WorldWideScience

Sample records for understand health related

  1. Applying social theory to understand health-related behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Daniel; Borgstrom, Erica

    2016-06-01

    Health-related behaviours are a concern for contemporary health policy and practice given their association with a range of illness outcomes. Many of the policies and interventions aimed at changing health-related behaviours assume that people are more or less free to choose their behaviour and how they experience health. Within sociology and anthropology, these behaviours are viewed not as acts of choice but as actions and practices situated within a larger sociocultural context. In this paper, we outline three theoretical perspectives useful in understanding behaviours that may influence one's health in this wider context: theories of social practice, social networks and interactionism. We argue that by better understanding how health-related behaviours are performed in people's everyday lives, more suitable interventions and clinical management can be developed. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  2. Understanding Health and Health-Related Behavior of Users of Internet Health Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimble, Matt

    2016-10-01

    Little is known about how actual use of Internet health-related information is associated with health or health-related behavior. Using a nationally representative sample of 34,525 from 2012, this study examined the demographics of users of Internet health-related information (users), reports estimates of association with several health and behavioral outcomes adjusting for demographic factors, and analyzed the sample by education level, race, gender, and age. Analysis of a large nationally representative sample shows evidence that users of health-related information (users) on the Internet are younger, more educated, more likely to be insured, more likely to be female, and less likely to be African American. After adjusting for demographic differences, users are more likely to have been diagnosed with hypertension, cancer, stroke, and high cholesterol, but no evidence of current hypertension, weight-related issues, or being in fair or poor health. Users are less likely to smoke and among smokers are more likely to attempt quitting. Users are more likely to exercise, get a flu shot, pap smear, mammogram, HIV test, colon cancer screening, blood pressure check, and cholesterol check, but likely to be heavy drinkers. With few exceptions, results appear robust across gender, age groups, level of education, and ethnicity. Use is generally positively associated with prior diagnosis for several conditions and behaviors related to improved health, but I find no relationship with existing health status. The association between use of health-related Internet information and health-related behavior seems robust across levels of education, age, gender, and race.

  3. Understanding men's health and illness: a gender-relations approach to policy, research, and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, T; Connell, R W; Walker, L; Wood, J F; Butland, D L

    2000-05-01

    Men's health has emerged as an important public concern that may require new kinds of healthcare interventions and increased resources. Considerable uncertainty and confusion surround prevailing understandings of men's health, particularly those generated by media debate and public policy, and health research has often operated on oversimplified assumptions about men and masculinity. A more useful way of understanding men's health is to adopt a gender-relations approach. This means examining health concerns in the context of men's and women's interactions with each other, and their positions in the larger, multidimensional structure of gender relations. Such an approach raises the issue of differences among men, which is a key issue in recent research on masculinity and an important health issue. The gender-relations approach offers new ways of addressing practical issues of healthcare for men in college environments.

  4. Mediation, moderation, and context: Understanding complex relations among cognition, affect, and health behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiviniemi, Marc T; Ellis, Erin M; Hall, Marissa G; Moss, Jennifer L; Lillie, Sarah E; Brewer, Noel T; Klein, William M P

    2018-01-01

    Researchers have historically treated cognition and affect as separate constructs in motivating health behaviour. We present a framework and empirical evidence for complex relations between cognition and affect in predicting health behaviour. Main Outcome, Design and Results: First, affect and cognition can mediate each other's relation to health behaviour. Second, affect and cognition can moderate the other's impact. Third, context can change the interplay of affect and cognition. Fourth, affect and cognition may be indelibly fused in some psychological constructs (e.g. worry, anticipated regret and reactance). These four propositions in our framework are not mutually exclusive. Examination of the types of complex relations described here can benefit theory development, empirical testing of theories and intervention design. Doing so will advance the understanding of mechanisms involved in regulation of health behaviours and the effectiveness of interventions to change health behaviours.

  5. Understanding adolescent mental health: the influence of social processes, doing gender and gendered power relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landstedt, Evelina; Asplund, Kenneth; Gillander Gådin, Katja

    2009-11-01

    Despite a well-documented gender pattern in adolescent mental health, research investigating possible explanatory factors from a gender-theoretical approach is scarce. This paper reports a grounded theory study based on 29 focus groups. The aim was to explore 16- to 19-year-old students' perceptions of what is significant for mental health, and to apply a gender analysis to the findings in order to advance understanding of the gender pattern in adolescent mental health. Significant factors were identified in three social processes categories, including both positive and negative aspects: (1) social interactions, (2) performance and (3) responsibility. Girls more often experienced negative aspects of these processes, placing them at greater risk for mental health problems. Boys' more positive mental health appeared to be associated with their low degree of responsibility-taking and beneficial positions relative to girls. Negotiating cultural norms of femininity and masculinity seemed to be more strenuous for girls, which could place them at a disadvantage with regard to mental health. Social factors and processes (particularly responsibility), gendered power relations and constructions of masculinities and femininities should be acknowledged as important for adolescent mental health.

  6. Understanding the relationship of long working hours with health status and health-related behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artazcoz, L; Cortès, I; Escribà-Agüir, V; Cascant, L; Villegas, R

    2009-07-01

    The objectives of this study are to identify family and job characteristics associated with long work hours, to analyse the relationship between long work hours and several health indicators, and to examine whether gender differences for both objectives exist. The sample was composed of all salaried workers aged 16-64 years (3950 men and 3153 women) interviewed in the 2006 Catalonian Health Survey. Weekly work hours were categorised as less than 30 h (part-time), 30-40 (reference category), 41-50 and 51-60 h. Multiple logistic regression models separated by sex were fitted. Factors associated with long working hours differed by gender. Among men, extended work hours were related with being married or cohabiting and with being separated or divorced. In men, working 51-60 h a week was consistently associated with poor mental health status (aOR 2.06, 95% CI 1.31 to 3.24), self-reported hypertension (aOR 1.60, 95% CI 1.12 to 2.29), job dissatisfaction (aOR 2.05, 95% CI 1.49 to 2.82), smoking (aOR 1.33, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.72), shortage of sleep (aOR 1.42, 95% CI 1.09 to 1.85) and no leisure-time physical activity (aOR 2.43, 95% CI 1.64 to 3.60). Moreover, a gradient from standard working hours to 51-60 h a week was found for these six outcomes. Among women it was only related to smoking and to shortage of sleep. The association of overtime with different health indicators among men could be explained by their role as the family breadwinner: in situations of family financial stress men work overtime in order to increase the income and/or accept poor working conditions for fear of job loss, one of them being long working hours.

  7. Health-related claims on food labels in Australia: understanding environmental health officers' roles and implications for policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condon-Paoloni, Deanne; Yeatman, Heather R; Grigonis-Deane, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Health and related claims on food labels can support consumer education initiatives that encourage purchase of healthier foods. A new food Standard on Nutrition, Health and Related Claims became law in January 2013. Implementation will need careful monitoring and enforcement to ensure that claims are truthful and have meaning. The current study explored factors that may impact on environmental health officers' food labelling policy enforcement practices. The study used a mixed-methods approach, using two previously validated quantitative questionnaire instruments that provided measures of the level of control that the officers exercised over their work, as well as qualitative, semi-structured, in-depth interviews. Local government; Australia. Thirty-seven officers in three Australian states participated in semi-structured in-depth interviews, as well as completing the quantitative questionnaires. Senior and junior officers, including field officers, participated in the study. The officers reported a high level of autonomy and control of their work, but also a heavy workload, dominated by concerns for public health and food safety, with limited time for monitoring food labels. Compliance of labels with proposed health claims regulations was not considered a priority. Lipsky's theory of street-level bureaucracy was used to enhance understanding of officers' work practices. Competing priorities affect environmental health officers' monitoring and enforcement of regulations. Understanding officers' work practices and their perceptions of enforcement is important to increase effectiveness of policy implementation and hence its capacity to augment education initiatives to optimize health benefits.

  8. Children's understanding of cancer and views on health-related behaviour: a 'draw and write' study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knighting, K; Rowa-Dewar, N; Malcolm, C; Kearney, N; Gibson, F

    2011-03-01

    Few studies have explored young children's understanding of cancer and health-related behaviours yet this is essential to develop health promotion initiatives that build on young children's current knowledge levels and awareness. An exploratory descriptive design using the 'draw and write' technique was used to investigate children's views of cancer and health behaviours. The sample included 195 children aged eight to 11 years from five schools in deprived, affluent and rural locations in Scotland. When asked about cancer children demonstrated a good level of awareness by responding with text and drawings about the what they understood cancer to be; types of cancer; causes of cancer; what happens to people who have cancer; their personal experience of cancer and the emotions they associated with cancer. Older children, and children attending affluent schools, have more defined ideas about the causes of cancer and awareness of broader issues such as the risk of passive smoking or the potential impact on the family. Factors such as alcohol and illegal drugs were only reported by children attending schools in deprived locations. Children demonstrated considerable knowledge about healthy and unhealthy lifestyle behaviours; however, it is not clear whether this knowledge translates into their behaviours or the choices offered within their home environment. Children view cancer in a negative way from an early age, even without personal experience. There is a need to demystify cancer in terms of its causes, how to recognize it, how it is treated and to publicize improved survival rates. There is a need for targeted and developmentally appropriate approaches to be taken to health education in schools, with an awareness of the influence of the media on children's information. Strategies should take into consideration the socio-economic and cultural contexts of children's lives which influence their choices and behaviours. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Understanding health insurance plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000879.htm Understanding health insurance plans To use the sharing features on this ... plan for you and your family. Types of Health Insurance Plans Depending on how you get your health ...

  10. Challenging the myth of the irrational dairy farmer; understanding decision-making related to herd health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, E; Jakobsen, E B

    2011-01-01

    Veterinarians working with dairy cows are suggested to refocus their efforts from being task-oriented providers of single-cow therapy and develop themselves into advice-oriented herd health management advisors. The practising cattle veterinarian's ability to translate knowledge into on-farm application requires a profound understanding of the dairy farm as an integrated system. Consequently, educating and motivating farmers are key issues. To achieve such insight the veterinarian needs to work with several scientific disciplines, especially epidemiology and (behavioural) economics. This trans-disciplinary approach offers new methodological possibilities and challenges to students of dairy herd health management. Advisors working with dairy herd health management may sometimes experience that farmers do not follow their advice. Potentially, this could lead to the interpretation that such farmers are behaving irrationally. However, farmers who are confronted with advice suggesting a change of behaviour are placed in a state of cognitive dissonance. To solve such dissonance they may either comply with the advice or reduce the dissonance by convincing themselves that the suggested change in management is impossible to implement. Consequently, herd health management advisors must understand the fundamental and instrumental relationships between individual farmers' values, behaviour and perception of risk, to stimulate and qualify the farmer's decision-making in a way that will increase the farmer's satisfaction and subjective well-being. Traditionally, studies on herd health economics have focussed on financial methods to measure the value of technical outcomes from suggested changes in management, following the basic assumption that farmers strive to maximise profit. Farmers, however, may be motivated by very different activities, e.g. animal health and welfare or other farmers' recognition, making it impossible to provide 'one-size-fts-all' consultancy because the

  11. Explanatory models of black lung: understanding the health-related behavior of Appalachian coal miners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedl, J

    1982-03-01

    Many retired coal miners who are eligible for care in a black lung treatment center at little or no cost to themselves do not enter into available programs or discontinue soon after beginning therapy. Reasons for this behavior are related to the prevalent beliefs among Appalachians concerning the course of black lung and the appropriate treatment for it. The miners' health beliefs are clearly at odds with those of the health care providers who work in the centers. Using the concept of explanatory model, popular and professional health cultures are analyzed, focusing on course of disease, sick role, appropriate treatment, and expected outcome. Differences in explanatory models are discussed with regard to implications for the organization and delivery of care to retired coal miners with black lung.

  12. Application of high-throughput sequencing in understanding human oral microbiome related with health and disease

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Hui; Jiang, Wen

    2014-01-01

    The oral microbiome is one of most diversity habitat in the human body and they are closely related with oral health and disease. As the technique developing,, high throughput sequencing has become a popular approach applied for oral microbial analysis. Oral bacterial profiles have been studied to explore the relationship between microbial diversity and oral diseases such as caries and periodontal disease. This review describes the application of high-throughput sequencing for characterizati...

  13. Towards understanding oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaura, Egija; ten Cate, Jacob M

    2015-01-01

    During the last century, dental research has focused on unraveling the mechanisms behind various oral pathologies, while oral health was typically described as the mere absence of oral diseases. The term 'oral microbial homeostasis' is used to describe the capacity of the oral ecosystem to maintain microbial community stability in health. However, the oral ecosystem itself is not stable: throughout life an individual undergoes multiple physiological changes while progressing through infancy, childhood, adolescence, adulthood and old age. Recent discussions on the definition of general health have led to the proposal that health is the ability of the individual to adapt to physiological changes, a condition known as allostasis. In this paper the allostasis principle is applied to the oral ecosystem. The multidimensionality of the host factors contributing to allostasis in the oral cavity is illustrated with an example on changes occurring in puberty. The complex phenomenon of oral health and the processes that prevent the ecosystem from collapsing during allostatic changes in the entire body are far from being understood. As yet individual components (e.g. hard tissues, microbiome, saliva, host response) have been investigated, while only by consolidating these and assessing their multidimensional interactions should we be able to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the ecosystem, which in turn could serve to develop rational schemes to maintain health. Adapting such a 'system approach' comes with major practical challenges for the entire research field and will require vast resources and large-scale multidisciplinary collaborations. 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel

  14. Health Equity Talk: Understandings of Health Equity among Health Leaders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadette M. Pauly

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Reducing health inequities is a stated goal of health systems worldwide. There is widespread commitment to health equity among public health leaders and calls for reorientation of health systems towards health equity. As part of the Equity Lens in Public Health (ELPH program of research, public health decision makers and researchers in British Columbia collaborated to study the application of a health equity lens in a time of health system renewal. We drew on intersectionality, complexity and critical social justice theories to understand how participants construct health equity and apply a health equity lens as part of public health renewal. Methods: 15 focus groups and 16 individual semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with 55 health system leaders. Data were analyzed using constant comparative analysis to explore how health equity was constructed in relation to understandings and actions. Results: Four main themes were identified in terms of how health care leaders construct health equity and actions to reduce health inequities: (1 population health, (2 determinants of health, and (3 accessibility and (4 challenges of health equity talk. The first three aspects of health equity talk reflect different understandings of health equity rooted in vulnerability (individual versus structural, determinants of health (material versus social determinants, and appropriate health system responses (targeted versus universal responses. Participants identified that talking about health equity in the health care system, either inside or outside of public health, is a ‘challenging conversation’ because health equity is understood in diverse ways and there is little guidance available to apply a health equity lens. Conclusions: These findings reflect the importance of creating a shared understanding of health equity within public health systems, and providing guidance and clarity as to the meaning and application of a health

  15. Understanding the Determinants of Health-Related Quality of Life in Rheumatoid Arthritis-Associated Interstitial Lung Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natalini, Jake G.; Swigris, Jeff J.; Morisset, Julie; Elicker, Brett M.; Jones, Kirk D.; Fischer, Aryeh; Collard, Harold R.; Lee, Joyce S.

    2017-01-01

    Rationale Health-related quality of life (HRQL) is impaired among patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD). Little is understood about HRQL in specific subtypes of ILD. Objectives The aim of this study was to characterize and identify clinical determinants of HRQL among patients with rheumatoid arthritis-associated interstitial lung disease (RA-ILD) and compare them to patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Methods We identified patients with a diagnosis of RA-ILD and IPF from an ongoing longitudinal cohort of ILD patients. HRQL was measured at their baseline visit using the Short Form Health Survey (SF-36), versions 1 and 2. Regression models were used to characterize and understand the relationship between selected baseline clinical covariates, the physical component score (PCS) and mental component score (MCS) of the SF-36. Measurements and Main Results RA-ILD patients (n=50) were more likely to be younger and female compared to IPF patients (n=50). After controlling for age and pulmonary function, RA-ILD patients had a lower HRQL compared to IPF patients, as measured by the PCS (P=0.03), with significant differences in two of four PCS domains – bodily pain (P<0.01) and general health (P=0.01). Clinical covariates most strongly associated with a lower PCS in RA-ILD patients compared to IPF patients were the presence of joint pain or stiffness and dyspnea severity (P<0.01). Mental and emotional health, as measured by the MCS, was similar between RA-ILD and IPF patients. Conclusion The physical components of HRQL appear worse in RA-ILD patients compared to IPF patients as measured by the PCS of the SF-36. Differences in the PCS of the SF-36 can be explained in part by dyspnea severity and joint symptoms among patients with RA-ILD. PMID:28502413

  16. Towards understanding oral health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaura, E.; ten Cate, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    During the last century, dental research has focused on unraveling the mechanisms behind various oral pathologies, while oral health was typically described as the mere absence of oral diseases. The term ‘oral microbial homeostasis' is used to describe the capacity of the oral ecosystem to maintain

  17. Pictorial Health Warning Label Content and Smokers' Understanding of Smoking-Related Risks--A Cross-Country Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swayampakala, Kamala; Thrasher, James F.; Hammond, David; Yong, Hua-Hie; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Krugman, Dean; Brown, Abraham; Borland, Ron; Hardin, James

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess smokers' level of agreement with smoking-related risks and toxic tobacco constituents relative to inclusion of these topics on health warning labels (HWLs). 1000 adult smokers were interviewed between 2012 and 2013 from online consumer panels of adult smokers from each of the three countries: Australia…

  18. Pictorial health warning label content and smokers’ understanding of smoking-related risks—a cross-country comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Swayampakala, Kamala; Thrasher, James F.; Hammond, David; Yong, Hua-Hie; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Krugman, Dean; Brown, Abraham; Borland, Ron; Hardin, James

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess smokers’ level of agreement with smoking-related risks and toxic tobacco constituents relative to inclusion of these topics on health warning labels (HWLs). 1000 adult smokers were interviewed between 2012 and 2013 from online consumer panels of adult smokers from each of the three countries: Australia (AU), Canada (CA) and Mexico (MX). Generalized estimating equation models were estimated to compare agreement with smoking-related risks and toxic tob...

  19. Understanding Leisure-related Program Effects by Using Process Data in the HealthWise South Africa Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Linda L; Younker, Anita S; Wegner, Lisa; Patrick, Megan E; Vergnani, Tania; Smith, Edward A; Flisher, Alan J

    2008-01-01

    As the push for evidence-based programming gathers momentum, many human services programs and interventions are under increased scrutiny to justify their effectiveness across different conditions and populations. Government agencies and the public want to be assured that their resources are being put to good use on programs that are effective and efficient (Guskey, 2000). Thus, programs are increasingly based on theory and evaluated through randomized control trials using longitudinal data. Despite this progress, hypothesized outcomes are often not detected and/or their effect sizes are small (Gingiss, Roberts-Gray, Boerm, 2006). Moreover, findings may go against intuition or "gut feelings" on the part of project staff. Given the need to understand how program implementation issues relate to outcomes, this study focuses on whether process measures that focus on program implementation and fidelity can shed light on associated outcomes. In particular, we linked the process evaluation of the HealthWise motivation lesson with outcomes across four waves of data collection. We hypothesized that HealthWise would increase learners' intrinsic and identified forms of motivation, and decrease amotivation and extrinsic motivation. We did not hypothesize a direction of effects on introjected motivation due to its conceptual ambiguity. Data came from youth in four intervention schools (n = 902, 41.1%) and five control schools (n = 1291, 58.9%) who were participating in a multi-cohort, longitudinal study. The schools were in a township near Cape Town, South Africa. For each cohort, baseline data are collected on learners as they begin Grade 8. We currently have four waves of data collected on the first cohort, which is the focus of this paper. The mean age of the sample at Wave 3 was 15.0 years (SD = .86) and 51% of students were female. Results suggested that there was evidence of an overall program effect of the curriculum on amotivation regardless of fidelity of implementation

  20. Health Insurance: Understanding Your Health Plan's Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to know what your insurance company is paying…Health Insurance: Understanding What It CoversRead Article >>Insurance & BillsHealth Insurance: Understanding What It CoversYour insurance policy lists a package of medical benefits such as tests, drugs, and treatment services. These ...

  1. Understanding your health care costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/patientinstructions/000878.htm Understanding your health care costs To use the sharing features on this page, ... on out-of-pocket costs. Out-of-Pocket Costs The good news is there is a limit ...

  2. Understanding domains of health-related quality of life concerns of Singapore Chinese patients with advanced cancer: a qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, G L; Pang, G S Y; Akhileswaran, R; Ow, M Y L; Fan, G K T; Wong, C C F; Wee, H L; Cheung, Y B

    2016-03-01

    Quality of life concerns in patients with advanced diseases might be different from other patients and are shaped by sociocultural context. The objective of this qualitative study was to identify domains and themes of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) that Chinese patients with advanced cancer in Singapore considered relevant and important. English- and Chinese-speaking patients with advanced solid cancer were recruited from a tertiary cancer center and a community-based hospice for in-depth interview or focused group discussion. Thematic analysis was used to identify subthemes, themes, and domains from the transcripts. Forty-six ethnic Chinese (aged 26-86, 48% male) participated in the study. Six domains of HRQoL concerns were identified: pain and suffering, physical health, social health, mental health, financial well-being, and spiritual health. Pain and suffering are not limited to the physical domain, reflecting the multidimensional nature of this concept. Pain and suffering must also be understood within the cultural context. Healthcare relations (i.e., social health), existential well-being and religious well-being (i.e., spiritual health), and suffering (i.e., pain and suffering) are not fully captured in the existing HRQoL instruments. In addition, financial issues and the practice of secrecy in interpersonal relationships emerged as unique features possibly arising from our sociocultural context and healthcare financing landscape. Socioculturally specific issues not measured by the existing HRQoL instruments for use in patients with advanced cancers or terminal diseases were found in our study. These are non-physical pain and suffering, meaning of illness, meaning of death, financial issues, and practice of secrecy in interpersonal relationships.

  3. Experiencing 'pathologized presence and normalized absence'; understanding health related experiences and access to health care among Iraqi and Somali asylum seekers, refugees and persons without legal status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Mei Lan; Sixsmith, Judith; Lawthom, Rebecca; Mountian, Ilana; Shahrin, Afifa

    2015-09-19

    Asylum seekers, refugees and persons without legal status have been reported to experience a range of difficulties when accessing public services and supports in the UK. While research has identified health care barriers to equitable access such as language difficulties, it has not considered the broader social contexts of marginalization experienced through the dynamics of 'othering'. The current study explores health and health care experiences of Somali and Iraqi asylum seekers, refugees and persons without legal status, highlighting 'minoritization' processes and the 'pathologization' of difference as analytical lenses to understand the multiple layers of oppression that contribute to health inequities. For the study, qualitative methods were used to document the lived experiences of asylum seekers, refugees and persons without legal status. Thirty-five in-depth interviews and five focus groups were used to explore personal accounts, reveal shared understandings and enable social, cognitive and emotional understandings of on-going health problems and challenges when seeking treatment and care. A participatory framework was undertaken which inspired collaborative workings with local organizations that worked directly with asylum seekers, refugees and persons without legal status. The analysis revealed four key themes: 1) pre-departure histories and post-arrival challenges; 2) legal status; 3) health knowledges and procedural barriers as well as 4) language and cultural competence. Confidentiality, trust, wait times and short doctor-patient consultations were emphasized as being insufficient for culturally specific communications and often translating into inadequate treatment and care. Barriers to accessing health care was associated with social disadvantage and restrictions of the broader welfare system suggesting that a re-evaluation of the asylum seeking process is required to improve the situation. Macro- and micro-level intersections of accustomed societal

  4. A review and analysis of the use of 'habit' in understanding, predicting and influencing health-related behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    The term 'habit' is widely used to predict and explain behaviour. This paper examines use of the term in the context of health-related behaviour, and explores how the concept might be made more useful. A narrative review is presented, drawing on a scoping review of 136 empirical studies and 8 literature reviews undertaken to document usage of the term 'habit', and methods to measure it. A coherent definition of 'habit', and proposals for improved methods for studying it, were derived from findings. Definitions of 'habit' have varied in ways that are often implicit and not coherently linked with an underlying theory. A definition is proposed whereby habit is a process by which a stimulus generates an impulse to act as a result of a learned stimulus-response association. Habit-generated impulses may compete or combine with impulses and inhibitions arising from other sources, including conscious decision-making, to influence responses, and need not generate behaviour. Most research on habit is based on correlational studies using self-report measures. Adopting a coherent definition of 'habit', and a wider range of paradigms, designs and measures to study it, may accelerate progress in habit theory and application.

  5. A review and analysis of the use of ‘habit’ in understanding, predicting and influencing health-related behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    The term ‘habit’ is widely used to predict and explain behaviour. This paper examines use of the term in the context of health-related behaviour, and explores how the concept might be made more useful. A narrative review is presented, drawing on a scoping review of 136 empirical studies and 8 literature reviews undertaken to document usage of the term ‘habit’, and methods to measure it. A coherent definition of ‘habit’, and proposals for improved methods for studying it, were derived from findings. Definitions of ‘habit’ have varied in ways that are often implicit and not coherently linked with an underlying theory. A definition is proposed whereby habit is a process by which a stimulus generates an impulse to act as a result of a learned stimulus-response association. Habit-generated impulses may compete or combine with impulses and inhibitions arising from other sources, including conscious decision-making, to influence responses, and need not generate behaviour. Most research on habit is based on correlational studies using self-report measures. Adopting a coherent definition of ‘habit’, and a wider range of paradigms, designs and measures to study it, may accelerate progress in habit theory and application. PMID:25207647

  6. To understand relativity. 4. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthon, M.E.

    1995-01-01

    This book comprises three parts: the first one is about the restricted relativity theory with ten chapters which are from Galilee to Newton, tools of classical physics, relativity principle, a dreadful child: light, Michelson experience, the restricted relativity and Einstein postulates (1905), Lorentz transformation, relativistic kinematics, Minkowski time-space, and the relativistic dynamics; the second part concerns the general relativity and the gravitation, from chapter 11 to chapter 19, which are towards the general relativity, absolute acceleration has no sense, the equivalence principle, the principle of generalised relativity, the gravitation and the problems that it formulates, non euclidean theory of the gravitation field, the theory of 1915, Gauss coordinates, classical tests of general relativity; in the last and third part are studied the cosmologies with three chapters, the chapter 20 is dedicated to cosmological principle precursors, the chapter 21 is about the modern cosmological models and the last one finishes on that question: universe is it or not finished. (N.C.). 26 refs., 48 figs., 9 appends

  7. Public understandings of genetics and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condit, C M

    2010-01-01

    This review of adult public understandings of genetics related to health indicates that the public's understandings overlap with those of professionals in some areas, but not others. Specifically, the majority of the world's people who have been studied understand genetics through the lens of heredity, not in terms of the structural and functional nature of genes. Public understandings of hereditary processes are influenced by models of social relationships and by experiential familiarity with particular conditions as much as by academic research results. Most people hold a fairly strong belief that many health conditions are substantially influenced by both genes and other factors. However, they do not have a stable understanding of the nature of gene-environment interactions. People in cultures where science is not a prominent cultural mode are even less likely to hold the belief structures of professional geneticists. In some areas--notably with regard to racialization of genetic medicine and characterizations of genetic variations as 'mutations'--at least some members of the public strongly reject some geneticists' constructions. Public understanding of details pertinent to genetic testing generally appears to be weak.

  8. Understanding Your Teen's Emotional Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... TeensRead MoreBMI Calculator Mind/Body Connection: How Your Emotions Affect Your HealthMental Health: Keeping Your Emotional HealthPersistent ... Not caring about people and things. Lack of motivation. Fatigue, loss of energy, and lack of interest ...

  9. Understanding the Demographic and Health Transition in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    23 juin 2009 ... Understanding the Demographic and Health Transition in Developing Countries ... countries comes from analysis of demographic and health survey data. ... Navrongo (Ghana), Matlab (Bangladesh) and Filabavi (Viet Nam) ...

  10. Determinants of consumer understanding of health claims

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G; Scholderer, Joachim; Rogeaux, Michel

    2011-01-01

    as safe, risky or other. In addition to the open questions on claim understanding, respondents rated a number of statements on claim interpretation for agreement and completed scales on interest in healthy eating, attitude to functional foods, and subjective knowledge on food and health. Results showed......The new EU regulation on nutrition and health claims states that claims can be permitted only if they can be expected to be understood by consumers. Investigating determinants of consumer understanding of health claims has therefore become an important topic. Understanding of a health claim...... on a yoghurt product was investigated with a sample of 720 category users in Germany. Health claim understanding was measured using open answers, which were subsequently content analysed and classified by comparison with the scientific dossier of the health claim. Based on this respondents were classified...

  11. Understanding healthful eating from a salutogenic perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swan, E.C.

    2016-01-01

    The biomedical model of health orients towards pathogenesis, the study of disease origins and causes. The starting point is to understand determinants of ill-health, and health is defined in this model as the absence of disease. When applied to nutrition research, the underlying assumption is

  12. Understanding healthful eating from a salutogenic perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Swan, E.C.

    2016-01-01

    The biomedical model of health orients towards pathogenesis, the study of disease origins and causes. The starting point is to understand determinants of ill-health, and health is defined in this model as the absence of disease. When applied to nutrition research, the underlying assumption is that eating is a physiological act, and that eating supports physical health. This risk-oriented, pathogenic view also underlies the search for determinants of unhealthful eating. However, there is such ...

  13. Contested understandings of recovery in mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Rhiannah; Whittington, Richard; Cramond, Laura; Perkins, Elizabeth

    2018-05-17

    The concept of recovery is contested throughout the existing literature and in mental health services. Little research exists that gives voice to service user perspectives of recovery. This paper explores how service users in two recovery oriented services run by the National Health Service in North West England talked about recovery and what it meant to them. 14 service users accessing these services took part in semi-structured qualitative interviews focusing on the concept of recovery. Data were analysed using an interpretive phenomenological analysis approach. Service users talked about recovery as a dynamic, day to day process as well as an outcome; specifically related to being discharged from inpatient settings. A number of factors including relationships and medication were cited to have the potential to make or break recovery. The study highlights the continued dominance of the biomedical model in mental health services. Service users appear to have internalised staff and services' understanding of recovery perhaps unsurprisingly given the power differential in these relationships. Implications for clinical practice are explored.

  14. Industrial Student Apprenticeship: Understanding Health and Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simanjuntak, M. V.; Abdullah, A. G.; Puspita, R. H.; Mahdan, D.; Kamaludin, M.

    2018-02-01

    The level of accident in industry is very high caused by lack of knowledge and awareness of workers toward the health and safety. Health and Safety are efforts to create a comfortable and productive atmosphere to accomplish a purpose or goal as maximum risk in the workplace. Vocational Education students must conduct training on business and industry, prior to that they should have a clear understanding on occupational health and safety. The purpose of this research is to analyze the understanding, preparation, and implementation of work health and safety of the students. Method used is descriptive method and data are collected using instrument, observation and interview. The result of study is conclusion of understanding occupational health and safety of vocational education students.

  15. International Relations: Understanding the Behavior of Nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zack, David R.; And Others

    In today's world, no nation acts in isolation; the interdependence of nations makes international relations complex and ever-changing. This book is designed to help students understand why nations compete, why they cooperate, and why they sometimes go to war. Chapter 1 examines the behavior of nations and how national interest dictates the…

  16. Understanding Business Models in Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharan, Alok D; Schroeder, Gregory D; West, Michael E; Vaccaro, Alexander R

    2016-05-01

    The increasing focus on the costs of care is forcing health care organizations to critically look at their basic set of processes and activities, to determine what type of value they can deliver. A business model describes the resources, processes, and cost assumptions that an organization makes that will lead to the delivery of a unique value proposition to a customer. As health care organizations are beginning to transform their structure in preparation for a value-based delivery system, understanding business model theory can help in the redesign process.

  17. Nurses' perceptions, understanding and experiences of health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Dympna

    2007-06-01

    This paper presents an account of nurses' perceptions and understanding of health promotion in an acute setting. Health promotion is considered the remit of every nurse. To engage in health-promoting practice, however, nurses need to understand the term 'health promotion' clearly. A single qualitative embedded case study was used. Purposive sampling of eight nurses was employed. Initially, theses nurses were observed in practice and, following this, a semi-structured one-to-one interview was conducted with each observed nurse. Qualitative data analysis guided by work of Miles and Huberman was employed. The data revealed one main theme: health-promoting nursing practice and this consisted of six categories and five subcategories. The findings indicated that nurses struggled to describe their understanding of health promotion, their understanding was limited and the strategies described to conduct health promotion were narrow and focused on the individual. Their perceptions and descriptions of health promotion were more in keeping with the traditional health education approach. Overall health promotion was reported to occur infrequently, being added on if the nurse had time. Factors relating to education, organizational and management issues were identified as key barriers prohibiting health-promoting nursing practice. Nurses must recognize that health promotion is a broad concept that does not exclusively focus on the individual or lifestyle factors. Nurses must be educated to recognize health-promoting opportunities in the acute setting, as well as how to plan for and conduct health promotion so that it becomes integral to practice. A review of the methods of organizing and delivering nursing care is also advocated. Ward managers have an important role in supporting nurses, creating a culture for health promotion and sharing power in decision-making processes, so that nurses feel valued and empowered.

  18. Inuit family understandings of sexual health and relationships in Nunavut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, Gwen K

    2014-04-16

    To explore Inuit family understandings of sexual health and relationships in order to inform responsive public health interventions that are designed to meet the needs of Nunavummiut. A qualitative indigenous knowledge approach was used for this study with a focus on Inuit epistemology and methodology, as described in the Piliriqatigiinniq Community Health Research Partnership Model. Interviews were conducted with 20 parents in three Nunavut communities in 2011. An immersion and crystallization analytical approach was used to analyze the data and to identify groupings or themes in the data. The stories shared by parents are honoured, keeping their words intact as often as possible in the presentation of results. Parents in this study largely discussed sexual health in the context of historical community events related to settlement and/or residential schools. Residential schools and forced settlement into communities were linked to trauma, family separation, hardship and grief. These experiences were prominent in participants' understandings of sexual health and perceptions of sexual health behaviours among youth in the community. This study highlights the complexity of the landscape of sexual health in Nunavut and the need for public health approaches that are inclusive of Inuit family perspectives on sexual health. Greater understanding of historical and community context can contribute to the development of pertinent, evidence-based public health interventions that will meet the needs of the population.

  19. Understanding user intents in online health forums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Thomas; Cho, Jason H D; Zhai, Chengxiang

    2015-07-01

    Online health forums provide a convenient way for patients to obtain medical information and connect with physicians and peers outside of clinical settings. However, large quantities of unstructured and diversified content generated on these forums make it difficult for users to digest and extract useful information. Understanding user intents would enable forums to find and recommend relevant information to users by filtering out threads that do not match particular intents. In this paper, we derive a taxonomy of intents to capture user information needs in online health forums and propose novel pattern-based features for use with a multiclass support vector machine (SVM) classifier to classify original thread posts according to their underlying intents. Since no dataset existed for this task, we employ three annotators to manually label a dataset of 1192 HealthBoards posts spanning four forum topics. Experimental results show that a SVM using pattern-based features is highly capable of identifying user intents in forum posts, reaching a maximum precision of 75%, and that a SVM-based hierarchical classifier using both pattern and word features outperforms its SVM counterpart that uses only word features. Furthermore, comparable classification performance can be achieved by training and testing on posts from different forum topics.

  20. Toward a multidimensional understanding of culture for health interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asad, Asad L; Kay, Tamara

    2015-11-01

    Although a substantial literature examines the relationship between culture and health in myriad individual contexts, a lack of comparative data across settings has resulted in disparate and imprecise conceptualizations of the concept for scholars and practitioners alike. This article examines scholars and practitioners' understandings of culture in relation to health interventions. Drawing on 169 interviews with officials from three different nongovernmental organizations working on health issues in multiple countries-Partners in Health, Oxfam America, and Sesame Workshop-we examine how these respondents' interpretations of culture converge or diverge with recent developments in the study of the concept, as well as how these understandings influence health interventions at three different stages-design, implementation, and evaluation-of a project. Based on these analyses, a tripartite definition of culture is built-as knowledge, practice, and change-and these distinct conceptualizations are linked to the success or failure of a project at each stage of an intervention. In so doing, the study provides a descriptive and analytical starting point for scholars interested in understanding the theoretical and empirical relevance of culture for health interventions, and sets forth concrete recommendations for practitioners working to achieve robust improvements in health outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Narrative Therapy's Relational Understanding of Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combs, Gene; Freedman, Jill

    2016-06-01

    We describe how we think of identity as relational, distributed, performed, and fluid, and we illustrate the use of this conceptualization within a narrative worldview. Drawing on the work of Michael White, we describe how this relational view of identity leads to therapeutic responses that give value to interconnection across multiple contexts and that focus on becoming rather than on being. We show how a narrative worldview helps focus on the relational, co-evolving perspective that was the basis of our early attraction to family therapy. We offer detailed examples from our work of practices that help us stay firmly situated in a relational worldview that is counter to the pervasive influence of individualism in our contemporary culture. © 2016 Family Process Institute.

  2. Using Network Sampling and Recruitment Data to Understand Social Structures Related to Community Health in a Population of People Who Inject Drugs in Rural Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronado-García, Mayra; Thrash, Courtney R; Welch-Lazoritz, Melissa; Gauthier, Robin; Reyes, Juan Carlos; Khan, Bilal; Dombrowski, Kirk

    2017-06-01

    This research examined the social network and recruitment patterns of a sample of people who inject drugs (PWIDs) in rural Puerto Rico, in an attempt to uncover systematic clustering and between-group social boundaries that potentially influence disease spread. Respondent driven sampling was utilized to obtain a sample of PWID in rural Puerto Rico. Through eight initial "seeds", 317 injection drug users were recruited. Using recruitment patterns of this sample, estimates of homophily and affiliation were calculated using RDSAT. Analyses showed clustering within the social network of PWID in rural Puerto Rico. In particular, females showed a very high tendency to recruit male PWID, which suggests low social cohesion among female PWID. Results for (believed) HCV status at the time of interview indicate that HCV+ individuals were less likely to interact with HCV- individuals or those who were unaware of their status, and may be acting as "gatekeepers" to prevent disease spread. Individuals who participated in a substance use program were more likely to affiliate with one another. The use of speedballs was related to clustering within the network, in which individuals who injected this mixture were more likely to affiliate with other speedball users. Social clustering based on several characteristics and behaviors were found within the IDU population in rural Puerto Rico. RDS was effective in not only garnering a sample of PWID in rural Puerto Rico, but also in uncovering social clustering that can potentially influence disease spread among this population.

  3. Understanding health food messages on Twitter for health literacy promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, J; Liu, F; Zhou, H

    2018-05-01

    With the popularity of social media, Twitter has become an important tool to promote health literacy. However, many health-related messages on Twitter are dead-ended and cannot reach many people. This is unhelpful for health literacy promotion. This article aims to examine the features of online health food messages that people like to retweet. We adopted rumour theory as our theoretical foundation and extracted seven characteristics (i.e. emotional valence, attractiveness, sender's authoritativeness, external evidence, argument length, hashtags, and direct messages). A total of 10,025 health-related messages on Twitter were collected, and 1496 messages were randomly selected for further analysis. Each message was treated as one unit and then coded. All the hypotheses were tested with logistic regression. Emotional valence, attractiveness, sender's authoritativeness, argument length, and direct messages in a Twitter message had positive effects on people's retweet behaviour. The effect of external evidence was negative. Hashtags had no significant effect after consideration of other variables. Online health food messages containing positive emotions, including pictures, containing direct messages, having an authoritative sender, having longer arguments, or not containing external URLs are more likely to be retweeted. However, a message only containing positive or negative emotions or including direct messages without any support information will not be retweeted.

  4. It's about time understanding Einstein's relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Mermin, N David

    2005-01-01

    In It's About Time, N. David Mermin asserts that relativity ought to be an important part of everyone's education--after all, it is largely about time, a subject with which all are familiar. The book reveals that some of our most intuitive notions about time are shockingly wrong, and that the real nature of time discovered by Einstein can be rigorously explained without advanced mathematics. This readable exposition of the nature of time as addressed in Einstein's theory of relativity is accessible to anyone who remembers a little high school algebra and elementary plane geometry. The book evolved as Mermin taught the subject to diverse groups of undergraduates at Cornell University, none of them science majors, over three and a half decades. Mermin's approach is imaginative, yet accurate and complete. Clear, lively, and informal, the book will appeal to intellectually curious readers of all kinds, including even professional physicists, who will be intrigued by its highly original approach.

  5. Evolutionary understanding of the concept "Public relations"

    OpenAIRE

    Кам’янецька, О.В.

    2013-01-01

    The considered approaches to determination of notion of «public relations» different research and practical workers. The analyzed stages of development of communications with public and described their signs. Розглянуті підходи до визначення поняття «паблік рілейшнз» різних науковців та практиків. Проаналізовані етапи розвитку підходів до зв’язків з громадськістю та охарактеризовані їх ознаки....

  6. Violence related to health work

    OpenAIRE

    Juliana da Silva Oliveira; Roberta Laíse Gomes Leite Morais; Elisama Nascimento Rocha; Sérgio Donha Yarid; Edite Lago da Silva Sena; Rita Narriman Silva de Oliveira Boery

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to present a critical and reflective literature review on the violence related to health work. The survey was conducted through an integrated search in the Virtual Health Library in the months of May and June 2011. We selected 24 articles. The reading of the material led us to the following division results: studies characterization and bioethical reflection on violence related to health work. The work-related violence has consequences not only direct on ...

  7. Understanding health policy leaders' training needs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carey Roth Bayer

    Full Text Available We assessed the training needs of health policy leaders and practitioners across career stages; identified areas of core content for health policy training programs; and, identified training modalities for health policy leaders.We convened a focus group of health policy leaders at varying career stages to inform the development of the Health Policy Leaders' Training Needs Assessment tool. We piloted and distributed the tool electronically. We used descriptive statistics and thematic coding for analysis.Seventy participants varying in age and stage of career completed the tool. "Cost implications of health policies" ranked highest for personal knowledge development and "intersection of policy and politics" ranked highest for health policy leaders in general. "Effective communication skills" ranked as the highest skill element and "integrity" as the highest attribute element. Format for training varied based on age and career stage.This study highlighted the training needs of health policy leaders personally as well as their perceptions of the needs for training health policy leaders in general. The findings are applicable for current health policy leadership training programs as well as those in development.

  8. A systemic approach to understanding mental health and services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Mark

    2017-10-01

    In the UK mental health and associated NHS services face considerable challenges. This paper aims to form an understanding both of the complexity of context in which services operate and the means by which services have sought to meet these challenges. Systemic principles as have been applied to public service organisations with reference to interpersonal relations, the wider social culture and its manifestation in service provision. The analysis suggests that the wider culture has shaped service demand and the approaches adopted by services resulting in a number of unintended consequences, reinforcing loops, increased workload demands and the limited value of services. The systemic modelling of this situation provides a necessary overview prior to future policy development. The paper concludes that mental health and attendant services requires a systemic understanding and a whole system approach to reform. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Global income related health inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalil Safaei

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Income related health inequalities have been estimated for various groups of individuals at local, state, or national levels. Almost all of theses estimates are based on individual data from sample surveys. Lack of consistent individual data worldwide has prevented estimates of international income related health inequalities. This paper uses the (population weighted aggregate data available from many countries around the world to estimate worldwide income related health inequalities. Since the intra-country inequalities are subdued by the aggregate nature of the data, the estimates would be those of the inter-country or international health inequalities. As well, the study estimates the contribution of major socioeconomic variables to the overall health inequalities. The findings of the study strongly support the existence of worldwide income related health inequalities that favor the higher income countries. Decompositions of health inequalities identify inequalities in both the level and distribution of income as the main source of health inequality along with inequalities in education and degree of urbanization as other contributing determinants. Since income related health inequalities are preventable, policies to reduce the income gaps between the poor and rich nations could greatly improve the health of hundreds of millions of people and promote global justice. Keywords: global, income, health inequality, socioeconomic determinants of health

  10. Understanding Health-related Quality of Life in Caregivers of Civilians and Service Members/Veterans with Traumatic Brain Injury: Establishing the Reliability and Validity of PROMIS Mental Health Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlozzi, Noelle E; Hanks, Robin; Lange, Rael T; Brickell D Psych, Tracey A; Ianni, Phillip A; Miner, Jennifer A; French Psy D, Louis M; Kallen, Michael A; Sander, Angelle M

    2018-06-19

    To provide important reliability and validity data to support the use of the PROMIS Mental Health measures in caregivers of civilians or service members/veterans with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Patient-reported outcomes surveys administered through an electronic data collection platform. Three TBI Model Systems rehabilitation hospitals, an academic medical center, and a military medical treatment facility. 560 caregivers of individuals with a documented TBI (344 civilians and 216 military) INTERVENTION: Not Applicable MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: PROMIS Anxiety, Depression, and Anger Item Banks RESULTS: Internal consistency for all of the PROMIS Mental Health item banks was very good (all α > .86) and three-week test retest reliability was good to adequate (ranged from .65 to .85). Convergent validity and discriminant validity of the PROMIS measures was also supported. Caregivers of individuals that were low functioning had worse emotional HRQOL (as measured by the three PROMIS measures) than caregivers of high functioning individuals, supporting known groups validity. Finally, levels of distress, as measured by the PROMIS measures, were elevated for those caring for low-functioning individuals in both samples (rates ranged from 26.2% to 43.6% for caregivers of low-functioning individuals). Results support the reliability and validity of the PROMIS Anxiety, Depression, and Anger item banks in caregivers of civilians and service members/veterans with TBI. Ultimately, these measures can be used to provide a standardized assessment of HRQOL as it relates to mental health in these caregivers. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. What is a health worker? How spa therapists in a Norwegian health hotel understand their work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderssen, Jorid

    2016-01-01

    In Norway, as in many other wealthy countries, the number of health-related services that are being offered outside of the health sector is increasing. The present paper is based on qualitative interviews that were conducted with providers of health-related services at a commercial health hotel in Norway. The hotel is marketed as a health hotel - that is, a place for people with health problems and for those who need relaxation and an escape from their stressful everyday lives. The paper discusses whether the providers of this kind of service consider it a health service or if they distinguish and distance themselves from the health system. The interviews showed that they consider themselves health workers and refer to themselves as therapists. Even though they use therapy in the health sector as a model, they distinguish themselves from therapists in the health sector. They do not want to treat what they call sick people. Most of their therapy is directed toward cultivating or improving people's bodies and souls. These service providers think that they contribute to improving their guests' health by teaching them how to take care of themselves; enjoying oneself (for instance, by receiving skin treatment or a massage) is an important aspect of good health. According to the therapists, modern-day women, in particular, are often worn-out, and they deserve, and are entitled, to enjoy themselves. In these ways, the therapists use health to legitimize their services, and they challenge the current understanding of health.

  12. Violence related to health work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana da Silva Oliveira

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to present a critical and reflective literature review on the violence related to health work. The survey was conducted through an integrated search in the Virtual Health Library in the months of May and June 2011. We selected 24 articles. The reading of the material led us to the following division results: studies characterization and bioethical reflection on violence related to health work. The work-related violence has consequences not only direct on professionals’ health, but also for the citizen and society as a whole. Make it visible is the first action needed for prevention / control and to promote healthier workplaces.

  13. VIOLENCE RELATED TO HEALTH WORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana da Silva Oliveira

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to present a critical and reflective literature review on the violence related to health work. The survey was conducted through an integrated search in the Virtual Health Library in the months of May and June 2011. We selected 24 articles. The reading of the material led us to the following division results: studies characterization and bioethical reflection on violence related to health work. The work-related violence has consequences not only direct on professionals’ health, but also for the citizen and society as a whole. Make it visible is the first action needed for prevention / control and to promote healthier workplaces.

  14. Health Insurance: Understanding What It Covers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... age 50 Contraception – Food and Drug Administration-approved contraceptive methods, sterilization procedures, and patient education and counseling, ... and Fitness Exercise Basics Sports Safety Injury Rehabilitation Emotional Well-Being Mental Health Sex and Birth Control ...

  15. Understanding a Value Chain in Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharan, Alok D; Schroeder, Gregory D; West, Michael E; Vaccaro, Alexander R

    2015-10-01

    As the US health care system transitions toward a value-based system, providers and health care organizations will have to closely scrutinize their current processes of care. To do this, a value chain analysis can be performed to ensure that only the most efficient steps are followed in patient care. Ultimately this will produce a higher quality or equal quality product for less cost by eliminating wasteful steps along the way.

  16. UNDERSTANDING SEVERE WEATHER PROCESSES THROUGH SPATIOTEMPORAL RELATIONAL RANDOM FORESTS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — UNDERSTANDING SEVERE WEATHER PROCESSES THROUGH SPATIOTEMPORAL RELATIONAL RANDOM FORESTS AMY MCGOVERN, TIMOTHY SUPINIE, DAVID JOHN GAGNE II, NATHANIEL TROUTMAN,...

  17. A Multidisciplinary Research Agenda for Understanding Vaccine-Related Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Heidi; Leask, Julie; Aggett, Sian; Sevdalis, Nick; Thomson, Angus

    2013-01-01

    There is increasingly broad global recognition of the need to better understand determinants of vaccine acceptance. Fifteen social science, communication, health, and medical professionals (the “Motors of Trust in Vaccination” (MOTIV) think tank) explored factors relating to vaccination decision-making as a step to building a multidisciplinary research agenda. One hundred and forty seven factors impacting decisions made by consumers, professionals, and policy makers on vaccine acceptance, delay, or refusal were identified and grouped into three major categories: cognition and decision-making; groups and social norms; and communication and engagement. These factors should help frame a multidisciplinary research agenda to build an evidence base on the determinants of vaccine acceptance to inform the development of interventions and vaccination policies. PMID:26344114

  18. A Multidisciplinary Research Agenda for Understanding Vaccine-Related Decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Sevdalis

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available There is increasingly broad global recognition of the need to better understand determinants of vaccine acceptance. Fifteen social science, communication, health, and medical professionals (the “Motors of Trust in Vaccination” (MOTIV think tank explored factors relating to vaccination decision-making as a step to building a multidisciplinary research agenda. One hundred and forty seven factors impacting decisions made by consumers, professionals, and policy makers on vaccine acceptance, delay, or refusal were identified and grouped into three major categories: cognition and decision-making; groups and social norms; and communication and engagement. These factors should help frame a multidisciplinary research agenda to build an evidence base on the determinants of vaccine acceptance to inform the development of interventions and vaccination policies.

  19. Understanding nephro-blastomas. Information dedicated to parents and relatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brusco, S.; Carretier, J.; Delavigne, V.; Fervers, B.; Leichtnam-Dugarin, L.; Bergeron, C.; Claude, L.; Philip, T.; Boccon-Gibod, L.; Coze, C.; Leclair, M.D.

    2006-01-01

    In response to the evolution of the information-seeking behaviour of patients and concerns from health professionals regarding cancer patient information, the French National Federation of Comprehensive Cancer Centres (FNCLCC) introduced, in 1998, an information and education program dedicated to patients and relatives, the SOR SAVOIR PATIENT program. The methodology of this program adheres to established quality criteria regarding the elaboration of patient information. Cancer patient information developed in this program is based on clinical practice guidelines produced by the FNCLCC and the twenty French regional cancer centres, the National League against Cancer, The National Cancer Institute, the French Hospital Federation, the National Oncology Federation of Regional and University Hospitals, the French Oncology Federation of General Hospitals, many learned societies, as well as an active participation of patients, former patients and care-givers. The handbook SOR SAVOIR PATIENT Understanding nephro-blastomas is an adapted version of various scientific publications and international clinical practice guidelines, validated by oncology experts and by the Nephro-blastomas Committee of the French Society against Cancers and Leukemias in children and adolescents (SFCE). It was elaborated with the active participation of parents and other family members. It is meant to provide a basis for the explanation of the disease, to help parents asking questions, and to facilitate discussions with the health-care team. It is available from the FNCLCC (101, rue de Tolbiac, 75013 PARIS, Tel. (0033)1 76 64 78 00, www.fncicc.fr). This document was validated at the end of 2005 and published in May 2006. SOR SAVOIR PATIENT guides are systematically updated when new research becomes available. Information leaflets, extracted from the handbook SOR SAVOIR PATIENT Understanding nephro-blastomas and published in this edition of the Cancer et Radiotherapie, describe the physiopathology

  20. Creating understanding of reproductive health. Exchanges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-02-01

    Yoko Komiyama, senior commentator of the Japan Broadcasting Corporation; Miyuki Nakamura, senior staff writer of Nihon Keizai Shimbun's Lifestyle News Department; and Miki Morimoto, staff writer for the Center for Research and Analysis on Global Issues Project 21, Asahi Shimbun, were introduced to population and reproductive health issues and the situation of women in Nepal during a December 8-16 interregional study tour. JOICFP selected the participants and organized an itinerary which provided insights into multilateral cooperation between UNFPA and the Ministry of Health (MOH) of Nepal, bilateral assistance between the Japan International Cooperation Agency and MOH, and nongovernmental organization collaboration between the Family Planning Association of Nepal and JOICFP. Upon returning to Japan, these representatives of three of Japan's major mass media groups shared their experiences with the general public through reports in newspapers, and on radio and television.

  1. Understanding The Resistance to Health Information Systems

    OpenAIRE

    David Ackah; Angelito E Alvarado; Heru Santoso Wahito Nugroho; Sanglar Polnok; Wiwin Martiningsih

    2017-01-01

    User resistance is users’ opposition to system implementation. Resistance often occurs as a result of a mismatch between management goals and employee preferences. There are two types of resistance to health iformation system namely active resistance and passive resistance. The manifestation of active resistance are being critical,  blaming/accusing, blocking, fault finding, sabotaging, undermining, ridiculing, intimidating/threatening, starting rumors, appealing to fear, manipulating arguing...

  2. Improving health outcomes with better patient understanding and education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert John Adams

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Robert John AdamsThe Health Observatory, The Queen Elizabeth Hospital Campus, The University of Adelaide, Woodville, South Australia, AustraliaAbstract: A central plank of health care reform is an expanded role for educated consumers interacting with responsive health care teams. However, for individuals to realize the benefits of health education also requires a high level of engagement. Population studies have documented a gap between expectations and the actual performance of behaviours related to participation in health care and prevention. Interventions to improve self-care have shown improvements in self-efficacy, patient satisfaction, coping skills, and perceptions of social support. Significant clinical benefits have been seen from trials of self-management or lifestyle interventions across conditions such as diabetes, coronary heart disease, heart failure and rheumatoid arthritis. However, the focus of many studies has been on short-term outcomes rather that long term effects. There is also some evidence that participation in patient education programs is not spread evenly across socio economic groups. This review considers three other issues that may be important in increasing the public health impact of patient education. The first is health literacy, which is the capacity to seek, understand and act on health information. Although health literacy involves an individual’s competencies, the health system has a primary responsibility in setting the parameters of the health interaction and the style, content and mode of information. Secondly, much patient education work has focused on factors such as attitudes and beliefs. That small changes in physical environments can have large effects on behavior and can be utilized in self-management and chronic disease research. Choice architecture involves reconfiguring the context or physical environment in a way that makes it more likely that people will choose certain behaviours. Thirdly

  3. Environmental justice and health practices: understanding how health inequities arise at the local level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frohlich, Katherine L; Abel, Thomas

    2014-02-01

    While empirical evidence continues to show that people living in low socio-economic status neighbourhoods are less likely to engage in health-enhancing behaviour, our understanding of why this is so remains less than clear. We suggest that two changes could take place to move from description to understanding in this field; (i) a move away from the established concept of individual health behaviour to a contextualised understanding of health practices; and (ii) a switch from focusing on health inequalities in outcomes to health inequities in conditions. We apply Pierre Bourdieu's theory on capital interaction but find it insufficient with regard to the role of agency for structural change. We therefore introduce Amartya Sen's capability approach as a useful link between capital interaction theory and action to reduce social inequities in health-related practices. Sen's capability theory also elucidates the importance of discussing unequal chances in terms of inequity, rather than inequality, in order to underscore the moral nature of inequalities. We draw on the discussion in social geography on environmental injustice, which also underscores the moral nature of the spatial distribution of opportunities. The article ends by applying this approach to the 'Interdisciplinary study of inequalities in smoking' framework. © 2013 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2013 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Presenteeism and absenteeism: differentiated understanding of related phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosselin, Eric; Lemyre, Louise; Corneil, Wayne

    2013-01-01

    In the past it was assumed that work attendance equated to performance. It now appears that health-related loss of productivity can be traced equally to workers showing up at work as well as to workers choosing not to. Presenteeism in the workplace, showing up for work while sick, seems now more prevalent than absenteeism. These findings are forcing organizations to reconsider their approaches regarding regular work attendance. Given this, and echoing recommendations in the literature, this study seeks to identify the main behavioral correlates of presenteeism and absenteeism in the workplace. Comparative analysis of the data from a representative sample of executives from the Public Service of Canada enables us to draw a unique picture of presenteeism and absenteeism with regards not only to the impacts of health disorders but also to the demographic, organizational, and individual factors involved. Results provide a better understanding of the similarities and differences between these phenomena, and more specifically, of the differentiated influence of certain variables. These findings provide food for thought and may pave the way to the development of new organizational measures designed to manage absenteeism without creating presenteeism.

  5. Understanding The Resistance to Health Information Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Ackah

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available User resistance is users’ opposition to system implementation. Resistance often occurs as a result of a mismatch between management goals and employee preferences. There are two types of resistance to health iformation system namely active resistance and passive resistance. The manifestation of active resistance are being critical,  blaming/accusing, blocking, fault finding, sabotaging, undermining, ridiculing, intimidating/threatening, starting rumors, appealing to fear, manipulating arguing, using facts selectively, distorting facts and  raising objections. The manifestation of passive resistance are agreeing verbally but not following through, failing to implement change, procrastinating/dragging feet, feigning ignorance, withholding information, suggestions, help or support, and standing by and allowing the change to fail.

  6. Are Public Health Organizations Tweeting to the Choir? Understanding Local Health Department Twitter Followership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choucair, Bechara; Maier, Ryan C; Jolani, Nina; Bernhardt, Jay M

    2014-01-01

    Background One of the essential services provided by the US local health departments is informing and educating constituents about health. Communication with constituents about public health issues and health risks is among the standards required of local health departments for accreditation. Past research found that only 61% of local health departments met standards for informing and educating constituents, suggesting a considerable gap between current practices and best practice. Objective Social media platforms, such as Twitter, may aid local health departments in informing and educating their constituents by reaching large numbers of people with real-time messages at relatively low cost. Little is known about the followers of local health departments on Twitter. The aim of this study was to examine characteristics of local health department Twitter followers and the relationship between local health department characteristics and follower characteristics. Methods In 2013, we collected (using NodeXL) and analyzed a sample of 4779 Twitter followers from 59 randomly selected local health departments in the United States with Twitter accounts. We coded each Twitter follower for type (individual, organization), location, health focus, and industry (eg, media, government). Local health department characteristics were adopted from the 2010 National Association of City and County Health Officials Profile Study data. Results Local health department Twitter accounts were followed by more organizations than individual users. Organizations tended to be health-focused, located outside the state from the local health department being followed, and from the education, government, and non-profit sectors. Individuals were likely to be local and not health-focused. Having a public information officer on staff, serving a larger population, and “tweeting” more frequently were associated with having a higher percentage of local followers. Conclusions Social media has the

  7. A diagnostic approach to understanding entrepreneurship in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCleary, Karl J; Rivers, Patrick A; Schneller, Eugene S

    2006-01-01

    Health care is quite different from other industries because of its organizational structure, service delivery, and financing of health services. Balancing costs, quality, and access presents unique challenges for each stakeholder group committed to promoting the health and healing of its citizens. Using the diagnostic approach to health care entrepreneurship, we created a framework from research in the field to understand the predisposing, enabling, and reinforcing factors most relevant to successful entrepreneurship.

  8. Understanding health literacy for strategic health marketing: eHealth literacy, health disparities, and the digital divide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodie, Graham D; Dutta, Mohan Jyoti

    2008-01-01

    Even despite policy efforts aimed at reducing health-related disparities, evidence mounts that population-level gaps in literacy and healthcare quality are increasing. This widening of disparities in American culture is likely to worsen over the coming years due, in part, to our increasing reliance on Internet-based technologies to disseminate health information and services. The purpose of the current article is to incorporate health literacy into an Integrative Model of eHealth Use. We argue for this theoretical understanding of eHealth literacy and propose that macro-level disparities in social structures are connected to health disparities through the micro-level conduits of eHealth literacy, motivation, and ability. In other words, structural inequities reinforce themselves and continue to contribute to healthcare disparities through the differential distribution of technologies that simultaneously enhance and impede literacy, motivation, and ability of different groups (and individuals) in the population. We conclude the article by suggesting pragmatic implications of our analysis.

  9. Understanding Breast Changes: A Health Guide for Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Conditions Understanding Breast Changes: Health Guide for Women can be printed or viewed as a booklet, ... During Your Lifetime That Are Not Cancer Most women have changes in the breasts at different times ...

  10. Understanding Health Information Seeking from an Actor-Centric Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Batchelor

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a conceptual approach for discussing health information seeking among poor households in Africa and Asia. This approach is part of a larger research endeavor aimed at understanding how health systems are adapting; with possibilities and constraints emerging. These health systems can be found in a context of the changing relationships between states, markets and civil society in low and middle income countries. The paper starts from an understanding of the health sector as a “health knowledge economy”, organized to provide people with access to knowledge and advice. The use of the term “health knowledge economy” draws attention to the ways the health sector is part of a broader knowledge economy changing the way individuals and households obtain and use specialist information. The paper integrates an actor centric approach with the theory of planned behavior. It seeks to identify the actors engaged in the health knowledge economy as a precursor to longer term studies on the uptake of innovations integrating health services with mobile phones, commonly designated as mHealth, contributing to an understanding of the potential vulnerabilities of poor people, and highlighting possible dangers if providers of health information and advice are strongly influenced by interest groups.

  11. Towards a Common Understanding of the Health Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stucki, G; Rubinelli, S; Reinhardt, J D; Bickenbach, J E

    2016-09-01

    The aim of health sciences is to maintain and improve the health of individuals and populations and to limit disability. Health research has expanded astoundingly over the last century and a variety of scientific disciplines rooted in very different scientific and intellectual traditions has contributed to these goals. To allow health scientists to fully contextualize their work and engage in interdisciplinary research, a common understanding of the health sciences is needed. The aim of this paper is to respond to the call of the 1986 Ottawa Charter to improve health care by looking both within and beyond health and health care, and to use the opportunity offered by WHO's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) for a universal operationalization of health, in order to develop a common understanding and conceptualization of the field of health sciences that account for its richness and vitality. A critical analysis of health sciences based on WHO's ICF, on WHO's definition of health systems and on the content and methodological approaches promoted by the biological, clinical and socio-humanistic traditions engaged in health research. The field of health sciences is presented according to: 1) a specification of the content of the field in terms of people's health needs and the societal response to them, 2) a meta-level framework to exhaustively represent the range of mutually recognizable scientific disciplines engaged in health research and 3) a heuristic framework for the specification of a set of shared methodological approaches relevant across the range of these disciplines. This conceptualization of health sciences is offered to contextualize the work of health researchers, thereby fostering interdisciplinarity. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. European consumers and health claims: attitudes, understanding and purchasing behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, Josephine M; Storcksdieck genannt Bonsmann, Stefan; Kolka, Magdalena; Grunert, Klaus G

    2012-05-01

    Health claims on food products are often used as a means to highlight scientifically proven health benefits associated with consuming those foods. But do consumers understand and trust health claims? This paper provides an overview of recent research on consumers and health claims including attitudes, understanding and purchasing behaviour. A majority of studies investigated selective product-claim combinations, with ambiguous findings apart from consumers' self-reported generic interest in health claims. There are clear indications that consumer responses differ substantially according to the nature of carrier product, the type of health claim, functional ingredient used or a combination of these components. Health claims tend to be perceived more positively when linked to a product with an overall positive health image, whereas some studies demonstrate higher perceived credibility of products with general health claims (e.g. omega-3 and brain development) compared to disease risk reduction claims (e.g. bioactive peptides to reduce risk of heart disease), others report the opposite. Inconsistent evidence also exists on the correlation between having a positive attitude towards products with health claims and purchase intentions. Familiarity with the functional ingredient and/or its claimed health effect seems to result in a more favourable evaluation. Better nutritional knowledge, however, does not automatically lead to a positive attitude towards products carrying health messages. Legislation in the European Union requires that the claim is understood by the average consumer. As most studies on consumers' understanding of health claims are based on subjective understanding, this remains an area for more investigation.

  13. University students' understanding level about words related to nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oiso, Shinichi; Watabe, Motoki

    2012-01-01

    The authors conducted a survey of university students' understanding level about words related to nuclear power before and after Fukushima Daiichi Power Plant accident, and analyzed the difference between before and after the accident. The results show that university students' understanding level improved after the accident, especially in the case of reported words by mass media. Understanding level of some nuclear power security words which were not reported so much by mass media also improved. That may be caused by rising of people's concern about nuclear power generation after the accident, and there is a possibility that the accident motivated people to access such words via internet, journals, etc. (author)

  14. National Health Accounts: A Framework For Understanding Health Care Financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldo, Daniel

    2018-03-01

    Over the course of the past century, the challenges facing the United States in its consumption of health care goods and services have not changed very much. What is being consumed, who is paying for it, and how much is affordable are questions that arise in every cycle of the debate-if they ever go dormant. National Health Accounts are one tool to use in the search for answers to these questions and to the challenges behind the questions. The accounts cannot (and do not pretend to) address every aspect of the debate, but they provide an important context. In this article I briefly review the history of the health accounts and discuss their strengths and weaknesses in the context of the present debate over spending.

  15. Understanding health constraints among rural-to-urban migrants in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan

    2013-11-01

    The main purpose of this article is to examine the understanding and experience of health and health care among rural-to-urban migrants in China, and to explain the impact of the internal factors of migrants themselves and the external factors of their social environment. Understanding the perceptions and consciousness of health issues among migrants is crucial to prevention, intervention, and other health-related measures for the migrant population in China, but this has rarely been explored in studies. On the basis of a case study of a migrant community in Beijing, I explore the migrants' understandings of health and health care and analyze factors in the social environment, including exclusion from the social system and the possibility of health participation, exclusion from social relation networks, obstructed channels of health maintenance, and exclusion of crowd psychology, which impact heavily on their health understanding and health behavior. I argue that the internal and the external factors are linked together closely and interact as reciprocal causation. However, the migrants should not be seen as primarily responsible, because their poor understanding of health mainly results from the socioeconomic environment in which they live and work.

  16. Idiom understanding in adulthood: examining age-related differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Pei-Fang; Nippold, Marilyn A

    2014-03-01

    Idioms are figurative expressions such as hold your horses, kick the bucket, and lend me a hand, which commonly occur in everyday spoken and written language. Hence, the understanding of these expressions is essential for daily communication. In this study, we examined idiom understanding in healthy adults in their 20s, 40s, 60s and 80s (n=30 per group) to determine if performance would show an age-related decline. Participants judged their own familiarity with a set of 20 idioms, explained the meaning of each, described a situation in which the idiom could be used, and selected the appropriate interpretation from a set of choices. There was no evidence of an age-related decline on any tasks. Rather, the 60s group reported greater familiarity and offered better explanations than did the 20s group. Moreover, greater familiarity with idioms was associated with better understanding in adults.

  17. Understanding informal payments in health care: motivation of health workers in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringhini, Silvia; Thomas, Steve; Bidwell, Posy; Mtui, Tina; Mwisongo, Aziza

    2009-06-30

    There is growing evidence that informal payments for health care are fairly common in many low- and middle-income countries. Informal payments are reported to have a negative consequence on equity and quality of care; it has been suggested, however, that they may contribute to health worker motivation and retention. Given the significance of motivation and retention issues in human resources for health, a better understanding of the relationships between the two phenomena is needed. This study attempts to assess whether and in what ways informal payments occur in Kibaha, Tanzania. Moreover, it aims to assess how informal earnings might help boost health worker motivation and retention. Nine focus groups were conducted in three health facilities of different levels in the health system. In total, 64 health workers participated in the focus group discussions (81% female, 19% male) and where possible, focus groups were divided by cadre. All data were processed and analysed by means of the NVivo software package. The use of informal payments in the study area was confirmed by this study. Furthermore, a negative relationship between informal payments and job satisfaction and better motivation is suggested. Participants mentioned that they felt enslaved by patients as a result of being bribed and this resulted in loss of self-esteem. Furthermore, fear of detection was a main demotivating factor. These factors seem to counterbalance the positive effect of financial incentives. Moreover, informal payments were not found to be related to retention of health workers in the public health system. Other factors such as job security seemed to be more relevant for retention. This study suggests that the practice of informal payments contributes to the general demotivation of health workers and negatively affects access to health care services and quality of the health system. Policy action is needed that not only provides better financial incentives for individuals but also

  18. Understanding informal payments in health care: motivation of health workers in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bidwell Posy

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is growing evidence that informal payments for health care are fairly common in many low- and middle-income countries. Informal payments are reported to have a negative consequence on equity and quality of care; it has been suggested, however, that they may contribute to health worker motivation and retention. Given the significance of motivation and retention issues in human resources for health, a better understanding of the relationships between the two phenomena is needed. This study attempts to assess whether and in what ways informal payments occur in Kibaha, Tanzania. Moreover, it aims to assess how informal earnings might help boost health worker motivation and retention. Methods Nine focus groups were conducted in three health facilities of different levels in the health system. In total, 64 health workers participated in the focus group discussions (81% female, 19% male and where possible, focus groups were divided by cadre. All data were processed and analysed by means of the NVivo software package. Results The use of informal payments in the study area was confirmed by this study. Furthermore, a negative relationship between informal payments and job satisfaction and better motivation is suggested. Participants mentioned that they felt enslaved by patients as a result of being bribed and this resulted in loss of self-esteem. Furthermore, fear of detection was a main demotivating factor. These factors seem to counterbalance the positive effect of financial incentives. Moreover, informal payments were not found to be related to retention of health workers in the public health system. Other factors such as job security seemed to be more relevant for retention. Conclusion This study suggests that the practice of informal payments contributes to the general demotivation of health workers and negatively affects access to health care services and quality of the health system. Policy action is needed that not only

  19. Understanding the health and nutritional status of children in Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asenso-Okyere, W.K.; Asante, F.A.; Nube, M.

    1997-01-01

    The data set of the Ghana Living Standards Survey (GLSS, round 1, 1987/1988) was utilized to analyse the principal determinants (publicly and privately) of health and nutrition of children under five in Ghana. While in most health and nutrition studies the emphasis is either on health-related

  20. Secondary Students' Understanding of Basic Ideas of Special Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriadi, Kyriaki; Halkia, Krystallia

    2012-01-01

    A major topic that has marked "modern physics" is the theory of special relativity (TSR). The present work focuses on the possibility of teaching the basic ideas of the TSR to students at the upper secondary level in such a way that they are able to understand and learn the ideas. Its aim is to investigate students' learning processes towards the…

  1. Understanding dyadic promoter-stakeholder relations in complex projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janita Vos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we propose a Bilateral Double Motive framework of stakeholder cooperation in complex projects. The framework analyses and explains dyadic promoter-stakeholder relationships at a micro level by acknowledging both transactional and relational motives. We demonstrate the framework’s usefulness by illustrating its explanatory power in two instances of cooperation and two of non-cooperation within two health information technology projects. The study contributes to project management theory through its combined focus on transactional and relational motives. Further, the study contributes to practice by providing a tool for planning and evaluating cooperation in health Information Technology projects and similar complex multi-stakeholder environments.

  2. Knowledge and understanding of health insurance: challenges and remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Andrew J; Hanoch, Yaniv

    2017-07-13

    As coverage is expanded in health systems that rely on consumers to choose health insurance plans that best meet their needs, interest in whether consumers possess sufficient understanding of health insurance to make good coverage decisions is growing. The recent IJHPR article by Green and colleagues-examining understanding of supplementary health insurance (SHI) among Israeli consumers-provides an important and timely answer to the above question. Indeed, their study addresses similar problems to the ones identified in the US health care market, with two notable findings. First, they show that overall-regardless of demographic variables-there are low levels of knowledge about SHI, which the literature has come to refer to more broadly as "health insurance literacy." Second, they find a significant disparity in health insurance literacy between different SES groups, where Jews were significantly more knowledgeable about SHI compared to their Arab counterparts.The authors' findings are consistent with a growing body of literature from the U.S. and elsewhere, including our own, presenting evidence that consumers struggle with understanding and using health insurance. Studies in the U.S. have also found that difficulties are generally more acute for populations considered the most vulnerable and consequently most in need of adequate and affordable health insurance coverage.The authors' findings call attention to the need to tailor communication strategies aimed at mitigating health insurance literacy and, ultimately, access and outcomes disparities among vulnerable populations in Israel and elsewhere. It also raises the importance of creating insurance choice environments in health systems relying on consumers to make coverage decisions that facilitate the decision process by using "choice architecture" to, among other things, simplify plan information and highlight meaningful differences between coverage options.

  3. Understanding Digital Health as Public Pedagogy: A Critical Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Rich

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues on behalf of a public pedagogy approach to developing a critical understanding of digital health technologies. It begins by appraising the hitherto polarised articulations of digital innovation as either techno-utopian or techno-dystopian, examining these expectations of technology and considering the tensions between them. It subsequently outlines how a public pedagogy approach can help mediate between these views, offering a more contextualised, socio-political perspective of mHealth. This approach teases out the nuances of digital health by engaging with the complexities of embodied learning. Furthermore, it urges caution against viewing these pedagogical forces as one of transference, or simple governance. To this end, we therefore contextualise our critique of digital health, within an attempt to reconstitute an understanding of public pedagogies of technology.

  4. Understanding How Solidarity Groups-A Community-Based Economic and Psychosocial Support Intervention-Can Affect Mental Health for Survivors of Conflict-Related Sexual Violence in Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koegler, Erica; Kennedy, Caitlin; Mrindi, Janvier; Bachunguye, Richard; Winch, Peter; Ramazani, Paul; Makambo, Maphie Tosha; Glass, Nancy

    2018-06-01

    Solidarity groups were established in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo to provide female survivors of conflict-related sexual violence an opportunity to generate income, establish networks of support, and cope with atrocities. Qualitative data were collected from 12 members of solidarity groups to explore factors that contributed to members' mental health. All women identified some improvement (physiological, psychological, economic, or social) since joining the solidarity group, but none of the women were free from ailments. Our findings suggest that a multifaceted intervention in women's own communities has the potential to improve multiple aspects of women's lives, including mental health.

  5. Beyond word recognition: understanding pediatric oral health literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Julia Anne; Huebner, Colleen E; Leggott, Penelope J; Mouradian, Wendy E; Mancl, Lloyd A

    2011-01-01

    Parental oral health literacy is proposed to be an indicator of children's oral health. The purpose of this study was to test if word recognition, commonly used to assess health literacy, is an adequate measure of pediatric oral health literacy. This study evaluated 3 aspects of oral health literacy and parent-reported child oral health. A 3-part pediatric oral health literacy inventory was created to assess parents' word recognition, vocabulary knowledge, and comprehension of 35 terms used in pediatric dentistry. The inventory was administered to 45 English-speaking parents of children enrolled in Head Start. Parents' ability to read dental terms was not associated with vocabulary knowledge (r=0.29, P.06) of the terms. Vocabulary knowledge was strongly associated with comprehension (r=0.80, PParent-reported child oral health status was not associated with word recognition, vocabulary knowledge, or comprehension; however parents reporting either excellent or fair/poor ratings had higher scores on all components of the inventory. Word recognition is an inadequate indicator of comprehension of pediatric oral health concepts; pediatric oral health literacy is a multifaceted construct. Parents with adequate reading ability may have difficulty understanding oral health information.

  6. Toward an Understanding of Achievement-Related Conflicts in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Matina S.

    1972-01-01

    Identifies the motive to avoid success as an internal psychological representative of the dominant societal stereotype which views competence, independence, competition, and intellectual achievement as qualities basically inconsistent with femininity, even though positively related to masculinity and mental health. (Author/JM)

  7. Understanding Stakeholder Interests and Perspectives in Evaluations of Health IT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lisa; Sheikh, Aziz

    2016-01-01

    Appropriately identifying and representing stakeholders' interests and viewpoints in evaluations of health information technology (health IT) is a critical part of ensuring continued progress and innovation in eHealth. This contribution therefore seeks to clarify the principles of stakeholder analysis in an eHealth context. We describe this with reference to a mixed methods national evaluation of ePrescribing systems in English hospitals. We use this evaluation to exemplify the engagement and analytical tools required to ensure a detailed understanding of the issues, challenges and lessons learnt across stakeholder groups. We conclude that this type of approach may support the robustness of evaluations of health IT as well as their longer term impact on innovation in the field.

  8. Understanding Campus Culture and Student Coping Strategies for Mental Health Issues in Five Canadian Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giamos, Dimitris; Lee, Alex Young Soo; Suleiman, Amanda; Stuart, Heather; Chen, Shu-Ping

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to better understand campus mental health culture and student mental health coping strategies, and to identify the mental health needs of students as well as gaps in mental health services within postsecondary education. A videovoice method was used to identify and document health-related issues and advocate for change. Forty-one…

  9. The relevance of context in understanding health literacy skills: Findings from a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Verna B; Sixsmith, Jane; Barry, Margaret M

    2017-10-01

    Conceptualizing health literacy as a relational concept, which involves how individuals interact with complex health and social systems, requires a greater understanding of the context of people's health experiences. To describe individuals' experiences of accessing, understanding, appraising and applying health information; explore the barriers and facilitators to using these skills; and to describe the experience of information exchange in health consultations. A longitudinal qualitative methodology with thematic analysis of interviews was used. Health literacy levels were assessed using the HLS-EU-47-Item Questionnaire. Findings are presented from the first round of data collection. Twenty-six participants purposefully selected from a CVD risk reduction programme at three separate time points. Four key themes identified: using health literacy capacities for managing health; psychological and structural factors that impact on these capacities; and the relationship quality with the health-care provider (HCP). Although limited health literacy was prevalent across the sample (65%), all individuals were very proactive in attempting to utilize health literacy skills. Findings emphasize the importance of contextual factors such as the quality of communication with the health-care provider, perceptions of control, attitudes to family medical history, navigating structural barriers and being supported in managing treatment and medication side-effects. Findings are relevant for health-care providers in order to enhance the patient-provider relationship and to ensure optimum health outcomes for all individuals regardless of health literacy levels. © 2017 The Authors Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. [Notes for understanding the problem of "public" health in the health sector].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Cristian Fabiano; da Silva, Rosane Azevedo Neves

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents a theoretical review of how the public health concept has been perceived in health practices, based on the problematic field introduced in Italian and Brazilian health reforms, in order to understand the construction of public health and the meanings that this term acquires in the health arena. The main goal is to understand how public health appears in the context of health movements in Italy and Brazil, as well as its movement of variation. In this sense, an attempt is made to identify elements that contribute to the composition of a genealogy of public health. From the investigation of public health practices, the tensions produced by this concept are analyzed, giving visibility to those practices that demonstrate the public health experience as a force in the world of health.

  11. Understanding of how older adults with low vision obtain, process, and understand health information and services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyung Nam

    2017-10-16

    Twenty-five years after the Americans with Disabilities Act, there has still been a lack of advancement of accessibility in healthcare for people with visual impairments, particularly older adults with low vision. This study aims to advance understanding of how older adults with low vision obtain, process, and use health information and services, and to seek opportunities of information technology to support them. A convenience sample of 10 older adults with low vision participated in semi-structured phone interviews, which were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim for analysis. Participants shared various concerns in accessing, understanding, and using health information, care services, and multimedia technologies. Two main themes and nine subthemes emerged from the analysis. Due to the concerns, older adults with low vision tended to fail to obtain the full range of all health information and services to meet their specific needs. Those with low vision still rely on residual vision such that multimedia-based information which can be useful, but it should still be designed to ensure its accessibility, usability, and understandability.

  12. Current Challenge in Consumer Health Informatics: Bridging the Gap between Access to Information and Information Understanding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Alpay

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of health-related websites has proliferated over the past few years. Health information consumers confront a myriad of health related resources on the internet that have varying levels of quality and are not always easy to comprehend. There is thus a need to help health information consumers to bridge the gap between access to information and information understanding—i.e. to help consumers understand health related web-based resources so that they can act upon it. At the same time health information consumers are becoming not only more involved in their own health care but also more information technology minded. One way to address this issue is to provide consumers with tailored information that is contextualized and personalized e.g. directly relevant and easily comprehensible to the person’s own health situation. This paper presents a current trend in Consumer Health Informatics which focuses on theory-based design and development of contextualized and personalized tools to allow the evolving consumer with varying backgrounds and interests to use online health information efficiently. The proposed approach uses a theoretical framework of communication in order to support the consumer’s capacity to understand health-related web-based resources.

  13. Understanding mental health through reading selected literature sources: an evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKie, A; Gass, J P

    2001-04-01

    The increasing use of the humanities in nurse education provides an alternative means of facilitating students' understanding of health issues. In part, this contributes to a critique of rationalist-technological approaches to education where knowledge is reduced to abstract, discernable and measured units. A more communal approach to education recognises the place of interpretation as part of learning and, within this, the significance of dialogue, identity, tradition, attachment and partnership. The reading of works of literature is one way in which the reader interprets texts in a multiplicity of ways in order to more fully understand the 'real' world. Mental health offers particular opportunities for literary descriptions. The evaluation of a learning unit within a mental health nursing branch programme where students read a number of works of literature is outlined. Results indicate a variety of student responses to use of such an approach. The authors assert the usefulness of these approaches in encouraging deeper understanding of complex issues faced in mental health nursing practice. At the same time, however, careful consideration is given to the place of such approaches within the overall philosophy of a curriculum programme. Copyright 2001 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.

  14. Developing an understanding between people: the key to global health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, Alina

    2010-05-01

    Global health and international health are prominent concepts within development issues today. Health is at the heart of many of the Millennium Development Goals, and the idea of a human right to health and health care has taken more hold in the forefronts of our minds. In acknowledgement of the globalised and interdependent society in which we live, this reflective piece uses personal experiences of anthropology and travel throughout the author's medical education to illustrate the pressing need for a better understanding between health workers and local populations. Experiences in Ecuador, Peru, India and Nepal, highlight the plurality of medicine. They show how medical education in the UK forms only one part of medical knowledge, and in particular how clinical practice requires the appreciation of a wider context. Within a multi-cultural society, it is essential that medical students learn new skills for the future. Teaching Anthropology and Sociology within the curriculum in the UK can educate students about how knowledge is created within a culture and to appreciate the diversity between cultures. Consideration of patients' backgrounds and beliefs allows health workers to develop relationships with the local population, which can be of invaluable use in making global health equality a reality. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Health-related behaviors and technology usage among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melton, Bridget F; Bigham, Lauren E; Bland, Helen W; Bird, Matthew; Fairman, Ciaran

    2014-07-01

    To examine associations between technology usage and specific health factors among college students. The research employed was a quantitative, descriptive, cross-sectional design; undergraduate students enrolled in spring 2012 general health education courses were recruited to participate. To explore college students' specific technology usage and health-related behaviors, a 28-item questionnaire was utilized. Statistical significant differences of technology usage were found between 3 of the 4 health-related behaviors under study (BMI, sleep, and nutrition) (p technology usage continues to evolve within the college student population, health professionals need to understand its implications on health behaviors.

  16. Teaching Physics for Conceptual Understanding Exemplified for Einstein's Special Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Undreiu, Lucian M.

    2006-12-01

    In most liberal arts colleges the prerequisites for College Physics, Introductory or Calculus based, are strictly related to Mathematics. As a state of fact, the majorities of the students perceive Physics as a conglomerate of mathematical equations, a collection of facts to be memorized and they regard Physics as one of the most difficult subjects. A change of this attitude towards Physics, and Science in general, is intrinsically connected with the promotion of conceptual understanding and stimulation of critical thinking. In such an environment, the educators are facilitators, rather than the source of knowledge. One good way of doing this is to challenge the students to think about what they see around them and to connect physics with the real world. Motivation occurs when students realize that what was learned is interesting and relevant. Visual teaching aids such as educational videos or computer simulations, as well as computer-assisted experiments, can greatly enhance the effectiveness of a science lecture or laboratory. Difficult topics can be discussed through animated analogies. Special Relativity is recognized as a challenging topic and is probably one of the most misunderstood theories of Physics. While understanding Special Relativity requires a detachment from ordinary perception and every day life notions, animated analogies can prove to be very successful in making difficult topics accessible.

  17. Understanding HIV-related stigma among Indonesian nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waluyo, Agung; Culbert, Gabriel J; Levy, Judith; Norr, Kathleen F

    2015-01-01

    Evidence indicates widespread stigmatization of persons living with HIV (PLWH) in Indonesia. Such attitudes among health care workers could impede the country's policies for effective diagnosis and medical treatment of PLWH. Nonetheless, research to guide interventions to reduce stigma in health care settings is lacking. Also, the contributions of workplace, religion, and HIV knowledge to nurses' HIV-related stigma are poorly understood. Our cross-sectional study aimed to describe factors associated with nurses' stigmatizing attitudes toward PLWH. Four hundred nurses recruited from four hospitals in Jakarta, Indonesia, were surveyed using the Nurse AIDS Attitude Scale to measure stigma. Stigmatizing attitudes were significantly predicted by education, HIV training, perceived workplace stigma, religiosity, Islamic religious identification, and affiliation with the Islamic hospital. HIV knowledge was not a significant predictor of stigmatizing attitudes. Organization changes fostering workplace diversity are likely to substantially reduce stigmatizing attitudes in nurses. Copyright © 2015 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Boot Camp for Occupational Health Nurses: Understanding Social Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Debra M; Olszewski, Kimberly

    2015-08-01

    Social media is a buzzword frequently referred to in marketing materials, general media, and personal conversations. Although many refer to the term social media, some individuals do not understand its meaning or how it affects their daily lives at work and home. Since the expansion of the Internet to web 2.0, multiple platforms of communication occur virtually through various social media. Understanding and learning how to use these platforms are essential to stay connected with friends, family, and colleagues; advance connections to professional organizations; and extend educational opportunities. This article presents basic information for occupational health nurses to improve their understanding of social media and how to communicate virtually using different platforms safely and securely. © 2015 The Author(s).

  19. Top 10 Research Questions Related to Teaching Games for Understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memmert, Daniel; Almond, Len; Bunker, David; Butler, Joy; Fasold, Frowin; Griffin, Linda; Hillmann, Wolfgang; Hüttermann, Stefanie; Klein-Soetebier, Timo; König, Stefan; Nopp, Stephan; Rathschlag, Marco; Schul, Karsten; Schwab, Sebastian; Thorpe, Rod; Furley, Philip

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we elaborate on 10 current research questions related to the "teaching games for understanding" (TGfU) approach with the objective of both developing the model itself and fostering game understanding, tactical decision making, and game-playing ability in invasion and net/wall games: (1) How can existing scientific approaches from different disciplines be used to enhance game play for beginners and proficient players? (2) How can state-of-the-art technology be integrated to game-play evaluations of beginners and proficient players by employing corresponding assessments? (4) How can complexity thinking be utilized to shape day-to-day physical education (PE) and coaching practices? (5) How can game making/designing be helpfully utilized for emergent learning? (6) How could purposeful game design create constraints that enable tactical understanding and skill development through adaptive learning and distributed cognition? (7) How can teacher/coach development programs benefit from game-centered approaches? (8) How can TGfU-related approaches be implemented in teacher or coach education with the goal of facilitating preservice and in-service teachers/coaches' learning to teach and thereby foster their professional development from novices to experienced practitioners? (9) Can the TGfU approach be considered a helpful model across different cultures? (10) Can physical/psychomotor, cognitive, affective/social, and cultural development be fostered via TGfU approaches? The answers to these questions are critical not only for the advancement of teaching and coaching in PE and sport-based clubs, but also for an in-depth discussion on new scientific avenues and technological tools.

  20. Relationship between Health Literacy, Health-Related Behaviors and Health Status: A Survey of Elderly Chinese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong-Bing; Liu, Liu; Li, Yan-Fei; Chen, Yan-Li

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite the large volume of research dedicated to health-related behavior change, chronic disease costs continue to rise, thus creating a major public health burden. Health literacy, the ability to seek, understand, and utilize health information, has been identified as an important factor in the course of chronic conditions. Little research has been conducted on the relationship between health literacy and health-related behaviors and health status in elderly Chinese. The aim of this study was to elucidate the relationship between health literacy and health-related behaviors and health status in China. Methods: The subjects enrolled in this study were selected based on a stratified cluster random sampling design. Information involving >4500 older adults in 44 pension institutions in Urumqi, Changji, Karamay, and Shihezi of Xinjiang between September 2011 and June 2012 was collected. The Chinese Citizen Health Literacy Questionnaire (China Health Education Centre, 2008) and a Scale of the General Status were administered and the information was obtained through face-to-face inquiries by investigators. A total of 1452 respondents met the inclusion criteria. A total of 1452 questionnaires were issued and the valid response rate was 96.14% (1396 of 1452). Factors affecting health literacy and the relationship to health literacy were identified by one-way ANOVA and a multiple linear regression model. Results: The average health literacy level of the elderly in nursing homes was relatively low (71.74 ± 28.35 points). There were significant differences in the health literacy score among the factors of age, gender, race, education level, household income, marital conditions, and former occupation (p 0.05). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that the independent influencing factors of health literacy included education level, race, former occupation, household income, age, physical exercise, health examination, smoking, and health information access (p

  1. Understanding stigma in chronic health conditions: implications for nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engebretson, Joan

    2013-10-01

    This article explores the social processes in stigmatization and the theoretical background on the impact in chronic illness. Review of literature from social sciences and applications to health issues. Understanding the social utility of stigmatization in preserving social cohesion and protecting the social order is an important function. However, this process can be harmful when applied to persons with chronic illness, such as HIV-AIDS, and psychiatric illness. These individuals often become shamed, ostracized, isolated, discredited, and socially and economically marginalized. Recent theoretical work on stigma has identified several issues and patient responses that may have implications in many other chronic conditions. Stigma is based on visible or nonvisible health conditions and can be both externally imposed or perceived in a process of self-stigma. Understanding stigma can aid clinicians in providing supportive help for patients with chronic illness. Stigma has been well researched in a few chronic illnesses; however, future studies in other conditions are much needed. Recognizing the underlying social factors has potential use in health-promoting behaviors. Sensitivity to stigma allows health professionals to critically reflect on ways the healthcare environment may add to stigma for their patients. ©2013 The Author(s) ©2013 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  2. Understanding and managing change in health care organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaike, K

    1997-01-01

    Change impacts affected people and often causes difficulties. Health care organizations, locally and nationally, have undergone tremendous change to deliver quality services in a more effective and efficient manner in a competitive environment, with varying degrees of success. This article presents Robbins's categories of change and relates them to current changes in health care organizations. It discusses areas to consider to develop adaptable plans and to assist affected employees to better deal with these changes throughout the transition.

  3. Applying the reasoned action approach to understanding health protection and health risk behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Mark; McEachan, Rosemary; Lawton, Rebecca; Gardner, Peter

    2017-12-01

    The Reasoned Action Approach (RAA) developed out of the Theory of Reasoned Action and Theory of Planned Behavior but has not yet been widely applied to understanding health behaviors. The present research employed the RAA in a prospective design to test predictions of intention and action for groups of protection and risk behaviors separately in the same sample. To test the RAA for health protection and risk behaviors. Measures of RAA components plus past behavior were taken in relation to eight protection and six risk behaviors in 385 adults. Self-reported behavior was assessed one month later. Multi-level modelling showed instrumental attitude, experiential attitude, descriptive norms, capacity and past behavior were significant positive predictors of intentions to engage in protection or risk behaviors. Injunctive norms were only significant predictors of intention in protection behaviors. Autonomy was a significant positive predictor of intentions in protection behaviors and a negative predictor in risk behaviors (the latter relationship became non-significant when controlling for past behavior). Multi-level modelling showed that intention, capacity, and past behavior were significant positive predictors of action for both protection and risk behaviors. Experiential attitude and descriptive norm were additional significant positive predictors of risk behaviors. The RAA has utility in predicting both protection and risk health behaviors although the power of predictors may vary across these types of health behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A social ecological conceptual framework for understanding adolescent health literacy in the health education classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wharf Higgins, Joan; Begoray, Deborah; MacDonald, Marjorie

    2009-12-01

    With the rising concern over chronic health conditions and their prevention and management, health literacy is emerging as an important public health issue. As with the development of other forms of literacy, the ability for students to be able to access, understand, evaluate and communicate health information is a skill best developed during their years of public schooling. Health education curricula offer one approach to develop health literacy, yet little is known about its influence on neither students nor their experiences within an educational context. In this article, we describe our experience applying a social ecological model to investigating the implementation of a health education curriculum in four high schools in British Columbia, Canada. We used the model to guide a conceptual understanding of health literacy, develop research questions, select data collection strategies, and interpret the findings. Reflections and recommendations for using the model are offered.

  5. Simplification improves understanding of informed consent information in clinical trials regardless of health literacy level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Jin; Kim, Su Hyun

    2015-06-01

    This study evaluated the effect of a simplified informed consent form for clinical trials on the understanding and efficacy of informed consent information across health literacy levels. A total of 150 participants were randomly assigned to one of two groups and provided with either standard or simplified consent forms for a cancer clinical trial. The features of the simplified informed consent form included plain language, short sentences, diagrams, pictures, and bullet points. Levels of objective and subjective understanding were significantly higher in participants provided with simplified informed consent forms relative to those provided with standard informed consent forms. The interaction effects between type of consent form and health literacy level on objective and subjective understanding were nonsignificant. Simplified informed consent was effective in enhancing participant's subjective and objective understanding regardless of health literacy. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Top 10 Research Questions Related to Teaching Games for Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memmert, Daniel; Almond, Len; Bunker, David; Butler, Joy; Fasold, Frowin; Griffin, Linda; Hillmann, Wolfgang; Hüttermann, Stefanie; Klein-Soetebier, Timo; König, Stefan; Nopp, Stephan; Rathschlag, Marco; Schul, Karsten; Schwab, Sebastian; Thorpe, Rod; Furley, Philip

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we elaborate on 10 current research questions related to the “teaching games for understanding” (TGfU) approach with the objective of both developing the model itself and fostering game understanding, tactical decision making, and game-playing ability in invasion and net/wall games: (1) How can existing scientific approaches from different disciplines be used to enhance game play for beginners and proficient players? (2) How can state-of-the-art technology be integrated to game-play evaluations of beginners and proficient players by employing corresponding assessments? (4) How can complexity thinking be utilized to shape day-to-day physical education (PE) and coaching practices? (5) How can game making/designing be helpfully utilized for emergent learning? (6) How could purposeful game design create constraints that enable tactical understanding and skill development through adaptive learning and distributed cognition? (7) How can teacher/coach development programs benefit from game-centered approaches? (8) How can TGfU-related approaches be implemented in teacher or coach education with the goal of facilitating preservice and in-service teachers/coaches’ learning to teach and thereby foster their professional development from novices to experienced practitioners? (9) Can the TGfU approach be considered a helpful model across different cultures? (10) Can physical/psychomotor, cognitive, affective/social, and cultural development be fostered via TGfU approaches? The answers to these questions are critical not only for the advancement of teaching and coaching in PE and sport-based clubs, but also for an in-depth discussion on new scientific avenues and technological tools. PMID:26452580

  7. Understanding purposes of regulation: a case example in mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegenfuss, J T; Hadley, T

    1980-01-01

    This paper reviews the purposes of governmental regulation and how an exploration of purpose can contribute to our understanding of specific regulations. The primary regulatory purpose is defined as the achievement of quality control of a subject system, its process or its product. Quality control via regulation is achieved through one or a combination of approaches: (1) accountability, (2) organizational development, (3) protectionism. Regulatory purpose and approach is illustrated by a case example of the development of regulations for partial hospitalization mental health services.

  8. Gender relations and health research: a review of current practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bottorff Joan L

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The importance of gender in understanding health practices and illness experiences is increasingly recognized, and key to this work is a better understanding of the application of gender relations. The influence of masculinities and femininities, and the interplay within and between them manifests within relations and interactions among couples, family members and peers to influence health behaviours and outcomes. Methods To explore how conceptualizations of gender relations have been integrated in health research a scoping review of the existing literature was conducted. The key terms gender relations, gender interactions, relations gender, partner communication, femininities and masculinities were used to search online databases. Results Through analysis of this literature we identified two main ways gender relations were integrated in health research: a as emergent findings; and b as a basis for research design. In the latter, gender relations are included in conceptual frameworks, guide data collection and are used to direct data analysis. Conclusions Current uses of gender relations are typically positioned within intimate heterosexual couples whereby single narratives (i.e., either men or women are used to explore the influence and/or impact of intimate partner gender relations on health and illness issues. Recommendations for advancing gender relations and health research are discussed. This research has the potential to reduce gender inequities in health.

  9. Relationship between Health Literacy, Health-Related Behaviors and Health Status: A Survey of Elderly Chinese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Bing Liu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite the large volume of research dedicated to health-related behavior change, chronic disease costs continue to rise, thus creating a major public health burden. Health literacy, the ability to seek, understand, and utilize health information, has been identified as an important factor in the course of chronic conditions. Little research has been conducted on the relationship between health literacy and health-related behaviors and health status in elderly Chinese. The aim of this study was to elucidate the relationship between health literacy and health-related behaviors and health status in China. Methods: The subjects enrolled in this study were selected based on a stratified cluster random sampling design. Information involving >4500 older adults in 44 pension institutions in Urumqi, Changji, Karamay, and Shihezi of Xinjiang between September 2011 and June 2012 was collected. The Chinese Citizen Health Literacy Questionnaire (China Health Education Centre, 2008 and a Scale of the General Status were administered and the information was obtained through face-to-face inquiries by investigators. A total of 1452 respondents met the inclusion criteria. A total of 1452 questionnaires were issued and the valid response rate was 96.14% (1396 of 1452. Factors affecting health literacy and the relationship to health literacy were identified by one-way ANOVA and a multiple linear regression model. Results: The average health literacy level of the elderly in nursing homes was relatively low (71.74 ± 28.35 points. There were significant differences in the health literacy score among the factors of age, gender, race, education level, household income, marital conditions, and former occupation (p < 0.001. The health literacy score was significantly associated with smoking, drinking, physical exercise, and health examination (p < 0.001. The elderly with higher health literacy scores were significantly less likely to have risky behaviors

  10. Pharmaceutical industry marketing: understanding its impact on women's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sufrin, Carolyn B; Ross, Joseph S

    2008-09-01

    The delivery of modern health care entails significant involvement from the pharmaceutical industry, including developing and manufacturing drugs. However, the industry also has tremendous influence on the practice of medicine through its considerable marketing efforts, both to patients through direct to consumer advertising, and to physicians through detailing, providing samples, continuing medical education, and other efforts. This article will review the role that pharmaceutical marketing plays in health care, and the substantial evidence surrounding its influence on patient and physician behaviors, with additional discussion of the medical device industry, all with particular attention to women's health. Understanding the effects of pharmaceutical marketing on women's health, through discussion of relevant examples-including oral contraceptive pills, drugs for premenstrual dysphoric disorder, Pap smear cytology techniques, and neonatal herpes prophylaxis-will help ensure that women receive unbiased, evidenced-based care. We will conclude with a discussion of guidelines that have been proposed by professional organizations, policy makers, and universities, to assist physicians in managing exposure to pharmaceutical marketing.

  11. Approaches to health assessment related to housing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guerra Santin, O.

    2006-01-01

    This research had the purpose of providing more information about possible approaches and indicators to measure indoor health in relation to housing. In researches related with health and some Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) databases, the model used for health assessment is the Impact Pathway Analysis

  12. The anti-politics of health reform: household power relations and child health in rural Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Ellen E

    2009-04-01

    This article employs ethnographic evidence from rural Senegal to explore two dimensions of health sector reform. First, it makes the case that health reforms intersect with and exacerbate existing social, political, and economic inequalities. Current equity analysis draws attention to the ways that liberal and utilitarian frameworks for health reform fail to achieve distributive justice. The author's data suggest that horizontal power relations within households and small communities are equally important for understanding health disparities and the effects of health reform. Second, the article explores how liberal discourses of health reform, particularly calls for 'state-citizen partnerships' and 'responsiblization', promote depoliticised understandings of health. Discourses associated with health reform paradoxically highlight individual responsibility for health while masking the ways that individual health practice is constrained by structural inequalities.

  13. Boys Growing Up: Understanding Boys' Sexual Health Education and Its Implications for Attitude Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, B. M.; Kushner, S.

    Recent research has begun to examine heterosexual male behavior and the early experiences of masculinity. This pilot research project used naturalistic inquiry methodologies to investigate the experience and education of boys/young men in relation to matters of sexual health and masculinity and to develop an understanding of the relationship among…

  14. Understanding Undergraduate Student Perceptions of Mental Health, Mental Well-Being and Help-Seeking Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laidlaw, Anita; McLellan, Julie; Ozakinci, Gozde

    2016-01-01

    Despite relatively high levels of psychological distress, many students in higher education do not seek help for difficulties. This study explored undergraduate student understanding of the concepts of mental health and mental well-being and where undergraduate students would seek help for mental well-being difficulties. Semi-structured interviews…

  15. NHRIC (National Health Related Items Code)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Health Related Items Code (NHRIC) is a system for identification and numbering of marketed device packages that is compatible with other numbering...

  16. Consumers' knowledge, understanding, and attitudes toward health claims on food labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullmer, S; Geiger, C J; Parent, C R

    1991-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess consumers' knowledge of current fiber recommendations and their attitudes, understanding, and awareness of health claims on breakfast cereal labels. An incidental sample of 241 respondents was drawn from four grocery stores of a local chain in Utah. Data were collected using a computerized interviewing system. The results suggested that consumers with higher education levels had a better understanding of diet-disease-related messages and a more positive attitude toward health messages on food labels. Knowledge of fiber was significantly correlated with positive attitudes toward health messages and understanding of health messages. Overall, attitudes toward placing diet-disease-related messages on food labels were positive. On a scale of 1 through 250, the mean score was 182.5 +/- 37.5 standard deviation (73%). Consumer knowledge of fiber was low. Out of 15 possible points, the mean score for fiber knowledge questions was 8.8 +/- 2.1 (59%). Consumers were more familiar with the role fiber may play in the prevention or treatment of certain diseases or conditions than with sources, classifications, and recommended intakes of fiber. Understanding of health messages was relatively low (45%). Whereas consumer attitudes toward health messages on food labels were positive, consumers (especially less-educated consumers) did not appear to understand the messages well. These results reiterate the concern for public policymakers to exercise caution and ensure that health messages on food labels are responsible and accurate. The results should also remind dietetic practitioners, who are the nutrition experts, of their continual role in providing and ensuring accurate nutrition education to the public.

  17. Relation of Student Social Position to Consumer Attitudes and Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litro, Robert Frank

    1970-01-01

    A study of Connecticut high school students from different social positions found differences in consumer attitudes and understandings of money management, credit, insurance, and savings and investments. (CH)

  18. Understanding and managing organizational change: implications for public health management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Jon M

    2010-01-01

    Managing organizational change has become a significant responsibility of managers. Managing the change process within public health organizations is important because appropriately and systematically managing change is linked to improved organizational performance. However, change is difficult and the change process poses formidable challenges for managers. Managers themselves face increased pressure to respond to environmental influences and provide the necessary leadership to their organizations in the change process. In fact, managing organizational change has become a key competency for healthcare managers. This article addresses the important topic of organizational change in public health organizations. It provides a conceptual foundation for understanding organizational change and its relationship to healthcare organizational performance, and then discusses the types and nature of change, using some examples and evidence from those organizations that have successfully managed change. A framework for guiding public health managers in the change management process is provided. The article concludes with suggested management competencies to establish a change-oriented organization with the culture and capacity for change.

  19. Changes in health perceptions after exposure to human suffering: using discrete emotions to understand underlying processes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia A Paschali

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to examine whether exposure to human suffering is associated with negative changes in perceptions about personal health. We further examined the relation of possible health perception changes, to changes in five discrete emotions (i.e., fear, guilt, hostility/anger, and joviality, as a guide to understand the processes underlying health perception changes, provided that each emotion conveys information regarding triggering conditions. METHODOLOGY/FINDINGS: An experimental group (N = 47 was exposed to images of human affliction, whereas a control group (N = 47 was exposed to relaxing images. Participants in the experimental group reported more health anxiety and health value, as well as lower health-related optimism and internal health locus of control, in comparison to participants exposed to relaxing images. They also reported more fear, guilt, hostility and sadness, as well as less joviality. Changes in each health perception were related to changes in particular emotions. CONCLUSION: These findings imply that health perceptions are shaped in a constant dialogue with the representations about the broader world. Furthermore, it seems that the core of health perception changes lies in the acceptance that personal well-being is subject to several potential threats, as well as that people cannot fully control many of the factors the determine their own well-being.

  20. Understanding HIV-related posttraumatic stress disorder in South Africa: a review and conceptual framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Charles

    2011-06-01

    A number of epidemiological studies have attempted to measure the prevalence of HIV-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in sub-Saharan Africa. A systematic review of the literature identified eight relevant studies that put current estimates of the prevalence of HIV-related PTSD between 4.2% and 40%. Even the lower estimates suggest that PTSD in response to the trauma of being diagnosed and living with HIV is a significant mental health burden. However, a conceptual framework to advance our understanding of the prevalence and phenomenology of HIV-related PTSD is lacking. This article argues that the Ehlers & Clark (2000) cognitive model of PTSD provides a useful conceptual framework for understanding HIV-related PTSD in South Africa. The model emphasises the role of trauma appraisals in the development and maintenance of PTSD, which can also be usefully applied to some of the other psychological disorders associated with HIV infection. The model appears to fit some of the important research findings, and it offers insights into the relationships between HIV-related PTSD and other psychological disorders, HIV stigma, the high prevalence of non-HIV traumatic events, occasional problems with the delivery of antiretroviral drugs in the South African public health service, the unpredictable course of HIV illness, and the quality of HIV testing and counselling. Implications for individual treatment strategies and broader public health interventions are briefly discussed.

  1. Health locus of control, acculturation, and health-related Internet use among Latinas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncancio, Angelica M; Berenson, Abbey B; Rahman, Mahbubur

    2012-01-01

    Among individuals residing in the United States, the Internet is the third most used source for obtaining health information. Little is known, however, about its use by Latinas. To understand health-related Internet use among Latinas, the authors examined it within the theoretical frameworks of health locus of control and acculturation. The authors predicted that acculturation would serve as a mediator between health locus of control and health-related Internet use, age and health-related Internet use, income and health-related Internet use, and education and health-related Internet use. Data were collected via a 25-minute self-report questionnaire. The sample consisted of 932 young (M age = 21.27 years), low-income Latinas. Using structural equation modeling, the authors observed that acculturation partially mediated the relation between health locus of control and health-related Internet use and fully mediated the relations among age, income, and Internet use. An internal health locus of control (p income (p Internet use. The Internet is a powerful tool that can be used to effectively disseminate information to Latinas with limited access to health care professionals. These findings can inform the design of Internet-based health information dissemination studies targeting Latinas.

  2. Relational benefits and quality of relation – towards understanding of the ties between science and business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Grzegorczyk

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this article is to answer the question in what way relational marketing and in particular, the concept of relational benefits, as well as quality of relation may influence the transfer of knowledge and technologies from universities to business. Another goal is to highlight significant, future directions of research in this area. Integration of the theory of relational marketing and technology transfer may create a new framework for fuller understanding of the ties between science and business. Research in this area may contribute to the expansion and development of the theory of relational marketing, which until now was limited to the analysis of relations within a single sector. The results of conducted research show that ties characterized by high relational engagement are common, recognized by both academic and business environment as precious and play an important role in stimulating innovations. The quality of relations and relational benefits may play an important role in building long-term ties between universities and the industry. Integration of behavioural theories with the theory of technology transfer may contribute to a better understanding of the behaviour of particular participants of the transfer on the individual level.

  3. Understanding Resolvin Signaling Pathways to Improve Oral Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura De Oleo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of resolvins has been a major breakthrough for understanding the processes involved in resolution of inflammation. Resolvins belong to a family of novel lipid mediators that possess dual anti-inflammatory and pro-resolution actions. Specifically, they protect healthy tissue during immune-inflammatory responses to infection or injury, thereby aiding inflammation resolution and promoting tissue healing. One of the major concerns in modern medicine is the management and treatment of oral diseases, as they are related to systemic outcomes impacting the quality of life of many patients. This review summarizes known signaling pathways utilized by resolvins to regulate inflammatory responses associated with the oral cavity.

  4. Understanding the Relationships between mHealth Apps' Characteristics, Trialability, and mHealth Literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Trisha T C; Bautista, John Robert

    2017-04-01

    The widespread adoption of mobile phones has increased the potential of mHealth to improve health communication and health outcomes because these devices could serve as a ubiquitous and affordable means to disseminate health information to large populations. Given that mHealth apps offer free or limited trials as part of promotional strategies, potential users' trialability is a critical step of the preadoption process. Drawing from Rogers' diffusion of innovation theory, this study examines the relationships of adopters' perceived characteristics of mHealth apps (i.e., relative advantage, complexity, compatibility, and observability) with their trialability. It further investigates how the perceived control of mobile devices and trialability of mHealth apps influence two dimensions of mHealth literacy, namely seeking and appraisal of health information. This web survey recruited 295 young mHealth app users from a Singaporean university. Results of partial least squares regression show that the observability of mHealth apps is the only factor positively related to mHealth trialability. Perceived control of mobile devices and trialability of mHealth apps are positively associated with seeking and appraisal of health information. Practical and theoretical implications to mHealth are discussed.

  5. Undergraduate Nursing Students' Understandings of Mental Health: A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Sinead; Ward, Louise

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this literature review was to identify research and current literature surrounding nursing students' understandings of mental health. The aim is to share findings from an extensive international and national literature review exploring undergraduate nurse education specific to mental health content. Data were collected utilising a comprehensive search of electronic databases including CINAHL (EBSCO), MEDLINE, and PsycINFO 1987-(Ovid) from 2008 to 2016. The initial search terms were altered to include undergraduate, mental health, nursing, education, experience, and knowledge. Three content themes emerged which included: 1. Undergraduate nursing students' knowledge has been considered compromised due to concerns relating to the variation and inconsistencies within the comprehensive nursing curriculums representation of mental health, 2. Undergraduate nursing students knowledge of mental health is thought to be compromised due to the quality of mental health theoretical and experiential learning opportunities, and 3. Research indicates that nursing students' knowledge of mental health was influenced by their experience of undertaking mental health content. Based on these findings greater consideration of students' understandings of mental health is required.

  6. Understanding and Predicting Social Media Use Among Community Health Center Patients: A Cross-Sectional Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The use of social media by health care organizations is growing and provides Web-based tools to connect patients, caregivers, and providers. Objective The aim was to determine the use and factors predicting the use of social media for health care–related purposes among medically underserved primary care patients. Methods A cross-sectional survey was administered to 444 patients of a federally qualified community health center. Results Community health center patients preferred that their providers use email, cell phones for texting, and Facebook and cell phone apps for sharing health information. Significantly more Hispanic than white patients believed their providers should use Facebook (P=.001), YouTube (P=.01), and Twitter (P=.04) for sharing health information. Use and intentions to use social media for health-related purposes were significantly higher for those patients with higher subjective norm scores. Conclusions Understanding use and factors predicting use can increase adoption and utilization of social media for health care–related purposes among underserved patients in community health centers. PMID:25427823

  7. Defining health-related quality of life for young wheelchair users: A qualitative health economics study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan Bray

    Full Text Available Wheelchairs for children with impaired mobility provide health, developmental and psychosocial benefits, however there is limited understanding of how mobility aids affect the health-related quality of life of children with impaired mobility. Preference-based health-related quality of life outcome measures are used to calculate quality-adjusted life years; an important concept in health economics. The aim of this research was to understand how young wheelchair users and their parents define health-related quality of life in relation to mobility impairment and wheelchair use.The sampling frame was children with impaired mobility (≤18 years who use a wheelchair and their parents. Data were collected through semi-structured face-to-face interviews conducted in participants' homes. Qualitative framework analysis was used to analyse the interview transcripts. An a priori thematic coding framework was developed. Emerging codes were grouped into categories, and refined into analytical themes. The data were used to build an understanding of how children with impaired mobility define health-related quality of life in relation to mobility impairment, and to assess the applicability of two standard measures of health-related quality of life.Eleven children with impaired mobility and 24 parents were interviewed across 27 interviews. Participants defined mobility-related quality of life through three distinct but interrelated concepts: 1 participation and positive experiences; 2 self-worth and feeling fulfilled; 3 health and functioning. A good degree of consensus was found between child and parent responses, although there was some evidence to suggest a shift in perception of mobility-related quality of life with child age.Young wheelchair users define health-related quality of life in a distinct way as a result of their mobility impairment and adaptation use. Generic, preference-based measures of health-related quality of life lack sensitivity in this

  8. "What We Breathe Impacts Our Health: Improving Understanding of the Link between Air Pollution and Health".

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, J Jason; Cohen, Aaron; Dentener, Frank; Brunekreef, Bert; Zhu, Tong; Armstrong, Ben; Bell, Michelle L; Brauer, Michael; Carmichael, Gregory; Costa, Dan L; Dockery, Douglas W; Kleeman, Michael; Krzyzanowski, Michal; Künzli, Nino; Liousse, Catherine; Lung, Shih-Chun Candice; Martin, Randall V; Pöschl, Ulrich; Pope, C Arden; Roberts, James M; Russell, Armistead G; Wiedinmyer, Christine

    2016-05-17

    Air pollution contributes to the premature deaths of millions of people each year around the world, and air quality problems are growing in many developing nations. While past policy efforts have succeeded in reducing particulate matter and trace gases in North America and Europe, adverse health effects are found at even these lower levels of air pollution. Future policy actions will benefit from improved understanding of the interactions and health effects of different chemical species and source categories. Achieving this new understanding requires air pollution scientists and engineers to work increasingly closely with health scientists. In particular, research is needed to better understand the chemical and physical properties of complex air pollutant mixtures, and to use new observations provided by satellites, advanced in situ measurement techniques, and distributed micro monitoring networks, coupled with models, to better characterize air pollution exposure for epidemiological and toxicological research, and to better quantify the effects of specific source sectors and mitigation strategies.

  9. Talking about your health to strangers: understanding the use of online social networks by patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colineau, Nathalie; Paris, Cécile

    2010-04-01

    The internet has become a participatory place where everyone can contribute and interact with others. In health in particular, social media have changed traditional patient-physician relationships. Patients are organising themselves in groups, sharing observations and helping each other, although there is still little evidence of the effectiveness of these online communities on people's health. To understand why and how people use health-related sites, we studied these sites and identified three dimensions characterising most of them: informational/supportive; general/focused; and new relationships/existing ones. We conducted an online survey about the use of health-related social networking (SN) sites and learnt that, consistent with previous research, most patients were seeking information about their medical condition online, while, at the same time, still interacting with health professionals to talk about sensitive information and complex issues. We also found that, while people's natural social network played an important role for emotional support, sometimes, people chose to not involve their family, but instead interact with peers online because of their perceived support and ability to understand someone's experience, and also to maintain a comfortable emotional distance. Finally, our results show that people using general SN sites do not necessarily use health-related sites and vice versa.

  10. Gender Differences in Lunar-Related Scientific and Mathematical Understandings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports an examination on gender differences in lunar phases understanding of 123 students (70 females and 53 males). Middle-level students interacted with the Moon through observations, sketching, journalling, two-dimensional and three-dimensional modelling, and classroom discussions. These lunar lessons were adapted from the Realistic…

  11. Understanding health through social practices: performance and materiality in everyday life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maller, Cecily Jane

    2015-01-01

    The importance of recognising structure and agency in health research to move beyond methodological individualism is well documented. To progress incorporating social theory into health, researchers have used Giddens' and Bourdieu's conceptualisations of social practice to understand relationships between agency, structure and health. However, social practice theories have more to offer than has currently been capitalised upon. This article delves into contemporary theories of social practice as used in consumption and sustainability research to provide an alternative, and more contextualised means, of understanding and explaining human action in relation to health and wellbeing. Two key observations are made. Firstly, the latest formulations of social practice theory distinguish moments of practice performance from practices as persistent entities across time and space, allowing empirical application to explain practice histories and future trajectories. Secondly, they emphasise the materiality of everyday life, foregrounding things, technologies and other non-humans that cannot be ignored in a technologically dependent social world. In concluding, I argue the value of using contemporary social practice theories in health research is that they reframe the way in which health outcomes can be understood and could inform more effective interventions that move beyond attitudes, behaviour and choices. © 2015 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2015 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Peer relations, adolescent behavior, and public health research and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosnoe, Robert; McNeely, Clea

    2008-01-01

    Peer relations are central to adolescent life and, therefore, are crucial to understanding adolescents' engagement in various behaviors. In recent years, public health research has increasingly devoted attention to the implications of peer relations for the kinds of adolescent behaviors that have a direct impact on health. This article advocates for a continuation of this trend. With this aim, we highlight key themes in the rich literature on the general developmental significance of adolescent-peer relations, provide an overview of how these themes have been incorporated into public health research and practice, and suggest future avenues for peer-focused public health research that can inform adolescent health promotion in the United States.

  13. From Headline to Hard Grind: The Importance of Understanding Public Administration in Achieving Health Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Flynn, Janine

    2016-01-01

    Many public policy programs fail to translate ambitious headlines to on-the-ground action. The reasons for this are many and varied, but for public administration and management scholars a large part of the gap between ambition and achievement is the challenge associated with the operation of the machinery of government itself, and how it relates to the other parties that it relies on to fulfill these outcomes. In their article, Carey and Friel set out key reasons why public health scholars should seek to better understand important ideas in public administration. In commenting on their contribution, I draw out two critical questions that are raised by this discussion: (i) what are boundaries and what forms do they take? and (ii) why work across boundaries? Expanding on these key questions extends the points made by Carey and Friel on the importance of understanding public administration and will better place public health scholars and practitioners to realise health outcomes. PMID:27694672

  14. From loquacious to reticent: understanding patient health information communication to guide consumer health IT design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Rupa S; Guterbock, Thomas M; Fitzgibbon, Kara; Williams, Ishan C; Wellbeloved-Stone, Claire A; Bears, Jaime E; Menefee, Hannah K

    2017-07-01

    It is increasingly recognized that some patients self-manage in the context of social networks rather than alone. Consumer health information technology (IT) designed to support socially embedded self-management must be responsive to patients' everyday communication practices. There is an opportunity to improve consumer health IT design by explicating how patients currently leverage social media to support health information communication. The objective of this study was to determine types of health information communication patterns that typify Facebook users with chronic health conditions to guide consumer health IT design. Seven hundred participants with type 2 diabetes were recruited through a commercial survey access panel. Cluster analysis was used to identify distinct approaches to health information communication both on and off Facebook. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) methods were used to identify demographic and behavioral differences among profiles. Secondary analysis of qualitative interviews ( n  = 25) and analysis of open-ended survey questions were conducted to understand participant rationales for each profile. Our analysis yielded 7 distinct health information communication profiles. Five of 7 profiles had consistent patterns both on and off Facebook, while the remaining 2 demonstrated distinct practices, with no health information communication on Facebook but some off Facebook. One profile was distinct from all others in both health information communication practices and demographic composition. Rationales for following specific health information communication practices were categorized under 6 themes: altruism, instrumental support, social support, privacy and stigma, convenience, and Facebook knowledge. Facebook has been widely adopted for health information communication; This study demonstrates that Facebook has been widely adopted for health information communication. It also shows that the ways in which patients communicate health

  15. Physician's emerging roles relating to trends in health information technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Johnson, J

    2014-08-12

    Objective: To determine the new roles that physicians will adopt in the near future to adjust to accelerating trends from managed care to outcome-based practice to health care reform to health information technology to the evolving role of health consumers. Methods: Trends and related developments concerning the changing roles of physicians based on prior literature reviews. Results: Six possible roles, traditional, gatekeeper, coach, navigator, informatician and one voice among many, are discussed in terms of physician's centrality, patient autonomy, decision-making and uncertainty, information seeking, satisfaction and outcomes, particularly those related to compliance. Conclusion: A greater understanding of these emerging roles could lead to more efficacious outcomes in our ever changing, increasingly complex medical system. Patients often have little understanding of emerging trends that lead to the development of specialized roles such as hospitalist and navigators and, relatedly, the evolving roles of physicians.

  16. Individual Differences on Job Stress and Related Ill Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miodraga Stefanovska Petkovska

    2014-03-01

    Conclusion: Employees are exposed to many potential work related stressors which differently affect their job satisfaction and result in ill health. A better understanding of the individual characteristics and potential stressors should subsequently help managers' better deal with this problem. This underlines the need for further research and design of stress reduction interventions.

  17. Adapting public policy theory for public health research: A framework to understand the development of national policies on global health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Catherine M; Clavier, Carole; Potvin, Louise

    2017-03-01

    National policies on global health appear as one way that actors from health, development and foreign affairs sectors in a country coordinate state action on global health. Next to a burgeoning literature in which international relations and global governance theories are employed to understand global health policy and global health diplomacy at the international level, little is known about policy processes for global health at the national scale. We propose a framework of the policy process to understand how such policies are developed, and we identify challenges for public health researchers integrating conceptual tools from political science. We developed the framework using a two-step process: 1) reviewing literature to establish criteria for selecting a theoretical framework fit for this purpose, and 2) adapting Real-Dato's synthesis framework to integrate a cognitive approach to public policy within a constructivist perspective. Our framework identifies multiple contexts as part of the policy process, focuses on situations where actors work together to make national policy on global health, considers these interactive situations as spaces for observing external influences on policy change and proposes policy design as the output of the process. We suggest that this framework makes three contributions to the conceptualisation of national policy on global health as a research object. First, it emphasizes collective action over decisions of individual policy actors. Second, it conceptualises the policy process as organised interactive spaces for collaboration rather than as stages of a policy cycle. Third, national decision-making spaces are opportunities for transferring ideas and knowledge from different sectors and settings, and represent opportunities to identify international influences on a country's global health policy. We discuss two sets of challenges for public health researchers using interdisciplinary approaches in policy research. Copyright

  18. One Health: Understanding and Improving Human, Animal, and Environmental Health as a Connected System Across NOAA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giltz, S.; Trtanj, J.; Jones, H.

    2017-12-01

    The One Health concept recognizes that the health of humans is inextricably linked with the health of animals and the environment. With a growing world population, changing climate, and increased global travel One Health approaches are increasingly useful. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) provides key stakeholders in the public health sector with the environmental intelligence they need to mitigate emerging health threats. The NOAA One Health Working Group's mission is to integrate and coordinate the network of observing systems and in situ sensors, detection and diagnostic capacity, research and modeling efforts, and sustained engagement with health partners to deliver useful information to public health and resource management communities. The NOAA One Health group divides its broad focus into themes: thermal extremes, water-borne disease, seafood security, Arctic, wildlife and zoonotic disease, vector-borne disease, and air quality (including wildfire). The group connects the work being done throughout NOAA to coordinate One Health related efforts, increase information sharing, promote interdisciplinary approaches, and work towards better disease prevention. We are working to enhance NOAA Science and services to deliver useful information on current and emerging health risks and benefits to health decision makers.

  19. Measuring physical neighborhood quality related to health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollings, Kimberly A; Wells, Nancy M; Evans, Gary W

    2015-04-29

    Although sociodemographic factors are one aspect of understanding the effects of neighborhood environments on health, equating neighborhood quality with socioeconomic status ignores the important role of physical neighborhood attributes. Prior work on neighborhood environments and health has relied primarily on level of socioeconomic disadvantage as the indicator of neighborhood quality without attention to physical neighborhood quality. A small but increasing number of studies have assessed neighborhood physical characteristics. Findings generally indicate that there is an association between living in deprived neighborhoods and poor health outcomes, but rigorous evidence linking specific physical neighborhood attributes to particular health outcomes is lacking. This paper discusses the methodological challenges and limitations of measuring physical neighborhood environments relevant to health and concludes with proposed directions for future work.

  20. Understanding HIV-related posttraumatic stress disorder in South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A number of epidemiological studies have attempted to measure the prevalence of HIV-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in sub-Saharan Africa. A systematic review of the literature identified eight relevant studies that put current estimates of the prevalence of HIV-related PTSD between 4.2% and 40%. Even the ...

  1. [Anthropology, ethnography, and narrative: intersecting paths in understanding the processes of health and sickness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Gabriela M C; Gualda, Dulce M R

    2010-12-01

    The article discusses anthropology, ethnographic method, and narrative as possible ways of coming to know subjects' experiences and the feelings they attribute to them. From an anthropological perspective, the sociocultural universe is taken as a point of reference in understanding the meaning of the processes of health and sickness, using a dense ethnographic description from an interpretivist analytical approach. In this context, narratives afford possible paths to understanding how subjective human experiences are shared and how behavior is organized, with a special focus on meaning, the process by which stories are produced, relations between narrator and other subjects, processes of knowledge, and the manifold ways in which experience can be captured.

  2. The utility of resilience as a conceptual framework for understanding and measuring LGBTQ health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colpitts, Emily; Gahagan, Jacqueline

    2016-04-06

    Historically, lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and queer (LGBTQ) health research has focused heavily on the risks for poor health outcomes, obscuring the ways in which LGBTQ populations maintain and improve their health across the life course. In this paper we argue that informing culturally competent health policy and systems requires shifting the LGBTQ health research evidence base away from deficit-focused approaches toward strengths-based approaches to understanding and measuring LGBTQ health. We recently conducted a scoping review with the aim of exploring strengths-based approaches to LGBTQ health research. Our team found that the concept of resilience emerged as a key conceptual framework. This paper discusses a subset of our scoping review findings on the utility of resilience as a conceptual framework in understanding and measuring LGBTQ health. The findings of our scoping review suggest that the ways in which resilience is defined and measured in relation to LGBTQ populations remains contested. Given that LGBTQ populations have unique lived experiences of adversity and discrimination, and may also have unique factors that contribute to their resilience, the utility of heteronormative and cis-normative models of resilience is questionable. Our findings suggest that there is a need to consider further exploration and development of LGBTQ-specific models and measures of resilience that take into account structural, social, and individual determinants of health and incorporate an intersectional lens. While we fully acknowledge that the resilience of LGBTQ populations is central to advancing LGBTQ health, there remains much work to be done before the concept of resilience can be truly useful in measuring LGBTQ health.

  3. Understanding undergraduate student perceptions of mental health, mental well-being and help-seeking behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Laidlaw, Anita Helen; McLellan, Julie; Ozakinci, Gozde

    2016-01-01

    Funding: Medical School, University of St Andrews Despite relatively high levels of psychological distress, many students in higher education do not seek help for difficulties. This study explored undergraduate student understanding of the concepts of mental health and mental well-being and where undergraduate students would seek help for mental well-being difficulties. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with 20 undergraduate students from 5 different subject areas. Interviews wer...

  4. Understanding informal payments for health care: the example of Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balabanova, Dina; McKee, Martin

    2002-12-01

    Throughout the 1990s, in response to funding deficits, out-of-pocket payment has grown as a share of total expenditure in countries in transition. A clear policy response to informal payments is, however, lacking. The current study explores informal payments in Bulgaria within a conceptual framework developed by triangulating information using a variety of methodologies. To estimate the scale and determinants of informal payments in the health sector of Bulgaria and to identify who benefits, the characteristics and timing of payments, and the reasons for paying. Data were derived from a national representative survey of 1547 individuals complemented by in-depth interviews and focus groups with over 100 respondents, conducted in Bulgaria in 1997. Informal payments are defined as a monetary or in-kind transaction between a patient and a staff member for services that are officially free of charge in the state sector. Informal payments are relatively common in Bulgaria, especially if in the form of gifts. Informal cash payments are universal for operations and childbirth, clear-cut and life-threatening procedures, in hospitals or elite urban facilities or well-known physicians. Most gifts were given at the end of treatment and most cash payments-before or during treatment. Wealthier, better educated, younger respondents tend to pay more often, as a means of obtaining better-quality treatment in a de facto two-tier system. Since the transition, informal payments had become frequent, explicit, solicited by staff, increasingly in cash, and less affordable. Informal payments stem from the low income of staff, patients seeking better treatment; acute funding shortages; and from tradition. Attitudes to informal payments range from strongly negative (if solicited) to tolerant (if patient-initiated), depending on the circumstances. The study provides important new insights into the incidence and nature of informal payments in the health sector in Bulgaria. Payments were less

  5. Understanding News Values: Secret to Good Public Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oates, Rita Haugh

    1981-01-01

    Explains the news values that journalists use. Shows English teachers and administrators how they can apply this knowledge of news media to improve public relations between the school and the community. (RL)

  6. Australia's international health relations in 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraclough, Simon

    2005-02-21

    A survey for the year 2003 of significant developments in Australia's official international health relations, and their domestic ramifications, is presented. The discussion is set within the broader context of Australian foreign policy. Sources include official documents, media reports and consultations with officers of the Department of Health and Ageing responsible for international linkages.

  7. Workplace health understandings and processes in small businesses: a systematic review of the qualitative literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacEachen, Ellen; Kosny, Agnieszka; Scott-Dixon, Krista; Facey, Marcia; Chambers, Lori; Breslin, Curtis; Kyle, Natasha; Irvin, Emma; Mahood, Quenby

    2010-06-01

    Small businesses (SBs) play an important role in global economies, employ half of all workers, and pose distinct workplace health problems. This systematic review of qualitative peer-reviewed literature was carried out to identify and synthesize research findings about how SB workplace parties understand and enact processes related to occupational health and safety (OHS). The review was conducted as part of a larger mixed-method review and in consultation with stakeholders. A comprehensive literature search identified 5067 studies. After screening for relevance, 20 qualitative articles were identified. Quality assessment led to 14 articles of sufficient quality to be included in the meta-ethnographic findings synthesis. This review finds that SBs have distinctive social relations of work, apprehensions of workplace risk, and legislative requirements. Eight themes were identified that consolidate knowledge on how SB workplace parties understand OHS hazards, how they manage risk and health problems, and how broader structures, policies and systems shape the practice of workplace health in SBs. The themes contribute to 'layers of evidence' that address SB work and health phenomena at the micro (e.g. employer or worker behavior), meso (e.g. organizational dynamics) and macro (e.g. state policy) levels. This synthesis details the unique qualities and conditions of SBs that merit particular attention from planners and occupational health policy makers. In particular, the informal workplace social relations can limit workers' and employers' apprehension of risk, and policy and complex contractual conditions in which SBs are often engaged (such as chains of subcontracting) can complicate occupational health responsibilities. This review questions the utility of SB exemptions from OHS regulations and suggests a legislative focus on the particular needs of SBs. It considers ways that workers might activate their own workplace health concerns, and suggests that more

  8. Health Related Outcomes of Successful Development

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kebza, V.; Šolcová, Iva; Kodl, M.; Kernová, V.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 1 (2016), s. 76-82 ISSN 1210-7778 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : successful development * longitudinal study * health -related variables Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 0.682, year: 2016

  9. Income-related inequality in health and health-related behaviour: exploring the equalisation hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    Vallejo-Torres, Laura; Hale, Daniel; Morris, Stephen; Viner, Russell M

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous studies have found the socioeconomic gradient in health among adolescents to be lower than that observed during childhood and adulthood. The aim of this study was to examine income-related inequalities in health and health-related behaviour across the lifespan in England to explore ‘equalisation’ in adolescence. Methods We used five years of data (2006–2010) from the Health Survey for England to explore inequalities in six indicators: self-assessed general health, longstan...

  10. Understanding persuasion contexts in health gamification: A systematic analysis of gamified health behavior change support systems literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alahäivälä, Tuomas; Oinas-Kukkonen, Harri

    2016-12-01

    Gamification is increasingly used as a design strategy when developing behavior change support systems in the healthcare domain. It is commonly agreed that understanding the contextual factors is critical for successful gamification, but systematic analyses of the persuasive contexts have been lacking so far within gamified health intervention studies. Through a persuasion context analysis of the gamified health behavior change support systems (hBCSSs) literature, we inspect how the contextual factors have been addressed in the prior gamified health BCSS studies. The implications of this study are to provide the practitioners and researchers examples of how to conduct a systematic analysis to help guide the design and research on gamified health BCSSs. The ideas derived from the analysis of the included studies will help identify potential pitfalls and shortcomings in both the research and implementations of gamified health behavior change support systems. We systematically analyzed the persuasion contexts of 15 gamified health intervention studies. According to our results, gamified hBCSSs are implemented under different facets of lifestyle change and treatments compliance, and use a multitude of technologies and methods. We present a set of ideas and concepts to help improve endeavors in studying gamified health intervention through comprehensive understanding of the persuasive contextual factors. Future research on gamified hBCSSs should systematically compare the different combinations of contextual factors, related theories, chosen gamification strategies, and the study of outcomes to help understand how to achieve the most efficient use of gamification on the different aspects of healthcare. Analyzing the persuasion context is essential to achieve this. With the attained knowledge, those planning health interventions can choose the 'tried-and-tested' approaches for each particular situation, rather than develop solutions in an ad-hoc manner. Copyright © 2016

  11. Health related smartphone applications: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantelis Stergiannis

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The rapid evolution of technology, has offered access to a variety of applications and technologies to healthcare professionals. New operating systems developed in the field of mobile devices revolutionized the way in which they are used. One of the main features offered by advanced software of a smartphone is the user’s access to a wealth of new, impressive applications across several operating systems for smartphones. The health related applications provided through smartphones, promote more active involvement of patients and healthcare professionals to provided care and are a new tool for improving health. The purpose of this abstract paper or article was to refer to applications currently used in the health sector, indicating specific capabilities they offer through review of electronic literature, focusing on scientific articles published in databases (PubMed, Scopus, etc. referring to the potentials they offer. It seems that several health related applications have been developed, that can be classified into two main categories. One category comprises applications that are informative, i.e. provide information to the user about health issues, allowing a person to read, gather resources to make decisions, but also to introduce its own data. These applications are mostly used by health care professionals. The second major category of applications refers to those related to help with the diagnosis, treatment and decision-making on various health related issues and in some cases take the form of consultancy, substituting the health care professional. As technology advances, the development of new health related applications is expected, specialized, with new features. Finally, the use of such applications by health care professionals is essential.

  12. Assessing Community Leadership: Understanding Community Capacity for Health Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, Billie; Wendel, Monica; Kelly Pryor, Brandy N; Ingram, Monique

    The purpose of this study was to pilot a quantitative instrument to measure aspects of community leadership within an assessment framework. The instrument includes 14 Likert-type questions asking residents how they perceive leaders within 5 sectors: Louisville Metro Council/Mayor's Office, the faith community, education, business, and the civic sector. Louisville/Jefferson County, Kentucky, has a population of about 743 000 residents. Respondents were asked to examine leadership within West Louisville, an economically deprived area of the city made up of 9 contiguous neighborhoods. This area is predominantly African American (78% compared with 22% in Louisville Metro), with an overall poverty rate of 43% (compared with 18% in Louisville Metro), and unemployment rate of 23% (compared with 8% in Louisville Metro). Residents of West Louisville are looking to leadership to address many of the inequities. Twenty-seven participants representing 7 community sectors completed the survey, of whom 90% work in West Louisville. The instrument measured local perceptions of leadership strength, effectiveness, trust, communication, community building, and leadership development. The majority of respondents agree that strong leadership exists across the 5 sectors, with variation regarding perceptions of the quality of that leadership. City leadership within the Mayor's Office and Metro Council is largely viewed positively, while the growing tensions within the education sector were reflected in the survey results. The perception of community leadership is important to understanding local community capacity to improve health and also inclusivity of community voice in the assessment and community improvement processes. Results from such assessments can offer useful information for strengthening community capacity and sustaining relationships needed to enact progressive and equitable solutions to address local issues. Leaders in a variety of settings can utilize this instrument to

  13. Understanding abortion-related stigma and incidence of unsafe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Young unmarried women bore the brunt of being stigmatized. They reported a lack of a supportive environment that provides guidance on correct information on how to prevent unwanted pregnancy and where to get help. Abortion-related stigma plays a major role in women's decision on whether to have a safe or unsafe ...

  14. Probing Students' Understanding of Some Conceptual Themes in General Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Atanu; Kumar, Arvind

    2010-01-01

    This work is an attempt to see how physics undergraduates view the basic ideas of general relativity when they are exposed to the topic in a standard introductory course. Since the subject is conceptually and technically difficult, we adopted a "case studies" approach, focusing in depth on about six students who had just finished a one semester…

  15. A new public health context to understand male sex work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minichiello, Victor; Scott, John; Callander, Denton

    2015-03-24

    Researching male sex work offers insight into the sexual lives of men and women while developing a more realistic appreciation for the changing issues associated with male sex work. This type of research is important because it not only reflects a growing and diversifying consumer demand for male sex work, but also because it enables the construction of knowledge that is up-to-date with changing ideas around sex and sexualities. This paper discusses a range of issues emerging in the male sex industry. Notably, globalisation and technology have contributed to the normalisation of male sex work and reshaped the landscape in which the male sex industry operates. As part of this discussion, we review STI and HIV rates among male sex workers at a global level, which are widely disparate and geographically contextual, with rates of HIV among male sex workers ranging from 0% in some areas to 50% in others. The Internet has reshaped the way that male sex workers and clients connect and has been identified as a useful space for safer sex messages and research that seeks out hidden or commonly excluded populations. We argue for a public health context that recognises the emerging and changing nature of male sex work, which means programs and policies that are appropriate for this population group. Online communities relating to male sex work are important avenues for safer sexual messages and unique opportunities to reach often excluded sub-populations of both clients and male sex workers. The changing structure and organisation of male sex work alongside rapidly changing cultural, academic and medical discourses provide new insight but also new challenges to how we conceive the sexualities of men and male sex workers. Public health initiatives must reflect upon and incorporate this knowledge.

  16. Toward a better understanding of the impact of mass transit air pollutants on human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki-Hyun; Kumar, Pawan; Szulejko, Jan E; Adelodun, Adedeji A; Junaid, Muhammad Faisal; Uchimiya, Minori; Chambers, Scott

    2017-05-01

    Globally, modern mass transport systems whether by road, rail, water, or air generate airborne pollutants in both developing and developed nations. Air pollution is the primary human health concern originating from modern transportation, particularly in densely-populated urban areas. This review will specifically focus on the origin and the health impacts of carbonaceous traffic-related air pollutants (TRAP), including particulate matter (PM), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and elemental carbon (EC). We conclude that the greatest current challenge regarding urban TRAP is understanding and evaluating the human health impacts well enough to set appropriate pollution control measures. Furthermore, we provide a detailed discussion regarding the effects of TRAP on local environments and pedestrian health in low and high traffic-density environments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Understanding health-related quality of life in caregivers of civilians and service members/veterans with traumatic brain injury: Establishing the reliability and validity of PROMIS Fatigue and Sleep Disturbance item banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlozzi, Noelle E; Ianni, Phillip A; Tulsky, David S; Brickell, Tracey A; Lange, Rael T; French, Louis M; Cella, David; Kallen, Michael A; Miner, Jennifer A; Kratz, Anna L

    2018-06-19

    To examine the reliability and validity of Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) measures of sleep disturbance and fatigue in TBI caregivers and to determine the severity of fatigue and sleep disturbance in these caregivers. Cross-sectional survey data collected through an online data capture platform. Four rehabilitation hospitals and Walter Reed National Military Medical Center. Caregivers (N=560) of civilians (n=344) and service member/veterans (n=216) with TBI. Not Applicable MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: PROMIS sleep and fatigue measures administered as both computerized adaptive tests (CATs) and 4-item short forms (SFs). For both samples, floor and ceiling effects for the PROMIS measures were low (internal consistency was very good (all alphas ≥0.80), and test-retest reliability was acceptable (all r≥0.70 except for the fatigue CAT in the service member/veteran sample r=0.63). Convergent validity was supported by moderate correlations between the PROMIS and related measures. Discriminant validity was supported by low correlations between PROMIS measures and measures of dissimilar constructs. PROMIS scores indicated significantly worse sleep and fatigue for those caring for someone with high levels versus low levels of impairment. Findings support the reliability and validity of the PROMIS CAT and SF measures of sleep disturbance and fatigue in caregivers of civilians and service members/veterans with TBI. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. A relational framework for understanding bullying: Developmental antecedents and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodkin, Philip C; Espelage, Dorothy L; Hanish, Laura D

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews current research on the relational processes involved in peer bullying, considering developmental antecedents and long-term consequences. The following themes are highlighted: (a) aggression can be both adaptive and maladaptive, and this distinction has implications for bullies' functioning within peer social ecologies; (b) developmental antecedents and long-term consequences of bullying have not been well-distinguished from the extant research on aggressive behavior; (c) bullying is aggression that operates within relationships of power and abuse. Power asymmetry and repetition elements of traditional bullying definitions have been hard to operationalize, but without these specifications and more dyadic measurement approaches there may be little rationale for a distinct literature on bullying--separate from aggression. Applications of a relational approach to bullying are provided using gender as an example. Implications for future research are drawn from the study of relationships and interpersonal theories of developmental psychopathology. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Understanding value in health data ecosystems: A review of current evidence and ways forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonja, Marjanovic; Ioana, Ghiga; Miaoqing, Yang; Anna, Knack

    2018-01-01

    The potential of health data to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of health research and development, healthcare delivery, and health systems more widely is substantial. There are many initiatives across the EU that are experimenting with ways to capture value and address the nexus of technical, legal, ethics-related, governance and data protection-related, and cultural challenges to delivering potential benefits for society and the economy. The field of health data research and policy is highly dynamic and there is a need for further reflection, thematic learning and evaluation to better understand how to create and connect receptive places, to inform future interventions and to identify transferable lessons. Our research emphasises that realising the benefits of health data at scale will require: a simultaneous focus on the technological and structural conditions that are required; collaboration and coordination to transform working cultures and build health and care workforce and citizen capacity to engage with data; and efforts to ensure that policy, industry, and research communities respond to public concerns, needs, and expectations in a timely and sustained manner. The global community of individuals and organisations with a stake in health data will also need to consider how progress can benefit different populations across the world in an equitable manner.

  20. Building-related health impacts in European and Chinese cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuomisto, Jouni T; Niittynen, Marjo; Pärjälä, Erkki

    2015-01-01

    consumption of buildings. In addition, the model should be usable for policy comparisons by non-health experts on city level with city-specific data, it should give guidance on the particular climate mitigation questions but at the same time increase understanding on the related health impacts and the model......BACKGROUND: Public health is often affected by societal decisions that are not primarily about health. Climate change mitigation requires intensive actions to minimise greenhouse gas emissions in the future. Many of these actions take place in cities due to their traffic, buildings, and energy...... consumption. Active climate mitigation policies will also, aside of their long term global impacts, have short term local impacts, both positive and negative, on public health. Our main objective was to develop a generic open impact model to estimate health impacts of emissions due to heat and power...

  1. Functional health literacy and healthy eating: Understanding the brazilian food guide recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Auristela Magalhães Coelho

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the relationship between the functional health literacy of Unified Heath System users and the understanding of food servings in the pocket version of the Brazilian Food Guide. Methods: Functional health literacy was assessed by the Brief Test of functional health literacy. Two dialogue rounds were conducted with patients with adequate functional health literacy (Group 1 and inadequate functional health literacy (Group 2. The dialogues were recorded and analyzed according to the discourse of the collective subject. Results: Most (58.0% users had inadequate functional health literacy. Five core areas were identified: understands serving sizes; does not understand serving sizes; serving sizes are confusing; unfamiliar/uncommon foods; small letters. Group 2 had more trouble understanding. Conclusion: Difficulty understanding hinders health promotion. Individuals need to have access to educational materials that are easier to understand and developed taking their functional health literacy into account.

  2. A Guide for Understanding Health Education and Promotion Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Richard W; Nahar, Vinayak K

    2018-03-01

    Planning, Implementing & Evaluating Health Promotion Programs: A Primer is a versatile and comprehensive resource on the theoretical and practical underpinnings of successful health promotion programs. The requirements for effective health promotion program development are presented with frequent use of practical planning examples, pedagogical devices, and expert rationale. Ideal for undergraduate and graduate students in health education, promotion, and planning courses, this 15-chapter textbook is organized in a manner that specifically addresses the responsibilities and competencies required of health education specialists as published in the Health Education Specialist Practice Analysis of 2015. The authors of this textbook are leaders in the field and provide readers with the skills necessary to carry out the full process of health promotion program execution, while also offering direct preparation for CHES and MCHES licensing exams.

  3. Public relations effectiveness in public health institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springston, Jeffrey K; Weaver Lariscy, Ruth Ann

    2005-01-01

    This article explores public relations effectiveness in public health institutions. First, the two major elements that comprise public relations effectiveness are discussed: reputation management and stakeholder relations. The factors that define effective reputation management are examined, as are the roles of issues and crisis management in building and maintaining reputation. The article also examines the major facets of stakeholder relations, including an inventory of stakeholder linkages and key audiences, such as the media. Finally, methods of evaluating public relations effectiveness at both the program level and the institutional level are explored.

  4. An ecological public health approach to understanding the relationships between sustainable urban environments, public health and social equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Michael

    2014-09-01

    The environmental determinants of public health and social equity present many challenges to a sustainable urbanism-climate change, water shortages and oil dependency to name a few. There are many pathways from urban environments to human health. Numerous links have been described but some underlying mechanisms behind these relationships are less understood. Combining theory and methods is a way of understanding and explaining how the underlying structures of urban environments relate to public health and social equity. This paper proposes a model for an ecological public health, which can be used to explore these relationships. Four principles of an ecological public health-conviviality, equity, sustainability and global responsibility-are used to derive theoretical concepts that can inform ecological public health thinking, which, among other things, provides a way of exploring the underlying mechanisms that link urban environments to public health and social equity. Theories of more-than-human agency inform ways of living together (conviviality) in urban areas. Political ecology links the equity concerns about environmental and social justice. Resilience thinking offers a better way of coming to grips with sustainability. Integrating ecological ethics into public health considers the global consequences of local urban living and thus attends to global responsibility. This way of looking at the relationships between urban environments, public health and social equity answers the call to craft an ecological public health for the twenty-first century by re-imagining public health in a way that acknowledges humans as part of the ecosystem, not separate from it, though not central to it. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Smart health and innovation: facilitating health-related behaviour change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redfern, J

    2017-08-01

    Non-communicable diseases (NCD) are the leading cause of death globally. Smart health technology and innovation is a potential strategy for increasing reach and for facilitating health behaviour change. Despite rapid growth in the availability and affordability of technology there remains a paucity of published and robust research in the area as it relates to health. The objective of the present paper is to review and provide a snapshot of a variety of contemporary examples of smart health strategies with a focus on evidence and research as it relates to prevention with a CVD management lens. In the present analysis, five examples will be discussed and they include a physician-directed strategy, consumer directed strategies, a public health approach and a screening strategy that utilises external hardware that connects to a smartphone. In conclusion, NCD have common risk factors and all have an association with nutrition and health. Smart health and innovation is evolving rapidly and may help with diagnosis, treatment and management. While on-going research, development and knowledge is needed, the growth of technology development and utilisation offers opportunities to reach more people and achieve better health outcomes at local, national and international levels.

  6. Understanding ethnic/racial health disparities in youth and families in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlo, Gustavo; Crockett, Lisa J; Carranza, Miguel A; Martinez, Miriam M

    2011-01-01

    .g., social competence) rather than focusing solely on risk and protective factors associated with health-related problems. We cannot assume that the relative absence of negative pathology and risk equals the presence of health and well being-thus research is needed that includes both positive and negative health outcomes. More attention to positive health indicators will further our understanding of normative, positive health outcomes and lead us away from traditional deficit and pathology-focused models of ethnic minorities. Finally, the scholars in this volume all present findings that have important implications for policy and intervention efforts-the lessons learned from their efforts should be heeded if we are to comprehensively and effectively address the existing health disparities in the US.

  7. Health-Related Quality of Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linde, Louise; Sørensen, Jan; Ostergaard, Mikkel

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare validity, reliability, and responsiveness of generic and disease specific health-related quality of life (HRQOL) instruments in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: Two samples of patients completed the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36), EuroQol (EQ)-5D......, 15D, Rheumatoid Arthritis Quality of Life Scale (RAQoL), Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ), and visual analog scales (VAS) for pain, fatigue, and global RA. Validity (convergent, discriminant, and known-groups) was evaluated in a cross-section of 200 patients. Reliability was evaluated...

  8. Understanding patient e-loyalty toward online health care services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Caro, Eva; Cegarra-Navarro, Juan Gabriel; Solano-Lorente, Marcelina

    2013-01-01

    Public health institutions are making a great effort to develop patient-targeted online services in an attempt to enhance their effectiveness and reduce expenses. However, if patients do not use those services regularly, public health institutions will have wasted their limited resources. Hence, patients' electronic loyalty (e-loyalty) is essential for the success of online health care services. In this research, an extended Technology Acceptance Model was developed to test e-loyalty intent toward online health care services offered by public health institutions. Data from a survey of 256 users of online health care services provided by the public sanitary system of a region in Spain were analyzed. The research model was tested by using the structural equation modeling approach. The results obtained suggest that the core constructs of the Technology Acceptance Model (perceived usefulness, ease of use, and attitude) significantly affected users' behavioral intentions (i.e., e-loyalty intent), with perceived usefulness being the most decisive antecedent of affective variables (i.e., attitude and satisfaction). This study also reveals a general support for patient satisfaction as a determinant of e-loyalty intent in online health care services. Policy makers should focus on striving to get the highest positive attitude in users by enhancing easiness of use and, mainly, perceived usefulness. Because through satisfaction of patients, public hospitals will enlarge their patient e-loyalty intent, health care providers must always work at obtaining satisfied users and to encourage them to continue using the online services.

  9. Understanding barriers to maternal child health services utilisation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The findings also indicate that although health facility delivery is high in the districts surveyed, only the well-to-do non-literate, urbanite women and the ... rural communities included the need to improve the quality of maternal and child health service through the supply of major logistic deficiencies, the need to provide ...

  10. Health Behavior Change Challenge: Understanding Stages of Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Claire F.

    2011-01-01

    This semester-long activity requires students to reflect on their own strengths and weaknesses in attempting to take on a personally meaningful health behavior change challenge. This assignment affords them the opportunity to take a deeper look at theory and health concepts learned throughout the semester and to see how it has informed their own…

  11. The birth of mindpolitics : Understanding nudging in public health policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, Rik; Schuilenburg, Marc

    2017-01-01

    This article addresses the question: 'In what ways have nudging and other behavioural techniques entered the realm of policymaking for public health and what does that mean for the way contemporary society is governed?' In our genealogy of Dutch public health policy, we have identified four periods:

  12. The birth of mindpolitics: Understanding nudging in public health policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, Rik; Schuilenburg, Marc

    This article addresses the question: 'In what ways have nudging and other behavioural techniques entered the realm of policymaking for public health and what does that mean for the way contemporary society is governed?' In our genealogy of Dutch public health policy, we have identified four periods:

  13. The Storytelling Aspect of Interpersonal Relations: Understanding "Relating" from a Mentalization Point of View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, J Mark; Tuch, Richard

    Improving a patient's ability to form and maintain satisfactory interpersonal relations is an important goal in many therapies. A mentalization-based approach to treatment is ideally suited to achieve this end to the extent it's designed to help improve a patient's ability to form more nuanced guesses about why others act as they do, based on a more accurate "read" of that individual's beliefs and desires. Interpersonal difficulties often issue when patients remain insistent on their own interpretation of another's motives that fly in the face of that individual's understanding of what is "driving" them. Helping patients explore the basis upon which they'd formed their conclusions about others goes a ways toward opening their mind to the possibility that things are a bit more complicated than first imaged. This in turn leads to greater curiosity and willingness to explore their own narratives and perceptions.

  14. Globalization and healthcare: understanding health and medical tourism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrera, Percivil M; Bridges, John Fp

    2006-08-01

    Faced with long waiting lists, the high cost of elective treatment and fewer barriers to travel, the idea of availing healthcare in another country is gaining greater appeal to many. The objective of this review is to perform a literature review of health and medical tourism, to define health and medical tourism based on the medical literature and to estimate the size of trade in healthcare. The Medline database was used for our literature review. In our initial search for 'health tourism' and 'medical tourism' we found a paucity of formal literature as well as conceptual ambiguity in the literature. Subsequently, we reviewed the literature on 'tourism' in general and in the context of healthcare. On the basis of 149 papers, we then sought to conceptualize health tourism and medical tourism. Based on our definitions, we likewise sought to estimate market capacity internationally. We defined health tourism as "the organized travel outside one's local environment for the maintenance, enhancement or restoration of an individual's wellbeing in mind and body". A subset of this is medical tourism, which is "the organized travel outside one's natural healthcare jurisdiction for the enhancement or restoration of the individual's health through medical intervention". At the international level, health tourism is an industry sustained by 617 million individuals with an annual growth of 3.9% annually and worth US$513 billion. In conclusion, this paper underscored the issue of a severely limited formal literature that is compounded by conceptual ambiguity facing health and medical tourism scholarship. In clarifying the concepts and standardizing definitions, and providing evidence with regard to the scale of trade in healthcare, we hope to assist in furthering fundamental research tasks, including the further development of reliable and comparable data, the push and pull factors for engaging in health and medical tourism, and the impact of health tourism but, more so, medical

  15. Understanding India, globalisation and health care systems: a mapping of research in the social sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    National and transnational health care systems are rapidly evolving with current processes of globalisation. What is the contribution of the social sciences to an understanding of this field? A structured scoping exercise was conducted to identify relevant literature using the lens of India – a ‘rising power’ with a rapidly expanding healthcare economy. A five step search and analysis method was employed in order to capture as wide a range of material as possible. Documents published in English that met criteria for a social science contribution were included for review. Via electronic bibliographic databases, websites and hand searches conducted in India, 113 relevant articles, books and reports were identified. These were classified according to topic area, publication date, disciplinary perspective, genre, and theoretical and methodological approaches. Topic areas were identified initially through an inductive approach, then rationalised into seven broad themes. Transnational consumption of health services; the transnational healthcare workforce; the production, consumption and trade in specific health-related commodities, and transnational diffusion of ideas and knowledge have all received attention from social scientists in work related to India. Other themes with smaller volumes of work include new global health governance issues and structures; transnational delivery of health services and the transnational movement of capital. Thirteen disciplines were found represented in our review, with social policy being a clear leader, followed by economics and management studies. Overall this survey of India-related work suggests a young and expanding literature, although hampered by inadequacies in global comparative data, and by difficulties in accessing commercially sensitive information. The field would benefit from further cross-fertilisation between disciplines and greater application of explanatory theory. Literatures around stem cell research and health

  16. Understanding India, globalisation and health care systems: a mapping of research in the social sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisht, Ramila; Pitchforth, Emma; Murray, Susan F

    2012-09-10

    National and transnational health care systems are rapidly evolving with current processes of globalisation. What is the contribution of the social sciences to an understanding of this field? A structured scoping exercise was conducted to identify relevant literature using the lens of India - a 'rising power' with a rapidly expanding healthcare economy. A five step search and analysis method was employed in order to capture as wide a range of material as possible. Documents published in English that met criteria for a social science contribution were included for review. Via electronic bibliographic databases, websites and hand searches conducted in India, 113 relevant articles, books and reports were identified. These were classified according to topic area, publication date, disciplinary perspective, genre, and theoretical and methodological approaches. Topic areas were identified initially through an inductive approach, then rationalised into seven broad themes. Transnational consumption of health services; the transnational healthcare workforce; the production, consumption and trade in specific health-related commodities, and transnational diffusion of ideas and knowledge have all received attention from social scientists in work related to India. Other themes with smaller volumes of work include new global health governance issues and structures; transnational delivery of health services and the transnational movement of capital. Thirteen disciplines were found represented in our review, with social policy being a clear leader, followed by economics and management studies. Overall this survey of India-related work suggests a young and expanding literature, although hampered by inadequacies in global comparative data, and by difficulties in accessing commercially sensitive information. The field would benefit from further cross-fertilisation between disciplines and greater application of explanatory theory. Literatures around stem cell research and health

  17. Recent advances in understanding and treating COPD related to α1-antitrypsin deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henao, Maria Paula; Craig, Timothy J

    2016-12-01

    Alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) is an orphan disease that predisposes individuals to COPD and liver disease. The following is a comprehensive review of AATD from epidemiology to treatment for physicians who treat COPD or asthma. Areas covered: In this comprehensive review of alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency, we describe the historical perspective, genetics, epidemiology, clinical presentation and symptoms, screening and diagnosis, and treatments of the condition. Expert commentary: The two most important directions for advancing the understanding of AATD involve improving detection of the condition, especially in asymptomatic patients, and advancing knowledge of treatments directed specifically at AATD-related conditions. With regard to treatment for AATD-related conditions, research must continue to explore the implications and importance of augmentation therapy as well as consider new implementations that may prove more successful taking into consideration not only factors of pulmonary function and liver health, but also product availability and financial viability.

  18. Understanding the promises and premises of online health platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Van Dijck

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the claims and complexities involved in the platform-based economics of health and fitness apps. We examine a double-edged logic inscribed in these platforms, promising to offer personal solutions to medical problems while also contributing to the public good. On the one hand, online platforms serve as personalized data-driven services to their customers. On the other hand, they allegedly serve public interests, such as medical research or health education. In doing so, many apps employ a diffuse discourse, hinging on terms like “sharing,” “open,” and “reuse” when they talk about data extraction and distribution. The analytical approach we adopt in this article is situated at the nexus of science and technology studies, political economy, and the sociology of health and illness. The analysis concentrates on two aspects: datafication (the use and reuse of data and commodification (a platform’s deployment of governance and business models. We apply these analytical categories to three specific platforms: 23andMe, PatientsLikeMe, and Parkinson mPower. The last section will connect these individual examples to the wider implications of health apps’ data flows, governance policies, and business models. Regulatory bodies commonly focus on the (medical safety and security of apps, but pay scarce attention to health apps’ techno-economic governance. Who owns user-generated health data and who gets to benefit? We argue that it is important to reflect on the societal implications of health data markets. Governments have the duty to provide conceptual clarity in the grand narrative of transforming health care and health research.

  19. Towards an understanding of resilience: responding to health systems shocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanefeld, Johanna; Mayhew, Susannah; Legido-Quigley, Helena; Martineau, Frederick; Karanikolos, Marina; Blanchet, Karl; Liverani, Marco; Yei Mokuwa, Esther; McKay, Gillian; Balabanova, Dina

    2018-04-01

    The recent outbreak of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) in West Africa has drawn attention to the role and responsiveness of health systems in the face of shock. It brought into sharp focus the idea that health systems need not only to be stronger but also more 'resilient'. In this article, we argue that responding to shocks is an important aspect of resilience, examining the health system behaviour in the face of four types of contemporary shocks: the financial crisis in Europe from 2008 onwards; climate change disasters; the EVD outbreak in West Africa 2013-16; and the recent refugee and migration crisis in Europe. Based on this analysis, we identify '3 plus 2' critical dimensions of particular relevance to health systems' ability to adapt and respond to shocks; actions in all of these will determine the extent to which a response is successful. These are three core dimensions corresponding to three health systems functions: 'health information systems' (having the information and the knowledge to make a decision on what needs to be done); 'funding/financing mechanisms' (investing or mobilising resources to fund a response); and 'health workforce' (who should plan and implement it and how). These intersect with two cross-cutting aspects: 'governance', as a fundamental function affecting all other system dimensions; and predominant 'values' shaping the response, and how it is experienced at individual and community levels. Moreover, across the crises examined here, integration within the health system contributed to resilience, as does connecting with local communities, evidenced by successful community responses to Ebola and social movements responding to the financial crisis. In all crises, inequalities grew, yet our evidence also highlights that the impact of shocks is amenable to government action. All these factors are shaped by context. We argue that the '3 plus 2' dimensions can inform pragmatic policies seeking to increase health systems resilience.

  20. [Understanding and development strategy of health food containing Chinese materia medica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin-Yuan; Zhang, Jian-Jun; Wang, Chun; Wang, Jing-Xia; Zhu, Ying-Li; Wang, Jia; Gao, Xue-Min

    2016-11-01

    Health food containing Chinese materia medica (CMM) conforms to the development demands of the age of big health and the theory of preventive treatment. In the view of health care and improvement of resisting diseases, it plays an important role in the market. It is very necessary to have further study and discussion on health food containing CMM. First of all, by comparing, analyzing and summarizing, the health food containing CMM could be defined as the health food which is qualified in security and functionality evaluation, with the traditional Chinese medicines(TCM) within TCM standards as the main raw materials, and the formulation-composition is based on the theory of TCM. It is characterized by higher safety than medicines, stronger biological activities than common food, multiple forms, abundant raw materials and integrated supervision and management. Secondly, we discussed the research and development (R&D) strategies and rules of health food containing CMM, pointing out that the core tasks of R&D include the investigation of formula, technology and the standards of quality. The fundamental principles of declaration and production include scientificity, rationality, reality and uniformity. Three key requirements (security, functionality and controllability) in the review as well as the process management of R&D and the key-points of risks control were summarized in this paper. Finally, the dynamic trends of policies and regulations related to health food containing CMM were analyzed in the view of registration, recording, raw materials and functions, and then related suggestions were proposed. Therefore, this article will be helpful in overall understanding the health food containing CMM and play a guiding role for its research and development. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  1. Applying the Expectancy-Value Model to understand health values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xu-Hao; Xie, Feng; Wee, Hwee-Lin; Thumboo, Julian; Li, Shu-Chuen

    2008-03-01

    Expectancy-Value Model (EVM) is the most structured model in psychology to predict attitudes by measuring attitudinal attributes (AAs) and relevant external variables. Because health value could be categorized as attitude, we aimed to apply EVM to explore its usefulness in explaining variances in health values and investigate underlying factors. Focus group discussion was carried out to identify the most common and significant AAs toward 5 different health states (coded as 11111, 11121, 21221, 32323, and 33333 in EuroQol Five-Dimension (EQ-5D) descriptive system). AAs were measured in a sum of multiplications of subjective probability (expectancy) and perceived value of attributes with 7-point Likert scales. Health values were measured using visual analog scales (VAS, range 0-1). External variables (age, sex, ethnicity, education, housing, marital status, and concurrent chronic diseases) were also incorporated into survey questionnaire distributed by convenience sampling among eligible respondents. Univariate analyses were used to identify external variables causing significant differences in VAS. Multiple linear regression model (MLR) and hierarchical regression model were used to investigate the explanatory power of AAs and possible significant external variable(s) separately or in combination, for each individual health state and a mixed scenario of five states, respectively. Four AAs were identified, namely, "worsening your quality of life in terms of health" (WQoL), "adding a burden to your family" (BTF), "making you less independent" (MLI) and "unable to work or study" (UWS). Data were analyzed based on 232 respondents (mean [SD] age: 27.7 [15.07] years, 49.1% female). Health values varied significantly across 5 health states, ranging from 0.12 (33333) to 0.97 (11111). With no significant external variables identified, EVM explained up to 62% of the variances in health values across 5 health states. The explanatory power of 4 AAs were found to be between 13

  2. Toxicology primer: understanding workplace hazards and protecting worker health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arble, Janice

    2004-06-01

    Hazardous substances are ubiquitous in the environment and common in industrialized societies. Serious harm can occur with sufficient exposures under certain conditions. However, much harm can be avoided if hazardous substances are handled with respect and appreciation for their use and potential. Occupational health nurses must be aware of potential hazards to employees in the work environment and apply scientific principles to their practice of promoting worker safety and health.

  3. Understanding global health governance as a complex adaptive system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Peter S

    2011-01-01

    The transition from international to global health reflects the rapid growth in the numbers and nature of stakeholders in health, as well as the constant change embodied in the process of globalisation itself. This paper argues that global health governance shares the characteristics of complex adaptive systems, with its multiple and diverse players, and their polyvalent and constantly evolving relationships, and rich and dynamic interactions. The sheer quantum of initiatives, the multiple networks through which stakeholders (re)configure their influence, the range of contexts in which development for health is played out - all compound the complexity of this system. This paper maps out the characteristics of complex adaptive systems as they apply to global health governance, linking them to developments in the past two decades, and the multiple responses to these changes. Examining global health governance through the frame of complexity theory offers insight into the current dynamics of governance, and while providing a framework for making meaning of the whole, opens up ways of accessing this complexity through local points of engagement.

  4. Understanding Health Care Costs in a Wisconsin Acute Leukemia Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Steinert

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We investigated factors driving health care costs of patients with a diagnosis of acute myeloid and acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Methods: Standard costs identified in insurance claims data obtained from the Wisconsin Health Information Organization were used in a sample of 837 acute leukemia patients from April 2009 to June 2011. The Andersen behavioral model of health care utilization guided selection of patient and community factors expected to influence health care costs. A generalized linear model fitting gamma-distributed data with log-link technique was used to analyze cost. Results: Type of treatment received and disease severity represented significant cost drivers, and patients receiving at least some of their treatment from academic medical centers experienced higher costs. Inpatient care and pharmacy costs of patients who received treatment from providers located in areas of higher poverty experienced lower costs, raising questions of potential treatment and medical practice disparities between provider locations. Directions of study findings were not consistent between different types of services received and underscore the complexity of investigating health care cost. Conclusions: While prevalence of acute leukemia in the United States is low compared to other diseases, its extreme high cost of treatment is not well understood and potentially influences treatment decisions. Acute leukemia health care costs may not follow expected patterns; further exploration of the relationship between cost and the treatment decision, and potential treatment disparities between providers in different socioeconomic locations, is needed.

  5. The understanding of core pharmacological concepts among health care students in their final semester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronsson, Patrik; Booth, Shirley; Hägg, Staffan; Kjellgren, Karin; Zetterqvist, Ann; Tobin, Gunnar; Reis, Margareta

    2015-12-29

    The overall aim of the study was to explore health care students´ understanding of core concepts in pharmacology. An interview study was conducted among twelve students in their final semester of the medical program (n = 4), the nursing program (n = 4), and the specialist nursing program in primary health care (n = 4) from two Swedish universities. The participants were individually presented with two pharmacological clinically relevant written patient cases, which they were to analyze and propose a solution to. Participants were allowed to use the Swedish national drug formulary. Immediately thereafter the students were interviewed about their assessments. The interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. A thematic analysis was used to identify units of meaning in each interview. The units were organized into three clusters: pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, and drug interactions. Subsequent procedure consisted of scoring the quality of students´ understanding of core concepts. Non-parametric statistics were employed. The study participants were in general able to define pharmacological concepts, but showed less ability to discuss the meaning of the concepts in depth and to implement these in a clinical context. The participants found it easier to grasp concepts related to pharmacodynamics than pharmacokinetics and drug interactions. These results indicate that education aiming to prepare future health care professionals for understanding of more complex pharmacological reasoning and decision-making needs to be more focused and effective.

  6. Understanding the role of technology in health information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Don; Hodge, Nicola; Gamage, Duminda; Whittaker, Maxine

    2012-04-01

    Innovations in, and the use of emerging information and communications technology (ICT) has rapidly increased in all development contexts, including healthcare. It is believed that the use of appropriate technologies can increase the quality and reach of both information and communication. However, decisions on what ICT to adopt have often been made without evidence of their effectiveness; or information on implications; or extensive knowledge on how to maximise benefits from their use. While it has been stated that 'healthcare ICT innovation can only succeed if design is deeply informed by practice', the large number of 'failed' ICT projects within health indicates the limited application of such an approach. There is a large and growing body of work exploring health ICT issues in the developed world, and some specifically focusing on the developing country context emerging from Africa and India; but not for the Pacific Region. Health systems in the Pacific, while diverse in many ways, are also faced with many common problems including competing demands in the face of limited resources, staff numbers, staff capacity and infrastructure. Senior health managers in the region are commonly asked to commit money, effort and scarce manpower to supporting new technologies on proposals from donor agencies or commercial companies, as well as from senior staff within their system. The first decision they must make is if the investment is both plausible and reasonable; they must also secondly decide how the investment should be made. The objective of this article is three-fold: firstly, to provide a common 'language' for categorising and discussing health information systems, particularly those in developing countries; secondly, to summarise the potential benefits and opportunities offered by the use of ICT in health; and thirdly, to discuss the critical factors countries. Overall, this article aims to illuminate the potential role of information and communication

  7. Health and demographic surveillance systems: contributing to an understanding of the dynamics in migration and health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerritsen, Annette; Bocquier, Philippe; White, Michael; Mbacké, Cheikh; Alam, Nurul; Beguy, Donatien; Odhiambo, Frank; Sacoor, Charfudin; Phuc, Ho Dang; Punpuing, Sureeporn; Collinson, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Migration is difficult to measure because it is highly repeatable. Health and Demographic Surveillance Systems (HDSSs) provide a unique opportunity to study migration as multiple episodes of migration are captured over time. A conceptual framework is needed to show the public health implications of migration. Objective/design Research conducted in seven HDSS centres [International Network for the Demographic Evaluation of Populations and Their Health (INDEPTH) Network], published in a peer-reviewed volume in 2009, is summarised focussing on the age–sex profile of migrants, the relation between migration and livelihoods, and the impact of migration on health. This illustrates the conceptual structure of the implications of migration. The next phase is described, the Multi-centre Analysis of the Dynamics In Migration And Health (MADIMAH) project, consisting of workshops focussed on preparing data and conducting the analyses for comparative studies amongst HDSS centres in Africa and Asia. The focus here is on the (standardisation of) determinants of migration and the impact of migration on adult mortality. Results The findings in the volume showed a relatively regular age structure for migration among all HDSS centres. Furthermore, migration generally contributes to improved living conditions at the place of origin. However, there are potential negative consequences of migration on health. It was concluded that there is a need to compare results from multiple centres using uniform covariate definitions as well as longitudinal analysis techniques. This was the starting point for the on-going MADIMAH initiative, which has increased capacity at the participating HDSS centres to produce the required datasets and conduct the analyses. Conclusions HDSS centres brought together within INDEPTH Network have already provided strong evidence of the potential negative consequences of migration on health, which contrast with the beneficial impacts of migration on

  8. Understanding human resource management practices in Botswana's public health sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitio-Kgokgwe, Onalenna Stannie; Gauld, Robin; Hill, Philip C; Barnett, Pauline

    2016-11-21

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to assess the management of the public sector health workforce in Botswana. Using institutional frameworks it aims to document and analyse human resource management (HRM) practices, and make recommendations to improve employee and health system outcomes. Design/methodology/approach The paper draws from a large study that used a mixed methods approach to assess performance of Botswana's Ministry of Health (MOH). It uses data collected through document analysis and in-depth interviews of 54 key informants comprising policy makers, senior staff of the MOH and its stakeholder organizations. Findings Public health sector HRM in Botswana has experienced inadequate planning, poor deployment and underutilization of staff. Lack of comprehensive retention strategies and poor working conditions contributed to the failure to attract and retain skilled personnel. Relationships with both formal and informal environments affected HRM performance. Research limitations/implications While document review was a major source of data for this paper, the weaknesses in the human resource information system limited availability of data. Practical implications This paper presents an argument for the need for consideration of formal and informal environments in developing effective HRM strategies. Originality/value This research provides a rare system-wide approach to health HRM in a Sub-Saharan African country. It contributes to the literature and evidence needed to guide HRM policy decisions and practices.

  9. Moral distress: a comparative analysis of theoretical understandings and inter-related concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lützén, Kim; Kvist, Beatrice Ewalds

    2012-03-01

    Research on ethical dilemmas in health care has become increasingly salient during the last two decades resulting in confusion about the concept of moral distress. The aim of the present paper is to provide an overview and a comparative analysis of the theoretical understandings of moral distress and related concepts. The focus is on five concepts: moral distress, moral stress, stress of conscience, moral sensitivity and ethical climate. It is suggested that moral distress connects mainly to a psychological perspective; stress of conscience more to a theological-philosophical standpoint; and moral stress mostly to a physiological perspective. Further analysis indicates that these thoughts can be linked to the concepts of moral sensitivity and ethical climate through a relationship to moral agency. Moral agency comprises a moral awareness of moral problems and moral responsibility for others. It is suggested that moral distress may serve as a positive catalyst in exercising moral agency. An interdisciplinary approach in research and practice broadens our understanding of moral distress and its impact on health care personnel and patient care.

  10. Research implications of the Institute of Medicine Report, Epilepsy Across the Spectrum: Promoting Health and Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesdorffer, Dale C.; Beck, Vicki; Begley, Charles E.; Bishop, Malachy L.; Cushner-Weinstein, Sandra; Holmes, Gregory L.; Shafer, Patricia O.; Sirven, Joseph I.; Austin, Joan K.

    2012-01-01

    In March 2012 the Institute of Medicine (IOM) released the report, Epilepsy Across The Spectrum: Promoting Health And Understanding. This report examined the public health dimensions of the epilepsies with a focus on four areas: public health surveillance and data collection and integration; population and public health research; health policy, health care, and human services; and education for providers, people with epilepsy and their families, and the public. The report provided recommendations and research priorities for future work in the field of epilepsy that relate to: increasing the power of data on epilepsy; prevention of epilepsy; improving health care for people with epilepsy; improving health professional education about epilepsy; improving quality of life for people with epilepsy; improving education about epilepsy for people with epilepsy and families; and raising public awareness about epilepsy. For this article, the authors selected one research priority from each of the major chapter themes in the IOM report: expanding and improving the quality of epidemiological surveillance in epilepsy; developing improved interventions for people with epilepsy and depression; expanding early identification/screening for learning impairments in children with epilepsy; evaluating and promoting effective innovative teaching strategies; accelerating research on the identification of risk factors and interventions that increase employment and improve quality of life for people with epilepsy and their families; assessing the information needs of people with epilepsy and their families associated with epilepsy-related risks, specifically sudden unexpected death in epilepsy; and developing and conducting surveys to capture trends in knowledge, awareness, attitudes, and beliefs about epilepsy over time and in specific population subgroups. For each research priority selected, examples of research are provided that will advance the field of epilepsy and improve the lives

  11. Understanding place and health: a heuristic for using administrative data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frohlich, Katherine L; Dunn, James R; McLaren, Lindsay; Shiell, Alan; Potvin, Louise; Hawe, Penelope; Dassa, Clément; Thurston, Wilfreda E

    2007-06-01

    The increasing availability, use and limitations of administrative data for place-based population health research, and a lack of theory development, created the context for the current paper. We developed a heuristic to interrogate administrative data sets and to help us develop explanatory pathways for linking place and health. Guided by a worked example, we argue that some items in administrative data sets lend themselves to multiple theories, creating problems of inference owing to the implications of using inductive versus deductive reasoning during the research process, and that certain types of theories are privileged when used administrative data bases.

  12. 15 CFR Notes Applicable to State... - Notes applicable to State of Understanding related to Medical Equipment:

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notes applicable to State of Understanding related to Medical Equipment: applicable Notes applicable to State of Understanding related to Medical Equipment: Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY,...

  13. How Economic Analysis Can Contribute to Understanding the Links between Housing and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Ralph; Preval, Nicholas; Howden-Chapman, Philippa

    2017-08-31

    An economic analysis of housing's linkages to health can assist policy makers and researchers to make better decisions about which housing interventions and policies are the most cost-beneficial. The challenge is to include cobenefits. The adoption in 2015 of the UN Sustainable Development Goals underscores the importance of understanding how policies interact, and the merit of comprehensively evaluating cobenefits. We explain our approach to the empirical assessment of such cobenefits in the housing and health context, and consider lessons from empirical economic appraisals of the impact of housing on health outcomes. Critical assumptions relating to cobenefits are explicitly examined. A key finding is that when wider policy outcome measures are included, such as mental health impacts and carbon emission reductions, it is important that effects of assumptions on outcomes are considered. Another is that differing values underlie appraisal, for example, the weight given to future generations through the discount rate. Cost-benefit analyses (CBAs) can better facilitate meaningful debate when they are based on explicit assumptions about values. In short, the insights drawn from an economic framework for housing-and-health studies are valuable, but nonetheless contingent. Given that housing interventions typically have both health and other cobenefits, and incorporate social value judgements, it is important to take a broad view but be explicit about how such interventions are assessed.

  14. Metaphors as Nudges toward Understanding in Mental Health Counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrix, Dennis H.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses use of metaphors in mental health counseling. Presents examples of metaphors that are concrete and that use objects and situations familiar to clients so that the properties of the metaphorical items are known. Elaborations of metaphors are provided for readers. (NB)

  15. Understanding the promises and premises of online health platforms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijck, J.; Poell, T.

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates the claims and complexities involved in the platform-based economics of health and fitness apps. We examine a double-edged logic inscribed in these platforms, promising to offer personal solutions to medical problems while also contributing to the public good. On the one

  16. Standard epidemiological methods to understand and improve Apis mellifera health

    OpenAIRE

    Lengerich, Eugene; Spleen, Angela; Dainat, Benjamin; Cresswell, James; Baylis , Kathy; Nguyen, Bach Kim; Soroker, Victoria; Underwood, Robyn; Human, Hannelie; Le Conte, Yves; Saegerman, Claude

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the use of epidemiological methods to understand and reduce honey bee morbidity and mortality. Essential terms are presented and defined and we also give examples for their use. Defining such terms as disease, population, sensitivity, and specificity, provides a framework for epidemiological comparisons. The term population, in particular, is quite complex for an organism like the honey bee because one can view “epidemiological unit” as individual bees, colonies, ap...

  17. Health-related quality of life, anxiety and depression related to mammography screening in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafslund, Bjorg; Espehaug, Birgitte; Nortvedt, Monica Wammen

    2012-11-01

    To measure health-related quality of life, anxiety and depression ahead of mammography screening and to assess any differences in health-related quality of life compared to reference population. The study of health-related quality of life among attendees prior to mammography screening has received little attention, and increased knowledge is needed to better understand the overall health benefits of participation. A two-group cross-sectional comparative study was performed. The samples comprised 4,249 attendees to mammography screening and a comparison group of 943 women. We used the SF-36 Health Survey to assess health-related quality of life. Linear regression was used to study any differences between the groups with adjustment for age, level of education, occupation, having children and smoking status. Other normative data were also used. Anxiety and depression were assessed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Attendees scored statistically significant higher on the SF-36 than the comparison group but were in line with normative data. Attendees had anxiety mean 4·1 and depression mean 2·6. The majority of the attendees have a high health-related quality of life, low anxiety and depression ahead of screening. Anxiety and depression were less than shown in normative data from Norway. Despite a high health-related quality of life, low anxiety and depression among the majority, healthcare workers should pay special attention to the few women who are anxious and depressed, and have a lower health-related quality of life. Omitted from mammography screening may be women who are unemployed, have lower socioeconomic status, are anxious and are depressed. Further research should be performed with non-attendees and subgroups to improve the screening programme. It is important to identify which patients have the greatest need for support and caring in an organised mammography screening and who may be overlooked. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Do Americans Understand That Global Warming Is Harmful to Human Health? Evidence From a National Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maibach, Edward W; Kreslake, Jennifer M; Roser-Renouf, Connie; Rosenthal, Seth; Feinberg, Geoff; Leiserowitz, Anthony A

    2015-01-01

    Organization, and their local public health department. Most Americans report a general sense that global warming can be harmful to health, but relatively few understand the types of harm it causes or who is most likely to be affected. Perhaps as a result, there is only moderate support for an expanded public health response. Primary care physicians and public health officials appear well positioned to educate the public about the health relevance of climate change. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Social capital and health: measuring and understanding social capital at a local level could help to tackle health inequalities more effectively.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilkington, Paul

    2002-09-01

    This paper examines whether an understanding of the concept of social capital and its local measurement can help to tackle inequalities in health within and across communities. The paper concludes that the concept of social capital offers a valuable opportunity to help public health professionals understand how to approach inequalities in health with a greater awareness of the social processes affecting the health of communities. The measurement of social capital has been problematic. However, new guidance from the Health Development Agency (HDA) provides a useful tool for developing social capital research. A greater understanding of whether, and how social capital relates to health will help to improve strategies to reduce health inequalities at the community level. Public health professionals contributing to community development strategies such as Neighbourhood Renewal Projects, Community Safety Partnerships, Health Action Zones and Health Improvement Programmes (HImPs) should encourage thought to be given about the role that an understanding of social capital could play in making these strategies more effective. Using the HDA measurement tool locally could be one way of doing this.

  20. Progress in understanding oral health and HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Ll

    2014-04-01

    Over the last 30 years, there have been significant advances in our scientific knowledge of HIV disease, including prevention, detection, medical management, and attempts at cure. Investigations and observations of the oral cavity in individuals with HIV disease have contributed substantially to scientific discovery and innovation. Challenges remain for managing existing and emerging oral diseases associated with HIV and understanding the contribution of latent oral mucosal reservoirs to HIV eradication. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Children's Interpretive Understanding, Moral Judgments, and Emotion Attributions: Relations to Social Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malti, Tina; Gasser, Luciano; Gutzwiller-Helfenfinger, Eveline

    2010-01-01

    The study investigated interpretive understanding, moral judgments, and emotion attributions in relation to social behaviour in a sample of 59 5-year-old, 123 7-year-old, and 130 9-year-old children. Interpretive understanding was assessed by two tasks measuring children's understanding of ambiguous situations. Moral judgments and emotion…

  2. Young people's perspectives on health-related risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Elisabeth Spencer

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Drawing upon current socio-cultural understandings of risk, this study highlights the disjunction between the expert risk discourses that permeate official public health policy and practice, and young people’s own perspectives on health and risk. Data were collected from young people aged 14-16 years through the use of group and individual interviews in a school and community youth centre setting. Findings from this study question the saliency of expert-defined health-related risks to young people’s everyday lives. Young people in this study saw health as closely linked to ‘being happy’. Friendships and a sense of personal achievement were particularly important to participants’ health and well-being. When accounting for their participation in health-related practices identified as ‘risky’ in government policy – such as smoking, alcohol and substance use – young people emphasised the levels of pressure they experienced. Sources of pressure included arguments and bullying, school work, and negative stereotypes of young people in general. These areas indicated young people’s concerns that reach beyond the official prescriptions permeating current health policy.

  3. Associations between health culture, health behaviors, and health-related outcomes: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yingnan; Gao, Junling; Dai, Junming; Zheng, Pinpin; Fu, Hua

    2017-01-01

    To examine the associations between demographic characteristics, health behaviors, workplace health culture, and health-related outcomes in Chinese workplaces. A total of 1508 employees from 10 administrative offices and 6 enterprises were recruited for a cross-sectional survey. Self-administered questionnaires mainly addressed demographic characteristics, health behaviors, workplace health culture, and health-related outcomes including self-rated health, mental health, and happiness. The proportion of participants who reported good health-related outcomes was significantly higher in those working in administrative offices than those working in enterprises. The result of the potential factors related to self-rated health (SRH), mental health, and happiness by logistic regression analyses showed that age and income were associated with SRH; type of workplace, age, smoking, and health culture at the workplace level were associated with mental health; and beneficial health effects of direct leadership was positively associated with happiness. Moreover, there were some similar results among 3 multivariate regression models. Firstly, good SRH (Odds Ratio (OR) = 1.744), mental health (OR = 1.891), and happiness (OR = 1.736) were more common among highly physically active participants compared with those physical inactive. Furthermore, passive smoking was negatively correlated with SRH (OR = 0.686), mental health (OR = 0.678), and happiness (OR = 0.616), while health culture at the individual level was positively correlated with SRH (OR = 1.478), mental health (OR = 1.654), and happiness (OR = 2.916). The present study indicated that workplace health culture, health behaviors, and demographic characteristics were associated with health-related outcomes. Furthermore, individual health culture, physical activity, and passive smoking might play a critical role in workplace health promotion.

  4. Preschool-aged children’s understanding of gratitude: Relations with emotion and mental state knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jackie A.; de Lucca Freitas, Lia Beatriz; O’Brien, Marion; Calkins, Susan D.; Leerkes, Esther M.; Marcovitch, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    Developmental precursors to children’s early understanding of gratitude were examined. A diverse group of 263 children were tested for emotion and mental state knowledge at ages 3 and 4, and their understanding of gratitude was measured at age 5. Children varied widely in their understanding of gratitude, but most understood some aspects of gratitude-eliciting situations. A model-building path analysis approach was used to examine longitudinal relations among early emotion and mental state knowledge and later understanding of gratitude. Children with a better early understanding of emotions and mental states understand more about gratitude. Mental state knowledge at age 4 mediated the relation between emotion knowledge at age 3 and gratitude understanding at age 5. The current study contributes to the scant literature on the early emergence of children’s understanding of gratitude. PMID:23331105

  5. Understanding the Determinants of Weight-Related Quality of Life among Bariatric Surgery Candidates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie Tessier

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and its relation to quality of life are multifaceted. The purpose of this paper was to contribute evidence to support a framework for understanding the impact of obesity on quality of life in 42 morbidly obese subjects considering a wide number of potential determinants. A model of weight-related quality of life (WRQL was developed based on the Wilson-Cleary model, considering subjects' weight characteristics, arterial oxygen pressure (PaO2, walking capacity (6-minute walk test, 6MWT, health-related quality of life (HRQL; Physical and Mental Component Summaries of the SF-36 PCS/MCS, and WRQL. The model of WRQL was tested with linear regressions and a path analysis, which showed that as PaO2 at rest increased 6MWT increased. 6MWT was positively associated with the PCS, which in turn was positively related to WRQL along with the MCS. The model showed good fit and explained 38% of the variance in WRQL.

  6. Impact of community capacity on the health status of residents: understanding with the contextual multilevel model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Minsoo; Choi, Mankyu

    2013-01-01

    There has been little conceptual understanding as to how community capacity works, although it allows for an important, population-based health promotional strategy. In this study, the mechanism of community capacity was studied through literature reviews to suggest a comprehensive conceptual model. The research results found that the key to community capacity prevailed in how actively the capacities of individuals and their communities are able to interact with one another. Under active interactions, community-based organizations, which are a type of voluntary association, were created within the community, and cohesion among residents was enhanced. In addition, people were more willing to address community issues. During the process, many services were initiated to meet the people's health needs and strengthen their social and psychological ties. The characteristics of community capacity were named as the contextual multilevel effects. Because an increase in community capacity contributes to a boosted health status, encourages health behaviors, and eventually leads to the overall prosperity of the community, more public health-related attention is required.

  7. Understanding gendered influences on women's reproductive health in Pakistan: moving beyond the autonomy paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumtaz, Zubia; Salway, Sarah

    2009-04-01

    Recent research and policy discourse commonly view the limited autonomy of women in developing countries as a key barrier to improvements in their reproductive health. Rarely, however, is the notion of women's autonomy interrogated for its conceptual adequacy or usefulness for understanding the determinants of women's reproductive health, effective policy formulation or program design. Using ethnographic data from 2001, including social mapping exercises, observation of daily life, interviews, case studies and focus group discussions, this paper draws attention to the incongruities between the concept of women's autonomy and the gendered social, cultural, economic and political realities of women's lives in rural Punjab, Pakistan. These inadequacies include: the concept's undue emphasis on women's independent, autonomous action; a lack of attention to men and masculinities; a disregard for the multi-sited constitution of gender relations and gender inequality; an erroneous assumption that uptake of reproductive health services is an indicator of autonomy; and a failure to explore the interplay of other axes of disadvantage such as caste, class or socio-economic position. This paper calls for alternative, more nuanced, theoretical approaches for conceptualizing gender inequalities in order to enhance our understanding of women's reproductive wellbeing in Pakistan. The extent to which our arguments may be relevant to the wider South Asian context, and women's lives in other parts of the world, is also discussed.

  8. Using public relations to promote health: a framing analysis of public relations strategies among health associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyojung; Reber, Bryan H

    2010-01-01

    This study explored health organizations' public relations efforts to frame health issues through their press releases. Content analysis of 316 press releases from three health organizations-the American Heart Association, the American Cancer Society, and the American Diabetes Association-revealed that they used the medical research frame most frequently and emphasized societal responsibility for health issues. There were differences, however, among the organizations regarding the main frames and health issues: the American Diabetes Association was more likely to focus on the issues related to social support and education, while the American Heart Association and the American Cancer Society were more likely to address medical research and scientific news. To demonstrate their initiatives for public health, all the organizations employed the social support/educational frame most frequently. Researchers and medical doctors frequently were quoted as trusted sources in the releases.

  9. Beyond Alphabet Soup: Helping College Health Professionals Understand Sexual Fluidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswalt, Sara B.; Evans, Samantha; Drott, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Many college students today are no longer using the terms straight, gay, lesbian, bisexual, or transgender to self-identify their sexual orientation or gender identity. This commentary explores research related to fluidity of sexual identities, emerging sexual identities used by college students, and how these identities interact with the health…

  10. The utility of resilience as a conceptual framework for understanding and measuring LGBTQ health

    OpenAIRE

    Colpitts, Emily; Gahagan, Jacqueline

    2016-01-01

    Background Historically, lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and queer (LGBTQ) health research has focused heavily on the risks for poor health outcomes, obscuring the ways in which LGBTQ populations maintain and improve their health across the life course. In this paper we argue that informing culturally competent health policy and systems requires shifting the LGBTQ health research evidence base away from deficit-focused approaches toward strengths-based approaches to understanding and meas...

  11. Understanding the Health Literacy of America Results of the National Assessment of Adult Literacy

    OpenAIRE

    Cutilli, Carolyn Crane; Bennett, Ian M.

    2009-01-01

    Health literacy refers to an individual’s ability to understand healthcare information to make appropriate decisions (S. C Ratzen & R. M. Parker, 2000). Healthcare professionals are obligated to make sure that patients understand information to maximize the benefits of healthcare. The National Assessment of Adult Literacy (NAAL) provides information on the literacy/health literacy levels of the U.S. adult population. The NAAL is the only large-scale survey of health literacy. The results of t...

  12. The health-related behaviors and attitudes of student nurses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vowell, Maribeth

    Nurses are an important component of primary medical care, and patient education is a common and important role of most nurses. Patient education and positive role modeling by nurses have the potential to influence patients' life style choices and the serious diseases that may be affected by those choices. A greater understanding of the ways nurses think about their own health could help facilitate healthier choices for them and in their patients. The purpose of this inquiry was to examine the experiences, attitudes and beliefs of student nurses related to their personal health, and to investigate those experiences, attitudes and beliefs as they relate to their education, relationships, values and career choice. The purpose was achieved through phenomenological interviews with eleven senior nursing students, nine females and two males, encouraging them to provide in as much detail as possible their attitudes and values about their personal health. The interviews were tape recorded, transcribed verbatim, and phenomenologically analyzed. A thematic structure emerged such that the nursing students experiences were represented by the four interrelated themes of caring for myself/caring for others ; I control my health/my world controls my health; I have energy/I'm tired; and feeling good/looking good. The contextual grounds for the themes that emerged during the analysis were the Body and Time. This structure was presented in terms of its relationship to health education, other research and to current theory.

  13. Predictive modelling: parents’ decision making to use online child health information to increase their understanding and/or diagnose or treat their child’s health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walsh Anne M

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The quantum increases in home Internet access and available online health information with limited control over information quality highlight the necessity of exploring decision making processes in accessing and using online information, specifically in relation to children who do not make their health decisions. The aim of this study was to understand the processes explaining parents’ decisions to use online health information for child health care. Methods Parents (N = 391 completed an initial questionnaire assessing the theory of planned behaviour constructs of attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioural control, as well as perceived risk, group norm, and additional demographic factors. Two months later, 187 parents completed a follow-up questionnaire assessing their decisions to use online information for their child’s health care, specifically to 1 diagnose and/or treat their child’s suspected medical condition/illness and 2 increase understanding about a diagnosis or treatment recommended by a health professional. Results Hierarchical multiple regression showed that, for both behaviours, attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioural control, (less perceived risk, group norm, and (non medical background were the significant predictors of intention. For parents’ use of online child health information, for both behaviours, intention was the sole significant predictor of behaviour. The findings explain 77% of the variance in parents’ intention to treat/diagnose a child health problem and 74% of the variance in their intentions to increase their understanding about child health concerns. Conclusions Understanding parents’ socio-cognitive processes that guide their use of online information for child health care is important given the increase in Internet usage and the sometimes-questionable quality of health information provided online. Findings highlight parents’ thirst for information; there is an

  14. National indicators of health literacy: ability to understand health information and to engage actively with healthcare providers - a population-based survey among Danish adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, Anne; Friis, Karina; Osborne, Richard H; Maindal, Helle Terkildsen

    2014-10-22

    Health literacy is a multidimensional concept covering a range of cognitive and social skills necessary for participation in health care. Knowledge of health literacy levels in general populations and how health literacy levels impacts on social health inequity is lacking. The primary aim of this study was to perform a population-based assessment of dimensions of health literacy related to understanding health information and to engaging with healthcare providers. Secondly, the aim was to examine associations between socio-economic characteristics with these dimensions of health literacy. A population-based survey was conducted between January and April 2013 in the Central Denmark Region. Postal invitations were sent to a random sample of 46,354 individuals >25 years of age. Two health literacy dimensions were selected from the Health Literacy Questionnaire (HLQ™): i) Understanding health information well enough to know what to do (5 items), and ii) Ability to actively engage with health care providers (5 items). Response options ranged from 1 (very difficult) to 4 (very easy). We investigated the level of perceived difficulty of each task, and the associations between the two dimensions and socio-economic characteristics. A total of 29,473 (63.6%) responded to the survey. Between 8.8%, 95% CI: 8.4-9.2 and 20.2%, 95% CI: 19.6-20.8 of the general population perceived the health literacy tasks as difficult or very difficult at the individual item level. On the scale level, the mean rating for i) understanding health information was 3.10, 95% CI: 3.09-3.10, and 3.07, 95% CI: 3.07-3.08 for ii) engagement with health care providers. Low levels of the two dimensions were associated with low income, low education level, living alone, and to non-Danish ethnicity. Associations with sex and age differed by the specific health literacy dimension. Estimates on two key dimensions of health literacy in a general population are now available. A substantial proportion of the

  15. Food, health, and complexity: towards a conceptual understanding to guide collaborative public health action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon E. Majowicz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background What we eat simultaneously impacts our exposure to pathogens, allergens, and contaminants, our nutritional status and body composition, our risks for and the progression of chronic diseases, and other outcomes. Furthermore, what we eat is influenced by a complex web of drivers, including culture, politics, economics, and our built and natural environments. To date, public health initiatives aimed at improving food-related population health outcomes have primarily been developed within ‘practice silos’, and the potential for complex interactions among such initiatives is not well understood. Therefore, our objective was to develop a conceptual model depicting how infectious foodborne illness, food insecurity, dietary contaminants, obesity, and food allergy can be linked via shared drivers, to illustrate potential complex interactions and support future collaboration across public health practice silos. Methods We developed the conceptual model by first conducting a systematic literature search to identify review articles containing schematics that depicted relationships between drivers and the issues of interest. Next, we synthesized drivers into a common model using a modified thematic synthesis approach that combined an inductive thematic analysis and mapping to synthesize findings. Results The literature search yielded 83 relevant references containing 101 schematics. The conceptual model contained 49 shared drivers and 227 interconnections. Each of the five issues was connected to all others. Obesity and food insecurity shared the most drivers (n = 28. Obesity shared several drivers with food allergy (n = 11, infectious foodborne illness (n = 7, and dietary contamination (n = 6. Food insecurity shared several drivers with infectious foodborne illness (n = 9 and dietary contamination (n = 9. Infectious foodborne illness shared drivers with dietary contamination (n = 8. Fewer drivers were

  16. Understanding Online Health Groups for Depression: Social Network and Linguistic Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ronghua; Zhang, Qingpeng

    2016-03-10

    Mental health problems have become increasingly prevalent in the past decade. With the advance of Web 2.0 technologies, social media present a novel platform for Web users to form online health groups. Members of online health groups discuss health-related issues and mutually help one another by anonymously revealing their mental conditions, sharing personal experiences, exchanging health information, and providing suggestions and support. The conversations in online health groups contain valuable information to facilitate the understanding of their mutual help behaviors and their mental health problems. We aimed to characterize the conversations in a major online health group for major depressive disorder (MDD) patients in a popular Chinese social media platform. In particular, we intended to explain how Web users discuss depression-related issues from the perspective of the social networks and linguistic patterns revealed by the members' conversations. Social network analysis and linguistic analysis were employed to characterize the social structure and linguistic patterns, respectively. Furthermore, we integrated both perspectives to exploit the hidden relations between them. We found an intensive use of self-focus words and negative affect words. In general, group members used a higher proportion of negative affect words than positive affect words. The social network of the MDD group for depression possessed small-world and scale-free properties, with a much higher reciprocity ratio and clustering coefficient value as compared to the networks of other social media platforms and classic network models. We observed a number of interesting relationships, either strong correlations or convergent trends, between the topological properties and linguistic properties of the MDD group members. (1) The MDD group members have the characteristics of self-preoccupation and negative thought content, according to Beck's cognitive theory of depression; (2) the social structure

  17. Understanding the working relationships between National Health Service clinicians and finance staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minogue, Virginia; McCaffry, Rebecca

    2017-03-13

    Purpose The Department of Health and the National Health Service (NHS) Future Focused Finance (FFF) programme promotes effective engagement between clinical and finance staff. Surveys undertaken by the Department of Health between 2013 and 2015 found few NHS Trusts reported high levels of engagement. The purpose of this paper is to gain a better understanding of current working relationships between NHS clinical and finance professionals and how they might be supported to become more effective. Design/methodology/approach Ipsos MORI were commissioned by the NHS FFF programme to undertake an online survey of NHS clinical and finance staff between June and August 2015. Findings The majority of clinicians had a member of a finance team linked to their speciality or directorate. Clinical and finance professionals have a positive view of joint working preferring face-to-face contact. Clinician's confidence in their understanding of finance was generally good and finance staff felt they had a good understanding of clinical issues. Effective working relationships were facilitated by face-to-face contact, a professional relationship, and the availability of clear, well presented finance and activity data. Research limitations/implications Data protection issues limited the accessibility of the survey team to NHS staff resulting in a relatively low-response rate. Other forms of communication, including social media, were utilised to increase access to the survey. Originality/value The FFF programme is a unique programme aimed at making the NHS finance profession fit for the future. The close partnering work stream brings together the finance and clinical perspective to share knowledge, evidence, training, and to develop good practice and engagement.

  18. Understanding and Enhancing Soil Biological Health: The Solution for Reversing Soil Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Michael Lehman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Our objective is to provide an optimistic strategy for reversing soil degradation by increasing public and private research efforts to understand the role of soil biology, particularly microbiology, on the health of our world’s soils. We begin by defining soil quality/soil health (which we consider to be interchangeable terms, characterizing healthy soil resources, and relating the significance of soil health to agroecosystems and their functions. We examine how soil biology influences soil health and how biological properties and processes contribute to sustainability of agriculture and ecosystem services. We continue by examining what can be done to manipulate soil biology to: (i increase nutrient availability for production of high yielding, high quality crops; (ii protect crops from pests, pathogens, weeds; and (iii manage other factors limiting production, provision of ecosystem services, and resilience to stresses like droughts. Next we look to the future by asking what needs to be known about soil biology that is not currently recognized or fully understood and how these needs could be addressed using emerging research tools. We conclude, based on our perceptions of how new knowledge regarding soil biology will help make agriculture more sustainable and productive, by recommending research emphases that should receive first priority through enhanced public and private research in order to reverse the trajectory toward global soil degradation.

  19. Nourishing Our Understanding of Role Modeling to Improve Support and Health (NOURISH): design and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzeo, Suzanne E; Kelly, Nichole R; Stern, Marilyn; Gow, Rachel W; Serdar, Kasey; Evans, Ronald K; Jones, Resa M; Bulik, Cynthia M

    2012-05-01

    Pediatric overweight is associated with numerous physical and psychological health risks, and overweight children are at significant risk for obesity in adulthood. African-American children are at particularly high risk for obesity and related health complications. However, this racial group has traditionally had limited access to obesity treatment and relatively few studies have included sufficient numbers of lower-SES, African American participants. Further, although parental involvement in treatment for pediatric overweight has been found to be beneficial, few studies have examined the efficacy of offering treatment exclusively to parents, a potentially cost-effective approach which could benefit the entire family. This pilot project will evaluate the efficacy of an intensive parenting intervention, (NOURISH; Nourishing Our Understanding of Role modeling to Improve Support and Health), targeting racially diverse parents of overweight children (ages 6-11). NOURISH addresses several urgent research priorities by targeting the underserved and addressing the significant disparity in obesity treatment services. Parents meeting study criteria (having a child between the ages of 6 and 11 with a BMI ≥ the 85th percentile) will be offered participation in the randomized trial comparing NOURISH with a control group. We hypothesize that children whose parents participate in NOURISH will manifest greater decreases in BMI, and greater improvements in dietary intake, and quality of life compared to children whose parents do not participate. This study is designed explicitly to gather preliminary feasibility, acceptability, and effectiveness data to inform a subsequent larger randomized controlled trial. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Persuasive Advertising : Consumers' views of and responses to the advertising of health-related products

    OpenAIRE

    Edin, Malin

    2012-01-01

    The problem that this thesis deals with is that the intense competition and increasing consumer power in the health industry calls for the operating companies to take consumers’ considerations into account when advertising their products. It is further suggested that consumers will be extra careful before buying health-related products due to their direct effect on their personal health. Thus, companies selling health-related products must gain an understanding of how consumers form their jud...

  1. Understanding and motivating health care employees: integrating Maslow's hierarchy of needs, training and technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Suzanne G; Dundis, Stephen P

    2003-09-01

    This paper applies Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Model to the challenges of understanding and motivating employees in a rapidly changing health care industry. The perspective that Maslow's Model brings is an essential element that should be considered as the health care arena is faced with reorganization, re-engineering, mergers, acquisitions, increases in learning demands, and the escalating role of technology in training. This paper offers a new perspective related to how Maslow's Model, as used in business/organizational settings, can be directly related to current workforce concerns: the need for security and freedom from stress, social belongingness, self-esteem, self-actualization, altered work/social environments, and new opportunities for learning and self-definition. Changes in health care will continue at an accelerated pace and with these changes will come the need for more and more training. The use of technology in training has heightened access, faster distribution, innovation and increased collaboration. However, with this technology come attendant challenges including keeping up with the technology, the increased pace of training, depersonalization, and fear of the unknown. The Maslow model provides a means for understanding these challenges in terms of universal individual needs. How does one motivate employees in the face of increased demands, particularly when they are being asked to meet these demands with fewer resources? The answer is, in large part, to make the employee feel secure, needed, and appreciated. This is not at all easy, but if leaders take into consideration the needs of the individual, the new technology that provides challenges and opportunities for meeting those needs, and provides the training to meet both sets of needs, enhanced employee motivation and commitment is possible.

  2. Shift work-related health problems in

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Khavaji

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and aimsShift work is a major feature of working life that affects diverse aspects of human life. The main purposes of this study were to investigate shift work-related health problems and their risk factors among workers of "12-hour shift" schedule.MethodsThis cross-sectional study was carried out at 8 petrochemical industries in Asalooyeh area. Study population consisted of 1203 workers including 549 shift worker (46% and 654 day worker (54%. Data on personal details, shift schedule and adverse effects of shift work werecollected by anonymous questionnaire. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS, version 11.5. The level of significance was set at 5%.ResultsAlthough, the results showed that health problems among shift workers was more prevalent than day workers, but the differences were just significant in gastrointestinal and musculoskeletal disorders (p<0.05. Multiple linear regressions indicated that in addition to shift working, other variants such as long work hours, type of employment, second job, number of children and job title were associated with health problems.ConclusionPrevalence rates of gastrointestinal and musculoskeletal problems among shift workers were significantly higher than that of day workers. Although, working in shift system was the main significant factor associated with the reported problems, but other demographic andwork variables were also found to have association.

  3. eHealth literacy, Internet and eHealth service usage: a survey among cancer patients and their relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halwas, Nikolaus; Griebel, Lena; Huebner, Jutta

    2017-11-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate Internet and eHealth usage, with respect to eHealth literacy, by cancer patients and their relatives. Using a standardized questionnaire we asked patients who attended lectures on complementary medicine in 2016. We received 142 questionnaires. The frequency of general Internet usage was directly associated with younger age and better Internet connection. Younger participants were not only more confident in allocating health-related Internet information into reliable or unreliable facts, but also more confident and capable of gaining medical knowledge through eHealth services. A regular use of eHealth services facilitated the decision-making process. Reading ability was associated with a better understanding regarding eHealth offers. In a modern health care system, emphasis should be on skills contributing to eHealth literacy among patients to improve their ability to profit from eHealth offers and improve health care.

  4. Health-related media use among youth audiences in Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glik, Deborah; Massey, Philip; Gipson, Jessica; Dieng, Thierno; Rideau, Alexandre; Prelip, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Lower- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are experiencing rapid changes in access to and use of new internet and digital media technologies. The purpose of this study was to better understand how younger audiences are navigating traditional and newer forms of media technologies, with particular emphasis on the skills and competencies needed to obtain, evaluate and apply health-related information, also defined as health and media literacy. Sixteen focus group discussions were conducted throughout Senegal in September 2012 with youth aged 15-25. Using an iterative coding process based on grounded theory, four themes emerged related to media use for health information among Senegalese youth. They include the following: (i) media utilization; (ii) barriers and conflicts regarding media utilization; (iii) uses and gratifications and (iv) health and media literacy. Findings suggest that Senegalese youth use a heterogeneous mix of media platforms (i.e. television, radio, internet) and utilization often occurs with family members or friends. Additionally, the need for entertainment, information and connectedness inform media use, mostly concerning sexual and reproductive health information. Importantly, tensions arise as youth balance innovative and interactive technologies with traditional and conservative values, particularly concerning ethical and privacy concerns. Findings support the use of multipronged intervention approaches that leverage both new media, as well as traditional media strategies, and that also address lack of health and media literacy in this population. Implementing health-related interventions across multiple media platforms provides an opportunity to create an integrated, as opposed to a disparate, user experience. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Motivation and flow: toward an understanding of the dynamics of the relation in architecture students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Maura J; Fullagar, Clive J

    2008-09-01

    The authors investigated the relation between motivation and flow in a sample of 327 architecture students. Specifically, they investigated the relation between flow and several levels of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, as well as amotivation. They also assessed the need for autonomy in moderating the relation between intrinsic motivation and engagement. Results indicated a significant relation between flow experiences in academic activities and the more self-determined forms of intrinsic motivation, but not for extrinsic motivation. The need for autonomy moderated the relation between flow and intrinsic motivation. These results are discussed in the context of understanding flow as an intrinsically motivating state and a viable construct for understanding engagement.

  6. What are health-related users tweeting? A qualitative content analysis of health-related users and their messages on twitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joy L; DeCamp, Matthew; Dredze, Mark; Chisolm, Margaret S; Berger, Zackary D

    2014-10-15

    Twitter is home to many health professionals who send messages about a variety of health-related topics. Amid concerns about physicians posting inappropriate content online, more in-depth knowledge about these messages is needed to understand health professionals' behavior on Twitter. Our goal was to characterize the content of Twitter messages, specifically focusing on health professionals and their tweets relating to health. We performed an in-depth content analysis of 700 tweets. Qualitative content analysis was conducted on tweets by health users on Twitter. The primary objective was to describe the general type of content (ie, health-related versus non-health related) on Twitter authored by health professionals and further to describe health-related tweets on the basis of the type of statement made. Specific attention was given to whether a tweet was personal (as opposed to professional) or made a claim that users would expect to be supported by some level of medical evidence (ie, a "testable" claim). A secondary objective was to compare content types among different users, including patients, physicians, nurses, health care organizations, and others. Health-related users are posting a wide range of content on Twitter. Among health-related tweets, 53.2% (184/346) contained a testable claim. Of health-related tweets by providers, 17.6% (61/346) were personal in nature; 61% (59/96) made testable statements. While organizations and businesses use Twitter to promote their services and products, patient advocates are using this tool to share their personal experiences with health. Twitter users in health-related fields tweet about both testable claims and personal experiences. Future work should assess the relationship between testable tweets and the actual level of evidence supporting them, including how Twitter users-especially patients-interpret the content of tweets posted by health providers.

  7. Mother and Infant Talk about Mental States Relates to Desire Language and Emotion Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taumoepeau, Mele; Ruffman, Ted

    2006-01-01

    This study assessed the relation between mother mental state language and child desire language and emotion understanding in 15--24-month-olds. At both times point, mothers described pictures to their infants and mother talk was coded for mental and nonmental state language. Children were administered 2 emotion understanding tasks and their mental…

  8. Peer Relations and the Understanding of Faux Pas: Longitudinal Evidence for Bidirectional Associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Robin; Watling, Dawn; Caputi, Marcella

    2011-01-01

    Research connecting children's understanding of mental states to their peer relations at school remains scarce. Previous work by the authors demonstrated that children's understanding of mental states in the context of a faux pas--a social blunder involving unintentional insult--is associated with concurrent peer rejection. The present report…

  9. Proportional Reasoning and Related Concepts: Analysis of Gaps and Understandings of Middle Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojose, Bobby

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated proportional reasoning and the related concepts of decimal, percent, and ratio. In particular, the research focused on analyzing the gaps and understandings that grades 6, 7, and 8 students have and advanced factors for such gaps and understandings. The study employed a mixed method approach in which quantitative data was…

  10. Children's understanding of Aesop's fables: relations to reading comprehension and theory of mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Janette; Beatty, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Two studies examined children's developing understanding of Aesop's fables in relation to reading comprehension and to theory of mind. Study 1 included 172 children from Junior Kindergarten through Grade 6 in a school-wide examination of the relation between reading comprehension skills and understanding of Aesop's fables told orally. Study 2 examined the relation between theory of mind and fables understanding among 186 Junior (4-year-old) and Senior (5-year-old) Kindergarten children. Study 1 results showed a developmental progression in fables understanding with children's responses becoming increasingly decontextualized as they were able to extract the life lesson. After general vocabulary, passage comprehension predicted fables understanding. Study 2 results showed a relation between young children's theory of mind development and their understanding of fables. After general vocabulary, second-order theory of mind predicted children's fables understanding. Findings point to the importance of developing mental state awareness in children's ability to judge characters' intentions and to understand the deeper message embedded in fables.

  11. Prospective Elementary Teacher Understandings of Pest-Related Science and Agricultural Education Benchmarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trexler, Cary J.; Heinze, Kirk L.

    2001-01-01

    Clinical interviews with eight preservice elementary teachers elicited their understanding of pest-related benchmarks. Those with out-of-school experience were better able to articulate their understanding. Many were unable to make connections between scientific, societal and technological concepts. (Contains 39 references.) (SK)

  12. A Macro-Micro-Symbolic Teaching to Promote Relational Understanding of Chemical Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaber, Lama Ziad; Boujaoude, Saouma

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research is threefold: (1) to identify the difficulties that Grade 10 students in a Lebanese school have that hinder their conceptual understanding at the micro-macro-symbolic interface in chemistry, (2) to investigate the effect of a macro-micro-symbolic teaching approach on students' relational understanding of chemical…

  13. Public relations and public understanding in the nuclear industry in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roos, E.; Michel, A. [Belgonucleaire, Brussels (Belgium)

    1995-12-31

    Before talking about public understanding and public relations in the nuclear industry in Europe, a word about the mosaic structure of the European energy policy and public is required because a similar structure will be found in the European public understanding policy. Afterwards, we explain what communications tools are available and how the different European countries apply them.

  14. Student Understanding of Time in Special Relativity: Simultaneity and Reference Frames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherr, Rachel E.; Shaffer, Peter S.; Vokos, Stamatis

    2001-01-01

    Reports on an investigation of students' understanding of the concept of time in special relativity. Discusses a series of research tasks to illustrate how student reasoning of fundamental concepts of relativity was probed. Indicates that after standard instruction, students have serious difficulties with the relativity of simultaneity and the…

  15. Understanding the dynamics of gender equality and eHealth | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2018-01-29

    Jan 29, 2018 ... Unless these questions are addressed early on, people's experiences with ... Understanding how a person's gender, age, and class can influence ... It also promoted greater equity among workers in primary health centres ...

  16. Income-related inequality in health and health-related behaviour: exploring the equalisation hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallejo-Torres, Laura; Hale, Daniel; Morris, Stephen; Viner, Russell M

    2014-07-01

    Previous studies have found the socioeconomic gradient in health among adolescents to be lower than that observed during childhood and adulthood. The aim of this study was to examine income-related inequalities in health and health-related behaviour across the lifespan in England to explore 'equalisation' in adolescence. We used five years of data (2006-2010) from the Health Survey for England to explore inequalities in six indicators: self-assessed general health, longstanding illness, limiting longstanding illness, psychosocial wellbeing, obesity and smoking status. We ran separate analyses by age/gender groups. Inequality was measured using concentration indices. Our findings for longstanding illnesses, psychosocial wellbeing and obesity were consistent with the equalisation hypothesis. For these indicators, the extent of income-related inequality was lower among late adolescents (16-19 years) and young adults (20-24 years) compared to children and young adolescents (under 15 years), mid- and late-adults (25-44 and 45-64 years) and the elderly (65+ years). The remaining indicators showed lower inequality among adolescents compared to adults, but higher inequality when compared with children. Our work shows that inequalities occur across the life-course but that for some health issues there may be a period of equalisation in late adolescence and early adulthood. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  17. Toward a Better Understanding of Patient Health Literacy: A Focus on the Skills Patients Need to Find Health Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champlin, Sara; Mackert, Michael; Glowacki, Elizabeth M; Donovan, Erin E

    2017-07-01

    While many health literacy assessments exist, this area of research lacks an instrument that isolates and reflects the four components driving this concept (abilities to find, understand, use, and communicate about health information). The purpose of this study was to determine what abilities comprise the first component, how a patient finds health information. Low ( n = 13) and adequate ( n = 14) health literacy patients, and health professionals ( n = 10) described their experiences when looking for health information and the skills they employed to complete these tasks. Major skills/themes elicited included knowing when to search, credibility assessments, finding text and numerical information, interpersonal seeking, technology and online search, and spatial navigation. Findings from this study suggest that each of the dimensions included in the definition of health literacy warrants specific attention and assessment. Given identification of the skills comprising each dimension, interventions targeting deficits across health literacy dimensions could be developed to improve patient health.

  18. Understanding multinational companies in public health systems, using a competitive advantage framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lethbridge Jane

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper discusses the findings of a study which developed five case studies of five multinational health care companies involved in public health care systems. Strategies were analysed in terms of attitude to marketing, pricing and regulation. The company strategies have been subjected to an analysis using Porter's Five Forces, a business strategy framework, which is unusual in health policy studies. Methods This paper shows how analysing company strategy using a business tool can contribute to understanding the strategies of global capital in national health systems. It shows how social science methodologies can draw from business methods to explain company strategies. Results The five companies considered in this paper demonstrate that their strategies have many dimensions, which fit into Porter's Five Forces of comparative advantage. More importantly the Five Forces can be used to identify factors that influence company entry into public health care systems. Conclusions The process of examining the strategic objectives of five health care companies shows that a business tool can help to explain the actions and motives of health care companies towards public health care systems, and so contribute to a better understanding of the strategies of global capital in national health systems. Health service commissioners need to understand this dynamic process, which will evolve as the nature of public health care systems change.

  19. Understanding multinational companies in public health systems, using a competitive advantage framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background This paper discusses the findings of a study which developed five case studies of five multinational health care companies involved in public health care systems. Strategies were analysed in terms of attitude to marketing, pricing and regulation. The company strategies have been subjected to an analysis using Porter's Five Forces, a business strategy framework, which is unusual in health policy studies. Methods This paper shows how analysing company strategy using a business tool can contribute to understanding the strategies of global capital in national health systems. It shows how social science methodologies can draw from business methods to explain company strategies. Results The five companies considered in this paper demonstrate that their strategies have many dimensions, which fit into Porter's Five Forces of comparative advantage. More importantly the Five Forces can be used to identify factors that influence company entry into public health care systems. Conclusions The process of examining the strategic objectives of five health care companies shows that a business tool can help to explain the actions and motives of health care companies towards public health care systems, and so contribute to a better understanding of the strategies of global capital in national health systems. Health service commissioners need to understand this dynamic process, which will evolve as the nature of public health care systems change. PMID:21722372

  20. Understanding multinational companies in public health systems, using a competitive advantage framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lethbridge, Jane

    2011-07-01

    This paper discusses the findings of a study which developed five case studies of five multinational health care companies involved in public health care systems. Strategies were analysed in terms of attitude to marketing, pricing and regulation. The company strategies have been subjected to an analysis using Porter's Five Forces, a business strategy framework, which is unusual in health policy studies. This paper shows how analysing company strategy using a business tool can contribute to understanding the strategies of global capital in national health systems. It shows how social science methodologies can draw from business methods to explain company strategies. The five companies considered in this paper demonstrate that their strategies have many dimensions, which fit into Porter's Five Forces of comparative advantage. More importantly the Five Forces can be used to identify factors that influence company entry into public health care systems. The process of examining the strategic objectives of five health care companies shows that a business tool can help to explain the actions and motives of health care companies towards public health care systems, and so contribute to a better understanding of the strategies of global capital in national health systems. Health service commissioners need to understand this dynamic process, which will evolve as the nature of public health care systems change.

  1. Microbiome Research Is Becoming the Key to Better Understanding Health and Nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Hadrich

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The human microbiome has emerged as the crucial moderator in the interactions between food and our body. It is increasingly recognised that the microbiome can change our mind and health status, or switch on a wide range of diseases including cancer, cardio-metabolic diseases, allergies, and obesity. The causes of diseases are often only partially understood. However, nutrients, metabolites, and microbes are increasingly regarded as key players, even where the complete disease mechanisms remain unclear. The key to progress in the future will be to use and exploit additional, newly emerging disciplines such as metagenomics to complement patient information and to bring our understanding of diseases and the interrelation and effects of nutritional molecules to the next level. The EU has already funded 216 projects under the 7th Framework Programme and Horizon 2020 programmes to promote metagenomics and to advance our knowledge of microbes. This support started with the catalysing MetaHIT project that has produced a catalogue of gut microbes, and has arrived now at the very multi-disciplinary SYSCID action looking at how the microbiome is driving its resilience potential and our health. Together, these projects involve an investment of more than €498 M. However, in Horizon 2020, the new EU Health and Food Work Programmes for 2018–2020 go even further by setting new goals to find applications and to generate more knowledge on the microbiome, nutrition, various hosts of microbes, and their relation to health and disease. The big vision is to modulate health and diseases via the microbiome and nutrition, while at the same time other factors such as omics, molecular signatures, and lifestyle are constant. In this way, microbiome and nutrition research is moving from an isolated and despised offside position to a beacon of hope with a lot of potential and possibilities.

  2. Understanding fear of cancer recurrence in terms of damage to 'everyday health competence'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horlick-Jones, Tom

    2011-09-01

    Advances in clinical treatments are resulting in cancer patients living longer, but with the threat of the disease returning at some later date. Anxiety associated with this fear of recurrence, which seems widespread among patients, can lead to an enhanced bodily awareness and a pronounced tendency to interpret mundane sensations as symptoms of pathology. Relatively little sociological work has been done to systematically document, understand, and find ways of addressing, this syndrome and its impact on the quality of patients' lives. It is argued that this syndrome is best understood not in cognitive terms, as a form of irrationality, but rather as resulting from damage to certain aspects of social competence, namely one's 'everyday health competence'. In investigating this issue, the author draws upon his personal experience of breast cancer diagnosis, surgery and adjuvant therapy; and on a broadly phenomenological approach to examining the relationship between bodily sensations and practical reasoning about experience. The implications for clinical practice are considered briefly. © 2011 The Author. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2011 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Understanding attrition from international Internet health interventions: a step towards global eHealth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraghty, Adam W A; Torres, Leandro D; Leykin, Yan; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J; Muñoz, Ricardo F

    2013-09-01

    Worldwide automated Internet health interventions have the potential to greatly reduce health disparities. High attrition from automated Internet interventions is ubiquitous, and presents a challenge in the evaluation of their effectiveness. Our objective was to evaluate variables hypothesized to be related to attrition, by modeling predictors of attrition in a secondary data analysis of two cohorts of an international, dual language (English and Spanish) Internet smoking cessation intervention. The two cohorts were identical except for the approach to follow-up (FU): one cohort employed only fully automated FU (n = 16 430), while the other cohort also used 'live' contact conditional upon initial non-response (n = 1000). Attrition rates were 48.1 and 10.8% for the automated FU and live FU cohorts, respectively. Significant attrition predictors in the automated FU cohort included higher levels of nicotine dependency, lower education, lower quitting confidence and receiving more contact emails. Participants' younger age was the sole predictor of attrition in the live FU cohort. While research on large-scale deployment of Internet interventions is at an early stage, this study demonstrates that differences in attrition from trials on this scale are (i) systematic and predictable and (ii) can largely be eliminated by live FU efforts. In fully automated trials, targeting the predictors we identify may reduce attrition, a necessary precursor to effective behavioral Internet interventions that can be accessed globally.

  4. Health-related quality of life and mental health in older women with urinary incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, YeunHee; Kwon, HaeJin; Kim, YoonJung

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to compare health-related quality of life (QOL) and mental health between older women with and without urinary incontinence. This study is a secondary data analysis using raw data from 1874 women aged 65 years or older who participated in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) IV (2008-2009), a nationally representative sample. In the pain/discomfort dimension of the EuroQol-5, 25.4% of the participants experienced urinary incontinence and 14.7% did not (p = .001). In the anxiety/depression dimension, urinary incontinence was present in 8.3% of the participants and absent in 3.6% (p = 0.012). In addition, the results of an ANCOVA showed that scores in both the EuroQol visual analogue scale and the EQ-5D index were significantly lower in participants with urinary incontinence relative to those without. The risk of stress and depression in older women with urinary incontinence was approximately 2 and 1.5 times higher, respectively, than that of participants without urinary incontinence. Health-related QOL in older women with urinary incontinence was relatively low, while levels of stress and depression were high. Therefore, in order to improve QOL and mental health in older women, the understanding and management of urinary incontinence interventions is required.

  5. The importance of economic, social and cultural capital in understanding health inequalities: using a Bourdieu-based approach in research on physical and mental health perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinxten, Wouter; Lievens, John

    2014-09-01

    In this article we adopt a Bourdieu-based approach to study social inequalities in perceptions of mental and physical health. Most research takes into account the impact of economic or social capital on health inequalities. Bourdieu, however, distinguishes between three forms of capital that can determine peoples' social position: economic, social and cultural capital. Health research examining the effects of cultural capital is scarce. By simultaneously considering and modelling indicators of each of Bourdieu's forms of capital, we further the understanding of the dynamics of health inequalities. Using data from a large-scale representative survey (N = 1825) in Flanders, Belgium, we find that each of the forms of capital has a net effect on perceptions of physical and mental health, which persists after controlling for the other forms of capital and for the effects of other correlates of perceived health. The only exception is that the cultural capital indicators are not related to mental health. These results confirm the value of a Bourdieu-based approach and indicate the need to consider economic, social and cultural capital to obtain a better understanding of social inequality in health. © 2014 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2014 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Understanding the implementation of complex interventions in health care: the normalization process model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogers Anne

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Normalization Process Model is a theoretical model that assists in explaining the processes by which complex interventions become routinely embedded in health care practice. It offers a framework for process evaluation and also for comparative studies of complex interventions. It focuses on the factors that promote or inhibit the routine embedding of complex interventions in health care practice. Methods A formal theory structure is used to define the model, and its internal causal relations and mechanisms. The model is broken down to show that it is consistent and adequate in generating accurate description, systematic explanation, and the production of rational knowledge claims about the workability and integration of complex interventions. Results The model explains the normalization of complex interventions by reference to four factors demonstrated to promote or inhibit the operationalization and embedding of complex interventions (interactional workability, relational integration, skill-set workability, and contextual integration. Conclusion The model is consistent and adequate. Repeated calls for theoretically sound process evaluations in randomized controlled trials of complex interventions, and policy-makers who call for a proper understanding of implementation processes, emphasize the value of conceptual tools like the Normalization Process Model.

  7. Consumer understanding, interpretation and perceived levels of personal responsibility in relation to satiety-related claims

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bilman, E.M.; Kleef, van E.; Mela, D.J.; Hulshof, T.; Trijp, van J.C.M.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore (a) whether and how consumers may (over-) interpret satiety claims, and (b) whether and to what extent consumers recognize that personal efforts are required to realize possible satiety-related or weight loss benefits. Following means-end chain theory, we

  8. A "Light Bulb Moment" in Understanding Public Health for Undergraduate Students: Evaluation of the Experiential "This Is Public Health" Photo Essay Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dundas, Kate Joanne; Hansen, Vibeke; Outram, Suzanne; James, Erica L

    2017-01-01

    A lack of understanding of the importance of public health both within the community and in the tertiary education setting is a significant impediment to improvement in population health. The international campaign "This is Public Health" (TIPH) has been promoted widely as a strategy to increase community awareness and attract and inspire the next generation of public health professionals. This paper describes and evaluates student perceptions of a TIPH photo essay and reflective task in order to explore the pedagogical and learning outcomes related to undergraduate students' public health knowledge. The aim of the analysis was to understand (1) if the task led to increased awareness of public health, and if so, the process of how an understanding of public health develops, and (2) how the interactive nature of the experiential TIPH task leads to depth of understanding. This study was undertaken at the University of Newcastle (UON), NSW, Australia. A qualitative study design using a descriptive case study methodology was employed. One-hundred and thirty-nine undergraduate students taking part in a semester-long, introductory public health course provided informed consent and completed a TIPH photo essay and reflective task as a compulsory assessment. Analysis of the student reflections was performed using a general inductive approach to qualitative thematic analysis. Analysis of the reflections indicated that completion of the photo essay and reflective task revealed two strong thematic clusters each with a number of subthemes. The most important findings were the six strong data clusters around students' new and deeper understanding of Public Health. Additionally, four separate data clusters around the pedagogy of the task were revealed. The task also impacted beyond knowledge improvement and academic performance. Students alluded to an increased appreciation of their own health, a new recognition of the importance of preventative health measures, and an improved

  9. Managers' Understanding of Workplace Health Promotion within Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: A Phenomenological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Ann; Parahoo, Kader; Fleming, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed at exploring managers' understanding of workplace health promotion and experiences of workplace health promotion activity within small and medium-sized enterprises. Design: A Heideggerian interpretive phenomenological methodology was adopted. Setting: This study was undertaken with small and medium-sized enterprise…

  10. The Millennium Cohort: A 21-Year Contribution to the Understanding of Military and Veterans’ Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-10

    syndrome (15 items) • Other anxiety syndrome (6 items) • Eating disorders (4 items; binge and bulimia nervosa) Has your doctor or other health...The Millennium Cohort: a 21-Year Contribution to the Understanding of Military and Veterans’ Health Second Annual Trauma Stress Disorders ...AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for public release; distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES Presented at The Second Annual Trauma Spectrum Disorders

  11. DOES TRAINING IN THE CIRCLE OF SECURITY FRAMEWORK INCREASE RELATIONAL UNDERSTANDING IN INFANT/CHILD AND FAMILY WORKERS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Catherine; Huber, Anna; Kohlhoff, Jane; Camberis, Anna-Lisa

    2017-09-01

    This article evaluated whether attendance at Circle of Security training workshops resulted in attendees showing greater empathy and attachment-related knowledge and understanding, and fewer judgmental responses to viewing a stressful parent-child interaction. Participants were 202 practitioners who attended and completed a 2-day (n = 70), 4-day (n = 105), or 10-day (n = 27) COS training workshop in Australia or New Zealand in 2015. In a pre/post design, participant reactions to a video clip of a challenging parent-child interaction were coded for empathic, judgmental, or attachment-focused language. Attachment understanding was coded in response to questions about the greatest challenge that the dyad faced. In all training conditions, participants provided significantly more attachment-focused descriptors and showed significantly greater attachment understanding after training, but significantly fewer empathic descriptors. While participants at the longer workshops provided significantly fewer judgmental/critical descriptors, there was no change for those attending the 2-day workshop. Irrespective of workshop duration or professional background, participants took a more relational perspective on the vignette after the training workshops. More detailed research is required to establish the extent to which this increased knowledge and understanding is retained and integrated into infant mental health practice with parents and young children. © 2017 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  12. What is a health emergency? The difference in definition and understanding between patients and health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgans, Amee; Burgess, Stephen J

    2011-08-01

    Investigations into 'inappropriate' use of emergency health services are limited by the lack of definition of what constitutes a health emergency. Position papers from Australian and international sources emphasise the patient's right to access emergency healthcare, and the responsibility of emergency health care workers to provide treatment to all patients. However, discordance between the two perspectives remain, with literature labelling patient use of emergency health services as 'inappropriate'. To define a 'health emergency' and compare patient and health professionals perspectives. A sample of 600 emergency department (ED) patients were surveyed about a recent health experience and asked to rate their perceived urgency. This rating was compared to their triage score allocated at the hospital ED. No significant relationship was found between the two ratings of urgency (P=0.51). CONCLUSIONS; Differing definitions of a 'health emergency' may explain patient help-seeking behaviour when accessing emergency health resources including hospital ED and ambulance services. A new definition of health emergency that encapsulates the health professional and patient perspectives is proposed. An agreed definition of when emergency health resources should be used has the potential to improve emergency health services demand and patient flow issues, and optimise emergency health resource allocation.

  13. From Headline to Hard Grind: The Importance of Understanding Public Administration in Achieving Health OutcomesComment on "Understanding the Role of Public Administration in Implementing Action on the Social Determinants of Health and Health Inequities".

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Flynn, Janine

    2016-04-30

    Many public policy programs fail to translate ambitious headlines to on-the-ground action. The reasons for this are many and varied, but for public administration and management scholars a large part of the gap between ambition and achievement is the challenge associated with the operation of the machinery of government itself, and how it relates to the other parties that it relies on to fulfill these outcomes. In their article, Carey and Friel set out key reasons why public health scholars should seek to better understand important ideas in public administration. In commenting on their contribution, I draw out two critical questions that are raised by this discussion: (i) what are boundaries and what forms do they take? and (ii) why work across boundaries? Expanding on these key questions extends the points made by Carey and Friel on the importance of understanding public administration and will better place public health scholars and practitioners to realise health outcomes. © 2016 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  14. Belief, Knowledge and Understanding: How to Deal with the Relations between Different Cultural Perspectives in Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira-dos-Santos, Frederik; El-Hani, Charbel N.

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses how to deal with the relations between different cultural perspectives in classrooms, based on a proposal for considering understanding and knowledge as goals of science education, inspired by Dewey's naturalistic humanism. It thus combines educational and philosophical interests. In educational terms, our concerns relate to…

  15. Understanding the Context of Learning in an Online Social Network for Health Professionals' Informal Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Gray, Kathleen; Verspoor, Karin; Barnett, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Online social networks (OSN) enable health professionals to learn informally, for example by sharing medical knowledge, or discussing practice management challenges and clinical issues. Understanding the learning context in OSN is necessary to get a complete picture of the learning process, in order to better support this type of learning. This study proposes critical contextual factors for understanding the learning context in OSN for health professionals, and demonstrates how these contextual factors can be used to analyse the learning context in a designated online learning environment for health professionals.

  16. Review of mental-health-related stigma in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Shuntaro; Yamaguchi, Sosei; Aoki, Yuta; Thornicroft, Graham

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study is to understand the nature and characteristics of mental-health-related stigma among Japanese people. We searched relevant studies in English or Japanese published since 2001 using MEDLINE and PsycINFO, and found 19 studies that examined mental-health-related stigma in Japan. Regarding knowledge about mental illness, reviewed studies showed that in the Japanese general population, few people think that people can recover from mental disorders. Psychosocial factors, including weakness of personality, are often considered the cause of mental illness, rather than biological factors. In addition, the majority of the general public in Japan keep a greater social distance from individuals with mental illness, especially in close personal relationships. Schizophrenia is more stigmatized than depression, and its severity increases the stigmatizing attitude toward mental illness. The literature also showed an association between more direct social contact between health professionals and individuals with mental illness and less stigmatization by these professionals. Less stigmatization by mental health professionals may be associated with accumulation of clinical experience and daily contact with people who have mental illness. Stigmatizing attitudes in Japan are stronger than in Taiwan or Australia, possibly due to institutionalism, lack of national campaigns to tackle stigma, and/or society's valuing of conformity in Japan. Although educational programs appear to be effective in reducing mental-health-related stigma, future programs in Japan need to address problems regarding institutionalism and offer direct social contact with people with mental illness. © 2013 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2013 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  17. Understanding the impact of global trade liberalization on health systems pursuing universal health coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missoni, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    In the context of reemerging universalistic approaches to health care, the objective of this article was to contribute to the discussion by highlighting the potential influence of global trade liberalization on the balance between health demand and the capacity of health systems pursuing universal health coverage (UHC) to supply adequate health care. Being identified as a defining feature of globalization affecting health, trade liberalization is analyzed as a complex and multidimensional influence on the implementation of UHC. The analysis adopts a systems-thinking approach and refers to the six building blocks of World Health Organization's current "framework for action," emphasizing their interconnectedness. While offering new opportunities to increase access to health information and care, in the absence of global governance mechanisms ensuring adequate health protection and promotion, global trade tends to have negative effects on health systems' capacity to ensure UHC, both by causing higher demand and by interfering with the interconnected functioning of health systems' building blocks. The prevention of such an impact and the effective implementation of UHC would highly benefit from a more consistent commitment and stronger leadership by the World Health Organization in protecting health in global policymaking fora in all sectors. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Virtual reality in the assessment, understanding, and treatment of mental health disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, D; Reeve, S; Robinson, A; Ehlers, A; Clark, D; Spanlang, B; Slater, M

    2017-10-01

    Mental health problems are inseparable from the environment. With virtual reality (VR), computer-generated interactive environments, individuals can repeatedly experience their problematic situations and be taught, via evidence-based psychological treatments, how to overcome difficulties. VR is moving out of specialist laboratories. Our central aim was to describe the potential of VR in mental health, including a consideration of the first 20 years of applications. A systematic review of empirical studies was conducted. In all, 285 studies were identified, with 86 concerning assessment, 45 theory development, and 154 treatment. The main disorders researched were anxiety (n = 192), schizophrenia (n = 44), substance-related disorders (n = 22) and eating disorders (n = 18). There are pioneering early studies, but the methodological quality of studies was generally low. The gaps in meaningful applications to mental health are extensive. The most established finding is that VR exposure-based treatments can reduce anxiety disorders, but there are numerous research and treatment avenues of promise. VR was found to be a much-misused term, often applied to non-interactive and non-immersive technologies. We conclude that VR has the potential to transform the assessment, understanding and treatment of mental health problems. The treatment possibilities will only be realized if - with the user experience at the heart of design - the best immersive VR technology is combined with targeted translational interventions. The capability of VR to simulate reality could greatly increase access to psychological therapies, while treatment outcomes could be enhanced by the technology's ability to create new realities. VR may merit the level of attention given to neuroimaging.

  19. Reimbursement decisions in health policy--extending our understanding of the elements of decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirtz, Veronika; Cribb, Alan; Barber, Nick

    2005-09-08

    Previous theoretical and empirical work on health policy decisions about reimbursement focuses on specific rationales such as effectiveness, economic considerations and equal access for equal needs. As reimbursement decisions take place in a social and political context we propose that the analysis of decision-making should incorporate factors, which go beyond those commonly discussed. As an example we chose three health technologies (sildenafil, rivastigmine and statins) to investigate how decisions about reimbursement of medicines are made in the United Kingdom National Health Service and what factors influence these decisions. From face-to-face, in-depth interviews with a purposive sample of 20 regional and national policy makers and stakeholders we identified two dimensions of decision-making, which extend beyond the rationales conventionally cited. The first dimension relates to the role of 'subjectivity' or 'the personal' in the decisions, including personal experiences of the condition and excitement about the novelty or potential benefit of the technology-these factors affect what counts as evidence, or how evidence is interpreted, in practice. The second dimension relates to the social and political function of decision-making and broadens what counts as the relevant ends of decision-making to include such things as maintaining relationships, avoiding organisational burden, generating politically and legally defensible decisions and demonstrating the willingness to care. More importantly, we will argue that these factors should not be treated as contaminants of an otherwise rational decision-making. On the contrary we suggest that they seem relevant, reasonable and also of substantial importance in considering in decision-making. Complementing the analysis of decision-making about reimbursement by incorporating these factors could increase our understanding and potentially improve decision-making.

  20. "I feel like I am surviving the health care system": understanding LGBTQ health in Nova Scotia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colpitts, Emily; Gahagan, Jacqueline

    2016-09-22

    Currently, there is a dearth of baseline data on the health of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) populations in the province of Nova Scotia, Canada. Historically, LGBTQ health research has tended to focus on individual-level health risks associated with poor health outcomes among these populations, which has served to obscure the ways in which they maintain their own health and wellness across the life course. As such, there is an urgent need to shift the focus of LGBTQ health research towards strengths-based perspectives that explore the complex and resilient ways in which LGBTQ populations promote their health. This paper discusses the findings of our recent scoping review as well as the qualitative data to emerge from community consultations aimed at developing strengths-based approaches to understanding and advancing LGBTQ pathways to health across Nova Scotia. Our scoping review findings demonstrated the lack of strengths-based research on LGBTQ health in Nova Scotia. Specifically, the studies examined in our scoping review identified a number of health-promoting factors and a wide variety of measurement tools, some of which may prove useful for future strengths-based health research with LGBTQ populations. In addition, our community consultations revealed that many participants had negative experiences with health care systems and services in Nova Scotia. However, participants also shared a number of factors that contribute to LGBTQ health and suggestions for how LGBTQ pathways to health in Nova Scotia can be improved. There is an urgent need to conduct research on the health needs, lived experiences, and outcomes of LGBTQ populations in Nova Scotia to address gaps in our knowledge of their unique health needs. In moving forward, it is important that future health research take an intersectional, strengths-based perspective in an effort to highlight the factors that promote LGBTQ health and wellness across the life course, while taking

  1. “I feel like I am surviving the health care system”: understanding LGBTQ health in Nova Scotia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Colpitts

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Currently, there is a dearth of baseline data on the health of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ populations in the province of Nova Scotia, Canada. Historically, LGBTQ health research has tended to focus on individual-level health risks associated with poor health outcomes among these populations, which has served to obscure the ways in which they maintain their own health and wellness across the life course. As such, there is an urgent need to shift the focus of LGBTQ health research towards strengths-based perspectives that explore the complex and resilient ways in which LGBTQ populations promote their health. Methods This paper discusses the findings of our recent scoping review as well as the qualitative data to emerge from community consultations aimed at developing strengths-based approaches to understanding and advancing LGBTQ pathways to health across Nova Scotia. Results Our scoping review findings demonstrated the lack of strengths-based research on LGBTQ health in Nova Scotia. Specifically, the studies examined in our scoping review identified a number of health-promoting factors and a wide variety of measurement tools, some of which may prove useful for future strengths-based health research with LGBTQ populations. In addition, our community consultations revealed that many participants had negative experiences with health care systems and services in Nova Scotia. However, participants also shared a number of factors that contribute to LGBTQ health and suggestions for how LGBTQ pathways to health in Nova Scotia can be improved. Conclusions There is an urgent need to conduct research on the health needs, lived experiences, and outcomes of LGBTQ populations in Nova Scotia to address gaps in our knowledge of their unique health needs. In moving forward, it is important that future health research take an intersectional, strengths-based perspective in an effort to highlight the factors that

  2. Health Insurance Literacy: How People Understand and Make Health Insurance Purchase Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardell, Emily Johanna

    2017-01-01

    The concept of health insurance literacy, which can be defined as "the extent to which consumers can make informed purchase and use decisions" (Kim, Braun, & Williams, 2013, p. 3), has only recently become a focus of health literacy research. Though employees have been making health insurance decisions for many years, the Affordable…

  3. Opportunities for Public Relations Research in Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Kurt

    2001-01-01

    Considers how communication researchers have developed a solid body of knowledge in the health field but know little about the activities of public relations practitioners in public health bodies. Suggests that public relations scholarship and practice have much to offer the field of public health in helping public health bodies meet their…

  4. Understanding the use of geographical information systems (GIS) in health informatics research: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Nicola; McGuire, Suzanne

    2017-06-23

    The purpose of this literature review is to understand geographical information systems (GIS) and how they can be applied to public health informatics, medical informatics, and epidemiology. Relevant papers that reflected the use of geographical information systems (GIS) in health research were identified from four academic databases: Academic Search Complete, BioMed Central, PubMed Central, and Scholars Portal, as well as Google Scholar. The search strategy used was to identify articles with "geographic information systems", "GIS", "public health", "medical informatics", "epidemiology", and "health geography" as main subject headings or text words in titles and abstracts. Papers published between 1997 and 2014 were considered and a total of 39 articles were included to inform the authors on the use of GIS technologies in health informatics research. The main applications of GIS in health informatics and epidemiology include disease surveillance, health risk analysis, health access and planning, and community health profiling. GIS technologies can significantly improve quality and efficiency in health research as substantial connections can be made between a population's health and their geographical location. Gains in health informatics can be made when GIS are applied through research, however, improvements need to occur in the quantity and quality of data input for these systems to ensure better geographical health maps are used so that proper conclusions between public health and environmental factors may be made.

  5. Promote Health or Prevent Disease? The Effects of Health-Related Advertising on Eating Behavior Intention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Yen Lin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The health medical costs of colorectal cancer are increasingly higher in Taiwan. The National Health Insurance Administration (NHI and The Health Promotion Administration of the Ministry of Health and Welfare (MOHW in Taiwan encourage individuals to adopt an earnest approach to healthy behavior through advocacy advertising. However, the number of colorectal cancer patients continues to increase annually. Our study explored the effects of health-related advertisements (ads on healthy behavior intentions as influenced by regulatory focus theory (RFT and construal level theory (CLT. We conducted an experiment with different public health advocacy ads. A 2 (regulatory focus: promotion vs. prevention × 2 (temporal distance: one month vs. one year × 2 (graphics-text ratio: more pictures and less text vs. fewer pictures and more text three-factor experiment was adopted. The multiple analysis of variance (MANOVA results revealed that ads with higher construal levels (i.e., more text had greater effects with a promotion-oriented regulatory focus. However, no significant differences were found in either attitude toward the ads or behavior intention when the regulatory focus was prevention. In addition, according to the young testers and those who were psychologically distant from colorectal cancer, different temporal distances and different construal levels had no statistically significantly effects on attitudes toward advertising or on behavior intentions. The results revealed that viewers found the information easier to understand when the ads triggered the regulatory focuses of the viewers and applied an appropriate graphics-text ratio, which resulted in favorable health-related advertising effectiveness. Thus, we provide two suggestions regarding the use of health-related advertising for MOHW in the future.

  6. Promote health or prevent disease? The effects of health-related advertising on eating behavior intention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Yen

    2015-03-27

    The health medical costs of colorectal cancer are increasingly higher in Taiwan. The National Health Insurance Administration (NHI) and The Health Promotion Administration of the Ministry of Health and Welfare (MOHW) in Taiwan encourage individuals to adopt an earnest approach to healthy behavior through advocacy advertising. However, the number of colorectal cancer patients continues to increase annually. Our study explored the effects of health-related advertisements (ads) on healthy behavior intentions as influenced by regulatory focus theory (RFT) and construal level theory (CLT). We conducted an experiment with different public health advocacy ads. A 2 (regulatory focus: promotion vs. prevention) × 2 (temporal distance: one month vs. one year) × 2 (graphics-text ratio: more pictures and less text vs. fewer pictures and more text) three-factor experiment was adopted. The multiple analysis of variance (MANOVA) results revealed that ads with higher construal levels (i.e., more text) had greater effects with a promotion-oriented regulatory focus. However, no significant differences were found in either attitude toward the ads or behavior intention when the regulatory focus was prevention. In addition, according to the young testers and those who were psychologically distant from colorectal cancer, different temporal distances and different construal levels had no statistically significantly effects on attitudes toward advertising or on behavior intentions. The results revealed that viewers found the information easier to understand when the ads triggered the regulatory focuses of the viewers and applied an appropriate graphics-text ratio, which resulted in favorable health-related advertising effectiveness. Thus, we provide two suggestions regarding the use of health-related advertising for MOHW in the future.

  7. Promote Health or Prevent Disease? The Effects of Health-Related Advertising on Eating Behavior Intention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Yen

    2015-01-01

    The health medical costs of colorectal cancer are increasingly higher in Taiwan. The National Health Insurance Administration (NHI) and The Health Promotion Administration of the Ministry of Health and Welfare (MOHW) in Taiwan encourage individuals to adopt an earnest approach to healthy behavior through advocacy advertising. However, the number of colorectal cancer patients continues to increase annually. Our study explored the effects of health-related advertisements (ads) on healthy behavior intentions as influenced by regulatory focus theory (RFT) and construal level theory (CLT). We conducted an experiment with different public health advocacy ads. A 2 (regulatory focus: promotion vs. prevention) × 2 (temporal distance: one month vs. one year) × 2 (graphics-text ratio: more pictures and less text vs. fewer pictures and more text) three-factor experiment was adopted. The multiple analysis of variance (MANOVA) results revealed that ads with higher construal levels (i.e., more text) had greater effects with a promotion-oriented regulatory focus. However, no significant differences were found in either attitude toward the ads or behavior intention when the regulatory focus was prevention. In addition, according to the young testers and those who were psychologically distant from colorectal cancer, different temporal distances and different construal levels had no statistically significantly effects on attitudes toward advertising or on behavior intentions. The results revealed that viewers found the information easier to understand when the ads triggered the regulatory focuses of the viewers and applied an appropriate graphics-text ratio, which resulted in favorable health-related advertising effectiveness. Thus, we provide two suggestions regarding the use of health-related advertising for MOHW in the future. PMID:25826394

  8. "That part of the body is just gone": understanding and responding to dissociation and physical health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haven, Terri J

    2009-01-01

    The past 2 decades have brought a significant surge in interest and research regarding the ways in which psychological trauma relates to the physical body. Researchers now understand a great deal about how the brain and the body process traumatic experiences, as well as the increased likelihood of an array of physical health consequences associated with both childhood and adult trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder. Experts are increasingly challenging mind-body dualism through solid theoretical and clinical bases for the central importance of listening to and communicating with trauma clients' bodies as part of reducing the suffering and long-lasting consequences of trauma. This article integrates this growing body of knowledge through a particular focus on trauma-induced dissociation and the implications of the physical and neurological processes and consequences of dissociation on clients' ability to participate in caring for their own bodies. The author utilizes an in-depth clinical example of expanding relational trauma psychotherapy to include a focus on working directly with trauma-related sensorimotor and physiological sensations and patterns.

  9. Pushing the boundaries of research on human resources for health: fresh approaches to understanding health worker motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatnagar, Aarushi; Scott, Kerry; Govender, Veloshnee; George, Asha

    2018-04-01

    A country's health workforce plays a vital role not only in serving the health needs of the population but also in supporting economic prosperity. Moreover, a well-funded and well-supported health workforce is vital to achieving universal health coverage and Sustainable Development Goal 3 to ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages. This perspective article highlights the potential of underutilized health policy and systems research (HPSR) approaches for developing more effective human resources for health policy. The example of health worker motivation is used to showcase four types of HPSR (exploratory, influence, explanatory and emancipatory) that move beyond describing the extent of a problem. Most of the current literature aiming to understand determinants and dynamics of motivation is descriptive in nature. While this is an important basis for all research pursuits, it often gives little information about mechanisms to improve motivation and strategies for intervention. Motivation is an essential determinant of health worker performance, particularly for those working in difficult conditions, such as those facing many health workers in low- and middle-income countries. Motivation mediates health workforce performance in multiple ways: internally governing health worker behaviour; informing decisions on becoming a health worker; workplace location and ability to perform; and influencing willingness to engage politically. The four fresh research approaches described can help policy-makers better understand why health workers behave the way they do, how interventions can improve performance, the mechanisms that lead to change, and strategies for empowering health workers to be agents of change themselves.

  10. The Crucible simulation: Behavioral simulation improves clinical leadership skills and understanding of complex health policy change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Daniel; Vlaev, Ivo; McMahon, Laurie; Harvey, Sarah; Mitchell, Andy; Borovoi, Leah; Darzi, Ara

    2017-05-11

    The Health and Social Care Act 2012 represents the most complex National Health Service reforms in history. High-quality clinical leadership is important for successful implementation of health service reform. However, little is known about the effectiveness of current leadership training. This study describes the use of a behavioral simulation to improve the knowledge and leadership of a cohort of medical doctors expected to take leadership roles in the National Health Service. A day-long behavioral simulation (The Crucible) was developed and run based on a fictitious but realistic health economy. Participants completed pre- and postsimulation questionnaires generating qualitative and quantitative data. Leadership skills, knowledge, and behavior change processes described by the "theory of planned behavior" were self-assessed pre- and postsimulation. Sixty-nine medical doctors attended. Participants deemed the simulation immersive and relevant. Significant improvements were shown in perceived knowledge, capability, attitudes, subjective norms, intentions, and leadership competency following the program. Nearly one third of participants reported that they had implemented knowledge and skills from the simulation into practice within 4 weeks. This study systematically demonstrates the effectiveness of behavioral simulation for clinical management training and understanding of health policy reform. Potential future uses and strategies for analysis are discussed. High-quality care requires understanding of health systems and strong leadership. Policymakers should consider the use of behavioral simulation to improve understanding of health service reform and development of leadership skills in clinicians, who readily adopt skills from simulation into everyday practice.

  11. Understanding the gut microbiome of dairy calves: Opportunities to improve early-life gut health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmuthuge, Nilusha; Guan, Le Luo

    2017-07-01

    Early gut microbiota plays a vital role in the long-term health of the host. However, understanding of these microbiota is very limited in livestock species, especially in dairy calves. Neonatal calves are highly susceptible to enteric infections, one of the major causes of calf death, so approaches to improving gut health and overall calf health are needed. An increasing number of studies are exploring the microbial composition of the gut, the mucosal immune system, and early dietary interventions to improve the health of dairy calves, revealing possibilities for effectively reducing the susceptibility of calves to enteric infections while promoting growth. Still, comprehensive understanding of the effect of dietary interventions on gut microbiota-one of the key aspects of gut health-is lacking. Such knowledge may provide in-depth understanding of the mechanisms behind functional changes in response to dietary interventions. Understanding of host-microbial interactions with dietary interventions and the role of the gut microbiota during pathogenesis at the site of infection in early life is vital for designing effective tools and techniques to improve calf gut health. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Trends in measurement models and methods in understanding occupational health psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetrick, Lois E

    2017-07-01

    Measurement of occupational health psychology constructs is the cornerstone to developing our understanding of occupational health and safety. It also is critical in the design, evaluation, and implementation of interventions to improve employees and organizations well-being. The purpose of this article is a brief review of the current state of measurement theory and practice in occupational health psychology. Also included are a discussion of development of newer measurement models and methods, which are in use in other disciplines of psychology, but have not been incorporated into the occupational health psychology. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Health related quality of life among insulin-dependent diabetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aalto, A M; Uutela, A; Aro, A R

    1997-01-01

    This crossectional questionnaire study examined the associations of health factors and psychosocial factors with Health Related Quality of Life (HRQOL) in a sample of adult type I diabetic patients (n = 385). Health related quality of life was measured by the Finnish version of MOS SF-20. Psychos......This crossectional questionnaire study examined the associations of health factors and psychosocial factors with Health Related Quality of Life (HRQOL) in a sample of adult type I diabetic patients (n = 385). Health related quality of life was measured by the Finnish version of MOS SF-20...

  14. Understanding the organisational culture of district health services: Mahalapye and Ngamiland health districts of Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oathokwa Nkomazana

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Botswana has a shortage of health care workers, especially in primary healthcare. Retention and high performance of employees are closely linked to job satisfaction and motivation, which are both highest where employees’ personal values and goals are realised. Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate employees’ personal values, and the current and desired organisational culture of the district health services as experienced by the primary health care workers. Setting: The study was conducted in the Ngamiland and Mahalapye health districts. Method: This was a cross sectional survey. The participants were asked to select 10 values that best described their personal, current organisational and desired organisational values from a predetermined list. Results: Sixty and 67 health care workers completed the survey in Mahalapye and Ngamiland districts, respectively. The top 10 prevalent organisational values experienced in both districts were: teamwork, patient satisfaction, blame, confusion, job insecurity, not sharing information and manipulation. When all the current values were assessed, 32% (Mahalapye and 36% (Ngamiland selected by health care workers were potentially limiting organisational effectiveness. The organisational values desired by health care workers in both districts were: transparency, professional growth, staff recognition, shared decision-making, accountability, productivity, leadership development and teamwork. Conclusions: The experience of the primary health care workers in the two health districts were overwhelmingly negative, which is likely to contribute to low levels of motivation, job satisfaction, productivity and high attrition rates. There is therefore urgent need for organisational transformation with a focus on staff experience and leadership development.

  15. Understanding the organisational culture of district health services: Mahalapye and Ngamiland health districts of Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkomazana, Oathokwa; Mash, Robert; Phaladze, Nthabiseng

    2015-11-30

    Botswana has a shortage of health care workers, especially in primary healthcare. Retention and high performance of employees are closely linked to job satisfaction and motivation, which are both highest where employees' personal values and goals are realised. The aim of the study was to evaluate employees' personal values, and the current and desired organisational culture of the district health services as experienced by the primary health care workers. The study was conducted in the Ngamiland and Mahalapye health districts. This was a cross sectional survey. The participants were asked to select 10 values that best described their personal, current organisational and desired organisational values from a predetermined list. Sixty and 67 health care workers completed the survey in Mahalapye and Ngamiland districts, respectively. The top 10 prevalent organisational values experienced in both districts were: teamwork, patient satisfaction, blame, confusion, job insecurity, not sharing information and manipulation. When all the current values were assessed, 32% (Mahalapye) and 36% (Ngamiland) selected by health care workers were potentially limiting organisational effectiveness. The organisational values desired by health care workers in both districts were: transparency, professional growth, staff recognition, shared decision-making, accountability, productivity, leadership development and teamwork. The experience of the primary health care workers in the two health districts were overwhelmingly negative, which is likely to contribute to low levels of motivation, job satisfaction, productivity and high attrition rates. There is therefore urgent need for organisational transformation with a focus on staff experience and leadership development.

  16. From rational numbers to algebra: separable contributions of decimal magnitude and relational understanding of fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWolf, Melissa; Bassok, Miriam; Holyoak, Keith J

    2015-05-01

    To understand the development of mathematical cognition and to improve instructional practices, it is critical to identify early predictors of difficulty in learning complex mathematical topics such as algebra. Recent work has shown that performance with fractions on a number line estimation task predicts algebra performance, whereas performance with whole numbers on similar estimation tasks does not. We sought to distinguish more specific precursors to algebra by measuring multiple aspects of knowledge about rational numbers. Because fractions are the first numbers that are relational expressions to which students are exposed, we investigated how understanding the relational bipartite format (a/b) of fractions might connect to later algebra performance. We presented middle school students with a battery of tests designed to measure relational understanding of fractions, procedural knowledge of fractions, and placement of fractions, decimals, and whole numbers onto number lines as well as algebra performance. Multiple regression analyses revealed that the best predictors of algebra performance were measures of relational fraction knowledge and ability to place decimals (not fractions or whole numbers) onto number lines. These findings suggest that at least two specific components of knowledge about rational numbers--relational understanding (best captured by fractions) and grasp of unidimensional magnitude (best captured by decimals)--can be linked to early success with algebraic expressions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Understanding family health information seeking: a test of the theory of motivated information management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovick, Shelly R

    2014-01-01

    Although a family health history can be used to assess disease risk and increase health prevention behaviors, research suggests that few people have collected family health information. Guided by the Theory of Motivated Information Management, this study seeks to understand the barriers to and facilitators of interpersonal information seeking about family health history. Individuals who were engaged to be married (N = 306) were surveyed online and in person to understand how factors such as uncertainty, expectations for an information search, efficacy, and anxiety influence decisions and strategies for obtaining family health histories. The results supported the Theory of Motivated Information Management by demonstrating that individuals who experienced uncertainty discrepancies regarding family heath history had greater intention to seek information from family members when anxiety was low, outcome expectancy was high, and communication efficacy was positive. Although raising uncertainty about family health history may be an effective tool for health communicators to increase communication among family members, low-anxiety situations may be optimal for information seeking. Health communication messages must also build confidence in people's ability to communicate with family to obtain the needed health information.

  18. Understanding young bisexual women's sexual, reproductive and mental health through syndemic theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanders, Corey E; Gos, Giselle; Dobinson, Cheryl; Logie, Carmen H

    2016-03-16

    We sought to understand how young bisexual women in Toronto perceive their sexual and reproductive health needs, the challenges to achieving those needs, and the factors contributing both positively and negatively to their sexual and reproductive health. We conducted a community-based research project that included an advisory committee of young bisexual women, academic partners, and a community health centre. Four 2-hour focus group sessions were conducted with a total of 35 participants. Data were analyzed through a constructivist grounded theory approach using Nvivo software. Participants' discussion of their sexual and reproductive health indicated that they perceived social marginalization, particularly biphobia and monosexism, as a significant challenge to their health. Participants also discussed their sexual, reproductive and mental health as interconnected. Young bisexual women in this study perceived their sexual, reproductive and mental health as interconnected and negatively influenced by social marginalization. This perception is in line with syndemic research that illustrates the interrelationship between psychosocial and sexual health. Researchers should further explore the utility of syndemic theory in understanding the complexity of young bisexual women's health.

  19. [Understanding local concepts of equity to formulate public health policies in Burkina Faso].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridde, Valéry

    2006-01-01

    Equity is an essential health promotion concept and must be included at the heart of public health policy making. However, equity, which can also be referred to as social justice, is a polysemic and contextual term which definition must stem from the discourse and values of the society where the policies are implemented. Using a case study from Burkina Faso, we try to show that the non-acknowledgement of the local concept of social justice in the policy making process partly explains the resulting policies' relative failure to achieve social justice. Data collection methods vary (individual and group interviews, concept mapping, participant observation, document analyses) and there are qualitative and quantitative analyses. The four groups of actors who generally participate in the policy making process participated in the data collection. With no intention to generalise the results to the entire country, the results show that mass social mobilisation for justice is egalitarian in type. Health or social inequalities are understood by individuals as facts which we cannot act upon, while the inequalities to access care are qualified as unjust, and it is possible to intervene to reduce them if incentive measures to this effect are taken. We also observed a certain social difficulty to conceive sub-groups of population and fierce will to not destabilise social peace, which can be provoked when looking for justice for the impoverished sectors of the population. This research allows better understanding about the emic aspect of equity and seems to confirm the importance of taking into account local values, especially social justice, when determining public policy.

  20. Factors Related to Performance of Health Practices Among Asian Adolescents in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia G. Ayres, PhD, RN

    2010-06-01

    Conclusions: Study findings extend existing knowledge and contribute to a more comprehensive knowledge base regarding health practices among Asian adolescents. Having this knowledge base provides practitioners with a better understanding of the factors related to health practices in Asian adolescents and assists them in developing culturally sensitive interventions aimed at promoting PHP in this population.

  1. Psychosocial Variables Related to Why Women are Less Active than Men and Related Health Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Skidmore Edwards

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews psychosocial influences on women's participation in physical activity as they differ from men and how associated activity differences impact women's risk for a number of chronic diseases. This topic directly aligns with the mission of this special edition related to disparities in women's health as the typically lower level of physical activity in females directly impacts their health. On average, females participate in physical activity at lower rates than their male counterparts. These lower rates of physical activity are directly related to both incidence of and outcomes from cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and breast and gynecological cancers. The relationship between psychosocial factors that are understood to affect physical activity differs between men and women. Specifically, self-efficacy, social support, and motivation are empirically substantiated factors that found to impact physical activity participation among women differently than men. Understanding these relationships is integral to designing effective interventions to target physical activity participation in women so that the related health risks are adequately addressed.

  2. Health related fitness vs work related fitness: which is more ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 12, No 1 (2006) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  3. Enhancing the Effectiveness of Consumer-Focused Health Information Technology Systems Through eHealth Literacy: A Framework for Understanding Users' Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayser, Lars; Kushniruk, Andre; Osborne, Richard H; Norgaard, Ole; Turner, Paul

    2015-05-20

    concept (based on 7 domains) was incorporated as a key factor in expanding the user-task-context matrix to describe and qualify user requirements and understanding related to eHealth literacy. This resulted in an expanded framework and a five-step process, which can support health IT designers in understanding and more accurately addressing end-users' needs, capabilities, and contexts to improve effectiveness and broader applicability of consumer-focused health IT systems. It is anticipated that the framework will also be useful for policy makers involved in the planning, procuring, and funding of eHealth infrastructure, applications, and services. Developing effective eHealth products requires complete understanding of the end-users' needs from multiple perspectives. In this paper, we have proposed and detailed a framework for modeling users' needs for designing eHealth systems that merges prior work in development of a user-task-context matrix with the emerging area of eHealth literacy. This framework is intended to be used to guide design of eHealth technologies and to make requirements explicitly related to eHealth literacy, enabling a generation of well-targeted, fit-for-purpose, equitable, and effective products and systems.

  4. West meets East: psychophysics studies for understanding mysterious Oriental health promoting practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hai-Wen

    2008-04-01

    Based on his early graduated studies in psychophysics, the author has, in recent years, applied psychophysics for studying organic and motor senses (the two sensory systems deeply embedded inside of human body), and tried to understand the scientific foundation of the oriental health promoting practices. The preliminary results are promising and are discussed in detail in this paper. Psychophysics studies of organic and motor senses may be the tool to provide the connection between Western and Eastern medicines to form a balanced holistic medicine approach, and may help us to understand the scientific foundation of mysterious oriental health Promoting practices that serve as alternative medicines for promoting human wellness against illness.

  5. Video-cued narrative reflection: a research approach for articulating tacit, relational, and embodied understandings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raingruber, Bonnie

    2003-10-01

    The author's purpose in this article is to describe the effectiveness of video-cued narrative reflection as a research approach for accessing relational, practice-based, and lived understandings. Video-cued narrative reflection provides moment-by-moment access to tacit experience. The immediate nature of the videotape captures emotional nuances, embodied perceptions, spatial influences, relational understandings, situational factors, and temporal manifestations. By watching videotaped interactions, participants are able to re-collect, re-experience, and interpret their life world. Video-cued narrative reflection allows participants to be simultaneously engaged and reflective while describing significant understandings. By inserting audiotaped reflective commentary of participants into the original videotape transcript, contextual meanings can be located and articulated more easily. Although not appropriate for all types of research, this approach offers promise for certain studies.

  6. [The Utilization of Health-Related Applications in Chronic Disease Self-Management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Chi-Wen; Chuang, Hui-Wan; Chen, Ting-Yu

    2017-08-01

    The dramatic increase in smartphone usage has spurred the development of many health-related mobile applications (apps). On the other hand, population aging and the associated rise in the incidence of chronic disease is increasing the demand for long-term care. Effective chronic disease self-management has been shown to help patients improve their health condition. Numerous smartphone applications currently support patient self-management of chronic disease, facilitating health management and health promotion. The purpose of the present article was to introduce the definition, contents, and types of health-related apps; to discuss the effectiveness of self-management health-related apps in promoting chronic disease management; and to assess and evaluate these apps. We hope that the present article helps give to healthcare professionals and patients who are willing to manage their diseases a general understanding of health-related apps and their potential to facilitate the self-management of chronic diseases.

  7. Understanding Australian rural women's ways of achieving health and wellbeing - a metasynthesis of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Desley J

    2007-01-01

    Although Australian rural women appear to be coping well despite a lack of services, harsh environmental conditions and overall rural health disadvantage, there is little research into the factors which promote good health among them. The aim of this article is to document and analyse current understandings about how rural Australian women maintain health and wellbeing, by conducting a metasynthesis of peer reviewed empirical qualitative research. Searches were conducted of CINAHL, MEDLINE, Proquest, Blackwell Synergy, Informit, Infotrac, National Rural Health Alliance and Indigenous Health Infonet data bases. A definition of health and wellbeing as a positive concept emphasising social and personal resources as well as physical capacities, provided a framework for the review. Six studies published in rural health, nursing and sociology journals between 2001 and 2006 were selected. Common and recurring themes from the original studies were identified. Reciprocal translation was used to synthesise the findings among the studies, leading to interpretations beyond those identified in the original studies. Four themes emerged from the metasynthesis: isolation, belonging, coping with adversity, and rural identity. The findings of this study exhibit a tension between a sense of belonging and the experience of social and geographical isolation. The study findings also reveal tension between adherence to a strong gendered rural identity which fosters a culture of stoicism and self reliance and feelings of resistance to societal expectations of coping with adversity. Metasynthesis enabled a deeper understanding of the health and wellbeing of rural women in Australia. The social experiences of rural women influence the way they construe their health and wellbeing. Understanding how women maintain health and wellbeing is critical in ensuring that policies and services meet the needs of rural women and do not entrench existing inequalities.

  8. Lie-Telling Behavior in Children with Autism and Its Relation to False-Belief Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talwar, Victoria; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Goulden, Keith J.; Manji, Shazeen; Loomes, Carly; Rasmussen, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    Children's lie-telling behavior and its relation to false-belief understanding was examined in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD; n = 26) and a comparison group of typically developing children (n = 27). Participants were assessed using a temptation resistance paradigm, in which children were told not to peek at a forbidden toy while…

  9. Towards the understanding of microbial metabolism in relation to microbial enhanced oil recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halim, Amalia Yunita; Nielsen, Sidsel Marie; Nielsen, Kristian Fog

    2017-01-01

    In this study, Bacillus licheniformis 421 was used as a model organism to understand the effects of microbial cell growth and metabolite production under anaerobic conditions in relation to microbial enhanced oil recovery. The bacterium was able to grow anaerobically on different carbon compounds...

  10. Understanding Nature-Related Behaviors among Children through a Theory of Reasoned Action Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotch, Chad; Hall, Troy

    2004-01-01

    The Theory of Reasoned Action has proven to be a valuable tool for predicting and understanding behavior and, as such, provides a potentially important basis for environmental education program design. This study used a Theory of Reasoned Action approach to examine a unique type of behavior (nature-related activities) and a unique population…

  11. Transfusion-related acute lung injury: Current understanding and preventive strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlaar, A. P. J.

    2012-01-01

    Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is the most serious complication of transfusion medicine. TRALI is defined as the onset of acute hypoxia within 6 hours of a blood transfusion in the absence of hydrostatic pulmonary oedema. The past decades have resulted in a better understanding of the

  12. Modelling Joint Decision Making Processes Involving Emotion-Related Valuing and Mutual Empathic Understanding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Treur, J.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper a social agent model for joint decision making is presented addressing the role of mutually acknowledged empathic understanding in the decision making. The model is based on principles from recent neurological theories on mirror neurons, internal simulation, and emotion-related

  13. Elementary Education Preservice Teachers' Understanding of Biotechnology and Its Related Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabalengula, Vivien Mweene; Mumba, Frackson; Chitiyo, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    This study examined preservice teachers' understanding of biotechnology and its related processes. A sample comprised 88 elementary education preservice teachers at a large university in the Midwest of the USA. A total of 60 and 28 of the participants were enrolled in introductory and advanced science methods courses, respectively. Most…

  14. Applying GPS to enhance understanding of transport-related physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Mitch J; Badland, Hannah M; Mummery, W Kerry

    2009-09-01

    The purpose of the paper is to review the utility of the global positioning system (GPS) in the study of health-related physical activity. The paper draws from existing literature to outline the current work performed using GPS to examine transport-related physical activity, with a focus on the relative utility of the approach when combined with geographic information system (GIS) and other data sources including accelerometers. The paper argues that GPS, especially when used in combination with GIS and accelerometery, offers great promise in objectively measuring and studying the relationship of numerous environmental attributes to human behaviour in terms of physical activity and transport-related activity. Limitations to the use of GPS for the purpose of monitoring health-related physical activity are presented, and recommendations for future avenues of research are discussed.

  15. Understanding the health of veterans who are homeless: A review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Jillian; Lee, Rebecca C; Martsolf, Donna

    2017-09-01

    The United States Department of Housing and Urban Development estimates that almost 50,000 veterans are homeless on any given night. Homeless veterans are at greater risk of health disparities than their housed counterparts due to the multifactorial nature of their health and social needs. The Department of Veterans Affairs, in collaboration with more than a dozen other federal agencies, has concentrated efforts to improve the health of this vulnerable population while enacting a plan to eliminate veteran homelessness within the near future. Understanding the unique health needs of veterans who are homeless allows the profession of nursing to better support these efforts. The purpose of this literature review was to provide comprehensive knowledge to nurses about the health of homeless veterans for their use in clinical practice, research, and in contributing to the positive health outcomes for this vulnerable population. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Global health in conflict. Understanding opposition to vitamin A supplementation in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Sarah K

    2012-07-01

    Vitamin A supplementation is a public health intervention that clinical trials have suggested can significantly improve child survival in the developing world. Yet, prominent scientists in India have questioned its scientific validity, opposed its implementation, and accused its advocates of corruption and greed. It is ironic that these opponents were among the pioneers of populationwide vitamin A supplementation for ocular health. Historically, complex interests have shaped vitamin A supplementation resistance in India. Local social and nutritional revolutions and shifting international paradigms of global health have played a role. Other resistance movements in Indian history, such as those in response to campaigns for bacillus Calmette-Guérin and novel vaccines, have been structured around similar themes. Public health resistance is shaped by the cultural and political context in which it develops. Armed with knowledge of the history of a region and patterns of past resistance, public health practitioners can better understand how to negotiate global health conflicts.

  17. What can alienation theory contribute to an understanding of social inequalities in health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crinson, Iain; Yuill, Chris

    2008-01-01

    This article examines both the contribution and the limitations of research that has sought to develop a causal understanding of the psychosocial dimension of inequalities in health. The article seeks to revive interest in Marx's theory of alienation in developing the case for an alternative materialist conceptualization that is able to postulate the pathways from alienation as a psychosocial generative structure to social inequalities in health outcomes within late modern societies.

  18. Understanding the decision-making process for health promotion programming at small to midsized businesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, M Courtney; Patrick, Donald L; Hannon, Peggy A; Harris, Jeffrey R; Ghosh, Donetta L

    2011-07-01

    This study explores the decision-making process for implementing and continuing health promotion programs at small to midsized businesses to inform health promotion practitioners and researchers as they market their services to these businesses. Qualitative interviews are conducted with 24 employers located in the Pacific Northwest ranging in size from 75 to 800 employees, with the majority having between 100 and 200 employees. Small to midsized employers depend most on company success-related factors rather than on humanitarian motives when deciding whether to adopt workplace health promotion programs. They rely heavily on health insurers for health promotion and desire more information about the actual costs and cost-benefits of programs. To increase health promotion adoption at small to midsized businesses, health promotion practitioners should appeal to overall company success-related factors, use the insurance channel, and target their information to both human resource personnel and senior management.

  19. Social support and physical health: understanding the health consequences of relationships

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Uchino, Bert N

    2004-01-01

    .... It surveys and assesses the research that shows not only that supportive relationships protect us from a multitude of mental health problems but also that the absence of supportive relationships...

  20. Understanding health systems, health economies and globalization: the need for social science perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Susan F; Bisht, Ramila; Baru, Rama; Pitchforth, Emma

    2012-08-31

    The complex relationship between globalization and health calls for research from many disciplinary and methodological perspectives. This editorial gives an overview of the content trajectory of the interdisciplinary journal 'Globalization and Health' over the first six years of production, 2005 to 2010. The findings show that bio-medical and population health perspectives have been dominant but that social science perspectives have become more evident in recent years. The types of paper published have also changed, with a growing proportion of empirical studies. A special issue on 'Health systems, health economies and globalization: social science perspectives' is introduced, a collection of contributions written from the vantage points of economics, political science, psychology, sociology, business studies, social policy and research policy. The papers concern a range of issues pertaining to the globalization of healthcare markets and governance and regulation issues. They highlight the important contribution that can be made by the social sciences to this field, and also the practical and methodological challenges implicit in the study of globalization and health.

  1. 76 FR 46677 - Requirements for Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers Relating to Coverage of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-03

    ... Requirements for Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers Relating to Coverage of Preventive Services... regulations published July 19, 2010 with respect to group health plans and health insurance coverage offered... plans, and health insurance issuers providing group health insurance coverage. The text of those...

  2. Income-related inequalities in health: some international comparisons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.K.A. van Doorslaer (Eddy); A. Wagstaff (Adam); H. Bleichrodt (Han)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractThis paper presents evidence on income-related inequalities in self-assessed health in nine industrialized countries. Health interview survey data were used to construct concentration curves of self-assessed health, measured as a latent variable. Inequalities in health favoured the

  3. Developing Public Health Initiatives through Understanding Motivations of the Audience at Mass-Gathering Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, Alison; Ranse, Jamie; Munn, Matthew Brendan

    2018-04-01

    This report identifies what is known about audience motivations at three different mass-gathering events: outdoor music festivals, religious events, and sporting events. In light of these motivations, the paper discusses how these can be harnessed by the event organizer and Emergency Medical Services. Lastly, motivations tell what kinds of interventions can be used to achieve an understanding of audience characteristics and the opportunity to develop tailor-made programs to maximize safety and make long-lasting public health interventions to a particular "cohort" or event population. A lot of these will depend on what the risks/hazards are with the particular populations in order to "target" them with public health interventions. Audience motivations tell the event organizer and Emergency Medical Services about the types of behaviors they should expect from the audience and how this may affect their health while at the event. Through these understandings, health promotion and event safety messages can be developed for a particular type of mass-gathering event based on the likely composition of the audience in attendance. Health promotion and providing public information should be at the core of any mass-gathering event to minimize public health risk and to provide opportunities for the promotion of healthy behaviors in the local population. Audience motivations are a key element to identify and agree on what public health information is needed for the event audience. A more developed understanding of audience behavior provides critical information for event planners, event risk managers, and Emergency Medical Services personnel to better predict and plan to minimize risk and reduce patient presentations at events. Mass-gathering event organizers and designers intend their events to be positive experiences and to have meaning for those who attend. Therefore, continual vigilance to improve public health effectiveness and efficiency can become best practice at events

  4. Beyond Normal Competencies: Understanding Organisation Designs to Develop and Sustain IT-Related Capabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acklesh Prasad

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available It is apparent that IT resources are important for organisations. It is also clear that organisations unique competencies, their IT-related capabilities, leverage the IT resources uniquely to create and sustain competitive advantage. However, IT resources are dynamic, and evolve at an exponential rate. This means that organisations will need to sustain their competencies to leverage opportunities offered by new IT resources. Research on ways to sustain IT-related capabilities is limited and a deeper understanding of this situation is important. Amongst other factors, a possible reason for this lack of progress in this area could be due to the lack of validated measurement items of the theoretical constructs to conduct such studies. We suggest an environment in which organisations could build new and sustain their existing IT-related capabilities. We then report on the development of valid and reliable measures for this environment. The validated measures would be useful in extending our understanding on how firms could sustain their IT-related capabilities. This effort will provide a deeper understanding of how firms can secure sustainable IT-related business value from their acquired IT resources.

  5. [Dependent relative: Effects on family health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada Fernández, M Eugenia; Gil Lacruz, Ana I; Gil Lacruz, Marta; Viñas López, Antonio

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to analyse the effects on informal caregiver's health and lifestyle when living with a dependent person at home. A comparison will be made between this situation and other situations involving commitment of time and energy, taking into account gender and age differences in each stage of the life cycle. Cross-sectional study analysing secondary data. The method used for collecting information is the computer assisted personal interview carried out in selected homes by the Ministry of Health, Social Services and Equality. The study included 19,351 participants aged over 25 years who completed the 2011-2012 Spanish National Health Survey. This research is based on demographic information obtained from a Spanish National Health Survey (2011/12). Using an empirical framework, the Logit model was select and the data reported as odds ratio. The estimations were repeated independently by sub-groups of age and gender. The study showed that the health of people who share their lives with a dependent person is worse than those who do not have any dependent person at home (they are 5 times at higher risk of developing health problems). The study found that being a woman, advance age, low educational level and does not work, also has an influence. Being a caregiver reduces the likelihood of maintaining a healthy lifestyle through physical exercise, relaxation, or eating a balanced diet. Living with a dependent person reduces the likelihood of maintaining healthy lifestyles and worsens the state of health of family members. Significant differences in gender and age were found. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. A systematic review of relations between neighborhoods and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Khoa D; Ma, Sai

    2006-09-01

    modest relative to individual effects. Although the evidence is highly consistent across studies, detailed evaluation of each individual study reveals a complex reality. The included studies used various study designs and measures of mental health and neighborhoods, making generalization of their relationships less meaningful. It is not possible to conclude that studies with weaker controls for individual characteristics found stronger association between neighborhoods and mental health and vice versa. As only two studies used randomized and controlled trials, causal effects must be interpreted with caution. Formal meta-analysis techniques cannot be used due to large heterogeneity across the included studies. Efficient methods for quantitative analysis remain a great challenge. The current evidence suggests that efforts to improve mental health may be limited if only individual-level interventions are implemented. The calculation of the costs and benefits of neighborhood-level interventions deserves more attention. Moreover, policy makers may want to incorporate mental health as a measure for evaluating neighborhood improvement programs. There are not enough replicated or comparable studies in this literature to make more precise quantitative conclusions of this relation. Key aspects of study design and analyses could be improved to better understand the true nature of causal relationships. The data resolution of neighborhood characteristics needs to better match with the scale of neighborhood definition that is hypothesized to affect the residents' mental health. As experimental designs are rare in this area, thoughtful use of panel data, instrumental variable (IV) techniques, and other non-experimental approaches deserves further exploration.

  7. Belief, Knowledge and Understanding. How to Deal with the Relations Between Different Cultural Perspectives in Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira-dos-Santos, Frederik; El-Hani, Charbel N.

    2017-05-01

    This article discusses how to deal with the relations between different cultural perspectives in classrooms, based on a proposal for considering understanding and knowledge as goals of science education, inspired by Dewey's naturalistic humanism. It thus combines educational and philosophical interests. In educational terms, our concerns relate to how science teachers position themselves in multicultural classrooms. In philosophical terms, we are interested in discussing the relations between belief, understanding, and knowledge under the light of Dewey's philosophy. We present a synthesis of Dewey's theory of inquiry through his naturalistic humanism and discuss its implications for the concepts of belief, understanding, and knowledge, as well as for the goals of science teaching. In particular, we highlight problems arising in the context of possible conflicts between scientific and religious claims in the school environment that result from totalitarian positions. We characterize an individual's position as totalitarian if he or she takes some way of thinking as the only one capable of expressing the truth about all that exists in the world, lacks open-mindedness to understand different interpretative perspectives, and attempts to impose her or his interpretation about the facts to others by violent means or not. From this stance, any other perspective is taken to be false a priori and, accordingly, as a putative target to be suppressed or adapted to the privileged way of thinking. We argue, instead, for a more fallibilist evaluation of our own beliefs and a more respectful appraisal of the diversity of students' beliefs by both students and teachers.

  8. Understanding health systems, health economies and globalization: the need for social science perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murray Susan F

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The complex relationship between globalization and health calls for research from many disciplinary and methodological perspectives. This editorial gives an overview of the content trajectory of the interdisciplinary journal ‘Globalization and Health’ over the first six years of production, 2005 to 2010. The findings show that bio-medical and population health perspectives have been dominant but that social science perspectives have become more evident in recent years. The types of paper published have also changed, with a growing proportion of empirical studies. A special issue on ‘Health systems, health economies and globalization: social science perspectives’ is introduced, a collection of contributions written from the vantage points of economics, political science, psychology, sociology, business studies, social policy and research policy. The papers concern a range of issues pertaining to the globalization of healthcare markets and governance and regulation issues. They highlight the important contribution that can be made by the social sciences to this field, and also the practical and methodological challenges implicit in the study of globalization and health.

  9. Understanding of Parents and Adults on the Down Syndrome Female Sexual Reproductive Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhagan, Madhya

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the understanding of reproductive health among parents and female adolescents with Down syndrome. This cross-sectional study involved 22 parents and 22 female adolescents with Down syndrome in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The parents were required to fill up the socio-demographic information in questionnaire…

  10. Understanding of extreme temperature events by environmental health stakeholders in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    John, J

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the work is to understand the potential need and use of extreme temperature forecasting products in the environmental health sector in South Africa by using an online questionnaire. Seven of 19 respondents currently receive hot...

  11. Association between Experiencing Relational Bullying and Adolescent Health-Related Quality of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chester, Kayleigh L.; Spencer, Neil H.; Whiting, Lisa; Brooks, Fiona M.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Bullying is a public health concern for the school-aged population, however, the health outcomes associated with the subtype of relational bullying are less understood. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between relational bullying and health-related quality of life (HRQL) among young people. Methods: This study…

  12. Understanding deficiencies of leadership in advancing health equity: a case of pit bulls, public health, and pimps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, Gerard P

    2015-04-01

    Market- and legislation-driven health reforms are being implemented across the United States. Within this time of great change for health care delivery systems and medical schools lie opportunities to address the country's long-standing health inequities by using community needs assessments, health information technologies, and new models for care and payment. In this Commentary, the author, a university regional campus leader, shares several difficult personal experiences to demonstrate that health equity work undertaken by academic institutions also requires institutional leaders to pay attention to and gain an understanding of issues that go beyond public health data. The author reflects on lessons learned and offers recommendations that may help academic health center and university leaders be more effective as they take on the complex tasks involved in improving health inequities. These include reflection on personal strengths and deficiencies, engagement with the community, recognition of the historical roots of health disparities, and the development of trusting relationships between the institution and the community.

  13. A review and framework for understanding the potential impact of poor solid waste management on health in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziraba, Abdhalah K; Haregu, Tilahun Nigatu; Mberu, Blessing

    2016-01-01

    The increase in solid waste generated per capita in Africa has not been accompanied by a commensurate growth in the capacity and funding to manage it. It is reported that less than 30% of urban waste in developing countries is collected and disposed appropriately. The implications of poorly managed waste on health are numerous and depend on the nature of the waste, individuals exposed, duration of exposure and availability of interventions for those exposed. To present a framework for understanding the linkages between poor solid waste management, exposure and associated adverse health outcomes. The framework will aid understanding of the relationships, interlinkages and identification of the potential points for intervention. Development of the framework was informed by a review of literature on solid waste management policies, practices and its impact on health in developing countries. A configurative synthesis of literature was applied to develop the framework. Several iterations of the framework were reviewed by experts in the field. Each linkage and outcomes are described in detail as outputs of this study. The resulting framework identifies groups of people at a heightened risk of exposure and the potential health consequences. Using the iceberg metaphor, the framework illustrates the pathways and potential burden of ill-health related to solid waste that is hidden but rapidly unfolding with our inaction. The existing evidence on the linkage between poor solid waste management and adverse health outcomes calls to action by all stakeholders in understanding, prioritizing, and addressing the issue of solid waste in our midst to ensure that our environment and health are preserved. A resulting framework developed in this study presents a clearer picture of the linkages between poor solid waste management and could guide research, policy and action.

  14. oral health related behaviour, knowledge, attitudes and beliefs

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The findings of this study have shown that the participants had conducive oral health behavior, sufficient knowledge, positive attitude and held positive beliefs regarding dental treatments. ORAL HEALTH RELATED BEHAVIOUR, KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDES. AND BELIEFS AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN.

  15. Inequalities in selected health-related Millennium Development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inequalities in selected health-related Millennium Development Goals ... and interventions (including health promotion, primary and secondary prevention, ... and ensuring environmental sustainability (through reduction in the use of solid fuels ...

  16. Understanding the information and resource needs of UK health and social care placement students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaghan, Lynne; Doherty, Alan; Lea, Susan J; Webster, Daniel

    2008-12-01

    Students on health and social care degree programmes spend 50% of their time on practice placements. Because of the diversity of settings and the need to evidence their work, it is vital to understand the information and resource needs of placement students. The aim of this investigation was to understand the needs of placement students in terms of accessing resources whilst they are in the field in order to inform a guide to meet these needs. Focus groups were conducted with students on midwifery, social work and post-registration health professions degree programmes on three different sites across the region. Data were analysed using Thematic Content Analysis. Three themes emerged from the data: inequality, user education needs and students' solutions and strategies. It is essential to speak to placement students in order to understand their needs in terms of accessing and using library resources. The timing and content of information skills training is key to meeting student needs while on placement.

  17. Women, weight, poverty and menopause: understanding health practices in a context of chronic disease prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audet, Mélisa; Dumas, Alex; Binette, Rachelle; Dionne, Isabelle J

    2017-11-01

    Socioeconomic inequalities in health persist despite major investments in illness prevention campaigns and universal healthcare systems. In this context, the increased risks of chronic diseases of specific sub-groups of vulnerable populations should be further investigated. The objective of this qualitative study is to examine the interaction between socioeconomic status (SES) and body weight in order to understand underprivileged women's increased vulnerability to chronic diseases after menopause. By drawing specifically on Pierre Bourdieu's sociocultural theory of practice, 20 semi-structured interviews were conducted from May to December of 2013 to investigate the health practices of clinically overweight, postmenopausal women living an underprivileged life in Canada. Findings emphasise that poor life conditions undermine personal investment in preventive health and weight loss, showing the importance for policy makers to bring stronger consideration on upstream determinants of health. © 2017 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness.

  18. Finding the Right Fit: Understanding Health Tracking in Workplace Wellness Programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chung, Chia-Fang; Jensen, Nanna Gorm; Shklovski, Irina

    2017-01-01

    Workplace health and wellness programs are increasingly integrating personal health tracking technologies, such as Fitbit and Apple Watch. Many question whether these technologies truly support employees in their pursuit of better wellness levels, raising objections about workplace surveillance...... and further blurring of boundaries between work and personal life. We conducted a study to understand how tracking tools are adopted in wellness programs and employees' opinions about these programs. We find that employees are generally positive about incentivized health tracking in the workplace, as it helps...... raise awareness of activity levels. However, there is a gap between the intentions of the programs and individual experiences and health goals. This sometimes results in confusion and creates barriers to participation. Even if this gap can be addressed, health tracking in the workplace...

  19. Absolute and Relative Socioeconomic Health Inequalities across Age Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zon, Sander K R; Bültmann, Ute; Mendes de Leon, Carlos F; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2015-01-01

    The magnitude of socioeconomic health inequalities differs across age groups. It is less clear whether socioeconomic health inequalities differ across age groups by other factors that are known to affect the relation between socioeconomic position and health, like the indicator of socioeconomic position, the health outcome, gender, and as to whether socioeconomic health inequalities are measured in absolute or in relative terms. The aim is to investigate whether absolute and relative socioeconomic health inequalities differ across age groups by indicator of socioeconomic position, health outcome and gender. The study sample was derived from the baseline measurement of the LifeLines Cohort Study and consisted of 95,432 participants. Socioeconomic position was measured as educational level and household income. Physical and mental health were measured with the RAND-36. Age concerned eleven 5-years age groups. Absolute inequalities were examined by comparing means. Relative inequalities were examined by comparing Gini-coefficients. Analyses were performed for both health outcomes by both educational level and household income. Analyses were performed for all age groups, and stratified by gender. Absolute and relative socioeconomic health inequalities differed across age groups by indicator of socioeconomic position, health outcome, and gender. Absolute inequalities were most pronounced for mental health by household income. They were larger in younger than older age groups. Relative inequalities were most pronounced for physical health by educational level. Gini-coefficients were largest in young age groups and smallest in older age groups. Absolute and relative socioeconomic health inequalities differed cross-sectionally across age groups by indicator of socioeconomic position, health outcome and gender. Researchers should critically consider the implications of choosing a specific age group, in addition to the indicator of socioeconomic position and health outcome

  20. "What We Breathe Impacts Our Health : Improving Understanding of the Link between Air Pollution and Health"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    West, J Jason; Cohen, Aaron; Dentener, Frank; Brunekreef, Bert; Zhu, Tong; Armstrong, Ben; Bell, Michelle L; Brauer, Michael; Carmichael, Gregory; Costa, Dan L; Dockery, Douglas W; Kleeman, Michael; Krzyzanowski, Michal; Künzli, Nino; Liousse, Catherine; Lung, Shih-Chun Candice; Martin, Randall V; Pöschl, Ulrich; Pope, C Arden; Roberts, James M; Russell, Armistead G; Wiedinmyer, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution contributes to the premature deaths of millions of people each year around the world, and air quality problems are growing in many developing nations. While past policy efforts have succeeded in reducing particulate matter and trace gases in North America and Europe, adverse health

  1. Understanding Price Elasticities to Inform Public Health Research and Intervention Studies: Key Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghiem, Nhung; Genç, Murat; Blakely, Tony

    2013-01-01

    Pricing policies such as taxes and subsidies are important tools in preventing and controlling a range of threats to public health. This is particularly so in tobacco and alcohol control efforts and efforts to change dietary patterns and physical activity levels as a means of addressing increases in noncommunicable diseases. To understand the potential impact of pricing policies, it is critical to understand the nature of price elasticities for consumer products. For example, price elasticities are key parameters in models of any food tax or subsidy that aims to quantify health impacts and cost-effectiveness. We detail relevant terms and discuss key issues surrounding price elasticities to inform public health research and intervention studies. PMID:24028228

  2. Understanding price elasticities to inform public health research and intervention studies: key issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghiem, Nhung; Wilson, Nick; Genç, Murat; Blakely, Tony

    2013-11-01

    Pricing policies such as taxes and subsidies are important tools in preventing and controlling a range of threats to public health. This is particularly so in tobacco and alcohol control efforts and efforts to change dietary patterns and physical activity levels as a means of addressing increases in noncommunicable diseases. To understand the potential impact of pricing policies, it is critical to understand the nature of price elasticities for consumer products. For example, price elasticities are key parameters in models of any food tax or subsidy that aims to quantify health impacts and cost-effectiveness. We detail relevant terms and discuss key issues surrounding price elasticities to inform public health research and intervention studies.

  3. Understanding the failure of health-care exceptionalism in the Supreme Court's Obamacare decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncrieff, Abigail R

    2012-09-01

    On June 28, 2012, a mere century after the first presidential proposal for national health insurance, the Supreme Court issued a resounding victory for President Obama and for health-care reform generally, upholding the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act against a serious constitutional challenge. Nevertheless, the Court also struck a potential blow to future health-care reform efforts in refusing to accept the solicitor general's argument that health care is a unique market with unique regulatory needs that justify special constitutional treatment. The failure of health-care exceptionalism in the Court's opinion might render future reform efforts more difficult than they would have been if the solicitor general's argument had carried the day. This commentary seeks to shed light on the Court's hesitation to recognize the uniqueness of health insurance and health care, noting that market-based exceptionalism in constitutional law has a long, dark history that the Court was understandably loath to repeat. Although the result of Chief Justice John Roberts' one-size-fits-all approach to constitutional analysis in this case is an odd holding that elides some genuine uniqueness of American health care, the alternative of health-care exceptionalism might have been much worse for our overall constitutional system.

  4. Applying a complex adaptive system's understanding of health to primary care [version 2; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Bircher

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the diagnostic and therapeutic potential of a new concept of health. Investigations into the nature of health have led to a new definition that explains health as a complex adaptive system (CAS and is based on five components (a-e. Humans like all biological creatures must satisfactorily respond to (a the demands of life. For this purpose they need (b a biologically given potential (BGP and (c a personally acquired potential (PAP. These properties of individuals are embedded within (d social and (e environmental determinants of health. Between these five components of health there are 10 complex interactions that justify viewing health as a CAS. In each patient, the current state of health as a CAS evolved from the past, will move forward to a new future, and has to be analyzed and treated as an autonomous whole. A diagnostic procedure is suggested as follows: together with the patient, the five components and 10 complex interactions are assessed. This may help patients to better understand their situations and to recognize possible next steps that may be useful in order to evolve toward better health by themselves. In this process mutual trust in the patient-physician interaction is critical. The described approach offers new possibilities for helping patients improve their health prospects.

  5. Understanding the gender differences in pathways to social deviancy: relational aggression and emotion regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowie, Bonnie H

    2010-02-01

    This study explored the associations among childhood emotion regulation, overt aggression, relational aggression, and adolescent deviant social behaviors. Data were drawn from the Family Health Project, a longitudinal study conducted over 4 years. The sample consisted of 111 children at Time 1 who ranged in age from 51/2 to 12 years at Time 1 and 8 to 14 years at Time 3. A significant finding was that, for girls, lower emotion regulation predicted later relational aggression (beta = -2.95, P skills coupled with relational aggression were associated with deviant social behaviors. 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Understanding Basic Temporal Relations in Primary School Pupils with Hearing Impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulcić, Adinda; Bakota, Koraljka; Saler, Zrinka

    2015-09-01

    Time can be observed as a subjective, as well as an objective phenomenon which is a component of our life, and due to its communicational needs, it is standardized by temporal signs and symbols. The aim of this study was to determine the understanding of basic temporal relations of pupils with hearing impairments. We assumed that the knowledge of basic time relations is a precondition for the acquisition of knowledge that is connected with the understanding of the syllabus in regular school programs. Three groups of pupils have been examined: pupils with hearing impairments who attend the primary school of SUVAG Polyclinic under special condition, integrated hearing impaired pupils with minor additional difficulties who attend regular primary schools in Zagreb with a prolonged expert procedure and pupils of the control group. The subjects have been examined with a measuring instrument constructed by the expert team of the Polyclinic Suvag. Twenty nine subjects have been questioned, chronologically aged between 10 and 12.

  7. Understanding Work-related Musculoskeletal Injuries in Rehabilitation from a Nursing Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhimani, Rozina

    2016-01-01

    The incidence and prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal nursing injuries is a top concern for nurses. These injuries are thought to be a dynamic interplay of multiple factors. A literature review reveals a knowledge gap in understanding context-specific patterns of nursing injuries. Using a cross-sectional descriptive research design, 58 rehabilitation nurses participated in this study. Anonymous paper surveys were sent to all rehabilitation nursing personnel on the unit. Six themes emerged: lack of time and help, patient acuity, ergonomics, body movement issues, knowledge deficit, and communication. Nursing input is critical in understanding and reducing context-specific work-related musculoskeletal injuries. Further research that includes nursing voices is advocated. Rehabilitation nursing injuries appear to be a complex interaction of multiple determinants; therefore, multifaceted solutions using a quality improvement lens are recommended to improve the working conditions on the units. © 2014 Association of Rehabilitation Nurses.

  8. Integrating health belief model and technology acceptance model: an investigation of health-related internet use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahadzadeh, Ashraf Sadat; Pahlevan Sharif, Saeed; Ong, Fon Sim; Khong, Kok Wei

    2015-02-19

    Today, people use the Internet to satisfy health-related information and communication needs. In Malaysia, Internet use for health management has become increasingly significant due to the increase in the incidence of chronic diseases, in particular among urban women and their desire to stay healthy. Past studies adopted the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) and Health Belief Model (HBM) independently to explain Internet use for health-related purposes. Although both the TAM and HBM have their own merits, independently they lack the ability to explain the cognition and the related mechanism in which individuals use the Internet for health purposes. This study aimed to examine the influence of perceived health risk and health consciousness on health-related Internet use based on the HBM. Drawing on the TAM, it also tested the mediating effects of perceived usefulness of the Internet for health information and attitude toward Internet use for health purposes for the relationship between health-related factors, namely perceived health risk and health consciousness on health-related Internet use. Data obtained for the current study were collected using purposive sampling; the sample consisted of women in Malaysia who had Internet access. The partial least squares structural equation modeling method was used to test the research hypotheses developed. Perceived health risk (β=.135, t1999=2.676) and health consciousness (β=.447, t1999=9.168) had a positive influence on health-related Internet use. Moreover, perceived usefulness of the Internet and attitude toward Internet use for health-related purposes partially mediated the influence of health consciousness on health-related Internet use (β=.025, t1999=3.234), whereas the effect of perceived health risk on health-related Internet use was fully mediated by perceived usefulness of the Internet and attitude (β=.029, t1999=3.609). These results suggest the central role of perceived usefulness of the Internet and

  9. Parenting style, parenting stress, and children's health-related behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyunjeong; Walton-Moss, Benita

    2012-07-01

    Parental guidance is critical to the development of children's health-related behaviors. The purpose of this study was to look at the relationship between parenting factors, including parenting style and parenting stress, and children's health-related behaviors. In this descriptive, correlational study, 284 parents of preschool children were interviewed using the Child Rearing Questionnaire and the Korean Parenting Stress Index-Short Form. Parent distress, authoritative and permissive parenting styles, family income, and mother's education were significantly associated with children's health-related behaviors. These findings suggest that higher levels of warmth, characteristics of both parenting styles, may be a critical factor in the development of health-related behaviors.

  10. Understanding energy-related regimes: A participatory approach from central Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foran, Tira; Fleming, David; Spandonide, Bruno; Williams, Rachel; Race, Digby

    2016-01-01

    For a particular community, what energy-related innovations constitute no-regrets strategies? We present a methodology to understand how alternative energy consuming activities and policy regimes impact on current and future liveability of socio-culturally diverse communities facing climate change. Our methodology augments the energy policy literature by harnessing three concepts (collaborative governance, innovation and political economic regime of provisioning) to support dialogue around changing energy-related activities. We convened workshops in Alice Springs, Australia to build capability to identify no-regrets energy-related housing or transport activities and strategies. In preparation, we interviewed policy actors and constructed three new housing-related future scenarios. After discussing the scenarios, policy and research actors prioritised five socio-technical activities or strategies. Evaluations indicate participants enjoyed opportunities given by the methodology to have focussed discussions about activities and innovation, while requesting more socially nuanced scenario storylines. We discuss implications for theory and technique development. - Highlights: •Energy-related activities and regimes frustrate pro-sustainability action. •Participatory workshops increased understanding of activities and regimes. •Workshops used a novel combination of governance and social theories. •Results justify inclusive dialogue around building energy standards and transport options.

  11. Validation of a questionnaire to measure sexual health knowledge and understanding (Sexual Health Questionnaire) in Nepalese secondary school: A psychometric process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Dev Raj; Thomas, Malcolm; Cann, Rosemary

    2016-01-01

    School-based sex education has the potential to prevent unwanted pregnancy and to promote positive sexual health at the individual, family and community level. To develop and validate a sexual health questionnaire to measure young peoples' sexual health knowledge and understanding (SHQ) in Nepalese secondary school. Secondary school students (n = 259, male = 43.63%, female = 56.37%) and local experts (n = 9, male = 90%, female = 10%) were participated in this study. Evaluation processes were; content validity (>0.89), plausibility check (>95), item-total correlation (>0.3), factor loading (>0.4), principal component analysis (4 factors Kaiser's criterion), Chronbach's alpha (>0.65), face validity and internal consistency using test-retest reliability (P > 0.05). The principal component analysis revealed four factors to be extracted; sexual health norms and beliefs, source of sexual health information, sexual health knowledge and understanding, and level of sexual awareness. Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) measure of sampling adequacy demonstrated that the patterns of correlations are relatively compact (>0.80). Chronbach's alpha for each factors were above the cut-off point (0.65). Face validity indicated that the questions were clear to the majority of the respondent. Moreover, there were no significant differences (P > 0.05) in the responses to the items at two time points at seven weeks later. The finding suggests that SHQ is a valid and reliable instrument to be used in schools to measure sexual health knowledge and understanding. Further analysis such as structured equation modelling (SEM) and confirmatory factor analysis could make the questionnaire more robust and applicable to the wider school population.

  12. Understanding the organization of public health delivery systems: an empirical typology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mays, Glen P; Scutchfield, F Douglas; Bhandari, Michelyn W; Smith, Sharla A

    2010-03-01

    Policy discussions about improving the U.S. health care system increasingly recognize the need to strengthen its capacities for delivering public health services. A better understanding of how public health delivery systems are organized across the United States is critical to improvement. To facilitate the development of such evidence, this article presents an empirical method of classifying and comparing public health delivery systems based on key elements of their organizational structure. This analysis uses data collected through a national longitudinal survey of local public health agencies serving communities with at least 100,000 residents. The survey measured the availability of twenty core public health activities in local communities and the types of organizations contributing to each activity. Cluster analysis differentiated local delivery systems based on the scope of activities delivered, the range of organizations contributing, and the distribution of effort within the system. Public health delivery systems varied widely in organizational structure, but the observed patterns of variation suggested that systems adhere to one of seven distinct configurations. Systems frequently migrated from one configuration to another over time, with an overall trend toward offering a broader scope of services and engaging a wider range of organizations. Public health delivery systems exhibit important structural differences that may influence their operations and outcomes. The typology developed through this analysis can facilitate comparative studies to identify which delivery system configurations perform best in which contexts.

  13. Understanding gender differences in m-health adoption: a modified theory of reasoned action model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaofei; Guo, Xitong; Lai, Kee-Hung; Guo, Feng; Li, Chenlei

    2014-01-01

    Mobile health (m-health) services are becoming increasingly popular in healthcare, but research on m-health adoption is rare. This study was designed to obtain a better understanding of m-health adoption intention. We conducted an empirical research of a 481-respondent sample consisting of 44.7% women and 55.3% men and developed a modified theory of reasoned action (TRA) model by incorporating the nonlinearities between attitude and subjective norms and the moderating effect of gender. The results indicate that, based on the study population in China: (1) facilitating conditions, attitude, and subjective norms are significant predictors of m-health adoption intention; (2) the model including the nonlinearities enhances its explanatory ability; (3) males enjoy a higher level of m-health adoption intention compared with females; (4) the modified TRA model can predict men's behavior intention better than that of women; and (5) males have an Edgeworth-Pareto substitutability between attitude and subjective norms in predicting m-health adoption intention. Thus, we found gender differences in m-health adoption from the perspective of social psychology.

  14. In search of wellness: allied health professionals' understandings of wellness in childhood disability services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, Lauren J; Wildy, Helen; Saggers, Sherry; Millsteed, Jeannine; Raghavendra, Parimala

    2011-01-01

    Wellness approaches are not routine in childhood disability services, despite theoretical and empirical support and an increasing demand for them from health consumers and disability activists. We aimed to investigate how health professionals define or understand wellness and its practice in the context of childhood disability. A qualitative, interpretive approach was taken. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 23 health professionals (allied health therapists and managers) providing early intervention and ongoing therapy within four Australian childhood health and disability services. Years of experience providing services to children with disabilities and their families ranged from 6 months to 30 years (M=9.41, SD=9.04). The data revealed a noteworthy impediment to incorporating wellness into practice - the difficulties in the allied health professionals reaching consensus in defining wellness. There appeared to be distinct differences between the four services, while there appeared to be no appreciable difference based on the individual professional's years of experience or allied health discipline. The effect of organisational culture should be considered in efforts to embed wellness in childhood health and disability services in order to address client well-being, empowerment, choice, independence and rights to meaningful and productive lives. © 2011 Informa UK, Ltd.

  15. Understanding the health of lorry drivers in context: A critical discourse analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caddick, Nick; Varela-Mato, Veronica; Nimmo, Myra A; Clemes, Stacey; Yates, Tom; King, James A

    2017-01-01

    This article moves beyond previous attempts to understand health problems in the lives of professional lorry drivers by placing the study of drivers' health in a wider social and cultural context. A combination of methods including focus groups, interviews and observations were used to collect data from a group of 24 lorry drivers working at a large transport company in the United Kingdom. Employing a critical discourse analysis, we identified the dominant discourses and subject positions shaping the formation of drivers' health and lifestyle choices. This analysis was systematically combined with an exploration of the gendered ways in which an almost exclusively male workforce talked about health. Findings revealed that drivers were constituted within a neoliberal economic discourse, which is reflective of the broader social structure, and which partly restricted drivers' opportunities for healthy living. Concurrently, drivers adopted the subject position of 'average man' as a way of defending their personal and masculine status in regards to health and to justify jettisoning approaches to healthy living that were deemed too extreme or irrational in the face of the constraints of their working lives. Suggestions for driver health promotion include refocusing on the social and cultural - rather than individual - underpinnings of driver health issues and a move away from moralistic approaches to health promotion.

  16. Perceived health competence predicts health behavior and health-related quality of life in patients with cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Justin M; Goggins, Kathryn M; Nwosu, Samuel K; Schildcrout, Jonathan S; Kripalani, Sunil; Wallston, Kenneth A

    2016-12-01

    Evaluate the effect of perceived health competence, a patient's belief in his or her ability to achieve health-related goals, on health behavior and health-related quality of life. We analyzed 2063 patients hospitalized with acute coronary syndrome and/or congestive heart failure at a large academic hospital in the United States. Multivariable linear regression models investigated associations between the two-item perceived health competence scale (PHCS-2) and positive health behaviors such as medication adherence and exercise (Health Behavior Index) as well as health-related quality of life (5-item Patient Reported Outcome Information Measurement System Global Health Scale). After multivariable adjustment, perceived health competence was highly associated with health behaviors (pperceived health competence was associated with a decrease in health-related quality of life between hospitalization and 90days after discharge (pPerceived health competence predicts health behavior and health-related quality of life in patients hospitalized with cardiovascular disease as well as change in health-related quality of life after discharge. Patients with low perceived health competence may be at risk for a decline in health-related quality of life after hospitalization and thus a potential target for counseling and other behavioral interventions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Understanding views on everyday use of personal health information: Insights from community dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartzler, A L; Osterhage, K; Demiris, G; Phelan, E A; Thielke, S M; Turner, A M

    2018-09-01

    Older adults apply various strategies to pursue healthy aging, but we know little about their views and use of personal health information to accomplish those ends. As a first step in formulating the role of personal health information management (PHIM) in healthy aging, we explored the perspectives of older adults on health and health information used in their everyday lives through four focus groups with 25 community-dwelling adults aged 60 and over. We found that the concept of wellness-the holistic and multidimensional nature of health and wellbeing-plays prominently in how older adults think about health and health information. Participants expressed wellness from a position of personal strength, rather than health-related deficits, by focusing on wellness activities for staying healthy through: (1) personal health practices, (2) social network support, and (3) residential community engagement. Although these themes involve personal health information, existing PHIM systems that focus on disease management are generally not designed to support wellness activities. Substantial opportunity exists to fill this wellness support gap with innovative health information technology designed for older adults. Findings carry implications for the design of PHIM tools that support healthy aging and methods for engaging older adults as co-producers of this critical support.

  18. ON HEALTH PROTECTION AND HEALTH RELATED PHYSICAL CULTURE TRAININGS OF FIRST YEAR STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.G. Fotynyuk

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to assess health protection and health related physical culture trainings of first year students. Material: in the research first year students (n=121; 86 boys and 35girls of age 16 - 19 years, participated. Results: components of students’ individual health were found. Situation with health related physical culture trainings, ensuring students’ sound health and optimal functional potentials of their organisms were determined. It was found that leading role shall be played by formation of health world vision values, knowledge about formation of practical skills in healthy life style. Motivation tendency for realization of intentions and practicing of health related physical culture trainings were found in students. Conclusions: the received results prove students’ tendency to pay insufficient attention to individual health. It was found that health related physical culture trainings require modern renewal of education’s content, forms and methods of physical education. The basis of such trainings shall be health related orientation.

  19. Sexual orientation health inequality: Evidence from Understanding Society, the UK Longitudinal Household Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booker, Cara L; Rieger, Gerulf; Unger, Jennifer B

    2017-08-01

    Few studies from the United Kingdom have fully investigated inequalities between members of different sexual minority groups and heterosexuals over range of health outcomes. Using data from over 40,000 individuals, this study explores the health inequalities of sexual minority UK adults. We include respondents who identify as other and those who prefer not to say (PNS). Data come from wave three (2011-2012) of the nationally-representative Understanding Society, the UK Household Longitudinal Study. Sexual orientation was asked in the self-completion portion of the study. Markers of health include physical and mental functioning, minor psychological distress, self-rated health, substance use and disability. Multiple linear and logistic regression analyses tested for differences in markers of health between sexual orientation groups. Overall, heterosexual respondents had the best health while bisexual respondents had the worst. Gay and lesbian respondents reported poorer health than heterosexuals, specifically with regards to mental functioning, distress and illness status. The other and PNS respondents were most similar to each other and generally experienced fewer health inequalities than gay and lesbian respondents; they were less likely to use tobacco or alcohol. In sum, sexual minorities experience health inequality. The inclusion of other and PNS respondents has not been done in other studies and shows that while they may be healthier than gay/lesbian and bisexual respondents they still experiences poorer health than heterosexuals. Health promotion interventions are needed for these other and PNS individuals, who might not participate in interventions targeted toward known sexual minority groups. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Understanding Medical Students' Experience with Stress and Its Related Constructs: A Focus Group Study from Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquhar, Julia; Lie, Desiree; Chan, Angelique; Ow, Mandy; Vidyarthi, Arpana

    2018-02-01

    In order to protect medical students from burnout and its untoward psychiatric effects, it is imperative to understand their stress, burnout, coping, and resilience experiences. This study aimed to derive collective definitions from the medical student perspective, to identify common themes of students' experiences, and to distinguish pre-clinical and clinical year students' experiences relating to these four constructs. The authors conducted focus groups of medical students in Singapore across 4 years using a semi-structured question guide. Participants shared their understanding, experiences, and the relationships between stress, burnout, coping, and resilience. Coders independently evaluated construct definitions and derived common themes through an iterative process, and compared transcripts of pre-clinical and clinical year students to determine differences in experience over time. Nine focus groups (54 students, 28 females, mean age 24.3) were conducted. Students identified common definitions for each construct. Nine themes emerged within three domains: (1) relating constructs to personal experience, (2) interrelating stress, burnout, coping, and resilience, and (3) understanding the necessity of stress. Compared to clinical students, pre-clinical students reported theory-based rather than reality-based experiences and exam-induced stress, defined constructs using present rather than future situations, and described constructs as independent rather than interrelated. This sample of medical students in Singapore shares a common understanding of stress, burnout, coping, and resilience, but experiences these uniquely. They perceive a positive role for stress. These findings build upon prior literature, suggesting an interrelationship between stress and its related constructs and adding the novel perspective of students from an Asian country.

  1. Development of a conceptual framework for understanding financial barriers to care among patients with cardiovascular-related chronic disease: a protocol for a qualitative (grounded theory) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, David J T; Manns, Braden J; Hemmelgarn, Brenda R; Sanmartin, Claudia; King-Shier, Kathryn M

    2016-01-01

    Patients with cardiovascular-related chronic diseases may face financial barriers to accessing health care, even in Canada, where universal health care insurance is in place. No current theory or framework is adequate for understanding the impact of financial barriers to care on these patients or how they experience financial barriers. The overall objective of this study is to develop a framework for understanding the role of financial barriers to care in the lives of patients with cardiovascular-related chronic diseases and the impact of such barriers on their health. We will perform an inductive qualitative grounded theory study to develop a framework to understand the effect of financial barriers to care on patients with cardiovascular-related chronic diseases. We will use semistructured interviews (face-to-face and telephone) with a purposive sample of adult patients from Alberta with at least 1 of hypertension, diabetes, heart disease or stroke. We will analyze interview transcripts in triplicate using grounded theory coding techniques, including open, focused and axial coding, following the principle of constant comparison. Interviews and analysis will be done iteratively to theoretical saturation. Member checking will be used to enhance rigour. A comprehensive framework for understanding financial barriers to accessing health care is instrumental for both researchers and clinicians who care for patients with chronic diseases. Such a framework would enable a better understanding of patient behaviour and nonadherence to recommended medical therapies and lifestyle modifications.

  2. Parental influence on children's oral health-related behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poutanen, Raija; Lahti, Satu; Tolvanen, Mimmi; Hausen, Hannu

    2006-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether there are differences between oral health-related knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and behaviors of children and their parents, and to identify the family-related factors associated with children's poor or good oral health-related behavior. The data were gathered by means of questionnaires from 11-12-year-old schoolchildren and their parents who replied without having knowledge of the answers of the others. Differences between subgroups of children were analyzed by cross-tabulation, and the factors related to children's good or poor oral health-related behavior by logistic regression analyses. Parents of children who reported good oral health-related behavior had better knowledge and more favorable behaviors than those of other parents. Predictors for a child's poor oral health-related behavior were the child's poor knowledge, male gender, the parent's frequent consumption of sweets, and the parent's infrequent use of xylitol gum. When a less strict threshold for the child's poor oral health-related behavior was used, more predictors entered the model: the parent's unfavorable use of fluoride toothpaste; among girls, the parent's lack of knowledge; and among children whose mother's occupation level was high, the parent's infrequent use of xylitol gum. The parents of children whose oral health behavior was favorable were more likely to have a high level occupation and favorable oral health-related behaviors. Oral health-related knowledge of children and their parents seems to be associated with children's oral health-related behavior. Parents' behaviors, but not attitudes, were associated with children's oral health behavior.

  3. Understanding the micro and macro politics of health: Inequalities, intersectionality & institutions - A research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkiouleka, Anna; Huijts, Tim; Beckfield, Jason; Bambra, Clare

    2018-03-01

    This essay brings together intersectionality and institutional approaches to health inequalities, suggesting an integrative analytical framework that accounts for the complexity of the intertwined influence of both individual social positioning and institutional stratification on health. This essay therefore advances the emerging scholarship on the relevance of intersectionality to health inequalities research. We argue that intersectionality provides a strong analytical tool for an integrated understanding of health inequalities beyond the purely socioeconomic by addressing the multiple layers of privilege and disadvantage, including race, migration and ethnicity, gender and sexuality. We further demonstrate how integrating intersectionality with institutional approaches allows for the study of institutions as heterogeneous entities that impact on the production of social privilege and disadvantage beyond just socioeconomic (re)distribution. This leads to an understanding of the interaction of the macro and the micro facets of the politics of health. Finally, we set out a research agenda considering the interplay/intersections between individuals and institutions and involving a series of methodological implications for research - arguing that quantitative designs can incorporate an intersectional institutional approach. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Hypertension: The understanding of bearer’s users, enrolled and monitored in the family health units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilara Maria Mesquita Mendes Pires

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available High Blood Pressure (HBP occupies a prominent position, due to its high incidence and prevalence, as a multifactorial disease and mostly asymptomatic, that fundamentally endangers the promote life’s quality. The study aimed to portray the understanding of bearer’s users enrolled and monitored by the HIPERDIA program, in Family Health Units, about their pathology and thus be able to establish strategies that may be closer to their reality to propose policies to encourage the promotion of health. The study with qualitative approach, conducted in the municipality of Jequié -Bahia, with 08 Family Health Teams, with 152 users with hypertension. We used the semi-structured interview and the collective subject speech technique, which enabled us to reconstruct 04 speeches: DSC 01: "To me it is a terrible disease", DSC 02 "do not eat salt, do not eat fat”, DSC 03 "it is to have headaches, vertigo, it causes heart attack, it causes stroke" DSC 04 "I do not know what it exactly is", they reflect the understanding of the study subjects about their pathology. This leads us to think of health actions aimed at health education emerging the need for change in the approach and use of a common language between professionals and service users, ensuring the promotion of life’s quality and, consequently, the co-responsibility in the treatment adherence.

  5. Absolute and Relative Socioeconomic Health Inequalities across Age Groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zon, Sander K. R.; Bultmann, Ute; de Leon, Carlos F. Mendes; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2015-01-01

    Background The magnitude of socioeconomic health inequalities differs across age groups. It is less clear whether socioeconomic health inequalities differ across age groups by other factors that are known to affect the relation between socioeconomic position and health, like the indicator of

  6. Understanding how and why health is integrated into foreign policy - a case study of health is global, a UK Government Strategy 2008–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Over the past decade, global health issues have become more prominent in foreign policies at the national level. The process to develop state level global health strategies is arguably a form of global health diplomacy (GHD). Despite an increase in the volume of secondary research and analysis in this area, little primary research, particularly that which draws directly on the perspectives of those involved in these processes, has been conducted. This study seeks to fill this knowledge gap through an empirical case study of Health is Global: A UK Government Strategy 2008–2013. It aims to build understanding about how and why health is integrated into foreign policy and derive lessons of potential relevance to other nations interested in developing whole-of-government global health strategies. Methods The major element of the study consisted of an in-depth investigation and analysis of the UK global health strategy. Document analysis and twenty interviews were conducted. Data was organized and described using an adapted version of Walt and Gilson’s policy analysis triangle. A general inductive approach was used to identify themes in the data, which were then analysed and interpreted using Fidler’s health and foreign policy conceptualizations and Kingdon’s multiples streams model of the policymaking process. Results The primary reason that the UK decided to focus more on global health is self-interest - to protect national and international security and economic interests. Investing in global health was also seen as a way to enhance the UK’s international reputation. A focus on global health to primarily benefit other nations and improve global health per se was a prevalent through weaker theme. A well organized, credible policy community played a critical role in the process and a policy entrepreneur with expertise in both international relations and health helped catalyze attention and action on global health when the time was right. Support

  7. Honey bee surveillance: a tool for understanding and improving honey bee health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kathleen; Steinhauer, Nathalie; Travis, Dominic A; Meixner, Marina D; Deen, John; vanEngelsdorp, Dennis

    2015-08-01

    Honey bee surveillance systems are increasingly used to characterize honey bee health and disease burdens of bees in different regions and/or over time. In addition to quantifying disease prevalence, surveillance systems can identify risk factors associated with colony morbidity and mortality. Surveillance systems are often observational, and prove particularly useful when searching for risk factors in real world complex systems. We review recent examples of surveillance systems with particular emphasis on how these efforts have helped increase our understanding of honey bee health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Voices of the Filipino Community Describing the Importance of Family in Understanding Adolescent Behavioral Health Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javier, Joyce R; Galura, Kristina; Aliganga, Frank Anthony P; Supan, Jocelyn; Palinkas, Lawrence A

    Filipinos are a large, yet invisible, minority at high risk for adolescent behavioral health problems. Limited research describes the family as offering a source of positive support for some Filipino youths and yet for some it is also a source of stress and isolation, leading to struggles with adolescent depression and suicidal behavior. This article describes a qualitative study that investigates the role of family when understanding behavioral health needs among Filipino adolescents. Findings highlight the importance of addressing family cohesion when designing interventions aimed at improving the well-being of Filipino youth.

  9. Using Machine Reading to Understand Alzheimer’s and Related Diseases from the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Tsutsui

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper aims to better understand a large number of papers in the medical domain of Alzheimer’s disease (AD and related diseases using the machine reading approach. Design/methodology/approach: The study uses the topic modeling method to obtain an overview of the field, and employs open information extraction to further comprehend the field at a specific fact level. Findings: Several topics within the AD research field are identified, such as the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS, which can help answer the question of how AIDS/HIV and AD are very different yet related diseases. Research limitations: Some manual data cleaning could improve the study, such as removing incorrect facts found by open information extraction. Practical implications: This study uses the literature to answer specific questions on a scientific domain, which can help domain experts find interesting and meaningful relations among entities in a similar manner, such as to discover relations between AD and AIDS/HIV. Originality/value: Both the overview and specific information from the literature are obtained using two distinct methods in a complementary manner. This combination is novel because previous work has only focused on one of them, and thus provides a better way to understand an important scientific field using data-driven methods.

  10. Comparison of knowledge of and attitudes toward dementia between health-related and non-health-related university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Mi-Hyun; Yoo, Chan-Uk; Yang, Yeong-Ae

    2015-12-01

    [Purpose] This study compared the knowledge of and attitudes toward dementia between health-related and non-health-related students. [Subjects] The subjects consisted of a total of 416 people, 213 health-related students and 203 non-health-related students, at K University, which is located in Gyeongsangbuk-do, Republic of Korea, between May 1 and 14, 2014. [Methods] The subjects answered a self-administered questionnaire about their knowledge of and attitudes toward dementia. [Results] There was a significant difference in knowledge of and attitudes toward dementia between the two groups examined. [Conclusion] Health-related students displayed higher knowledge of dementia and a more positive attitude toward dementia compared with non-health-related students. In the future, education to cultivate professional knowledge about dementia and enhance positive attitudes toward dementia should be provided continuously to health-related students. This is because students in health-related fields will likely provide services to patients with dementia in the clinical field. Additionally, as they will likely provide support to the elderly in the future, non-health-related students also need to be educated about and develop positive attitudes toward dementia.

  11. Students’ Relational Understanding in Quadrilateral Problem Solving Based on Adversity Quotient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safitri, A. N.; Juniati, D.; Masriyah

    2018-01-01

    The type of research is qualitative approach which aims to describe how students’ relational understanding of solving mathematic problem that was seen from Adversity Quotient aspect. Research subjects were three 7th grade students of Junior High School. They were taken by category of Adversity Quotient (AQ) such quitter, camper, and climber. Data collected based on problem solving and interview. The research result showed that (1) at the stage of understanding the problem, the subjects were able to state and write down what is known and asked, and able to mention the concepts associated with the quadrilateral problem. (2) The three subjects devise a plan by linking concepts relating to quadrilateral problems. (3) The three subjects were able to solve the problem. (4) The three subjects were able to look back the answers. The three subjects were able to understand the problem, devise a plan, carry out the plan and look back. However, the quitter and camper subjects have not been able to give a reason for the steps they have taken.

  12. Contemporary paradigms for research related to women's mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucet, Shelley Anne; Letourneau, Nicole Lyn; Stoppard, Janet M

    2010-04-01

    Mental health problems are serious health concerns that affect women across diverse settings internationally. Knowledge of this population historically has been informed by research using a positivist approach. This article is a critical examination of contemporary paradigms for research related to women's mental health. We begin the article with an introduction to women's mental health, followed by an overview of the postpositivist, critical theory, and constructivist paradigms. We then present a critical examination of the benefits and limitations of these paradigms in relation to the study of women's mental health. We conclude with implications for research and practice.

  13. Qatar pharmacists' understanding, attitudes, practice and perceived barriers related to providing pharmaceutical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hajj, Maguy Saffouh; Al-Saeed, Hassna Sohil; Khaja, Maryam

    2016-04-01

    Pharmaceutical care (PC) is the philosophy of practice that includes identifying and resolving medication therapy problems to improve patient outcomes. The study objectives were to examine the extent of pharmaceutical care practice and the barriers to pharmaceutical care provision as perceived by Qatar pharmacists and to assess their level of understanding of pharmaceutical care and their attitudes about pharmaceutical care provision. Setting Qatar pharmacies. A cross sectional survey of all pharmacists in Qatar was made. Consenting pharmacists were given the option to complete the survey either online using an online software or as paper by fax or by hand. 1. Extent of pharmaceutical care practice in Qatar. 2. Barriers to pharmaceutical care provision in Qatar. 3. Qatar pharmacists' level of understanding of pharmaceutical care. 4. Qatar pharmacists' attitudes toward pharmaceutical care provision. Over 8 weeks, 274 surveys were collected (34 % response rate). More than 80 % of respondents had correct understanding of the aim of PC and of the pharmacist role in PC. However, only 47 % recognized the patient role in PC and only 35 % were aware of the differences between clinical pharmacy and PC. Yet, more than 80 % believed that they could be advocates when it comes to patients' medications and health matters. Concerning their practice, respondents reported spending little time on PC activities. Offering feedback to the physician about the patient progress was always or most of the time performed by 21 % of respondents. The top perceived barriers for PC provision included inconvenient access to patient medical information (78 %) and lack of staff and time (77 and 74 % respectively). Although PC is not incorporated into pharmacy practice, Qatar pharmacists showed positive attitudes toward PC provision. Further work should focus on improving their PC understanding and on overcoming all barriers.

  14. Do health-related feared possible selves motivate healthy eating?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samar Noureddine

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The question of what motivates individuals to assume healthy eating habits remains unanswered. The purpose of this descriptive survey is to explore health-related feared possible selves in relation to dietary beliefs and behavior in adults. A convenience sample of 74 middle-aged employees of a health maintenance organization completed self-administered questionnaires. Health-related feared selves, current health perception, knowledge of diet-health association, dietary self-efficacy, dietary intention and intake were measured. Health-related fears were the most frequently reported feared selves, but very few of those represented illnesses and none were related to dietary intake. The number of health and body weight related fears was significantly associated with lower dietary self-efficacy and weaker intention to eat in a healthy manner. Multivariate analysis showed self-efficacy to be the only significant predictor of dietary intention. These adults may not have perceived being at risk for diet-associated illnesses, and so their feared selves did not motivate them to eat in a healthy manner. Research on the effect of hoped for health related possible selves and the perceived effectiveness of diet in reducing health risk are recommended.

  15. Social relations as determinants of oral health among persons over the age of 80 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avlund, Kirsten; Holm-Pedersen, Poul; Morse, Douglas E

    2003-01-01

    % CI: 1.2-7.2). CONCLUSION: This study suggests that social relations are related to the oral health status of old-old individuals. From a psychosocial perspective, our findings contribute to a deeper understanding of the background of oral health status in older adults.......OBJECTIVE: To analyze whether social relations during a 7-year follow-up influence oral health among generally healthy, community-dwelling persons over the age of 80 years. METHOD: The present investigation is based on a subsample of 129 dentate community-dwelling individuals from The Kungsholmen...... Elders Oral Health Study (KEOHS), which included data from interviews and oral examinations. Social relations were measured in terms of marital status, living alone, frequency of contacts, number of confidants, and satisfaction with social contacts and with the frequency of contacts. Oral health...

  16. Correlates of health-related social media use among adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thackeray, Rosemary; Crookston, Benjamin T; West, Joshua H

    2013-01-30

    Sixty percent of Internet users report using the Internet to look for health information. Social media sites are emerging as a potential source for online health information. However, little is known about how people use social media for such purposes. The purpose of this study was two-fold: (1) to establish the frequency of various types of online health-seeking behaviors, and (2) to identify correlates of 2 health-related online activities, social networking sites (SNS) for health-related activities and consulting online user-generated content for answers about health care providers, health facilities, or medical treatment. The study consisted of a telephone survey of 1745 adults who reported going online to look for health-related information. Four subscales were created to measure use of online resources for (1) using SNS for health-related activities; (2) consulting online rankings and reviews of doctors, hospitals or medical facilities, and drugs or medical treatments; (3) posting a review online of doctors, hospitals or medical facilities, and drugs or medical treatments, and (4) posting a comment or question about health or medical issues on various social media. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed. Respondents consulted online rankings or reviews (41.15%), used SNS for health (31.58%), posted reviews (9.9%1), and posted a comment, question, or information (15.19%). Respondents with a chronic disease were nearly twice as likely to consult online rankings (odds ratio [OR] 2.09, 95% CI 1.66-2.63, Psocial media for seeking health information. However, individuals are more likely to consume information than they are to contribute to the dialog. The inherent value of "social" in social media is not being captured with online health information seeking. People with a regular health care provider, chronic disease, and those in younger age groups are more likely to consult online rankings and reviews and use SNS for health-related

  17. Heritability of health-related quality of life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenstrup, Troels; Pedersen, Ole Birger; Hjelmborg, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    Aim: The present study aims to estimate the relative importance of genetic and environmental factors for health-related quality of life (HRQL) measured by the 12-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-12). Methods: The study was based on two Danish twin cohorts (46,417 twin individuals) originating from...

  18. Perceived job demands relate to self-reported health complaints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, C.A.M.; Schreuder, K.J.; Koopmans, P.C.; Groothoff, J.W.

    Background Illness and illness behaviour are important problems in the Dutch workforce. Illness has been associated with job demands, with high demands relating to poorer health. It has not been reported whether subjective health complaints relate to job demands. Aims To investigate whether

  19. Understanding Health Care Social Media Use From Different Stakeholder Perspectives: A Content Analysis of an Online Health Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yingjie; Wu, Yang; Liu, Jingfang; Li, Jia; Zhang, Pengzhu

    2017-04-07

    Health care social media used for health information exchange and emotional communication involves different types of users, including patients, caregivers, and health professionals. However, it is difficult to identify different stakeholders because user identification data are lacking due to privacy protection and proprietary interests. Therefore, identifying the concerns of different stakeholders and how they use health care social media when confronted with huge amounts of health-related messages posted by users is a critical problem. We aimed to develop a new content analysis method using text mining techniques applied in health care social media to (1) identify different health care stakeholders, (2) determine hot topics of concern, and (3) measure sentiment expression by different stakeholders. We collected 138,161 messages posted by 39,606 members in lung cancer, diabetes, and breast cancer forums in the online community MedHelp.org over 10 years (January 2007 to October 2016) as experimental data. We used text mining techniques to process text data to identify different stakeholders and determine health-related hot topics, and then analyzed sentiment expression. We identified 3 significantly different stakeholder groups using expectation maximization clustering (3 performance metrics: Rand=0.802, Jaccard=0.393, Fowlkes-Mallows=0.537; Phealth-related topics: symptom, examination, drug, procedure, and complication (Rand=0.783, Jaccard=0.369, Fowlkes-Mallows=0.495; Psocial media services to facilitate diverse stakeholder engagement for health information sharing and social interaction more effectively. ©Yingjie Lu, Yang Wu, Jingfang Liu, Jia Li, Pengzhu Zhang. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 07.04.2017.

  20. Couples' joint decision-making: the construction and validation of a key proxy for understanding gender relations in contemporary families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maira Covre-Sussai

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Gender relations have become a key dimension in family studies, and understanding gender relations as both determining and resulting from outcome of new family configurations requires the use of specific surveys aimed at the dynamics of couples. Unfortunately, nationally representative surveys of this type are not available for Latin American countries. Nonetheless, the most recent versions of the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS include a section called "Women's Status and Empowerment", which can provide information about gender relations as well. This study aims at assessing the construct of gender relations in terms of couples' joint decision-making for all five Brazilian geographical regions. To this end, a step-by-step multi-group confirmatory factor analysis (MGCFA was applied in order to verify whether this concept can be compared across Brazilian regions. Results show that the DHS items can be used reliably for measuring couples' joint decision-making and that this construct can be meaningfully compared over the regions. These findings will contribute to further demographic and sociological research on gender relations which can use this concept and other indicators provided by the DHS to identify the causal processes related to it.

  1. Understanding the Role of Public Administration in Implementing Action on the Social Determinants of Health and Health Inequities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Gemma; Friel, Sharon

    2015-10-11

    Many of the societal level factors that affect health - the 'social determinants of health (SDH)' - exist outside the health sector, across diverse portfolios of government, and other major institutions including non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and the private sector. This has created growing interest in how to create and implement public policies which will drive better and fairer health outcomes. While designing policies that can improve the SDH is critical, so too is ensuring they are appropriately administered and implemented. In this paper, we draw attention to an important area for future public health consideration - how policies are managed and implemented through complex administrative layers of 'the state.' Implementation gaps have long been a concern of public administration scholarship. To precipitate further work in this area, in this paper, we provide an overview of the scholarly field of public administration and highlight its role in helping to understand better the challenges and opportunities for implementing policies and programs to improve health equity. © 2015 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  2. Understanding of diabetes mellitus and health-preventive behaviour among Singaporeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Lai Yin; Toh, Matthias P H S

    2009-06-01

    To study the understanding and perceived vulnerability of diabetes mellitus among Singapore residents, and determine the predictors associated with screening for diabetes mellitus among the people without the condition. A population-based survey was conducted from December 2004 to October 2005 involving Singapore residents aged 15 to 69 years. Using a standard questionnaire, Health Survey Officers interviewed household members on their understanding and perceived vulnerability of diabetes mellitus and associated cardiovascular risk factors. Data were analysed using SPSS v13. The response rate was 84.5%. Of 2,632 respondents, 291 (11.1%) have diabetes mellitus. Compared to respondents without diabetes, respondents with the disease had better understanding of diabetes and they had favourable health practice of screening for cardiovascular risk factors. Having diabetes mellitus was not associated with a healthier lifestyle. Among non-diabetics, those who had a family history of diabetes had better knowledge and health practices than those who had not. They were significantly more likely to recognise the symptoms and signs (61.5% vs 54.5%) and the causes of diabetes (70% vs 58.2%); and were more likely to have ever tested for diabetes (76.1% vs 60.4%), with P preventive behaviours. However, it did not translate into healthier lifestyle. Cultural and socio-demographic profiles must be factored in for any effort on lifestyle modifications.

  3. ON HEALTH PROTECTION AND HEALTH RELATED PHYSICAL CULTURE TRAININGS OF FIRST YEAR STUDENTS

    OpenAIRE

    V.G. Fotynyuk

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: to assess health protection and health related physical culture trainings of first year students. Material: in the research first year students (n=121; 86 boys and 35girls of age 16 - 19 years, participated. Results: components of students’ individual health were found. Situation with health related physical culture trainings, ensuring students’ sound health and optimal functional potentials of their organisms were determined. It was found that leading role shall be played by formati...

  4. Understanding and accounting for relational context is critical for social neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark-Polner, Elizabeth; Clark, Margaret S

    2014-01-01

    Scientists have increasingly turned to the brain and to neuroscience more generally to further an understanding of social and emotional judgments and behavior. Yet, many neuroscientists (certainly not all) do not consider the role of relational context. Moreover, most have not examined the impact of relational context in a manner that takes advantage of conceptual and empirical advances in relationship science. Here we emphasize that: (1) all social behavior takes place, by definition, within the context of a relationship (even if that relationship is a new one with a stranger), and (2) relational context shapes not only social thoughts, feelings, and behaviors, but also some seemingly non-social thoughts, feelings, and behaviors in profound ways. We define relational context and suggest that accounting for it in the design and interpretation of neuroscience research is essential to the development of a coherent, generalizable neuroscience of social behavior. We make our case in two ways: (a) we describe some existing neuroscience research in three substantive areas (perceiving and reacting to others' emotions, providing help, and receiving help) that already has documented the powerful impact of relational context. (b) We describe some other neuroscience research from these same areas that has not taken relational context into account. Then, using findings from social and personality psychology, we make a case that different results almost certainly would have been found had the research been conducted in a different relational context. We neither attempt to review all evidence that relational context shapes neuroscience findings nor to put forward a theoretical analysis of all the ways relational context ought to shape neuroscience findings. Our goal is simply to urge greater and more systematic consideration of relational context in neuroscientific research.

  5. Understanding and taking relational context into account is critical for social neuroscience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth eClark-Polner

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Scientists have increasingly turned to the brain and to neuroscience more generally to further an understanding of social and emotional judgments and behavior. Yet, many neuroscientists (certainly not all do not consider the role of relational context. Moreover, most have not examined the impact of relational context in a manner that takes advantage of conceptual and empirical advances in relationship science. Here we emphasize that: (1 all social behavior takes place, by definition, within the context of a relationship (even if that relationship is a new one with a stranger, and (2 relational context shapes not only social thoughts, feelings and behaviors, but also some seemingly non-social thoughts, feelings and behaviors in profound ways. We define relational context and suggest that accounting for it in the design and interpretation of neuroscience research is essential to the development of a coherent, generalizable neuroscience of social behavior. We make our case in two ways: a We describe some existing neuroscience research in three substantive areas (perceiving and reacting to others’ emotions, providing help and receiving help that already has documented the powerful impact of relational context. b We describe some other neuroscience research from these same areas that has not taken relational context into account. Then, using findings from social and personality psychology, we make a case that different results almost certainly would have been found had the research been conducted in a different relational context. We neither attempt to review all evidence that relational context shapes neuroscience findings nor to put forward a theoretical analysis of all the ways relational context ought to shape neuroscience findings. Our goal is simply to urge greater and more systematic consideration of relational context in neuroscientific research.

  6. How understanding and application of drug-related legal instruments affects harm reduction interventions in Cambodia: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuot, Sovannary; Ngin, Chanrith; Pal, Khuondyla; Sou, Sochenda; Sawez, Ghazal; Morgan, Phylicia; Srey, Mony; Chan, Tola; Chhoun, Pheak; Golichenko, Olga; Choub, Sok Chamreun; Yi, Siyan

    2017-06-19

    Harm reduction interventions in Cambodia face numerous obstacles because of conflicting understanding and interests and inconsistencies in the implementation by law enforcement officials. This study aims to examine how understanding and application of Drug Control Law (DCL) and Village/Commune Safety Policy (VCSP) affects harm reduction interventions in Cambodia from the standpoints of law enforcement officials, people who inject drugs and people who use drugs (PWID/PWUD), as well as other key stakeholders. This qualitative study was conducted in the capital city of Phnom Penh in 2015. We held five focus group discussions (FGDs) with groups of PWID/PWUD, police officers, Sangkat/commune officers, and local non-governmental organization (NGO) field staff. We also conducted ten key informant interviews (KIIs) with representatives from government agencies, donor agencies, and NGOs. FGDs and KIIs with Cambodian participants were transcribed in Khmer and translated into English. KIIs with foreign participants were transcribed in English. Transcripts were read and re-read to identify emerging themes, which were reviewed and refined to develop common and divergent patterns. There was a huge gap between what the DCL and VCSP say and how law enforcement officers and PWID/PWUD understood them. The gap was also evident in how law enforcement officers implemented the DCL and VCSP. Harm reduction services, including health- and non-health-related interventions, were limited and challenged by unsupportive attitudes, misinterpretation of the DCL and VCSP, and the lack of full engagement with NGOs in the development of these instruments. The needs of PWID/PWUD in accessing health care services were not met due to misconduct of authorities while practicing the DCL and VCSP. Further, the misconduct and enforcement of the law and policy lead to increased social discrimination and physical abuses against PWID/PWUD. There is a lack of common understanding of the drug-related law and

  7. Self-care behaviour for minor symptoms: can Andersen's Behavioral Model of Health Services Use help us to understand it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porteous, Terry; Wyke, Sally; Hannaford, Philip; Bond, Christine

    2015-02-01

    To explore whether Andersen's Behavioral Model of Health Services Use can aid understanding of self-care behaviour and inform development of interventions to promote self-care for minor illness. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 24 Scottish participants about their experience and management of minor symptoms normally associated with analgesic use. Synthesised data from the interviews were mapped onto the Behavioral Model. All factors identified as influencing decisions about how to manage the symptoms discussed, mapped onto at least one domain of Andersen's model. Individual characteristics including beliefs, need factors and available resources were associated with health behaviour, including self-care. Outcomes such as perceived health status and consumer satisfaction from previous experience of managing symptoms also appeared to feed back into health behaviour. The Behavioral Model seems relevant to self-care as well as formal health services. Additional work is needed to explore applicability of the Behavioral Model to different types of symptoms, different modalities of self-care and in countries with different health care systems. Future quantitative studies should establish the relative importance of factors influencing the actions people take to manage minor symptoms to inform future interventions aimed at optimising self-care behaviour. © 2014 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  8. School-Based Health Education Programmes, Health-Learning Capacity and Child Oral Health--related Quality of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Ruth; Gibson, Barry; Humphris, Gerry; Leonard, Helen; Yuan, Siyang; Whelton, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To use a model of health learning to examine the role of health-learning capacity and the effect of a school-based oral health education intervention (Winning Smiles) on the health outcome, child oral health-related quality of life (COHRQoL). Setting: Primary schools, high social deprivation, Ireland/Northern Ireland. Design: Cluster…

  9. Stigma-related mental health knowledge and attitudes among primary health workers and community health volunteers in rural Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mutiso, Victoria N.; Musyimi, Christine W.; Nayak, Sameera S.; Musau, Abednego M.; Rebello, Tahilia; Nandoya, Erick; Tele, Albert K.; Pike, Kathleen; Ndetei, David M.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The study was conducted in rural Kenya and assessed stigma in health workers from primary health facilities. Aims: This study compared variations in stigma-related mental health knowledge and attitudes between primary health workers (HWs) and community health volunteers (CHVs). Methods:

  10. Understanding animal health communication networks among smallholder livestock producers in Australia using stakeholder analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, L; Woodgate, R; Rast, L; Toribio, J-A L M L; Hernández-Jover, M

    2017-09-01

    Smallholder livestock producers are a diverse population with wide ranging motivations for keeping livestock. The biosecurity risk posed by smallholders has been the subject of much conjecture, with comparisons often made between the level of animal health and biosecurity knowledge of smallholders, versus that of commercial livestock producers. This research aimed to gain a better understanding of current knowledge of smallholder production in Australia, particularly in relation to biosecurity and emergency animal disease, and to investigate the relationships that exist between smallholders and the organisations and individuals from which they seek information, assistance and support. Engagement with stakeholders is an important component of an effective biosecurity communication strategy as the dissemination of biosecurity related information from a single source cannot be expected to satisfy the needs of such a broad ranging population. A qualitative study involving a review of literature, semi-structured interviews with government and non-government stakeholders and the development of smallholder and stakeholder influence and interest grids was undertaken. This paper forms part of a broader mixed methods research project among smallholders. Results from the stakeholder analysis showed variation in the parameters used to define smallholders and in the level of stakeholder involvement. Smallholders identified breeding consultants, other producers, private veterinarians and family, friends and colleagues as having a significant to high level of interest and potential to influence their practices. Government agencies were perceived to only have some level of interest but significant influence. Industry stakeholders and rural suppliers were positioned in the quadrant reflecting perceived low levels of interest and influence. The interest and influence grid developed from stakeholder's perspectives demonstrate a clustering around the mid points for both interest and

  11. Understanding student early departure from a Master of Public Health programme in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Dlungwane

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background. Student departure from university without completing a qualification is a major concern in higher education. Higher Education South Africa reported that in undergraduate studies, 35% of students depart after the first year and only 15% of students who enrol complete their degree within the minimum permissible time. At postgraduate level, the departure from Masters programmes in South Africa (SA ranged from 30% to 67% in 2010. Early departure refers to students who leave an academic programme within the first semester of commencing their studies. At one SA university, there were a total of 109 first-time Master of Public Health (MPH student registrations in 2013 and 2014. By the end of the first semester in the respective years, a total of 27 students actively deregistered from the programme and 11 students did not sit the first-semester examinations, representing an aggregate 35% rate of early departure. The factors associated with early departure at the University of KwaZulu-Natal are not well understood. Objective. To understand factors associated with early departure in the MPH programme at the University of KwaZulu-Natal. Method. A mixed-methods design was implemented. Students who departed within the first semester of commencing the MPH programme in 2013/2014 were followed up. Data were collected using self-administered questionnaires and in-depth interviews. Results. Failure to balance work and academic obligations with poor time management, stress and academic demands related to the programme, and insufficient academic progress were found to be associated with student early departure from the MPH programme. Conclusion. Student early departure from the MPH programme was influenced by multifaceted factors. Senior students can mentor new students as early as possible in their programme. The orientation block should include development activities such as time management, stress management and effective study skills to assist

  12. Understanding and Measuring LGBTQ Pathways to Health: A Scoping Review of Strengths-Based Health Promotion Approaches in LGBTQ Health Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gahagan, Jacqueline; Colpitts, Emily

    2017-01-01

    Health research traditionally has focused on the health risks and deficits of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) populations, obscuring the determinants that can promote health across the life course. Recognizing, appropriately measuring, and rendering visible these determinants of health is paramount to informing appropriate and engaging health policies, services, and systems for LGBTQ populations. The overarching purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the findings of a scoping review aimed at exploring strengths-based health promotion approaches to understanding and measuring LGBTQ health. Specifically, this scoping review examined peer-reviewed, published academic literature to determine (a) existing methodological frameworks for studying LGBTQ health from a strengths-based health promotion approach, and (b) suggestions for future methodological approaches for studying LGBTQ health from a strengths-based health promotion approach. The findings of this scoping review will be used to inform the development of a study aimed at assessing the health of and improving pathways to health services among LGBTQ populations in Nova Scotia, Canada.

  13. Cascading hazards: Understanding triggering relations between wet tropical cyclones, landslides, and earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wdowinski, S.; Peng, Z.; Ferrier, K.; Lin, C. H.; Hsu, Y. J.; Shyu, J. B. H.

    2017-12-01

    Earthquakes, landslides, and tropical cyclones are extreme hazards that pose significant threats to human life and property. Some of the couplings between these hazards are well known. For example, sudden, widespread landsliding can be triggered by large earthquakes and by extreme rainfall events like tropical cyclones. Recent studies have also shown that earthquakes can be triggered by erosional unloading over 100-year timescales. In a NASA supported project, titled "Cascading hazards: Understanding triggering relations between wet tropical cyclones, landslides, and earthquake", we study triggering relations between these hazard types. The project focuses on such triggering relations in Taiwan, which is subjected to very wet tropical storms, landslides, and earthquakes. One example for such triggering relations is the 2009 Morakot typhoon, which was the wettest recorded typhoon in Taiwan (2850 mm of rain in 100 hours). The typhoon caused widespread flooding and triggered more than 20,000 landslides, including the devastating Hsiaolin landslide. Six months later, the same area was hit by the 2010 M=6.4 Jiashian earthquake near Kaohsiung city, which added to the infrastructure damage induced by the typhoon and the landslides. Preliminary analysis of temporal relations between main-shock earthquakes and the six wettest typhoons in Taiwan's past 50 years reveals similar temporal relations between M≥5 events and wet typhoons. Future work in the project will include remote sensing analysis of landsliding, seismic and geodetic monitoring of landslides, detection of microseismicity and tremor activities, and mechanical modeling of crustal stress changes due to surface unloading.

  14. Public health triangulation: approach and application to synthesizing data to understand national and local HIV epidemics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aberle-Grasse John

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Public health triangulation is a process for reviewing, synthesising and interpreting secondary data from multiple sources that bear on the same question to make public health decisions. It can be used to understand the dynamics of HIV transmission and to measure the impact of public health programs. While traditional intervention research and metaanalysis would be ideal sources of information for public health decision making, they are infrequently available, and often decisions can be based only on surveillance and survey data. Methods The process involves examination of a wide variety of data sources and both biological, behavioral and program data and seeks input from stakeholders to formulate meaningful public health questions. Finally and most importantly, it uses the results to inform public health decision-making. There are 12 discrete steps in the triangulation process, which included identification and assessment of key questions, identification of data sources, refining questions, gathering data and reports, assessing the quality of those data and reports, formulating hypotheses to explain trends in the data, corroborating or refining working hypotheses, drawing conclusions, communicating results and recommendations and taking public health action. Results Triangulation can be limited by the quality of the original data, the potentials for ecological fallacy and "data dredging" and reproducibility of results. Conclusions Nonetheless, we believe that public health triangulation allows for the interpretation of data sets that cannot be analyzed using meta-analysis and can be a helpful adjunct to surveillance, to formal public health intervention research and to monitoring and evaluation, which in turn lead to improved national strategic planning and resource allocation.

  15. Symposium on understanding and influencing consumer food behaviours for health: executive summary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarra, Ma Sofia V; Yee, Yeong Boon; Drewnowski, Adam

    2008-01-01

    Food consumption patterns in Asia are rapidly changing. Urbanization and changing lifestyles have diminished the consumption of traditional meals based on cereals, vegetables and root crops. These changes are accompa-nied by an increasing prevalence of chronic diseases among Asian populations. ILSI Southeast Asia and CSIRO, Australia jointly organized the Symposium on Understanding and Influencing Food Behaviours for Health, focusing on the use of consumer science to improve food behaviour. The goals of the Symposium were to present an understanding of Asian consumers and their food choices, examine the use of consumer research to modify food choices towards better health, illustrate how health programs and food regulations can be utilized effectively to promote healthier choices, and identify knowledge gaps regarding the promotion of healthy food behaviour in Asian populations. There is no difference in taste perception among Asians, and Asian preference for certain tastes is determined by exposure and familiarity largely dictated by culture and its underlying values and beliefs. Cross-cultural validity of consumer science theories and tools derived from western populations need to be tested in Asia. Information on consumption levels and substitution behaviours for foods and food products, obtained using consumer research methods, can guide the development of food regulations and programs that will enable individuals to make healthier choices. Existing knowledge gaps include consumer research techniques appropriate for use in Asian settings, diet-health relationships from consumption of traditional Asian diets, and methods to address the increasing prevalence of over- and undernutrition within the same households in Asia.

  16. An overview of public health service health-related activities as they relate to the Department of Energy's environmental restoration program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocher, P.L.; Bashor, M.M.

    1991-01-01

    The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) was created by the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) as an agency of the Public Health Service. Under the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA; CERCLA as amended), the public health responsibilities of ATSDR were greatly expanded. Among the responsibilities are (1) preparing health assessments for each site proposed for or listed on the National Priorities List (NPL) established by the US Environmental Protection Agency; (2) conducting epidemiologic and other health studies around NPL sites; (3) establishing registries of exposed individuals; (4) establishing health surveillance programs; (5) developing toxicological profiles for hazardous substances; (6) performing health and emergency response consultations; and (7) performing other health-related activities (e.g., health education). In October 1990, ATSDR signed a memorandum of understanding (MOU) with the Department of Energy (DOE) headquarters requiring that DOE operations offices sign interagency agreements (IAGs) with ATSDR for its conduct of 104(i) health activities at DOE sites. These activities include health assessments, related health studies such as surveillance programs, epidemiologic studies, and registries of exposed persons, and toxicological profiles of hazardous substances unique to DOE sites. ATSDR's studies will focus more on an assessment of the health risk to human populations residing in and around DOE sites than on an evaluation of the health risk to workers on site. Nevertheless, CERCLA, the MOU, and site-specific IAGs authorize ATSDR's access to health and environmental data concerning each site. The IAGs contemplate that ATSDR work closely with DOE operations offices in their implementation of their respective environmental restoration programs

  17. What Causes Environmental Inequalities and Related Health Effects? An Analysis of Evolving Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruize, Hanneke; Droomers, Mariël; van Kamp, Irene; Ruijsbroek, Annemarie

    2014-01-01

    Early environmental justice studies were exposure-oriented, lacked an integrated approach, and did not address the health impact of environmental inequalities. A coherent conceptual framework, needed to understand and tackle environmental inequalities and the related health effects, was lacking. We analyzed the more recent environmental justice literature to find out how conceptual insights have evolved. The conceptual framework of the WHO Commission on Social Determinants of Health (CSDH) was analyzed for additional explanations for environmental inequalities and the related health effects. This paper points out that recent environmental justice studies have broadened their scope by incorporating a broader set of physical and social environmental indicators, and by focusing on different geographic levels and on health impacts of environmental inequalities. The CSDH framework provided additional elements such as the role of structural determinants, the role of health-related behavior in relation to the physical and social environment, access to health care, as well as the life course perspective. Incorporating elements of the CSDH framework into existing environmental justice concepts, and performing more empirical research on the interactions between the different determinants at different geographical levels would further improve our understanding of environmental inequalities and their health effects and offer new opportunities for policy action. PMID:24886752

  18. What Causes Environmental Inequalities and Related Health Effects? An Analysis of Evolving Concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanneke Kruize

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Early environmental justice studies were exposure-oriented, lacked an integrated approach, and did not address the health impact of environmental inequalities. A coherent conceptual framework, needed to understand and tackle environmental inequalities and the related health effects, was lacking. We analyzed the more recent environmental justice literature to find out how conceptual insights have evolved. The conceptual framework of the WHO Commission on Social Determinants of Health (CSDH was analyzed for additional explanations for environmental inequalities and the related health effects. This paper points out that recent environmental justice studies have broadened their scope by incorporating a broader set of physical and social environmental indicators, and by focusing on different geographic levels and on health impacts of environmental inequalities. The CSDH framework provided additional elements such as the role of structural determinants, the role of health-related behavior in relation to the physical and social environment, access to health care, as well as the life course perspective. Incorporating elements of the CSDH framework into existing environmental justice concepts, and performing more empirical research on the interactions between the different determinants at different geographical levels would further improve our understanding of environmental inequalities and their health effects and offer new opportunities for policy action.

  19. Voice and choice in health care in England: understanding citizen responses to dissatisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowding, Keith; John, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Using data from a five-year online survey the paper examines the effects of relative satisfaction with health services on individuals' voice-and-choice activity in the English public health care system. Voice is considered in three parts – individual voice (complaints), collective voice voting and participation (collective action). Exercising choice is seen in terms of complete exit (not using health care), internal exit (choosing another public service provider) and private exit (using private health care). The interaction of satisfaction and forms of voice and choice are analysed over time. Both voice and choice are correlated with dissatisfaction with those who are unhappy with the NHS more likely to privately voice and to plan to take up private health care. Those unable to choose private provision are likely to use private voice. These factors are not affected by items associated with social capital – indeed, being more trusting leads to lower voice activity.

  20. Theory-based approaches to understanding public emergency preparedness: implications for effective health and risk communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paek, Hye-Jin; Hilyard, Karen; Freimuth, Vicki; Barge, J Kevin; Mindlin, Michele

    2010-06-01

    Recent natural and human-caused disasters have awakened public health officials to the importance of emergency preparedness. Guided by health behavior and media effects theories, the analysis of a statewide survey in Georgia reveals that self-efficacy, subjective norm, and emergency news exposure are positively associated with the respondents' possession of emergency items and their stages of emergency preparedness. Practical implications suggest less focus on demographics as the sole predictor of emergency preparedness and more comprehensive measures of preparedness, including both a person's cognitive stage of preparedness and checklists of emergency items on hand. We highlight the utility of theory-based approaches for understanding and predicting public emergency preparedness as a way to enable more effective health and risk communication.

  1. Understanding health-care access and utilization disparities among Latino children in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langellier, Brent A; Chen, Jie; Vargas-Bustamante, Arturo; Inkelas, Moira; Ortega, Alexander N

    2016-06-01

    It is important to understand the source of health-care disparities between Latinos and other children in the United States. We examine parent-reported health-care access and utilization among Latino, White, and Black children (≤17 years old) in the United States in the 2006-2011 National Health Interview Survey. Using Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition, we portion health-care disparities into two parts (1) those attributable to differences in the levels of sociodemographic characteristics (e.g., income) and (2) those attributable to differences in group-specific regression coefficients that measure the health-care 'return' Latino, White, and Black children receive on these characteristics. In the United States, Latino children are less likely than Whites to have a usual source of care, receive at least one preventive care visit, and visit a doctor, and are more likely to have delayed care. The return on sociodemographic characteristics explains 20-30% of the disparity between Latino and White children in the usual source of care, delayed care, and doctor visits and 40-50% of the disparity between Latinos and Blacks in emergency department use and preventive care. Much of the health-care disadvantage experienced by Latino children would persist if Latinos had the sociodemographic characteristics as Whites and Blacks. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. Using art and story to explore how primary school students in rural Tanzania understand planetary health: a qualitative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth VanWormer, PhD

    2018-05-01

    ' writing and illustrations were the relationships students identified between human health and wildlife, livestock, water sources, and forest resources. Findings: A total of 1043 students in 168 groups participated in the art and story activity between October and November 2017, with groups containing a mean of six students (SD 1·5, range four to 11. In our preliminary review that we present here, students identified diverse beneficial and adverse connections between human health and environmental change through direct and indirect pathways, which included both ecological or biological and socioeconomic linkages. Preliminary themes noted in student work were clean air and water provision by forests, altered food, fuel, and medicinal resources, contact with animals and their waste, livelihood impacts, and cultural values. We are in the process of coding and analysing the student submissions to explore and describe their understanding of planetary health and to identify potential differences among student groups related to village, gender, and tribe. Interpretation: Through their art and writing, rural primary school students showed evidence of systems thinking in describing connections among human health and their surrounding environments. Focusing on links to wildlife, livestock, water sources, or forest resources, the students described both direct (eg, meat from wildlife or livestock to support human nutrition and indirect (eg, funding for local human health clinics from wildlife tourism revenue relationships between the environment and human health. Many student groups also interpreted relationships among people and components of their surrounding environment as beneficial or adverse, proposing specific solutions to enhance or mitigate these effects. Because responses varied widely among the included primary schools, future research on these gaps has the potential to improve planetary health educational approaches and student understanding. Funding: This study was

  3. Global Health Cooperation: International Relations' New Frontier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    This issue of MEDICC Review appears in the wake of a media splash on the reopening of the Cuban and US embassies in Washington and Havana, signaling the renewal of full diplomatic relations between the two governments. Although the US embargo is still law and one of the thorniest bilateral issues remaining, the Obama administration's bold opening towards Cuba is being echoed in the chambers of Senate committees, calling for an end to the policy in place since 1962. Meanwhile, people from the United States have begun to travel to Cuba in droves, and for the first time in many years, we perceive real hope that cooperation may replace hostility-at least in the sectors that most matter to ordinary people in both nations.

  4. Characterizing Health-Related Information Needs of Domain Experts

    OpenAIRE

    Znaidi , Eya; Tamine , Lynda; Chouquet , Cécile; Latiri , Chira

    2013-01-01

    International audience; In information retrieval literature, understanding the users’ intents behind the queries is critically important to gain a better insight of how to select relevant results. While many studies investigated how users in general carry out exploratory health searches in digital environments, a few focused on how are the queries formulated, specifically by domain expert users. This study intends to fill this gap by studying 173 health expert queries issued from 3 medical in...

  5. Toward a social capital based framework for understanding the water-health nexus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisung, Elijah; Elliott, Susan J

    2014-05-01

    In recent years, there has been considerable interest in social capital theory in both research and policy arenas. Social capital has been associated with many aspects of improvements in health, environment and development. This paper assesses the theoretical support for a social capital based analysis of environment and health issues with a focus on the water-health nexus in low and middle income countries. We review conceptualisation of social capital by Pierre Bourdieu in relation to his concepts of "fields" and "habitus" as well as other conceptualisations of social capital by James Coleman and Robert Putnam. We integrate these authors' ideas with ecosocial analysis of social and geographical patterns of access to safe water, adequate sanitation and hygiene and the resulting health impacts. Further, we develop a conceptual framework for linking social capital and health through the water-health nexus. The framework focuses on the role of social capital in improving water-related knowledge, attitudes and practices as well as facilitating collective action towards improving access to water and sanitation. The proposed framework will facilitate critical engagement with the pathways through which social processes and interactions influence health within the context of access to water, sanitation and hygiene in low and middle income countries. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. [Health and health-related behaviors according to sexual attraction and behavior].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Glòria; Martí-Pastor, Marc; Gotsens, Mercè; Bartoll, Xavier; Diez, Elia; Borrell, Carme

    2015-01-01

    to Describe perceived health, mental health and certain health-related behaviors according to sexual attraction and behavior in the population residing in Barcelona in 2011. Perceived health, mental health, chronic conditions and health-related behaviors were analyzed in 2675 people aged 15 to 64 years. The Barcelona Health Survey for 2011 was used, which included questions on sexual attraction and behavior. Multivariate robust Poisson regression models were fitted to obtain adjusted prevalence ratios. People feeling same-sex attraction reported a higher prevalence of worse perceived and mental health. These people and those who had had sex with persons of the same sex more frequently reported harmful health-related behaviors. Lesbian, gay, transgender and bisexual people may have health problems that should be explored in depth, prevented, and attended. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  7. Perceived relevance and foods with health-related claims

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dean, M.; Lampila, P.; Shepherd, R.

    2012-01-01

    consumers’ responses to health claims that either promise to reduce a targeted disease risk or improve well-being in comparison to other types of health-related messages, and how attitudes towards nutritionally healthy eating, functional food and previous experience relating to products with health claims...... affect the consumers’ perceptions of nutrition and health claims. The data (N = 2385) were collected by paper and pencil surveys in Finland, the UK, Germany and Italy on a target group of consumers over 35 year old, solely or jointly responsible for the family’s food shopping. The results showed...... risk reduction with detailed information about function and health outcome. Previous experience with products with health claims and interest in nutritionally healthy eating promoted the utility of all claims, regardless of whether they were health or nutrition claims. However, to be influenced...

  8. Health-related ad information and health motivation effects on product evaluations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chrysochou, Polymeros; Grunert, Klaus G

    2014-01-01

    This study tests the effect of health-related ad information on perceived product healthfulness and purchase intention. Also, the study investigates whether consumers' health motivation moderates the effects, because of the way health motivation affects processing of health-related information...... in ads. Three types of healthrelated ad elements are distinguished: functional claims, process claims and health imagery. These elements were combined in mock ads and an online experiment was run to test the study hypotheses. Results show that health imagery has the largest impact on consumers' product...

  9. Is the political system really related to health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klomp, Jeroen; de Haan, Jakob

    2009-07-01

    We analyze whether the political system and its stability are related to cross-country differences in health. We apply factor analysis on various national health indicators for a large sample of countries over the period 2000-2005 and use the outcomes of the factor analysis to construct two new health measures, i.e., the health of individuals and the quality of the health care sector. Using a cross-country structural equation model with various economic and demographic control variables, we examine the relationship between the type of regime and political stability on the one hand and health on the other. The political variables and the control variables are measured as averages over the period 1980-1999. Our results suggest that democracy has a positive relationship with the health of individuals, while regime instability has a negative relationship with the health of individuals. Government instability is negatively related to individual health via its link with the quality of the health care sector, while democracy is positively related with individual health through its link with income. Our main findings are confirmed by the results of a panel model and various sensitivity tests.

  10. Impact of a School Health Coordinator Intervention on Health-Related School Policies and Student Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Liam M.; Polacsek, Michele; MacDonald, Pamela B.; Ellis, Jacqueline; Berry, Susan; Martin, Maurice

    2010-01-01

    Background: Health-related, school-based interventions may serve to prevent disease and improve academic performance. The Healthy Maine Partnerships (HMP) initiative funded local school health coordinators (SHCs) as a part of Maine's Coordinated School Health Program (CSHP) beginning in January 2001. SHCs established school health leadership teams…

  11. Disability and health-related rehabilitation in international disaster relief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, Jan D.; Li, Jianan; Gosney, James; Rathore, Farooq A.; Haig, Andrew J.; Marx, Michael; Delisa, Joel A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Natural disasters result in significant numbers of disabling impairments. Paradoxically, however, the traditional health system response to natural disasters largely neglects health-related rehabilitation as a strategic intervention. Objectives To examine the role of health-related rehabilitation in natural disaster relief along three lines of inquiry: (1) epidemiology of injury and disability, (2) impact on health and rehabilitation systems, and (3) the assessment and measurement of disability. Design Qualitative literature review and secondary data analysis. Results Absolute numbers of injuries as well as injury to death ratios in natural disasters have increased significantly over the last 40 years. Major impairments requiring health-related rehabilitation include amputations, traumatic brain injuries, spinal cord injuries (SCI), and long bone fractures. Studies show that persons with pre-existing disabilities are more likely to die in a natural disaster. Lack of health-related rehabilitation in natural disaster relief may result in additional burdening of the health system capacity, exacerbating baseline weak rehabilitation and health system infrastructure. Little scientific evidence on the effectiveness of health-related rehabilitation interventions following natural disaster exists, however. Although systematic assessment and measurement of disability after a natural disaster is currently lacking, new approaches have been suggested. Conclusion Health-related rehabilitation potentially results in decreased morbidity due to disabling injuries sustained during a natural disaster and is, therefore, an essential component of the medical response by the host and international communities. Significant systematic challenges to effective delivery of rehabilitation interventions during disaster include a lack of trained responders as well as a lack of medical recordkeeping, data collection, and established outcome measures. Additional development of health-related

  12. The Quality of Online Health-Related Information – an Emergent Consumer Health Issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nădăşan Valentin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Internet has become one of the main means of communication used by people who search for health-related information. The quality of online health-related information affects the users’ knowledge, their attitude, and their risk or health behaviour in complex ways and influences a substantial number of users in their decisions regarding diagnostic and treatment procedures.

  13. Lay and health care professional understandings of self-management: A systematic review and narrative synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euan Sadler

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Self-management is widely promoted but evidence of effectiveness is limited. Policy encourages health care professionals to support people with long-term conditions to learn self-management skills, yet little is known about the extent to which both parties share a common understanding of self-management. Thus, we compared health care professional and lay understandings of self-management of long-term conditions. Methods: Systematic review and narrative synthesis of qualitative studies identified from relevant electronic databases, hand-searching of references lists, citation tracking and recommendations by experts. Results: In total, 55 studies were included and quality was assessed using a brief quality assessment tool. Three conceptual themes, each with two subthemes were generated: traditional and shifting models of the professional–patient relationship (self-management as a tool to promote compliance; different expectations of responsibility; quality of relationship between health care professional and lay person (self-management as a collaborative partnership; self-management as tailored support and putting self-management into everyday practice (the lived experience of self-management; self-management as a social practice. Conclusion: Self-management was conceptualised by health care professionals as incorporating both a biomedical model of compliance and individual responsibility. Lay people understood self-management in wider terms, reflecting biomedical, psychological and social domains and different expectations of responsibility. In different ways, both deviated from the dominant model of self-management underpinned by the concept of self-efficacy. Different understandings help to explain how self-management is practised and may help to account for limited evidence of effectiveness of self-management interventions.

  14. Tackling complexities in understanding the social determinants of health: the contribution of ethnographic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Mridula

    2011-11-25

    The complexities inherent in understanding the social determinants of health are often not well-served by quantitative approaches. My aim is to show that well-designed and well-conducted ethnographic studies have an important contribution to make in this regard. Ethnographic research designs are a difficult but rigorous approach to research questions that require us to understand the complexity of people's social and cultural lives. I draw on an ethnographic study to describe the complexities of studying maternal health in a rural area in India. I then show how the lessons learnt in that setting and context can be applied to studies done in very different settings. I show how ethnographic research depends for rigour on a theoretical framework for sample selection; why immersion in the community under study, and rapport building with research participants, is important to ensure rich and meaningful data; and how flexible approaches to data collection lead to the gradual emergence of an analysis based on intense cross-referencing with community views and thus a conclusion that explains the similarities and differences observed. When using ethnographic research design it can be difficult to specify in advance the exact details of the study design. Researchers can encounter issues in the field that require them to change what they planned on doing. In rigorous ethnographic studies, the researcher in the field is the research instrument and needs to be well trained in the method. Ethnographic research is challenging, but nevertheless provides a rewarding way of researching complex health problems that require an understanding of the social and cultural determinants of health.

  15. Earth Science and Public Health: Proceedings of the Second National Conference on USGS Health-Related Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxton, Herbert T.; Griffin, Dale W.; Pierce, Brenda S.

    2007-01-01

    The mission of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is to serve the Nation by providing reliable scientific information to describe and understand the earth; minimize loss of life and property from natural disasters; manage water, biological, energy, and mineral resources; and enhance and protect our quality of life. As the Nation?s largest water, earth, and biological science and civilian mapping agency, the USGS can play a significant role in providing scientific knowledge and information that will improve our understanding of the relations of environment and wildlife to human health and disease. USGS human health-related research is unique in the Federal government because it brings together a broad spectrum of natural science expertise and information, including extensive data collection and monitoring on varied landscapes and ecosystems across the Nation. USGS can provide a great service to the public health community by synthesizing the scientific information and knowledge on our natural and living resources that influence human health, and by bringing this science to the public health community in a manner that is most useful. Partnerships with health scientists and managers are essential to the success of these efforts. USGS scientists already are working closely with the public health community to pursue rigorous inquiries into the connections between natural science and public health. Partnering agencies include the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Agency for Toxic Substances Disease Registry, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Food and Drug Administration, Mine Safety and Health Administration, National Cancer Institute, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, U.S. Public Health Service, and the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases. Collaborations between public

  16. Understanding the mercury reduction issue: the impact of mercury on the environment and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Richard T; Dault, Scott; Pichay, Teresa

    2004-07-01

    Mercury has been used in both medicine and dentistry for centuries. Recent media attention regarding the increased levels of mercury in dietary fish, high levels of mercury in air emissions, and conjecture that certain diseases may be caused by mercury exposure has increased public awareness of the potential adverse health effects of high doses of mercury. Dentistry has been criticized for its continued use of mercury in dental amalgam for both public health and environmental reasons. To address these concerns, dental professionals should understand the impact of the various levels and types of mercury on the environment and human health. Mercury is unique in its ability to form amalgams with other metals. Dental amalgam--consisting of silver, copper, tin, and mercury--has been used as a safe, stable, and cost-effective restorative material for more than 150 years. As a result of this use, the dental profession has been confronted by the public on two separate health issues concerning the mercury content in amalgam. The first issue is whether the mercury amalgamated with the various metals to create dental restorations poses a health issue for patients. The second is whether the scraps associated with amalgam placement and the removal of amalgam restorations poses environmental hazards which may eventually have an impact on human health. Despite the lack of scientific evidence for such hazards, there is growing pressure for the dental profession to address these health issues. In this article, the toxicology of mercury will be reviewed and the impact of amalgam on health and the environment will be examined.

  17. Health-related hot topic detection in online communities using text clustering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingjie Lu

    Full Text Available Recently, health-related social media services, especially online health communities, have rapidly emerged. Patients with various health conditions participate in online health communities to share their experiences and exchange healthcare knowledge. Exploring hot topics in online health communities helps us better understand patients' needs and interest in health-related knowledge. However, the statistical topic analysis employed in previous studies is becoming impractical for processing the rapidly increasing amount of online data. Automatic topic detection based on document clustering is an alternative approach for extracting health-related hot topics in online communities. In addition to the keyword-based features used in traditional text clustering, we integrate medical domain-specific features to represent the messages posted in online health communities. Three disease discussion boards, including boards devoted to lung cancer, breast cancer and diabetes, from an online health community are used to test the effectiveness of topic detection. Experiment results demonstrate that health-related hot topics primarily include symptoms, examinations, drugs, procedures and complications. Further analysis reveals that there also exist some significant differences among the hot topics discussed on different types of disease discussion boards.

  18. Pre-Service Physics Teachers' Understanding of the Relational Structure of Physics Concepts: Organising Subject Contents for Purposes of Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koponen, Ismo; Nousiainen, Maija

    2013-01-01

    Good conceptual understanding of physics is based on understanding what the key concepts are and how they are related. This kind of understanding is especially important for physics teachers in planning how and in what order to introduce concepts in teaching; connections which tie concepts to each other give direction of progress--there is "flux…

  19. A dual-factor model of mental health: toward a more comprehensive understanding of youth functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antaramian, Susan P; Scott Huebner, E; Hills, Kimberly J; Valois, Robert F

    2010-10-01

    Traditional mental health models focus on psychological problems and distress; accordingly, health is viewed as the absence of illness or disability. In contrast, a dual-factor model of mental health incorporates both indicators of positive subjective well-being (SWB) and measures of psychopathological symptoms to comprehensively determine an individual's psychological adjustment. This study used such a dual-factor model to measure the mental health status of young adolescents. A total of 764 middle school students were classified into one of four distinct groups based on having high or low psychopathology and high or low SWB. Furthermore, group differences in student engagement, academic achievement, and environmental support for learning were investigated. Results demonstrated the existence of a traditionally neglected group of adolescents (low SWB and low psychopathology) who are nonetheless at risk for academic and behavior problems in school and who performed no better than the most troubled group of adolescents. Overall, both the presence of positive well-being and the absence of symptoms were necessary for ensuring the most advantageous school performance. These results highlight the importance of incorporating positive indicators of well-being along with traditional negative factors in more fully understanding relationships between individuals' mental health and educational outcomes. © 2010 American Orthopsychiatric Association.

  20. Consensus statement understanding health and malnutrition through a systems approach: the ENOUGH program for early life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaput, Jim; van Ommen, Ben; Kremer, Bas; Priami, Corrado; Monteiro, Jacqueline Pontes; Morine, Melissa; Pepping, Fre; Diaz, Zoey; Fenech, Michael; He, Yiwu; Albers, Ruud; Drevon, Christian A; Evelo, Chris T; Hancock, Robert E W; Ijsselmuiden, Carel; Lumey, L H; Minihane, Anne-Marie; Muller, Michael; Murgia, Chiara; Radonjic, Marijana; Sobral, Bruno; West, Keith P

    2014-01-01

    Nutrition research, like most biomedical disciplines, adopted and often uses experimental approaches based on Beadle and Tatum's one gene-one polypeptide hypothesis, thereby reducing biological processes to single reactions or pathways. Systems thinking is needed to understand the complexity of health and disease processes requiring measurements of physiological processes, as well as environmental and social factors, which may alter the expression of genetic information. Analysis of physiological processes with omics technologies to assess systems' responses has only become available over the past decade and remains costly. Studies of environmental and social conditions known to alter health are often not connected to biomedical research. While these facts are widely accepted, developing and conducting comprehensive research programs for health are often beyond financial and human resources of single research groups. We propose a new research program on essential nutrients for optimal underpinning of growth and health (ENOUGH) that will use systems approaches with more comprehensive measurements and biostatistical analysis of the many biological and environmental factors that influence undernutrition. Creating a knowledge base for nutrition and health is a necessary first step toward developing solutions targeted to different populations in diverse social and physical environments for the two billion undernourished people in developed and developing economies.

  1. Analyzing Social Spaces: Relational Citizenship for Patients Leaving Mental Health Care Institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pols, Jeannette

    2016-01-01

    "Citizenship" is a term from political theory. The term has moved from the relationship between the individual and the state toward addressing the position of 'others' in society. Here, I am concerned with people with long-term mental health problems. I explore the possibilities of ethnographically studying this rather more cultural understanding of citizenship with the use of the concept of relational citizenship, attending to people who leave Dutch institutions for mental health care. Relational citizenship assumes that people become citizens through interactions, whereby they create particular relations and social spaces. Rather than studying the citizen as a particular individual, citizenship becomes a matter of sociality. In this article, I consider what social spaces these relationships create and what values and mechanisms keep people together. I argue that the notion of neighborhood as a form of community, although built implicitly or explicitly into mental health care policy, is no longer the most plausible model to understand social spaces.

  2. Recurrent musculoskeletal pain in paediatric cerebral palsy : Relations to mental health, health-related quality of life and participation

    OpenAIRE

    Ramstad, Kjersti

    2012-01-01

    Background Cerebral palsy (CP) is a disorder of movement and posture resulting from disturbances in the immature brain. Accompanying impairments including secondary musculoskeletal problems and mental health problems are common, and impairment is life-long. Thus, from a health care perspective, CP is an excellent model disease for asking what frames of reference should guide our understanding and evidence gathering about patient well-being, and what instruments should we use to assess thes...

  3. Health-Related Quality of Life in People with Severe Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilari, Katerina; Byng, Sally

    2009-01-01

    Background: Health-related quality of life (HRQL) measures are increasingly used to help us understand the impact of disease or disability on a person's life and to measure the effectiveness of interventions. A small number of studies have looked at perceived HRQL in people with mild or moderate aphasia. They report that reduced HRQL is associated…

  4. Enriching the trustworthiness of health-related web pages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudinat, Arnaud; Cruchet, Sarah; Boyer, Celia; Chrawdhry, Pravir

    2011-06-01

    We present an experimental mechanism for enriching web content with quality metadata. This mechanism is based on a simple and well-known initiative in the field of the health-related web, the HONcode. The Resource Description Framework (RDF) format and the Dublin Core Metadata Element Set were used to formalize these metadata. The model of trust proposed is based on a quality model for health-related web pages that has been tested in practice over a period of thirteen years. Our model has been explored in the context of a project to develop a research tool that automatically detects the occurrence of quality criteria in health-related web pages.

  5. Health literacy among Danish university students enrolled in health-related study programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsborg, Lea; Krossdal, Fie; Kayser, Lars

    2017-12-01

    It is important to address people's health literacy when providing health care. Health professionals should be aware of, and have insight into, people's health literacy when they provide health services. Health professionals need to be health literate themselves. We examined the level of health literacy in students in Denmark attending one of four full university programmes related to health and investigated how their health literacy was associated with their sociodemographic background. The health literacy level of the students was measured using the multi-dimensional Health Literacy Questionnaire (HLQ) supplemented with sociodemographic questions. The questionnaire was administrated through the students' Facebook groups. The students were enrolled in courses on health informatics, medicine, molecular biomedicine or public health. Out of a total of 7663 students, 630 responded to the questionnaire. No sex difference was found although female students scored higher than male students in domain 4 (social support for health). Students attending the public health programme tended to score higher and those attending molecular biomedicine tended to score lower in the HLQ. There was a positive correlation between HLQ scores and the educational level of the students' parents. If one of their parents was employed in the health care sector, the HLQ score tended to be higher in domains 1 and 4. Students who had been hospitalized also tended to score higher in domains 1, 5 and 6. Students' health literacy relates to their personal background and educational path. This may be of importance when planning curricula and educational activities, including cross-disciplinary courses.

  6. Understanding HMIS Implementation in a Developing Country Ministry of Health Context - an Institutional Logics Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asangansi, Ime

    2012-01-01

    Globally, health management information systems (HMIS) have been hailed as important tools for health reform (1). However, their implementation has become a major challenge for researchers and practitioners because of the significant proportion of failure of implementation efforts (2; 3). Researchers have attributed this significant failure of HMIS implementation, in part, to the complexity of meeting with and satisfying multiple (poorly understood) logics in the implementation process. This paper focuses on exploring the multiple logics, including how they may conflict and affect the HMIS implementation process. Particularly, I draw on an institutional logics perspective to analyze empirical findings from an action research project, which involved HMIS implementation in a state government Ministry of Health in (Northern) Nigeria. The analysis highlights the important HMIS institutional logics, where they conflict and how they are resolved. I argue for an expanded understanding of HMIS implementation that recognizes various institutional logics that participants bring to the implementation process, and how these are inscribed in the decision making process in ways that may be conflicting, and increasing the risk of failure. Furthermore, I propose that the resolution of conflicting logics can be conceptualized as involving deinstitutionalization, changeover resolution or dialectical resolution mechanisms. I conclude by suggesting that HMIS implementation can be improved by implementation strategies that are made based on an understanding of these conflicting logics.

  7. Understanding how environmental enhancement and conservation activities may benefit health and wellbeing: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, Rebecca; Husk, Kerryn; Cooper, Chris; Stahl-Timmins, Will; Garside, Ruth

    2015-09-07

    Action taken to enhance or conserve outdoor environments may benefit health and wellbeing through the process of participation but also through improving the environment. There is interest, amongst both health and environmental organisations, in using such activities as health promotion interventions. The objective of this systematic review was to investigate the health and wellbeing impacts of participation in environmental enhancement and conservation activities and to understand how these activities may be beneficial, to whom and in what circumstances or contexts. A theory-led mixed-method systematic review was used to assess evidence of effect and to identify pathways to change (protocol: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/ 10.1002/14651858.CD010351/full ). Due to the multi-disciplinary, dispersed and disparate body of evidence an extensive multi-stage search strategy was devised and undertaken. Twenty-seven databases and multiple sources of grey literature were searched and over 200 relevant organisations were contacted. The heterogenous evidence was synthesised using a narrative approach and a conceptual model was developed to illustrate the mechanisms of effect. Due to the limited nature of the evidence additional higher order evidence was sought to assess the plausibility of the proposed mechanisms of effect through which health and wellbeing may accrue. The majority of the quantitative evidence (13 studies; all poor quality and lower-order study designs) was inconclusive, though a small number of positive and negative associations were observed. The qualitative evidence (13 studies; 10 poor quality, 3 good) indicated that the activities were perceived to have value to health and wellbeing through a number of key mechanisms; including exposure to natural environments, achievement, enjoyment and social contact. Additional high level evidence indicated that these pathways were plausible. Despite interest in the use of environmental enhancement activities as a

  8. Toward a better understanding of the future of the solo medical practitioner in health care industry: a conceptual review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdem, S A; Lacombe, B

    1998-01-01

    Even a brief conceptual review of the current developments in the health care industry indicates that the future of independent medical practitioners is rather challenging. It may be necessary for these parties to pursue proactive and aggressive marketing strategies to be able to compete with the managed care organizations. Accordingly, this paper outlines some of the current trends in health care marketing as they relate to the ongoing changes to which solo medical practitioners need to respond. It is hoped that the review of the issues raised in this paper can provide an initial basis for a better understanding of some of the challenges to come up with more comprehensive and effective strategy decisions.

  9. Health-Related Information-Seeking Behaviors and Preferences Among Mexican Patients with Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Perez-de-Celis, Enrique; Perez-Montessoro, Viridiana; Rojo-Castillo, Patricia; Chavarri-Guerra, Yanin

    2018-06-01

    Understanding the preferred sources of health-related information among patients with cancer is essential for designing successful cancer education and prevention strategies. However, little is known about health-related information-seeking practices among patients living in low- and middle-income countries. We studied the preferred sources of health-related information among Mexican patients with cancer and explored which factors influence these choices. The health-related information-seeking practices among patients with cancer treated at a public hospital in Mexico City were evaluated using questions from the Spanish Version of the Health Information National Trends Survey. The characteristics of patients who sought health-related information, and of those who chose the internet as their preferred source of information, were analyzed. Fisher's exact test and logistic regression were used for statistical analyses. One hundred forty-eight patients answered the survey (median age 60 years, 70% female), of which 88 (59%) had sought for health-related information. On multivariate analysis, the only characteristic associated with lower odds of seeking health-related information was increasing age (OR 0.93, 95% CI 0.90-0.97). Sixty-one respondents (69%) listed the internet as their preferred source of health-related information. On multivariate analysis, only being of the female gender (OR 4.9, 95% CI 1.3-18.3) was related with higher odds of preferring other sources of information over the internet. Among Mexican patients with cancer, the Internet is the most widely used information source. Older age was the characteristic most strongly associated with not seeking health-related information, while being female was strongly associated with preferring other sources of information over the Internet.

  10. Understanding HIV-related stigma in older age in rural Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Emily

    2016-09-01

    The combination of HIV- and age-related stigma exacerbates prevalence of HIV infection and late diagnosis and initiation of anti-retroviral therapy among older populations (Moore, 2012; Richards et al. 2013). Interventions to address these stigmas must be grounded in understanding of situated systems of beliefs about illness and older age. This study analyses constructions of HIV and older age that underpinned the stigmatisation of older adults with HIV in rural Balaka, Malawi. It draws on data from a series of in-depth interviews (N = 135) with adults aged 50-∼90 (N = 43) in 2008-2010. Around 40% (n = 18) of the sample had HIV. Dominant understandings of HIV in Balaka pertained to the sexual transmission of the virus and poor prognosis of those infected. They intersected with understandings of ageing. Narratives about older age and HIV in older age both centred on the importance of having bodily, moral and social power to perform broadly-defined "work". Those who could not work were physically and socially excluded from the social world. This status, labelled as "child-like", was feared by all participants. In participants' narratives, growing old involves a gradual decline in the power required to produce one's membership of the social world through work. HIV infection in old age is understood to accelerate this decline. Understandings of the sexual transmission of HIV, in older age, imply the absence of moral power and in turn, loss of social power. The prognosis of those with HIV, in older age, reflects and causes amplified loss of bodily power. In generating dependency, this loss of bodily power infantilises older care recipients and jeopardises their family's survival, resulting in further loss of social power. This age-and HIV-related loss of power to produce social membership through work is the discrediting attribute at the heart of the stigmatisation of older people with HIV. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Aging Men’s Health-Related Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry Peak

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This conceptual review summarizes the current research on older men and their health-related behaviors with special attention given to the influence of the hegemonic masculinity framework over the life span. The authors consider whether masculinity precepts can be modified to enable men to alter their gendered morbidity/mortality factors and achieve healthier and longer lives. Also included is an overview of the gender-based research and health education efforts to persuade men to adopt more effective health-related behaviors or health practices earlier in the life span. Given the current attention being paid to men’s health, for example, their higher risk of morbidity and mortality both generally and at younger ages, and the associated health care costs tied to those risks, the ethical and economic implications of this review may prove useful.

  12. [Position of health at international relations. Part II. Organizational dimensions of health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cianciara, Dorota; Wysocki, Mirosław J

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this article was: (1) the analysis of some concepts and definitions related with "set up of health", used in UN international arrangements; (2) an attempt to explain the evolution of organizational dimensions of health at worldwide agenda. The following organizational dimensions of health were discussed: (a) health for all, (b) health promotion, intersectoral and multisectoral actions, health in all policies, (c) health development, health as an element of human development, (d) investment for health, (e) health diplomacy and (f) mainstreaming of health. The analysis was based on World Health Assembly and UN General Assembly resolutions as well as supranational reports and statements available through conventional channels, not grey literature. It is apparent that some of notions are not in common use in Poland, some seems to be unknown. It was argued that some general and discreet thoughts and statements concerning organizational aspects of health were expressed in the preamble of WHO Constitution. Nevertheless they are not comparable with later propositions and proceedings. The first modern concepts and notions related as process were developed at late seventies. They originated from efforts to realize a vision of health for all and formulate national policies, strategies and plans of action for attaining this goal. The turning point was in 1981, when WHA adopted Global Strategy for Heath for All by the Year 2000. Since then one can observe considerable progress and new concepts came into existence, more and more precise and better reflecting the sense of health actions. The evolution of organizational dimensions of health was described in the context of brand positioning. It was assumed that first step of positioning was concentrated on structural dimensions of health. That served to awareness raise, attitudes change and motivation to action. That made a foundation to the next step--positioning based on process approach to health. Among others the

  13. Understanding the administrative regulation on occupational health and trend in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhijun

    2018-03-27

    With the immense economic growth and social development, China has gained worldwide attention. With the quick growth of industrialization, several international professionals are gaining interest in occupational management system and in the role of the Chinese Government in protecting the worker's health. The Law on Prevention and Control of Occupational Diseases and the Work Safety Law are the two most important laws in China, which highlight the responsibilities of the employer, employee, governmental agencies, authorized occupational health service agency, and other stakeholders. The State Council comprises two departments, namely, the State Administration on Work Safety (SAWS) and the National Health and Family Planning Commission (NHFPC), which are responsible for governing the occupational health work. A series of regulations and standards have been promulgated by the Chinese Government to encourage or instruct the employers to fulfill their responsibility; however, several issues persist related to occupational health work, including administrative, technological, and sociocultural aspects. At present, the Chinese Government wants to enhance the reform in both economic and administrative structures, and the adjustments for modifying and/or improving the occupational health regulatory system are expected. Notably, the occupational health work in China must be altered for better.

  14. Understanding, Predicting, and Preventing Life Changing and Life Threatening Health Changes among Aging Veterans and Civilians with Spinal Cord Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-16-1-0629 TITLE: Understanding, Predicting, and Preventing Life -Changing and Life -Threatening Health Changes among Aging...Annual 3. DATES COVERED 30 Sep 2016 - 29 Sep 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Understanding, Predicting, and Preventing Life -Changing and Life ... hope of preventing them. Our purpose is to better understand the how and why of the development of negative health spirals and how they may best be

  15. Where Lies the Risk? An Ecological Approach to Understanding Child Mental Health Risk and Vulnerabilities in Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Atilola, Olayinka

    2014-01-01

    Efforts at improving child-health and development initiatives in sub-Saharan Africa had focused on the physical health of children due to the neglect of child and adolescent mental health (CAMH) policy initiatives. A thorough and broad-based understanding of the prevalent child mental-health risk and vulnerability factors is needed to successfully articulate CAMH policies. In this discourse, we present a narrative on the child mental-health risk and vulnerability factors in sub-Saharan Africa...

  16. 42 CFR 433.57 - General rules regarding revenues from provider-related donations and health care-related taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-related donations and health care-related taxes. 433.57 Section 433.57 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... rules regarding revenues from provider-related donations and health care-related taxes. Effective... FFP, funds from provider-related donations and revenues generated by health care-related taxes...

  17. Income-related health inequalities across regions in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahn Byung

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction In addition to economic inequalities, there has been growing concern over socioeconomic inequalities in health across income levels and/or regions. This study measures income-related health inequalities within and between regions and assesses the possibility of convergence of socioeconomic inequalities in health as regional incomes converge. Methods We considered a total of 45,233 subjects (≥ 19 years drawn from the four waves of the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES. We considered true health as a latent variable following a lognormal distribution. We obtained ill-health scores by matching self-rated health (SRH to its distribution and used the Gini Coefficient (GC and an income-related ill-health Concentration Index (CI to examine inequalities in income and health, respectively. Results The GC estimates were 0.3763 and 0.0657 for overall and spatial inequalities, respectively. The overall CI was -0.1309, and the spatial CI was -0.0473. The spatial GC and CI estimates were smaller than their counterparts, indicating substantial inequalities in income (from 0.3199 in Daejeon to 0.4233 Chungnam and income-related health inequalities (from -0.1596 in Jeju and -0.0844 in Ulsan within regions. The results indicate a positive relationship between the GC and the average ill-health and a negative relationship between the CI and the average ill-health. Those regions with a low level of health tended to show an unequal distribution of income and health. In addition, there was a negative relationship between the GC and the CI, that is, the larger the income inequalities, the larger the health inequalities were. The GC was negatively related to the average regional income, indicating that an increase in a region's average income reduced income inequalities in the region. On the other hand, the CI showed a positive relationship, indicating that an increase in a region's average income reduced health

  18. Motivators and Barriers to Incorporating Climate Change-Related Health Risks in Environmental Health Impact Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, Lyle R.; Alderman, Katarzyna; Connell, Des; Tong, Shilu

    2013-01-01

    Climate change presents risks to health that must be addressed by both decision-makers and public health researchers. Within the application of Environmental Health Impact Assessment (EHIA), there have been few attempts to incorporate climate change-related health risks as an input to the framework. This study used a focus group design to examine the perceptions of government, industry and academic specialists about the suitability of assessing the health consequences of climate change within...

  19. Use of Electronic Health Records and Administrative Data for Public Health Surveillance of Eye Health and Vision-Related Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Amanda; Davidson, Arthur; Lum, Flora; Chiang, Michael; Saaddine, Jinan B; Zhang, Xinzhi; Crews, John E.; Chou, Chiu-Fang

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To discuss the current trend toward greater use of electronic health records and how these records could enhance public health surveillance of eye health and vision-related conditions. Methods We describe three currently available sources of electronic health data (Kaiser Permanente, the Veterans Health Administration, and the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services) and how these sources can contribute to a comprehensive vision and eye health surveillance system. Results Each of the three sources of electronic health data can contribute meaningfully to a comprehensive vision and eye health surveillance system, but none currently provide all the information required. The use of electronic health records for vision and eye health surveillance has both advantages and disadvantages. Conclusions Electronic health records may provide additional information needed to create a comprehensive vision and eye health surveillance system. Recommendations for incorporating electronic health records into such a system are presented. PMID:23158225

  20. Measuring and understanding motivation among community health workers in rural health facilities in India-a mixed method study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathy, Jaya Prasad; Goel, Sonu; Kumar, Ajay M V

    2016-08-09

    Motivated human resource is the key to improve health system performance and retention of health workers. There is scanty literature on measuring motivation of health workers in India. Thus, the objective of this study was to measure and identify important aspects of health workers' motivation in North India. A mixed method study design was adopted. Under the quantitative component, we interviewed randomly selected 62 community health workers (CHWs) in 18 sub-centres in two blocks of District Ambala, Haryana, India using a structured motivation scale. In-depth interviews were also carried out with 18 CHWs to explore the sources of motivation. The age of respondents and training in the past 12 months were found to be significantly associated with motivation. Job burnout, poor personal health, job insecurity and less career development opportunities were the individual level de-motivators, whereas not being able to fulfil family roles and poor supportive supervision were identified as environmental factors for poor motivation. Love for work, and financial incentives were individual level motivators, while community support and recognition, organizational commitment and pride, regular training were identified as environmental level motivators. Non-financial motivators such as interpersonal relations, family support, skill and career development opportunities require more attention. Regular need-based training is essential to maintain high levels of motivation.

  1. A transnational approach to understanding indicators of mental health, alcohol use and reproductive health among indigenous mexican migrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zúñiga, María Luisa; Lewin Fischer, Pedro; Cornelius, Debra; Cornelius, Wayne; Goldenberg, Shira; Keyes, David

    2014-06-01

    The three studies presented in this Special Topics in Immigrant Health report findings from a novel transnational, mixed-methods study with indigenous Mayans in Yucatán, Mexico, and their satellite communities in Southern California. Indigenous migrants comprise the largest proportion of recent, first-time migrants from Mexico to the United States and are among the migrant populations most vulnerable to discrimination (e.g. work place) and health disparities. The studies presented focus on three topics: perceived discrimination and mental health among indigenous migrants and non-migrants, risky alcohol use behaviors associated with migration to the U.S. and within Mexico, and gendered power dynamics related to sexual health care access and utilization. This transnational research sheds new light on health issues and gender differences affecting indigenous Mexican migrant men, women and their families. Findings can serve to inform intervention research to improve migrant health in the U.S. and Mexico as well as transnational collaboration between countries.

  2. Evolutionary medicine--the quest for a better understanding of health, disease and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüne, Martin; Hochberg, Ze'ev

    2013-04-29

    Clinical medicine has neglected the fact that the make-up of organs and body functions, as well as the human-specific repertoire of behaviors and defenses against pathogens or other potential dangers are the product of adaptation by natural and sexual selection. Even more, for many clinicians it does not seem straightforward to accept a role of evolution in the understanding of disease, let alone, treatment and prevention.Accordingly, this Editorial seeks to set the stage for an article collection that aims at dealing precisely with the question of why evolutionary aspects of health and disease are not only interesting, but necessary to improve clinical medicine.

  3. Indoor and Outdoor Air Pollution- related Health Problem in Ethiopia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The health effects of air pollution are generally global problems, but they have, since recently become issues of particular concern for developing countries. This review assessed the situation of air pollution and related health effects in the context of Ethiopia. Methods: The materials reviewed in this publication ...

  4. Physical activity in relation to selected physical health components ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to determine the relation between physical activity and selected physical health components. A total of 9860 employees of a financial institution in South Africa, between the ages 18 and 64 (x̄ =35.3 ± 18.6 years), voluntary participated in the study. Health risk factors and physical activity was ...

  5. Health-related mobile apps and behaviour change

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kathryn van Boom

    Health-related mobile apps and behaviour change. While our knowledge about physical activity and health, physical performance and the risk of injury increases in leaps and bounds, the conversion of this information into action and changed behaviour lags behind. There seems to be a sticking point which often causes a ...

  6. Is the political system really related to health?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klomp, J.G.; de Haan, J.

    We analyze whether the political system and its stability are related to cross-country differences in health. We apply factor analysis on various national health indicators for a large sample of countries over the period 2000-2005 and use the outcomes of the factor analysis to construct two new

  7. Associations between adult attachment and: oral health-related quality of life, oral health behaviour, and self-rated oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, Pamela; Strong, Jenny; Ford, Pauline; Branjerdporn, Grace

    2016-02-01

    Although adult attachment theory has been revealed as a useful theoretical framework for understanding a range of health parameters, the associations between adult attachment patterns and a range of oral health parameters have not yet been examined. The aim of this study was to examine potential associations between attachment insecurity and: (1) oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL), (2) oral health behaviours, and (3) self-rated oral health. In association with this aim, sample characteristics were compared with normative data. The sample in this cross-sectional study was comprised of 265 healthy adults, recruited via convenience sampling. Data were collected on attachment patterns (Experiences in Close Relationships Scale-Short Form, ECR-S), OHRQoL (Oral Health Impact Profile-14, OHIP-14), oral health behaviours (modified Dental Neglect Scale, m-DNS), and self-rated oral health (one-item global rating of oral health). Multivariate regression models were performed. Both dimensions of attachment insecurity were associated with lowered use of favourable dental visiting behaviours, as well as decreased OHRQoL for both overall well-being and specific aspects of OHRQoL. Attachment avoidance was linked with diminished self-rated oral health. This study supports the potential value of an adult attachment framework for understanding a range of oral health parameters. The assessment of a client's attachment pattern may assist in the identification of people who are at risk of diminished OHRQoL, less adaptive dental visiting behaviours, or poorer oral health. Further research in this field may inform ways in which attachment approaches can enhance oral health-related interventions.

  8. Health related quality of life and sociodemographic characteristics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Health related quality of life and sociodemographic characteristics among Iranian ... for the groups of students due to the modern highly stressful education period. ... of life among the male and female students in the Islamic Azad University of ...

  9. The role of health-related claims and health-related symbols in consumer behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hieke, S.; Kuljanic, N.; Wills, J.M.; Pravst, I.; Kaur, A.; Raats, M.M.; Trijp, van H.C.M.; Verbeke, W.; Grunert, K.G.

    2015-01-01

    Health claims and symbols are potential aids to help consumers identify foods that are healthier options. However, little is known as to how health claims and symbols are used by consumers in real-world shopping situations, thus making the science-based formulation of new labelling policies and

  10. Understanding Student Cognition about Complex Earth System Processes Related to Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeal, K. S.; Libarkin, J.; Ledley, T. S.; Dutta, S.; Templeton, M. C.; Geroux, J.; Blakeney, G. A.

    2011-12-01

    The Earth's climate system includes complex behavior and interconnections with other Earth spheres that present challenges to student learning. To better understand these unique challenges, we have conducted experiments with high-school and introductory level college students to determine how information pertaining to the connections between the Earth's atmospheric system and the other Earth spheres (e.g., hydrosphere and cryosphere) are processed. Specifically, we include psychomotor tests (e.g., eye-tracking) and open-ended questionnaires in this research study, where participants were provided scientific images of the Earth (e.g., global precipitation and ocean and atmospheric currents), eye-tracked, and asked to provide causal or relational explanations about the viewed images. In addition, the students engaged in on-line modules (http://serc.carleton.edu/eslabs/climate/index.html) focused on Earth system science as training activities to address potential cognitive barriers. The developed modules included interactive media, hands-on lessons, links to outside resources, and formative assessment questions to promote a supportive and data-rich learning environment. Student eye movements were tracked during engagement with the materials to determine the role of perception and attention on understanding. Students also completed a conceptual questionnaire pre-post to determine if these on-line curriculum materials assisted in their development of connections between Earth's atmospheric system and the other Earth systems. The pre-post results of students' thinking about climate change concepts, as well as eye-tracking results, will be presented.

  11. Understanding the relative roles of pharmacogenetics and ontogeny in pediatric drug development and regulatory science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeder, J Steven; Kearns, Gregory L; Spielberg, Stephen P; van den Anker, John

    2010-12-01

    Understanding the dose-exposure-response relationship across the pediatric age spectrum from preterm and term newborns to infants, children, adolescents, and adults is a major challenge for clinicians, pharmaceutical companies, and regulatory agencies. Over the past 3 decades, clinical investigations of many drugs commonly used in pediatric therapeutics have provided valuable insights into age-associated differences in drug disposition and action. However, our understanding of the contribution of genetic variation to variability in drug disposition and response in children generally has lagged behind that of adults. This article proposes a systematic approach that can be used to assess the relative contributions of ontogeny and genetic variation for a given compound. Application of the strategy is illustrated using the current regulatory dilemma posed by the safety and effectiveness of over-the-counter cough and cold remedies as an example. The results of the analysis can be used to aid in the design of studies to yield maximally informative data in pediatric populations of different ages and developmental stages and thereby improve the efficiency of study design.

  12. Stakeholders understanding of the concept of benefit sharing in health research in Kenya: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lairumbi, Geoffrey M; Parker, Michael; Fitzpatrick, Raymond; Mike, English C

    2011-10-03

    The concept of benefit sharing to enhance the social value of global health research in resource poor settings is now a key strategy for addressing moral issues of relevance to individuals, communities and host countries in resource poor settings when they participate in international collaborative health research.The influence of benefit sharing framework on the conduct of collaborative health research is for instance evidenced by the number of publications and research ethics guidelines that require prior engagement between stakeholders to determine the social value of research to the host communities. While such efforts as the production of international guidance on how to promote the social value of research through such strategies as benefit sharing have been made, the extent to which these ideas and guidelines have been absorbed by those engaged in global health research especially in resource poor settings remains unclear. We examine this awareness among stakeholders involved in health related research in Kenya. We conducted in-depth interviews with key informants drawn from within the broader health research system in Kenya including researchers from the mainstream health research institutions, networks and universities, teaching hospitals, policy makers, institutional review boards, civil society organisations and community representative groups. Our study suggests that although people have a sense of justice and the moral aspects of research, this was not articulated in terms used in the literature and the guidelines on the ethics of global health research. This study demonstrates that while in theory several efforts can be made to address the moral issues of concern to research participants and their communities in resource poor settings, quick fixes such as benefit sharing are not going to be straightforward. We suggest a need to pay closer attention to the processes through which ethical principles are enacted in practice and distil lessons on how best

  13. Stakeholders understanding of the concept of benefit sharing in health research in Kenya: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitzpatrick Raymond

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The concept of benefit sharing to enhance the social value of global health research in resource poor settings is now a key strategy for addressing moral issues of relevance to individuals, communities and host countries in resource poor settings when they participate in international collaborative health research. The influence of benefit sharing framework on the conduct of collaborative health research is for instance evidenced by the number of publications and research ethics guidelines that require prior engagement between stakeholders to determine the social value of research to the host communities. While such efforts as the production of international guidance on how to promote the social value of research through such strategies as benefit sharing have been made, the extent to which these ideas and guidelines have been absorbed by those engaged in global health research especially in resource poor settings remains unclear. We examine this awareness among stakeholders involved in health related research in Kenya. Methods We conducted in-depth interviews with key informants drawn from within the broader health research system in Kenya including researchers from the mainstream health research institutions, networks and universities, teaching hospitals, policy makers, institutional review boards, civil society organisations and community representative groups. Results Our study suggests that although people have a sense of justice and the moral aspects of research, this was not articulated in terms used in the literature and the guidelines on the ethics of global health research. Conclusion This study demonstrates that while in theory several efforts can be made to address the moral issues of concern to research participants and their communities in resource poor settings, quick fixes such as benefit sharing are not going to be straightforward. We suggest a need to pay closer attention to the processes through which

  14. Understanding of action-related and abstract verbs in comparison: a behavioral and TMS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innocenti, Alessandro; De Stefani, Elisa; Sestito, Mariateresa; Gentilucci, Maurizio

    2014-02-01

    Does the comprehension of both action-related and abstract verbs rely on motor simulation? In a behavioral experiment, in which a semantic task was used, response times to hand-action-related verbs were briefer than those to abstract verbs and both decreased with repetition of presentation. In a transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) experiment, single-pulse stimulation was randomly delivered over hand motor area of the left primary motor cortex to measure cortical-spinal excitability at 300 or 500 ms after verb presentation. Two blocks of trials were run. In each block, the same verbs were randomly presented. In the first block, stimulation induced an increase in motor evoked potentials only when TMS was applied 300 ms after action-related verb presentation. In the second block, no modulation of motor cortex was found according to type of verb and stimulation-delay. These results confirm that motor simulation can be used to understand action rather than abstract verbs. Moreover, they suggest that with repetition, the semantic processing for action verbs does not require activation of primary motor cortex anymore.

  15. A Contextual Behavior Science Framework for Understanding How Behavioral Flexibility Relates to Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm Reed, Kathleen M; Cameron, Amy Y; Ameral, Victoria E

    2017-09-01

    There is a growing literature focusing on the emerging idea that behavioral flexibility, rather than particular emotion regulation strategies per se, provides greater promise in predicting and influencing anxiety-related psychopathology. Yet this line of research and theoretical analysis appear to be plagued by its own challenges. For example, middle-level constructs, such as behavioral flexibility, are difficult to define, difficult to measure, and difficult to interpret in relation to clinical interventions. A key point that some researchers have made is that previous studies examining flexible use of emotion regulation strategies (or, more broadly, coping) have failed due to a lack of focus on context. That is, examining strategies in isolation of the context in which they are used provides limited information on the suitability, rigid adherence, or effectiveness of a given strategy in that situation. Several of these researchers have proposed the development of new models to define and measure various types of behavioral flexibility. We would like to suggest that an explanation of the phenomenon already exists and that we can go back to our behavioral roots to understand this phenomenon rather than focusing on defining and capturing a new process. Indeed, thorough contextual behavioral analyses already yield a useful account of what has been observed. We will articulate a model explaining behavioral flexibility using a functional, contextual framework, with anxiety-related disorders as an example.

  16. Oxidative Stress in Oral Diseases: Understanding Its Relation with Other Systemic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaya Kumar

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress occurs in diabetes, various cancers, liver diseases, stroke, rheumatoid arthritis, chronic inflammation, and other degenerative diseases related to the nervous system. The free radicals have deleterious effect on various organs of the body. This is due to lipid peroxidation and irreversible protein modification that leads to cellular apoptosis or programmed cell death. During recent years, there is a rise in the oral diseases related to oxidative stress. Oxidative stress in oral disease is related to other systemic diseases in the body such as periodontitis, cardiovascular, pancreatic, gastric, and liver diseases. In the present review, we discuss the various pathways that mediate oxidative cellular damage. Numerous pathways mediate oxidative cellular damage and these include caspase pathway, PERK/NRF2 pathway, NADPH oxidase 4 pathways and JNK/mitogen-activated protein (MAP kinase pathway. We also discuss the role of inflammatory markers, lipid peroxidation, and role of oxygen species linked to oxidative stress. Knowledge of different pathways, role of inflammatory markers, and importance of low-density lipoprotein, fibrinogen, creatinine, nitric oxide, nitrates, and highly sensitive C-reactive proteins may be helpful in understanding the pathogenesis and plan better treatment for oral diseases which involve oxidative stress.

  17. Understanding HIV-Related Stigma Among Women in the Southern United States: A Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darlington, Caroline K; Hutson, Sadie P

    2017-01-01

    Societal stigmatization of HIV/AIDS due to assumptions about transmission and associated behaviors plays a substantial role in the psychosocial well-being of people living with this chronic illness, particularly for women in traditionally conservative geographic regions. Known for social conservatism, the Southern United States (US) holds the highest incidence rate of HIV infection in the US. A systematic search of four databases was used to identify 27 relevant scientific articles pertaining to HIV-related stigma among women living with HIV/AIDS in the Southern US. These studies revealed a rudimentary understanding of stigma sources, effects, and stigma-reduction interventions in this population. Due to the cultural specificity of stigma, further differentiation of stigma in discrete sectors of the South as well as a dialogue about the moral implications of stigma is necessary to lay the groundwork for patient-centered interventions to mitigate the destructive effects of stigma experienced by women in this region.

  18. Advanced transgenic approaches to understand alcohol-related phenotypes in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilbao, Ainhoa

    2013-01-01

    During the past two decades, the use of genetically manipulated animal models in alcohol research has greatly improved the understanding of the mechanisms underlying alcohol addiction. In this chapter, we present an overview of the progress made in this field by summarizing findings obtained from studies of mice harboring global and conditional mutations in genes that influence alcohol-related phenotypes. The first part reviews behavioral paradigms for modeling the different phases of the alcohol addiction cycle and other alcohol-induced behavioral phenotypes in mice. The second part reviews the current data available using genetic models targeting the main neurotransmitter and neuropeptide systems involved in the reinforcement and stress pathways, focusing on the phenotypes modeling the alcohol addiction cycle. Finally, the third part will discuss the current findings and future directions, and proposes advanced transgenic mouse models for their potential use in alcohol research.

  19. Work-related psychological health among clergywomen in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Robbins, Mandy; Francis, Leslie J.; Powell, Ruth, Ph.D.

    2012-01-01

    Drawing on the classic model of balanced affect, the Francis Burnout Inventory conceptualises good work-related psychological health among clergy in terms of negative affect being balanced by positive affect. This paper sets out to explore the relationship between work-related psychological health and psychological type (as assessed by the Francis Psychological-Type Scales) among a sample of 212 Australian clergywomen who completed the National Church Life Survey Form L in 2006. The data supp...

  20. Meta-Analysis of the Reasoned Action Approach (RAA) to Understanding Health Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEachan, Rosemary; Taylor, Natalie; Harrison, Reema; Lawton, Rebecca; Gardner, Peter; Conner, Mark

    2016-08-01

    Reasoned action approach (RAA) includes subcomponents of attitude (experiential/instrumental), perceived norm (injunctive/descriptive), and perceived behavioral control (capacity/autonomy) to predict intention and behavior. To provide a meta-analysis of the RAA for health behaviors focusing on comparing the pairs of RAA subcomponents and differences between health protection and health-risk behaviors. The present research reports a meta-analysis of correlational tests of RAA subcomponents, examination of moderators, and combined effects of subcomponents on intention and behavior. Regressions were used to predict intention and behavior based on data from studies measuring all variables. Capacity and experiential attitude had large, and other constructs had small-medium-sized correlations with intention; all constructs except autonomy were significant independent predictors of intention in regressions. Intention, capacity, and experiential attitude had medium-large, and other constructs had small-medium-sized correlations with behavior; intention, capacity, experiential attitude, and descriptive norm were significant independent predictors of behavior in regressions. The RAA subcomponents have utility in predicting and understanding health behaviors.

  1. Electronic Health Record-Related Events in Medical Malpractice Claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graber, Mark L; Siegal, Dana; Riah, Heather; Johnston, Doug; Kenyon, Kathy

    2015-11-06

    There is widespread agreement that the full potential of health information technology (health IT) has not yet been realized and of particular concern are the examples of unintended consequences of health IT that detract from the safety of health care or from the use of health IT itself. The goal of this project was to obtain additional information on these health IT-related problems, using a mixed methods (qualitative and quantitative) analysis of electronic health record-related harm in cases submitted to a large database of malpractice suits and claims. Cases submitted to the CRICO claims database and coded during 2012 and 2013 were analyzed. A total of 248 cases (<1%) involving health IT were identified and coded using a proprietary taxonomy that identifies user- and system-related sociotechnical factors. Ambulatory care accounted for most of the cases (146 cases). Cases were most typically filed as a result of an error involving medications (31%), diagnosis (28%), or a complication of treatment (31%). More than 80% of cases involved moderate or severe harm, although lethal cases were less likely in cases from ambulatory settings. Etiologic factors spanned all of the sociotechnical dimensions, and many recurring patterns of error were identified. Adverse events associated with health IT vulnerabilities can cause extensive harm and are encountered across the continuum of health care settings and sociotechnical factors. The recurring patterns provide valuable lessons that both practicing clinicians and health IT developers could use to reduce the risk of harm in the future. The likelihood of harm seems to relate more to a patient's particular situation than to any one class of error.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share thework provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used

  2. Current understandings and perspectives on non-cancer health effects of benzene: A global concern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahadar, Haji [International Campus, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center and Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mostafalou, Sara [Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center and Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Abdollahi, Mohammad, E-mail: Mohammad.Abdollahi@UToronto.Ca [Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center and Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-04-15

    Objective: Benzene, as a volatile organic compound, is known as one of the main air pollutants in the environment. The aim of this review is to summarize all available evidences on non-cancerous health effects of benzene providing an overview of possible association of exposure to benzene with human chronic diseases, specially, in those regions of the world where benzene concentration is being poorly monitored. Methodology: A bibliographic search of scientific databases including PubMed, Google Scholar, and Scirus was conducted with key words of “benzene toxic health effects”, “environmental volatile organic compounds”, “diabetes mellitus and environmental pollutants”, “breast cancer and environmental pollution”, “prevalence of lung cancer”, and “diabetes prevalence”. More than 300 peer reviewed papers were examined. Experimental and epidemiologic studies reporting health effects of benzene and volatile organic compounds were included in the study. Results: Epidemiologic and experimental studies suggest that benzene exposure can lead to numerous non-cancerous health effects associated with functional aberration of vital systems in the body like reproductive, immune, nervous, endocrine, cardiovascular, and respiratory. Conclusion: Chronic diseases have become a health burden of global dimension with special emphasis in regions with poor monitoring over contents of benzene in petrochemicals. Benzene is a well known carcinogen of blood and its components, but the concern of benzene exposure is more than carcinogenicity of blood components and should be evaluated in both epidemiologic and experimental studies. Aspect of interactions and mechanism of toxicity in relation to human general health problems especially endocrine disturbances with particular reference to diabetes, breast and lung cancers should be followed up. - Highlights: • Benzene is a volatile organic compound and established blood carcinogen. • Exposure to benzene needs to be

  3. Development of preservice elementary teachers' science self- efficacy beliefs and its relation to science conceptual understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Deepika

    Self-efficacy beliefs that relate to teachers' motivation and performance have been an important area of concern for preservice teacher education. This study used a mixed-methods approach to investigate the changes in preservice elementary teachers' science self-efficacy beliefs and the factors associated in a specialized elementary physics content course. In addition, the study is one of few to investigate the relationship between the changes in science self-efficacy beliefs and changes in physical science conceptual understanding. Participants included fifty-one preservice elementary teachers enrolled in two term of the physical science content course. Data collection and analysis procedures included both qualitative and quantitative measures. Data collection included implementation of Science Teaching Efficacy Belief Instrument-B (STEBI-B) (Bleicher, 2004) and Physical Science Concept Test as pre- and post-test, two semi-structured interviews with 18 participants (nine each semester), classroom observations and artifacts. A pre-post, repeated measures multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) design was used to test the significance of differences between the pre- and post-surveys across time. Results indicated statistically significant gains in participants' science self-efficacy beliefs on both scales of STEBI-B - personal science teaching beliefs and outcome expectancy beliefs. Additionally, a positive moderate relationship between science conceptual understandings and personal science teaching efficacy beliefs was found. Post-hoc analysis of the STEBI-B data was used to select 18 participants for interviews. The participants belonged to each group representing the low, medium and high initial levels of self-efficacy beliefs. Participants' responses indicated positive shifts in their science teacher self-image and confidence to teach science in future. Four categories that represented the course-related factors contributing towards science self

  4. The impact of adverse health events on consumption: Understanding the mediating effect of income transfers, wealth, and health insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babiarz, Patryk; Yilmazer, Tansel

    2017-12-01

    Using data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics for years 1999-2013, we investigate the impact of physical and mental illnesses on household consumption and financial status. In comparison to severe physical health problems, mental illnesses lead to larger decreases in labor income. Increases in public and private transfers following the onset of a mental illness do not completely offset the decline in labor income. Consequently, we find a significant decrease in consumption expenditures after the household head experiences a mental problem. On the other hand, public and private transfers and accumulated wealth offset the relatively smaller decline in labor income and enable households with severe physical problems to smooth their consumption. Health insurance helps to prevent larger drops in consumption after the onset of a mental health problem. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Young people and health: towards a new conceptual framework for understanding empowerment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Grace

    2014-01-01

    In recent times, empowerment has become the focus of much work with young people amidst increasing concerns about their health. Empowerment is often offered as a 'solution' to such concerns, with the uncritical assumption being made that empowerment unproblematically results in positive health outcomes. While much of the health promotion literature advocates 'empowerment', it often does so without offering a clear conceptualisation of the word itself or indeed addressing the thorny theoretical tensions surrounding the concept's root word of power. In light of this omission, this article offers a more theoretically informed conceptualisation of empowerment and considers the relationship to young people's health. This article outlines a more dynamic and generative conceptualisation of empowerment than hitherto articulated in the literature, informed by Lukes' multidimensional perspective of power. Drawing on findings from an ethnographic study on empowerment and young people's health, this article develops six conceptually distinct forms of empowerment (impositional, dispositional, concessional, oppositional, normative and transformative). Data were collected from 55 young men and women aged 15-16 years through group discussions, individual interviews and observational work in a school and surrounding community settings in England. Crucially, these six new forms of empowerment capture and synthesise individual, structural and ideological elements of power that differentially, and sometimes inconsistently, shape the possibilities for young people's empowerment. Of significance is the way in which these different forms of empowerment intersect to (re)produce relations of power and may offer different possibilities for health promotion.

  6. Symptoms of Mental Health Problems: Children's and Adolescents' Understandings and Implications for Gender Differences in Help Seeking

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, Alice; Hunt, Kate; Sweeting, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Amidst concerns that young people's mental health is deteriorating, it is important to explore their understandings of symptoms of mental health problems and beliefs around help seeking. Drawing on focus group data from Scottish school pupils, we demonstrate how they understood symptoms of mental health problems and how their characterisations of…

  7. Adopting a critical intercultural communication approach to understanding health professionals' encounter with ethnic minority patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jæger, Kirsten

    2012-01-01

    professionals and their approach to ethnic minority patients influence the accessibility of healthcare and availability of health prevention resources of ethnic minorities. When adapting healthcare practice to minority patients, healthcare professionals draw on insights from intercultural communication...... and anthropology. However, within these disciplines such concepts as culture, interculturality, and ethnicity are subjected to contestation due to co-existing, but competing paradigms. This paper demonstrates how healthcare discourses on ethnic minority patients reflect shifting intercultural communication...... paradigms and advocates the adoption of a critical intercultural communication approach in relation to ethnicity-based health inequality....

  8. Comparative Approaches to Understanding the Relation Between Aging and Physical Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justice, Jamie N; Cesari, Matteo; Seals, Douglas R; Shively, Carol A; Carter, Christy S

    2016-10-01

    Despite dedicated efforts to identify interventions to delay aging, most promising interventions yielding dramatic life-span extension in animal models of aging are often ineffective when translated to clinical trials. This may be due to differences in primary outcomes between species and difficulties in determining the optimal clinical trial paradigms for translation. Measures of physical function, including brief standardized testing batteries, are currently being proposed as biomarkers of aging in humans, are predictive of adverse health events, disability, and mortality, and are commonly used as functional outcomes for clinical trials. Motor outcomes are now being incorporated into preclinical testing, a positive step toward enhancing our ability to translate aging interventions to clinical trials. To further these efforts, we begin a discussion of physical function and disability assessment across species, with special emphasis on mice, rats, monkeys, and man. By understanding how physical function is assessed in humans, we can tailor measurements in animals to better model those outcomes to establish effective, standardized translational functional assessments with aging. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Is reporting on interventions a weak link in understanding how and why they work? A preliminary exploration using community heart health exemplars

    OpenAIRE

    Riley, Barbara L; MacDonald, JoAnne; Mansi, Omaima; Kothari, Anita; Kurtz, Donna; vonTettenborn, Linda I; Edwards, Nancy C

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background The persistent gap between research and practice compromises the impact of multi-level and multi-strategy community health interventions. Part of the problem is a limited understanding of how and why interventions produce change in population health outcomes. Systematic investigation of these intervention processes across studies requires sufficient reporting about interventions. Guided by a set of best processes related to the design, implementation, and evaluation of com...

  10. Are Health-Related Tweets Evidence Based? Review and Analysis of Health-Related Tweets on Twitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnemer, Khalid A; Alhuzaim, Waleed M; Alnemer, Ahmed A; Alharbi, Bader B; Bawazir, Abdulrahman S; Barayyan, Omar R; Balaraj, Faisal K

    2015-10-29

    Health care professionals are utilizing Twitter to communicate, develop disease surveillance systems, and mine health-related information. The immediate users of this health information is the general public, including patients. This necessitates the validation of health-related tweets by health care professionals to ensure they are evidence based and to avoid the use of noncredible information as a basis for critical decisions. The aim of this study was to evaluate health-related tweets on Twitter for validity (evidence based) and to create awareness in the community regarding the importance of evidence-based health-related tweets. All tweets containing health-related information in the Arabic language posted April 1-5, 2015, were mined from Twitter. The tweets were classified based on popularity, activity, interaction, and frequency to obtain 25 Twitter accounts (8 physician accounts, 10 nonofficial health institute accounts, 4 dietitian accounts, and 3 government institute accounts) and 625 tweets. These tweets were evaluated by 3 American Board-certified medical consultants and a score was generated (true/false) and interobserver agreement was calculated. A total of 625 health-related Arabic-language tweets were identified from 8 physician accounts, 10 nonofficial health institute accounts, 4 dietician accounts, and 3 government institute accounts. The reviewers labeled 320 (51.2%) tweets as false and 305 (48.8%) tweets as true. Comparative analysis of tweets by account type showed 60 of 75 (80%) tweets by government institutes, 124 of 201 (61.7%) tweets by physicians, and 42 of 101 (41.6%) tweets by dieticians were true. The interobserver agreement was moderate (range 0.78-0.22). More than half of the health-related tweets (169/248, 68.1%) from nonofficial health institutes and dietician accounts (59/101, 58.4%) were false. Tweets by the physicians were more likely to be rated "true" compared to other groups (PTwitter were found to be false based on expert

  11. 'That's not masculine': masculine capital and health-related behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Visser, Richard O; Smith, Jonathan A; McDonnell, Elizabeth J

    2009-10-01

    In recent years increasing attention has been given to how different masculinities are expressed in young men's health behaviour. To examine whether men can use competence in key health-related masculine domains to compensate for other non-masculine behaviour, group discussions were conducted with men aged 18-21 living in London, England. The analysis revealed the ways in which competence in traditionally masculine health-related domains produces masculine 'capital', which can be used to compensate for non-masculine behaviour in other domains. However, the capacity to trade this capital is limited because different masculine and non-masculine behaviours have different values.

  12. Understanding the modifiable health systems barriers to hypertension management in Malaysia: a multi-method health systems appraisal approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risso-Gill, Isabelle; Balabanova, Dina; Majid, Fadhlina; Ng, Kien Keat; Yusoff, Khalid; Mustapha, Feisul; Kuhlbrandt, Charlotte; Nieuwlaat, Robby; Schwalm, J-D; McCready, Tara; Teo, Koon K; Yusuf, Salim; McKee, Martin

    2015-07-03

    The growing burden of non-communicable diseases in middle-income countries demands models of care that are appropriate to local contexts and acceptable to patients in order to be effective. We describe a multi-method health system appraisal to inform the design of an intervention that will be used in a cluster randomized controlled trial to improve hypertension control in Malaysia. A health systems appraisal was undertaken in the capital, Kuala Lumpur, and poorer-resourced rural sites in Peninsular Malaysia and Sabah. Building on two systematic reviews of barriers to hypertension control, a conceptual framework was developed that guided analysis of survey data, documentary review and semi-structured interviews with key informants, health professionals and patients. The analysis followed the patients as they move through the health system, exploring the main modifiable system-level barriers to effective hypertension management, and seeking to explain obstacles to improved access and health outcomes. The study highlighted the need for the proposed intervention to take account of how Malaysian patients seek treatment in both the public and private sectors, and from western and various traditional practitioners, with many patients choosing to seek care across different services. Patients typically choose private care if they can afford to, while others attend heavily subsidised public clinics. Public hypertension clinics are often overwhelmed by numbers of patients attending, so health workers have little time to engage effectively with patients. Treatment adherence is poor, with a widespread belief, stemming from concepts of traditional medicine, that hypertension is a transient disturbance rather than a permanent asymptomatic condition. Drug supplies can be erratic in rural areas. Hypertension awareness and education material are limited, and what exist are poorly developed and ineffective. Despite having a relatively well funded health system offering good access to

  13. Some current dimensions of the behavioral economics of health-related behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickel, Warren K; Moody, Lara; Higgins, Stephen T

    2016-11-01

    Health-related behaviors such as tobacco, alcohol and other substance use, poor diet and physical inactivity, and risky sexual practices are important targets for research and intervention. Health-related behaviors are especially pertinent targets in the United States, which lags behind most other developed nations on common markers of population health. In this essay we examine the application of behavioral economics, a scientific discipline that represents the intersection of economics and psychology, to the study and promotion of health-related behavior change. More specifically, we review what we consider to be some core dimensions of this discipline when applied to the study health-related behavior change. Behavioral economics (1) provides novel conceptual systems to inform scientific understanding of health behaviors, (2) translates scientific understanding into practical and effective behavior-change interventions, (3) leverages varied aspects of behavior change beyond increases or decreases in frequency, (4) recognizes and exploits trans-disease processes and interventions, and (5) leverages technology in efforts to maximize efficacy, cost effectiveness, and reach. These dimensions are overviewed and their implications for the future of the field discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Health-related behaviors in women with lifestyle-related diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozica, Samantha L; Deeks, Amanda A; Gibson-Helm, Melanie E; Teede, Helena J; Moran, Lisa J

    2012-01-01

    Lifestyle related diseases associated with physical inactivity and poor diet quality, represent a major health burden. This study assessed negative and positive health habits and health care utilization in healthy women (n = 50) and women with lifestyle related diseases such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) (n = 50), gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) (n = 44) and type 2 diabetes (DM2) (n = 43). A significant difference existed across groups for negative health habits (P = .012) with a trend for positive health habits (P = .06) elevated in women with PCOS. Women with DM2 had the highest amount of health care utilization including doctors office visits (P women with DM2 but there were no differences in positive health habits across sub-groups. Encouraging lifestyle modification in women with precursor diseases such as GDM and PCOS is vital in order to prevent progression to DM2.

  15. Understanding the relationship of maternal health behavior change and intervention strategies in a Nicaraguan NGO network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valadez, Joseph J; Hage, Jerald; Vargas, William

    2005-09-01

    Few studies of community interventions examine independent effects of investments in: (1) capital (i.e., physical, human and social capital), and (2) management systems (e.g., monitoring and evaluation systems (M&E)) on maternal and child health behavior change. This paper does this in the context of an inter-organizational network. In Nicaragua, international non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and local NGOs formed the NicaSalud Federation. Using Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS), 14 member organizations took baselines measures of maternal safe motherhood and child health behavior indicators during November 1999 and August 2000, respectively, and final evaluation measures in December 2001. In April 2002, retrospective interviews were conducted with supervisors and managers in the 14 organizations to explore changes made to community health strategies, factors associated with the changes, and impacts they attributed to participating in NicaSalud. Physical capital (density of health huts), human capital (density and variety of paramedical personnel) and social capital (density of health committees) were associated with pregnant women attending antenatal care (ANC) 3+ times, and/or retaining ANC cards. The variety of paramedic personnel was also associated with women making post-partum visits to clinics. Physical capital (density of health huts) and social capital (density of health committees and mothers' clubs) were associated with child diarrhea case management indicators. One safe motherhood indicator (delivery of babies by a clinician) was not associated with intervention strategies. At the management level, NicaSalud's training of members to use LQAS for M&E was associated with the number of strategic and tactical changes they subsequently made to interventions (organizational learning). Organizational learning was related to changes in maternal and child health behaviors of the women (including changes in the proportion using post-partum care). As the

  16. The relation of risk assessment and health impact assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ádám, Balázs; Gulis, Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    than assessing a present situation. As part of this process, however, methods applied in risk assessment are used. Risk assessment typically characterises relation of a well-defined risk factor to a well-defined health outcome. Within HIA usually several individual risk assessments are needed...... of the causal chain from the proposal through related health determinants and risk factors to health outcomes. The stepwise analysis, systematic prioritization and consideration of horizontal interactions between the causal pathways make it feasible to use widely recognized risk assessment methods in the HIA......The level and distribution of health risks in a society is substantially influenced by measures of various policies, programmes or projects. Risk assessment can evaluate the nature, likelihood and severity of an adverse effect. Health impact assessment (HIA) provides similar function when used...

  17. Understanding beach health throughout the Great Lakes-Entering a new era of investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2010-01-01

    For over a decade, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been a leader in the science of beach health. The overall mission of this work is to provide science-based information and methods that will allow beach managers to more accurately make beach closure and advisory decisions, understand the sources and physical processes affecting beach contaminants, and understand how science-based information can be used to mitigate and restore beaches and protect the public. The work consists of four science elements-real-time assessments; pathogens and microbial source tracking; coastal processes; and data analysis, interpretation, and communication - which are described in this fact sheet. Some of the key questions for USGS beach research are the following: Are there better ways to inform the public whether they can use a beach without risking their health? How do new rapid analytical methods compare to traditional methods for determining concentrations of fecal-indicator bacteria at beaches? Are pathogens present at beaches and, if so, how do they get to the beach, and what is their source? How do sand movement and wave action on the beach affect fecal-indicator-bacteria and pathogen concentrations in the lake water? What are the best indicators of pathogenic microorganisms? With so many potential sources of fecal contamination at a beach, what methods can be used to distinguish the contributions from humans? What characteristics of beaches contribute most to influencing bacterial indicator and pathogen concentrations in beach sands and groundwater?

  18. How evolutionary principles improve the understanding of human health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluckman, Peter D; Low, Felicia M; Buklijas, Tatjana; Hanson, Mark A; Beedle, Alan S

    2011-03-01

    An appreciation of the fundamental principles of evolutionary biology provides new insights into major diseases and enables an integrated understanding of human biology and medicine. However, there is a lack of awareness of their importance amongst physicians, medical researchers, and educators, all of whom tend to focus on the mechanistic (proximate) basis for disease, excluding consideration of evolutionary (ultimate) reasons. The key principles of evolutionary medicine are that selection acts on fitness, not health or longevity; that our evolutionary history does not cause disease, but rather impacts on our risk of disease in particular environments; and that we are now living in novel environments compared to those in which we evolved. We consider these evolutionary principles in conjunction with population genetics and describe several pathways by which evolutionary processes can affect disease risk. These perspectives provide a more cohesive framework for gaining insights into the determinants of health and disease. Coupled with complementary insights offered by advances in genomic, epigenetic, and developmental biology research, evolutionary perspectives offer an important addition to understanding disease. Further, there are a number of aspects of evolutionary medicine that can add considerably to studies in other domains of contemporary evolutionary studies.

  19. Challenges in Preparing Veterinarians for Global Animal Health: Understanding the Public Sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollier, Paul J; Quinn, Kaylee A; Brown, Corrie C

    Understanding of global systems is essential for veterinarians seeking to work in realms outside of their national domain. In the global system, emphasis remains on the public sector, and the current curricular emphasis in developed countries is on private clinical practice for the domestic employment market. There is a resulting lack of competency at graduation for effective engagement internationally. The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) has created standards for public sector operations in animal health, which must be functional to allow for sustainable development. This public sector, known as the Veterinary Services, or VS, serves to control public good diseases, and once effectively built and fully operational, allows for the evolution of a functional private sector, focused on private good diseases. Until the VS is fully functional, support of private good services is non-sustainable and any efforts delivered are not long lasting. As new graduates opt for careers working in the international development sector, it is essential that they understand the OIE guidelines to help support continuing improvement. Developing global veterinarians by inserting content into the veterinary curriculum on how public systems can operate effectively could markedly increase the potential of our professional contributions globally, and particularly in the areas most in need.

  20. Social support, acculturation, and optimism: understanding positive health practices in Asian American college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayres, Cynthia G; Mahat, Ganga

    2012-07-01

    This study developed and tested a theory to better understand positive health practices (PHP) among Asian Americans aged 18 to 21 years. It tested theoretical relationships postulated between PHP and (a) social support (SS), (b) optimism, and (c) acculturation, and between SS and optimism and acculturation. Optimism and acculturation were also tested as possible mediators in the relationship between SS and PHP. A correlational study design was used. A convenience sample of 163 Asian college students in an urban setting completed four questionnaires assessing SS, PHP, optimism, and acculturation and one demographic questionnaire. There were statistically significant positive relationships between SS and optimism with PHP, between acculturation and PHP, and between optimism and SS. Optimism mediated the relationship between SS and PHP, whereas acculturation did not. Findings extend knowledge regarding these relationships to a defined population of Asian Americans aged 18 to 21 years. Findings contribute to a more comprehensive knowledge base regarding health practices among Asian Americans. The theoretical and empirical findings of this study provide the direction for future research as well. Further studies need to be conducted to identify and test other mediators in order to better understand the relationship between these two variables.

  1. Understanding health decisions using critical realism: home-dialysis decision-making during chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, Lori; Clark, Alexander M

    2012-03-01

    Understanding health decisions using critical realism: home-dialysis decision-making during chronic kidney disease This paper examines home-dialysis decision making in people with Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) from the perspective of critical realism. CKD programmes focus on patient education for self-management to delay the progression of kidney disease and the preparation and support for renal replacement therapy e.g.) dialysis and transplantation. Home-dialysis has clear health, societal and economic benefits yet service usage is low despite efforts to realign resources and educate individuals. Current research on the determinants of modality selection is superficial and insufficient to capture the complexities embedded in the process of dialysis modality selection. Predictors of home-dialysis selection and the effect of chronic kidney disease educational programmes provide a limited explanation of this experience. A re-conceptualization of the problem is required in order to fully understand this process. The epistemology and ontology of critical realism guides our knowledge and methodology particularly suited for examination of these complexities. This approach examines the deeper mechanisms and wider determinants associated with modality decision making, specifically who chooses home dialysis and under what circumstances. Until more is known regarding dialysis modality decision making service usage of home dialysis will remain low as interventions will be based on inadequate epistemology. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. [Empowerment in prevention and health promotion--a critical conceptual evaluation of basic understanding, dimensions and assessment problems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliche, T; Kröger, G

    2008-12-01

    Empowerment is an important concept in health care, but despite its prevalence it seems to be more of a buzz word. Thus, a conceptual review on empowerment in prevention and health promotion was carried out. 62 German and international theoretical contributions, reviews and studies were incorporated, covering the fields of prevention, care and therapy, rehabilitation, health-care research, nursing and work-related stress. The analysis revealed eight main dimensions of empowerment: (1) shared decision-making, (2) self-efficacy, (3) social support and social capital, (4) skills and competences, (5) health care utilisation, (6) goal setting and attainment, (7) reflexive thought and (8) innovation. Their empirical assessment can be carried out on a micro-, meso-, or macro-level. Three distinct basic conceptual notions emerged from the analysis, each applying its own specific research questions and measurement instruments: clinical, organizational-professional and political understanding of "empowerment". Therefore, these three specific conceptual notions should each be developed and tested separately, in particular in reviews, and empirical studies should embrace all eight subdimensions.

  3. Tumour biology of obesity-related cancers: understanding the molecular concept for better diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teoh, Seong Lin; Das, Srijit

    2016-11-01

    Obesity continues to be a major global problem. Various cancers are related to obesity and proper understanding of their aetiology, especially their molecular tumour biology is important for early diagnosis and better treatment. Genes play an important role in the development of obesity. Few genes such as leptin, leptin receptor encoded by the db (diabetes), pro-opiomelanocortin, AgRP and NPY and melanocortin-4 receptors and insulin-induced gene 2 were linked to obesity. MicroRNAs control gene expression via mRNA degradation and protein translation inhibition and influence cell differentiation, cell growth and cell death. Overexpression of miR-143 inhibits tumour growth by suppressing B cell lymphoma 2, extracellular signal-regulated kinase-5 activities and KRAS oncogene. Cancers of the breast, uterus, renal, thyroid and liver are also related to obesity. Any disturbance in the production of sex hormones and insulin, leads to distortion in the balance between cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. The possible mechanism linking obesity to cancer involves alteration in the level of adipokines and sex hormones. These mediators act as biomarkers for cancer progression and act as targets for cancer therapy and prevention. Interestingly, many anti-cancerous drugs are also beneficial in treating obesity and vice versa. We also reviewed the possible link in the mechanism of few drugs which act both on cancer and obesity. The present review may be important for molecular biologists, oncologists and clinicians treating cancers and also pave the way for better therapeutic options.

  4. Can Social Cognitive Theories Help Us Understand Nurses' Use of Electronic Health Records?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strudwick, Gillian; Booth, Richard; Mistry, Kartini

    2016-04-01

    Electronic health record implementations have accelerated in clinical settings around the world in an effort to improve patient safety and enhance efficiencies related to care delivery. As the largest group of healthcare professionals globally, nurses play an important role in the use of these records and ensuring their benefits are realized. Social cognitive theories such as the Theory of Reasoned Action, Theory of Planned Behaviour, and the Technology Acceptance Model have been developed to explain behavior. Given that variation in nurses' electronic health record utilization may influence the degree to which benefits are realized, the aim of this article is to explore how the use of these social cognitive theories may assist organizations implementing electronic health records to facilitate deeper-level adoption of this type of clinical technology.

  5. Parental Bereavement in Young Children Living in South Africa and Malawi: Understanding Mental Health Resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, A; Sherr, L; Tomlinson, M; Skeen, S; Roberts, K J

    2018-04-17

    Parental loss is a major stressful event found to increase risk of mental health problems in childhood. Yet, some children show resilient adaptation in the face of adversity across time. This study explores predictors of mental health resilience among parentally bereaved children in South Africa and Malawi, and their cumulative effect. The study also explores whether predictors of resilience differed between orphaned and non-orphaned children. Consecutive attenders of community based organisations (children;4-13 years, and their caregivers) were interviewed at baseline and 15-18 month follow up (n=833). Interviews comprised of inventories on demographic information, family data, child mental health, bereavement experience and community characteristics. Mental health screens were used to operationalise resilience as the absence of symptoms of depression, suicidality, trauma, emotional and behavioural problems. Almost 60% of children experienced parental loss. One quarter of orphaned children showed no mental health problems at either wave and were classified as resilient. There were equal proportions of children classified as resilient within the orphaned (25%) vs. non-orphaned group (22%). Being a quick learner, aiding ill family members, positive caregiving, household employment, higher community support, and lower exposure to domestic violence, physical punishment, or stigma at baseline predicted sustained resilience. There were cumulative influences of resilience predictors among orphaned children. Predictors of resilience did not vary by child age, gender, country of residence or between orphaned and non-orphaned children. This study enhances understanding of resilience in younger children and identifies a number of potential environmental and psychosocial factors for bolstering resilience in orphaned children.

  6. The Relation Between the Health Workforce distribution and Maternal and Child Health Inequalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. Sousa (Angelica)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractWeak health systems with a shortage of qualified staff, and lack of equipment and medicines impede the delivery of quality health care that is required to prevent maternal and newborn deaths and the attainment of the health-related Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Using the cases

  7. Understanding the mental health consequences of family separation for refugees: Implications for policy and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Alexander; Hess, Julia Meredith; Bybee, Deborah; Goodkind, Jessica R

    2018-01-01

    Consistent evidence documents the negative impacts of family separation on refugee mental health and concerns for the welfare of distant family members and desire to reunite with family members as priorities for refugees postmigration. Less is known about refugees' emic perspectives on their experiences of family separation. Using mixed methods data from a community-based mental health intervention study, we found that family separation was a major source of distress for refugees and that it was experienced in a range of ways: as fear for family still in harm's way, as a feeling of helplessness, as cultural disruption, as the greatest source of distress since resettlement, and contributing to mixed emotions around resettlement. In addition to these qualitative findings, we used quantitative data to test the relative contribution of family separation to refugees' depression/anxiety symptoms, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, and psychological quality of life. Separation from a family member was significantly related to all 3 measures of mental health, and it explained significant additional variance in all 3 measures even after accounting for participants' overall level of trauma exposure. Relative to 26 other types of trauma exposure, family separation was 1 of only 2 traumatic experiences that explained additional variance in all 3 measures of mental health. Given the current global refugee crisis and the need for policies to address this large and growing issue, this research highlights the importance of considering the ways in which family separation impacts refugee mental health and policies and practices that could help ameliorate this ongoing stressor. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Finding online health-related information: usability issues of health portals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurel Koybasi, Nergis A; Cagiltay, Kursat

    2012-01-01

    As Internet and computers become widespread, health portals offering online health-related information become more popular. The most important point for health portals is presenting reliable and valid information. Besides, portal needs to be usable to be able to serve information to users effectively. This study aims to determine usability issues emerging when health-related information is searched on a health portal. User-based usability tests are conducted and eye movement analyses are used in addition to traditional performance measures. Results revealed that users prefer systematic, simple and consistent designs offering interactive tools. Moreover, content and partitions needs to be shaped according to the medical knowledge of target users.

  9. Preschool-Aged Children's Understanding of Gratitude: Relations with Emotion and Mental State Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jackie A.; de Lucca Freitas, Lia Beatriz; O'Brien, Marion; Calkins, Susan D.; Leerkes, Esther M.; Marcovitch, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    Developmental precursors to children's early understanding of gratitude were examined. A diverse group of 263 children was tested for emotion and mental state knowledge at ages 3 and 4, and their understanding of gratitude was measured at age 5. Children varied widely in their understanding of gratitude, but most understood some aspects of…

  10. Gender relations and women's reproductive health in South Sudan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kane, Sumit; Rial, Matilda; Matere, Anthony; Dieleman, Marjolein; Broerse, Jacqueline E W; Kok, Maryse

    2016-01-01

    Background: In South Sudan, women disproportionately bear the burden of morbidity and mortality related to sexual and reproductive health, with a maternal mortality ratio of 789 deaths per 100,000 live births. Design: A qualitative study was conducted to analyze how gendered social relations among

  11. Health service interventions targeting relatives of heart patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Nina Konstantin; Madsen, Mette; Olsen Zwisler, Ann-Dorthe

    2008-01-01

    AIMS: Relatives of heart patients experience anxiety, uncertainty, and low quality of life, and the hospitalization of a heart patient is associated with increased risk of death for the partner. Relatives' physical and mental problems may be rectified by activities established by the health...

  12. Social relationships and health: the relative roles of family functioning and social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franks, P; Campbell, T L; Shields, C G

    1992-04-01

    The associations between social relationships and health have been examined using two major research traditions. Using a social epidemiological approach, much research has shown the beneficial effect of social supports on health and health behaviors. Family interaction research, which has grown out of a more clinical tradition, has shown the complex effects of family functioning on health, particularly mental health. No studies have examined the relative power of these two approaches in explicating the connections between social relationships and health. We hypothesized that social relationships (social support and family functioning) would exert direct and indirect (through depressive symptoms) effects on health behaviors. We also hypothesized that the effects of social relationships on health would be more powerfully explicated by family functioning than by social support. We mailed a pilot survey to a random sample of patients attending a family practice center, including questions on depressive symptoms, cardiovascular health behaviors, demographics, social support using the ISEL scale, and family functioning using the FEICS scale. FEICS is a self-report questionnaire designed to assess family emotional involvement and criticism, the media elements of family expressed emotion. Eighty-three useable responses were obtained. Regression analyses and structural modelling showed both direct and indirect statistically significant paths from social relationships to health behaviors. Family criticism was directly associated (standardized coefficient = 0.29) with depressive symptoms, and family emotional involvement was directly associated with both depressive symptoms (coefficient = 0.35) and healthy cardiovascular behaviors (coefficient = 0.32). The results support the primacy of family functioning factors in understanding the associations among social relationships, mental health, and health behaviors. The contrasting relationships between emotional involvement and

  13. Understanding the structure of community collaboration: the case of one Canadian health promotion network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Martha; Maclean, Joanne; Cousens, Laura

    2010-06-01

    In 2004, over 6.8 million Canadians were considered overweight, with an additional 2.4 million labeled clinically obese. Due to these escalating levels of obesity in Canada, physical activity is being championed by politicians, physicians, educators and community members as a means to address this health crisis. In doing so, many organizations are being called upon to provide essential physical activity services and programs to combat rising obesity rates. Yet, strategies for achieving these organizations' mandates, which invariably involve stretching already scarce resources, are difficult to implement and sustain. One strategy for improving the health and physical activity levels of people in communities has been the creation of inter-organizational networks of service providers. Yet, little is known about whether networks are effective in addressing policy issues in non-clinical health settings. The purpose of this investigation was 2-fold; to use whole network analysis to determine the structure of one health promotion network in Canada, and to identify the types of ties shared by actors in the health network. Findings revealed a network wherein information sharing constituted the basis for collaboration, whereas efforts related to sharing resources, marketing and/or fundraising endeavors were less evident.

  14. Understanding Medicaid Managed Care Investments in Members' Social Determinants of Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Laura; Ackerman, Sara; Wing, Holly; Manchanda, Rishi

    2017-08-01

    Despite widespread interest in addressing social determinants of health (SDH) as a means to improve health and to reduce health care spending, little information is available about how to develop, sustain, and scale nonmedical interventions in diverse payer environments, including Medicaid Managed Care. This study aimed to explore how Medicaid Managed Care Organization (MMCO) leaders interpret their roles and responsibilities around SDH, how they garner resources to develop and sustain interventions to address SDH, and how they perceive the influences of external organizations on related activities. Semistructured qualitative key informant interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 26 Medicaid Managed Care corporate executives. Data were analyzed with an iterative coding, thematic development and interpretation process. MMCO leaders' interests and activities around interventions to address SDH are described, as well as their perceptions of existing and potential incentives and barriers to expanding these interventions. Despite significant experimentation and programmatic diversity of interventions addressing social determinants, MMCO leaders struggle with clinical integration, financing, and evaluation efforts that could promote sustainability. Though their efforts are nascent, MMCO leaders are investing in tackling social determinants to improve health and to decrease health care spending in managed care settings that serve low-income populations. Results highlight both opportunities and concerns about sustaining and scaling clinical interventions addressing SDH.

  15. Consumer Health-Related Activities on Social Media: Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benetoli, Arcelio; Chen, Timothy F; Aslani, Parisa

    2017-10-13

    Although a number of studies have investigated how consumers use social media for health-related purposes, there is a paucity of studies in the Australian context. This study aimed to explore how Australian consumers used social media for health-related purposes, specifically how they identified social media platforms, which were used, and which health-related activities commonly took place. A total of 5 focus groups (n=36 participants), each lasting 60 to 90 minutes, were conducted in the Sydney metropolitan area. The group discussions were audiorecorded and transcribed verbatim. The transcripts were coded line-by-line and thematically analyzed. Participants used general search engines to locate health-related social media platforms. They accessed a wide range of social media on a daily basis, using several electronic devices (in particular, mobile phones). Although privacy was a concern, it did not prevent consumers from fully engaging in social media for health-related purposes. Blogs were used to learn from other people's experiences with the same condition. Facebook allowed consumers to follow health-related pages and to participate in disease-specific group discussions. Wikipedia was used for factual information about diseases and treatments. YouTube was accessed to learn about medical procedures such as surgery. No participant reported editing or contributing to Wikipedia or posting YouTube videos related to health topics. Twitter was rarely used for health-related purposes. Social media allowed consumers to obtain and provide disease and treatment-related information and social and emotional support for those living with the same condition. Most considered their participation as observational, but some also contributed (eg, responded to people's questions). Participants used a wide range of social media for health-related purposes. Medical information exchange (eg, disease and treatment) and social and emotional support were the cornerstones of their online

  16. Donor understandings of blood and the body in relation to more frequent donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, R; Cohn, S

    2018-05-01

    The INTERVAL trial aimed to find the optimum frequency of blood donation to enhance blood supplies and maintain donor health. This not only requires biological knowledge, but also an appreciation of donor perspectives, and how their experiences and beliefs might be central if any changes are ever to be made. To address this, trial participants were interviewed about their ideas of blood and the body in relation to their experiences of increased donation frequency. Thirty in depth face-to-face interviews conducted with blood donors participating in the trial. Three key themes emerged: ideas about how blood and iron reserves are replenished, and what people did to facilitate this; beliefs about physiological differences relating to age and gender; and practical issues that affected the experience of donation. Overall, participants interviewed welcomed more frequent donation, despite a range of pragmatic concerns. Despite some practical obstacles, increased donation frequency aligned with participant's ideas about bodily replenishment, the value of donation, and their identity as enduring blood donors. They therefore supported the idea of increasing frequency of donation, independently of the biomedical evidence from the trial itself. © 2018 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  17. Oral health related knowledge and health behavior of parents and school children

    OpenAIRE

    Lalić Maja; Aleksić Ema; Gajić Mihajlo; Malešević Đoka

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. The family provides the background for developing behaviors, attitudes and knowledge related to oral health of children. The aim of this study was to compare oral health behavior of parents and their children and to asses the impact of parental behavior on children’s oral health. Material and Methods. This cross-sectional study included 99 parent - child pairs (12 to 15 years old). Data on oral health behavior, knowledge and attitudes regarding oral hygiene, fluorides and ...

  18. Moralized Health-Related Persuasion Undermines Social Cohesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Täuber

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Integrating theory and research on persuasion, moralization, and intergroup relations, the present research aims to highlight the far-reaching impact of health-related persuasion on society. I propose that governments’ health-related persuasion leads to the emergence of new social norms, and in particular moral norms. Importantly, moral norms provide strong behavioral imperatives and are seen as binding for group members. This suggests that moralized persuasion has a strong potential to divide society along the lines of citizens who conform to and citizens who deviate from health-related moral norms. Thus, departing from the traditional focus on targets of persuasion, the present research focuses on those holding a moralized view on health and lifestyle. Key aspects of social cohesion as defined by the OECD (2011 have been tested across four studies. The main hypothesis tested is that those conforming to the norm (e.g., non-smokers, normal weight people, people with healthy lifestyles will stigmatize those deviating from the norm (e.g., smokers, overweight people, people with unhealthy lifestyles. Flowing from stigmatization, less inclusion, lower solidarity with and greater endorsement of unequal treatment of those deviating from the moral norm are predicted. Four survey studies (total N = 1568 examining the proposed associations among non-smokers, normal weight people, and employees with healthy lifestyles are presented. The studies provide unanimous support for the hypothesis, with meta-analysis providing further support for the reliability of the findings. Consistent across studies, social cohesion indicators were negatively affected by health moralization through stigmatization of those deviating from health-related moral norms. Findings highlight an under-acknowledged potential of moralized health-related persuasion to divide society, thereby undermining cohesion and the achievement of important societal goals. In the discussion

  19. Systematic overview of economic evaluations of health-related rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard-Wilsher, Stephanie; Irvine, Lisa; Fan, Hong; Shakespeare, Tom; Suhrcke, Marc; Horton, Simon; Poland, Fiona; Hooper, Lee; Song, Fujian

    2016-01-01

    Health related rehabilitation is instrumental in improving functioning and promoting participation by people with disabilities. To make clinical and policy decisions about health-related rehabilitation, resource allocation and cost issues need to be considered. To provide an overview of systematic reviews (SRs) on economic evaluations of health-related rehabilitation. We searched multiple databases to identify relevant SRs of economic evaluations of health-related rehabilitation. Review quality was assessed by AMSTAR checklist. We included 64 SRs, most of which included economic evaluations alongside randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The review quality was low to moderate (AMSTAR score 5-8) in 35, and high (score 9-11) in 29 of the included SRs. The included SRs addressed various health conditions, including spinal or other pain conditions (n = 14), age-related problems (11), stroke (7), musculoskeletal disorders (6), heart diseases (4), pulmonary (3), mental health problems (3), and injury (3). Physiotherapy was the most commonly evaluated rehabilitation intervention in the included SRs (n = 24). Other commonly evaluated interventions included multidisciplinary programmes (14); behavioral, educational or psychological interventions (11); home-based interventions (11); complementary therapy (6); self-management (6); and occupational therapy (4). Although the available evidence is often described as limited, inconsistent or inconclusive, some rehabilitation interventions were cost-effective or showed cost-saving in a variety of disability conditions. Available evidence comes predominantly from high income countries, therefore economic evaluations of health-related rehabilitation are urgently required in less resourced settings. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Understanding Medical Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Understanding Medical Words Past Issues / Summer 2009 Table of Contents For ... Medicine that teaches you about many of the words related to your health care Do you have ...

  1. Productivity loss at work; health-related and work-related factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Heuvel, Swenne G; Geuskens, Goedele A; Hooftman, Wendela E; Koppes, Lando L J; van den Bossche, Seth N J

    2010-09-01

    Productivity loss is an increasing problem in an aging working population that is decreasing in numbers. The aim of this study is to identify work-related and health-related characteristics associated with productivity loss, due to either sickness absence or reduced performance at work. In this cross-sectional study, data of the Netherlands Working Conditions Survey of 2007 were used, which includes a national representative sample of 22,759 employees aged 15 to 64 years. Demographic characteristics, health-related and work-related factors were assessed with a questionnaire. Logistic regression analyses were carried out to study the relationship of work-related and health-related factors with low performance at work and sickness absence in the past 12 months. Poor general health, the number of longstanding health conditions, and most types of longstanding health conditions were associated with productivity loss. Health-related factors were in general stronger associated with sickness absence than with low performance at work. Performance: poor health OR 1.54 CI 1.38-1.71, >1 health conditions OR 1.21 CI 1.09-1.35; sickness absence: poor health OR 2.62 CI 2.33-2.93, >1 health conditions OR 2.47 CI 2.21-2.75. Of the different types of longstanding health conditions, only psychological complaints and to a small extent musculoskeletal symptoms, were associated with low performance (respectively OR 1.54 CI 1.27-1.87; OR 1.09 CI 1.00-1.18). Low performance at work was less likely among employees with high physically demanding work (shift work OR 0.70 CI 0.63-0.76, using force OR 0.78 CI 0.72-0.84, and repetitive movements OR 0.74 CI 0.70-0.79). Psychosocial factors were stronger associated with low performance at work than with sickness absence (performance: job autonomy OR 1.28 CI 1.21-1.37, job demands OR 1.23 CI 1.16-1.31, emotionally demanding work OR 1.73 CI 1.62-1.85; sickness absence: job autonomy ns, job demands OR 1.09 CI 1.03-1.17, emotionally demanding work OR

  2. Tracking health-related Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghnath Dhimal

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs comprise of 17 goals and 169 targets. All SDGs are interlinked to produce synergetic eff ects and emphasize health in all policies. Among the 17 Goals, Goal 3 has a central focus on health, which is underpinned by 13 targets. The other 16 goals are also directly or indirectly related to health and will contribute to achieving the associated targets for Goal 3. The ambitious SDG agenda and their progress can be tracked by measuring numerous goals, targets, and indicators. The main objective of this paper is to provide an overview about how health- related SDGs and their targets and indicators are being tracked in the national context of Nepal. Adequate investment in research for knowledge generation, capacity building and innovation, and continous research communication among policy makers, researchers and external development partners will contribute to tracking the progress of SDGs in Nepal.

  3. Making species checklists understandable to machines - a shift from relational databases to ontologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurenne, Nina; Tuominen, Jouni; Saarenmaa, Hannu; Hyvönen, Eero

    2014-01-01

    The scientific names of plants and animals play a major role in Life Sciences as information is indexed, integrated, and searched using scientific names. The main problem with names is their ambiguous nature, because more than one name may point to the same taxon and multiple taxa may share the same name. In addition, scientific names change over time, which makes them open to various interpretations. Applying machine-understandable semantics to these names enables efficient processing of biological content in information systems. The first step is to use unique persistent identifiers instead of name strings when referring to taxa. The most commonly used identifiers are Life Science Identifiers (LSID), which are traditionally used in relational databases, and more recently HTTP URIs, which are applied on the Semantic Web by Linked Data applications. We introduce two models for expressing taxonomic information in the form of species checklists. First, we show how species checklists are presented in a relational database system using LSIDs. Then, in order to gain a more detailed representation of taxonomic information, we introduce meta-ontology TaxMeOn to model the same content as Semantic Web ontologies where taxa are identified using HTTP URIs. We also explore how changes in scientific names can be managed over time. The use of HTTP URIs is preferable for presenting the taxonomic information of species checklists. An HTTP URI identifies a taxon and operates as a web address from which additional information about the taxon can be located, unlike LSID. This enables the integration of biological data from different sources on the web using Linked Data principles and prevents the formation of information silos. The Linked Data approach allows a user to assemble information and evaluate the complexity of taxonomical data based on conflicting views of taxonomic classifications. Using HTTP URIs and Semantic Web technologies also facilitate the representation of the

  4. Laypersons' understanding of relative risk reductions: Randomised cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristiansen Ivar S

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite increasing recognition of the importance of involving patients in decisions on preventive healthcare interventions, little is known about how well patients understand and utilise information provided on the relative benefits from these interventions. The aim of this study was to explore whether lay people can discriminate between preventive interventions when effectiveness is presented in terms of relative risk reduction (RRR, and whether such discrimination is influenced by presentation of baseline risk. Methods The study was a randomised cross-sectional interview survey of a representative sample (n = 1,519 of lay people with mean age 59 (range 40–98 years in Denmark. In addition to demographic information, respondents were asked to consider a hypothetical drug treatment to prevent heart attack. Its effectiveness was randomly presented as RRR of 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 or 60 percent, and half of the respondents were presented with quantitative information on the baseline risk of heart attack. The respondents had also been asked whether they were diagnosed with hypercholesterolemia or had experienced a heart attack. Results In total, 873 (58% of the respondents consented to the hypothetical treatment. While 49% accepted the treatment when RRR = 10%, the acceptance rate was 58–60% for RRR>10. There was no significant difference in acceptance rates across respondents irrespective of whether they had been presented with quantitative information on baseline risk or not. Conclusion In this study, lay people's decisions about therapy were only slightly influenced by the magnitude of the effect when it was presented in terms of RRR. The results may indicate that lay people have difficulties in discriminating between levels of effectiveness when they are presented in terms of RRR.

  5. Patterns of adult cross-racial friendships: A context for understanding contemporary race relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Deborah L; Stone, Rosalie Torres; Powell, Lauren; Allison, Jeroan

    2016-10-01

    This study examined patterns, characteristics, and predictors of cross-racial friendships as the context for understanding contemporary race relations. A national survey included 1,055 respondents, of whom 55% were white, 32% were black, and 74% were female; ages ranged from 18 to ≥65 years. Focus groups were conducted to assess societal and personal benefits. Participants (n = 31) were racially diverse and aged 20 to 66 years. After accounting for multiple covariates, regression analysis revealed that Asians, Hispanics, and multiracial individuals are more likely than their white and black counterparts to have cross-racial friends. Females were less likely than males to have 8 or more cross-racial friends. Regression analysis revealed that the depth of cross-racial friendships was greater for women than men and for those who shared more life experiences. Increasing age was associated with lower cross-racial friendship depth. Qualitative analysis of open-ended questions and focus group data established the social context as directly relevant to the number and depth of friendships. Despite the level of depth in cross-racial friendships, respondents described a general reluctance to discuss any racially charged societal events, such as police shootings of unarmed black men. This study identified salient characteristics of individuals associated with cross-racial friendships and highlighted the influence of the social, historical, and political context in shaping such friendships. Our findings suggest that contemporary race relations reflect progress as well as polarization. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Integrative relational machine-learning for understanding drug side-effect profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresso, Emmanuel; Grisoni, Renaud; Marchetti, Gino; Karaboga, Arnaud Sinan; Souchet, Michel; Devignes, Marie-Dominique; Smaïl-Tabbone, Malika

    2013-06-26

    Drug side effects represent a common reason for stopping drug development during clinical trials. Improving our ability to understand drug side effects is necessary to reduce attrition rates during drug development as well as the risk of discovering novel side effects in available drugs. Today, most investigations deal with isolated side effects and overlook possible redundancy and their frequent co-occurrence. In this work, drug annotations are collected from SIDER and DrugBank databases. Terms describing individual side effects reported in SIDER are clustered with a semantic similarity measure into term clusters (TCs). Maximal frequent itemsets are extracted from the resulting drug x TC binary table, leading to the identification of what we call side-effect profiles (SEPs). A SEP is defined as the longest combination of TCs which are shared by a significant number of drugs. Frequent SEPs are explored on the basis of integrated drug and target descriptors using two machine learning methods: decision-trees and inductive-logic programming. Although both methods yield explicit models, inductive-logic programming method performs relational learning and is able to exploit not only drug properties but also background knowledge. Learning efficiency is evaluated by cross-validation and direct testing with new molecules. Comparison of the two machine-learning methods shows that the inductive-logic-programming method displays a greater sensitivity than decision trees and successfully exploit background knowledge such as functional annotations and pathways of drug targets, thereby producing rich and expressive rules. All models and theories are available on a dedicated web site. Side effect profiles covering significant number of drugs have been extracted from a drug ×side-effect association table. Integration of background knowledge concerning both chemical and biological spaces has been combined with a relational learning method for discovering rules which explicitly

  7. Ethics or Morals: Understanding Students' Values Related to Genetic Tests on Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, Mats Gunnar

    2009-10-01

    To make meaning of scientific knowledge in such a way that concepts and values of the life-world are not threatened is difficult for students and laymen. Ethics and morals pertaining to the use of genetic tests for hereditary diseases have been investigated and discussed by educators, anthropologists, medical doctors and philosophers giving, at least in part, diverging results. This study investigates how students explain and understand their argumentation about dilemmas concerning gene testing for the purpose to reduce hereditary diseases. Thirteen students were interviewed about their views on this issue. Qualitative analysis was done primarily by relating students’ argumentation to their movements between ethics and morals as opposing poles. Students used either objective or subjective knowledge but had difficulties to integrate them. They tried to negotiate ethic arguments using utilitarian motives and medical knowledge with sympathy or irrational and personal arguments. They discussed the embryo’s moral status to decide if it was replaceable in a social group or not. The educational implications of the students’ use of knowledge in personal arguments are discussed.

  8. Understanding the role of mind wandering in stress-related working memory impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Jonathan B; Boals, Adriel

    2017-08-01

    Mind wandering has been identified as a possible cause for stress-related working memory (WM) task impairments following laboratory stressors. The current study attempted to induce mind wandering regarding negative, positive, or neutral events using an expressive writing task and examined the impact on WM task performance. We examined the role of mind wandering in understanding the impact of life stress on WM. Additionally, we explored the role of thought suppression on the relationship between mind wandering and WM. One hundred and fifty participants completed WM measures before (Time 1) and after (Time 2) the writing manipulation. The writing manipulation did not alter mind wandering or WM task performance. Time 1 WM predicted mind wandering during the Time 2 WM task, which subsequently predicted poorer Time 2 WM task performance. The impact of daily life stress on WM was mediated by mind wandering. Trait levels of thought suppression moderated the impact of mind wandering on WM. Specifically, higher levels of suppression resulted in stronger negative impact of mind wandering on WM task performance. Findings are discussed in terms of the impact of mind wandering on WM task performance.

  9. Health, alcohol and EU law: understanding the impact of European single market law on alcohol policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumberg, Ben; Anderson, Peter

    2008-08-01

    Many professionals in the alcohol field see the role of the the European Court of Justice (ECJ) as negative for health. This review examines ECJ and European Free Trade Association (EFTA) case law in the context of two broader debates: firstly the extension of European Union (EU) law into alcohol policy (the 'juridification' of alcohol policy), and secondly the extent to which alcohol policy is an example of the dominance of 'negative integration' (the removal of trade-distorting policy) over 'positive integration' (the creation of European alcohol policies). A comprehensive review of all ECJ/EFTA Court cases on alcohol, with interpretation aided by a secondary review on alcohol and EU law and the broader health and trade field. From looking at taxation, minimum pricing, advertising and monopoly policies, the extension of the scope of the these courts over alcohol policy is unquestionable. However, the ECJ and EFTA Court have been prepared to prioritize health over trade concerns when considering alcohol policies, providing certain conditions have been met. While a partial juridification of alcohol policy has led to the negative integration of alcohol policies, this effect is not as strong as sometimes thought; EU law is more health friendly than it is perceived to be, and its impact on levels of alcohol-related harm appears low. Nevertheless, lessons emerge for policymakers concerned about the legality of alcohol policies under EU law. More generally, those concerned with alcohol and health should pay close attention to developments in EU law given their importance for public health policy on alcohol.

  10. Health-related quality of life among online university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Pamela L; Rohrer, James E; Fulton, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    Online university students are a growing population whose health has received minimal attention. The purpose of this cross-sectional Internet survey was to identify risk factors for the health status among online university students. This online survey collected data from 301 online university students through a large, US-based participant pool and LinkedIn. Health status was measured using 3 elements of health-related quality of life (HRQOL): self-rated overall health (SRH), unhealthy days, and recent activity limitation days. All 3 measures were dichotomized. The odds of poor SRH were higher for people who reported a body mass index in the overweight and obese categories (odds ratio [OR] = 2.99, P students who are low income, in disadvantaged racial groups, who are overweight, smoke, and who do not exercise. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Reducing social inequalities in health: work-related strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegrist, Johannes

    2002-01-01

    Despite reduced health risks in terms of physical and chemical hazards current trends in occupational life continue to contribute to ill health and disease among economically active people. Stress at work plays a crucial role in this respect, as evidenced by recent scientific progress. This paper discusses two leading theoretical models of work-related stress, the demand-control model and the model of effort-reward imbalance, and it summarizes available evidence on adverse health effects. As work stress in terms of these models is more prevalent among lower socioeconomic status groups, these conditions contribute to the explanation of socially graded risks of morbidity and mortality in midlife. Implications of this new knowledge for the design and implementation of worksite health-promotion measures are elaborated. In conclusion, it is argued that workplace strategies deserve high priority on any agenda that aims at reducing social inequalities in health.

  12. Health behaviors and work-related outcomes among school employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeCheminant, James D; Merrill, Ray M; Masterson, Travis

    2015-05-01

    To determine the association between selected health behaviors and work-related outcomes among 2398 school-based employees who voluntarily enrolled in a worksite wellness program. This study presents participants' baseline data collected from a personal health assessment used by Well-Steps, a third-party wellness company. Employees with high levels of exercise, fruit/vegetable consumption, or restful sleep exhibited higher job-performance and job-satisfaction, and lower absenteeism (p job-performance (Prevalence Ratio=1.09; 95% CI=1.05-1.13), job-satisfaction (Prevalence Ratio=1.53; 95% CI=1.30-1.80), and lower absenteeism (Prevalence Ratio=1.16; 95% CI=1.08-1.325). Further, number of co-occurring health behaviors influenced other satisfaction and emotional health outcomes. Selected healthy behaviors, individually or co-occurring, are associated with health outcomes potentially important at the worksite.

  13. Bringing content understanding into usability testing in complex application domains—a case study in eHealth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Simon Bruntse; Rasmussen, Claire Kirchert; Frøkjær, Erik

    2017-01-01

    A usability evaluation technique, Cooperative Usability Testing with Questions of Understanding (CUT with QU) intended to illuminate users’ ability to understand the content information of an application is proposed. In complex application domains as for instance the eHealth domain, this issue...... of users’ content understanding is sometimes crucial, and thus should be carefully evaluated. Unfortunately, conventional usability evaluation techniques do not address challenges of content understanding. In a case study within eHealth, specifically the se