional contexts view the roles of teachers and students in the process of EFL learning and teaching. Representations are the meanings which are socio-historically constructed in the linguistic activity of the different practical activities in which individuals participate in the social formations they belong to. Data are from four research corpora. Participants were from: a basic education school, an undergraduate EFL teacher education course, the HR department of a company and an undergraduate hotel management and administration course. Participants of processes, processes and circumstances were examined. Results suggest transitivity analysis is a powerful instrument to understand representations of learning and teaching in relation to their contexts.

  12. What we can't see? Understanding the representations and meanings of UAI, barebacking, and semen exchange in gay male pornography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowlabocus, Sharif; Harbottle, Justin; Witzel, Charlie

    2014-01-01

    Since the late 1990s, the use of condoms within gay male pornography has been on the wane. Moving from a niche category into more mainstream forms of commercial pornography, unprotected anal sex has become a dominant theme within this sphere of gay male sexual representation. However, while the definition of what constitutes bareback pornography may at first sight appear unproblematic, this article argues that meanings and understandings of unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) are not constant across all genres of gay male pornography. Using textual analysis and focus group methods, the authors demonstrate how subcultural understandings of UAI are dependent on a variety of textual factors. These include the age, body type, and racial identities of the performers; the setting, context, and mise-en-scène of the pornographic scene; and the deployment of power relations between the insertive and receptive partners. The article concludes by suggesting that the recognition of the diverse representations of "barebacking" found in contemporary gay male pornography should influence the ways in which health promotion strategies address discussions of UAI and bareback pornography.

  13. Developing Seventh Grade Students' Understanding of Complex Environmental Problems with Systems Tools and Representations: a Quasi-experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doganca Kucuk, Zerrin; Saysel, Ali Kerem

    2017-03-01

    A systems-based classroom intervention on environmental education was designed for seventh grade students; the results were evaluated to see its impact on the development of systems thinking skills and standard science achievement and whether the systems approach is a more effective way to teach environmental issues that are dynamic and complex. A quasi-experimental methodology was used to compare performances of the participants in various dimensions, including systems thinking skills, competence in dynamic environmental problem solving and success in science achievement tests. The same pre-, post- and delayed tests were used with both the comparison and experimental groups in the same public middle school in Istanbul. Classroom activities designed for the comparison group (N = 20) followed the directives of the Science and Technology Curriculum, while the experimental group (N = 22) covered the same subject matter through activities benefiting from systems tools and representations such as behaviour over time graphs, causal loop diagrams, stock-flow structures and hands-on dynamic modelling. After a one-month systems-based instruction, the experimental group demonstrated significantly better systems thinking and dynamic environmental problem solving skills. Achievement in dynamic problem solving was found to be relatively stable over time. However, standard science achievement did not improve at all. This paper focuses on the quantitative analysis of the results, the weaknesses of the curriculum and educational implications.

  14. Understanding and Improving Health Education Among First-time Parents of Infants With Sickle Cell Anemia in Alabama: A Mixed Methods Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebensburger, Jeffrey D.; Grosse, Scott D.; Altice, Jessica L.; Thierry, JoAnn M.; Ivankova, Nataliya V.

    2015-01-01

    Summary With the increase in access to medical information, parents can acquire health information from multiple sources. An understanding of parents' reactions to a newborn infant's diagnosis of sickle cell anemia and how they acquire knowledge can identify parent beliefs and preferences about the process of sickle cell education. This study utilized a sequential exploratory mixed methods design. First, qualitative interviews were conducted with 8 parents of infants with sickle cell anemia to understand the process of health education. Second, quantitative surveys were conducted with 22 other parents to test qualitative findings. Parents of infants with sickle cell anemia expressed a high level of fear at the time of notification of a positive screen. Parents desired an understanding of how to identify acute complications of disease and how sickle cell will alter their child's life. Parents actively sought information at the time they were told their child had sickle cell disease. Sickle cell education should begin at time of notification of positive newborn screening results and address identified parent concerns. Health care providers should build trust with parents and provide them with immediate access to educational materials. Hematologists should work with primary care providers to develop complementary educational programs and resources. PMID:25072367

  15. Understanding the role of representations of human-leopard conflict in Mumbai through media-content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Saloni; Athreya, Vidya; Grenyer, Richard; MacDonald, David W

    2013-06-01

    Attempts to minimize the effects of human-wildlife conflict (HWC) on conservation goals require an understanding of the mechanisms by which such conflicts are caused and sustained. This necessitates looking beyond the natural sciences to the human dimensions of wildlife management. Public dissemination of information regarding HWC occurs largely through the mass media. We conducted a content analysis of print media articles on human-leopard conflict in Mumbai, India. We sought to understand the framing of HWC and the changes in media coverage over a 10-year period (2001-2011) during which a large number of attacks on people prior to 2005 were followed by a program of trapping and relocation. After 2005, when there was a decrease in the level of conflict, the tone of English-language media reports changed. The perpetrator framing was over 5 times more likely before 2005, whereas a neutral framing was twice as likely after 2005. English-language and non-English-language print media differed significantly in their framing of HWC and in the kinds of solutions advocated. Our results also suggest the print mass media in Mumbai could be an influential conduit for content that diminishes HWC. These media outlets seem attentive to human-leopard conflict, capable of correcting erroneous perceptions and facilitating mitigation and effective management. We believe better contact and mutual understanding between conservation professionals and the mass media could be an important component of managing HWC. We further suggest that in such interactions conservation professionals need to be aware of cultural and linguistic differences in reporting within the country. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  16. Mental Representation in The Thought of Sidney Blatt: Developmental Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerbach, John S; Diamond, Diana

    2017-06-01

    Mental representation was a central construct in Sidney Blatt's contributions to psychology and psychoanalysis. This brief review demonstrates that Blatt's understanding of representation was always informed by basic psychoanalytic concepts like the centrality of early caregiver-infant relationships and of unconscious mental processes. Although Blatt's earlier writings were informed by psychoanalytic ego psychology and Piagetian cognitive developmental psychology, they focused nonetheless on how an individual uses bodily and relational experiences to construct an object world; they also consistently presented object representations as having significant unconscious dimensions. From the mid-1980s onward, Blatt's contributions, in dialogue with his many students, moved in an even more experiential/relational direction and manifested the influence of attachment theory, parent-infant interaction research, and intersubjectivity theory. They also incorporated contemporary cognitive psychology, with its emphasis on implicit or procedural, rather than explicit, dimensions as a means of accounting for aspects of object representations that are not in conscious awareness. Throughout his career, however, Blatt regarded mental representation as the construct that mediates between the child's earliest bodily and relational experiences and the mature adult's symbolic, most emotionally profound capacities.

  17. Social representations of women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Estramiana, José Luis

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Social Representations is one of the most important theories in contemporary social psychology. Since the social psychologist Serge Moscovici developed his theory of social representations to explain how a scientific theory such as the psychoanalysis turns into a common sense knowledge many studies have been done by different social psychologists. The analysis of the social representations of women as represented in myths and popular beliefs is an excellent opportunity to study how this theory can be applied to this representational field. At the same time it makes possible to understand the formation of attitudes towards women

  18. The mental representation of the human gait in patients with severe knee osteoarthrosis: a clinical study to aid understanding of impairment and disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacksteit, Robert; Mau-Moeller, Anett; Behrens, Martin; Bader, Rainer; Mittelmeier, Wolfram; Skripitz, Ralf; Stöckel, Tino

    2018-01-01

    Objectives were (1) to explore differences in gait-specific long-term memory structures and gait performance between knee osteoarthrosis patients and healthy subjects and (2) to identify the extent to which the gait-specific mental representation is associated with gait performance. Cross-sectional study. In total, 18 knee osteoarthrosis patients and 18 control subjects. Spatio-temporal (gait speed, step length) and temporophasic (stance time, swing time, single support time, total double support time) gait parameters and gait variability were measured with an electronic walkway (OptoGait). The mental representation was assessed using the structural dimensional analysis of mental representations (SDA-M). (1) Patients showed significantly longer stance times ( P representation as compared with the healthy controls. (2) Correlation analyses revealed the mental representation of the human gait to be associated with actual gait performance in osteoarthrosis patients. Double support times were positively associated with the structural quality of the mental representation and step length variability was positively associated with the number of sequencing errors in the representation. The gait-specific mental representation and actual gait performance differ between patients with severe knee osteoarthrosis and healthy controls, and both are linked to one another. This finding suggests that musculoskeletal disorders can lead to changes in the mental representation of the gait, and as such the SDA-M could provide useful information to improve the rehabilitation following osteoarthrosis.

  19. Analysis of Student Understanding of Science Concepts Including Mathematical Representations: Ph Values and the Relative Differences of pH Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun-Jung; Choi, Kyunghee

    2013-01-01

    In general, mathematical representations such as formulae, numbers, and graphs are the inseparable components in science used to better describe or explain scientific phenomena or knowledge. Regardless of their necessity and benefit, science seems to be difficult for some students, as a result of the mathematical representations and problem…

  20. Representational Thickness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mullins, Michael

    Contemporary communicational and informational processes contribute to the shaping of our physical environment by having a powerful influence on the process of design. Applications of virtual reality (VR) are transforming the way architecture is conceived and produced by introducing dynamic...... elements into the process of design. Through its immersive properties, virtual reality allows access to a spatial experience of a computer model very different to both screen based simulations as well as traditional forms of architectural representation. The dissertation focuses on processes of the current...... by ‘professionals’ to ‘laypeople’. The thesis articulates problems in VR’s current application, specifically the CAVE and Panorama theatres, and seeks an understanding of how these problems may be addressed. The central questions that have motivated this research project are thus: What is architectural VR...

  1. Group and representation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Vergados, J D

    2017-01-01

    This volume goes beyond the understanding of symmetries and exploits them in the study of the behavior of both classical and quantum physical systems. Thus it is important to study the symmetries described by continuous (Lie) groups of transformations. We then discuss how we get operators that form a Lie algebra. Of particular interest to physics is the representation of the elements of the algebra and the group in terms of matrices and, in particular, the irreducible representations. These representations can be identified with physical observables. This leads to the study of the classical Lie algebras, associated with unitary, unimodular, orthogonal and symplectic transformations. We also discuss some special algebras in some detail. The discussion proceeds along the lines of the Cartan-Weyl theory via the root vectors and root diagrams and, in particular, the Dynkin representation of the roots. Thus the representations are expressed in terms of weights, which are generated by the application of the elemen...

  2. Self-Representation and Brain Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Michael; Carmody, Dennis P.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the relation between self-representation and brain development in infants and young children. Self-representation was assessed by mirror recognition, personal pronoun use, and pretend play. Structural brain images were obtained from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Brain development was assessed by a quantitative measure of…

  3. Categorification and higher representation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Beliakova, Anna

    2017-01-01

    The emergent mathematical philosophy of categorification is reshaping our view of modern mathematics by uncovering a hidden layer of structure in mathematics, revealing richer and more robust structures capable of describing more complex phenomena. Categorified representation theory, or higher representation theory, aims to understand a new level of structure present in representation theory. Rather than studying actions of algebras on vector spaces where algebra elements act by linear endomorphisms of the vector space, higher representation theory describes the structure present when algebras act on categories, with algebra elements acting by functors. The new level of structure in higher representation theory arises by studying the natural transformations between functors. This enhanced perspective brings into play a powerful new set of tools that deepens our understanding of traditional representation theory. This volume exhibits some of the current trends in higher representation theory and the diverse te...

  4. A cross-talk between brain-damage patients and infants on action and language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papeo, Liuba; Hochmann, Jean-Remy

    2012-06-01

    Sensorimotor representations in the brain encode the sensory and motor aspects of one's own bodily activity. It is highly debated whether sensorimotor representations are the core basis for the representation of action-related knowledge and, in particular, action words, such as verbs. In this review, we will address this question by bringing to bear insights from the study of brain-damaged patients exhibiting language disorders and from the study of the mechanisms for language acquisition in infants. Cognitive neuropsychology studies have assessed how damage to representations supporting action production impacts patients' ability to process action-related words. While correlations between verbal and nonverbal (motor) impairments are very common in patients, damage to the representations for action production can leave the ability to understand action-words unaffected; likewise, actions can still be produced successfully in cases of impaired action-word understanding. Studies with infants have evaluated the relevance of sensorimotor information when infants learn to map a novel word onto an action that they are performing or perceiving. These results demonstrate that sensorimotor information is insufficient to fully account for the complexity of verb learning: in this process, infants seem to privilege abstract constructs such as goal, intentionality and causality, as well as syntactic constraints, over the perceptual and motor dimensions of an action. Altogether, the empirical data suggest that, while not crucial for verb learning and understanding, sensorimotor processes can contribute to solving the problem of symbol grounding and/or serve as a primary mechanism in social cognition, to learn about others' goals and intentions. By assessing the relevance of sensorimotor representations in the way action-related words are acquired and represented, we aim to provide a useful set of criteria for testing specific predictions made by different theories of concepts

  5. A qualitative Kaupapa Māori approach to understanding infant and young child feeding practices of Māori and Pacific grandparents in Auckland, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapera, Rachel; Harwood, Matire; Anderson, Anneka

    2017-04-01

    The present research sought to better understand the barriers, facilitators, attitudes and beliefs that influence the way Māori and Samoan grandparents feed their grandchildren in a deprived urban neighbourhood in New Zealand. The research adopted a qualitative methodology that was consistent with a Kaupapa Māori research approach. Seven semi-structured interviews were conducted with grandparents to collect narrative data. Sampling occurred in one Auckland suburb. The suburb was selected because of its high level of socio-economic deprivation and ethnic diversity. Seven grandparents participated in the study (five Māori and two Samoan). Each participant met the inclusion criteria (i.e. they had provided at least five meals per week over the previous three months to grandchildren aged less than 24 months). Marae (i.e. meeting houses and areas used by local Māori tribes/sub-tribes) and community organisations were used to recruit participants. A general inductive thematic analysis identified four key themes: (i) grandparents' understanding of optimal feeding practices; (ii) economic and material factors; (iii) previous experiences and customary norms; and (iv) social support and societal pressure. The study showed that grandparents' complementary feeding practices in caring for infant grandchildren were influenced by upstream structural elements such as government policies related to welfare and pensions, employment, income and cultural knowledge. Frameworks that seek to achieve social justice and support cultural practices should be employed and promoted in the development of future policy and research in this area.

  6. Poetic representation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulf-Andersen, Trine Østergaard

    2012-01-01

    , and dialogue, of situated participants. The article includes a lengthy example of a poetic representation of one participant’s story, and the author comments on the potentials of ‘doing’ poetic representations as an example of writing in ways that challenges what sometimes goes unasked in participative social...

  7. Mother and Infant Talk about Mental States: Systemic Emergence of Psychological Lexicon and Theory of Mind Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollo, D.; Buttiglieri, F.

    In recent years, a number of studies that have examined how social experiences are related to children's theory of mind development, have found that: (1) the frequency of mothers' mental state utterances used in mother-child picture-book reading, is correlated with children's theory of mind abilities; (2) mothers' use of cognitive terms is related more strongly to children's theory of mind performances than the mothers' references to other mental states, such as desires or emotions (Adrian, Clemente, Villanueva, Rieffe, 2005; Ruffman, Slade, Crowe, 2002; Taumoepeau, Ruffman, 2006; Dunn, 2002). Despite the evidence for the role of mothers' language, there is disagreement over how exactly it improves children's theory of mind development. In short, mentalistic comments contain distinctive words, grammatical constructions and pragmatic features. The question is, however, which factor is critical (de Rosnay, Pons, Harris, Morrell, 2004). The present study addresses this issue and focuses on relationship between mothers' mental state terms and children's performances in theory of mind tasks (emotion understanding and false belief tasks). Mothers were asked to read some pictures to 10 children between 3;0 and 5;0. Among the different mental state references (perceptual, emotional, volitional, cognitive, moral and communicative), it was found that the frequency and variety of mothers' mental state words were significantly associated with children's mental lexicon. In addition, emotional terms correlated positively with children's false belief performance. Kind of emotional words that are used by the mothers with reference to the Italian language will be discussed.

  8. Imitation and the Dialectic of Representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelazo, Philip David; Lourenco, Stella Felix

    2003-01-01

    Describes a theory of the understanding and use of representations, drawing heavily on Paul Ricoeur's and James Mark Baldwin's theories. Presents this theory as construing representation as intrinsically mimetic, characterizing the development of representational understanding as internalization, and emphasizing the importance of self-reflection…

  9. The 'subjective' risk mapping: understanding of a technical risk representation by a professional group; La cartographie 'subjective' des risques: comprendre la representation d'un risque technique par un groupe professionnel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertin, H.; Deleuze, G. [Electricite de France (EDF-RD), Management des Risques Industriels, 92 - Clamart (France)

    2006-07-01

    The paper presents the application of a particular way to make risk maps, called 'subjective risk mapping'. It has been used to understand how the risk of tube rupture under pressure is understood, defined, and set in perspective with other risks in a professional group working in an industrial plant. (authors)

  10. Meaningful Representations Prevent Catastrophic Interference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bieger, J.; Sprinkhuizen-Kuyper, I.G.; Rooij, I.J.E.I. van; Calders, T.; Tuyls, K.; Pechenizkiy, M.

    2009-01-01

    Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) attempt to mimic human neural networks in order to perform tasks. In order to do this, tasks need to be represented in ways that the network understands. In ANNs these representations are often arbitrary, whereas in humans it seems that these representations are

  11. An association account of false belief understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bruin, L C; Newen, A

    2012-05-01

    The elicited-response false belief task has traditionally been considered as reliably indicating that children acquire an understanding of false belief around 4 years of age. However, recent investigations using spontaneous-response tasks suggest that false belief understanding emerges much earlier. This leads to a developmental paradox: if young infants already understand false belief, then why do they fail the elicited-response false belief task? We postulate two systems to account for the development of false belief understanding: an association module, which provides infants with the capacity to register congruent associations between agents and objects, and an operating system, which allows them to transform these associations into incongruent associations through a process of inhibition, selection and representation. The interaction between the association module and the operating system enables infants to register increasingly complex associations on the basis of another agent's movements, visual perspective and propositional attitudes. This allows us account for the full range of findings on false belief understanding. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Representational Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    to the enterprises of the medium. This is the subject of Representational Machines: How photography enlists the workings of institutional technologies in search of establishing new iconic and social spaces. Together, the contributions to this edited volume span historical epochs, social environments, technological...

  13. Altered Processing and Integration of Multisensory Bodily Representations and Signals in Eating Disorders: A Possible Path Toward the Understanding of Their Underlying Causes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, Giuseppe; Dakanalis, Antonios

    2018-01-01

    According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM V) eating problems are the clinical core of eating disorders (EDs). However, the importance of shape and weight overvaluation symptoms in these disorders underlines the critical role of the experience of the body in the etiology of EDs. This article suggests that the transdiagnostic centrality of these symptoms in individuals with EDs may reflect a deficit in the processing and integration of multisensory bodily representations and signals. Multisensory body integration is a critical cognitive and perceptual process, allowing the individual to protect and extend her/his boundaries at both the homeostatic and psychological levels. To achieve this goal the brain integrates sensory data arriving from real-time multiple sensory modalities and internal bodily information with predictions made using the stored information about the body from conceptual, perceptual, and episodic memory. In this view the emotional, visual, tactile, proprioceptive and interoceptive deficits reported by many authors in individuals with EDs may reflect a broader impairment in multisensory body integration that affects the individual's abilities: (a) to identify the relevant interoceptive signals that predict potential pleasant (or aversive) consequences; and (b) to modify/correct the autobiographical allocentric (observer view) memories of body related events (self-objectified memories). Based on this view, the article also proposes a strategy, based on new technologies (i.e., virtual reality and brain/body stimulation), for using crossmodal associations to reactivate and correct the multisensory body integration processes.

  14. Altered Processing and Integration of Multisensory Bodily Representations and Signals in Eating Disorders: A Possible Path Toward the Understanding of Their Underlying Causes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Riva

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM V eating problems are the clinical core of eating disorders (EDs. However, the importance of shape and weight overvaluation symptoms in these disorders underlines the critical role of the experience of the body in the etiology of EDs. This article suggests that the transdiagnostic centrality of these symptoms in individuals with EDs may reflect a deficit in the processing and integration of multisensory bodily representations and signals. Multisensory body integration is a critical cognitive and perceptual process, allowing the individual to protect and extend her/his boundaries at both the homeostatic and psychological levels. To achieve this goal the brain integrates sensory data arriving from real-time multiple sensory modalities and internal bodily information with predictions made using the stored information about the body from conceptual, perceptual, and episodic memory. In this view the emotional, visual, tactile, proprioceptive and interoceptive deficits reported by many authors in individuals with EDs may reflect a broader impairment in multisensory body integration that affects the individual’s abilities: (a to identify the relevant interoceptive signals that predict potential pleasant (or aversive consequences; and (b to modify/correct the autobiographical allocentric (observer view memories of body related events (self-objectified memories. Based on this view, the article also proposes a strategy, based on new technologies (i.e., virtual reality and brain/body stimulation, for using crossmodal associations to reactivate and correct the multisensory body integration processes.

  15. Representational Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersson, Dag; Dahlgren, Anna; Vestberg, Nina Lager

    Photography not only represents space. Space is produced photographically. Since its inception in the 19th century, photography has brought to light a vast array of represented subjects. Always situated in some spatial order, photographic representations have been operatively underpinned by social...... to the enterprises of the medium. This is the subject of Representational Machines: How photography enlists the workings of institutional technologies in search of establishing new iconic and social spaces. Together, the contributions to this edited volume span historical epochs, social environments, technological......, technical, and institutional mechanisms. Geographically, bodily, and geometrically, the camera has positioned its subjects in social structures and hierarchies, in recognizable localities, and in iconic depth constructions which, although they show remarkable variation, nevertheless belong specifically...

  16. Infant Mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Midwest. Top of Page Infant Mortality Rates by Race and Ethnicity, 2015 *Source: Table 1 (p. 79) ... 1.27MB] . In 2015, infant mortality rates by race and ethnicity were as follows: Non-Hispanic black ...

  17. Excessive Leucine-mTORC1-Signalling of Cow Milk-Based Infant Formula: The Missing Link to Understand Early Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnik, Bodo C.

    2012-01-01

    Increased protein supply by feeding cow-milk-based infant formula in comparison to lower protein content of human milk is a well-recognized major risk factor of childhood obesity. However, there is yet no conclusive biochemical concept explaining the mechanisms of formula-induced childhood obesity. It is the intention of this article to provide the biochemical link between leucine-mediated signalling of mammalian milk proteins and adipogenesis as well as early adipogenic programming. Leucine has been identified as the predominant signal transducer of mammalian milk, which stimulates the nutrient-sensitive kinase mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). Leucine thus functions as a maternal-neonatal relay for mTORC1-dependent neonatal β-cell proliferation and insulin secretion. The mTORC1 target S6K1 plays a pivotal role in stimulation of mesenchymal stem cells to differentiate into adipocytes and to induce insulin resistance. It is of most critical concern that infant formulas provide higher amounts of leucine in comparison to human milk. Exaggerated leucine-mediated mTORC1-S6K1 signalling induced by infant formulas may thus explain increased adipogenesis and generation of lifelong elevated adipocyte numbers. Attenuation of mTORC1 signalling of infant formula by leucine restriction to physiologic lower levels of human milk offers a great chance for the prevention of childhood obesity and obesity-related metabolic diseases. PMID:22523661

  18. Excessive Leucine-mTORC1-Signalling of Cow Milk-Based Infant Formula: The Missing Link to Understand Early Childhood Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodo C. Melnik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased protein supply by feeding cow-milk-based infant formula in comparison to lower protein content of human milk is a well-recognized major risk factor of childhood obesity. However, there is yet no conclusive biochemical concept explaining the mechanisms of formula-induced childhood obesity. It is the intention of this article to provide the biochemical link between leucine-mediated signalling of mammalian milk proteins and adipogenesis as well as early adipogenic programming. Leucine has been identified as the predominant signal transducer of mammalian milk, which stimulates the nutrient-sensitive kinase mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1. Leucine thus functions as a maternal-neonatal relay for mTORC1-dependent neonatal β-cell proliferation and insulin secretion. The mTORC1 target S6K1 plays a pivotal role in stimulation of mesenchymal stem cells to differentiate into adipocytes and to induce insulin resistance. It is of most critical concern that infant formulas provide higher amounts of leucine in comparison to human milk. Exaggerated leucine-mediated mTORC1-S6K1 signalling induced by infant formulas may thus explain increased adipogenesis and generation of lifelong elevated adipocyte numbers. Attenuation of mTORC1 signalling of infant formula by leucine restriction to physiologic lower levels of human milk offers a great chance for the prevention of childhood obesity and obesity-related metabolic diseases.

  19. Reaching the goal: Active experience facilitates 8-month-old infants' prospective analysis of goal-based actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogh-Jespersen, Sheila; Woodward, Amanda L

    2018-02-27

    From early in development, infants view others' actions as structured by intentions, and this action knowledge may be supported by shared action production/perception systems. Because the motor system is inherently prospective, infants' understanding of goal-directed actions should support predictions of others' future actions, yet little is known about the nature and developmental origins of this ability, specifically whether young infants use the goal-directed nature of an action to rapidly predict future social behaviors and whether their action experience influences this ability. Across three conditions, we varied the level of action experience infants engaged in to determine whether motor priming influenced infants' ability to generate rapid social predictions. Results revealed that young infants accurately generated goal-based visual predictions when they had previously been reaching for objects; however, infants who passively observed a demonstration were less successful. Further analyses showed that engaging the cognitively based prediction system to generate goal-based predictions following motor engagement resulted in slower latencies to predict, suggesting that these smart predictions take more time to deploy. Thus, 8-month-old infants may have motor representations of goal-directed actions, yet this is not sufficient for them to predict others' actions; rather, their own action experience supports the ability to rapidly implement knowledge to predict future behavior. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Conceptions of Knowledge in Research on Students' Understanding of the Greenhouse Effect: Methodological Positions and Their Consequences for Representations of Knowing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsson, Anders; Makitalo, Asa; Saljo, Roger

    2009-01-01

    Much of the research on students' understanding of the greenhouse effect and global warming reports poor results. Students are claimed to hold misconceptions and naive beliefs, and the impact of teaching on their conceptions is also low. In the present study, these results are called into question, and it is argued that they may to a large extent…

  1. Body Representation in the First Year of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zieber, Nicole; Bhatt, Ramesh S.; Hayden, Angela; Kangas, Ashley; Collins, Rebecca; Bada, Henrietta

    2010-01-01

    Like faces, bodies are significant sources of social information. However, research suggests that infants do not develop body representation (i.e., knowledge about typical human bodies) until the second year of life, although they are sensitive to facial information much earlier. Yet, previous research only examined whether infants are sensitive…

  2. Maternal postnatal psychiatric symptoms and infant temperament affect early mother-infant bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolvi, Saara; Karlsson, Linnea; Bridgett, David J; Pajulo, Marjukka; Tolvanen, Mimmi; Karlsson, Hasse

    2016-05-01

    Postnatal mother-infant bonding refers to the early emotional bond between mothers and infants. Although some factors, such as maternal mental health, especially postnatal depression, have been considered in relation to mother-infant bonding, few studies have investigated the role of infant temperament traits in early bonding. In this study, the effects of maternal postnatal depressive and anxiety symptoms and infant temperament traits on mother-infant bonding were examined using both mother and father reports of infant temperament. Data for this study came from the first phase of the FinnBrain Birth Cohort Study (n=102, father reports n=62). After controlling for maternal symptoms of depression and anxiety, mother-reported infant positive emotionality, measured by infant smiling was related to better mother-infant bonding. In contrast, infant negative emotionality, measured by infant distress to limitations was related to lower quality of bonding. In regards to father-report infant temperament, only infant distress to limitations (i.e., frustration/anger) was associated with lower quality of mother-infant bonding. These findings underline the importance of infant temperament as one factor contributing to early parent-infant relationships, and counseling parents in understanding and caring for infants with different temperament traits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. What you get is what you believe: eighteen-month-olds demonstrate belief understanding in an unexpected-identity task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttelmann, Frances; Suhrke, Janina; Buttelmann, David

    2015-03-01

    Based on recent findings of implicit studies, researchers have claimed that even infants can understand others' false beliefs. However, it is unclear whether infants are able to understand others' belief about an object's identity when this object can be represented in different ways. In a novel interactive unexpected-identity task derived from the appearance-reality paradigm, 18-month-olds helped an adult to achieve her goal based on the adult's belief about an object's identity. To do so, they needed to understand how this adult represented this object--according to its appearance or its real identity--and to generalize these representations to a category of objects. The results suggest that infants' false-belief understanding is as sophisticated as that of preschool children. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Contribution of stable isotope to better understand breastfed infant nutritional status in burkina Faso: Longitudinal study with body composition measurement at one year

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coulibaly, Nadine; Zeba, Augustin; Ouedraogo, Jean-Bosco; Somda, Serge Manituo

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Background and objectives: Exclusive breastfeeding for six months, followed by the introduction of appropriate complementary foods and continued breastfeeding, as recommended by the World Health Organization, are cornerstones in infant nutrition. In Burkina Faso, only limited information is available on the quantities of human milk consumed and the time of introduction of other foods into infants’ diets and the effect of feeding practice on the infant’s growth. In this work we analyzed infant’s nutritional status according to their feeding practice. Methods: We used the deuterium oxide (DO) dose-to-the mother technique to measure the human milk intake (HM) as well as the non-milk water intake (non-HM) by the babies at 3, 6, 9 and 12 mo. We also evaluated the infant body composition at 12 mo by giving a dose of DO to the babies in order to determine the fat-free mass (FFM) and the fat mass (FM). Saliva samples were collected from the babies and their mother and the DO enrichment in saliva was analyzed by FTIR. At each period, the anthropometric measurements were done to assess the infant nutritional status at 3,6, 9 and 12 mo according to the WHO standards. Results: The HM was maximum at 3 mo with a mean of 968.1 ml (95%CI = 847.2 ml-1089.1 ml), decreased at 6 mo to 918.4 ml (95%CI = 815.9 ml-1020.8 ml) that didn’t change until 12 mo. The non-HM that was 54.6 ml (95%CI = -12.6 ml-121.7 ml) increased significantly (p = 0.001) to 175.2 ml (95%CI = 100.2 ml-250.4 ml) at 6 mo. Exclusive breastfeeding was 32% at 3 mo and reduced to 16% at 6 mo. Breastfeeding was predominant after 6 mo and the contribution of HM in infant feeding was 80% at 9 mo and 69% at 12 mo. The anthropometric measurement showed that wasting was 1.5% at 3 mo but increase significantly (p = 0.04) to 8.7% at 6 mo. The DO dose to mother confirmed that all of the malnourished infants were not exclusive breastfed. At 9 mo the WHZ<-2 was reduced to 6.8%, but 4.5% of the children were

  5. Maternal attachment representations after very preterm birth and the effect of early intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijssen, Dominique; Wolf, Marie-Jeanne; van Bakel, Hedwig; Koldewijn, Karen; Kok, Joke; van Baar, Anneloes

    2011-01-01

    Objective: For very preterm infants the mother-infant relationship may be compromised. Maternal attachment representations 18 (corrected) months after very preterm birth and the effect of the post-discharge Infant Behavioral Assessment and Intervention Program (IBAIP) were studied. The IBAIP is

  6. When data representation compromise data security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Eivind Ortind; Dahl, Mads Ronald

    WHEN DATA REPRESENTATION COMPROMISE DATA SECURITY The workflow of transforming data into informative representations makes extensive usage of computers and software. Scientists have a conventional tradition for producing publications that include tables and graphs as data representations. These r...... the software companies having more interest in understanding and solving this type of data security issues.......WHEN DATA REPRESENTATION COMPROMISE DATA SECURITY The workflow of transforming data into informative representations makes extensive usage of computers and software. Scientists have a conventional tradition for producing publications that include tables and graphs as data representations....... These representations can be used for multiple purposes such as publications in journals, teaching and conference material. But when created, stored and distributed in a digital form there is a risk of compromising data security. Data beyond the once used specifically to create the representation can be included...

  7. Do infants discriminate non-linguistic vocal expressions of positive emotions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soderstrom, Melanie; Reimchen, Melissa; Sauter, Disa; Morgan, James L

    2017-02-01

    Adults are highly proficient in understanding emotional signals from both facial and vocal cues, including when communicating across cultural boundaries. However, the developmental origin of this ability is poorly understood, and in particular, little is known about the ontogeny of differentiation of signals with the same valence. The studies reported here employed a habituation paradigm to test whether preverbal infants discriminate between non-linguistic vocal expressions of relief and triumph. Infants as young as 6 months who had habituated to relief or triumph showed significant discrimination of relief and triumph tokens at test (i.e. greater recovery to the unhabituated stimulus type), when exposed to tokens from a single individual (Study 1). Infants habituated to expressions from multiple individuals showed less consistent discrimination in that consistent discrimination was only found when infants were habituated to relief tokens (Study 2). Further, infants tested with tokens from individuals from different cultures showed dishabituation only when habituated to relief tokens and only at 10-12 months (Study 3). These findings suggest that discrimination between positive emotional expressions develops early and is modulated by learning. Further, infants' categorical representations of emotional expressions, like those of speech sounds, are influenced by speaker-specific information.

  8. Music therapy microanalysis of parent-infant interaction in a three-month-old infant later diagnosed with autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdinando Suvini

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Infant research literature has described for a long time the main aspects of parentese (motherese and fatherese referring to musicality and specifically to musical language. It is believed that there is a deep analogy between the vital affects experienced by the child during interaction with the parent and the type of parentese that is a direct representation of them. Disruption of parentese has been described in early autism. The aim of this paper was to achieve a better understanding of this disruptive process. Participants and procedure Sequences of parent-infant interaction extracted from one home movie of a child later diagnosed with autism were analyzed in a micro-musical way in order to create a musical score that allows the description of parent-infant interaction in a new way (considering form, pulse, rhythm, melody, timbre and silence. Results Musical microanalysis is able to highlight features not brought out by other kinds of analysis. The first fragment is dominated by the anxiety of the mother, who attempts to stimulate the unresponsive infant. In the second fragment there is a change in musicality parallel to changes in the relationship: the mother participates in and coordinates the infant’s experience through rhythm, prosody and musical dynamics. This change persists in the third fragment. Conclusions Musical transcription of parent-infant interactions has allowed us to highlight changes occurring in a short time during early interactions and to get a closer view of the disruptive process created by autism. This kind of research represents a potential shift in autism research, by focusing on dynamic parent-infant interactions instead of single behaviors of the child or of the parent. The usefulness of Stern’s concept of intersubjective communion is discussed.

  9. Emotional experience in music fosters 18-month-olds' emotion-action understanding: a training study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Tik Sze Carrey; Cheung, Him

    2016-11-01

    We examine whether emotional experiences induced via music-making promote infants' use of emotional cues to predict others' action. Fifteen-month-olds were randomly assigned to participate in interactive emotion training either with or without musical engagement for three months. Both groups were then re-tested with two violation-of-expectation paradigms respectively assessing their sensitivity to some expressive features in music and understanding of the link between emotion and behaviour in simple action sequences. The infants who had participated in music, but not those who had not, were surprised by music-face inconsistent displays and were able to interpret an agent's action as guided by her expressed emotion. The findings suggest a privileged role of musical experience in prompting infants to form emotional representations, which support their understanding of the association between affective states and action. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL OF PARENT-INFANT PSYCHOTHERAPY FOR PARENTS WITH MENTAL HEALTH PROBLEMS AND YOUNG INFANTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonagy, Peter; Sleed, Michelle; Baradon, Tessa

    2016-01-01

    There is a dearth of good-quality research investigating the outcomes of psychoanalytic parent-infant psychotherapy (PIP). This randomized controlled trial investigated the outcomes of PIP for parents with mental health problems who also were experiencing high levels of social adversity and their young infants (<12 months). Dyads were clinically referred and randomly allocated to PIP or a control condition of standard secondary and specialist primary care treatment (n = 38 in each group). Outcomes were assessed at baseline and at 6-month and 12-month follow-ups. The primary outcome was infant development. Secondary outcomes included parent-infant interaction, maternal psychopathology, maternal representations, maternal reflective functioning, and infant attachment. There were no differential effects over time between the groups on measures of infant development, parent-infant interaction, or maternal reflective functioning. Infant attachment classifications, measured only at the 12-month follow-up, did not differ between the groups. There were favorable outcomes over time for the PIP-treated dyads relative to the control group on several measures of maternal mental health, parenting stress, and parental representations of the baby and their relationship. The findings indicate potential benefits of parent-infant psychotherapy for improving mothers' psychological well-being and their representations of their baby and the parent-infant relationship. © 2016 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  11. Adult Attachment Styles Associated with Brain Activity in Response to Infant Faces in Nulliparous Women: An Event-Related Potentials Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Chen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Adult attachment style is a key for understanding emotion regulation and feelings of security in human interactions as well as for the construction of the caregiving system. The caregiving system is a group of representations about affiliative behaviors, which is guided by the caregiver’s sensitivity and empathy, and is mature in young adulthood. Appropriate perception and interpretation of infant emotions is a crucial component of the formation of a secure attachment relationship between infant and caregiver. As attachment styles influence the ways in which people perceive emotional information, we examined how different attachment styles associated with brain response to the perception of infant facial expressions in nulliparous females with secure, anxious, and avoidant attachment styles. The event-related potentials of 65 nulliparous females were assessed during a facial recognition task with joy, neutral, and crying infant faces. The results showed that anxiously attached females exhibited larger N170 amplitudes than those with avoidant attachment in response to all infant faces. Regarding the P300 component, securely attached females showed larger amplitudes to all infant faces in comparison with avoidantly attached females. Moreover, anxiously attached females exhibited greater amplitudes than avoidantly attached females to only crying infant faces. In conclusion, the current results provide evidence that attachment style differences are associated with brain responses to the perception of infant faces. Furthermore, these findings further separate the psychological mechanisms underlying the caregiving behavior of those with anxious and avoidant attachment from secure attachment.

  12. Understanding Confidence Intervals With Visual Representations

    OpenAIRE

    Navruz, Bilgin; Delen, Erhan

    2014-01-01

    In the present paper, we showed how confidence intervals (CIs) are valuable and useful in research studies when they are used in the correct form with correct interpretations. The sixth edition of the APA (2010) Publication Manual strongly recommended reporting CIs in research studies, and it was described as “the best reporting strategy” (p. 34). Misconceptions and correct interpretations of CIs were presented from several textbooks. In addition, limitations of the null hypothesis statistica...

  13. Body Maps in the Infant Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Peter J.; Meltzoff, Andrew N.

    2015-01-01

    Researchers have examined representations of the body in the adult brain, but relatively little attention has been paid to ontogenetic aspects of neural body maps in human infants. Novel applications of methods for recording brain activity in infants are delineating cortical body maps in the first months of life. Body maps may facilitate infants’ registration of similarities between self and other—an ability that is foundational to developing social cognition. Alterations in interpersonal aspects of body representations might also contribute to social deficits in certain neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:26231760

  14. Thermometers: Understand the Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the options Thermometers come in a variety of styles. Understand the different types of thermometers and how ... MA. Fever in infants and children: Pathophysiology and management. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed July 23, ...

  15. Infant reflexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... twitch their hips toward the touch in a dancing movement. GRASP REFLEX This reflex occurs if you ... Infant reflexes can occur in adults who have: Brain damage Stroke When to Contact a Medical Professional ...

  16. CPR - infant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as 4 to 6 minutes later. Machines called automated external defibrillators (AEDs) can be found in many ... side down. Follow the guidelines for using infant car seats. Teach your baby the meaning of "don' ...

  17. Infant Constipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Infant Constipation Page Content Parents also worry that their babies ... without success? These signs can all suggest actual constipation. What parents can do: After the first month ...

  18. "Understanding Adam" multiple reciprocal translocations: complex case presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Carie E; Lu, Xianglan; Kim, Young Mi; Li, Shibo; Pineda, Jose

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a case review of a newborn diagnosed with a complex chromosomal rearrangement, as demonstrated through a painted chromosomal analysis. This infant presented with multiple dysmorphology including cutis aplasia, multiple ocular malformations, bilateral cleft lip and palate, and postnatal hydrocephaly. A chromosomal analysis revealed multiple-ways, balanced translocation involving chromosomes 3, 4, 6, 8, and 9. This case study provides a unique opportunity to, in retrospect, trace each malformation exploring the pathophysiology, etiology, and correlating origin with chromosomal variation. Careful review of this case, enhanced by the visually augmented representation of each translocation, will increase understanding of chromosomal anomalies and their implications in embryological development and clinical presentation.

  19. Electrophysiological Evidence of Phonetic Normalization across Coarticulation in Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mersad, Karima; Dehaene-Lambertz, Ghislaine

    2016-01-01

    The auditory neural representations of infants can easily be studied with electroencephalography using mismatch experimental designs. We recorded high-density event-related potentials while 3-month-old infants were listening to trials consisting of CV syllables produced with different vowels (/bX/ or /gX/). The consonant remained the same for the…

  20. Media Representation of Teachers across Five Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhamdan, Bandar; Al-Saadi, Khalid; Baroutsis, Aspa; Du Plessis, Anna; Hamid, Obaidul M.; Honan, Eileen

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on an investigation into the representation of teachers in newspapers in five countries. An innovative methodology was used to develop a method of inquiry that supports a deeper understanding of media representations of teachers which can also be used by other researchers in comparative education. The paper explores relevant…

  1. Infant Care and Infant Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Information Find a Study Resources and Publications Osteogenesis Imperfecta (OI) Condition Information NICHD Research Information Find ... How many infants are born each year? What steps can help promote an infant’s health before birth? ...

  2. Short-Term Effects of Pacifier Texture on NNS in Neurotypical Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oder, Austin L.; Stalling, David L.; Barlow, Steven M.

    2013-01-01

    The dense representation of trigeminal mechanosensitive afferents in the lip vermilion, anterior tongue, intraoral mucosa, and temporomandibular joint allows the infant's orofacial system to encode a wide range of somatosensory experiences during the critical period associated with feed development. Our understanding of how this complex sensorium processes texture is very limited in adults, and the putative role of texture encoding in the infant is unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine the short-term effects of a novel textured pacifier experience in healthy term infants (N = 28). Nonnutritive suck (NNS) compression pressure waveforms were digitized in real time using a variety of custom-molded textured pacifiers varying in spatial array density of touch domes. MANCOVA, adjusted for postmenstrual age at test and sex, revealed that infants exhibited an increase in NNS burst attempts at the expense of a degraded suck burst structure with the textured pacifiers, suggesting that the suck central pattern generator (sCPG) is significantly disrupted and reorganized by this novel orocutaneous experience. The current findings provide new insight into oromotor control as a function of the oral somatosensory environment in neurotypically developing infants. PMID:23737804

  3. [Time perceptions and representations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tordjman, S

    2015-09-01

    fundamentally lacking in their physiological development due to possibly altered circadian rhythms, including arhythmy and asynchrony. Time measurement, based on the repetition of discontinuity at regular intervals, involves also a spatial representation. It is our own trajectory through space-time, and thus our own motion, including the physiological process of aging, that affords us a representation of the passing of time, just as the countryside seems to be moving past us when we travel in a vehicle. Chinese and Indian societies actually have circular representations of time, and linear representations of time and its trajectory through space-time are currently a feature of Western societies. Circular time is collective time, and its metaphysical representations go beyond the life of a single individual, referring to the cyclical, or at least nonlinear, nature of time. Linear time is individual time, in that it refers to the scale of a person's lifetime, and it is physically represented by an arrow flying ineluctably from the past to the future. An intermediate concept can be proposed that acknowledges the existence of linear time involving various arrows of time corresponding to different lifespans (human, animal, plant, planet lifespans, etc.). In fact, the very notion of time would depend on the trajectory of each arrow of time, like shooting stars in the sky with different trajectory lengths which would define different time scales. The time scale of these various lifespans are very different (for example, a few decades for humans and a few days or hours for insects). It would not make sense to try to understand the passage of time experienced by an insect which may live only a few hours based on a human time scale. One hour in an insect's life cannot be compared to one experienced by a human. Yet again, it appears that there is a coexistence of different clocks based here on different lifespans. Finally, the evolution of our society focused on the present moment and

  4. The Development of Father-Child Attachment: Associations between Adult Attachment Representations, Recollections of Childhood Experiences and Caregiving

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland-Piazza, Laura; Hazen, Nancy; Jacobvitz, Deborah; Boyd-Soisson, Erin

    2012-01-01

    The association between fathers' adult attachment representations and their recollections of childhood experiences with their caregiving quality with their eight-month-old infants and with father-infant attachment classification was examined in a longitudinal study of 117 fathers and their infants. Sensitive caregiving was related to…

  5. Parental Brain: Cerebral Areas Activated By Infant Cries And Faces. A Comparison Between Different Populations Of Parents And Not

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia ePiallini

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Literature about parenting traditionally focused on caring behaviors and parental representations. Nowadays, an innovative line of researches, interested in evaluating the neural areas and hormones implicated in the nurturing and caregiving responses, has developed. The only way to permit a newborn to survive and grow up is to respond to his needs and in order to succeed it is necessary, first of all, that the adults around him understand what his needs are. That’s why adults’ capacity of taking care of infants cannot disregard from some biological mechanisms, which allow them to be more responsive to the progeny and to infants in general. Many researches have proved that exist specific neural basis activating in response to infant evolutionary stimuli, such as infant cries and infant emotional facial expression. There is a sort of innate predisposition in human adults to respond to infants’ signals, in order to satisfy their need and allow them to survive and become young adults capable of taking care of themselves. This article focuses on those researches that have investigated, in the last decade, which are the neural circuits underlying parental behavioral responses.Moreover, the paper compares the results of those studies that investigated the neural responses to infant stimuli under different conditions: familiar versus unknown children, parents versus non-parents and normative versus clinical samples (depression, addiction, adolescence and PTSD.

  6. Unlocking opportunities in food design for infants, children, and the elderly: Understanding milestones in chewing and swallowing across the lifespan for new innovations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichero, Julie A Y

    2017-08-01

    Intake of a variety of foods increases the likelihood of good general health. From as early as life in utero, humans are exposed to flavor. Further flavor imprinting occurs via breast milk, increasing the likelihood of acceptance of a variety flavors when solids are introduced. While first foods need to be smooth and runny, experience managing soft lumps is required for rudimentary development of chewing skills. Texture experiences are critical to providing building blocks for food acceptance and gradual increase in the range of food textures eaten. Persistence in offering flavors and textures on multiple occasions increases the likelihood of acceptance of new foods. Opportunities exist in novel food texture use and flavor bridging to improve food variety in children. During adulthood lifestyle changes impact on chewing and gastrointestinal efficiency affecting the variety of food consumed. Foods that are moist, and encourage the consumer to slow down and savor food may reduce diseases affecting the esophagus. The aging process sees an increase in medication use with an impact on reduction in saliva flow. Further, physiologic changes in taste and olfaction that occur with aging may see elders benefit from novel food design that utilizes the intact trigeminal system. New food design opportunities exist in the areas of carbonation, dissolvable solids, microencapsulation of flavor volatiles or pressurized carbon dioxide granules. The use of standardized nomenclature for food labeling, description, and measurement methods such as that used by the International Dysphagia Diet Standardisation Initiative is advocated to accelerate food oral processing research. The human feeding, chewing, and swallowing mechanism adapts and changes over the life span. There are opportunities to influence flavor development from as early as life in utero, and through milk feeds. Infants also need exposure to soft lumps to develop rudimentary chewing skills that lay the foundation for

  7. Social theory and infant feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Clinicians, public health advisors, nutritionists and others have been attempting to increase breastfeeding rates for the last few decades, with varying degrees of success. We need social science researchers to help us understand the role of infant feeding in the family. Some researchers in the area of food and nutrition have found Pierre Bourdieu's theoretical framework helpful. In this editorial, I introduce some of Bourdieu's ideas and suggest researchers interested in infant feeding should consider testing these theories. PMID:21676218

  8. Representation as the representation of experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ankersmit, FR

    This essay deals, mainly, with the notion of representation. Representation is associated with texts and, as such, is contrasted to the true singular statement. It is argued that the relationship between the text and what the text represents can never be modeled on the relationship between the true

  9. As representações sociais do aleitamento materno para mães de prematuros em unidade de cuidado canguru Representaciones sociales de la lactancia materna para madres de prematuros en el cuidado canguro Social representations on breastfeeding according to preterm infants' mothers in kangaroo care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marly Javorski

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos do estudo foram identificar as representações sociais sobre aleitamento materno de pré-termo, em unidade de Cuidado Canguru, sob a óptica das mães que estão amamentando, e descrever os conflitos e contradições que eles vivenciam nesse contexto institucional. A pesquisa utiliza-se de uma abordagem qualitativa em que foi empregado o primeiro estágio da análise de enunciação à luz da Teoria das Representações Sociais. As representações encontradas são: os bebês saudáveis são alimentados no peito, o leite materno confere a proteção e a preservação da vida de uma criança prematura, o aleitamento materno é o complemento da maternidade e amamentar um bebê prematuro é uma experiência difícil e desgastante. Os conflitos são decorrentes da assimilação de conteúdos e discurso técnico, sucção tardia e representações sobre leite materno.Los objetivos del estudio fueron identificar las representaciones sociales de la lactancia materna al bebe prematuro en la unidad de cuidado canguro bajo la óptica de las madres que están amamantando y describir los conflictos y contradicciones que vivencian en el contexto institucional. Fue adoptada una aproximación cualitativa, empleándose la primera fase del análisis de enunciación a la luz de la teoría de representaciones sociales. Las representaciones encontradas son: Los bebes saludables son alimentados a pecho, la leche materna da protección y preservación de la vida a un niño prematuro, la lactancia materna es el complemento de la maternidad y dar lactancia a un bebe prematuro es una experiencia difícil y desgastante. Los conflictos y contradicciones resultan de la asimilación de contenidos y discurso técnico, succión tardía y representaciones sobre la leche materna.This study aimed to identify the social representations on premature infants' breastfeeding at a Kangaroo Care Unit, from the perspective of mothers who are breastfeeding and describe the

  10. Infant Formula

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... iron-fortified formula.Some formulas are made from soy milk instead of cow’s milk. If your baby seems ... cow’s milk, your doctor may suggest using a soy-milk formula.If you’re not breastfeeding, use infant ...

  11. CPR: Infant

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Refresher Center Home FIRST AID, CPR and AED LIFEGUARDING Refresher Putting It All Together: CPR—Infant (1:52) Refresher videos only utilize this player QUICK LINKS Home RedCross.org Purchase Course Materials Shop Our Store ...

  12. The Ability of Young Korean Children to Use Spatial Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minsung; Bednarz, Robert; Kim, Jaeyil

    2012-01-01

    The National Research Council emphasizes using tools of representation as an essential element of spatial thinking. However, it is debatable at what age the use of spatial representation for spatial thinking skills should begin. This study investigated whether young Korean children possess the potential to understand map-like representation using…

  13. Maternal attachment representations after very preterm birth and the effect of early intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijssen, Dominique; Wolf, Marie-Jeanne; van Bakel, Hedwig; Koldewijn, Karen; Kok, Joke; van Baar, Anneloes

    2011-02-01

    For very preterm infants the mother-infant relationship may be compromised. Maternal attachment representations 18 (corrected) months after very preterm birth and the effect of the post-discharge Infant Behavioral Assessment and Intervention Program (IBAIP) were studied. The IBAIP is designed to assist parents to support and enhance their infant's regulatory competence and development. The intervention consisted of 6-8 home visits during the first 8 months after birth. Seventy-eight mothers of very preterm infants (attachment representations were assessed with the Working Model of the Child Interview (WMCI). The interviews resulted in a classification of the attachment representations into balanced or non-balanced. 30% of the mothers had non-balanced attachment representations. Qualitative content analysis of the answers showed that negative feelings when first seeing their baby and negative or ambivalent feelings in the first weeks at home with their baby are related to non-balanced attachment representations. The WMCI revealed no differences between the intervention and control group. Early support for mothers of very preterm born infants to develop a healthy mother-infant relationship is recommended especially for mothers who report negative first experiences. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Operational Automatic Remote Sensing Image Understanding Systems: Beyond Geographic Object-Based and Object-Oriented Image Analysis (GEOBIA/GEOOIA. Part 2: Novel system Architecture, Information/Knowledge Representation, Algorithm Design and Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Boschetti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available According to literature and despite their commercial success, state-of-the-art two-stage non-iterative geographic object-based image analysis (GEOBIA systems and three-stage iterative geographic object-oriented image analysis (GEOOIA systems, where GEOOIA/GEOBIA, remain affected by a lack of productivity, general consensus and research. To outperform the Quality Indexes of Operativeness (OQIs of existing GEOBIA/GEOOIA systems in compliance with the Quality Assurance Framework for Earth Observation (QA4EO guidelines, this methodological work is split into two parts. Based on an original multi-disciplinary Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT analysis of the GEOBIA/GEOOIA approaches, the first part of this work promotes a shift of learning paradigm in the pre-attentive vision first stage of a remote sensing (RS image understanding system (RS-IUS, from sub-symbolic statistical model-based (inductive image segmentation to symbolic physical model-based (deductive image preliminary classification capable of accomplishing image sub-symbolic segmentation and image symbolic pre-classification simultaneously. In the present second part of this work, a novel hybrid (combined deductive and inductive RS-IUS architecture featuring a symbolic deductive pre-attentive vision first stage is proposed and discussed in terms of: (a computational theory (system design, (b information/knowledge representation, (c algorithm design and (d implementation. As proof-of-concept of symbolic physical model-based pre-attentive vision first stage, the spectral knowledge-based, operational, near real-time, multi-sensor, multi-resolution, application-independent Satellite Image Automatic Mapper™ (SIAM™ is selected from existing literature. To the best of these authors’ knowledge, this is the first time a symbolic syntactic inference system, like SIAM™, is made available to the RS community for operational use in a RS-IUS pre-attentive vision first stage

  15. "You've Got to Teach People that Racism Is Wrong and Then They Won't Be Racist": Curricular Representations and Young People&'s Understandings of "Race" and Racism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Audrey

    2012-01-01

    This paper critically examines the discursive (mis) representation of "race" and racism in the formal curriculum. Combining qualitative data derived from interviews with 35 young people who were enrolled in a Dublin-based, ethnically diverse secondary school, with a critical discursive analysis of 20 textbooks, the paper explores…

  16. Inside Board Books: Representations of People of Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes-Hassell, Sandra; Cox, Ernie J.

    2010-01-01

    Research suggests that exposure to books and other resources about people who look like them, and stories that reflect their world, may contribute to an infant and toddler of color's developing appreciation of self. The purpose of this study was to examine children's board books published between 2003 and 2008 to determine the representation of…

  17. An introduction to quasigroups and their representations

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Jonathan D H

    2006-01-01

    Collecting results scattered throughout the literature into one source, An Introduction to Quasigroups and Their Representations shows how representation theories for groups are capable of extending to general quasigroups and illustrates the added depth and richness that result from this extension.To fully understand representation theory, the first three chapters provide a foundation in the theory of quasigroups and loops, covering special classes, the combinatorial multiplication group, universal stabilizers, and quasigroup analogues of abelian groups. Subsequent chapters deal with the three main branches of representation theory-permutation representations of quasigroups, combinatorial character theory, and quasigroup module theory. Each chapter includes exercises and examples to demonstrate how the theories discussed relate to practical applications. The book concludes with appendices that summarize some essential topics from category theory, universal algebra, and coalgebras.Long overshadowed by general ...

  18. Infant temperament contributes to early infant growth: A prospective cohort of African American infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldman Barbara

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prospective studies linking infant temperament, or behavioral style, to infant body composition are lacking. In this longitudinal study (3 to 18 months, we seek to examine the associations between two dimensions of infant temperament (distress to limitations and activity level and two anthropometric indicators (weight-for-length z-scores (WLZ and skin fold (SF measures in a population at high risk of overweight. Methods Data are from the Infant Care and Risk of Obesity Project, a longitudinal study of North Carolina low income African American mother-infant dyads (n = 206. Two temperament dimensions were assessed using the Infant Behavior Questionnaire-Revised. A high distress to limitations score denotes an infant whose mother perceives that s/he often cries or fusses, and a high activity level score one who moves his/her limbs and squirms frequently. Cross-sectional analyses were conducted using ordinary least squares regression. Fixed effects longitudinal models were used to estimate anthropometric outcomes as a function of time varying infant temperament. Results In longitudinal models, increased activity levels were associated with later decreased fatness and WLZ. In contrast, high levels of distress to limitations were associated with later increased fatness at all time points and later increased WLZ at 12 months. Conclusion Infant temperament dimensions contribute to our understanding of the role of behavior in the development of the risk of overweight in the formative months of life. Identification of modifiable risk factors early in life may help target strategies for establishing healthy lifestyles prior to the onset of overweight.

  19. Infants use temporal regularities to chunk objects in memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibbe, Melissa M; Feigenson, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Infants, like adults, can maintain only a few items in working memory, but can overcome this limit by creating more efficient representations, or "chunks." Previous research shows that infants can form chunks using shared features or spatial proximity between objects. Here we asked whether infants also can create chunked representations using regularities that unfold over time. Thirteen-month old infants first were familiarized with four objects of different shapes and colors, presented in successive pairs. For some infants, the identities of objects in each pair varied randomly across familiarization (Experiment 1). For others, the objects within a pair always co-occurred, either in consistent relative spatial positions (Experiment 2a) or varying spatial positions (Experiment 2b). Following familiarization, infants saw all four objects hidden behind a screen and then saw the screen lifted to reveal either four objects or only three. Infants in Experiment 1, who had been familiarized with random object pairings, failed to look longer at the unexpected 3-object outcome; they showed the same inability to concurrently represent four objects as in other studies of infant working memory. In contrast, infants in Experiments 2a and 2b, who had been familiarized with regularly co-occurring pairs, looked longer at the unexpected outcome. These infants apparently used the co-occurrence between individual objects during familiarization to form chunked representations that were later deployed to track the objects as they were hidden at test. In Experiment 3, we confirmed that the familiarization affected infants' ability to remember the occluded objects rather than merely establishing longer-term memory for object pairs. Following familiarization to consistent pairs, infants who were not shown a hiding event (but merely saw the same test outcomes as in Experiments 2a and b) showed no preference for arrays of three versus four objects. Finally, in Experiments 4 and 5, we asked

  20. A qualia representation of cyberspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, Timothy H.; Mills, Robert F.; Raines, Richard A.; Oxley, Mark E.; Bauer, Kenneth W.; Rogers, Steven K.

    2008-04-01

    E.C Adam defined Situational Awareness (SA) as "the mental representation and understanding of objects, events, people, system states, interactions, environmental conditions, and other situation-specific factors affecting human performance in complex and dynamic tasks. Stated in lay terms, SA is simply knowing what is going on so you can figure out what to do." We propose a novel idea to assist the human in gaining SA. Our hypothesis is that nature uses qualia as a compression scheme to represent the many concepts encountered in everyday life. Qualia enable humans to quickly come up with SA based on many complex measurements from their sensors, (eyes, ears, taste, touch, memory, etc.), expectations, and experiences. Our ultimate objective is to develop a computer that uses qualia concepts to transform sensor data to assist the human in gaining and maintaining improved SA. However, before any computer can use qualia, we must first define a representation for qualia that can be implemented computationally. This paper will present our representation for qualia. The representation is not simply a hierarchical aggregation of input data. Instead, it is a prediction of what will happen next, derived from computations resulting from sensory inputs and the computational engine of a qualia generator and qualia processor.

  1. Short-Term Effects of Pacifier Texture on NNS in Neurotypical Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Austin L. Oder

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The dense representation of trigeminal mechanosensitive afferents in the lip vermilion, anterior tongue, intraoral mucosa, and temporomandibular joint allows the infant’s orofacial system to encode a wide range of somatosensory experiences during the critical period associated with feed development. Our understanding of how this complex sensorium processes texture is very limited in adults, and the putative role of texture encoding in the infant is unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine the short-term effects of a novel textured pacifier experience in healthy term infants (N=28. Nonnutritive suck (NNS compression pressure waveforms were digitized in real time using a variety of custom-molded textured pacifiers varying in spatial array density of touch domes. MANCOVA, adjusted for postmenstrual age at test and sex, revealed that infants exhibited an increase in NNS burst attempts at the expense of a degraded suck burst structure with the textured pacifiers, suggesting that the suck central pattern generator (sCPG is significantly disrupted and reorganized by this novel orocutaneous experience. The current findings provide new insight into oromotor control as a function of the oral somatosensory environment in neurotypically developing infants.

  2. Human milk composition and infant growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Kamilla Gehrt; Christensen, Sophie Hilario; Lind, Mads Vendelbo

    2018-01-01

    studies show that human milk concentrations of protein, fat, and carbohydrate likely have important influence on infant growth and body composition. Furthermore, some observational studies examining human milk oligosaccharides and hormone concentrations suggest functional relevance to infant growth...... interesting potential in understanding infant growth. SUMMARY: Available evidence on human milk composition in relation to infant growth is sparse. This review summarizes recent publications investigating human milk composition; including micro- and macronutrients, human milk oligosaccharides, hormones......PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review highlights relevant studies published between 2015 and 2017 on human milk composition and the association with infant growth. RECENT FINDINGS: High-quality studies investigating how human milk composition is related to infant growth are sparse. Recent observational...

  3. Visualizer’s representation in functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setyawan, F.; Prahmana, R. C. I.; istiandaru, A.; hendroanto, A.

    2017-12-01

    Students’ understanding of a mathematics objects can be seen by their perspective of a mathematics topic. In other words, the study of a specific case can enrich one’s conceptualization of the general. This study is a descriptive qualitative research. The visualizer’s paperwork is described based on their preference in representing a function. Visualizer’s paperwork and interviews provide opportunities to get additional description about her mathematical conceptions and how her understanding about functions by using representation. Visualizer tends to connect their imagination of a picture and represents it based on her ideas. Visualizer defines functions by its perceptual unit that each elements of the domain connected with exactly one element of the codomain. In modelling graph representation, object imager uses all information in the diagram and represent it in symbol notation. In interpreting functions, object imager prefers diagram representation rather than word situation and symbol representation.

  4. Embedded data representations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willett, Wesley; Jansen, Yvonne; Dragicevic, Pierre

    2017-01-01

    We introduce embedded data representations, the use of visual and physical representations of data that are deeply integrated with the physical spaces, objects, and entities to which the data refers. Technologies like lightweight wireless displays, mixed reality hardware, and autonomous vehicles ......-situated, situated, and embedded data displays, including both visualizations and physicalizations. Based on our observations, we identify a variety of design challenges for embedded data representation, and suggest opportunities for future research and applications....

  5. XML-BASED REPRESENTATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. KELSEY

    2001-02-01

    For focused applications with limited user and use application communities, XML can be the right choice for representation. It is easy to use, maintain, and extend and enjoys wide support in commercial and research sectors. When the knowledge and information to be represented is object-based and use of that knowledge and information is a high priority, then XML-based representation should be considered. This paper discusses some of the issues involved in using XML-based representation and presents an example application that successfully uses an XML-based representation.

  6. Standardization of the Alberta infant motor scale in full-term Greek infants: Preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syrengelas, D; Siahanidou, T; Kourlaba, G; Kleisiouni, P; Bakoula, C; Chrousos, G P

    2010-04-01

    The Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS) is a norm-referenced test that assesses the spontaneous motor performance of infants from birth through independent walking (0-18 months). This scale has been utilized for clinical and research purposes in various countries, however, whether the initial standardization in Canadian infants is also representative of other countries' populations has been questioned. To assess whether the AIMS needs new reference values for Greek infants. A cohort of 424 healthy full-term infants (250 boys and 174 girls), aged between 7 days and 18 months, derived from various areas of the Prefecture of Attica and from all socio-economic classes to ensure a true representation, was studied. The AIMS-scores of Greek infants were compared with the norm-referenced values of the original Canadian population reported by Piper and Darrah. The mean AIMS-scores did not differ significantly between Greek and Canadian infants at any age level from birth to 18 months, except for the 2-<3 month of age when higher scores were observed in Greek infants (p=0.02). There was no significant difference in AIMS-values corresponding to the 5th and 90th percentile between Greek and Canadian infants. Inter-rater reliability was excellent in our study population [ICC: 0.99 (95% CI: 0.99-0.99)]. In healthy full-term Greek infants, gross motor maturity assessed by the AIMS during the first 18 months of age, seems to follow a similar course to that of Canadian infants. 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Wigner's Symmetry Representation Theorem

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    This article elucidates the important role the no- tion of symmetry has played in physics. It dis- cusses the proof of one of the important theorems of quantum mechanics, viz., Wigner's Symmetry. Representation Theorem. It also shows how the representations of various continuous and dis- crete symmetries follow from the ...

  8. Extensions of tempered representations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opdam, E.; Solleveld, M.

    2013-01-01

    Let π, π′ be irreducible tempered representations of an affine Hecke algebra H with positive parameters. We compute the higher extension groups Ext nH(π,π′) explicitly in terms of the representations of analytic R-groups corresponding to π and π′. The result has immediate applications to the

  9. Representation and Reference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ankersmit, F.R.

    2010-01-01

    This essay focuses on the historical text as a whole. It does so by conceiving of the historical text as representation - in the way the we may say of a photo or a painting that it represents the person depicted on it. It is argued that representation cannot be properly understood by modelling it on

  10. Foundations of children's numerical and mathematical skills: the roles of symbolic and nonsymbolic representations of numerical magnitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Ian M; Ansari, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Numerical and mathematical skills are critical predictors of academic success. The last three decades have seen a substantial growth in our understanding of how the human mind and brain represent and process numbers. In particular, research has shown that we share with animals the ability to represent numerical magnitude (the total number of items in a set) and that preverbal infants can process numerical magnitude. Further research has shown that similar processing signatures characterize numerical magnitude processing across species and developmental time. These findings suggest that an approximate system for nonsymbolic (e.g., dot arrays) numerical magnitude representation serves as the basis for the acquisition of cultural, symbolic (e.g., Arabic numerals) representations of numerical magnitude. This chapter explores this hypothesis by reviewing studies that have examined the relation between individual differences in nonsymbolic numerical magnitude processing and symbolic math abilities (e.g., arithmetic). Furthermore, we examine the extent to which the available literature provides strong evidence for a link between symbolic and nonsymbolic representations of numerical magnitude at the behavioral and neural levels of analysis. We conclude that claims that symbolic number abilities are grounded in the approximate system for the nonsymbolic representation of numerical magnitude are not strongly supported by the available evidence. Alternative models and future research directions are discussed. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Altered Images: the relations between design representation and design practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Keller

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available As information systems move out of the office into the wider world and are merged with mobile appliances, buildings and even clothing, the representations traditionally used in any one discipline may not be adequate for understanding these new domains. Design representations are ‘ways of seeing and not seeing’. Despite the central role representations play in design, the information systems design community has little understanding of the relation, ideal or actual, between design practice and design representation. This paper reports on an extensive design case study that aims at increasing understanding of the nature and affordances of representations in the design process and argues for the need for information systems as a discipline to open up discussion of the design representations that may be required to effectively design systems that mix traditional IS with disciplines such as industrial design, architecture and fashion design.

  12. Mineral retention in three-week-old piglets fed goat and cow milk infant formulas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutherfurd, S.M.; Darragh, A.J.; Hendriks, W.H.; Prosser, C.G.; Lowry, D.

    2006-01-01

    Goat milk and cow milk are commonly used in infant formula preparations and, as such, understanding the nutritional characteristics of infant formulas made from these milks is important. In this study, a goat milk infant formula was compared with an adapted (whey-enhanced) cow milk infant formula

  13. Scientific representation and nominalism: an empiricist view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otávio Bueno

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1808-1711.2008v12n2p177 Can a constructive empiricist make sense of scientific representation? Usually, a scientific model is an abstract entity (e.g., formulated in set theory, and scientific representation is conceptualized as an intentional relation between scientific models and certain aspects of the world. On this conception, since both the models and the representation relation are abstract, a constructive empiricist, who is not committed to the existence of abstract entities, would be unable to invoke these notions to make sense of scientific representation. In this paper, instead of understanding representation as a relation between abstract entities, I focus on the activity of representing, and argue that it provides a way of making sense of representation within the boundaries of empiricism. The activity of representing doesn’t deal with abstract entities, but with concrete ones, such as inscriptions, templates, and blueprints. In the end, by examining the practice of representing, rather than an artificially reified product—the representation—the constructive empiricist has the resources to make sense of scientific representation in empiricist terms.

  14. Statistical Learning as a Basis for Social Understanding in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffman, Ted; Taumoepeau, Mele; Perkins, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Many authors have argued that infants understand goals, intentions, and beliefs. We posit that infants' success on such tasks might instead reveal an understanding of behaviour, that infants' proficient statistical learning abilities might enable such insights, and that maternal talk scaffolds children's learning about the social world as well. We…

  15. Social representations: a theoretical approach in health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaiane Santos Bittencourt

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To present the theory of social representations, placing its epistemology and knowing the basic concepts of its approach as a structural unit of knowledge for health studies. Justification: The use of this theory comes from the need to understand social eventsunder the lens of the meanings constructed by the community. Data Synthesis: This was a descriptive study of literature review, which used as a source of data collection the classical authors of social representations supported by articles from electronic search at Virtual Health Library (VHL. The definition and discussion of collected data enabled to introduce two themes, versed on the history and epistemology of representations and on the structuralapproach of representations in health studies. Conclusion: This review allowed highlight the importance of locating the objects of study with regard to contextual issues of individual and collective histories, valuing the plurality of relations, to come closer to reality that is represented by the subjects.

  16. Multimedia ontology representation and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Chaudhury, Santanu; Ghosh, Hiranmay

    2015-01-01

    The result of more than 15 years of collective research, Multimedia Ontology: Representation and Applications provides a theoretical foundation for understanding the nature of media data and the principles involved in its interpretation. The book presents a unified approach to recent advances in multimedia and explains how a multimedia ontology can fill the semantic gap between concepts and the media world. It relays real-life examples of implementations in different domains to illustrate how this gap can be filled.The book contains information that helps with building semantic, content-based

  17. Review of Infant Feeding: Key Features of Breast Milk and Infant Formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Camilia R; Ling, Pei-Ra; Blackburn, George L

    2016-05-11

    Mothers' own milk is the best source of nutrition for nearly all infants. Beyond somatic growth, breast milk as a biologic fluid has a variety of other benefits, including modulation of postnatal intestinal function, immune ontogeny, and brain development. Although breastfeeding is highly recommended, breastfeeding may not always be possible, suitable or solely adequate. Infant formula is an industrially produced substitute for infant consumption. Infant formula attempts to mimic the nutritional composition of breast milk as closely as possible, and is based on cow's milk or soymilk. A number of alternatives to cow's milk-based formula also exist. In this article, we review the nutritional information of breast milk and infant formulas for better understanding of the importance of breastfeeding and the uses of infant formula from birth to 12 months of age when a substitute form of nutrition is required.

  18. Review of Infant Feeding: Key Features of Breast Milk and Infant Formula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilia R. Martin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Mothers’ own milk is the best source of nutrition for nearly all infants. Beyond somatic growth, breast milk as a biologic fluid has a variety of other benefits, including modulation of postnatal intestinal function, immune ontogeny, and brain development. Although breastfeeding is highly recommended, breastfeeding may not always be possible, suitable or solely adequate. Infant formula is an industrially produced substitute for infant consumption. Infant formula attempts to mimic the nutritional composition of breast milk as closely as possible, and is based on cow’s milk or soymilk. A number of alternatives to cow’s milk-based formula also exist. In this article, we review the nutritional information of breast milk and infant formulas for better understanding of the importance of breastfeeding and the uses of infant formula from birth to 12 months of age when a substitute form of nutrition is required.

  19. Asymmetric translation between multiple representations in chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yulan I.; Son, Ji Y.; Rudd, James A., II

    2016-03-01

    Experts are more proficient in manipulating and translating between multiple representations (MRs) of a given concept than novices. Studies have shown that instruction using MR can increase student understanding of MR, and one model for MR instruction in chemistry is the chemistry triplet proposed by Johnstone. Concreteness fading theory suggests that presenting concrete representations before abstract representations can increase the effectiveness of MR instruction; however, little work has been conducted on varying the order of different representations during instruction and the role of concreteness in assessment. In this study, we investigated the application of concreteness fading to MR instruction and assessment in teaching chemistry. In two experiments, undergraduate students in either introductory psychology courses or general chemistry courses were given MR instruction on phase changes using different orders of presentation and MR assessment questions based on the representations in the chemistry triplet. Our findings indicate that the order of presentation based on levels of concreteness in MR chemistry instruction is less important than implementation of comprehensive MR assessments. Even after MR instruction, students display an asymmetric understanding of the chemical phenomenon on the MR assessments. Greater emphasis on MR assessments may be an important component in MR instruction that effectively moves novices toward more expert MR understanding.

  20. Representations and Relations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koťátko, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 3 (2014), s. 282-302 ISSN 1335-0668 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : representation * proposition * truth-conditions * belief-ascriptions * reference * externalism * fiction Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  1. Boundary representation modelling techniques

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    Provides the most complete presentation of boundary representation solid modelling yet publishedOffers basic reference information for software developers, application developers and users Includes a historical perspective as well as giving a background for modern research.

  2. Wigner's Symmetry Representation Theorem

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 10. Wigner's Symmetry Representation Theorem: At the Heart of Quantum Field Theory! Aritra Kr Mukhopadhyay. General Article Volume 19 Issue 10 October 2014 pp 900-916 ...

  3. Preterm Infants and Parents’ self-esteem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Hanne; Madsen, Mette Kold

    Background: Little is known about parents to preterm infants and their self-esteem. The care of preterm infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) is in accordance with the principles of Family Centered Care. Previously, focus has mainly been on the mother-infant-dyad. Current research has...... shown that involving the father at an early stage improves the psychological dynamic of fatherhood and encourages bonding with the infant. The self-esteem of parents appears to be negatively affected after preterm birth. Objective: To get more knowledge and a deeper understanding of the preterm parents......’ experiences of their self-esteem during admission to the NICU and later eight months after discharge. Method and data collection: A qualitative semi-structured interview was conducted in two phases: 1) Three weeks after giving birth to a preterm infant and eight months after discharge. Parents were...

  4. A Samoan perspective on infant mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoe, Paula; Bush, Allister

    2009-02-01

    This paper describes background to the development of the relatively new field of infant mental health and why this may be important for Pacific communities in Aotearoa/New Zealand (NZ) and elsewhere. There is a discussion of Samoan concepts and research that could inform infant mental health theory and practice. A Pacific home visiting programme based at Taeaomanino Trust in Porirua, Aotearoa/NZ has formed a collaboration with child and adolescent mental health service clinicians with an interest in infant mental health, to further develop infant mental health understandings and practices in this early intervention service. The benefits and practical application of this collaboration are discussed. The paper ends with a personal perspective from one of the authors on her Samoan reflection on the relevance of attachment ideas to her family relationships and work with Pacific infants, mothers and their families.

  5. Distributed Representation of Subgraphs

    OpenAIRE

    Adhikari, Bijaya; Zhang, Yao; Ramakrishnan, Naren; Prakash, B. Aditya

    2017-01-01

    Network embeddings have become very popular in learning effective feature representations of networks. Motivated by the recent successes of embeddings in natural language processing, researchers have tried to find network embeddings in order to exploit machine learning algorithms for mining tasks like node classification and edge prediction. However, most of the work focuses on finding distributed representations of nodes, which are inherently ill-suited to tasks such as community detection w...

  6. Human milk composition and infant growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, Kamilla G; Christensen, Sophie H; Lind, Mads V; Michaelsen, Kim F

    2018-05-01

    This review highlights relevant studies published between 2015 and 2017 on human milk composition and the association with infant growth. High-quality studies investigating how human milk composition is related to infant growth are sparse. Recent observational studies show that human milk concentrations of protein, fat, and carbohydrate likely have important influence on infant growth and body composition. Furthermore, some observational studies examining human milk oligosaccharides and hormone concentrations suggest functional relevance to infant growth. For human milk micronutrient concentrations and microbiota content, and other bioactive components in human milk, the association with infant growth is still speculative and needs further investigation. The included studies in this review are all limited in their methodological design and methods but have interesting potential in understanding infant growth. Available evidence on human milk composition in relation to infant growth is sparse. This review summarizes recent publications investigating human milk composition; including micro- and macronutrients, human milk oligosaccharides, hormones and other bioactive components, and the association with infant weight, length, body mass index, and body composition.

  7. Distorted representation in visual tourism research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Martin Trandberg

    2016-01-01

    Tourism research has recently been informed by non-representational theories to highlight the socio-material, embodied and heterogeneous composition of tourist experiences. These advances have contributed to further reflexivity and called for novel ways to animate representations. On this backgro......Tourism research has recently been informed by non-representational theories to highlight the socio-material, embodied and heterogeneous composition of tourist experiences. These advances have contributed to further reflexivity and called for novel ways to animate representations....... On this background, this paper develops the notion ‘distorted representation’ to illustrate that blurred and obscure photos can in fact be intelligible and sensible in understanding tourism. Through an exploration of the overwhelmed and unintended practices of visual fieldwork, distorted representation illustrates...... how photographic materialities, performativities and sensations contribute to new tourism knowledges. While highlighting the potential of distorted representation, the paper posits a cautionary note in regards to the influential role of academic journals in determining the qualities of visual data...

  8. Mental representation and motor imagery training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schack, Thomas; Essig, Kai; Frank, Cornelia; Koester, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Research in sports, dance and rehabilitation has shown that basic action concepts (BACs) are fundamental building blocks of mental action representations. BACs are based on chunked body postures related to common functions for realizing action goals. In this paper, we outline issues in research methodology and an experimental method, the structural dimensional analysis of mental representation (SDA-M), to assess action-relevant representational structures that reflect the organization of BACs. The SDA-M reveals a strong relationship between cognitive representation and performance if complex actions are performed. We show how the SDA-M can improve motor imagery training and how it contributes to our understanding of coaching processes. The SDA-M capitalizes on the objective measurement of individual mental movement representations before training and the integration of these results into the motor imagery training. Such motor imagery training based on mental representations (MTMR) has been applied successfully in professional sports such as golf, volleyball, gymnastics, windsurfing, and recently in the rehabilitation of patients who have suffered a stroke.

  9. Mental Representation and Motor Imagery Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eSchack

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Research in sports, dance and rehabilitation has shown that Basic Action Concepts (BACs are fundamental building blocks of mental action representations. BACs are based on chunked body postures related to common functions for realizing action goals. In this paper, we outline issues in research methodology and an experimental method, SDA-M (structural dimensional analysis of mental representation, to assess action-relevant representational structures that reflect the organization of BACs. The SDA-M reveals a strong relationship between cognitive representation and performance if complex actions are performed. We show how the SDA-M can improve motor imagery training and how it contributes to our understanding of coaching processes. The SDA-M capitalizes on the objective measurement of individual mental movement representations before training and the integration of these results into the motor imagery training. Such motor imagery training based on mental representations has been applied successfully in professional sports such as golf, volleyball, gymnastics, windsurfing, and recently in the rehabilitation of patients who have suffered a stroke.

  10. How do infants recognize joint attention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, Erik; Brisson, Julie; Beaulieu, Christelle; Mainville, Marc; Mailloux, Dominique; Sirois, Sylvain

    2015-08-01

    The emergence of joint attention is still a matter of vigorous debate. It involves diverse hypotheses ranging from innate modules dedicated to intention reading to more neuro-constructivist approaches. The aim of this study was to assess whether 12-month-old infants are able to recognize a "joint attention" situation when observing such a social interaction. Using a violation-of-expectation paradigm, we habituated infants to a "joint attention" video and then compared their looking time durations between "divergent attention" videos and "joint attention" ones using a 2 (familiar or novel perceptual component)×2 (familiar or novel conceptual component) factorial design. These results were enriched with measures of pupil dilation, which are considered to be reliable measures of cognitive load. Infants looked longer at test events that involved novel speaker and divergent attention but no changes in infants' pupil dilation were observed in any conditions. Although looking time data suggest that infants may appreciate discrepancies from expectations related to joint attention behavior, in the absence of clear evidence from pupillometry, the results show no demonstration of understanding of joint attention, even at a tacit level. Our results suggest that infants may be sensitive to relevant perceptual variables in joint attention situations, which would help scaffold social cognitive development. This study supports a gradual, learning interpretation of how infants come to recognize, understand, and participate in joint attention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Questions of Representations in Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    Questions of Representations in Architecture is the first major Danish contribution to the current international discussion on architects' use of representations and the significance of visual media for architecture.......Questions of Representations in Architecture is the first major Danish contribution to the current international discussion on architects' use of representations and the significance of visual media for architecture....

  12. Infant Mortality and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Profiles > Black/African American > Infant Health & Mortality Infant Mortality and African Americans African Americans have 2.2 ... to receive late or no prenatal care. Infant Mortality Rate Infant mortality rate per 1,000 live ...

  13. Percutaneously inserted central catheter - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    PICC - infants; PQC - infants; Pic line - infants; Per-Q cath - infants ... A percutaneously inserted central catheter (PICC) is a long, very thin, soft plastic tube that is put into a small blood vessel. This article addresses PICCs in ...

  14. Atypical Neural Self-Representation in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, Michael V.; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Bullmore, Edward T.; Sadek, Susan A.; Pasco, Greg; Wheelwright, Sally J.; Suckling, John; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2010-01-01

    The "self" is a complex multidimensional construct deeply embedded and in many ways defined by our relations with the social world. Individuals with autism are impaired in both self-referential and other-referential social cognitive processing. Atypical neural representation of the self may be a key to understanding the nature of such impairments.…

  15. Toward a Theory of Representation Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-05-01

    understanding. This report describes research done at the Artificial Inteligence Laboratory of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Support for this...AD-A210 885 Technical Report 1128 Toward a Theory of Representation Design Jeffrey Van Baale MIT Artificial Intelligence Laboratory DTIC ELECTE A... Artificial Intelligence Laboratory 545 Technology Square Cambridge, MA 02139 11. CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND ADDRESS 11. REPORT DATE Advanced Research

  16. Electromagnetic Concepts in Mathematical Representation of Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albe, Virginie; Venturini, Patrice; Lascours, Jean

    2001-01-01

    Addresses the use of mathematics when studying the physics of electromagnetism. Focuses on common electromagnetic concepts and their associated mathematical representation and arithmetical tools. Concludes that most students do not understand the significant aspects of physical situations and have difficulty using relationships and models specific…

  17. Non-uniform tube representation of proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mikael Sonne

    might not correctly capture volume exclusion - of crucial importance when trying to understand a proteins $3$d-structure. We propose a new reduced model treating the protein as a non-uniform tube with a radius reflecting the positions of atoms. The tube representation is well suited considering X...

  18. Oxytocin and mutual communication in mother-infant bonding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miho eNagasawa

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Mother-infant bonding is universal to all mammalian species. In this review, we describe the manner in which reciprocal communication between the mother and infant leads to mother-infant bonding in rodents. In rats and mice, mother-infant bond formation is reinforced by various social stimuli, such as tactile stimuli and ultrasonic vocalizations from the pups to the mother, and feeding and tactile stimulation from the mother to the pups. Some evidence suggests that mother and infant can develop a cross-modal sensory recognition of their counterpart during this bonding process. Neurochemically, oxytocin in the neural system plays a pivotal role in each side of the mother-infant bonding process, although the mechanisms underlying bond formation in the brains of infants has not yet been clarified. Impairment of mother-infant bonding, that is, deprivation of social stimuli from the mother, strongly influences offspring sociality, including maternal behavior toward their own offspring in their adulthood, implying a non-genomic transmission of maternal environment, even in rodents. The comparative understanding of cognitive functions between mother and infants, and the biological mechanisms involved in mother-infant bonding may help us understand psychiatric disorders associated with mother-infant relationships.

  19. Operator representations of frames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ole; Hasannasab, Marzieh

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to consider representations of frames {fk}k∈I in a Hilbert space ℋ of the form {fk}k∈I = {Tkf0}k∈I for a linear operator T; here the index set I is either ℤ or ℒ0. While a representation of this form is available under weak conditions on the frame, the analysis...... of the properties of the operator T requires more work. For example it is a delicate issue to obtain a representation with a bounded operator, and the availability of such a representation not only depends on the frame considered as a set, but also on the chosen indexing. Using results from operator theory we show...... that by embedding the Hilbert space ℋ into a larger Hilbert space, we can always represent a frame via iterations of a bounded operator, composed with the orthogonal projection onto ℋ. The paper closes with a discussion of an open problem concerning representations of Gabor frames via iterations of a bounded...

  20. Representation Elements of Spatial Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiantika, F. R.

    2017-04-01

    This paper aims to add a reference in revealing spatial thinking. There several definitions of spatial thinking but it is not easy to defining it. We can start to discuss the concept, its basic a forming representation. Initially, the five sense catch the natural phenomenon and forward it to memory for processing. Abstraction plays a role in processing information into a concept. There are two types of representation, namely internal representation and external representation. The internal representation is also known as mental representation; this representation is in the human mind. The external representation may include images, auditory and kinesthetic which can be used to describe, explain and communicate the structure, operation, the function of the object as well as relationships. There are two main elements, representations properties and object relationships. These elements play a role in forming a representation.

  1. Birthweight, HIV exposure and infant feeding as predictors of malnutrition in Botswanan infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalashika, P; Essex, C; Mellor, D; Swift, J A; Langley-Evans, S

    2017-12-01

    A better understanding of the nutritional status of infants who are HIV-Exposed-Uninfected (HEU) and HIV-Unexposed-Uninfected (HUU) during their first 1000 days is key to improving population health, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. A cross-sectional study compared the nutritional status, feeding practices and determinants of nutritional status of HEU and HUU infants residing in representative selected districts in Botswana during their first 1000 days of life. Four hundred and thirteen infants (37.3% HIV-exposed), aged 6-24 months, attending routine child health clinics, were recruited. Anthropometric, 24-h dietary intake and socio-demographic data was collected. Anthropometric Z-scores were calculated using 2006 World Health Organization growth standards. Modelling of the determinants of malnutrition was undertaken using logistic regression. Overall, the prevalences of stunting, wasting and being underweight were 10.4%, 11.9% and 10.2%, respectively. HEU infants were more likely to be underweight (15.6% versus 6.9%), (P economic status. HEU infants aged 6-24 months had worse nutritional status compared to HUU infants. Low birthweight was the main predictor of undernutrition in this population. Optimisation of infant nutritional status should focus on improving birthweight. In addition, specific interventions should target HEU infants aiming to eliminate growth disparity between HEU and HUU infants. © 2017 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  2. Analysis of the Chemical Representations in Secondary Lebanese Chemistry Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shehab, Saadeddine Salim; BouJaoude, Saouma

    2017-01-01

    This study focused on the requirements that chemical representations should meet in textbooks in order to enhance conceptual understanding. Specifically, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the chemical representations that are present in 7 secondary Lebanese chemistry textbooks. To achieve the latter purpose, an instrument adapted from…

  3. Generating Cognitive Dissonance in Student Interviews through Multiple Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linenberger, Kimberly J.; Bretz, Stacey Lowery

    2012-01-01

    This study explores what students understand about enzyme-substrate interactions, using multiple representations of the phenomenon. In this paper we describe our use of the 3 Phase-Single Interview Technique with multiple representations to generate cognitive dissonance within students in order to uncover misconceptions of enzyme-substrate…

  4. Promoting Representational Competence with Molecular Models in Organic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stull, Andrew T.; Gainer, Morgan; Padalkar, Shamin; Hegarty, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Mastering the many different diagrammatic representations of molecules used in organic chemistry is challenging for students. This article summarizes recent research showing that manipulating 3-D molecular models can facilitate the understanding and use of these representations. Results indicate that students are more successful in translating…

  5. Representations of HIV/AIDS management in South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Through an analysis of newspaper articles, we explore the dominant representations of HIV/AIDS management circulating in the South African public sphere and examine how community engagement is depicted. We highlight the way media representations reflect narrow understandings of HIV and AIDS as a predominantly ...

  6. Representation Discovery using Harmonic Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Mahadevan, Sridhar

    2008-01-01

    Representations are at the heart of artificial intelligence (AI). This book is devoted to the problem of representation discovery: how can an intelligent system construct representations from its experience? Representation discovery re-parameterizes the state space - prior to the application of information retrieval, machine learning, or optimization techniques - facilitating later inference processes by constructing new task-specific bases adapted to the state space geometry. This book presents a general approach to representation discovery using the framework of harmonic analysis, in particu

  7. Introduction to computer data representation

    CERN Document Server

    Fenwick, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Introduction to Computer Data Representation introduces readers to the representation of data within computers. Starting from basic principles of number representation in computers, the book covers the representation of both integer and floating point numbers, and characters or text. It comprehensively explains the main techniques of computer arithmetic and logical manipulation. The book also features chapters covering the less usual topics of basic checksums and 'universal' or variable length representations for integers, with additional coverage of Gray Codes, BCD codes and logarithmic repre

  8. Contractions of group representations. - I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celeghini, E.; Tarlini, M.

    1981-01-01

    A new definition of contraction as a limit on the parameters defining the basis of the space of representations is given. From the representations of the original group, those of the contracted one are directly obtained. The contraction of inner automorphisms into outer automorphisms and the splitting of one representation into representations of the same or different group are discussed and illustrated by examples. The procedure is also a technique for the study of representations of non-semi-simple groups. (author)

  9. Osteopenia - premature infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neonatal rickets; Brittle bones - premature infants; Weak bones - premature infants; Osteopenia of prematurity ... AW, Diamond FB. Disorders of mineral homeostasis in children and adolescents. In: Sperling MA ed. Pediatric Endocrinology . ...

  10. Mechanical ventilator - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventilator - infants; Respirator - infants ... WHY IS A MECHANICAL VENTILATOR USED? A ventilator is used to provide breathing support for ill or immature babies. Sick or premature babies are often ...

  11. Urinary catheter - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bladder catheter - infants; Foley catheter - infants; Urinary catheter - neonatal ... A urinary catheter is a small, soft tube placed in the bladder. This article addresses urinary catheters in babies. WHY IS ...

  12. High blood pressure - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hypertension - infants ... and blood vessels The health of the kidneys High blood pressure in infants may be due to kidney or ... blood vessel of the kidney) In newborn babies, high blood pressure is often caused by a blood clot in ...

  13. Teaching Teaching & Understanding Understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    "Teaching Teaching & Understanding Understanding" is a 19-minute award-winning short-film about teaching at university and higher-level educational institutions. It is based on the "Constructive Alignment" theory developed by Prof. John Biggs. The film delivers a foundation for understanding what...

  14. Post-representational cartography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob Kitchin

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade there has been a move amongst critical cartographers to rethink maps from a post-representational perspective – that is, a vantage point that does not privilege representational modes of thinking (wherein maps are assumed to be mirrors of the world and automatically presumes the ontological security of a map as a map, but rather rethinks and destabilises such notions. This new theorisation extends beyond the earlier critiques of Brian Harley (1989 that argued maps were social constructions. For Harley a map still conveyed the truth of a landscape, albeit its message was bound within the ideological frame of its creator. He thus advocated a strategy of identifying the politics of representation within maps in order to circumnavigate them (to reveal the truth lurking underneath, with the ontology of cartographic practice remaining unquestioned.

  15. Representations of distance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Gunvor Riber

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores how Danish tourists represent distance in relation to their holiday mobility and how these representations of distance are a result of being aero-mobile as opposed to being land-mobile. Based on interviews with Danish tourists, whose holiday mobility ranges from the European...... continent to global destinations, the first part of this qualitative study identifies three categories of representations of distance that show how distance is being ‘translated’ by the tourists into non-geometric forms: distance as resources, distance as accessibility, and distance as knowledge....... The representations of distance articulated by the Danish tourists show that distance is often not viewed in ‘just’ kilometres. Rather, it is understood in forms that express how transcending the physical distance through holiday mobility is dependent on individual social and economic contexts, and on whether...

  16. Maternal characteristics and perception of temperament associated with infant TV exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Amanda L; Adair, Linda S; Bentley, Margaret E

    2013-02-01

    This study examines the development of television (TV) behaviors across the first 18 months of life and identifies maternal and infant predictors of infant TV exposure. We used longitudinal TV exposure, maternal sociodemographic, and infant temperament data from 217 African-American mother-infant pairs participating in the Infant Care and Risk of Obesity Study. Longitudinal logistic models and ordered regression models with clustering for repeated measures across subjects adjusted for infant gender and visit were used to assess maternal and infant predictors of TV exposure and to test whether infants with both maternal and infant risk factors had higher odds of more detrimental TV exposure. Infants as young as 3 months old were exposed to an average of 2.6 hours of TV and/or videos daily, and nearly 40% of infants were exposed to >3 hours of TV daily by 12 months of age. Maternal TV viewing and maternal obesity and infant activity, fussiness, and crying were associated with greater infant TV exposure, whereas maternal education and infant activity were associated with having the TV on during most meals. Infants perceived as being more active or fussier had higher TV exposure, particularly if their mothers also had risk factors for higher TV exposure. Understanding the characteristics that shape TV exposure and its biological and behavioral sequelae is critical for early intervention. Maternal perception of infant temperament dimensions is related to TV exposure, suggesting that infant temperament measures should be included in interventions aimed at limiting early TV.

  17. Young Infants Encode Lexical Stress in Newly Encountered Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtin, Suzanne

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we examined the nature of infants' representations of newly encountered word forms. Using a word-object association task, we taught 14-month-olds novel three-syllable words differing in segments and stress patterns. At test, we manipulated the stress pattern of the word or the position of the stressed syllable in the word. Our…

  18. Caudal ropivacaine in infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tom Giedsing; Ilett, K F; Reid, C

    2001-01-01

    Ropivacaine is a new long-acting amino-amide local anesthetic. However, there are no data on its use in infants. In the current study, the authors investigated the pharmacokinetics of caudal ropivacaine in 30 infants younger than 12 months.......Ropivacaine is a new long-acting amino-amide local anesthetic. However, there are no data on its use in infants. In the current study, the authors investigated the pharmacokinetics of caudal ropivacaine in 30 infants younger than 12 months....

  19. Additive and polynomial representations

    CERN Document Server

    Krantz, David H; Suppes, Patrick

    1971-01-01

    Additive and Polynomial Representations deals with major representation theorems in which the qualitative structure is reflected as some polynomial function of one or more numerical functions defined on the basic entities. Examples are additive expressions of a single measure (such as the probability of disjoint events being the sum of their probabilities), and additive expressions of two measures (such as the logarithm of momentum being the sum of log mass and log velocity terms). The book describes the three basic procedures of fundamental measurement as the mathematical pivot, as the utiliz

  20. On the spinor representation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoff da Silva, J.M.; Rogerio, R.J.B. [Universidade Estadual Paulista, Departamento de Fisica e Quimica, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil); Villalobos, C.H.C. [Universidade Estadual Paulista, Departamento de Fisica e Quimica, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil); Universidade Federal Fluminense, Instituto de Fisica, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Rocha, Roldao da [Universidade Federal do ABC-UFABC, Centro de Matematica, Computacao e Cognicao, Santo Andre (Brazil)

    2017-07-15

    A systematic study of the spinor representation by means of the fermionic physical space is accomplished and implemented. The spinor representation space is shown to be constrained by the Fierz-Pauli-Kofink identities among the spinor bilinear covariants. A robust geometric and topological structure can be manifested from the spinor space, wherein the first and second homotopy groups play prominent roles on the underlying physical properties, associated to fermionic fields. The mapping that changes spinor fields classes is then exemplified, in an Einstein-Dirac system that provides the spacetime generated by a fermion. (orig.)

  1. Mobilities and Representations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thelle, Mikkel

    2017-01-01

    , literature, and film. Moreover, we hope the authors of future reviews will reflect on the ways they approached those representations. Such commentaries would provide valuable methodological insights, and we hope to begin that effort with this interview. We have asked four prominent mobility scholars......As the centerpiece of the eighth T2M yearbook, the following interview about representations of mobility signals a new and exciting focus area for Mobility in History. In future issues we hope to include reviews that grapple more with how mobilities have been imagined and represented in the arts...

  2. O potencial das representações sociais para a compreensão interdisciplinar da realidade: Geografia e Psicologia Ambiental The potential of the social representations aimed at the understanding of interdisciplinar reality: Geography and Environmental Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília L. Peluso

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available O artigo pretende ser uma contribuição para as discussões sobre a interdisciplinaridade em Psicologia Ambiental e Geografia. Espera-se contribuir para o debate dentro do pressuposto de que a afinidade entre as duas áreas se tece quando se entende o espaço e o ambiente como atores sociais, isto é, eles não são neutros, mas atuam sobre as sociedades e os sujeitos que os produziram, construíram e organizaram. Vai-se trabalhar com os pressupostos de que as fronteiras entre as ciências são tênues e que, para ultrapassá-las, deve-se romper com a compartimentação e articular pensamento e práticas sobre a realidade de maneira interdisciplinar. Considera-se que as representações sociais permitem ultrapassar as fronteiras entre as duas ciências e desvendar complexas relações psíquicas e sociais, tendo como objeto empírico as periferias do Distrito Federal.The article intends to be a contribution for the discussions involving the interdisciplinarity between Geography and Environmental Psychology. This paper is expected to contribute to that debate based on the affinity between the two areas when space and environment are understood as social actors, that is, they are not neutral, but act upon societies and individuals who had produced, constructed and organized them. The limits among sciences are seen as tenuous and should be exceeded in order to surpass such partitioning of reality by means of interdisciplinary articulation of ideas and practices. It is considered that the social representations allow to overrun the limits between the two sciences and to unmask complex psychic and social relations within the surrounding areas of the Federal District.

  3. Infant crying and abuse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijneveld, S.A.; Wal, M.F.V.D.; Brugman, E.; Sing, R.A.H.; Verloove-Vanhorick, S.P.

    2004-01-01

    Child abuse and neglect are important causes of child morbidity and death. We assessed potentially detrimental parental actions induced by infant crying in 3259 infants aged 1-6 months, in the Netherlands. In infants aged 6 months, 5·6% (95% CI 4·2-7·0) of parents reported having smothered, slapped,

  4. Early communicative behaviors and their relationship to motor skills in extremely preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benassi, Erika; Savini, Silvia; Iverson, Jana M; Guarini, Annalisa; Caselli, Maria Cristina; Alessandroni, Rosina; Faldella, Giacomo; Sansavini, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    Despite the predictive value of early spontaneous communication for identifying risk for later language concerns, very little research has focused on these behaviors in extremely low-gestational-age infants (ELGAcommunicative behaviors (gestures, vocal utterances and their coordination) were evaluated during mother-infant play interactions in 20 ELGA infants and 20 full-term infants (FT) at 12 months (corrected age for ELGA infants). Relationships between gestures and motor skills, evaluated using the Bayley-III Scales were also examined. ELGA infants, compared with FT infants, showed less advanced communicative, motor, and cognitive skills. Giving and representational gestures were produced at a lower rate by ELGA infants. In addition, pointing gestures and words were produced by a lower percentage of ELGA infants. Significant positive correlations between gestures (pointing and representational gestures) and fine motor skills were found in the ELGA group. We discuss the relevance of examining spontaneous communicative behaviors and motor skills as potential indices of early development that may be useful for clinical assessment and intervention with ELGA infants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Between Representation and Eternity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atzbach, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    . At death, an indi- vidual’s corpse and burial primarily reflect the social act of representation during the funeral. The position of the arms, which have incorrectly been used as a chronological tool in Scandinavia, may indicate an evolution from a more collective act of prayer up to the eleventh century...

  6. Reflective Abstraction and Representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewin, Philip

    Piaget's theory of reflective abstraction can supplement cognitive science models of representation by specifying both the act of construction and the component steps through which knowers pass as they acquire knowledge. But, while approaches suggested by cognitive science supplement Piaget by awakening researchers to the role of auxiliary factors…

  7. Hyperfinite representation of distributions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A nonstandard treatment of the theory of distributions in terms of a hyperfinite representa- tion has been presented in papers [2,3] by Kinoshita. A further exploitation of this treatment in an N-dimensional context has been given by Grenier [1]. In the present paper we offer a different approach to the hyperfinite representation, ...

  8. Going beyond representational anthropology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Ida Wentzel

    Going beyond representational anthropology: Re-presenting bodily, emotional and virtual practices in everyday life. Separated youngsters and families in Greenland Greenland is a huge island, with a total of four high-schools. Many youngsters (age 16-18) move far away from home in order to get...

  9. Representation of the Divine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loddegaard, Anne

    2009-01-01

    out of place in a novel belonging to the serious combat literature of the Catholic Revival, and the direct representation of the supernatural is also surprising because previous Catholic Revival novelists, such as Léon Bloy and Karl-Joris Huysmans, maintain a realistic, non-magical world and deal...

  10. Representation of the Divine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loddegaard, Anne

    2012-01-01

    out of place in a novel belonging to the serious combat literature of the Catholic Revival, and the direct representation of the supernatural is also surprising because previous Catholic Revival novelists, such as Léon Bloy and Karl-Joris Huysmans, maintain a realistic, non-magical world and deal...

  11. Moment graphs and representations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jantzen, Jens Carsten

    2012-01-01

    Moment graphs and sheaves on moment graphs are basically combinatorial objects that have be used to describe equivariant intersectiion cohomology. In these lectures we are going to show that they can be used to provide a direct link from this cohomology to the representation theory of simple Lie...

  12. How does microanalysis of mother-infant communication inform maternal sensitivity and infant attachment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beebe, Beatrice; Steele, Miriam

    2013-01-01

    Microanalysis research on 4-month infant-mother face-to-face communication operates like a "social microscope" and identifies aspects of maternal sensitivity and the origins of attachment with a more detailed lens. We hope to enhance a dialogue between these two paradigms, microanalysis of mother-infant communication and maternal sensitivity and emerging working models of attachment. The prediction of infant attachment from microanalytic approaches and their contribution to concepts of maternal sensitivity are described. We summarize aspects of one microanalytic study by Beebe and colleagues published in 2010 that documents new communication patterns between mothers and infants at 4 months that predict future disorganized (vs. secure) attachment. The microanalysis approach opens up a new window on the details of the micro-processes of face-to-face communication. It provides a new, rich set of behaviors with which to extend our understanding of the origins of infant attachment and of maternal sensitivity.

  13. How Do Students Learn to See Concepts in Visualizations? Social Learning Mechanisms with Physical and Virtual Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rau, Martina A.

    2017-01-01

    STEM instruction often uses visual representations. To benefit from these, students need to understand how representations show domain-relevant concepts. Yet, this is difficult for students. Prior research shows that physical representations (objects that students manipulate by hand) and virtual representations (objects on a computer screen that…

  14. Longitudinal performance of infants with cerebral palsy on the Test of Infant Motor Performance and on the Alberta Infant Motor Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Vanessa M; Campbell, Suzann K; Sheftel, David; Singh, Jaidep; Beligere, Nagamani

    2003-01-01

    Understanding the natural history of development in children with cerebral palsy (CP) is important for studying the consequences of early intervention. The purpose of this paper is to present results on the Test of Infant Motor Performance (TIMP) from 0-4 months of age and on the Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS) from 3 to 12 months of age in a group of infants later diagnosed as having CP. Ages at which infants with CP were first recognized as having delayed motor performance on each instrument and the stability of performance over time are presented. Clinical implications for using both instruments are discussed.

  15. Specialized mechanisms for theory of mind: are mental representations special because they are mental or because they are representations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Adam S; Sasaki, Joni Y; German, Tamsin C

    2015-03-01

    Does theory of mind depend on a capacity to reason about representations generally or on mechanisms selective for the processing of mental state representations? In four experiments, participants reasoned about beliefs (mental representations) and notes (non-mental, linguistic representations), which according to two prominent theories are closely matched representations because both are represented propositionally. Reaction times were faster and accuracies higher when participants endorsed or rejected statements about false beliefs than about false notes (Experiment 1), even when statements emphasized representational format (Experiment 2), which should have favored the activation of representation concepts. Experiments 3 and 4 ruled out a counterhypothesis that differences in task demands were responsible for the advantage in belief processing. These results demonstrate for the first time that understanding of mental and linguistic representations can be dissociated even though both may carry propositional content, supporting the theory that mechanisms governing theory of mind reasoning are narrowly specialized to process mental states, not representations more broadly. Extending this theory, we discuss whether less efficient processing of non-mental representations may be a by-product of mechanisms specialized for processing mental states. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Maternal Lifetime Trauma Exposure, Prenatal Cortisol, and Infant Negative Affectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enlow, Michelle Bosquet; Devick, Katrina L; Brunst, Kelly J; Lipton, Lianna R; Coull, Brent A; Wright, Rosalind J

    2017-01-01

    Little research has examined the impact of maternal lifetime trauma exposure on infant temperament. We examined associations between maternal trauma history and infant negative affectivity and modification by prenatal cortisol exposure in a sociodemographically diverse sample of mother-infant dyads. During pregnancy, mothers completed measures of lifetime trauma exposure and current stressors. Third-trimester cortisol output was assessed from maternal hair. When infants were 6 months old, mothers completed the Infant Behavior Questionnaire-Revised. In analyses that controlled for infant sex and maternal age, education, race/ethnicity, and stress during pregnancy, greater maternal trauma exposure was associated with increased infant distress to limitations and sadness. Higher and lower prenatal cortisol exposure modified the magnitude and direction of association between maternal trauma history and infant rate of recovery from arousal. The association between maternal trauma history and infant distress to limitations was somewhat stronger among infants exposed to higher levels of prenatal cortisol. The analyses suggested that maternal lifetime trauma exposure is associated with several domains of infant negative affectivity independently of maternal stress exposures during pregnancy and that some of these associations may be modified by prenatal cortisol exposure. The findings have implications for understanding the intergenerational impact of trauma exposure on child developmental outcomes.

  17. Action simulation: time course and representational mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Anne; Parkinson, Jim; Prinz, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    The notion of action simulation refers to the ability to re-enact foreign actions (i.e., actions observed in other individuals). Simulating others' actions implies a mirroring of their activities, based on one's own sensorimotor competencies. Here, we discuss theoretical and experimental approaches to action simulation and the study of its representational underpinnings. One focus of our discussion is on the timing of internal simulation and its relation to the timing of external action, and a paradigm that requires participants to predict the future course of actions that are temporarily occluded from view. We address transitions between perceptual mechanisms (referring to action representation before and after occlusion) and simulation mechanisms (referring to action representation during occlusion). Findings suggest that action simulation runs in real-time; acting on newly created action representations rather than relying on continuous visual extrapolations. A further focus of our discussion pertains to the functional characteristics of the mechanisms involved in predicting other people's actions. We propose that two processes are engaged, dynamic updating and static matching, which may draw on both semantic and motor information. In a concluding section, we discuss these findings in the context of broader theoretical issues related to action and event representation, arguing that a detailed functional analysis of action simulation in cognitive, neural, and computational terms may help to further advance our understanding of action cognition and motor control. PMID:23847563

  18. Librarians on animes: fictional representations and reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdir Jose Morigi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This work investigates representations about librarians on four animes (japanese animations. It contextualizes the concepts of culture, social representations and representations about librarians. It conceptualizes the animes and emphasize their importance in japanese culture. Objective: To understand how representations about librarians on animes are manifested. Methodology: It utilizes qualitative methodology, being basic, descriptive and has a documental procedure. It uses narratology as a method, identifying the theme, the plot, the environment and the time of the stories, in addition to the physical, psychological and social characteristics of the librarian characters. Results: It discourses about the anchorages observed in the librarian characters on the analyzed animes, making brief comparations between the Eastern and the Western visions about the librarian. In opposite to some stereotypes about the profession, some librarian characters are identified as fighting to pass the information to the user, being even engaged and active on politics. Conclusions: It concludes that the representations about librarians are anchored specially on the vision of the librarian as a guardian, as much of the books, as of the library and memory.

  19. Surfactant therapy in late preterm infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Yurdakök

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Late preterm (LPT neonates are at a high risk for respiratory distress soon after birth due to respiratory distress syndrome (RDS, transient tachypnea of the newborn, persistent pulmonary hypertension, and pneumonia along with an increased need for surfactant replacement therapy, continuous positive airway pressure, and ventilator support when compared with the term neonates. In the past, studies on outcomes of infants with respiratory distress have primarily focused on extremely premature infants, leading to a gap in knowledge and understanding of the developmental biology and mechanism of pulmonary diseases in LPT neonates. Surfactant deficiency is the most frequent etiology of RDS in very preterm and moderately preterm infants, while cesarean section and lung infection play major roles in RDS development in LPT infants. The clinical presentation and the response to surfactant therapy in LPT infants may be different than that seen in very preterm infants. Incidence of pneumonia and occurrence of pneumothorax are significantly higher in LPT and term infants. High rates of pneumonia in these infants may result in direct injury to the type II alveolar cells of the lung with decreasing synthesis, release, and processing of surfactant. Increased permeability of the alveolar capillary membrane to both fluid and solutes is known to result in entry of plasma proteins into the alveolar hypophase, further inhibiting the surface properties of surfactant. However, the oxygenation index value do not change dramatically after ventilation or surfactant administration in LPT infants with RDS compared to very preterm infants. These finding may indicate a different pathogenesis of RDS in late preterm and term infants. In conclusion, surfactant therapy may be of significant benefit in LPT infants with serious respiratory failure secondary to a number of insults. However, optimal timing and dose of administration are not so clear in this group. Additional

  20. Representations of affine Hecke algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Xi, Nanhua

    1994-01-01

    Kazhdan and Lusztig classified the simple modules of an affine Hecke algebra Hq (q E C*) provided that q is not a root of 1 (Invent. Math. 1987). Ginzburg had some very interesting work on affine Hecke algebras. Combining these results simple Hq-modules can be classified provided that the order of q is not too small. These Lecture Notes of N. Xi show that the classification of simple Hq-modules is essentially different from general cases when q is a root of 1 of certain orders. In addition the based rings of affine Weyl groups are shown to be of interest in understanding irreducible representations of affine Hecke algebras. Basic knowledge of abstract algebra is enough to read one third of the book. Some knowledge of K-theory, algebraic group, and Kazhdan-Lusztig cell of Cexeter group is useful for the rest

  1. The history of infant nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilho, Silvia Diez; Barros Filho, Antônio Azevedo

    2010-01-01

    To retrace the history of infant nutrition with the objective of better understanding breastfeeding. Bibliographic searches were run on MEDLINE, LILACS, SciELO, and the Internet. Encyclopedias, scientific textbooks and books for the general public, in addition to literature, art and history, were also used. Texts on child care from several different periods were consulted, in addition to the history of medicine and recent scientific articles on infant nutrition. During the preindustrial period, customs varied little and the likelihood of survival was linked to breastfeeding or its substitution by a wetnurse's milk. Where this was not possible, infants were given animal milk, pre-chewed foods or paps that were poor in nutrients and contaminated, which caused high mortality rates. There was nothing that could successfully substitute breastfeeding and the survival of the species was dependent on breastfeeding. Once the industrial revolution had started, women who had been accustomed to breastfeeding went to work in factories, stimulating the search for alternative infant nutrition. Consumption of animal milk and formulae (diluted, flour-based, powdered milk) and premature introduction of complementary foods compromised children's health. The feminist movement and the contraceptive pill caused a fall in birth rates. Manufacturers in search of profits developed modified formulae and invested in advertising. Society reacted with breastfeeding support movements. Nowadays, the advantages of breastmilk are recognized and exclusive breastfeeding is recommended up to 6 months, to be supplemented with other foods from this age on and continued until at least 2 years of age. Infant nutrition, whether natural or artificial, has always been determined and conditioned by the social value attributed to breastfeeding.

  2. Standard model of knowledge representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Wensheng

    2016-09-01

    Knowledge representation is the core of artificial intelligence research. Knowledge representation methods include predicate logic, semantic network, computer programming language, database, mathematical model, graphics language, natural language, etc. To establish the intrinsic link between various knowledge representation methods, a unified knowledge representation model is necessary. According to ontology, system theory, and control theory, a standard model of knowledge representation that reflects the change of the objective world is proposed. The model is composed of input, processing, and output. This knowledge representation method is not a contradiction to the traditional knowledge representation method. It can express knowledge in terms of multivariate and multidimensional. It can also express process knowledge, and at the same time, it has a strong ability to solve problems. In addition, the standard model of knowledge representation provides a way to solve problems of non-precision and inconsistent knowledge.

  3. Realizations of the canonical representation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A characterisation of the maximal abelian subalgebras of the bounded operators on Hilbert space that are normalised by the canonical representation of the Heisenberg group is given. This is used to classify the perfect realizations of the canonical representation.

  4. Lenses – Light, Bodies and Representations. A paper on the optical device that enables visual perception through representation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehder, Mads

    I will discuss the many unique lenses available to visual anthropological research and how a nuanced and differentiated view on them can be the key to understanding the complexity of the representations we, as visual anthropologist, are creating.......I will discuss the many unique lenses available to visual anthropological research and how a nuanced and differentiated view on them can be the key to understanding the complexity of the representations we, as visual anthropologist, are creating....

  5. Functional representations for quantized fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackiw, R.

    1988-01-01

    This paper provides information on Representing transformations in quantum theory bosonic quantum field theories: Schrodinger Picture; Represnting Transformations in Bosonic Quantum Field Theory; Two-Dimensional Conformal Transformations, Schrodinger picture representation, Fock space representation, Inequivalent Schrodinger picture representations; Discussion, Self-Dual and Other Models; Field Theory in de Sitter Space. Fermionic Quantum Field Theories: Schroedinger Picture; Schrodinger Picture Representation for Two-Dimensional; Conformal Transformations; Fock Space Dynamics in the Schrodinger Picture; Fock Space Evaluation of Anomalous Current and Conformal Commutators

  6. Harmonic Analysis and Group Representation

    CERN Document Server

    Figa-Talamanca, Alessandro

    2011-01-01

    This title includes: Lectures - A. Auslander, R. Tolimeri - Nilpotent groups and abelian varieties, M Cowling - Unitary and uniformly bounded representations of some simple Lie groups, M. Duflo - Construction de representations unitaires d'un groupe de Lie, R. Howe - On a notion of rank for unitary representations of the classical groups, V.S. Varadarajan - Eigenfunction expansions of semisimple Lie groups, and R. Zimmer - Ergodic theory, group representations and rigidity; and, Seminars - A. Koranyi - Some applications of Gelfand pairs in classical analysis.

  7. Naturalising Representational Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    This paper sets out a view about the explanatory role of representational content and advocates one approach to naturalising content – to giving a naturalistic account of what makes an entity a representation and in virtue of what it has the content it does. It argues for pluralism about the metaphysics of content and suggests that a good strategy is to ask the content question with respect to a variety of predictively successful information processing models in experimental psychology and cognitive neuroscience; and hence that data from psychology and cognitive neuroscience should play a greater role in theorising about the nature of content. Finally, the contours of the view are illustrated by drawing out and defending a surprising consequence: that individuation of vehicles of content is partly externalist. PMID:24563661

  8. Excessive crying in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Halpern

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: Review the literature on excessive crying in young infants, also known as infantile colic, and its effects on family dynamics, its pathophysiology, and new treatment interventions. Data source: The literature review was carried out in the Medline, PsycINFO, LILACS, SciELO, and Cochrane Library databases, using the terms “excessive crying,” and “infantile colic,” as well technical books and technical reports on child development, selecting the most relevant articles on the subject, with emphasis on recent literature published in the last five years. Summary of the findings: Excessive crying is a common symptom in the first 3 months of life and leads to approximately 20% of pediatric consultations. Different prevalence rates of excessive crying have been reported, ranging from 14% to approximately 30% in infants up to 3 months of age. There is evidence linking excessive crying early in life with adaptive problems in the preschool period, as well as with early weaning, maternal anxiety and depression, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and other behavioral problems. Several pathophysiological mechanisms can explain these symptoms, such as circadian rhythm alterations, central nervous system immaturity, and alterations in the intestinal microbiota. Several treatment alternatives have been described, including behavioral measures, manipulation techniques, use of medication, and acupuncture, with controversial results and effectiveness. Conclusion: Excessive crying in the early months is a prevalent symptom; the pediatrician's attention is necessary to understand and adequately manage the problem and offer support to exhausted parents. The prescription of drugs of questionable action and with potential side effects is not a recommended treatment, except in extreme situations. The effectiveness of dietary treatments and use of probiotics still require confirmation. There is incomplete evidence regarding alternative

  9. Multiple Sparse Representations Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plenge, Esben; Klein, Stefan S.; Niessen, Wiro J.; Meijering, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Sparse representations classification (SRC) is a powerful technique for pixelwise classification of images and it is increasingly being used for a wide variety of image analysis tasks. The method uses sparse representation and learned redundant dictionaries to classify image pixels. In this empirical study we propose to further leverage the redundancy of the learned dictionaries to achieve a more accurate classifier. In conventional SRC, each image pixel is associated with a small patch surrounding it. Using these patches, a dictionary is trained for each class in a supervised fashion. Commonly, redundant/overcomplete dictionaries are trained and image patches are sparsely represented by a linear combination of only a few of the dictionary elements. Given a set of trained dictionaries, a new patch is sparse coded using each of them, and subsequently assigned to the class whose dictionary yields the minimum residual energy. We propose a generalization of this scheme. The method, which we call multiple sparse representations classification (mSRC), is based on the observation that an overcomplete, class specific dictionary is capable of generating multiple accurate and independent estimates of a patch belonging to the class. So instead of finding a single sparse representation of a patch for each dictionary, we find multiple, and the corresponding residual energies provides an enhanced statistic which is used to improve classification. We demonstrate the efficacy of mSRC for three example applications: pixelwise classification of texture images, lumen segmentation in carotid artery magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and bifurcation point detection in carotid artery MRI. We compare our method with conventional SRC, K-nearest neighbor, and support vector machine classifiers. The results show that mSRC outperforms SRC and the other reference methods. In addition, we present an extensive evaluation of the effect of the main mSRC parameters: patch size, dictionary size, and

  10. Higher Representations Duals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sannino, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    We uncover novel solutions of the 't Hooft anomaly matching conditions for scalarless gauge theories with matter transforming according to higher dimensional representations of the underlying gauge group. We argue that, if the duals exist, they are gauge theories with fermions transforming accord......-Dyson approximation. We use the solutions to gain useful insight on the conformal window of the associated electric theory. A consistent picture emerges corroborating previous results obtained via different analytic methods and in agreement with first principle lattice explorations....

  11. The Knowledge Representation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-07-01

    representing k nowledge. I,- ONE was designed to represent the kinds of knowlodge constriicts encountered by developers of natural language processing systems...project called Empirically Valid Knowledge Representation in 1986. One of the first tasks of the new project was to translate NIKL into Common LISP -- a...constraints -- the syntactic structures that appear in LOO% :constraints or implies clauses translate into knowledge structures for which we have

  12. Representation of Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-03-01

    methodology involves the design of programs that exhibit Intelligent behavior, Al researchers have often taken a rather pragmatic approach to the subject...This article has not been about representation formalisms per se, but rather about the pragmatics of epistemology, the study of the nature of knowledge...1977. Levels of complexity In discourse for anaphora disambiguation and speech act interpretation. IJCAI 3, 43-49. Carbonell, J. R. 1970. Al in CAI: An

  13. Compact Information Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-02

    information representations, for solving very large-scale engineering problems in data stream computations, real-time network monitoring & anomaly...algorithms. Under the support of this AFOSR grant, a lot of excited research problems have been solved and many more arise. We will continue many...applied computer science, and applied math . Within the scope of this proposal, the focus is preliminarily on the fundamental, theoretical research

  14. Could representations influence strategy?

    OpenAIRE

    Diaz Ruiz, Carlos; Kowalkowski, Christian

    2014-01-01

    A central question in industrial marketing is whether the form in which the external environment of a firm is represented influences the marketing strategy. This influence has been studied generally through case study research, and quantitative evidence is limited. In response to this limitation, this paper reports on a quasi-experiment investigating whether market representations have a constructive aspect in business. Empirically, this study compares two types of ostensive and performative ...

  15. Non-Representational Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    2016-01-01

    Dette kapitel gennemgår den såkaldte ”Non-Representational Theory” (NRT), der primært er kendt fra den Angelsaksiske humangeografi, og som særligt er blevet fremført af den engelske geograf Nigel Thrift siden midten af 2000 årtiet. Da positionen ikke kan siges at være specielt homogen vil kapitlet...

  16. Representation Without Reconstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Edelman, Shimon

    1994-01-01

    According to the paradigmatic reconstructionist approach to vision, a visual system must first reconstruct the world internally, then extract from the resulting representation whatever features are necessary for the task at hand. Recent developments in computational vision and visual neuroscience show that many of the features needed for tasks ranging from spatial discrimination to object recognition can be extracted from the image directly, much as in Gibson's hypothesis of direct perception...

  17. Effects of Computer-Based Visual Representation on Mathematics Learning and Cognitive Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yung, Hsin I.; Paas, Fred

    2015-01-01

    Visual representation has been recognized as a powerful learning tool in many learning domains. Based on the assumption that visual representations can support deeper understanding, we examined the effects of visual representations on learning performance and cognitive load in the domain of mathematics. An experimental condition with visual…

  18. Relations of Different Types of Numerical Magnitude Representations to Each Other and to Mathematics Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazio, Lisa K.; Bailey, Drew H.; Thompson, Clarissa A.; Siegler, Robert S.

    2014-01-01

    We examined relations between symbolic and non-symbolic numerical magnitude representations, between whole number and fraction representations, and between these representations and overall mathematics achievement in fifth graders. Fraction and whole number symbolic and non-symbolic numerical magnitude understandings were measured using both…

  19. Metric representation of DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Z B

    2000-07-01

    A metric representation of DNA sequences is borrowed from symbolic dynamics. In view of this method, the pattern seen in the chaos game representation of DNA sequences is explained as the suppression of certain nucleotide strings in the DNA sequences. Frequencies of short nucleotide strings and suppression of the shortest ones in the DNA sequences can be determined by using the metric representation.

  20. Rethinking democracy and representation: a proposal to extend the democratic canon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Monsiváis Carrillo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rethinking political representation is necessary to understand many contemporary democratic challenges. However, a widely accepted view states that democracy and representation are two irreconcilable principles, thus hindering the theoretical assessment of political representation's democratic relevance. According to this view, what democracy needs is more popular participation; instead, representation involves elitism and political detachment. In this paper I will argue that such a view is inaccurate. Through the reconstruction of the democratic ideal, and the discussion of the concept of political representation, I intend to show that processes of political authorization, accountability and public justification are both elements of political representation and expression of democratic politics.

  1. Mental Representations of Weekdays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A Ellis

    Full Text Available Keeping social appointments involves keeping track of what day it is. In practice, mismatches between apparent day and actual day are common. For example, a person might think the current day is Wednesday when in fact it is Thursday. Here we show that such mismatches are highly systematic, and can be traced to specific properties of their mental representations. In Study 1, mismatches between apparent day and actual day occurred more frequently on midweek days (Tuesday, Wednesday, and Thursday than on other days, and were mainly due to intrusions from immediately neighboring days. In Study 2, reaction times to report the current day were fastest on Monday and Friday, and slowest midweek. In Study 3, participants generated fewer semantic associations for "Tuesday", "Wednesday" and "Thursday" than for other weekday names. Similarly, Google searches found fewer occurrences of midweek days in webpages and books. Analysis of affective norms revealed that participants' associations were strongly negative for Monday, strongly positive for Friday, and graded over the intervening days. Midweek days are confusable because their mental representations are sparse and similar. Mondays and Fridays are less confusable because their mental representations are rich and distinctive, forming two extremes along a continuum of change.

  2. Pioneers of representation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Curtis, Charles W

    1999-01-01

    The year 1897 was marked by two important mathematical events: the publication of the first paper on representations of finite groups by Ferdinand Georg Frobenius (1849-1917) and the appearance of the first treatise in English on the theory of finite groups by William Burnside (1852-1927). Burnside soon developed his own approach to representations of finite groups. In the next few years, working independently, Frobenius and Burnside explored the new subject and its applications to finite group theory. They were soon joined in this enterprise by Issai Schur (1875-1941) and some years later, by Richard Brauer (1901-1977). These mathematicians' pioneering research is the subject of this book. It presents an account of the early history of representation theory through an analysis of the published work of the principals and others with whom the principals' work was interwoven. Also included are biographical sketches and enough mathematics to enable readers to follow the development of the subject. An introductor...

  3. The Sleeping Infant Brain Anticipates Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Manuela; Wilhelm, Ines; Mölle, Matthias; Born, Jan; Friederici, Angela D

    2017-08-07

    From the age of 3 months, infants learn relations between objects and co-occurring words [1]. These very first representations of object-word pairings in infant memory are considered as non-symbolic proto-words comprising specific visual-auditory associations that can already be formed in the first months of life [2-5]. Genuine words that refer to semantic long-term memory have not been evidenced prior to 9 months of age [6-9]. Sleep is known to facilitate the reorganization of memories [9-14], but its impact on the perceptual-to-semantic trend in early development is unknown. Here we explored the formation of word meanings in 6- to 8-month-old infants and its reorganization during the course of sleep. Infants were exposed to new words as labels for new object categories. In the memory test about an hour later, generalization to novel category exemplars was tested. In infants who took a short nap during the retention period, a brain response of 3-month-olds [1] was observed, indicating generalizations based on early developing perceptual-associative memory. In those infants who napped longer, a semantic priming effect [15, 16] usually found later in development [17-19] revealed the formation of genuine words. The perceptual-to-semantic shift in memory was related to the duration of sleep stage 2 and to locally increased sleep spindle activity. The finding that, after the massed presentation of several labeled category exemplars, sleep enabled even 6-month-olds to create semantic long-term memory clearly challenges the notion that immature brain structures are responsible for the typically slower lexical development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. You Sound Like Mommy: Bilingual and Monolingual Infants Learn Words Best from Speakers Typical of Their Language Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fennell, Christopher; Byers-Heinlein, Krista

    2014-01-01

    Previous research indicates that monolingual infants have difficulty learning minimal pairs (i.e., words differing by one phoneme) produced by a speaker uncharacteristic of their language environment and that bilinguals might share this difficulty. To clearly reveal infants' underlying phonological representations, we minimized task demands by…

  5. Fourteen-Month-Old Infants Learn Similar-Sounding Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Katherine A.; Fennell, Christopher T.; Swingley, Daniel; Werker, Janet F.

    2009-01-01

    Can infants, in the very first stages of word learning, use their perceptual sensitivity to the phonetics of speech while learning words? Research to date suggests that infants of 14 months cannot learn two similar-sounding words unless there is substantial contextual support. The current experiment advances our understanding of this failure by…

  6. Using Infrared Thermography to Assess Emotional Responses to Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Gianluca; Nakazawa, Jun; Ogawa, Shota; Stival, Rita; Putnick, Diane L.; Bornstein, Marc H.

    2015-01-01

    Adult-infant interactions operate simultaneously across multiple domains and at multiple levels -- from physiology to behaviour. Unpackaging and understanding them, therefore, involve analysis of multiple data streams. In this study, we tested physiological responses and cognitive preferences for infant and adult faces in adult females and males.…

  7. Barriers, facilitators and recommendations for the early infant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To understand barriers, facilitators and recommendations for five key steps in the early infant diagnosis and treatment (EIDT) cascade: (1) identification of HEIs; (2) infant testing; (3) sample processing and transport; (4) reporting results to mothers; (5) ART initiation for HEI. Methods. Semistructured interviews were conducted ...

  8. Visualization Through Knowledge Representation Model for Social Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, Dil Muhammad Akbar; Athar Javed, Muhammad; Ahmed, Zaki

    2011-01-01

    the process of knowing, learning and creating knowledge is the relevant aspect (Nonaka and Takeuchi 1995). In this paper knowledge representation is presented in 3D style for the understanding and visualization of dynamics of complex social networks by developing a TANetworkTool (Task Analysis Network Tool......). The standard or normal representation of a typical social network is through a graph data structure in 2D. The dynamics of larger social networks is so complex some time it becomes difficult to understand the various levels of interactions and dependencies just by mere representation through a tree or graph...... of complex social networks and complimenting the analytical results. This representation can also help authorities not necessarily having specific scientific background to understand and perhaps take preventive actions required in certain specific scenarios for example dealing with terrorist/covert networks....

  9. Infants' metaphysics: the case of numerical identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, F; Carey, S

    1996-04-01

    Adults conceptualize the world in terms of enduring physical objects. Sortal concepts provide conditions of individuation (establishing the boundaries of objects) and numerical identity (establishing whether an object is the same one as one encountered at some other time). In the adult conceptual system, there are two roughly hierarchical levels of object sortals. Most general is the sortal bounded physical object itself, for which spatiotemporal properties provide the criteria for individuation and identity. More specific sortals, such as dog or car, rely on additional types of properties to provide criteria for individuation and identity. We conjecture that young infants might represent only the general sortal, object, and construct more specific sortals later (the Object-first Hypothesis). This is closely related to Bower's (1974) conjecture that infants use spatiotemporal information to trace identity before they use property information. Five studies using the visual habituation paradigm were conducted to address the Object-first Hypothesis. In these studies, 10-month-old infants were able to use spatiotemporal information but failed to use property/kind information to set up representations of numerically distinct individuals, thus providing empirical evidence for the Object-first Hypothesis. Finally, infants succeed at object individuation in terms of more specific sortals by 12 months. The relation between success at our task and early noun comprehension is discussed.

  10. FOOD ALLERGY IN INFANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.I. Balabolkin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the etiology, growth mechanisms, clinical implications, diagnostics and treatment of the infant food allergy. The author highlights the status of the allergy to the proteins of cow milk within this age group of children. Alongside the article describes the modern approaches to the diet therapy of the infants with the allergy to the proteins of cow milk.Key words: infant, food allergy, allergy to the proteins of cow milk, diet therapy.

  11. Context Representation and Fusion: Advancements and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asad Masood Khattak

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The acceptance and usability of context-aware systems have given them the edge of wide use in various domains and has also attracted the attention of researchers in the area of context-aware computing. Making user context information available to such systems is the center of attention. However, there is very little emphasis given to the process of context representation and context fusion which are integral parts of context-aware systems. Context representation and fusion facilitate in recognizing the dependency/relationship of one data source on another to extract a better understanding of user context. The problem is more critical when data is emerging from heterogeneous sources of diverse nature like sensors, user profiles, and social interactions and also at different timestamps. Both the processes of context representation and fusion are followed in one way or another; however, they are not discussed explicitly for the realization of context-aware systems. In other words most of the context-aware systems underestimate the importance context representation and fusion. This research has explicitly focused on the importance of both the processes of context representation and fusion and has streamlined their existence in the overall architecture of context-aware systems’ design and development. Various applications of context representation and fusion in context-aware systems are also highlighted in this research. A detailed review on both the processes is provided in this research with their applications. Future research directions (challenges are also highlighted which needs proper attention for the purpose of achieving the goal of realizing context-aware systems.

  12. Context Representation and Fusion: Advancements and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khattak, Asad Masood; Akbar, Noman; Aazam, Mohammad; Ali, Taqdir; Khan, Adil Mehmood; Jeon, Seokhee; Hwang, Myunggwon; Lee, Sungyoung

    2014-01-01

    The acceptance and usability of context-aware systems have given them the edge of wide use in various domains and has also attracted the attention of researchers in the area of context-aware computing. Making user context information available to such systems is the center of attention. However, there is very little emphasis given to the process of context representation and context fusion which are integral parts of context-aware systems. Context representation and fusion facilitate in recognizing the dependency/relationship of one data source on another to extract a better understanding of user context. The problem is more critical when data is emerging from heterogeneous sources of diverse nature like sensors, user profiles, and social interactions and also at different timestamps. Both the processes of context representation and fusion are followed in one way or another; however, they are not discussed explicitly for the realization of context-aware systems. In other words most of the context-aware systems underestimate the importance context representation and fusion. This research has explicitly focused on the importance of both the processes of context representation and fusion and has streamlined their existence in the overall architecture of context-aware systems’ design and development. Various applications of context representation and fusion in context-aware systems are also highlighted in this research. A detailed review on both the processes is provided in this research with their applications. Future research directions (challenges) are also highlighted which needs proper attention for the purpose of achieving the goal of realizing context-aware systems. PMID:24887042

  13. Mothers' amygdala response to positive or negative infant affect is modulated by personal relevance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding, prioritizing and responding to infant affective cues is a key component of motherhood, with long-term implications for infant socio-emotional development. This important task includes identifying unique characteristics of one's own infant, as they relate to differences in affect valen...

  14. Marital Conflict Predicts Mother-to-Infant Adrenocortical Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibel, Leah C; Mercado, Evelyn

    2017-12-21

    Employing an experimental design, mother-to-infant transmission of stress was examined. Mothers (N = 117) were randomized to either have a positive or conflictual discussion with their marital partners, after which infants (age = 6 months) participated in a fear and frustration task. Saliva samples were collected to assess maternal cortisol responses to the discussion and infant cortisol responses to the challenge task. Results indicate maternal cortisol reactivity and recovery to the conflict (but not positive) discussion predicted infant cortisol reactivity to the infant challenge. Mothers' positive affect during the discussion buffered, and intrusion during the free-play potentiated, mother-to-infant adrenocortical transmission. These findings advance our understanding of the social and contextual regulation of adrenocortical activity in early childhood. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  15. Hepatitis A seroprevalence among infants aged 12 months in Ankara.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ince, Osman Tolga; Yalçin, S Songül; Yurdakök, Kadriye; Ozmert, Elif N

    2011-01-01

    Seroprevalence studies in various age groups contribute to a better understanding of hepatitis A infection and response to hepatitis A immunization. Hepatitis A seroprevalence in 12-month-old infants from Ankara was studied. Among 601 healthy infants, overall hepatitis A seropositivity was found to be 23.5%. There were no gender differences in seropositivity (22.6% for male and 24.5% for female infants). Although vaccination of infants would be an ideal prevention strategy, presence of maternal anti-hepatitis A virus (HAV) antibody interferes with the immune response to hepatitis A vaccine in infants and young children. Therefore, further knowledge about decay of maternal antibody in infants is important in determining the optimal age for vaccination against hepatitis A. There is no recommendation for routine hepatitis A vaccination in Turkey. However, we need more seroprevalence studies in different age groups to decide the appropriate timing/age of vaccination.

  16. Using SVG and XSLT for graphic representation

    OpenAIRE

    Baravalle, Andres; Lanfranchi, Vitaveska; Gribaudo, Marco

    2003-01-01

    Using SVG and XSLT for graphic representation\\ud In this paper we will present an XML based framework that can be used to produce graphical visualisation of scientific data. The approach rather than producing ordinary histogram and function diagaram graphs, tries to represent the information in a more graphical appealing and easy to understand way. For examples the approach will give the ability to represent the temperature as the level of coulored fluid in a thermometer.\\ud \\ud The proposed ...

  17. Genital Problems in Infants (Female)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Infants and Children Chest Pain, Acute Chest Pain, Chronic Cold and Flu Cough Diarrhea Ear Problems Elimination Problems Elimination Problems in Infants and Children Eye Problems Facial Swelling Feeding Problems in Infants ...

  18. Representation of speech variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bent, Tessa; Holt, Rachael F

    2017-07-01

    Speech signals provide both linguistic information (e.g., words and sentences) as well as information about the speaker who produced the message (i.e., social-indexical information). Listeners store highly detailed representations of these speech signals, which are simultaneously indexed with linguistic and social category membership. A variety of methodologies-forced-choice categorization, rating, and free classification-have shed light on listeners' cognitive-perceptual representations of the social-indexical information present in the speech signal. Specifically, listeners can accurately identify some talker characteristics, including native language status, approximate age, sex, and gender. Additionally, listeners have sensitivity to other speaker characteristics-such as sexual orientation, regional dialect, native language for non-native speakers, race, and ethnicity-but listeners tend to be less accurate or more variable at categorizing or rating speakers based on these constructs. However, studies have not necessarily incorporated more recent conceptions of these constructs (e.g., separating listeners' perceptions of race vs ethnicity) or speakers who do not fit squarely into specific categories (e.g., for sex perception, intersex individuals; for gender perception, genderqueer speakers; for race perception, multiracial speakers). Additional research on how the intersections of social-indexical categories influence speech perception is also needed. As the field moves forward, scholars from a variety of disciplines should be incorporated into investigations of how listeners' extract and represent facets of personal identity from speech. Further, the impact of these representations on our interactions with one another in contexts outside of the laboratory should continue to be explored. WIREs Cogn Sci 2017, 8:e1434. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1434 This article is categorized under: Linguistics > Language Acquisition Linguistics > Language in Mind and Brain Psychology

  19. Representations of commonsense knowledge

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, Ernest

    1990-01-01

    Representations of Commonsense Knowledge provides a rich language for expressing commonsense knowledge and inference techniques for carrying out commonsense knowledge. This book provides a survey of the research on commonsense knowledge.Organized into 10 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the basic ideas on artificial intelligence commonsense reasoning. This text then examines the structure of logic, which is roughly analogous to that of a programming language. Other chapters describe how rules of universal validity can be applied to facts known with absolute certainty to deduce ot

  20. Representations from the past

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sammut, Gordon; Tsirogianni, Stavroula; Wagoner, Brady

    2012-01-01

    a deconstructive effort that maps the evolutionary trajectory of a representational project in terms of its adaptation over time. We go on to illustrate our proposal visiting data that emerged in an inquiry investigating Maltese immigrants’ perspectives towards their countries of settlement and origin. This data...... explain how Maltese immigrants to Britain opt for certain forms of intercultural relations than others that are normally Integr preferable. We demonstrate that these preferences rely on an evolved justification of the Maltese getting by with foreign rulers that other scholars have traced back...

  1. Surveyable Representations, the "Lecture on Ethics", and Moral Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin De Mesel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available I argue that it is possible and useful for moral philosophy to provide surveyable representations (as the later Wittgenstein understands the concept of moral vocabulary. I proceed in four steps. First, I present two dominant interpretations of the concept “surveyable representation”. Second, I use these interpretations as a background against which I present my own interpretation. Third, I use my interpretation to support the claim that Wittgenstein’s “Lecture on Ethics” counts as an example of a surveyable representation. I conclude that, since the lecture qualifies as a surveyable representation, it is possible to provide surveyable representations of moral vocabulary. Fourth, I argue that it is useful for contemporary moral philosophy to provide surveyable representations, because it may help to dissolve problems in current debates. I provide an example of such a debate, namely, the debate between cognitivists and non-cognivitists.

  2. Analysis of infant cry through weighted linear prediction cepstral coefficients and Probabilistic Neural Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariharan, M; Chee, Lim Sin; Yaacob, Sazali

    2012-06-01

    Acoustic analysis of infant cry signals has been proven to be an excellent tool in the area of automatic detection of pathological status of an infant. This paper investigates the application of parameter weighting for linear prediction cepstral coefficients (LPCCs) to provide the robust representation of infant cry signals. Three classes of infant cry signals were considered such as normal cry signals, cry signals from deaf babies and babies with asphyxia. A Probabilistic Neural Network (PNN) is suggested to classify the infant cry signals into normal and pathological cries. PNN is trained with different spread factor or smoothing parameter to obtain better classification accuracy. The experimental results demonstrate that the suggested features and classification algorithms give very promising classification accuracy of above 98% and it expounds that the suggested method can be used to help medical professionals for diagnosing pathological status of an infant from cry signals.

  3. Social Representations of Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Zubieta

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The article stresses the relationship between Explicit and Implicit theories of Intelligence. Following the line of common sense epistemology and the theory of Social Representations, a study was carried out in order to analyze naive’s explanations about Intelligence Definitions. Based on Mugny & Carugati (1989 research, a self-administered questionnaire was designed and filled in by 286 subjects. Results are congruent with the main hyphotesis postulated: A general overlap between explicit and implicit theories showed up. According to the results Intelligence appears as both, a social attribute related to social adaptation and as a concept defined in relation with contextual variables similar to expert’s current discourses. Nevertheless, conceptions based on “gifted ideology” still are present stressing the main axes of Intelligence debate: biological and sociological determinism. In the same sense, unfamiliarity and social identity are reaffirmed as organizing principles of social representation. The distance with the object -measured as the belief in intelligence differences as a solve/non solve problem- and the level of implication with the topic -teachers/no teachers- appear as discriminating elements at the moment of supporting specific dimensions. 

  4. On functional representations of the conformal algebra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosten, Oliver J.

    2017-07-15

    Starting with conformally covariant correlation functions, a sequence of functional representations of the conformal algebra is constructed. A key step is the introduction of representations which involve an auxiliary functional. It is observed that these functionals are not arbitrary but rather must satisfy a pair of consistency equations corresponding to dilatation and special conformal invariance. In a particular representation, the former corresponds to the canonical form of the exact renormalization group equation specialized to a fixed point whereas the latter is new. This provides a concrete understanding of how conformal invariance is realized as a property of the Wilsonian effective action and the relationship to action-free formulations of conformal field theory. Subsequently, it is argued that the conformal Ward Identities serve to define a particular representation of the energy-momentum tensor. Consistency of this construction implies Polchinski's conditions for improving the energy-momentum tensor of a conformal field theory such that it is traceless. In the Wilsonian approach, the exactly marginal, redundant field which generates lines of physically equivalent fixed points is identified as the trace of the energy-momentum tensor. (orig.)

  5. Audio Spatial Representation Around the Body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggius-Vella, Elena; Campus, Claudio; Finocchietti, Sara; Gori, Monica

    2017-01-01

    Studies have found that portions of space around our body are differently coded by our brain. Numerous works have investigated visual and auditory spatial representation, focusing mostly on the spatial representation of stimuli presented at head level, especially in the frontal space. Only few studies have investigated spatial representation around the entire body and its relationship with motor activity. Moreover, it is still not clear whether the space surrounding us is represented as a unitary dimension or whether it is split up into different portions, differently shaped by our senses and motor activity. To clarify these points, we investigated audio localization of dynamic and static sounds at different body levels. In order to understand the role of a motor action in auditory space representation, we asked subjects to localize sounds by pointing with the hand or the foot, or by giving a verbal answer. We found that the audio sound localization was different depending on the body part considered. Moreover, a different pattern of response was observed when subjects were asked to make actions with respect to the verbal responses. These results suggest that the audio space around our body is split in various spatial portions, which are perceived differently: front, back, around chest, and around foot, suggesting that these four areas could be differently modulated by our senses and our actions.

  6. Effects of parenting role and parent-child interaction on infant motor development in Taiwan Birth Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Yi-Chen; Lin, Dai-Chan; Lee, Chun-Yang; Lee, Meng-Chih

    2015-04-01

    Previous studies have rarely focused on healthy infants' motor development, and nationwide birth cohort studies in Taiwan are limited. It has been shown that parent-child interactions significantly influence infant motor development and the effect of mother-infant attachment on infant development is stronger than father-infant attachment. However, it is not well understood that whether the mother-infant or father-infant interaction has the confounding effect on infant motor development. To understand healthy infant motor development in Taiwan; and to investigate the effects of parenting roles and parent-child interactions on infant motor development. Data were derived from the 1st through the 2nd waves of the Taiwan Birth Cohort Study-Pilot Database. Infants were classified into two categories (complete or incomplete development) according to their developmental milestones. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) and random effects models were used to clarify the possible long-term effects. The rate of infants who completed development in 6 months was 30.50%; however the rate was increased in 18 month-old children (80.01%). A mother's perceived infant care competence was the most important factor for infant motor development. "Whether or not the infant was the only baby in the family" and "parent-child interaction" had slightly significant effect on infant motor development. In conclusion, the mother's perceived competence must be strengthened and parent-infant interactions should be emphasized on a daily basis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Using grounded theory methodology to conceptualize the mother-infant communication dynamic: potential application to compliance with infant feeding recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Jennifer; Bower, Katherine M; Spence, Marsha; Kavanagh, Katherine F

    2015-10-01

    Excessive, rapid weight gain in early infancy has been linked to risk of later overweight and obesity. Inappropriate infant feeding practices associated with this rapid weight gain are currently of great interest. Understanding the origin of these practices may increase the effectiveness of interventions. Low-income populations in the Southeastern United States are at increased risk for development of inappropriate infant feeding practices, secondary to the relatively low rates of breastfeeding reported from this region. The objective was to use grounded theory methodology (GTM) to explore interactions between mothers and infants that may influence development of feeding practices, and to do so among low-income, primiparous, Southeastern United States mothers. Analysis of 15 in-depth phone interviews resulted in development of a theoretical model in which Mother-Infant Communication Dynamic emerged as the central concept. The central concept suggests a communication pattern developed over the first year of life, based on a positive feedback loop, which is harmonious and results in the maternal perception of mother and infant now speaking the same language. Importantly, though harmonious, this dynamic may result from inaccurate maternal interpretation of infant cues and behaviours, subsequently leading to inappropriate infant feeding practices. Future research should test this theoretical model using direct observation of mother-infant communication, to increase the understanding of maternal interpretation of infant cues. Subsequently, interventions targeting accurate maternal interpretation of and response to infant cues, and impact on rate of infant weight gain could be tested. If effective, health care providers could potentially use these concepts to attenuate excess rapid infant weight gain. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. PREBIOTICS IN INFANT FORMULAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvan Vandenplas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Microbiota of the gastrointestinal tract is different in breastfed infants and in children receiving standard infant formulas. While breast milk is rich in prebiotic oligosaccharides and can also contain some probiotics, standard infant formulas contain neither one thing nor the other. The formulation of an infant formula includes various prebiotic ingredients: galacto- and fructooligosaccharides, polydextrose and their combinations. There is evidence that the addition of prebiotics to baby food makes the microbiota of the gastrointestinal tract of infants receiving infant formulas more similar to the microbiota of breastfed children. Prebiotics alter the metabolic activity of the intestinal microflora (lower stool pH and increase the amount of short-chain fatty acids, have a bifidogenic effect and provide a stool consistency and bowel movement frequency that are similar to these parameters in breastfed infants. There is limited evidence that such changes in microbiota of the gastrointestinal tract may have some influence on the development of an infant's immune system. Adverse events are extremely rare in the application of prebiotics. 

  9. Stillbirth and Infant Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr, Ellen Aagaard

    2012-01-01

    mechanisms behind these associations remain largely unknown. Although maternal obesity is associated with a wide range of complications in the mother and neonate that may impair fetal and infant survival, the increased risk of stillbirth and infant mortality is virtually unchanged when accounting...

  10. Newborn infants detect the beat in music

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkler, I.; Háden, G.P.; Ladinig, O.; Sziller, I.; Honing, H.

    2009-01-01

    To shed light on how humans can learn to understand music, we need to discover what the perceptual capabilities with which infants are born. Beat induction, the detection of a regular pulse in an auditory signal, is considered a fundamental human trait that, arguably, played a decisive role in the

  11. The Theory of Social Representations, his application in the studies of health and disease: the case of the obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Yurimay Quintero; Jauri Villarroel; Luz Pargas; Gladys Bastardo; Coromoto Angarita; José Gregorio Rivas; Gabriel Castañeda

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The social representations about health are the result of the articulation between representations and experiences about health practices. Analyzing the problem of obesity from the perspective of social representations would allow us to understand this issue from an approach that has not been tackled until now. To analyze the problem of obesity from Social Representations viewpoint would enable us to understand it with great potential from an approach that has not been used unti...

  12. Indicators that influence prospective mathematics teachers representational and reasoning abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darta; Saputra, J.

    2018-01-01

    Representational and mathematical reasoning ability are very important ability as basic in mathematics learning process. The 2013 curriculum suggests that the use of a scientific approach emphasizes higher order thinking skills. Therefore, a scientific approach is required in mathematics learning to improve ability of representation and mathematical reasoning. The objectives of this research are: (1) to analyze representational and reasoning abilities, (2) to analyze indicators affecting the ability of representation and mathematical reasoning, (3) to analyze scientific approaches that can improve the ability of representation and mathematical reasoning. The subject of this research is the students of mathematics prospective teachers in the first semester at Private Higher Education of Bandung City. The research method of this research was descriptive analysis. The research data were collected using reasoning and representation tests on sixty-one students. Data processing was done by descriptive analysis specified based on the indicators of representation ability and mathematical reasoning that influenced it. The results of this first-year study showed that students still had many weaknesses in reasoning and mathematical representation that were influenced by the ability to understand the indicators of both capabilities. After observing the results of the first-year research, then in the second and third year, the development of teaching materials with a scientific approach in accordance with the needs of prospective students was planned.

  13. An attention-gating recurrent working memory architecture for emergent speech representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshaw, Mark; Moore, Roger K.; Klein, Michael

    2010-06-01

    This paper describes an attention-gating recurrent self-organising map approach for emergent speech representation. Inspired by evidence from human cognitive processing, the architecture combines two main neural components. The first component, the attention-gating mechanism, uses actor-critic learning to perform selective attention towards speech. Through this selective attention approach, the attention-gating mechanism controls access to working memory processing. The second component, the recurrent self-organising map memory, develops a temporal-distributed representation of speech using phone-like structures. Representing speech in terms of phonetic features in an emergent self-organised fashion, according to research on child cognitive development, recreates the approach found in infants. Using this representational approach, in a fashion similar to infants, should improve the performance of automatic recognition systems through aiding speech segmentation and fast word learning.

  14. Infant word recognition: Insights from TRACE simulations☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayor, Julien; Plunkett, Kim

    2014-01-01

    The TRACE model of speech perception (McClelland & Elman, 1986) is used to simulate results from the infant word recognition literature, to provide a unified, theoretical framework for interpreting these findings. In a first set of simulations, we demonstrate how TRACE can reconcile apparently conflicting findings suggesting, on the one hand, that consonants play a pre-eminent role in lexical acquisition (Nespor, Peña & Mehler, 2003; Nazzi, 2005), and on the other, that there is a symmetry in infant sensitivity to vowel and consonant mispronunciations of familiar words (Mani & Plunkett, 2007). In a second series of simulations, we use TRACE to simulate infants’ graded sensitivity to mispronunciations of familiar words as reported by White and Morgan (2008). An unexpected outcome is that TRACE fails to demonstrate graded sensitivity for White and Morgan’s stimuli unless the inhibitory parameters in TRACE are substantially reduced. We explore the ramifications of this finding for theories of lexical development. Finally, TRACE mimics the impact of phonological neighbourhoods on early word learning reported by Swingley and Aslin (2007). TRACE offers an alternative explanation of these findings in terms of mispronunciations of lexical items rather than imputing word learning to infants. Together these simulations provide an evaluation of Developmental (Jusczyk, 1993) and Familiarity (Metsala, 1999) accounts of word recognition by infants and young children. The findings point to a role for both theoretical approaches whereby vocabulary structure and content constrain infant word recognition in an experience-dependent fashion, and highlight the continuity in the processes and representations involved in lexical development during the second year of life. PMID:24493907

  15. GI Symptoms in Infants Are a Potential Target for Fermented Infant Milk Formulae: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Heijning, Bert J. M.; Berton, Amelie; Bouritius, Hetty; Goulet, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Besides pre- and pro-biotic-containing infant formulae, fermented infant formulae are commonly used to relieve or prevent symptoms of gastrointestinal (GI) discomfort in young infants. During the fermentation process in cow’s milk-based formulae, the beneficial bacteria modulate the product by forming several beneficial compounds, which contribute to the alleviation of the symptoms observed. This review summarizes the clinical evidence on the impact of fermented infant formulae on common pediatric GI-symptoms. The potential mechanisms involved are discussed: i.e., the lactose and protein (in-) digestibility, effects on gastric emptying and gut transit and modulation of the colonic microbiota. Although initial evidence indicates a beneficial effect of fermented formulae on GI discomfort in newborns, validation and confirmation of the clinical proof obtained so far is warranted, as well as further research to (more fully) understand the mode of action. PMID:25255831

  16. Linear representation of a graph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Montenegro

    2019-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the linear representation of a graph is defined. A linear representation of a graph is a subgroup of $GL(p,\\mathbb{R}$, the group of invertible matrices of order $ p $ and real coefficients. It will be demonstrated that every graph admits a linear representation. In this paper, simple and finite graphs will be used, framed in the graphs theory's area

  17. Blocks of tame representation type and related algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Erdmann, Karin

    1990-01-01

    This monograph studies algebras that are associated to blocks of tame representation type. Over the past few years, a range of new results have been obtained and a comprehensive account of these is provided here to- gether with some new proofs of known results. Some general theory of algebras is also presented, as a means of understanding the subject. The book is addressed to researchers and graduate students interested in the links between representations of finite-dimensional algebras and modular group representation theory. The basic properties of modules and finite-dimensional algebras are assumed known.

  18. POC caster: Broadcasting Agent Using Conversational Representation for Internet Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Hidekazu; Yamashita, Kouji; Fukuhara, Tomohiro; Nishida, Toyoaki

    We propose a broadcating agent system called {\\it POC caster} that generates understandable conversational representation from heterogeneous text-based opinions. POC caster introduces an opinion of a community member by a conversational method in Public Opinion Channel(POC) that is an interactive broadcasting system supporting community knowledge creation. The way to generate conversational representation from an opinion is consist of two processes. The first process is an analysis of an intention of the opinion by referring the last word of a sentence. The second process is applying some rules about intentions and positions of the sentences to make an understandable conversation. The psychological experiments about understandability of generated conversations are described.

  19. Sinusoidal Representation of Acoustic Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Masaaki

    Sinusoidal representation of acoustic signals has been an important tool in speech and music processing like signal analysis, synthesis and time scale or pitch modifications. It can be applicable to arbitrary signals, which is an important advantage over other signal representations like physical modeling of acoustic signals. In sinusoidal representation, acoustic signals are composed as sums of sinusoid (sine wave) with different amplitudes, frequencies and phases, which is based on the timedependent short-time Fourier transform (STFT). This article describes the principles of acoustic signal analysis/synthesis based on a sinusoid representation with focus on sine waves with rapidly varying frequency.

  20. Developing Students' Representational Fluency Using Virtual and Physical Algebra Balances

    OpenAIRE

    Suth, Jennifer; Moyer-Packenham, Patricia S.

    2007-01-01

    Both virtual and physical manipulatives are reported as effective learning tools when used with different groups of students in a variety of contexts to learn mathematical content. The use of multiple representations and the flexibility to translate among those representational forms facilitates students' learning and has the potential to deepen their understanding. This classroom project involved two groups of third-grade students in a week-long unit focusing on algebraic relationships. The ...

  1. Social representation of healthy aging for elder men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludgleydson Fernandes de Araújo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to understand the social representations of aging in healthy older men Parnaíba (PI. The sample was random, accidental and intentional, consisting of 50 elderly (M=72 years. Was used as an instrument of data collection structured interview. Data analysis was performed by a software Alceste. The representations of elderly extended beyond making an organismic conception affective aspects, interactional and politicians.

  2. Intentionality, Representation, and Anticipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Preester, Helena

    2002-09-01

    Both Brentano and Merleau-Ponty have developed an account of intentionality, which nevertheless differ profoundly in the following respect. According to Brentano, intentionality mainly is a matter of mental presentations. This marks the beginning of phenomenology's difficult relation with the nature of the intentional reference. Merleau-Ponty, on the other hand, has situated intentionality on the level of the body, a turn which has important implications for the nature of intentionality. Intentionality no longer is primarily based on having (re)presentations, but is rooted in the dynamics of the living body. To contrast those approaches enables us to make clear in what way intentionality is studied nowadays. On the one hand, intentionality is conceived of as a matter of formal-syntactical causality in cognitive science, and in particular in classical-computational theory. On the other hand, a interactivist approach offers a more Merleau-Ponty-like point of view, in which autonomy, embodiment and interaction are stressed.

  3. Research in Knowledge Representation for Natural Language Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-02-28

    been adequately studied in the past. One of these is the need for situation dependent interpretation of linguistic devices such as deixis and... deixis involves such references to things that have not been said, but are present in some way in the non-linguistic context of the conversation (e.g...far fron solved), whereas deixis of the kind that occurs in the display context is considerably less well understood. The resolution of both deictic

  4. Looking beyond superficial knowledge gaps: understanding public representations of biodiversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijs, A.E.; Fischer, A.; Rink, D.; Young, J.C.

    2008-01-01

    Lack of public support for, and protest against, biodiversity management measures have often been explained by the apparently inadequate knowledge of biodiversity in the general public. In stark contrast to this assumption of public ignorance, our results from focus group discussions in The

  5. Preschool Children's Participation in Representational and Non-Representational Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braswell, Gregory S.

    2017-01-01

    The present study examined representational and non-representational activities in which children in a Head Start classroom participated. This was an investigation from the perspective of cultural-historical activity theory of how components (e.g. artifacts and division of labour) of classroom activities vary across and within types of activities.…

  6. Probabilistic graphical model representation in phylogenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höhna, Sebastian; Heath, Tracy A; Boussau, Bastien; Landis, Michael J; Ronquist, Fredrik; Huelsenbeck, John P

    2014-09-01

    Recent years have seen a rapid expansion of the model space explored in statistical phylogenetics, emphasizing the need for new approaches to statistical model representation and software development. Clear communication and representation of the chosen model is crucial for: (i) reproducibility of an analysis, (ii) model development, and (iii) software design. Moreover, a unified, clear and understandable framework for model representation lowers the barrier for beginners and nonspecialists to grasp complex phylogenetic models, including their assumptions and parameter/variable dependencies. Graphical modeling is a unifying framework that has gained in popularity in the statistical literature in recent years. The core idea is to break complex models into conditionally independent distributions. The strength lies in the comprehensibility, flexibility, and adaptability of this formalism, and the large body of computational work based on it. Graphical models are well-suited to teach statistical models, to facilitate communication among phylogeneticists and in the development of generic software for simulation and statistical inference. Here, we provide an introduction to graphical models for phylogeneticists and extend the standard graphical model representation to the realm of phylogenetics. We introduce a new graphical model component, tree plates, to capture the changing structure of the subgraph corresponding to a phylogenetic tree. We describe a range of phylogenetic models using the graphical model framework and introduce modules to simplify the representation of standard components in large and complex models. Phylogenetic model graphs can be readily used in simulation, maximum likelihood inference, and Bayesian inference using, for example, Metropolis-Hastings or Gibbs sampling of the posterior distribution. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Society of Systematic Biologists.

  7. Excessive crying in infants with regulatory disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado-Duran, M; Sauceda-Garcia, J M

    1996-01-01

    The authors point out a correlation between regulatory disorders in infants and the problem of excessive crying. The literature describes other behavioral problems involving excessive crying in very young children, but with little emphasis on this association. The recognition and diagnosis of regulatory disorders in infants who cry excessively can help practitioners design appropriate treatment interventions. Understanding these conditions can also help parents tailor their caretaking style, so that they provide appropriate soothing and stimulation to their child. In so doing, they will be better able to develop and preserve a satisfactory parent-child relationship, as well as to maintain their own sense of competence and self-esteem as parents.

  8. Parents' views about infant pain in neonatal intensive care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franck, Linda S; Allen, Alison; Cox, Susanne; Winter, Ira

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe parents' perceptions and feelings about their infant's pain experience and pain care in the neonatal intensive care unit. Thematic content analysis was used to encode the qualitative information contained in parents' written comments on a questionnaire about their views on infant pain and pain care. The questionnaire was completed by 257 parents from 9 neonatal units in the United Kingdom (n = 196) and 2 neonatal units in the United States (n = 61). Parents' comments indicated that they saw medical procedures as the major source of their infant's pain, wanted more information, and generally desired more involvement in this aspect of their infant's care. Parents' comments indicated that their infant's pain affected them emotionally and that they worried about their future relationship with their infant. Parents also articulated specific ways in which health care professionals could assist them and their infants in coping with neonatal intensive care unit-related pain. The findings from this study expand knowledge about how parents understand and respond to the difficult situation in which their newborn infant is subjected to essential but painful procedures. The findings provide direction for research and clinical practice interventions aimed at: 1) helping parents to gain knowledge and correct their misperceptions; 2) engaging parents in meaningful dialog about their concerns and preferences for involvement; and 3) helping parents to develop effective coping strategies to reduce psychologic distress related to their infant's pain.

  9. Comparing the effects of representational tools in collaborative and individual inquiry learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolloffel, Bas Jan; Eysink, Tessa H.S.; de Jong, Anthonius J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Constructing a representation in which students express their domain understanding can help them improve their knowledge. Many different representational formats can be used to express one’s domain understanding (e.g., concept maps, textual summaries, mathematical equations). The format can direct

  10. When Infants Talk, Infants Listen: Pre-Babbling Infants Prefer Listening to Speech with Infant Vocal Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masapollo, Matthew; Polka, Linda; Ménard, Lucie

    2016-01-01

    To learn to produce speech, infants must effectively monitor and assess their own speech output. Yet very little is known about how infants perceive speech produced by an infant, which has higher voice pitch and formant frequencies compared to adult or child speech. Here, we tested whether pre-babbling infants (at 4-6 months) prefer listening to…

  11. Representations of the infinite symmetric group

    CERN Document Server

    Borodin, Alexei

    2016-01-01

    Representation theory of big groups is an important and quickly developing part of modern mathematics, giving rise to a variety of important applications in probability and mathematical physics. This book provides the first concise and self-contained introduction to the theory on the simplest yet very nontrivial example of the infinite symmetric group, focusing on its deep connections to probability, mathematical physics, and algebraic combinatorics. Following a discussion of the classical Thoma's theorem which describes the characters of the infinite symmetric group, the authors describe explicit constructions of an important class of representations, including both the irreducible and generalized ones. Complete with detailed proofs, as well as numerous examples and exercises which help to summarize recent developments in the field, this book will enable graduates to enhance their understanding of the topic, while also aiding lecturers and researchers in related areas.

  12. Introduction to the representation theory of algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Barot, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This book gives a general introduction to the theory of representations of algebras. It starts with examples of classification problems of matrices under linear transformations and explains the three common setups: representation of quivers, modules over algebras and additive functors over certain categories. The main part is devoted to (i) module categories, presenting the unicity of the decomposition into indecomposable modules, the Auslander–Reiten theory and the technique of knitting; (ii) the use of combinatorial tools such as dimension vectors and integral quadratic forms; and (iii) deeper theorems such as Gabriel‘s Theorem, the trichotomy and the Theorem of Kac – all accompanied by further examples. Each section includes exercises to facilitate understanding. By keeping the proofs as basic and comprehensible as possible and introducing the three languages at the beginning, this book is suitable for readers from the advanced undergraduate level onwards and enables them to consult related, specifi...

  13. Revealing Children's Implicit Spelling Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critten, Sarah; Pine, Karen J.; Messer, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Conceptualizing the underlying representations and cognitive mechanisms of children's spelling development is a key challenge for literacy researchers. Using the Representational Redescription model (Karmiloff-Smith), Critten, Pine and Steffler (2007) demonstrated that the acquisition of phonological and morphological knowledge may be underpinned…

  14. $\\alpha$-Representation for QCD

    OpenAIRE

    Tuan, Richard Hong

    1998-01-01

    An $\\alpha$-parameter representation is derived for gauge field theories.It involves, relative to a scalar field theory, only constants and derivatives with respect to the $\\alpha$-parameters. Simple rules are given to obtain the $\\alpha$-representation for a Feynman graph with an arbitrary number of loops in gauge theories in the Feynman gauge.

  15. Scientific Representation and Science Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matta, Corrado

    2014-01-01

    In this article I examine three examples of philosophical theories of scientific representation with the aim of assessing which of these is a good candidate for a philosophical theory of scientific representation in science learning. The three candidate theories are Giere's intentional approach, Suárez's inferential approach and Lynch and…

  16. "Ladettes," Social Representations, and Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muncer, Steven; Campbell, Anne; Jervis, Victoria; Lewis, Rachel

    2001-01-01

    Examined the relationship among "laddishness" (traditionally working-class, youthful, male social behavior by young women), social representations, and self-reported aggression among English college students. Measures of aggression correlated with holding more instrumental representations of aggression. Females indicated no relationship…

  17. Combinatorial representations of token sequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elzinga, C.H.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents new representations of token sequences, with and without associated quantities, in Euclidean space. The representations are free of assumptions about the nature of the sequences or the processes that generate them. Algorithms and applications from the domains of structured

  18. Preference for human eyes in human infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupierrix, Eve; de Boisferon, Anne Hillairet; Méary, David; Lee, Kang; Quinn, Paul C; Di Giorgio, Elisa; Simion, Francesca; Tomonaga, Masaki; Pascalis, Olivier

    2014-07-01

    Despite evidence supporting an early attraction to human faces, the nature of the face representation in neonates and its development during the first year after birth remain poorly understood. One suggestion is that an early preference for human faces reflects an attraction toward human eyes because human eyes are distinctive compared with other animals. In accord with this proposal, prior empirical studies have demonstrated the importance of the eye region in face processing in adults and infants. However, an attraction for the human eye has never been shown directly in infants. The current study aimed to investigate whether an attraction for human eyes would be present in newborns and older infants. With the use of a preferential looking time paradigm, newborns and 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-month-olds were simultaneously presented with a pair of nonhuman primate faces (chimpanzees and Barbary macaques) that differed only by the eyes, thereby pairing a face with original nonhuman primate eyes with the same face in which the eyes were replaced by human eyes. Our results revealed that no preference was observed in newborns, but a preference for nonhuman primate faces with human eyes emerged from 3months of age and remained stable thereafter. The findings are discussed in terms of how a preference for human eyes may emerge during the first few months after birth. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A generalized wavelet extrema representation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Jian; Lades, M.

    1995-10-01

    The wavelet extrema representation originated by Stephane Mallat is a unique framework for low-level and intermediate-level (feature) processing. In this paper, we present a new form of wavelet extrema representation generalizing Mallat`s original work. The generalized wavelet extrema representation is a feature-based multiscale representation. For a particular choice of wavelet, our scheme can be interpreted as representing a signal or image by its edges, and peaks and valleys at multiple scales. Such a representation is shown to be stable -- the original signal or image can be reconstructed with very good quality. It is further shown that a signal or image can be modeled as piecewise monotonic, with all turning points between monotonic segments given by the wavelet extrema. A new projection operator is introduced to enforce piecewise inonotonicity of a signal in its reconstruction. This leads to an enhancement to previously developed algorithms in preventing artifacts in reconstructed signal.

  20. Fuzzy Morphological Polynomial Image Representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Pan Huang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel signal representation using fuzzy mathematical morphology is developed. We take advantage of the optimum fuzzy fitting and the efficient implementation of morphological operators to extract geometric information from signals. The new representation provides results analogous to those given by the polynomial transform. Geometrical decomposition of a signal is achieved by windowing and applying sequentially fuzzy morphological opening with structuring functions. The resulting representation is made to resemble an orthogonal expansion by constraining the results of opening to equate adapted structuring functions. Properties of the geometric decomposition are considered and used to calculate the adaptation parameters. Our procedure provides an efficient and flexible representation which can be efficiently implemented in parallel. The application of the representation is illustrated in data compression and fractal dimension estimation temporal signals and images.

  1. Multiple representations in physics education

    CERN Document Server

    Duit, Reinders; Fischer, Hans E

    2017-01-01

    This volume is important because despite various external representations, such as analogies, metaphors, and visualizations being commonly used by physics teachers, educators and researchers, the notion of using the pedagogical functions of multiple representations to support teaching and learning is still a gap in physics education. The research presented in the three sections of the book is introduced by descriptions of various psychological theories that are applied in different ways for designing physics teaching and learning in classroom settings. The following chapters of the book illustrate teaching and learning with respect to applying specific physics multiple representations in different levels of the education system and in different physics topics using analogies and models, different modes, and in reasoning and representational competence. When multiple representations are used in physics for teaching, the expectation is that they should be successful. To ensure this is the case, the implementati...

  2. Arousal from sleep mechanisms in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Patricia; Kato, Ineko; Richardson, Heidi L; Yang, Joel S C; Montemitro, Enza; Horne, Rosemary S C

    2010-08-01

    Arousals from sleep allow sleep to continue in the face of stimuli that normally elicit responses during wakefulness and also permit awakening. Such an adaptive mechanism implies that any malfunction may have clinical importance. Inadequate control of arousal in infants and children is associated with a variety of sleep-related problems. An excessive propensity to arouse from sleep favors the development of repeated sleep disruptions and insomnia, with impairment of daytime alertness and performance. A lack of an adequate arousal response to a noxious nocturnal stimulus reduces an infant's chances of autoresuscitation, and thus survival, increasing the risk for Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). The study of arousability is complicated by many factors including the definition of an arousal; the scoring methodology; the techniques used (spontaneous arousability versus arousal responses to endogenous or exogenous stimuli); and the confounding factors that complicate the determination of arousal thresholds by changing the sleeper's responses to a given stimulus such as prenatal drug, alcohol, or cigarette use. Infant age and previous sleep deprivation also modify thresholds. Other confounding factors include time of night, sleep stages, the sleeper's body position, and sleeping conditions. In this paper, we will review these different aspects for the study of arousals in infants and also report the importance of these studies for the understanding of the pathophysiology of some clinical conditions, particularly SIDS. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Ptosis - infants and children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blepharoptosis - children; Congenital ptosis; Eyelid drooping - children; Eyelid drooping - amblyopia; Eyelid drooping - astigmatism ... Ptosis in infants and children is often due to a problem with the muscle that raises the eyelid. A nerve problem in the eyelid can ...

  4. Abbott Infant Formula Recall

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This list includes products subject to recall since September 2010 related to infant formula distributed by Abbott. This list will be updated with publicly available...

  5. Urine collection - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003417.htm Urine collection - infants To use the sharing features on this ... collect the urine at home, have some extra collection bags available. How the Test will Feel There ...

  6. Total parenteral nutrition - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007239.htm Total parenteral nutrition - infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is a method of feeding that bypasses ...

  7. Cow's milk - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002448.htm Cow's milk - infants To use the sharing features on this ... year old, you should not feed your baby cow's milk, according to the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP). ...

  8. Diarrhea in infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    When your infant has diarrhea; When your baby has diarrhea; BRAT diet; Diarrhea in children ... Children who have diarrhea may have less energy, dry eyes, or a dry, sticky mouth. They may also not wet their diaper as ...

  9. Diarrhea in infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... water down Pedialyte or Infalyte. Do not give sports drinks to young infants. Try giving your baby ... gastrointestinal tract infections and food poisoning. In Cherry JD, Harrison GJ, Kaplan SL, Steinbach WJ, Hotez PJ, ...

  10. Archival Representation in the Digital Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jane

    2012-01-01

    This study analyzes the representation systems of three digitized archival collections using the traditional archival representation framework of provenance, order, and content. The results of the study reveal a prominent role of provenance representation, a compromised role of order representation, and an active role of content representation in…

  11. Multiple Representations of Buoyancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliviera, Jessica; Weglarz, Meredith; Vesenka, James

    2009-10-01

    For many students the concept of buoyancy falls under a category that can be loosely described as ``knowing it when they see it.'' Unfortunately some of the misconceptions this generates are that ``objects float because they are light'' and ``objects float because they are full of air'' [1]. Those these can some times be true, these descriptions are vague at best, and frequently can be wrong. Part of these misconceptions may stem from incomplete immersion of the object in the fluid and the vector nature of forces. We describe a demonstration/lab activity to help students make sense about relationship between the tension on and weight of an object immersed in water. The activity is in rich in multiple representations, graphical, diagrammatical as well as mathematical. A simple four question multiple choice pre/post test survey has been developed to evaluate the effectiveness of the lab activity.[4pt] [1] Bruce Harlan ``Diving Science'', www.stmatthewsschool.com/deep/pdfs/Diving%20Science.pdf

  12. Electrophysiology of action representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadiga, Luciano; Craighero, Laila

    2004-01-01

    We continuously act on objects, on other individuals, and on ourselves, and actions represent the only way we have to manifest our own desires and goals. In the last two decades, electrophysiological experiments have demonstrated that actions are stored in the brain according to a goal-related organization. The authors review a series of experimental data showing that this "vocabulary of motor schemata" could also be used for non-strictly motor purposes. In the first section, they present data from monkey experiments describing the functional properties of inferior premotor cortex and, in more detail, the properties of visuomotor neurons responding to objects and others' actions observation (mirror neurons). In the second section, human data are reviewed, with particular regard to electrophysiological experiments aiming to investigate how action representations are stored and addressed. The specific facilitatory effect of motor imagery, action/object observation, and speech listening on motor excitability shown by these experiments provides strong evidence that the motor system is constantly involved whenever the idea of an action is evoked.

  13. Chemical thermodynamic representation of

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindemer, T.B.; Besmann, T.M.

    1984-01-01

    The entire data base for the dependence of the nonstoichiometry, x, on temperature and chemical potential of oxygen (oxygen potential) was retrieved from the literature and represented. This data base was interpreted by least-squares analysis using equations derived from the classical thermodynamic theory for the solid solution of a solute in a solvent. For hyperstoichiometric oxide at oxygen potentials more positive than -266700 + 16.5T kJ/mol, the data were best represented by a [UO 2 ]-[U 3 O 7 ] solution. For O/U ratios above 2 and oxygen potentials below this boundary, a [UO 2 ]-[U 2 O 4 . 5 ] solution represented the data. The data were represented by a [UO 2 ]-[U 1 / 3 ] solution. The resulting equations represent the experimental ln(PO 2 ) - ln(x) behavior and can be used in thermodynamic calculations to predict phase boundary compositions consistent with the literature. Collectively, the present analysis permits a mathematical representation of the behavior of the total data base

  14. Islam and Media Representations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Bensalah

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available For the author of this article, the media’s treatment of Islam has raised numerous polymorphous questions and debates. Reactivated by the great scares of current events, the issue, though an ancient one, calls many things into question. By way of introduction, the author tries to analyse the complex processes of elaboration and perception of the representations that have prevailed during the past century. In referring to the semantic decoding of the abundant colonial literature and iconography, the author strives to translate the extreme xenophobic tensions and the identity crystallisations associated with the current media orchestration of Islam, both in theWest and the East. He then evokes the excesses of the media that are found at the origin of many amalgams wisely maintained between Islam, Islamism and Islamic terrorism, underscoring their duplicity and their willingness to put themselves, consciously, in service to deceivers and directors of awareness, who are very active at the heart of the politico-media sphere. After levelling a severe accusation against the harmful drifts of the media, especially in times of crisis and war, the author concludes by asserting that these tools of communication, once they are freed of their masks and invective apparatuses, can be re-appropriated by new words and bya true communication between peoples and cultures.

  15. Parent and child asthma illness representations: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonney, Jennifer T; Gerald, Lynn B; Insel, Kathleen C

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to synthesize the current literature on parent and child asthma illness representations and their consequent impact on parent-child asthma shared management. This systematic review was conducted in concordance with the PRISMA statement. An electronic search of five computerized databases (PubMed, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Cochrane, and EMBASE) was conducted using the following key words: asthma, illness representation, and child. Due to the limited number of articles identified, the search was broadened to include illness perceptions as well. Studies were included if they were specific to asthma and included parent and/or child asthma illness representations or perception, were published after 2000, and available in English. Fifteen articles were selected for inclusion. All of the articles are descriptive studies that used cross-sectional designs. Seven of the studies used parent and child participants, eight used parents only, and none used only child participants. None of the selected studies describe child asthma illness representations, and only three describe parental asthma illness representations. Domains of illness representations, including symptoms, timeline, consequences, cause, and controllability were described in the remaining articles. Symptoms and controllability appear to have the most influence on parental asthma management practices. Parents prefer symptomatic or intermittent asthma management and frequently cite concerns regarding daily controller medication use. Parents also primarily rely on their own objective symptom observations rather than the child's report of symptoms. Asthma illness representations are an important area of future study to better understand parent-child shared asthma management.

  16. Maternal Characteristics and Perception of Temperament Associated With Infant TV Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adair, Linda S.; Bentley, Margaret E.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study examines the development of television (TV) behaviors across the first 18 months of life and identifies maternal and infant predictors of infant TV exposure. METHODS: We used longitudinal TV exposure, maternal sociodemographic, and infant temperament data from 217 African-American mother-infant pairs participating in the Infant Care and Risk of Obesity Study. Longitudinal logistic models and ordered regression models with clustering for repeated measures across subjects adjusted for infant gender and visit were used to assess maternal and infant predictors of TV exposure and to test whether infants with both maternal and infant risk factors had higher odds of more detrimental TV exposure. RESULTS: Infants as young as 3 months old were exposed to an average of 2.6 hours of TV and/or videos daily, and nearly 40% of infants were exposed to >3 hours of TV daily by 12 months of age. Maternal TV viewing and maternal obesity and infant activity, fussiness, and crying were associated with greater infant TV exposure, whereas maternal education and infant activity were associated with having the TV on during most meals. Infants perceived as being more active or fussier had higher TV exposure, particularly if their mothers also had risk factors for higher TV exposure. CONCLUSIONS: Understanding the characteristics that shape TV exposure and its biological and behavioral sequelae is critical for early intervention. Maternal perception of infant temperament dimensions is related to TV exposure, suggesting that infant temperament measures should be included in interventions aimed at limiting early TV. PMID:23296440

  17. A structured representation for parallel algorithm design on multicomputers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Xian-He; Ni, L.M.

    1991-01-01

    Traditionally, parallel algorithms have been designed by brute force methods and fine-tuned on each architecture to achieve high performance. Rather than studying the design case by case, a systematic approach is proposed. A notation is first developed. Using this notation, most of the frequently used scientific and engineering applications can be presented by simple formulas. The formulas constitute the structured representation of the corresponding applications. The structured representation is simple, adequate and easy to understand. They also contain sufficient information about uneven allocation and communication latency degradations. With the structured representation, applications can be compared, classified and partitioned. Some of the basic building blocks, called computation models, of frequently used applications are identified and studied. Most applications are combinations of some computation models. The structured representation relates general applications to computation models. Studying computation models leads to a guideline for efficient parallel algorithm design for general applications. 6 refs., 7 figs

  18. Impact of mental representational systems on design interface.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown-VanHoozer, S. A.

    1998-02-25

    The purpose of the studies conducted at Argonne National Laboratory is to understand the impact mental representational systems have in identifying how user comfort parameters influence how information is to best be presented. By understanding how each individual perceives information based on the three representational systems (visual, auditory and kinesthetic modalities), it has been found that a different approach must be taken in the design of interfaces resulting in an outcome that is much more effective and representative of the users mental model. This paper will present current findings and future theories to be explored.

  19. Computer aided surface representation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnhill, R.E.

    1989-02-09

    The central research problem of this project is the effective representation and display of surfaces, interpolating to given information, in three or more dimensions. In a typical problem, we wish to create a surface from some discrete information. If this information is itself on another surface, the problem is to determine a surface defined on a surface,'' which is discussed below. Often, properties of an already constructed surface are desired: such geometry processing'' is described below. The Summary of Proposed Research from our original proposal describes the aims of this research project. This Summary and the Table of Contents from the original proposal are enclosed as an Appendix to this Progress Report. The broad sweep from constructive mathematics through algorithms and computer graphics displays is utilized in the research. The wide range of activity, directed in both theory and applications, makes this project unique. Last month in the first Ardent Titan delivered in the State of Arizona came to our group, funded by the DOE and Arizona State University. Although the Titan is a commercial product, its newness requires our close collaboration with Ardent to maximize results. During the past year, four faculty members and several graduate research assistants have worked on this DOE project. The gaining of new professionals is an important aspect of this project. A listing of the students and their topics is given in the Appendix. The most significant publication during the past year is the book, Curves and Surfaces for Computer Aided Geometric Design, by Dr. Gerald Farin. This 300 page volume helps fill a considerable gap in the subject and includes many new results on Bernstein-Bezier curves and surfaces.

  20. Progress in visual representations of chemical space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osolodkin, Dmitry I; Radchenko, Eugene V; Orlov, Alexey A; Voronkov, Andrey E; Palyulin, Vladimir A; Zefirov, Nikolay S

    2015-01-01

    The concept of 'chemical space' reveals itself in two forms: the discrete set of all possible molecules, and multi-dimensional descriptor space encompassing all the possible molecules. Approaches based on this concept are widely used for the analysis and enumeration of compound databases, library design, and structure-activity relationships (SAR) and landscape studies. Visual representations of chemical space differ in their applicability domains and features and require expert knowledge for choosing the right tool for a particular problem. In this review, the authors present recent advances in visualization of the chemical space in the framework of current general understanding of this topic. Attention is given to such methods as van Krevelen diagrams, descriptor plots, principal components analysis (PCA), self-organizing maps (SOM), generative topographic mapping (GTM), graph and network-based approaches. Notable application examples are provided. With the growth of computational power, representations of large datasets are becoming more and more common instruments in the toolboxes of chemoinformaticians. Every scientist in the field can find the method of choice for a particular task. However, there is no universal reference representation of the chemical space currently available and expert knowledge is required.

  1. Visual Ethnography, Thick Description and Cultural Representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipesh Kharel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this paper are threefold: to cover historical, theoretical and methodological overview of visual ethnography (photography and film as a research tool in studying culture; to examine visual ethnography as a means of cultural representation, and to discuss visual ethnographic method with Clifford Geertz’s idea of “thick description”. I hope to bring some clarity and consensus to our understanding how visual ethnography can be an adequate research tool for “thick description” and a study of culture. Furthermore, in this paper, I begin by seeing visual ethnography in the context to visual anthropology, photography, ethnographic film, and semiotics.

  2. A 'more-than-representational' mapping study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lanng, Ditte Bendix

    2018-01-01

    In urban design mapping is a generative tool that can evoke site conditions and animate design potentials. James Corner has stated that a “map is already a project in the making” (1999b, p.216), and thereby points to the evocative ‘agency’ of mapping in composing a design project. This paper takes...... Corner’s essay as its starting point. It couples his considerations with non-representational research to elaborate mapping as a ‘more-than-representational’ tool with which to think and work when we seek to understand and evoke design sites in conjunction with the lived world. This coupling is done...

  3. Collective form generation through visual participatory representation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Day, Dennis; Sharma, Nishant; Punekar, Ravi

    2012-01-01

    In order to inspire and inform designers with the users data from participatory research, it may be important to represent data in a visual format that is easily understandable to the designers. For a case study in vehicle design, the paper outlines visual representation of data and the use...... of the same in the collective form generation session with a set of designers (vehicle design students) where designers use sketching as a tool to discuss, conceptualise and negotiate concepts towards the final vehicle form. Further, this paper attempts to demonstrate how deep and tacit context sensitive...

  4. Homogeneous Operators and Projective Representations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. This paper surveys the existing literature on homogeneous operators and their relationships with projective representations of P S L ( 2 , R ) and other Lie groups. It also includes a list of open problems in this area.

  5. Number theory via Representation theory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-11-09

    Number theory via Representation theory. Eknath Ghate. November 9, 2014. Eightieth Annual Meeting, Chennai. Indian Academy of Sciences1. 1. This is a non-technical 20 minute talk intended for a general Academy audience.

  6. Computer representation of molecular surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Max, N.L.

    1981-01-01

    This review article surveys recent work on computer representation of molecular surfaces. Several different algorithms are discussed for producing vector or raster drawings of space-filling models formed as the union of spheres. Other smoother surfaces are also considered

  7. (Self)-representations on youtube

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Thomas Mosebo

    This paper examines forms of self-representation on YouTube with specific focus on Vlogs (Video blogs). The analytical scope of the paper is on how User-generated Content on YouTube initiates a certain kind of audiovisual representation and a particular interpretation of reality that can...... be distinguished within Vlogs. This will be analysed through selected case studies taken from a representative sample of empirically based observations of YouTube videos. The analysis includes a focus on how certain forms of representation can be identified as representations of the self (Turkle 1995, Scannell...... 1996, Walker 2005) and further how these forms must be comprehended within a context of technological constrains, institutional structures and social as well as economical practices on YouTube (Burgess and Green 2009, Van Dijck 2009). It is argued that these different contexts play a vital part...

  8. Vietnamese Document Representation and Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Giang-Son; Gao, Xiaoying; Andreae, Peter

    Vietnamese is very different from English and little research has been done on Vietnamese document classification, or indeed, on any kind of Vietnamese language processing, and only a few small corpora are available for research. We created a large Vietnamese text corpus with about 18000 documents, and manually classified them based on different criteria such as topics and styles, giving several classification tasks of different difficulty levels. This paper introduces a new syllable-based document representation at the morphological level of the language for efficient classification. We tested the representation on our corpus with different classification tasks using six classification algorithms and two feature selection techniques. Our experiments show that the new representation is effective for Vietnamese categorization, and suggest that best performance can be achieved using syllable-pair document representation, an SVM with a polynomial kernel as the learning algorithm, and using Information gain and an external dictionary for feature selection.

  9. Semantic Knowledge Representation (SKR) API

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The SKR Project was initiated at NLM in order to develop programs to provide usable semantic representation of biomedical free text by building on resources...

  10. Infant Mortality and Asians and Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Population Profiles > Asian American > Infant Health & Mortality Infant Mortality and Asians and Pacific Islanders Among Asian/Pacific ... as compared to non-Hispanic white mothers. Infant Mortality Rate Infant mortality rate per 1,000 live ...

  11. Representability of Hom implies flatness

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... A basic result of Grothendieck ([EGA], III 7.7.9) says that if F is flat over then hom ( E , F ) is representable for all E . We prove the converse of the above, in fact, we show that if is a relatively ample line bundle on over such that the functor hom ( L − n , F ) is representable for infinitely many positive integers , then F ...

  12. The Fifth Mode of Representation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per Krogh; Behrendt, Poul Olaf

    2011-01-01

    “The fifth mode of representation: Ambiguous voices in unreliable third person narration”. Sammen med Poul Behrendt. In Per Krogh Hansen, Stefan Iversen, Henrik Skov Nielsen og Rolf Reitan (red.): Strange Voices. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin & New York......“The fifth mode of representation: Ambiguous voices in unreliable third person narration”. Sammen med Poul Behrendt. In Per Krogh Hansen, Stefan Iversen, Henrik Skov Nielsen og Rolf Reitan (red.): Strange Voices. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin & New York...

  13. Representation theory for strange attractors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Daniel J; Gilmore, R

    2009-11-01

    Embeddings are diffeomorphisms between some unseen physical attractor and a reconstructed image. Different embeddings may or may not be equivalent under isotopy. We regard embeddings as representations of the attractor, review the labels required to distinguish inequivalent representations for an important class of dynamical systems, and discuss the systematic ways inequivalent embeddings become equivalent as the embedding dimension increases until there is finally only one "universal" embedding in a suitable dimension.

  14. Functional representations of integrable hierarchies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimakis, Aristophanes; Mueller-Hoissen, Folkert

    2006-01-01

    We consider a general framework for integrable hierarchies in Lax form and derive certain universal equations from which 'functional representations' of particular hierarchies (such as KP, discrete KP, mKP, AKNS), i.e. formulations in terms of functional equations, are systematically and quite easily obtained. The formalism genuinely applies to hierarchies where the dependent variables live in a noncommutative (typically matrix) algebra. The obtained functional representations can be understood as 'noncommutative' analogues of 'Fay identities' for the KP hierarchy

  15. Risk factors for diarrhea-associated infant mortality in the United States, 2005-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehal, Jason M; Esposito, Douglas H; Holman, Robert C; Tate, Jacqueline E; Callinan, Laura S; Parashar, Umesh D

    2012-07-01

    Diarrhea-associated deaths among US children increased from the mid-1980s through 2006, particularly among infants. Understanding risk factors for diarrhea-associated death could improve prevention strategies. Records of singleton infants with diarrhea listed anywhere on the death certificate were selected from the US Linked Birth/Infant Death data for the period, 2005 to 2007; characteristics of these infants were compared with those of infants who survived their first year. During 2005 to 2007, 1087 diarrhea-associated infant deaths were reported; 86% occurred among low birth weight (LBW, risk ratio: 91.9, 95% confidence interval: 77.4-109.0) and younger median age at death (7 versus 15 weeks, Pdiarrhea-associated death among LBW and NBW infants were sepsis (26%) and volume depletion (20%), respectively. Among LBW infants, 97% of diarrhea-associated deaths occurred in inpatient settings, whereas 27% of NBW infant deaths occurred in outpatient settings and 5.3% in the decedent's home. Male sex, black race, unmarried status and low 5-minute Apgar score (diarrhea-associated morality should focus on understanding and improving management of diarrhea in vulnerable LBW infants. For prevention of diarrhea-associated deaths in NBW infants, educating mothers who fit the high-risk profile regarding home hydration therapy and timely access to medical treatment is important.

  16. Infant nutrition in Saskatoon: barriers to infant food security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partyka, Brendine; Whiting, Susan; Grunerud, Deanna; Archibald, Karen; Quennell, Kara

    2010-01-01

    We explored infant nutrition in Saskatoon by assessing current accessibility to all forms of infant nourishment, investigating challenges in terms of access to infant nutrition, and determining the use and effectiveness of infant nutrition programs and services. We also examined recommendations to improve infant food security in Saskatoon. Semi-structured community focus groups and stakeholder interviews were conducted between June 2006 and August 2006. Thematic analysis was used to identify themes related to infant feeding practices and barriers, as well as recommendations to improve infant food security in Saskatoon. Our study showed that infant food security is a concern among lower-income families in Saskatoon. Barriers that limited breastfeeding sustainability or nourishing infants through other means included knowledge of feeding practices, lack of breastfeeding support, access and affordability of infant formula, transportation, and poverty. Infant nutrition and food security should be improved by expanding education and programming opportunities, increasing breastfeeding support, and identifying acceptable ways to provide emergency formula. If infant food security is to be addressed successfully, discussion and change must occur in social policy and family food security contexts.

  17. Infant Statistical Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffran, Jenny R.; Kirkham, Natasha Z.

    2017-01-01

    Perception involves making sense of a dynamic, multimodal environment. In the absence of mechanisms capable of exploiting the statistical patterns in the natural world, infants would face an insurmountable computational problem. Infant statistical learning mechanisms facilitate the detection of structure. These abilities allow the infant to compute across elements in their environmental input, extracting patterns for further processing and subsequent learning. In this selective review, we summarize findings that show that statistical learning is both a broad and flexible mechanism (supporting learning from different modalities across many different content areas) and input specific (shifting computations depending on the type of input and goal of learning). We suggest that statistical learning not only provides a framework for studying language development and object knowledge in constrained laboratory settings, but also allows researchers to tackle real-world problems, such as multilingualism, the role of ever-changing learning environments, and differential developmental trajectories. PMID:28793812

  18. CDC WONDER: Mortality - Infant Deaths

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Mortality - Infant Deaths (from Linked Birth / Infant Death Records) online databases on CDC WONDER provide counts and rates for deaths of children under 1 year...

  19. Long-Term Memory for Music: Infants Remember Tempo and Timbre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trainor, Laurel J.; Wu, Luann; Tsang, Christine D.

    2004-01-01

    We show that infants' long-term memory representations for melodies are not just reduced to the structural features of relative pitches and durations, but contain surface or performance tempo- and timbre-specific information. Using a head turn preference procedure, we found that after a one week exposure to an old English folk song, infants…

  20. Breastfeeding the preterm infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Corvaglia

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to its peculiar nutritional and non-nutritional contents, which include long-chain polyunsatured fatty acids (LC-PUFA, prebiotics, immunological factors, hormones and growth factors, breast milk shows significant advantages over infant formulas in nourishing preterm infants. Better neurocognitive outcomes, which are reported to persist far beyond the early childhood, have been largely observed in breastfed preterm infants; a role of LC-PUFA in promoting neural and retinal development is assumed. As far as the gastrointestinal tract is concerned, several evidences have reported a dose-related reduction in NEC incidence among preterm infants fed on human milk. Moreover, the higher amount of immunological factors as secretory IgA within preterm breast milk might play a remarkable role in reducing the overall infections. Despite breastfeeding in preterm infants is generally linked with lowered growth rates which might potentially affect neurocognitive outcomes, the beneficial effects of human milk on neurodevelopment prevail. Fortified human milk might better fulfill the particular nutritional needs of preterm infants. However, as breast milk fortification is difficult to carry out after the achievement of full oral feeding, some concerns on the nutritional adequacy of exclusive breastfeeding during hospitalization as well as after discharge have been raised. Finally, breastfeeding also entails maternal psychological beneficial effects, as promoting the motherhood process and the mother-child relationship, which could be undermined in those women experiencing preterm delivery. Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 23rd-26th, 2013 · Learned lessons, changing practice and cutting-edge research

  1. Cerebral oxygenation in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyfe, Karinna L; Yiallourou, Stephanie R; Wong, Flora Y; Odoi, Alexsandria; Walker, Adrian M; Horne, Rosemary S C

    2014-09-01

    Prone sleeping is a major risk factor for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and preterm infants are at significantly increased risk. In term infants, prone sleeping is associated with reduced mean arterial pressure (MAP) and cerebral tissue oxygenation index (TOI). However, little is known about the effects of sleeping position on TOI and MAP in preterm infants. We aimed to examine TOI and MAP in preterm infants after term-equivalent age, during the period of greatest SIDS risk. Thirty-five preterm and 17 term infants underwent daytime polysomnography, including measurement of TOI (NIRO-200 spectrophotometer, Hamamatsu Photonics KK, Japan) and MAP (Finapress Medical Systems, Amsterdam, Netherlands) at 2 to 4 weeks, 2 to 3 months, and 5 to 6 months postterm age. Infants slept prone and supine in active and quiet sleep. The effects of sleep state and position were determined by using 2-way repeated measures analysis of variance and of preterm birth by using 2-way analysis of variance. In preterm infants, TOI was significantly lower when prone compared with supine in both sleep states at all ages (P preterm compared with term infants at 2 to 4 weeks, in both positions (P preterm infants in the prone position at 2 to 3 months (P position in preterm infants and is lower compared with age-matched term infants, predominantly in the prone position when MAP is also reduced. This may contribute to their increased SIDS risk. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  2. Fever in Infants and Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Read MoreDepression in Children and TeensRead MoreBMI Calculator Fever in Infants and ChildrenBecause young children are not ... Facial Swelling Feeding Problems in Infants and Children Fever Fever in Infants and Children Foot Problems Genital ...

  3. Illness representations in patients with traumatic injury: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bih-O; Chaboyer, Wendy; Wallis, Marianne

    2010-02-01

    This study aimed to elucidate the illness representations of patients with traumatic injury and to examine what extent their illness representations change over time. Traumatic injury has attracted global concern because it is the major reason for death and disability in people under 45 years old. One model, the Common Sense Model of Illness Representation (CSMIR), has the potential to help individuals adjust to changes in health status such as traumatic injury. Longitudinal study design. This study was conducted using a and collected data prior to hospital discharge and at three and six months after hospital discharge. One individual question form and the Chinese Illness Perception Questionnaire Revised (IPQ-R) (Trauma) were used to collect demographic data, clinical data and illness representations. A total of 114 participants completed the survey three times. The overall response rate was 79.7%. Six subscales of the Chinese (Trauma): identity, emotional representations, consequences, controllability, illness coherence and causes of the Chinese IPQ-R (Trauma) changed significantly over time. Two subscales, Timeline (acute/chronic) and Timeline Cyclical, did not change significantly. Based on these findings, there may be a window of opportunity to provide appropriate interventions to individuals with traumatic injury at each time point. The results of this study have implications for nursing practice and further nursing research. Understanding illness representation in patients with traumatic injury may help nurses to provide anticipatory guidance and to design nursing interventions before and after hospital discharge, ultimately to improve health outcomes of those patients.

  4. Bi-Level Semantic Representation Analysis for Multimedia Event Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Xiaojun; Ma, Zhigang; Yang, Yi; Zeng, Zhiqiang; Hauptmann, Alexander G

    2017-05-01

    Multimedia event detection has been one of the major endeavors in video event analysis. A variety of approaches have been proposed recently to tackle this problem. Among others, using semantic representation has been accredited for its promising performance and desirable ability for human-understandable reasoning. To generate semantic representation, we usually utilize several external image/video archives and apply the concept detectors trained on them to the event videos. Due to the intrinsic difference of these archives, the resulted representation is presumable to have different predicting capabilities for a certain event. Notwithstanding, not much work is available for assessing the efficacy of semantic representation from the source-level. On the other hand, it is plausible to perceive that some concepts are noisy for detecting a specific event. Motivated by these two shortcomings, we propose a bi-level semantic representation analyzing method. Regarding source-level, our method learns weights of semantic representation attained from different multimedia archives. Meanwhile, it restrains the negative influence of noisy or irrelevant concepts in the overall concept-level. In addition, we particularly focus on efficient multimedia event detection with few positive examples, which is highly appreciated in the real-world scenario. We perform extensive experiments on the challenging TRECVID MED 2013 and 2014 datasets with encouraging results that validate the efficacy of our proposed approach.

  5. Evolved Representation and Computational Creativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Fouad Hafez Ismail

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Advances in science and technology have influenced designing activity in architecture throughout its history. Observing the fundamental changes to architectural designing due to the substantial influences of the advent of the computing era, we now witness our design environment gradually changing from conventional pencil and paper to digital multi-media. Although designing is considered to be a unique human activity, there has always been a great dependency on design aid tools. One of the greatest aids to architectural design, amongst the many conventional and widely accepted computational tools, is the computer-aided object modeling and rendering tool, commonly known as a CAD package. But even though conventional modeling tools have provided designers with fast and precise object handling capabilities that were not available in the pencil-and-paper age, they normally show weaknesses and limitations in covering the whole design process.In any kind of design activity, the design worked on has to be represented in some way. For a human designer, designs are for example represented using models, drawings, or verbal descriptions. If a computer is used for design work, designs are usually represented by groups of pixels (paintbrush programs, lines and shapes (general-purpose CAD programs or higher-level objects like ‘walls’ and ‘rooms’ (purpose-specific CAD programs.A human designer usually has a large number of representations available, and can use the representation most suitable for what he or she is working on. Humans can also introduce new representations and thereby represent objects that are not part of the world they experience with their sensory organs, for example vector representations of four and five dimensional objects. In design computing on the other hand, the representation or representations used have to be explicitly defined. Many different representations have been suggested, often optimized for specific design domains

  6. MOTHERS' AND FATHERS' PRENATAL REPRESENTATIONS IN RELATION TO MARITAL DISTRESS AND DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlqvist-Björkroth, Sari; Korja, Riikka; Junttila, Niina; Savonlahti, Elina; Pajulo, Marjukka; Räihä, Hannele; Aromaa, Minna

    2016-07-01

    Marital distress, parental depression, and weak quality of parental representations are all known risk factors for parent-child relationships. However, the relation between marital distress, depressive symptoms, and parents' prenatal representation is uncertain, especially regarding fathers. The present study aimed to explore how mothers' and fathers' prenatal experience of marital distress and depressive symptoms affects the organization of their prenatal representations in late pregnancy. Participants were 153 pregnant couples from a Finnish follow-up study called "Steps to the Healthy Development and Well-being of Children" (H. Lagström et al., ). Marital distress (Revised Dyadic Adjustment Scale; D.M. Busby, C. Christensen, D. Crane, & J. Larson, 1995) and depressive symptoms (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale) were assessed at 20 gestational weeks, and prenatal representations (Working Model of the Child Interview; D. Benoit, K.C.H. Parker, & C.H. Zeanah, 1997; C.H. Zeanah, D. Benoit, M. Barton, & L. Hirshberg, 1996) were assessed between 29 and 32 gestational weeks. The mothers' risks of distorted representations increased significantly when they had at least minor depressive symptoms. Marital distress was associated with the fathers' prenatal representations, although the association was weak; fathers within the marital distress group had less balanced representations. Coexisting marital distress and depressive symptoms were only associated with the mothers' representations; lack of marital distress and depressive symptoms increased the likelihood for mothers to have balanced representations. The results imply that marital distress and depressive symptoms are differently related to the organizations of mothers' and fathers' prenatal representations. © 2016 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  7. On Behavioral Equivalence of Rational Representations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trentelman, Harry L.; Willems, JC; Hara, S; Ohta, Y; Fujioka, H

    2010-01-01

    This article deals with the equivalence of representations of behaviors of linear differential systems In general. the behavior of a given linear differential system has many different representations. In this paper we restrict ourselves to kernel representations and image representations Two kernel

  8. 32 CFR 724.215 - Military representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Military representation. 724.215 Section 724.215... BOARD Authority/Policy for Departmental Discharge Review § 724.215 Military representation. Military... consult legal counsel before undertaking such representation. Such representation may be prohibited by 18...

  9. Aboriginal Representation: Conflict or Dialogue in the Academy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leane, Jeanine

    2010-01-01

    This research begins with the premise that non-Aboriginal students are challenged by much Aboriginal writing and also challenge its representations as they struggle to re-position themselves in relation to possible meanings within Aboriginal writing. Many non-Aboriginal students come to read an Aboriginal narrative against their understanding of…

  10. Baccalaureate Accounting Student Mentors' Social Representations of Their Mentorship Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Vicky; Brown, Patricia A.

    2016-01-01

    Mentorship has been shown to enhance engagement, participation, and understanding of the workplace through the development of soft-skills and leadership capacity. This research identifies and describes the social representations of second and third year Baccalaureate accounting students relating to their experiences in mentoring first year…

  11. A Rationale for Hispanic Representation in Instructional Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasquillo, Angela L.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the need for increased and more appropriate Hispanic representation in instructional materials at school to promote understanding of Latin culture. Stereotypes about Hispanics relate to punctuality, machismo, initiative, self-image, skin color, socioeconomic status, intelligence, parents' role in education, language proficiency, and…

  12. Integrating Particulate Representations into AP Chemistry and Introductory Chemistry Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prilliman, Stephen G.

    2014-01-01

    The College Board's recently revised curriculum for advanced placement (AP) chemistry places a strong emphasis on conceptual understanding, including representations of particle phenomena. This change in emphasis is informed by years of research showing that students could perform algorithmic calculations but not explain those calculations…

  13. Social Representations as Mediators of Mathematics Learning in Multiethnic Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorgorio, Nuria; Planas, Nuria

    2005-01-01

    Drawing on socio-cultural theory, we understand the norms regulating the practices within the mathematics classroom as resulting from the social representations of the socially dominant groups and of the school culture related to what constitutes learning mathematics. Immigrant students, having their own personal histories as members of particular…

  14. Understanding Carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Size: A A A Listen En Español Understanding Carbohydrates How much and what type of carbohydrate foods ... glucose levels in your target range. Explore: Understanding Carbohydrates Glycemic Index and Diabetes Learn about the glycemic ...

  15. On Representation in Information Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph E. Brenner

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Semiotics is widely applied in theories of information. Following the original triadic characterization of reality by Peirce, the linguistic processes involved in information—production, transmission, reception, and understanding—would all appear to be interpretable in terms of signs and their relations to their objects. Perhaps the most important of these relations is that of the representation-one, entity, standing for or representing some other. For example, an index—one of the three major kinds of signs—is said to represent something by being directly related to its object. My position, however, is that the concept of symbolic representations having such roles in information, as intermediaries, is fraught with the same difficulties as in representational theories of mind. I have proposed an extension of logic to complex real phenomena, including mind and information (Logic in Reality; LIR, most recently at the 4th International Conference on the Foundations of Information Science (Beijing, August, 2010. LIR provides explanations for the evolution of complex processes, including information, that do not require any entities other than the processes themselves. In this paper, I discuss the limitations of the standard relation of representation. I argue that more realistic pictures of informational systems can be provided by reference to information as an energetic process, following the categorial ontology of LIR. This approach enables naïve, anti-realist conceptions of anti-representationalism to be avoided, and enables an approach to both information and meaning in the same novel logical framework.

  16. Infant formulas - overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to cow's milk may also be allergic to soy milk. Soy-based formulas should be used for infants with galactosemia , a rare condition. These formulas can also be used ... have allergies to milk protein and for those with skin rashes or ...

  17. Hip Problems in Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A hip problem in infants is known as developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH). It is when the ball of the ... later in life? Resources International Hip Dysplasia Institute, Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip (DDH) International Hip Dysplasia Institute, Hip-Healthy Swaddling ...

  18. Colic in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucassen, Peter

    2010-02-05

    Colic in infants causes one in six families (17%) with children to consult a health professional. One systematic review of 15 community-based studies found a wide variation in prevalence, which depended on study design and method of recording. We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of treatments for colic in infants? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to September 2009 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). We found 27 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: advice to increase carrying, advice to reduce stimulation, casein hydrolysate milk, cranial osteopathy, crib vibrator device, focused counselling, gripe water, infant massage, low-lactose milk, simethicone, soya-based infant feeds, spinal manipulation, and whey hydrolysate milk.

  19. Chikungunya infection in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Carmo Menezes Bezerra Duarte

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: the infection of chikungunya virus presents clinical manifestations variables, particularly in infants in which may present multiple cutaneous manifestations. Description: a case series study was carried out in an analytical character of 14 infants (>28 days to < 2 years old admitted in a hospital between November 2015 and January 2016 with suspected case of chikungunya, by a specific IgM reactive serology. Patients positive for dengue fever, Zika virus, bacterial infections and other exanthematic diseases were excluded. Fever and cutaneous alterations were the most frequent clinical manifestations in 100% of the cases, followed by irritability (64.3%, vomits and arthralgia/arthritis in 35.7% each. Three children presented alterations in the cerebrospinal fluid compatible to meningitis. Anemia frequency was 85.7%. The median white blood cells count was 7.700/mm3 (2.600 to 20.300/mm3. High levels of aminotransferases were observed in three cases (230 to 450 U/L. Antibiotic therapy was indicated in 64.3% of the cases. Two infants needed opioid derivatives for analgesia while others took acetaminophen and/or dipyrone. Discussion: the study shows evident multi-systemic involvement of chikungunya infection in infants. The treatment is supportive, giving special attention to hydration, analgesia, skin care, and rational use of antibiotic therapy.

  20. Parenting Your Infant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sing songs. Show and talk about simple picture books. This is the way your baby learns how to talk. Infants Love To Explore You may have noticed that your baby is becoming interested in everything within reach, especially simple toys with bright colors and ...

  1. Milk Allergy in Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Milk Allergy in Infants KidsHealth / For Parents / Milk Allergy in ... Alergia a la leche en bebés About Milk Allergy People of any age can have a milk ...

  2. Ultrasound: Infant Hip

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the womb (breech position) babies with a family history of DDH Also, DDH occurs more frequently in girls than boys and among first-born infants. Doctors will consider all of these factors when deciding whether a baby's hips should be checked by ultrasound. In addition, a ...

  3. Impact of the Second Semester University Modeling Instruction Course on Students' Representation Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPadden, Daryl; Brewe, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Representation use is a critical skill for learning, problem solving, and communicating in science, especially in physics where multiple representations often scaffold the understanding of a phenomenon. University Modeling Instruction, which is an active-learning, research-based introductory physics curriculum centered on students' use of…

  4. Social Representations as Mediators of Practice in Mathematics Classrooms with Immigrant Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorgorio, Nuria; de Abreu, Guida

    2009-01-01

    This article suggests that a critical perspective of the notion of social representations can offer useful insights into understanding practices of teaching and learning in mathematics classrooms with immigrant students. Drawing on literature using social representations, previous empirical studies are revisited to examine three specific…

  5. The critical period of infant feeding for the development of early disparities in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Amanda L; Bentley, Margaret E

    2013-11-01

    Childhood obesity is an increasing public health problem, particularly among minority infants and young children. Disparities in overweight prevalence persist and widen with age, highlighting the need to identify factors contributing to early excess weight gain. We review the behavioral, social and macro-environmental factors contributing to the development of obesogenic early feeding practices among African-American infants and young children. We then examine the sociodemographic, household factors, feeding beliefs and infant characteristics associated with age-inappropriate feeding of liquids and solids (inappropriate feeding) among mothers and infants participating the U.S. Infant Care and Risk of Obesity Study, a cohort study of 217 low-income, first-time mothers and infants followed from 3 to 18 months of age. Maternal and infant anthropometry, infant diet, and maternal and household characteristics were collected at home visits at 3, 6, 9, 12 and 18 months of age. Mixed logistic regression was used to estimate the association between maternal and infant characteristics and inappropriate feeding. Rates of age-inappropriate feeding are high; over 75% of infants received solids or juice by 3 months of age. The odds of age-inappropriate feeding were higher among mothers who were single, depressed or believed that their infant is a "greedy" baby. Inappropriate feeding was associated with higher daily energy intake in infants (β = 109.28 calories, p = 0.01) and with increased odds of high infant weight-for-length (WFL; OR = 1.74, 95%CI: 1.01-3.01). Our findings suggest that age-inappropriate complementary feeding influences current energy intakes and infant WFL, factors that may increase long-term obesity risk by shaping infant appetite, food preferences, and metabolism. Given the intractability of pediatric obesity, understanding the role of early feeding in shaping long-term health disparities is critical for developing prevention strategies to stem obesity in

  6. An introduction to quiver representations

    CERN Document Server

    Derksen, Harm

    2017-01-01

    This book is an introduction to the representation theory of quivers and finite dimensional algebras. It gives a thorough and modern treatment of the algebraic approach based on Auslander-Reiten theory as well as the approach based on geometric invariant theory. The material in the opening chapters is developed starting slowly with topics such as homological algebra, Morita equivalence, and Gabriel's theorem. Next, the book presents Auslander-Reiten theory, including almost split sequences and the Auslander-Reiten transform, and gives a proof of Kac's generalization of Gabriel's theorem. Once this basic material is established, the book goes on with developing the geometric invariant theory of quiver representations. The book features the exposition of the saturation theorem for semi-invariants of quiver representations and its application to Littlewood-Richardson coefficients. In the final chapters, the book exposes tilting modules, exceptional sequences and a connection to cluster categories. The book is su...

  7. Preon representations and composite models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Kyungsik

    1982-01-01

    This is a brief report on the preon models which are investigated by In-Gyu Koh, A. N. Schellekens and myself and based on complex, anomaly-free and asymptotically free representations of SU(3) to SU(8), SO(4N+2) and E 6 with no more than two different preons. Complete list of the representations that are complex anomaly-free and asymptotically free has been given by E. Eichten, I.-G. Koh and myself. The assumptions made about the ground state composites and the role of Fermi statistics to determine the metaflavor wave functions are discussed in some detail. We explain the method of decompositions of tensor products with definite permutation properties which has been developed for this purpose by I.-G. Koh, A.N. Schellekens and myself. An example based on an anomaly-free representation of the confining metacolor group SU(5) is discussed

  8. Vivid Representations and Their Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kengo Miyazono

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Sinhababu’s Humean Nature contains many interesting and important ideas, but in this short commentary I focus on the idea of vivid representations. Sinhababu inherits his idea of vivid representations from Hume’s discussions, in particular his discussion of calm and violent passions. I am sympathetic to the idea of developing Hume’s insight that has been largely neglected by philosophers. I believe that Sinhababu and Hume are on the right track. What I do in this short commentary is to raise some questions about the details. The aim of asking these questions is not to challenge Sinhababu’s proposal (at least his main ideas, but rather to point at some interesting issues arising out of his proposal. The questions are about (1 the nature of vividness, (2 the effects of vivid representations, and (3 Sinhababu’s account of alief cases.

  9. Executive control influences linguistic representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lev-Ari, Shiri; Keysar, Boaz

    2014-02-01

    Although it is known that words acquire their meanings partly from the contexts in which they are used, we proposed that the way in which words are processed can also influence their representation. We further propose that individual differences in the way that words are processed can consequently lead to individual differences in the way that they are represented. Specifically, we showed that executive control influences linguistic representations by influencing the coactivation of competing and reinforcing terms. Consequently, people with poorer executive control perceive the meanings of homonymous terms as being more similar to one another, and those of polysemous terms as being less similar to one another, than do people with better executive control. We also showed that bilinguals with poorer executive control experience greater cross-linguistic interference than do bilinguals with better executive control. These results have implications for theories of linguistic representation and language organization.

  10. Digital models for architectonical representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Brusaporci

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Digital instruments and technologies enrich architectonical representation and communication opportunities. Computer graphics is organized according the two phases of visualization and construction, that is modeling and rendering, structuring dichotomy of software technologies. Visualization modalities give different kinds of representations of the same 3D model and instruments produce a separation between drawing and image’s creation. Reverse modeling can be related to a synthesis process, ‘direct modeling’ follows an analytic procedure. The difference between interactive and not interactive applications is connected to the possibilities offered by informatics instruments, and relates to modeling and rendering. At the same time the word ‘model’ describes different phenomenon (i.e. files: mathematical model of the building and of the scene; raster representation and post-processing model. All these correlated different models constitute the architectonical interpretative model, that is a simulation of reality made by the model for improving the knowledge.

  11. Eosinophilic colitis in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Chebar Lozinsky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To review the literature for clinical data on infants with allergic or eosinophilic colitis. DATA SOURCE: MEDLINE search of all indexes was performed using the words ''colitis or procto-colitis and eosinophilic'' or ''colitis or proctocolitis and allergic'' between 1966 and February of 2013. All articles that described patients' characteristics were selected. DATA SYNTHESIS: A total of 770 articles were identified, of which 32 met the inclusion criteria. The 32 articles included a total of 314 infants. According to the available information, 61.6% of infants were male and 78.6% were younger than 6 months. Of the 314 patients, 49.0% were fed exclusively breast milk, 44.2% received cow's milk protein, and 6.8% received soy protein. Diarrheal stools were described in 28.3% of patients. Eosinophilia was found in 43.8% (115/263 of infants. Colonic or rectal biopsy showed infiltration by eosinophils (between 5 and 25 perhigh-power field in 89.3% (236/264 of patients. Most patients showed improvement with theremoval of the protein in cow's milk from their diet or the mother's diet. Allergy challenge tests with cow's milk protein were cited by 12 of the 32 articles (66 patients. CONCLUSIONS: Eosinophilic colitis occurs predominantly in the first six months of life and in males. Allergy to cow's milk was considered the main cause of eosinophilic colitis. Exclusion of cow'smilk from the diet of the lactating mother or from the infant's diet is generally an effective therapeutic measure.

  12. Infant Neurobehavioral Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Barry M.; Miller, Robin J.; Hawes, Katheleen; Salisbury, Amy; Bigsby, Rosemarie; Sullivan, Mary C.; Padbury, James F.

    2011-01-01

    The trend toward single-room neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) is increasing; however scientific evidence is, at this point, mostly anecdotal. This is a critical time to assess the impact of the single-room NICU on improving medical and neurobehavioral outcomes of the preterm infant. We have developed a theoretical model that may be useful in studying how the change from an open-bay NICU to a single-room NICU could affect infant medical and neurobehavioral outcome. The model identifies mediating factors that are likely to accompany the change to a single-room NICU. These mediating factors include family centered care, developmental care, parenting and family factors, staff behavior and attitudes, and medical practices. Medical outcomes that plan to be measured are sepsis, length of stay, gestational age at discharge, weight gain, illness severity, gestational age at enteral feeding, and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Neurobehavioral outcomes include the NICU Network Neurobehavioral Scale (NNNS) scores, sleep state organization and sleep physiology, infant mother feeding interaction scores, and pain scores. Preliminary findings on the sample of 150 patients in the open-bay NICU showed a “baseline” of effects of family centered care, developmental care, parent satisfaction, maternal depression, and parenting stress on the neurobehavioral outcomes of the newborn. The single-room NICU has the potential to improve the neurobehavioral status of the infant at discharge. Neurobehavioral assessment can assist with early detection and therefore preventative intervention to maximize developmental outcome. We also present an epigenetic model of the potential effects of maternal care on improving infant neurobehavioral status. PMID:21255702

  13. Home intervention for in utero drug-exposed infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butz, A M; Lears, M K; O'Neil, S; Lukk, P

    1998-10-01

    Each year in the United States, around 5.5% (or 230,000) infants are born to mothers who used illicit drugs during pregnancy. The untoward effects of in utero drug exposure (IUDE) include significant decreases in birthweight and length and head circumference, prematurity, and developmental problems. Intensive early intervention, including home-based interventions, is recognized as an effective method to improve cognitive development and reduce health problems in these high risk infants and children. Examination of home visit records of 20 IUDE infants during their first year of life revealed frequent health and social problems. Infectious disease symptoms were the most frequent problem encountered in the home during the physical assessment of the infants. Of note was the mothers' lack of basic parenting information (understanding signs of illness, basic nutrition, and infant development) which was then provided by the nurse during each home visit. Of concern was the lack of drug treatment sought by these mothers. Findings support the view that home visiting should be incorporated into the discharge planning of any IUDE infant in order to maintain these infants in the health care system and monitor their safety.

  14. Infants Time Their Smiles to Make Their Moms Smile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Ruvolo

    Full Text Available One of the earliest forms of interaction between mothers and infants is smiling games. While the temporal dynamics of these games have been extensively studied, they are still not well understood. Why do mothers and infants time their smiles the way they do? To answer this question we applied methods from control theory, an approach frequently used in robotics, to analyze and synthesize goal-oriented behavior. The results of our analysis show that by the time infants reach 4 months of age both mothers and infants time their smiles in a purposeful, goal-oriented manner. In our study, mothers consistently attempted to maximize the time spent in mutual smiling, while infants tried to maximize mother-only smile time. To validate this finding, we ported the smile timing strategy used by infants to a sophisticated child-like robot that automatically perceived and produced smiles while interacting with adults. As predicted, this strategy proved successful at maximizing adult-only smile time. The results indicate that by 4 months of age infants interact with their mothers in a goal-oriented manner, utilizing a sophisticated understanding of timing in social interactions. Our work suggests that control theory is a promising technique for both analyzing complex interactive behavior and providing new insights into the development of social communication.

  15. Cry babies and pollyannas: Infants can detect unjustified emotional reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarella, Sabrina S; Poulin-Dubois, Diane

    2013-08-01

    Infants are attuned to emotional facial and vocal expressions, reacting most prominently when they are exposed to negative expressions. However, it remains unknown if infants can detect whether a person's emotions are justifiable given a particular context. The focus of the current paper was to examine whether infants react the same way to unjustified (e.g., distress following a positive experience) and justified (e.g., distress following a negative experience) emotional reactions. Infants aged 15 and 18 months were shown an actor experiencing negative and positive experiences, with one group exposed to an actor whose emotional reactions were consistently unjustified (i.e., did not match the event), while the other saw an actor whose emotional reactions were justified (i.e., always matched the event). Infants' looking times and empathic reactions were examined. Only 18-month-olds detected the mismatching facial expressions: those in the unjustified group showed more hypothesis testing (i.e., checking) across events than the justified group. Older infants in the justified group also showed more concerned reactions to negative expressions than those in the unjustified group. The present findings indicate that infants implicitly understand how the emotional valence of experiences is linked to subsequent emotional expressions.

  16. Prosodic cues to word order: what level of representation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carline eBernard

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Within language, systematic correlations exist between syntactic structure and prosody. Prosodic prominence, for instance, falls on the complement and not the head of syntactic phrases, and its realization depends on the phrasal position of the prominent element. Thus, in Japanese, a functor-final language, prominence is phrase-initial and realized as increased pitch (^Tōkyō ni ‘Tokyo to’, whereas in French, English or Italian, functor-initial languages, it manifests itself as phrase-final lengthening (to Rome. Prosody is readily available in the linguistic signal even to the youngest infants. It has, therefore, been proposed that young learners might be able to exploit its correlations with syntax to bootstrap language structure. In this study, we tested this hypothesis, investigating how 8-month-old monolingual French infants processed an artificial grammar manipulating the relative position of prosodic prominence and word frequency. In Condition 1, we created a speech stream in which the two cues, prosody and frequency, were aligned, frequent words being prosodically non-prominent and infrequent ones being prominent, as is the case in natural language (functors are prosodically minimal compared to content words. In Condition 2, the two cues were misaligned, with frequent words carrying prosodic prominence, unlike in natural language. After familiarization with the aligned or the misaligned stream in a headturn preference procedure, we tested infants’ preference for test items having a frequent word initial or a frequent word final word order. We found that infants’ familiarized with the aligned stream showed the expected preference for the frequent word initial test items, mimicking the functor-initial word order of French. Infants in the misaligned condition showed no preference. These results suggest that infants are able to use word frequency and prosody as early cues to word order and they integrate them into a coherent

  17. Infant gut microbiota and the hygiene hypothesis of allergic disease: impact of household pets and siblings on microbiota composition and diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Multiple studies have demonstrated that early-life exposure to pets or siblings affords protection against allergic disease; these associations are commonly attributed to the “hygiene hypothesis”. Recently, low diversity of the infant gut microbiota has also been linked to allergic disease. In this study, we characterize the infant gut microbiota in relation to pets and siblings. Methods The study population comprised a small sub-sample of 24 healthy, full term infants from the Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development (CHILD) birth cohort. Mothers reported on household pets and siblings. Fecal samples were collected at 4 months of age, and microbiota composition was characterized by high-throughput signature gene sequencing. Results Microbiota richness and diversity tended to be increased in infants living with pets, whereas these measures were decreased in infants with older siblings. Infants living with pets exhibited under-representation of Bifidobacteriaceae and over-representation of Peptostreptococcaceae; infants with older siblings exhibited under-representation of Peptostreptococcaceae. Conclusions This study provides new evidence that exposure to pets and siblings may influence the early development of the gut microbiota, with potential implications for allergic disease. These two traditionally protective “hygiene hypothesis” factors appear to differentially impact gut microbiota composition and diversity, calling into question the clinical significance of these measures. Further research is required to confirm and expand these findings. PMID:23607879

  18. Infant gut microbiota and the hygiene hypothesis of allergic disease: impact of household pets and siblings on microbiota composition and diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azad, Meghan B; Konya, Theodore; Maughan, Heather; Guttman, David S; Field, Catherine J; Sears, Malcolm R; Becker, Allan B; Scott, James A; Kozyrskyj, Anita L

    2013-01-01

    Multiple studies have demonstrated that early-life exposure to pets or siblings affords protection against allergic disease; these associations are commonly attributed to the "hygiene hypothesis". Recently, low diversity of the infant gut microbiota has also been linked to allergic disease. In this study, we characterize the infant gut microbiota in relation to pets and siblings. The study population comprised a small sub-sample of 24 healthy, full term infants from the Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development (CHILD) birth cohort. Mothers reported on household pets and siblings. Fecal samples were collected at 4 months of age, and microbiota composition was characterized by high-throughput signature gene sequencing. Microbiota richness and diversity tended to be increased in infants living with pets, whereas these measures were decreased in infants with older siblings. Infants living with pets exhibited under-representation of Bifidobacteriaceae and over-representation of Peptostreptococcaceae; infants with older siblings exhibited under-representation of Peptostreptococcaceae. This study provides new evidence that exposure to pets and siblings may influence the early development of the gut microbiota, with potential implications for allergic disease. These two traditionally protective "hygiene hypothesis" factors appear to differentially impact gut microbiota composition and diversity, calling into question the clinical significance of these measures. Further research is required to confirm and expand these findings.

  19. The lived experience of fathers of preterm infants in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit: a systematic review of qualitative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provenzi, Livio; Santoro, Elena

    2015-07-01

    To systematically review the experience of fathers of preterm infants hospitalised in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. Family-centred care is more and more acknowledged in Neonatal Intensive Care Units, advocating for active engagement of both parents in the care journey. Nonetheless, fathers' Neonatal Intensive Care Unit experience has received limited research attention. Systematic review of qualitative studies. Four electronic databases (CINHAL, ISI Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus) were explored and studies published between 2000-2014 were included. Preferred Reporting Item for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis (PRISMA) and Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) Critical Appraisal Tool for Qualitative Studies guidelines were adopted. Key themes were extracted and synthesised. Five main themes resuming fathers' experience of preterm birth and Neonatal Intensive Care Unit stay were identified from 14 studies. Themes were: emotional roller-coaster, paternal needs, coping strategies, self-representation and caregiving engagement. These dimensions were found to be dynamically shaped across three critical turning points: preterm birth, Neonatal Intensive Care Unit stay and at home. Neonatal Intensive Care Unit fathers of preterm infants experience ambivalence, a set of different needs and coping strategies. They modify their self-representations along the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit journey and needs specific nursing support and intervention to sustain caregiving engagement and transition to parenthood. A systematic and deepened understanding of preterms' fathers lived experience in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit would be helpful to inform nursing practice. Specific action priorities are suggested within the frame of family-centred care. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Concepts, ontologies, and knowledge representation

    CERN Document Server

    Jakus, Grega; Omerovic, Sanida; Tomažic, Sašo

    2013-01-01

    Recording knowledge in a common framework that would make it possible to seamlessly share global knowledge remains an important challenge for researchers. This brief examines several ideas about the representation of knowledge addressing this challenge. A widespread general agreement is followed that states uniform knowledge representation should be achievable by using ontologies populated with concepts. A separate chapter is dedicated to each of the three introduced topics, following a uniform outline: definition, organization, and use. This brief is intended for those who want to get to know

  1. Medieval theories of mental representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, S

    1998-11-01

    Throughout most of the Middle ages, it was generally held that stored mental representations of perceived objects or events preserved the forms or species of such objects. This belief was consistent with a metaphor used by Plato. It was also consistent with the medieval belief that a number of cognitive processes took place in the ventricles of the brain and with the phenomenology of afterimages and imagination itself. In the 14th century, William of Ockham challenged this belief by claiming that mental representations are not stored but instead constructed in the basis of past learned experiences.

  2. Congruence properties of induced representations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayer, Dieter; Momeni, Arash; Venkov, Alexei

    In this paper we study representations of the projective modular group induced from the Hecke congruence group of level 4 with Selberg's character. We show that the well known congruence properties of Selberg's character are equivalent to the congruence properties of the induced representations. ...... by Zograf's geometric method. They belong to the class of character groups of type $\\rm I$ for the principal congruence subgroup $\\Gamma(4)$ and have, contrary to the noncongruence groups determined by Selberg's character which all have genus $g=0$, arbitrary genus $g\\geq 0$....

  3. Style representation in design grammars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Sumbul; Chase, Scott Curland

    2012-01-01

    to be transformed according to changing design style needs. Issues of formalizing stylistic change necessitate a lucid and formal definition of style in the design language generated by a grammar. Furthermore, a significant aspect of the definition of style is the representation of aesthetic qualities attributed...... to the style. We focus on grammars for representing and generating styles of design and review the use of grammar transformations for modelling changes in style and design language. We identify a gap in knowledge in the representation of style in grammars and in driving strategic style change using grammar...

  4. Representações sociais de mães sobre a introdução de alimentos complementares para lactentes Representaciones sociales de madres sobre la introducción de alimentos complementares para lactantes Social representations of mothers on the introduction of complementary foods for infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanine Maria Salve

    2009-02-01

    , observando el comportamiento del niño y buscando en su ambiente y en su visión de mundo para decidir sobre la alimentación de hijo.OBJECTIVES: To know mother's representations about introduction of complementary foods and to identify the elements that form their process of choice. METHODS: We chose qualitative research, analyzing data from 17 interviews of women, according the theory of Social Representation and Model "Risks and Benefits". The methodological strategy was the Subjective Speech Collective. RESULTS: Three themes emerged. "Living the Weaning Period", "Taking Positions in front Child's Food Choices" and "Making the Food Choices Properly". They talking about the experiences during the weaning period, the standards of choice and the representations of mothers about introduction of complementary foods. CONCLUSION: Based in their representations and experiences, mothers judge, interpret and construct indicators from observation of child behaviors and search, in their environment and in theirs point of view, the elements to take a decision about their child food.

  5. A Picture You Can Handle: Infants Treat Touch-Screen Images More Like Photographs than Objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemer, Christine J; Snyder, Makenna

    2016-01-01

    Infants actively explore their world in order to determine the different ways in which they can interact with various objects. Although research on infant perception has focused on how infants understand the differences between 2- and 3-dimensional objects, today's infants increasingly encounter 2D images with interactive qualities on smart-phone screens, tablets, and laptops. The purpose of this experiment was to examine the types of manual behaviors infants direct toward tablet images and to compare these actions to those evoked by 2D photographs or 3D when tactile feedback is controlled. Infants between the ages of 7-10 months sat on their parent's lap in front of a table with a built-in well covered by a clear, plastic sheet while the three types of displays (photographs, objects, and screen images on a tablet) were presented for 30 s each. Infants saw three examples of each type of display presented in the built-in well so that tactile feedback information from the different displays was controlled. Coders noted the proportion of trials in which infants grasped, scratched, rubbed, or patted the display. Results indicate that infants direct significantly more grasps, scratches, and rubs toward 3D objects than 2D photographs. Infants also direct more grasps to objects compared to screen images. Our data suggests that infants are treating screen images more similarly to 2D photographs than 3D objects.

  6. A Picture You Can Handle: Infants Treat Touch-Screen Images More Like Photographs than Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine J Ziemer

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Infants actively explore their world in order to determine the different ways in which they can interact with various objects. Although research on infant perception has focused on how infants understand the differences between 2- and 3-dimensional objects, today’s infants increasingly encounter 2D images with interactive qualities on smart-phone screens, tablets, and laptops. The purpose of this experiment was to examine the types of manual behaviors infants direct towards tablet images and to compare these actions to those evoked by 2D photographs or 3D when tactile feedback is controlled. Infants between the ages of 7-10 months sat on their parent’s lap in front of a table with a built-in well covered by a clear, plastic sheet while the three types of displays (photographs, objects, and screen images on a tablet were presented for 30 seconds each. Infants saw three examples of each type of display presented in the built-in well so that tactile feedback information from the different displays was controlled. Coders noted the proportion of trials in which infants grasped, scratched, rubbed, or patted the display. Results indicate that infants direct significantly more grasps, scratches, and rubs towards 3D objects than 2D photographs. Infants also direct more grasps to objects compared to screen images. Our data suggests that infants are treating screen images more similarly to 2D photographs than 3D objects.

  7. Infant Feeding Practices in a Multi-Ethnic Asian Cohort: The GUSTO Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Ying Toh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The optimal introduction of complementary foods provides infants with nutritionally balanced diets and establishes healthy eating habits. The documentation of infant feeding practices in multi-ethnic Asian populations is limited. In a Singapore cohort study (GUSTO, 842 mother-infant dyads were interviewed regarding their feeding practices when the infants were aged 9 and 12 months. In the first year, 20.5% of infants were given dietary supplements, while 5.7% took probiotics and 15.7% homeopathic preparations. At age 9 months, 45.8% of infants had seasonings added to their foods, increasing to 56.3% at 12 months. At age 12 months, 32.7% of infants were given blended food, although 92.3% had begun some form of self-feeding. Additionally, 87.4% of infants were fed milk via a bottle, while a third of them had food items added into their bottles. At both time points, more than a third of infants were provided sweetened drinks via the bottle. Infants of Indian ethnicity were more likely to be given dietary supplements, have oil and seasonings added to their foods and consumed sweetened drinks from the bottle (p < 0.001. These findings provide a better understanding of variations in infant feeding practices, so that healthcare professionals can offer more targeted and culturally-appropriate advice.

  8. Are baboons learning "orthographic" representations? Probably not.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Linke

    Full Text Available The ability of Baboons (papio papio to distinguish between English words and nonwords has been modeled using a deep learning convolutional network model that simulates a ventral pathway in which lexical representations of different granularity develop. However, given that pigeons (columba livia, whose brain morphology is drastically different, can also be trained to distinguish between English words and nonwords, it appears that a less species-specific learning algorithm may be required to explain this behavior. Accordingly, we examined whether the learning model of Rescorla and Wagner, which has proved to be amazingly fruitful in understanding animal and human learning could account for these data. We show that a discrimination learning network using gradient orientation features as input units and word and nonword units as outputs succeeds in predicting baboon lexical decision behavior-including key lexical similarity effects and the ups and downs in accuracy as learning unfolds-with surprising precision. The models performance, in which words are not explicitly represented, is remarkable because it is usually assumed that lexicality decisions, including the decisions made by baboons and pigeons, are mediated by explicit lexical representations. By contrast, our results suggest that in learning to perform lexical decision tasks, baboons and pigeons do not construct a hierarchy of lexical units. Rather, they make optimal use of low-level information obtained through the massively parallel processing of gradient orientation features. Accordingly, we suggest that reading in humans first involves initially learning a high-level system building on letter representations acquired from explicit instruction in literacy, which is then integrated into a conventionalized oral communication system, and that like the latter, fluent reading involves the massively parallel processing of the low-level features encoding semantic contrasts.

  9. Thinking together with material representations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stege Bjørndahl, Johanne; Fusaroli, Riccardo; Østergaard, Svend

    2014-01-01

    How do material representations such as models, diagrams and drawings come to shape and aid collective, epistemic processes? This study investigated how groups of participants spontaneously recruited material objects (in this case LEGO blocks) to support collective creative processes in the conte...

  10. Non-Hermitian Heisenberg representation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Znojil, Miloslav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 379, č. 36 (2015), s. 2013-2017 ISSN 0375-9601 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : quantum mechanics * Non-Hermitian representation of observables * Generalized Heisenberg equations Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 1.677, year: 2015

  11. Paired structures in knowledge representation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montero, J.; Bustince, H.; Franco de los Ríos, Camilo

    2016-01-01

    In this position paper we propose a consistent and unifying view to all those basic knowledge representation models that are based on the existence of two somehow opposite fuzzy concepts. A number of these basic models can be found in fuzzy logic and multi-valued logic literature. Here...

  12. Develop Reasoning through Pictorial Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruchti, Wendy P.; Bennett, Cory A.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes some of the benefits derived from encouraging math drawing in a class of seventh-and eighth-grade students in line with promoting mathematical proficiency. The authors report teaching pictorial representations as part of the solution process, where both students and teachers gained insight into various areas of…

  13. Toeplitz operators and group representations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Engliš, Miroslav

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 3 (2007), s. 243-265 ISSN 1069-5869 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/03/0041; GA AV ČR IAA1019304 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : Toeplitz operator * group representation * symbol calculus Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.125, year: 2007

  14. Mental Representations of Social Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiao, Joan Y.; Bordeaux, Andrew R.; Ambady, Nalni

    2004-01-01

    How do people think about social status? We investigated the nature of social status and number representations using a semantic distance latency test. In Study 1, 21 college students compared words connoting different social status as well as numbers, which served as a control task. Participants were faster at comparing occupations and numbers…

  15. Grobner Basis Representations of Sudoku

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taalman, Laura; Arnold, Elizabeth; Lucas, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    This paper uses Grobner bases to explore the inherent structure of Sudoku puzzles and boards. In particular, we develop three different ways of representing the constraints of Sudoku puzzles with a system of polynomial equations. In one case, we explicitly show how a Grobner basis can be used to obtain a more meaningful representation of the…

  16. Spectral representation of Gaussian semimartingales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basse-O'Connor, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present paper is to characterize the spectral representation of Gaussian semimartingales. That is, we provide necessary and sufficient conditions on the kernel K for X t =∫ K t (s) dN s to be a semimartingale. Here, N denotes an independently scattered Gaussian random measure...

  17. Symmetric group representations and Z

    OpenAIRE

    Adve, Anshul; Yong, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    We discuss implications of the following statement about the representation theory of symmetric groups: every integer appears infinitely often as an irreducible character evaluation, and every nonnegative integer appears infinitely often as a Littlewood-Richardson coefficient and as a Kronecker coefficient.

  18. Guideline Knowledge Representation Model (GLIKREM)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Buchtela, David; Peleška, Jan; Veselý, Arnošt; Zvárová, Jana; Zvolský, Miroslav

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 1 (2008), s. 17-23 ISSN 1801-5603 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06014 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : knowledge representation * GLIF model * guidelines Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science http://www.ejbi.org/articles/200812/34/1.html

  19. Hermann Weyl and Representation Theory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    for instance, ideas from Riemann surfaces and covering spaces were brought to bear on the algebraic problem of complete re-. RESONANCE | December 2016 ... called Weil (or oscillator) representation, and choice of the 'adele group' as the abelian group enabled reinterpretation of Siegel's work on quadratic forms over ...

  20. Mothers' different styles of involvement in preterm infant pain care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelin, Anna; Lehtonen, Liisa; Pelander, Tiina; Salanterä, Sanna

    2010-01-01

    To describe and understand how mothers utilize the opportunity to actively participate in their preterm infants' pain care using facilitated tucking by parents (FTP). Descriptive and exploratory study with postintervention interview. Finnish level III Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). Twenty-three mothers who had preterm infants born at gestational ages of 32 to 34 weeks. The parents (N=45) of 29 preterm infants were taught to use FTP. In addition, all nurses in the NICU (N=76) received the same education to support the parents' use of FTP. After 2 to 4 weeks of FTP use, the mothers (n=23) were interviewed using the Clinical Interview for Parents of High-Risk Infants with additional questions related to the infants' pain care. The interviews were analyzed inductively with cross-case analysis and deductively with a previously developed coding scheme. Facilitated tucking by parents was perceived positively and was used by all participating mothers. Three different styles of involvement in preterm infants' pain care with FTP were identified. They formed a continuum from external to random and finally to internalized involvement. In external involvement, the pain care with FTP was triggered by outside factors such as nurses, whereas in random and internalized involvement the motivation emerged from a parent. Mothers with external involvement thought that any person could apply the FTP. In random involvement, mothers were mainly absent during painful procedures, although they saw themselves as the best caregivers. In internalized involvement, the responsibility for infant pain care was shared within the family. Mothers' NICU-related stress and maternal attachment were associated with this variation. This study showed that mothers' are willing to actively participate in their preterm infants' pain care. However, the participation is unique according to mother and her experiences before and during NICU admission. Nurses need to consider these differences in mothers

  1. Genotypic and functional properties of early infant HIV-1 envelopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sullivan John L

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the properties of HIV-1 variants that are transmitted from women to their infants is crucial to improving strategies to prevent transmission. In this study, 162 full-length envelope (env clones were generated from plasma RNA obtained from 5 HIV-1 Clade B infected mother-infant pairs. Following extensive genotypic and phylogenetic analyses, 35 representative clones were selected for functional studies. Results Infant quasispecies were highly homogeneous and generally represented minor maternal variants, consistent with transmission across a selective bottleneck. Infant clones did not differ from the maternal in env length, or glycosylation. All infant variants utilized the CCR5 co-receptor, but were not macrophage tropic. Relatively high levels (IC50 ≥ 100 μg/ml of autologous maternal plasma IgG were required to neutralize maternal and infant viruses; however, all infant viruses were neutralized by pooled sera from HIV-1 infected individuals, implying that they were not inherently neutralization-resistant. All infant viruses were sensitive to the HIV-1 entry inhibitors Enfuvirtide and soluble CD4; none were resistant to Maraviroc. Sensitivity to human monoclonal antibodies 4E10, 2F5, b12 and 2G12 varied. Conclusions This study provides extensive characterization of the genotypic and functional properties of HIV-1 env shortly after transmission. We present the first detailed comparisons of the macrophage tropism of infant and maternal env variants and their sensitivity to Maraviroc, the only CCR5 antagonist approved for therapeutic use. These findings may have implications for improving approaches to prevent mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission.

  2. Does maternal birth outcome differentially influence the occurrence of infant death among African Americans and European Americans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masho, Saba W; Archer, Phillip W

    2011-11-01

    The United States continues to have one of the highest infant mortality rates (IMR). Although studies have examined the association between maternal and infant birth outcomes, few studies have examined the impact of maternal birth outcome on infant mortality. This study was designed to examine the influence of maternal low birth weight and preterm birth on infant mortality. The 1997-2007 Virginia birth and infant death registry was analyzed. The infant birth and death data was linked to maternal birth registry data using the mother's maiden name and date of birth. From the mother's birth registry data, the grandmother's demographic and pregnancy history was obtained. Logistic regression modeling was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals. There was a statistically significant association between maternal birth outcome and subsequent infant mortality. Infants born from a mother who was low birth weight were 2.3 times more likely to have an infant die within the first year of life. Similarly, infants born from a mother born preterm were 2.2 times more likely to have an infant die. Stratification by race showed that there was no statistical association between maternal birth weight and infant death among Whites. However, a strong association was observed among Blacks. Maternal birth outcomes may be an important indicator for infant mortality. Future longitudinal studies are needed to understand the underlying cause of these associations.

  3. Discriminating neural representations of physical and social pains: how multivariate statistics challenge the "shared representation" theory of pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogachov, A; Cheng, J C; DeSouza, D D

    2015-11-01

    Overlapping functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) activity elicited by physical pain and social rejection has posited a common neural representation between the two experiences. However, Woo and colleagues (Nat Commun 5: 5380, 2014) recently used multivariate statistics to challenge the "shared representation" theory of pain. This study has implications in the way results from fMRI studies are interpreted and has the potential of broadening our understanding of different pain states and future development of personalized medicine. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  4. Individual Variation in Fathers’ Testosterone Reactivity to Infant Distress Predicts Parenting Behaviors with their 1-Year-Old Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Patty X.; Saini, Ekjyot K.; Thomason, Elizabeth; Schultheiss, Oliver C.; Gonzalez, Richard; Volling, Brenda L.

    2015-01-01

    Positive father involvement is associated with positive child outcomes. There is great variation in fathers’ involvement and fathering behaviors, and men’s testosterone (T) has been proposed as a potential biological contributor to paternal involvement. Previous studies investigating testosterone changes in response to father-infant interactions or exposure to infant cues are unclear as to whether individual variation in T is predictive of fathering behavior. We show that individual variation in fathers’ T reactivity to their infants during a challenging laboratory paradigm (Strange Situation) uniquely predicted fathers’ positive parenting behaviors during a subsequent father-infant interaction, in addition to other psychosocial determinants of paternal involvement, such as dispositional empathy and marital quality. The findings have implications for understanding fathering behaviors and how fathers can contribute to their children’s socioemotional development. PMID:26497119

  5. Individual variation in fathers' testosterone reactivity to infant distress predicts parenting behaviors with their 1-year-old infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Patty X; Saini, Ekjyot K; Thomason, Elizabeth; Schultheiss, Oliver C; Gonzalez, Richard; Volling, Brenda L

    2016-04-01

    Positive father involvement is associated with positive child outcomes. There is great variation in fathers' involvement and fathering behaviors, and men's testosterone (T) has been proposed as a potential biological contributor to paternal involvement. Previous studies investigating testosterone changes in response to father-infant interactions or exposure to infant cues were unclear as to whether individual variation in T is predictive of fathering behavior. We show that individual variation in fathers' T reactivity to their infants during a challenging laboratory paradigm (Strange Situation) uniquely predicted fathers' positive parenting behaviors during a subsequent father-infant interaction, in addition to other psychosocial determinants of paternal involvement, such as dispositional empathy and marital quality. The findings have implications for understanding fathering behaviors and how fathers can contribute to their children's socioemotional development. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. [Persistence of social representation regarding breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldo-Mora, Clara V

    2009-08-01

    Understanding the social representation of breast cancer and how it has influenced breast cancer prevention and self-care practice in a group of women from the city of Medellin. This was a qualitative study using 19 semi-structured interviews with adult females who had not had breast cancer, using maximum variation criterion as sampling technique. The analysis was orientated by grounded theory. Some women physiologically represented breast cancer while others represented it by its social and psychological effects. They identified its causes with personal and emotional problems and certain daily habits such as inadequate food ("a bodily payback for the abuses which we subject ourselves to"). The word "breast cancer" was associated with inevitable death, terror, suffering, incurability, devastation, powerlessness and pain. This cancer has strong social representation due to its severe implications for females, their attractiveness and self-image. The persistence of breast cancer's negative image is associated with "the life-style myth" (1) for which people tend to blame the patient. Our biological reductionism hides environmental, social and political factors. We are obsessed by the dangers and their control (2) and powerful images are added to these messages such as those in which "one out of nine women will develop breast cancer" to foster self-responsibility (2). However, the ghost of cancer in developing societies in which many people are still trapped is magnified and has also yet to be overcome.

  7. Geohazards storytelling between reality and representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musacchio, Gemma; Candela, Andrea; Canel, Samanta; Roi, Cinzia

    2015-04-01

    Ethics towards geohazards might start at early age and it might radicate on narratives occuring in the media, as disfuctional ideas and perception are passed from school or society to children. In this paper we study the representations and imaginaries of natural hazards as they are in the media and how they are passed on chidren and laypeople. The investigation is led on an experimental basis on primary schools in Northern Italy (Varese province), where data concerning school education are collected. The approach is that of the storytelling that allow evaluation of children perception of hazard and risk. Narratives (news, rhetorics, images and pictures, symbols, metaphores and interpretations) that mass media and education generally used in order to explain and represent geohazards (earthquakes, volcanoes, hydrogeological instability, climate change and so on) are also analysed. They are responsible for certain individual and collective perceptions, indeed. The research has attempted to analyze how imaginaries and common "wrong" ideas can influence environmental education and public communication of natural hazards. A better understanding of feelings (fears and hopes), and all cultural behaviours included in the social construction of collective narratives and representations of environmental emergencies could be useful in order to re-orient education and communication strategies on the basis of more targeted and participatory approaches.

  8. Towards a multilevel cognitive probabilistic representation of space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapus, Adriana; Vasudevan, Shrihari; Siegwart, Roland

    2005-03-01

    This paper addresses the problem of perception and representation of space for a mobile agent. A probabilistic hierarchical framework is suggested as a solution to this problem. The method proposed is a combination of probabilistic belief with "Object Graph Models" (OGM). The world is viewed from a topological optic, in terms of objects and relationships between them. The hierarchical representation that we propose permits an efficient and reliable modeling of the information that the mobile agent would perceive from its environment. The integration of both navigational and interactional capabilities through efficient representation is also addressed. Experiments on a set of images taken from the real world that validate the approach are reported. This framework draws on the general understanding of human cognition and perception and contributes towards the overall efforts to build cognitive robot companions.

  9. Algorithmic foundation of multi-scale spatial representation

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Zhilin

    2006-01-01

    With the widespread use of GIS, multi-scale representation has become an important issue in the realm of spatial data handling. However, no book to date has systematically tackled the different aspects of this discipline. Emphasizing map generalization, Algorithmic Foundation of Multi-Scale Spatial Representation addresses the mathematical basis of multi-scale representation, specifically, the algorithmic foundation.Using easy-to-understand language, the author focuses on geometric transformations, with each chapter surveying a particular spatial feature. After an introduction to the essential operations required for geometric transformations as well as some mathematical and theoretical background, the book describes algorithms for a class of point features/clusters. It then examines algorithms for individual line features, such as the reduction of data points, smoothing (filtering), and scale-driven generalization, followed by a discussion of algorithms for a class of line features including contours, hydrog...

  10. Autoscopic phenomena and one's own body representation in dreams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Occhionero, Miranda; Cicogna, Piera Carla

    2011-12-01

    Autoscopic phenomena (AP) are complex experiences that include the visual illusory reduplication of one's own body. From a phenomenological point of view, we can distinguish three conditions: autoscopic hallucinations, heautoscopy, and out-of-body experiences. The dysfunctional pattern involves multisensory disintegration of personal and extrapersonal space perception. The etiology, generally either neurological or psychiatric, is different. Also, the hallucination of Self and own body image is present during dreams and differs according to sleep stage. Specifically, the representation of the Self in REM dreams is frequently similar to the perception of Self in wakefulness, whereas in NREM dreams, a greater polymorphism of Self and own body representation is observed. The parallels between autoscopic phenomena in pathological cases and the Self-hallucination in dreams will be discussed to further the understanding of the particular states of self awareness, especially the complex integration of different memory sources in Self and body representation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Understanding classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Subianto, M.

    2009-01-01

    In practical data analysis, the understandability of models plays an important role in their acceptance. In the data mining literature, however, understandability plays is hardly ever mentioned. If it is mentioned, it is interpreted as meaning that the models have to be simple. In this thesis we

  12. Community representation in hospital decision making: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Zoë

    2015-06-01

    hospital governance, associated with ambiguity, organisational and consumer issues. For an inclusive agenda to real life, work must be done on understanding the representatives' role and the decision making process, adequately supporting the representational process, and developing organisational cooperation and culture regarding community representation.

  13. NUCLEOTIDES IN INFANT FEEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.G. Mamonova

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews the application of nucleotides-metabolites, playing a key role in many biological processes, for the infant feeding. The researcher provides the date on the nucleotides in the women's milk according to the lactation stages. She also analyzes the foreign experience in feeding newborns with nucleotides-containing milk formulas. The article gives a comparison of nucleotides in the adapted formulas represented in the domestic market of the given products.Key words: children, feeding, nucleotides.

  14. Peritoneal dialysis in infants.

    OpenAIRE

    Donaldson, M D; Spurgeon, P; Haycock, G B; Chantler, C

    1983-01-01

    A commercially available closed dialysis system and a new peritoneal cannula with potential advantages for infants have been developed. The dialysis set includes three dialysate bags that may be connected to the filling burette; the warming coil of the set is placed in a thermostatically controlled water bath. The peritoneal catheter comprises a flexible tube with side holes and a sharp short bevelled needle with obturator. Advantages of the new equipment over previously available equipment a...

  15. Embodied understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Western culture has inherited a view of understanding as an intellectual cognitive operation of grasping of concepts and their relations. However, cognitive science research has shown that this received intellectualist conception is substantially out of touch with how humans actually make and experience meaning. The view emerging from the mind sciences recognizes that understanding is profoundly embodied, insofar as our conceptualization and reasoning recruit sensory, motor, and affective patterns and processes to structure our understanding of, and engagement with, our world. A psychologically realistic account of understanding must begin with the patterns of ongoing interaction between an organism and its physical and cultural environments and must include both our emotional responses to changes in our body and environment, and also the actions by which we continuously transform our experience. Consequently, embodied understanding is not merely a conceptual/propositional activity of thought, but rather constitutes our most basic way of being in, and engaging with, our surroundings in a deep visceral manner.

  16. Identification of bird representations in prehistory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasić Vojislav F.

    2003-01-01

    this new approach will show all its usefulness in the future. Sometimes, a view "from another angle", on some archaeological problems may provide valuable results, not only in identification of bird representations, but also as a means of understanding the wider cultural or social-economic significance of the prehistoric period in question.

  17. Infant and toddler nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Katie

    2015-12-01

    General practitioners (GPs) are often the first point of advice about nutrition and feeding concerns in infants and toddlers. The aim of this article is to discuss the assessment of breastfed infants and address commonly presenting issues such as regurgitation, vomiting and bowel habits. Recommendations for starting solids and management of fussy eating are also outlined in this article. Breastfeeding should be supported by all healthcare professionals. Intake is difficult to quantify, but can be assessed using growth and urine output, with support from lactation consultants and/or child and family health nurses. Regurgitation is common, and usually resolves itself. If there are clinical concerns about a child's vomiting, they should be investigated medically. Consti-pation can be caused by insufficient fluid intake and should be managed medically; dietary interventions are not recommended as first-line treatment. Solid foods should be introduced around six months of age, when the infant is developmentally ready. Delaying the introduction of solids or allergenic foods does not prevent allergies. Fussy eating is common in toddlers exerting their independence, and behavioural management is essential.

  18. Mothers’ amygdala response to positive or negative infant affect is modulated by personal relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lane eStrathearn

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Understanding, prioritizing and responding to infant affective cues is a key component of motherhood, with long-term implications for infant socio-emotional development. This important task includes identifying unique characteristics of one’s own infant, as they relate to differences in affect valence—happy or sad—while monitoring one’s own level of arousal. The amygdala has traditionally been understood to respond to affective valence; in the present study, we examined the potential effect of personal relevance on amygdala response, by testing whether mothers’ amygdala response to happy and sad infant face cues would be modulated by infant identity. We used functional MRI to measure amygdala activation in 39 first-time mothers, while they viewed happy, neutral and sad infant faces of both their own and a matched unknown infant. Emotional arousal to each face was rated using the Self Assessment Manikin Scales. Mixed-effects linear regression models were used to examine significant predictors of amygdala response. Overall, both arousal ratings and amygdala activation were greater when mothers viewed their own infant’s face compared with unknown infant faces. Sad faces were rated as more arousing than happy faces, regardless of infant identity. However, within the amygdala, a highly significant interaction effect was noted between infant identity and valence. For own-infant faces, amygdala activation was greater for happy than sad faces, whereas the opposite trend was seen for unknown-infant faces. Our findings suggest that the amygdala response to positive and negative valenced cues is modulated by personal relevance. Positive facial expressions from one’s own infant may play a particularly important role in eliciting maternal responses and strengthening the mother-infant bond.

  19. Preference for infant-directed speech in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Samantha C; O'Sullivan, Laura P; Shah, Bhavesh L; Berthier, Neil E

    2014-11-01

    The current study explores the effects of exposure to maternal voice on infant sucking in preterm infants. Twenty-four preterm infants averaging 35 weeks gestational age were divided randomly into two groups. A contingency between high-amplitude sucking and presentation of maternal voice was instituted for one group while the other group served as a yoked control. No significant differences were observed in sucking of the two groups, but the degree of pitch modulation of the maternal voice predicted an increase in the rate of infant sucking. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Infant digestion physiology and the relevance of in vitro biochemical models to test infant formula lipid digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poquet, Laure; Wooster, Tim J

    2016-08-01

    Lipids play an important role in the diet of preterm and term infants providing a key energy source and essential lipid components for development. While a lot is known about adult lipid digestion, our understanding of infant digestion physiology is still incomplete, the greatest gap being on the biochemistry of the small intestine, particularly the activity and relative importance of the various lipases active in the intestine. The literature has been reviewed to identify the characteristics of lipid digestion of preterm and term infants, but also to better understand the physiology of the infant gastrointestinal tract compared to adults that impacts the absorption of lipids. The main differences are a higher gastric pH, submicellar bile salt concentration, a far more important role of gastric lipases as well as differences at the level of the intestinal barrier. Importantly, the consequences of improper in vitro replication of gastric digestions conditions (pH and lipase specificity) are demonstrated using examples from the most recent of studies. It is true that some animal models could be adapted to study infant lipid digestion physiology, however the ethical relevance of such models is questionable, hence the development of accurate in vitro models is a must. In vitro models that combine up to date knowledge of digestion biochemistry with intestinal cells in culture are the best choice to replicate digestion and absorption in infant population, this would allow the adaptation of infant formula for a better digestion and absorption of dietary lipids by preterm and term infants. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Invariant recognition drives neural representations of action sequences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Tacchetti

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Recognizing the actions of others from visual stimuli is a crucial aspect of human perception that allows individuals to respond to social cues. Humans are able to discriminate between similar actions despite transformations, like changes in viewpoint or actor, that substantially alter the visual appearance of a scene. This ability to generalize across complex transformations is a hallmark of human visual intelligence. Advances in understanding action recognition at the neural level have not always translated into precise accounts of the computational principles underlying what representations of action sequences are constructed by human visual cortex. Here we test the hypothesis that invariant action discrimination might fill this gap. Recently, the study of artificial systems for static object perception has produced models, Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs, that achieve human level performance in complex discriminative tasks. Within this class, architectures that better support invariant object recognition also produce image representations that better match those implied by human and primate neural data. However, whether these models produce representations of action sequences that support recognition across complex transformations and closely follow neural representations of actions remains unknown. Here we show that spatiotemporal CNNs accurately categorize video stimuli into action classes, and that deliberate model modifications that improve performance on an invariant action recognition task lead to data representations that better match human neural recordings. Our results support our hypothesis that performance on invariant discrimination dictates the neural representations of actions computed in the brain. These results broaden the scope of the invariant recognition framework for understanding visual intelligence from perception of inanimate objects and faces in static images to the study of human perception of action sequences.

  2. Invariant recognition drives neural representations of action sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacchetti, Andrea; Isik, Leyla; Poggio, Tomaso

    2017-12-01

    Recognizing the actions of others from visual stimuli is a crucial aspect of human perception that allows individuals to respond to social cues. Humans are able to discriminate between similar actions despite transformations, like changes in viewpoint or actor, that substantially alter the visual appearance of a scene. This ability to generalize across complex transformations is a hallmark of human visual intelligence. Advances in understanding action recognition at the neural level have not always translated into precise accounts of the computational principles underlying what representations of action sequences are constructed by human visual cortex. Here we test the hypothesis that invariant action discrimination might fill this gap. Recently, the study of artificial systems for static object perception has produced models, Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs), that achieve human level performance in complex discriminative tasks. Within this class, architectures that better support invariant object recognition also produce image representations that better match those implied by human and primate neural data. However, whether these models produce representations of action sequences that support recognition across complex transformations and closely follow neural representations of actions remains unknown. Here we show that spatiotemporal CNNs accurately categorize video stimuli into action classes, and that deliberate model modifications that improve performance on an invariant action recognition task lead to data representations that better match human neural recordings. Our results support our hypothesis that performance on invariant discrimination dictates the neural representations of actions computed in the brain. These results broaden the scope of the invariant recognition framework for understanding visual intelligence from perception of inanimate objects and faces in static images to the study of human perception of action sequences.

  3. Body composition from birth to 6 mo of age in Ethiopian infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Gregers Stig; Girma, Tsinuel; Wells, Jonathan C

    2013-01-01

    Data on body composition in infancy may improve the understanding of the relation between variability in fetal and infant growth and disease risk through the life course. Although new assessment techniques have recently become available, body composition is rarely described in infants from low-in...

  4. Nine-Month-Old Infants Generalize Object Labels, but Not Object Preferences across Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Annette M. E.; Woodward, Amanda L.

    2012-01-01

    As with all culturally relevant human behaviours, words are meaningful because they are shared by the members of a community. This research investigates whether 9-month-old infants understand this fundamental fact about language. Experiment 1 examined whether infants who are trained on, and subsequently habituated to, a new word-referent link…

  5. Verb Learning in 14- and 18-Month-Old English-Learning Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Angela Xiaoxue; Lidz, Jeffrey

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigates English-learning infants' early understanding of the link between the grammatical category "verb" and the conceptual category "event," and their ability to recruit morphosyntactic information online to learn novel verb meanings. We report two experiments using an infant-controlled…

  6. Student difficulties regarding symbolic and graphical representations of vector fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurens Bollen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The ability to switch between various representations is an invaluable problem-solving skill in physics. In addition, research has shown that using multiple representations can greatly enhance a person’s understanding of mathematical and physical concepts. This paper describes a study of student difficulties regarding interpreting, constructing, and switching between representations of vector fields, using both qualitative and quantitative methods. We first identified to what extent students are fluent with the use of field vector plots, field line diagrams, and symbolic expressions of vector fields by conducting individual student interviews and analyzing in-class student activities. Based on those findings, we designed the Vector Field Representations test, a free response assessment tool that has been given to 196 second- and third-year physics, mathematics, and engineering students from four different universities. From the obtained results we gained a comprehensive overview of typical errors that students make when switching between vector field representations. In addition, the study allowed us to determine the relative prevalence of the observed difficulties. Although the results varied greatly between institutions, a general trend revealed that many students struggle with vector addition, fail to recognize the field line density as an indication of the magnitude of the field, confuse characteristics of field lines and equipotential lines, and do not choose the appropriate coordinate system when writing out mathematical expressions of vector fields.

  7. Increasing verbal knowledge mediates development of multidimensional emotion representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nook, Erik C; Sasse, Stephanie F; Lambert, Hilary K; McLaughlin, Katie A; Somerville, Leah H

    2017-01-01

    How do people represent their own and others' emotional experiences? Contemporary emotion theories and growing evidence suggest that the conceptual representation of emotion plays a central role in how people understand the emotions both they and other people feel. 1-6 Although decades of research indicate that adults typically represent emotion concepts as multidimensional, with valence (positive-negative) and arousal (activating-deactivating) as two primary dimensions, 7-10 little is known about how this bidimensional (or circumplex ) representation arises. 11 Here we show that emotion representations develop from a monodimensional focus on valence to a bidimensional focus on both valence and arousal from age 6 to age 25. We investigated potential mechanisms underlying this effect and found that increasing verbal knowledge mediated emotion representation development over and above three other potential mediators: (i) fluid reasoning, (ii) the general ability to represent non-emotional stimuli bidimensionally, and (iii) task-related behaviors (e.g., using extreme ends of rating scales). These results suggest that verbal development facilitates the expansion of emotion concept representations (and potentially emotional experiences) from a "positive or negative" dichotomy in childhood to a multidimensional organization in adulthood.

  8. Student difficulties regarding symbolic and graphical representations of vector fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollen, Laurens; van Kampen, Paul; Baily, Charles; Kelly, Mossy; De Cock, Mieke

    2017-12-01

    The ability to switch between various representations is an invaluable problem-solving skill in physics. In addition, research has shown that using multiple representations can greatly enhance a person's understanding of mathematical and physical concepts. This paper describes a study of student difficulties regarding interpreting, constructing, and switching between representations of vector fields, using both qualitative and quantitative methods. We first identified to what extent students are fluent with the use of field vector plots, field line diagrams, and symbolic expressions of vector fields by conducting individual student interviews and analyzing in-class student activities. Based on those findings, we designed the Vector Field Representations test, a free response assessment tool that has been given to 196 second- and third-year physics, mathematics, and engineering students from four different universities. From the obtained results we gained a comprehensive overview of typical errors that students make when switching between vector field representations. In addition, the study allowed us to determine the relative prevalence of the observed difficulties. Although the results varied greatly between institutions, a general trend revealed that many students struggle with vector addition, fail to recognize the field line density as an indication of the magnitude of the field, confuse characteristics of field lines and equipotential lines, and do not choose the appropriate coordinate system when writing out mathematical expressions of vector fields.

  9. Attention to memory: orienting attention to sound object representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backer, Kristina C; Alain, Claude

    2014-01-01

    Despite a growing acceptance that attention and memory interact, and that attention can be focused on an active internal mental representation (i.e., reflective attention), there has been a paucity of work focusing on reflective attention to 'sound objects' (i.e., mental representations of actual sound sources in the environment). Further research on the dynamic interactions between auditory attention and memory, as well as its degree of neuroplasticity, is important for understanding how sound objects are represented, maintained, and accessed in the brain. This knowledge can then guide the development of training programs to help individuals with attention and memory problems. This review article focuses on attention to memory with an emphasis on behavioral and neuroimaging studies that have begun to explore the mechanisms that mediate reflective attentional orienting in vision and more recently, in audition. Reflective attention refers to situations in which attention is oriented toward internal representations rather than focused on external stimuli. We propose four general principles underlying attention to short-term memory. Furthermore, we suggest that mechanisms involved in orienting attention to visual object representations may also apply for orienting attention to sound object representations.

  10. Infant-Directed Speech Drives Social Preferences in 5-Month-Old Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachner, Adena; Hannon, Erin E.

    2011-01-01

    Adults across cultures speak to infants in a specific infant-directed manner. We asked whether infants use this manner of speech (infant- or adult-directed) to guide their subsequent visual preferences for social partners. We found that 5-month-old infants encode an individuals' use of infant-directed speech and adult-directed speech, and use this…

  11. Picasso's bodies: representations of modern society?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsay, A

    2009-12-01

    During the course of a long artistic career, the work of Pablo Picasso (1881-1973) passed through a number of stages. This article concentrates on his representation of the human body prior to the First World War. Three paintings are used to illustrate the transition from social realism to the Blue period and Cubism: Science and Charity (1897); Tragedy (1903); and Seated Nude (1909/10). They are interpreted through the lens of Arthur C Danto's concept of the "art world", which subsequent theorists have elaborated to capture the historical context as well as the aesthetic form and biographical detail that preoccupied traditional critics. Therefore, the analysis not only embraces colour, perspective and significant events in Picasso's life but also early 20th century politics and ideology, science and medicine. In this way, the synergies that exist between cultural artefacts and the body are demonstrated, and the interdisciplinary understanding of health and healthcare that medical humanities promote is endorsed.

  12. Knowledge representation for decision support systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methlie, L.B.

    1985-01-01

    This book is organized into three sections in accordance with the structure of the conference program. First section contains four major papers which were commissioned by the Programme Committee to set the tone for the conference and to provide a structured source of relevant material from contributing disciplines. The second section contains specific papers submitted to the conference, and concerned with the following topics of specific interest: epistemological issues for decision support systems (DSS), capturing organizational knowledge for DSS, complementarity between human and formal DSS, and representations for adaption. The third section contains the short papers on any topic of relevance to the theme of the conference. It is hoped that the two working conferences organized by WG 8.3 will contribute to the development of a coherent knowledge and understanding of the class of computerized information systems called Decision Support Systems. (Auth.)

  13. Multidimensional integral representations problems of analytic continuation

    CERN Document Server

    Kytmanov, Alexander M

    2015-01-01

    The monograph is devoted to integral representations for holomorphic functions in several complex variables, such as Bochner-Martinelli, Cauchy-Fantappiè, Koppelman, multidimensional logarithmic residue etc., and their boundary properties. The applications considered are problems of analytic continuation of functions from the boundary of a bounded domain in C^n. In contrast to the well-known Hartogs-Bochner theorem, this book investigates functions with the one-dimensional property of holomorphic extension along complex lines, and includes the problems of receiving multidimensional boundary analogs of the Morera theorem.   This book is a valuable resource for specialists in complex analysis, theoretical physics, as well as graduate and postgraduate students with an understanding of standard university courses in complex, real and functional analysis, as well as algebra and geometry.

  14. Non-uniform tube representation of proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mikael Sonne

    Treating the full protein structure is often neither computationally nor physically possible. Instead one is forced to consider various reduced models capturing the properties of interest. Previous work have used tubular neighborhoods of the C-alpha backbone. However, assigning a unique radius...... might not correctly capture volume exclusion - of crucial importance when trying to understand a proteins $3$d-structure. We propose a new reduced model treating the protein as a non-uniform tube with a radius reflecting the positions of atoms. The tube representation is well suited considering X......-ray crystallographic resolution ~ 3Å while a varying radius accounts for the different sizes of side chains. Such a non-uniform tube better capture the protein geometry and has numerous applications in structural/computational biology from the classification of protein structures to sequence-structure prediction....

  15. Endeavors to Represent the Non-Representational

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgård, Rikke Toft

    and findings emerged through the development of a conceptual understanding of the non-representational and pre-linguistic nature and structure of corporeal-locomotive gameplay. Through the effort of trying to think and talk about games as corporeal-locomotive activities and experiences it quickly became...... apparent that it was senseless to interview or study the communication of gameplayers as it was to analyze their onscreen gameplay or make them fill out questionnaires. In this way, the traditional ways of conducting ‘game research’ was fruitless in the study’s endeavor to think and talk about...... the corporeal-locomotive dimension of gameplay where hands and bodies where moving to the (kin)aesthetic rhythms of the game’s choreography. Consequently, I found myself barred from ‘meaningfully’ communicating the expressive, sensuous and (kin)aesthetic meaning and significance of corporeal-locomotive gameplay...

  16. Representation learning for cross-modality classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. van Tulder (Gijs); M. de Bruijne (Marleen)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractDifferences in scanning parameters or modalities can complicate image analysis based on supervised classification. This paper presents two representation learning approaches, based on autoencoders, that address this problem by learning representations that are similar across domains.

  17. Social Representations of Smokers among Smoking Youth

    OpenAIRE

    O V Maslova; V S Tarkhova

    2014-01-01

    The article presents the results of the empirical research of social representations of smoking abuse among smoking young people. The authors reveal gender differences in the representations of smokers and show the role of psychological factors in smoking abuse.

  18. Multiple Interactive Representations for Fractions Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feenstra, Laurens; Aleven, Vincent; Rummel, Nikol; Taatgen, Niels; Aleven,; Kay, J; Mostow, J

    2010-01-01

    Multiple External Representations (MERs) have been used successfully in instructional activities, including fractions However, students often have difficulties making the connections between the MERs spontaneously We argue that interactive fraction representations may help students in discovering

  19. Understanding semantics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Torben

    1997-01-01

    Understanding natural language is a cognitive, information-driven process. Discussing some of the consequences of this fact, the paper offers a novel look at the semantic effect of lexical nouns and the identification of reference types....

  20. Understanding Alzheimer's

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Understanding Alzheimer's Past Issues / Fall 2007 Table of Contents For ... and brain scans. No treatment so far stops Alzheimer's. However, for some in the disease's early and ...

  1. Infant mental health in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toran, Hasnah; Squires, Jane; Lawrence, Karen

    2011-03-01

    The Infant Mental Health system in Malaysia is described, beginning with cultural and religious practices that influence mental health practices. Second, a description of the Malaysian mental health system, including historical influences, is given. Third, policy and services for young children with mental health problems are described. Finally, recommendations for future steps for developing an effective infant mental health system are presented, including the development of infant mental health policies by the government, increased personnel training, increased community mental health resources, integration of culture into the mental health system, and finally, development of appropriate screening and assessment instruments and systems. Copyright © 2011 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  2. Understanding homelessness

    OpenAIRE

    Somerville, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on understanding homelessness. It criticizes approaches that ignore, distort or diminish the humanity of homeless people, or else, add little to our understanding of that humanity. In particular, it rejects what it calls “epidemiological” approaches, which deny the possibility of agency for homeless people, insofar as those approaches view the situation of those people largely as a “social fact”, to be explained in terms of causal variables or “risk factors” ...

  3. Improving of Junior High School Visual Thinking Representation Ability in Mathematical Problem Solving by CTL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surya, Edy; Sabandar, Jozua; Kusumah, Yaya S.; Darhim

    2013-01-01

    The students' difficulty which was found is in the problem of understanding, drawing diagrams, reading the charts correctly, conceptual formal mathematical understanding, and mathematical problem solving. The appropriate problem representation is the basic way in order to understand the problem itself and make a plan to solve it. This research was…

  4. Regularity in mixed-integer convex representability

    OpenAIRE

    Lubin, Miles; Zadik, Ilias; Vielma, Juan Pablo

    2017-01-01

    Characterizations of the sets with mixed integer programming (MIP) formulations using only rational linear inequalities (rational MILP representable) and those with formulations that use arbitrary closed convex constraints (MICP representable) were given by Jeroslow and Lowe (1984), and Lubin, Zadik and Vielma (2017). The latter also showed that even MICP representable subsets of the natural numbers can be more irregular than rational MILP representable ones, unless certain rationality is imp...

  5. Maternal sensitivity and infant response to frustration: the moderating role of EEG asymmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swingler, Margaret M; Perry, Nicole B; Calkins, Susan D; Bell, Martha Ann

    2014-11-01

    Two hundred and thirty-three 5-month-old infants and their mothers participated in a study designed to examine the influence of maternal sensitivity and infant neurophysiology, as well as interactions between these, on infants' regulatory behavior and reactivity to emotional challenge. Maternal sensitivity was measured during two mother-child free-play episodes prior to the challenge task. Infant neurophysiology was derived from a measure of resting EEG asymmetry collected during a baseline episode. Infant regulatory behaviors (mother orienting and distraction) and reactivity to challenge (negative affect) were assessed during an arm restraint procedure. Maternal sensitivity predicted mother-orienting behavior for all infants, regardless of baseline EEG asymmetry. Maternal sensitivity also predicted more distraction behaviors for infants with left frontal EEG asymmetry at baseline. In contrast, maternal sensitivity predicted more negative affect for infants with right frontal EEG asymmetry at baseline. These findings lend support for the hypothesis that maternal sensitivity and infant neurophysiological functioning interact to predict regulatory behavior and reactivity and are discussed in terms of the significance for understanding infant regulatory development in the first year of life. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Acute kidney injury in ELBW infants (grams) and its associated risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcinue, R; Kantak, A; Elkhwad, M

    2015-01-01

    The advancement of neonatology over the past 20 years has allowed a greater number of ELBW infants to survive. However, these advancements have contributed to the increased incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) seen in this population. Understanding the risk factors for AKI in this population of ELBW infants is imperative for the successful survival of these infants since the morbidity and mortality rates from this disease are increasing. 1) to determine the prevalence of AKI in ELBW (grams). 2) to compare the mortality rate of ELBW infants (grams) with and without AKI; and 3) to identify the associated risk factors of AKI in ELBW infants (grams). A retrospective chart review of all infants with AKI as defined by AKIN criterias, admitted to the NICU between 1998 and 2008 was conducted. Case-controls were matched for BW, gestational age and date of birth, (SPSS v17.0 software, using Student's t test, X2 test, and Mann-Whitney U test were used for statistical analysis. The prevalence rate of ELBW infants (grams) with AKI admitted at CHMCA NICU from 1998 to 2008 was 26% . The mortality rate of ELBW infants (grams) with AKI was 54% , compared to 20% in those ELBW infants who did not have AKI. The associated risk factors of AKI in the ELBW infants (grams) were as follows: presence of maternal placental abruption/bleeding, grade III or IV IVH, PDA, positive culture/s, NEC, use of steroid, nephrotoxic drugs, and longer use of the ventilator and TPN.

  7. Berry phase in Heisenberg representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreev, V. A.; Klimov, Andrei B.; Lerner, Peter B.

    1994-01-01

    We define the Berry phase for the Heisenberg operators. This definition is motivated by the calculation of the phase shifts by different techniques. These techniques are: the solution of the Heisenberg equations of motion, the solution of the Schrodinger equation in coherent-state representation, and the direct computation of the evolution operator. Our definition of the Berry phase in the Heisenberg representation is consistent with the underlying supersymmetry of the model in the following sense. The structural blocks of the Hamiltonians of supersymmetrical quantum mechanics ('superpairs') are connected by transformations which conserve the similarity in structure of the energy levels of superpairs. These transformations include transformation of phase of the creation-annihilation operators, which are generated by adiabatic cyclic evolution of the parameters of the system.

  8. [Menopause: social and practical representations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelcastre-Villafuerte, B; Garrido-Latorre, F; de León-Reyes, V

    2001-01-01

    To characterize the meanings attributed to menopause, as a first approximation to the representational world of this event. A qualitative study was conducted between September and October 1998, in twenty women aged 45-65 years, residents of Cuernavaca and Emiliano Zapata, municipalities of Morelos state, Mexico. Twenty in-depth interviews were conducted using a guide, to collect data on sociodemographic variables, diagnosis, feelings and emotions, changes in life style, and physiological changes. Findings show that menopause is represented as the end of fertility and the beginning of old age. Characterization of menopause is related to womanhood, body, and sexuality representations. This paper analyzes women's practices related to life experiences such as medical visits. Implications of these findings are discussed using the social construction of meanings framework.

  9. Time representations in social science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Yvan

    2012-01-01

    Time has long been a major topic of study in social science, as in other sciences or in philosophy. Social scientists have tended to focus on collective representations of time, and on the ways in which these representations shape our everyday experiences. This contribution addresses work from such disciplines as anthropology, sociology and history. It focuses on several of the main theories that have preoccupied specialists in social science, such as the alleged “acceleration” of life and overgrowth of the present in contemporary Western societies, or the distinction between so-called linear and circular conceptions of time. The presentation of these theories is accompanied by some of the critiques they have provoked, in order to enable the reader to form her or his own opinion of them. PMID:23393420

  10. Representation theory of finite monoids

    CERN Document Server

    Steinberg, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    This first text on the subject provides a comprehensive introduction to the representation theory of finite monoids. Carefully worked examples and exercises provide the bells and whistles for graduate accessibility, bringing a broad range of advanced readers to the forefront of research in the area. Highlights of the text include applications to probability theory, symbolic dynamics, and automata theory. Comfort with module theory, a familiarity with ordinary group representation theory, and the basics of Wedderburn theory, are prerequisites for advanced graduate level study. Researchers in algebra, algebraic combinatorics, automata theory, and probability theory, will find this text enriching with its thorough presentation of applications of the theory to these fields. Prior knowledge of semigroup theory is not expected for the diverse readership that may benefit from this exposition. The approach taken in this book is highly module-theoretic and follows the modern flavor of the theory of finite dimensional ...

  11. Children's Learning from Touch Screens: A Dual Representation Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Kelly J; Uttal, David H

    2016-01-01

    Parents and educators often expect that children will learn from touch screen devices, such as during joint e-book reading. Therefore an essential question is whether young children understand that the touch screen can be a symbolic medium - that entities represented on the touch screen can refer to entities in the real world. Research on symbolic development suggests that symbolic understanding requires that children develop dual representational abilities, meaning children need to appreciate that a symbol is an object in itself (i.e., picture of a dog) while also being a representation of something else (i.e., the real dog). Drawing on classic research on symbols and new research on children's learning from touch screens, we offer the perspective that children's ability to learn from the touch screen as a symbolic medium depends on the effect of interactivity on children's developing dual representational abilities. Although previous research on dual representation suggests the interactive nature of the touch screen might make it difficult for young children to use as a symbolic medium, the unique interactive affordances may help alleviate this difficulty. More research needs to investigate how the interactivity of the touch screen affects children's ability to connect the symbols on the screen to the real world. Given the interactive nature of the touch screen, researchers and educators should consider both the affordances of the touch screen as well as young children's cognitive abilities when assessing whether young children can learn from it as a symbolic medium.

  12. Computing Visible-Surface Representations,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-03-01

    Terzopoulos N00014-75-C-0643 9. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AMC ADDRESS 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJECT, TASK Artificial Inteligence Laboratory AREA A...Massachusetts Institute of lechnolog,. Support lbr the laboratory’s Artificial Intelligence research is provided in part by the Advanced Rtccarcl Proj...dynamically maintaining visible surface representations. Whether the intention is to model human vision or to design competent artificial vision systems

  13. Temporal Representation in Semantic Graphs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levandoski, J J; Abdulla, G M

    2007-08-07

    A wide range of knowledge discovery and analysis applications, ranging from business to biological, make use of semantic graphs when modeling relationships and concepts. Most of the semantic graphs used in these applications are assumed to be static pieces of information, meaning temporal evolution of concepts and relationships are not taken into account. Guided by the need for more advanced semantic graph queries involving temporal concepts, this paper surveys the existing work involving temporal representations in semantic graphs.

  14. SAR Image Complex Pixel Representations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Complex pixel values for Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images of uniform distributed clutter can be represented as either real/imaginary (also known as I/Q) values, or as Magnitude/Phase values. Generally, these component values are integers with limited number of bits. For clutter energy well below full-scale, Magnitude/Phase offers lower quantization noise than I/Q representation. Further improvement can be had with companding of the Magnitude value.

  15. Know Concentration Before Giving Acetaminophen to Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Know Concentration Before Giving Acetaminophen to Infants Share Tweet Linkedin ... infants has only been available in a stronger concentration that doesn’t require giving the infants as ...

  16. Elimination Problems in Infants and Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Infants and Children Chest Pain, Acute Chest Pain, Chronic Cold and Flu Cough Diarrhea Ear Problems Elimination Problems Elimination Problems in Infants and Children Eye Problems Facial Swelling Feeding Problems in Infants ...

  17. Nausea and Vomiting in Infants and Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Infants and Children Chest Pain, Acute Chest Pain, Chronic Cold and Flu Cough Diarrhea Ear Problems Elimination Problems Elimination Problems in Infants and Children Eye Problems Facial Swelling Feeding Problems in Infants ...

  18. Infant fMRI: A Model System for Cognitive Neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Cameron T; Turk-Browne, Nicholas B

    2018-02-24

    Our understanding of the typical human brain has benefitted greatly from studying different kinds of brains and their associated behavioral repertoires, including animal models and neuropsychological patients. This same comparative perspective can be applied to early development - the environment, behavior, and brains of infants provide a model system for understanding how the mature brain works. This approach requires noninvasive methods for measuring brain function in awake, behaving infants. fMRI is becoming increasingly viable for this purpose, with the unique ability to precisely measure the entire brain, including both cortical and subcortical structures. Here we discuss potential lessons from infant fMRI for several domains of adult cognition and consider the challenges of conducting such research and how they might be mitigated. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Undoing Racism Through Genesee County's REACH Infant Mortality Reduction Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Daniel J; Carty, Denise C; Turbeville, Ashley R; French-Turner, Tonya M; Brownlee, Shannon

    2015-01-01

    Genesee County Racial and Ethnic Approaches to Community Health Program (REACH) is a Community-Based Public Health partnership for reducing African American infant mortality rates that hosts the Undoing Racism Workshop (URW). Assess the URW's effectiveness in promoting an understanding of racism, institutional racism, and how issues related to race/ethnicity can affect maternal and infant health. Recent URW participants (n=84) completed brief preassessment and postassessment forms; participants (n=101) also completed an on-line, long-term assessment (LTA). URWs promoted understanding of racism and institutional racism, although they were less effective in addressing racism as related to maternal and infant health. The URWs were most effective in the domains related to their standard content. Additional effort is necessary to customize URWs when utilized for activities beyond their original purpose of community mobilization.

  20. Aligning computer and human visual representations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramakrishnan, K.

    2017-01-01

    Both computer vision and human visual system target the same goal: to accomplish visual tasks easily via a set of representations. In this thesis, we study to what extent representations from computer vision models align to human visual representations. To study this research question we used an

  1. Facilitating Mathematical Practices through Visual Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Aki; Stewart, Chana

    2017-01-01

    Effective use of mathematical representation is key to supporting student learning. In "Principles to Actions: Ensuring Mathematical Success for All" (NCTM 2014), "use and connect mathematical representations" is one of the effective Mathematics Teaching Practices. By using different representations, students examine concepts…

  2. 29 CFR 4003.6 - Representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Representation. 4003.6 Section 4003.6 Labor Regulations... OF AGENCY DECISIONS General Provisions § 4003.6 Representation. A person may file any document or... of attorney, signed by the person making the designation, which authorizes the representation and...

  3. 76 FR 37291 - Representation Case Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-27

    ... BOARD 29 CFR Parts 101, 102, 103 RIN 3142-AAO8 Representation Case Procedures AGENCY: National Labor... amendments to the Board's rules governing representation case procedures, published at 76 FR 15307 (June 22, 2011) and make other proposals for improving representation case procedures. DATES: The meeting will be...

  4. 75 FR 32273 - Representation Election Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ... 29 CFR Parts 1202 and 1206 RIN 3140-ZA00 Representation Election Procedure AGENCY: National Mediation... delaying the effective date of its rule regarding representation election procedures from June 10, 2010 to... Representation Election Procedure Rule have been made. The NMB will notify participants if there are any further...

  5. 46 CFR 401.615 - Representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Representation. 401.615 Section 401.615 Shipping COAST... Representation. (a) The U.S. Registered Pilot, designated “respondent” in a suspension or revocation hearing or... a representation that under the provisions of this subpart and applicable law he is authorized and...

  6. 45 CFR 1613.4 - Authorized representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Authorized representation. 1613.4 Section 1613.4... ON LEGAL ASSISTANCE WITH RESPECT TO CRIMINAL PROCEEDINGS § 1613.4 Authorized representation. Legal... professional responsibility requires representation in a criminal proceeding arising out of a transaction with...

  7. 28 CFR 4.9 - Representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Representation. 4.9 Section 4.9 Judicial... OF 1974 § 4.9 Representation. The applicant may be represented before the Commission by any person... constitute a representation to the Commission that under the provisions of this part and applicable law he is...

  8. 33 CFR 20.301 - Representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Representation. 20.301 Section 20... Motions § 20.301 Representation. (a) A party may appear— (1) Without counsel; (2) With an attorney; or (3... United States. A personal representation of membership is sufficient proof, unless the ALJ orders more...

  9. 4 CFR 28.25 - Representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Representation. 28.25 Section 28.25 Accounts GOVERNMENT... Parties, Practitioners and Witnesses § 28.25 Representation. (a) All parties to a petition may be..., in the petition or responsive pleading. Any subsequent changes in representation shall also be in...

  10. 27 CFR 71.30 - Personal representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Personal representation. 71.30 Section 71.30 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... General Representation at Hearings § 71.30 Personal representation. Any individual or member of a...

  11. 76 FR 72368 - Representation Case Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-23

    ...-AAO8 Representation Case Procedures AGENCY: National Labor Relations Board. ACTION: Proposed rule... of petitions relating to the representation of employees for purposes of collective bargaining with... to the Board's rules governing representation-case procedures. A copy of the NPRM may also be...

  12. Shekgalagari stops and theories of phonological representation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this paper is to present some aspects of stop consonants, e.g. voice onset time (VOT) and F0 perturbation, and also to present phonological theories of stop representation in order to examine matters of Shekgalagari stop production and phonological representation. Of the phonological representation theories ...

  13. 7 CFR 917.15 - Representation area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Representation area. 917.15 Section 917.15 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 917.15 Representation area. Representation area means any...

  14. 12 CFR 704.14 - Representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Representation. 704.14 Section 704.14 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS CORPORATE CREDIT UNIONS § 704.14 Representation. (a) Board representation. The board will be determined as stipulated in its...

  15. 24 CFR 180.305 - Representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Representation. 180.305 Section 180... Representation. (a) HUD is represented by the General Counsel. (b) Any party may appear on his/her/its own behalf... State. The attorney's representation that he/she is in good standing before any of these courts is...

  16. 37 CFR 350.2 - Representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Representation. 350.2 Section... ROYALTY JUDGES RULES AND PROCEDURES GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS § 350.2 Representation. Individual... representation that the attorney is a member of the bar, in one or more states, in good standing. ...

  17. 29 CFR 18.34 - Representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Representation. 18.34 Section 18.34 Labor Office of the... ADMINISTRATIVE LAW JUDGES General § 18.34 Representation. (a) Appearances. Any party shall have the right to... own representation that he or she is in good standing before any of such courts shall be sufficient...

  18. Representing some non-representable matroids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.H.M. van Zwam (Stefan); R. Pendavingh

    2011-01-01

    htmlabstractWe extend the notion of representation of a matroid to algebraic structures that we call skew partial fields. Our definition of such representations extends Tutte's definition, using chain groups. We show how such representations behave under duality and minors, we extend Tutte's

  19. Symbol Systems and Pictorial Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diederich, Joachim; Wright, Susan

    All problem-solvers are subject to the same ultimate constraints -- limitations on space, time, and materials (Minsky, 1985). He introduces two principles: (1) Economics: Every intelligence must develop symbol-systems for representing objects, causes and goals, and (2) Sparseness: Every evolving intelligence will eventually encounter certain very special ideas -- e.g., about arithmetic, causal reasoning, and economics -- because these particular ideas are very much simpler than other ideas with similar uses. An extra-terrestrial intelligence (ETI) would have developed symbol systems to express these ideas and would have the capacity of multi-modal processing. Vakoch (1998) states that ...``ETI may rely significantly on other sensory modalities (than vision). Particularly useful representations would be ones that may be intelligible through more than one sensory modality. For instance, the information used to create a three-dimensional representation of an object might be intelligible to ETI heavily reliant on either visual or tactile sensory processes.'' The cross-modal representations Vakoch (1998) describes and the symbol systems Minsky (1985) proposes are called ``metaphors'' when combined. Metaphors allow for highly efficient communication. Metaphors are compact, condensed ways of expressing an idea: words, sounds, gestures or images are used in novel ways to refer to something they do not literally denote. Due to the importance of Minsky's ``economics'' principle, it is therefore possible that a message heavily relies on metaphors.

  20. Deformation Based Curved Shape Representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demisse, Girum G; Aouada, Djamila; Ottersten, Bjorn

    2017-06-02

    In this paper, we introduce a deformation based representation space for curved shapes in Rn. Given an ordered set of points sampled from a curved shape, the proposed method represents the set as an element of a finite dimensional matrix Lie group. Variation due to scale and location are filtered in a preprocessing stage, while shapes that vary only in rotation are identified by an equivalence relationship. The use of a finite dimensional matrix Lie group leads to a similarity metric with an explicit geodesic solution. Subsequently, we discuss some of the properties of the metric and its relationship with a deformation by least action. Furthermore, invariance to reparametrization or estimation of point correspondence between shapes is formulated as an estimation of sampling function. Thereafter, two possible approaches are presented to solve the point correspondence estimation problem. Finally, we propose an adaptation of k-means clustering for shape analysis in the proposed representation space. Experimental results show that the proposed representation is robust to uninformative cues, e.g. local shape perturbation and displacement. In comparison to state of the art methods, it achieves a high precision on the Swedish and the Flavia leaf datasets and a comparable result on MPEG-7, Kimia99 and Kimia216 datasets.