Sample records for underplanting shortleaf pine

  1. National regeneration of shortleaf pine (United States)

    Edwin R. Lawson


    Natural regeneration with clearcutting, shelterwood, seed tree, and selection systems is a viable method for establishing and managing shortleaf pine stands. An adequate seed source, a suitable seedbed, control of competing vegetation, follow-up cultural treatments, and protection of reproduction are the primary prerequisites for establishing and maintaining natural...

  2. Occurrence of shortleaf x loblolly pine hybrids in shortleaf pine orchards: Implications for ecosystem restoration (United States)

    John F. Stewart; Rodney Will; Barbara S. Crane; C. Dana Nelson


    Shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.) is an important conifer in much of the southeastern United States. However, the species and its associated ecosystems are in decline, and recent evidence about hybridization with loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) raises concerns that the species may be at risk of further losses due to introgression. Although shortleaf pine is not...

  3. Proceedings of the Shortleaf Pine Regeneration Workshop (United States)

    John C. Brissette; James P. Barnett; [Compilers}


    This proceedings documents the results of a workshop to develop state-of-the-art information on the regeneration of shortleaf pine. Regeneration by both artificial and natural means is discussed in detail.

  4. Shortleaf Pine Seed Production in the Piedmont (United States)

    David L. Bramlett


    Shortleaf pine occupies millions of acres of commercial forest land in the Southeastern United States and is one of the preferred pine species throughout much of its range. Natural regeneration of this species after harvest, however, is a major problem for forest managers. Adequate seed production is the first requirement of successful natural regeneration, and annual...

  5. Successional trends of six mature shortleaf pine forests in Missouri (United States)

    Michael C. Stambaugh; Rose-Marie Muzika


    Many of Missouri's mature oak-shortleaf pine (Quercus-Pinus echinata) forests are in a mid-transition stage characterized by partial pine overstory, limited pine recruitment, and minimal pine regeneration. Restoration of shortleaf pine communities at a large scale necessitates the understanding and management of natural regeneration. To...

  6. Shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.) and hardwood regeneration after thinning natural shortleaf pine forests in southern United States (United States)

    Anup KC; Thomas B. Lynch; James M. Guldin


    Understory pine and hardwood regeneration in the Ozark and Ouachita National Forests were measured in 1995 for the first time following thinning and hardwood control at plot establishment 1985-87. Red maple (Acer rubrum), shortleaf pine and flowering dogwood (Cornus florida) were the most frequently recorded species. Understory shortleaf pine stems have declined...

  7. Regenerating shortleaf pine in clearcuts in the Missouri Ozark Highlands (United States)

    David Gwaze; Mark Johanson


    A shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.) regeneration study was established by the Missouri Department of Conservation in 1986 at the Current River Conservation Area. The objective of the study was to compare natural to artificial regeneration methods, and site preparation prescribed burning to bulldozing for shortleaf pine establishment and growth....

  8. Hybridization Leads to Loss of Genetic Integrity in Shortleaf Pine: Unexpected Consequences of Pine Management and Fire Suppression (United States)

    Charles G. Tauer; John F. Stewart; Rodney E. Will; Curtis J. Lilly; James M. Guldin; C. Dana Nelson


    Hybridization between shortleaf pine and loblolly pine is causing loss of genetic integrity (the tendency of a population to maintain its genotypes over generations) in shortleaf pine, a species already exhibiting dramatic declines due to land-use changes. Recent findings indicate hybridization has increased in shortleaf pine stands from 3% during the 1950s to 45% for...

  9. Branch and foliage biomass relations for shortleaf pine in southeast Oklahoma (United States)

    Charles O. Sabatia; Thomas B. Lynch; Rodney E. Will


    Data from 36 shortleaf pine trees, sampled from thinning study plots in even-aged naturally regenerated shortleaf pine forests in Southeast Oklahoma, were used to fit tree branch and foliage biomass equations.

  10. Development of understory tree vegetation after thinning naturally occurring shortleaf pine forests (United States)

    K.C. Anup; Thomas B. Lynch; Douglas Stevenson; Duncan Wilson; James M. Guldin; Bob Heinemann; Randy Holeman; Dennis Wilson; Keith Anderson


    During the 25 years since establishment of more than 200 growth study plots in even-aged, naturally regenerated shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.) forests, there has been considerable development of hardwood understory trees, shrubs, and some shortleaf pine regeneration. During the period from 1985-1987, even-aged shortleaf pine growth-study...

  11. Genetic diversity within and among populations of shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.) and loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) (United States)

    Shiqin Xu; C.G. Tauer; C. Dana Nelson


    Shortleaf pine (n=93) and loblolly pine (n=112) trees representing 22 seed sources or 16 physiographic populations were sampled from Southwide Southern Pine Seed Source Study plantings located in Oklahoma, Arkansas and Mississippi. The sampled trees were grown from shortleaf pine and loblolly pine seeds formed in 1951 and 1952, prior to the start of intensive forest...

  12. Natural hybridization within seed sources of shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.) and loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) (United States)

    Shiqin Xu; C.G. Tauer; C. Dana Nelson


    Shortleaf and loblolly pine trees (n=93 and 102, respectively) from 22 seed sources of the Southwide Southern Pine Seed Source Study plantings or equivalent origin were evaluated for amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) variation. These sampled trees represent shortleaf pine and loblolly pine, as they existed across their native geographic ranges before...

  13. Forcasting Shortleaf Pine Seed Crops in the Ouachita Mountains (United States)

    Michael G. Shelton; Robert F. Wittwer


    We field tested a cone-rating system to forecast seed crops from 1993 to 1996 in 28 shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.) stands, which represented a wide range of stand conditions. Sample trees were visually assigned to one of three cone-density classes based on cone spacing, occurrence of cones in clusters, and distribution of cones within the...

  14. Tables for predicting the slash weight of shortleaf pine. (United States)

    Duane R. Freeman; Peter J. Roussopoulos


    The tables provided here estimate crown weights of shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.) from measurements of diameter (d.b.h) and crown ratio, for both a 3-inch and a 4-inch merchantable top. Crown component fractions for standard fuel size classes are also presented.

  15. Timber management guide for shortleaf pine and oak-pine types in Missouri. (United States)

    K.A. Brinkman; N.F. Rogers


    Summarizes recommended management practices for the shortleaf pine and oak-pine types in Missouri. Describes sites and soils, and silvical characteristics of pine; discusses rotations, cutting cycles, stocking levels, growing space requirements, and regeneration techniques; and prescribes treatments for stands with specified characteristics to maximize returns from...

  16. Multiple treatments yield early success in a shortleaf pine woodland restoration project in the Missouri Ozarks (United States)

    Matthew G. Olson; Elizabeth K. Olson


    Shortleaf pine woodland communities were more extensive in the southeastern Missouri Ozarks prior to Euro-American settlement than today. In 2000, the Missouri Department of Conservation initiated a shortleaf pine woodland restoration project on state land in the Ozarks of southeast Missouri at an area called the Midco Pine Flats Restoration Area. The purpose of this...

  17. Development of a shortleaf pine individual-tree growth equation using non-linear mixed modeling techniques (United States)

    Chakra B. Budhathoki; Thomas B. Lynch; James M. Guldin


    Nonlinear mixed-modeling methods were used to estimate parameters in an individual-tree basal area growth model for shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.). Shortleaf pine individual-tree growth data were available from over 200 permanently established 0.2-acre fixed-radius plots located in naturally-occurring even-aged shortleaf pine forests on the...

  18. Buds enable pitch and shortleaf pines to recover from injury (United States)

    S. Little; H. A. Somes


    Pitch and shortleaf pines often survive severe damage by fires, cutting, rabbits, or deer. Deer may take all but 2 inches of the 6- to 8-inch shoots of seedlings, and still these seedlings may live and develop new shoots. Fires may kill all the foliage and terminal shoots on sapling or pole-size stems, but still these trees may green up and develop new leaders. Many of...

  19. What fire frequency is appropriate for shortleaf pine regeneration and survival? (United States)

    Michael C. Stambaugh; Richard P. Guyette; Daniel C. Dey


    Shortleaf pine community restoration requires an answer to the question, "What fire frequency is appropriate for shortleaf pine regeneration and survival?" The answer to this question is one of the most critical to successful restoration through fire management. We used three sources of information from Missouri to determine appropriate burning frequencies: a...

  20. Mass production of shortleaf x slash pine hybrids by pollinating unbagged female flowers (United States)

    Philip C. Wakeley; O.O. Wells; T.E. Campbell


    A simple method of mass-producing shortleaf x slash pine hybrids was attempted. Large quantities of slash pine pollen were spread on unbagged shortleaf flowers in the hope of recovering a high percentage of hybrid progeny and thus materially reducing the cost of producing such hybrids by conventional controlled pollination. The hybrid is very promising, but, as Snyder...

  1. Forest landowner attitudes toward shortleaf pine restoration: results of nine Missouri focus groups (United States)

    Heather Scroggins; David Gwaze; Michele Baumer


    Shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.) once occurred on 6.6 million acres in the State of Missouri, but by the 1970s only 400,000 acres had shortleaf pine. Since 1935 seeds and seedlings have been sold to the public in the State, as well as planted on public lands, for habitat improvement, timber production, and increasing biodiversity. In Missouri,...

  2. Influence of weather and climate variables on the basal area growth of individual shortleaf pine trees (United States)

    Pradip Saud; Thomas B. Lynch; Duncan S. Wilson; John Stewart; James M. Guldin; Bob Heinemann; Randy Holeman; Dennis Wilson; Keith Anderson


    An individual-tree basal area growth model previously developed for even-aged naturally occurring shortleaf pine trees (Pinus echinata Mill.) in western Arkansas and southeastern Oklahoma did not include weather variables. Individual-tree growth and yield modeling of shortleaf pine has been carried out using the remeasurements of over 200 plots...

  3. The genetics of shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata mill.) with implications for restoration and management (United States)

    John F. Stewart; Rodney E. Will; Barbara S. Crane; C. Dana Nelson


    Shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.) is an important commercial timber resource and forest ecosystem component in the southeastern USA. The species occurs in mainly drier sites as an early- to mid-successional species, is fireadapted, and it plays an important role in the fire ecology of the region. However, shortleaf pine genetics are not well-studied, especially in...

  4. Regeneration Methods Affect Genetic Variation and Structure in Shortleaf Pine (Pinus Echinata Mill.) (United States)

    Rajiv G. Raja; Charles G. Tauer; Robert F. Wittwer; Yinghua Huang


    The effects of regene ration methods on genetic diversity and structure in shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.) were examined by quantifying the changes in genetic composition of shortleaf pine stands following harvest by monitoring changes in allele number and frequency at heterozygous loci over time. The results were also compared to the genetic...

  5. Hybridization in naturally regenerated shortleaf pine as affected by the distance to nearby artificially regenerated stands of loblolly pine (United States)

    John F. Stewart; Charles G. Tauer; James M. Guldin; C. Dana Nelson


    The natural range of shortleaf pine encompasses 22 states from New York to Texas, second only to eastern white pine in the eastern United States. It is a species of minor and varying occurrence in most of these states usually found in association with other pines, but it is the only naturally occurring pine in the northwestern part of its range in Oklahoma, Arkansas,...

  6. Shortleaf pine restoration and ecology in the Ozarks: proceedings of a symposium (United States)

    John M. Kabrick; Daniel C. Dey; David Gwaze


    Contains 27 papers and 14 extended abstracts from the symposium "Shortleaf pine restoration and ecology in the Ozarks" held November 7-9, 2006, at the University Plaza Hotel and Convention Center in Springfield, MO.

  7. Do thinning and prescribed burning affect the growth of shortleaf pine? (United States)

    H. A. Somes; G. R. Moorhead


    In January 1946 a small study of thinning and prescribed burning was started in an old-field stand mostly of shortleaf pines about 38 years old. The stand is located on private land in Salem County, N. J.

  8. The establishment of shortleaf pine following repeated prescribed burns at Catoosa WMA (United States)

    John Bowers; Wayne Clatterbuck; Mike McCloy; Ben Royer; Stephen Peairs


    A mature shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata) stand on the Cumberland Plateau in Tennessee at the Catoosa Wildlife Management Area was harvested in 2001 in response to a regional southern pine beetle outbreak and converted into a savannah through periodic prescribed burns in 2005, 2010, and 2013. Following the harvest and series of burns, the stand was occupied by shortleaf...

  9. The historical ecology of fire, climate, and the decline of shortleaf pine in the Missouri Ozarks (United States)

    Richard P. Guyette; Rose-Marie Muzika; Stephen L. Voelker


    We review studies that have shown reductions in the abundance of shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.) during the last century in the Ozark Highlands. These studies indicate that pine abundance is currently 15 to 53 percent of the pine abundance levels before major logging activity and fire suppression, activities dating from the mid- to late 19th...

  10. The state of mixed shortleaf pine-upland oak management in Missouri (United States)

    Elizabeth M. Blizzard; David R. Larsen; Daniel C. Dey; John M. Kabrick; David Gwaze


    Mixed shortleaf pine-upland oak stands allow flexibility in type and timing of regeneration, release, and harvesting treatments for managers; provide unique wildlife and herbaceous community niches; and increase visual diversity. Most of the research to date focused on growing pure pine or oak stands, with little research on today's need to grow pine-oak mixtures...

  11. Growth performance of loblolly shortleaf, and pitch X loblolly pine hybrid growing along the western margin of commercial pine range (United States)

    K.C. Dipesh; Rodney E. Will; Thomas C Hennessey; Thomas B. Lynch; Robert Heinemann; Randal Holeman


    Expansion of the commercial pine range is one of the opportunities to improve forest production and counterbalance the loss of forest land to other uses. The potential genotypes for the purpose are fast-growing loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.), the slower growing, but more drought tolerant shortleaf pine (P. echinata Mill.), and the more cold tolerant pitch x loblolly...

  12. Regeneration Development Across a Range of Reproduction Cutting Methods in Shortleaf Pine and Pine-Hardwood Stands in the Interior Highlands (United States)

    James M. Guldin; James B. Baker; Michael G. Shelton


    Abstract - Density, milacre stocking, and height of shortleaf pine ( Pinus echinata Mill.) regeneration under 13 reproduction cutting methods were measured after 5 growing seasons across a range of reproduction cutting treatments in shortleaf pine and pine-hardwood stands in the Interior Highlands of Arkansas and Oklahoma. A subset...

  13. How can prescribed burning and harvesting restore shortleaf pine-oak woodland at the landscape scale in central United States? Modeling joint effects of harvest and fire regimes (United States)

    Wenchi Jin; Hong S. He; Stephen R. Shifley; Wen J. Wang; John M. Kabrick; Brian K. Davidson


    Historical fire regimes in the central United States maintained open-canopy shortleaf pine-oak woodlands on xeric sites. Following large-scale harvest and fire suppression, those woodlands grew denser with more continuous canopy cover, and they gained mesic species at the expense of shortleaf pine. There is high interest in restoring shortleaf pine-oak woodlands; most...

  14. Uneven-Aged Silviculture for the Loblolly and Shortleaf Pine Forest Cover Types (United States)

    James B. Baker; Michael D. Cain; James M. Guldin; Paul A. Murphy; Michael G. Shelton


    The results of a half-century of experience and research with uneven-aged silviculture within the loblolly-shortleaf pine type of the Southern United States are summarized, and silvicultural guidelines for developing and managing uneven-aged stands are provided in this publication.

  15. Differences among shortleaf pine seed sources on the Ozark and Ouachita National Forests at age ten (United States)

    Charly Studyvin; David Gwaze


    Progeny test planting of shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.) was started on the National Forests in Arkansas in 1978, and continued through 1990. A series of progeny tests established on the Ouachita and Ozark National Forests were analyzed to determine if significant differences exist between the three seed sources in Arkansas (the East Ouachita,...

  16. Does Prescribed Burning Have a Place in Regenerating Uneven-Aged Loblolly-Shortleaf Pine Stands? (United States)

    Michael D. Cain; Michael G. Shelton


    Before the 1981 growing season, a study was installed in southeastern Arkansas to examine the effects of three dormant-season burn intervals (low, moderate, and high frequency) and an unburned treatment on natural regeneration in uneven-aged stands of loblolly and shortleaf pines (Pinus taeda and P. echinata, respectively)....

  17. Regenerating uneven-aged stands of loblolly and shortleaf pines: the current state of knowledge (United States)

    Michael G. Shelton; Michael D. Cain


    Periodic regeneration is crucial to creating or sustaining uneven-aged (UEA) stands of loblolly (Pinus taeda L.) and shortleaf (P. echinata Mill.) pines. Although both species are shade intolerant, they have silvical characteristics that are conducive to natural regeneration in UEA stands. Their seed production is fairly consistent...

  18. Fire chronology and windstorm effects on persistence of a disjunct oak-shortleaf pine community (United States)

    Michael D. Jones; Marlin L. Bowles


    We investigated effects of a human-altered fire regime and wind storms on persistence of disjunct oak-shortleaf pine vegetation occurring along 5.5 km of xeric habitat on the east bluffs of the Mississippi River in Union County, IL. In 2009, we resampled vegetation transects established in seven stands in 1954 and obtained 26 cross sections containing fire scars from...

  19. Natural loblolly and shortleaf pine productivity through 53 years of management under four reproduction cutting methods (United States)

    Michael D. Cain; Michael G. Shelton


    A study was initiated in 1943 to evaluate the long-term productivity of loblolly (Pinus taeda L.) and shortleaf pines (P. echinata Mill.) when managed under four reproduction cutting methods—clearcut, heavy seedtree, diameter-limit, and selection—on the Upper Coastal Plain of southeastern Arkansas. Early volume production...

  20. Evaluating subsoiling and herbaceous weed control on shortleaf pine planted in retired farm land (United States)

    John D. Kushla


    In March 2005, shortleaf pine was planted on retired fields of the Mississippi Agriculture and Forestry Experiment Station in Holly Springs. The objectives were to evaluate subsoiling and herbaceous weed control on first year seedling stocking, survival, and size. First year seedling measurements were made on stocking, survival, and size. Only results for first year...

  1. Growth expectations from alternative thinning regimes and prescribed burning in naturally regenerated loblolly-shortleaf pine stands through age 20 (United States)

    Michael D. Cain


    Pine growth was monitored for 14 years after mechanically strip-thinning a dense, naturally regenerated, even-aged stand of 6-year-old loblolly pines (Pinus taeda L.) and shortleaf pines (Pinus echinata Mill.) that averaged 41 000 trees per hectare in southeastern Arkansas, USA. Prescribed winter bums were conducted...

  2. Blue storms depress growth of shortleaf pine in western Arkansas and eastern Oklahoma (United States)

    Douglas J. Stevenson; Thomas B. Lynch; James M. Guldin


    Climate and weather, especially storms, have major effects on trees. Fast moving “Alberta Clippers,” or Blue Storms, that produce extreme cold and little precipitation happen each year on the Great Plains in association with Chinook winds in the Northern and Central Rockies. When these storms occur between February 13th and March 10th when shortleaf pines on the...

  3. Is there a morphological or physiological explanation for the dramatic increase in hybridization between loblolly and shortleaf pine? (United States)

    Rodney E. Will; Curtis J. Lilly; John F. Stewart; C. Dana Nelson; Charles G. Taue


    Hybrids between shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.) and loblolly pine (P. taeda L.) have dramatically increased since the 1950s (Stewart and others 2012). Fire suppression, planting nonnative seed sources, and other anthropogenic activities have the potential to break down ecological barriers that previously kept these species from interbreeding (Tauer and others...

  4. Loblolly and shortleaf pine seed viability through 21 months of field storage: Can carry-over occur between seed crops? (United States)

    Michael D. Cain; Michael G. Shelton


    About two-thirds of pine stands in the southeastern United States originated from natural seedfall (USDA Forest Service 1988) and this method of regeneration continues to be impor-tant for perpetuating the species. Loblolly and shortleaf pines (Pinus taeda L. and Pinus echinatu Mill., respectively) are common associates throughout this geographic area and are the most...

  5. Importance of Seedyear, Seedbed, and Overstory for Establishment of Natural Loblolly and Shortleaf Pine Regenerationin Southern Arkansas (United States)

    Michael D. Cain


    First-year density and quadrat stocking of naturally established loblolly and shortleaf pine regeneration were monitored forfive consecutive seedyearson disturbed and undisturbed seedbeds. Compared to untreatedchecks,additional gainsin pine seedling density as a result of exposing mineral soil were not as great as initial gains achieved by control of overtopping...

  6. Shortleaf pine-bluestem restoration for red-cockaded woodpeckers in the Ouachita Mountains: Implications for other taxa (United States)

    Ronald E. Thill; D. Craig Rudolph; Nancy E. Koerth


    The more xeric south- and west-facing slopes of the Ouachita Mountains of west-central Arkansas once supported fire-maintained shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata) forests with a well-developed herbaceous understory. Fire suppression following the original harvest of these forests resulted in forests with increasingly abundant woody vegetation in the...

  7. Cone Characteristics and Seed Quality 10 Years After An Uneven-Aged Regeneration Cut In Shortleaf Pine Stands (United States)

    Kenneth J. Grayson; Robert F. Wittwer; Michael G. Shelton


    Cone characteristics and seed quality for 16 released (stand density 14 square meters per hectare) and 16 unreleased (stand density 28 square meters per hectare) shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.) trees were described by d.b.h. class (28, 33, 38, 43 centimeters) and crown position (upper south, upper north, lower south, and lower north). The 38-...

  8. Understory Vegetation 3 Years after Implementing Uneven-Aged Silviculture in a Shortleaf Pine-Oak Stand (United States)

    Michael G. Shelton; Paul A. Murphy


    The effects of retaining overstory hardwoods on understory vegetation were determined after implementing uneven-aged silviculture usingsingle-tree selection in a shortleaf pine-oak stand (Pinus echinata Mill. and Quercus spp.) in the Ouachita Mountains. Treatments were the following hardwood basal areas (square feet per acre) and...

  9. The Influence of Woody and Herbaceous Competition on Early Growth of Naturally Regenerated Loblolly and Shortleaf Pines (United States)

    M. D. Cain


    Four levels of competition control were used to study the response of naturally regenerated loblolly and shortleaf pines (Pinus taeda L. and P. echinata Mill.) in southern Arkansas. Treatments included: (1) Check (no competition control), (2) woody competition control, herbaceous competition control, and (4) total control of nonpine vegetation. Herbaceous plants were...

  10. Effects of reproduction cutting method and hardwood retention on shortleaf pine seed production in natural stands of the Ouachita Mountains (United States)

    Robert F. Wittwer; Micahel G. Shelton; James M. Guldin


    Shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.) seed production was monitored for 4 yr in stands harvested by a range of even- and uneven-aged reproduction cutting methods. The fifty-two 35–40 ac stands were distributed throughout the Ouachita Mountains from central Arkansas to eastern Oklahoma. Seed crops were characterized as good, poor, poor, and bumper,...

  11. Amounts and spatial distribution of downed woody debris, snags, windthrow, and forest floor mass within streamside management zones occurring in shortleaf pine stands five years after harvesting (United States)

    Hal Liechty


    Shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.) is a dominant tree species in pine and pine-hardwood forest communities located on ridges and upper- to mid-slope positions in the Ouachita Mountains. The stream reaches located in these stands flow infrequently and are classified as ephemeral or intermittent, have low stream orders, and have relatively narrow...

  12. Effects of precommercial thinning in naturally regenerated loblolly-shortleaf pine stands in the upper west gulf coastal plain: results after two growing seasons (United States)

    James M. Guldin; Michael G. Shelton


    The benefits of precommercial thinning in naturally regenerated stands of southern pines have been well documented, but questions remain about how long precommercial thinning can be delayed and still be biologically and economically effective. In 2004, a precommercial thinning demonstration study was installed in naturally regenerated loblolly-shortleaf pine (...

  13. Hardwood Control Treatments to Enhance Natural Regeneration and Growth of Loblolly-Shortleaf Pines in an Uneven-Aged Stand: 12-Year Results (United States)

    Michael D. Cain


    To facilitate natural regeneration of loblolly (Pinus taeda L.) and shortleaf pines (P. echinata Mill.) in an overstocked, uneven-aged pine stand in southeastern Arkansas, hardwoods were controlled by either basal injection of Tordon® 101 R, soil application of Velpar® L, or rotary mowing followed by a broadcast spray of Tordon®...

  14. Fate of residual canopy trees following harvesting to underplant longleaf pine seedlings in loblolly pine stands in Georgia (United States)

    Benjamin O. Knapp; G. Geoff Wang; Joan L. Walker; Robert N. Addington


    Over the past few decades, reports of forest health problems have concerned scientists and forest managers in loblolly pine forests of the southeastern United States. Several interacting factors likely contribute to observed reductions in loblolly pine health, including low resource availability on many upland sites that were once dominated by longleaf pine. Currently...

  15. Shortleaf pine reproduction abundance and growth in pine-oak stands in the Missouri Ozarks (United States)

    Elizabeth M. Blizzard; Doyle Henken; John M. Kabrick; Daniel C. Dey; David R. Larsen; David Gwaze


    We conducted an operational study to evaluate effect of site preparation treatments on pine reproduction density and the impact of overstory basal area and understory density on pine reproduction height and basal diameter in pine-oak stands in the Missouri Ozarks. Stands were harvested to or below B-level stocking, but patchiness of the oak decline lead to some plots...

  16. A 9-year comparison of hardwood control treatments for enhancing natural regeneration and growth of loblolly-shortleaf pines in an uneven-aged stand (United States)

    Michael D. Cain


    Preharvest control of hardwoods facilitated natural regeneration of loblolly and shortleaf pines (Pinus taeda L. and P. enchinata Mill.) in an overstocked, uneven-aged stand in southern Arkansas. During spring 1983, hardwoods were controlled by either basal injection of Tordon® 101R, soil application of Velpar® L, or rotary mowing...

  17. Red-cockaded Woodpecker Picoides borealis Microhabitat Characteristics and Reproductive Success in a Loblolly-Shortleaf Pine Forest (United States)

    Wood, Douglas R.; Burger, L. Wesley; Vilella, Francisco


    We investigated the relationship between red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) reproductive success and microhabitat characteristics in a southeastern loblolly (Pinus taeda) and shortleaf (P. echinata) pine forest. From 1997 to 1999, we recorded reproductive success parameters of 41 red-cockaded woodpecker groups at the Bienville National Forest, Mississippi. Microhabitat characteristics were measured for each group during the nesting season. Logistic regression identified understory vegetation height and small nesting season home range size as predictors of red-cockaded woodpecker nest attempts. Linear regression models identified several variables as predictors of red-cockaded woodpecker reproductive success including group density, reduced hardwood component, small nesting season home range size, and shorter foraging distances. Red-cockaded woodpecker reproductive success was correlated with habitat and behavioral characteristics that emphasize high quality habitat. By providing high quality foraging habitat during the nesting season, red-cockaded woodpeckers can successfully reproduce within small home ranges.

  18. Contrasting the effects of organic matter removal and soil compaction on root biomass of 9-year-old red oak, white oak, and shortleaf pine in a Missouri Ozark forest (United States)

    Felix Jr. Ponder


    Nine-year old artificially regenerated red oak (Quercus rubra L.), white oak (Q. alba L.), and shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.) trees were excavated from plot borders of a U.S. Forest Service long-term soil productivity study in the Carr Creek State Forest near Ellington, MO, to quantify treatment effects on...

  19. Progress in the chemistry of shortleaf and loblolly pine bark flavonoids (United States)

    R.W. Hemingway


    The forest products industries of the southern United States harvest approximately 7 million dry tons of pine bark each year. This resource receives little utilization other than recovery of fuel values. approximately 2 million dry tons (30-40% of bark dry weight) of potentially valuable polyflavonoids are burned annually. Conifer bark flavonoids have potential...

  20. Estimation of Reineke and Volume-Based Maximum Size-Density Lines For Shortleaf Pine (United States)

    Thomas B. Lynch; Robert F. Wittwer; Douglas J. Stevenson


    Maximum size-density relationships for Reineke's stand density index as well as for a relationship based on average tree volume were fitted to data from more than a decade of annual remeasurements of plots in unthinned naturally occurring shor tleaf pine in southeaster n Oklahoma. Reineke's stand density index is based on a maximum line of the form log(N) = a...

  1. Woody and herbaceous competition effects on the growth of naturally regenerated loblolly and shortleaf pines through 11 years (United States)

    Michael D. Cain


    About 67% of pine stands in the southeastern United States originated from natural seedfall (USDA Forest Service 1988), and this method of regeneration continues to be important for perpetuating the species. If midstory and overstory hardwoods are controlled and there is an adequate pine seed source, natural pine regeneration is a viable alternative to artificial...

  2. Direction of Pollination Affects Seed Productivity in (Shortleaf x Loblolly) x Loblolly Hybrids (United States)

    Timothy La Farge; Davie L. Hunt


    In reciprocal crosses between shortleaf X loblolly pine hybrids and loblolly pines, seed production per pollinated flower was higher when the loblolly pine was the mother tree. We therefore recommend that loblolly pines be favored as mother trees in such work, even though storage of pollen for 1 year is required.

  3. Surfing the Koehler Curve: revisiting a method for the identification of longleaf pine stumps and logs (United States)

    Thomas L. Eberhardt; Philip M. Sheridan; Karen G. Reed


    Measurements of pith and second growth ring diameters were used by Koehler in 1932 to separate longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) timbers from those of several southern pines (e.g., loblolly, shortleaf). In the current study, measurements were taken from plantation-grown longleaf, loblolly and shortleaf pine trees, as well as old growth longleaf pine, lightwood, and...

  4. Southern Pine Beetle Information System (SPBIS) (United States)

    Valli Peacher


    The southern pine beetle (SPB) is the most destructive forest insect in the South. The SPB attacks all species of southern pine, but loblolly and shortleaf are most susceptible. The Southern Pine Beetle Information System (SPBIS) is the computerized database used by the national forests in the Southern Region for tracking individual southern pine beetle infestations....

  5. Examining pine spectral separability using hyperspectral data from an airborne sensor : an extension of field-based results

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Aardt, JAN


    Full Text Available Three southern USA forestry species, loblolly pine (Pinus taeda), Virginia pine (Pinus virginiana), and shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata), were previously shown to be spectrally separable (83% accuracy) using data from a full-range spectro...

  6. Impact of weed control and fertilization on growth of four species of pine in the Virginia Piedmont (United States)

    Dzhamal Y. Amishev; Thomas R. Fox


    During 1999, a mixed stand of Virginia pine and hardwoods in the Piedmont of Virginia was clearcut and site prepared by burning. Three replications, containing strips of loblolly pine, shortleaf pine, Virginia pine, and Eastern white pine, were planted at a 3 m x 1.5 m spacing during February to June, 2000. The strips were subsequently split to accommodate four...

  7. Potting Media Affect Growth and Disease Development of Container-Grown Southern Pines (United States)

    William H. Pawuk


    Longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) and shortleaf pine (P. echinata Mill.) seedlings grew best in equal parts of peat and vermiculite with a low pH. Seedlings grew better in shredded pine cone media than pine bark media. Growth increased when soil or vermiculite was added to cone or bark chips. Commercial bark-vermiculite...

  8. Influence of hardwood midstory and pine species on pine bole arthropods (United States)

    Christopher S. Collins; Richard N. Conner; Daniel Saenz


    Arthropod density on the boles of loblolly pines (Pinus taeda) was compared between a stand with and stand without hardwood midstory and between a stand of loblolly and shortleaf pines (P. echinata) in the Stephen E Austin Experimental Forest, Nacogdoches Co., Texas, USA from September 1993 through July 1994. Arthropod density was...

  9. Establishing Pine Monocultures and Mixed Pine-Hardwood Stands on Reclaimed Surface Mined Land in Eastern Kentucky: Implications for Forest Resilience in a Changing Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey Bell


    Full Text Available Surface mining and mine reclamation practices have caused significant forest loss and forest fragmentation in Appalachia. Shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata is threatened by a variety of stresses, including diseases, pests, poor management, altered fire regimes, and climate change, and the species is the subject of a widescale restoration effort. Surface mines may present opportunity for shortleaf pine restoration; however, the survival and growth of shortleaf pine on these harsh sites has not been critically evaluated. This paper presents first-year survival and growth of native shortleaf pine planted on a reclaimed surface mine, compared to non-native loblolly pine (Pinus taeda, which has been highly successful in previous mined land reclamation plantings. Pine monoculture plots are also compared to pine-hardwood polyculture plots to evaluate effects of planting mix on tree growth and survival, as well as soil health. Initial survival of shortleaf pine is low (42%, but height growth is similar to that of loblolly pine. No differences in survival or growth were observed between monoculture and polyculture treatments. Additional surveys in coming years will address longer-term growth and survival patterns of these species, as well as changes to relevant soil health endpoints, such as soil carbon.

  10. Establishing Longleaf Pine Seedlings Under a Loblolly Pine Canopy (User’s Guide) (United States)


    longleaf seedlings under loblolly pine rather than longleaf pine presents distinct challenges. Loblolly trees produce abundant seeds that germinate and...Walker, J.L., and Tennant, C. 2011. Restoring longleaf pine ( Pinus palustris Mill.) in loblolly pine ( Pinus taeda L.) stands: Effects of restoration...Effects of canopy structure and cultural treatments on the survival and growth of Pinus palustris Mill. seedlings underplanted in Pinus taeda L

  11. Pines (United States)

    C. Plomion; D. Chagne; D. Pot; S. Kumar; P.L. Wilcox; R.D. Burdon; D. Prat; D.G. Peterson; J. Paiva; P. Chaumeil; G.G. Vendramin; F. Sebastiani; C.D. Nelson; C.S. Echt; O. Savolainen; T.L. Kubisiak; M.T. Cervera; N. de Maria; M.N. Islam-Faridi


    Pinus is the most important genus within the Family Pinaceae and also within the gymnosperms by the number of species (109 species recognized by Farjon 2001) and by its contribution to forest ecosystems. All pine species are evergreen trees or shrubs. They are widely distributed in the northern hemisphere, from tropical areas to northern areas in America and Eurasia....

  12. A review of southern pine decline in North America (United States)

    David R. Coyle; Kier D. Klepzig; Frank H. Koch; Lawrence A. Morris; John T. Nowak; Steven W. Oak; William J. Otrosina; William D. Smith; Kamal J.K. Gandhi


    The southeastern United States is among the most productive forested areas in the world. Four endemic southern pine species – loblolly, longleaf, shortleaf, and slash - contribute significantly to the economic and ecological values in the region. A recently described phenomenon known as Southern Pine Decline (SPD) has been reported as having widespread impact in the...

  13. Active Magmatic Underplating in Western Eger Rift, Central Europe (United States)

    Hrubcová, Pavla; Geissler, Wolfram H.; Bräuer, Karin; Vavryčuk, Václav; Tomek, Čestmír.; Kämpf, Horst


    The Eger Rift is an active element of the European Cenozoic Rift System associated with intense Cenozoic intraplate alkaline volcanism and system of sedimentary basins. The intracontinental Cheb Basin at its western part displays geodynamic activity with fluid emanations, persistent seismicity, Cenozoic volcanism, and neotectonic crustal movements at the intersections of major intraplate faults. In this paper, we study detailed geometry of the crust/mantle boundary and its possible origin in the western Eger Rift. We review existing seismic and seismological studies, provide new interpretation of the reflection profile 9HR, and supplement it by new results from local seismicity. We identify significant lateral variations of the high-velocity lower crust and relate them to the distribution and chemical status of mantle-derived fluids and to xenolith studies from corresponding depths. New interpretation based on combined seismic and isotope study points to a local-scale magmatic emplacement at the base of the continental crust within a new rift environment. This concept of magmatic underplating is supported by detecting two types of the lower crust: a high-velocity lower crust with pronounced reflectivity and a high-velocity reflection-free lower crust. The character of the underplated material enables to differentiate timing and tectonic setting of two episodes with different times of origin of underplating events. The lower crust with high reflectivity evidences magmatic underplating west of the Eger Rift of the Late Variscan age. The reflection-free lower crust together with a strong reflector at its top at depths of 28-30 km forms a magma body indicating magmatic underplating of the late Cenozoic (middle and upper Miocene) to recent. Spatial and temporal relations to recent geodynamic processes suggest active magmatic underplating in the intracontinental setting.

  14. Determinants of tree quality and lumber value in natural uneven-aged southern pine stands (United States)

    Jeffrey P. Prestemon; Joseph Buongiorno


    An ordered-probit model was developed to predict tree grade from tree- and stand-level variables, some of which could be changed by management. Applied to uneven-aged mixed loblolly (Pinus taeda L.) - shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.) stands, the model showed that the grade of pine trees was highly correlated with tree diameter...

  15. Regeneration of southern pine stands under ecosystem management in the Piedmont (United States)

    James W. McMinn; Alexander Clark


    Ecosystem-oriented management is being used on southern National Forests to conserve biodiversity, improve the balance among forest values, and achieve sustainable conditions. This paper reports on the regeneration phase of a study to identify the implications of ecosystem management practices on loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) and shortleaf (I? echinata Mill) pine...

  16. Estimating long-term carbon sequestration patterns in even- and uneven-aged southern pine stands (United States)

    Don C. Bragg; James M. Guldin


    Carbon (C) sequestration has become an increasingly important consideration for forest management in North America, and has particular potential in pine-dominated forests of the southern United States. Using existing literature on plantations and long-term studies of naturally regenerated loblolly (Pinus taeda) and shortleaf (Pinus echinata) pine-dominated stands on...

  17. Hardwoods on pine sites: competition or antagonistic symbiosis (United States)

    Michael D. Cain


    Early development of natural loblolly (Pinus taeda L.) and shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.) regeneration was monitored in two research studies and two research demonstrations between 1980 and I989 in southern Arkansas. Site preparation and hardwood control incorporated the use of herbicides, mechanical treatments, or...

  18. Active Magmatic Underplating in Western Eger Rift, Central Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrubcová, Pavla; Geissler, W.H.; Bräuer, K.; Vavryčuk, Václav; Tomek, Č.; Kämpf, H.


    Roč. 36, č. 12 (2017), s. 2846-2862 ISSN 0278-7407 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA17-19297S; GA ČR GC16-19751J Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : active intraplate magmatic underplating * mantle-derived fluids * high-velocity lower crust * reflection-free magma body Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure OBOR OECD: Volcanology Impact factor: 3.784, year: 2016

  19. Comparing single-tree selection, group selection, and clearcutting for regenerating oaks and pines in the Missouri Ozarks (United States)

    Randy G. Jensen; John M. Kabrick


    In the Missouri Ozarks, there is considerable concern about the effectiveness of the uneven-aged methods of single-tree selection and group selection for oak (Quercus L.) and shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.) regeneration. We compared the changes in reproduction density of oaks and pine following harvesting by single-tree...

  20. Composition, structure, and dynamics of a mature, unmanaged, pine-dominated old-field stand in southeastern Arkansas (United States)

    Don C. Bragg; Eric Heitzman


    This study describes the composition and structure of a mature, second-growthPinus taeda (Loblolly Pine) and Pinus echinata (Shortleaf Pine)-dominatedold-field stand. Now owned by the University of Arkansas, this 22.5-ha parcel justoutside of the city of Monticello, AR, has been protected as a de facto natural area

  1. Continuous Cover Forestry in the United States--Experience With Southern Pines (United States)

    James M. Guldin


    Continuous cover forestry (CCF) has not been common in the southern United States, but if does exist. The best record of reseurch and practice exists for mixed loblolly-shortleaf pine (Pinus taeda L.-P. echinata Mill.) stands in the Upper West Gulf Coastal Plain west of the Mississippi River. After 60 years, the Good and Poor...

  2. Restoring old-growth southern pine ecosystems: strategic lessons from long-term silvicultural research (United States)

    Don C. Bragg; Michael G. Shelton; James M. Guldin


    The successful restoration of old-growth-like loblolly (Pinus taeda) and shortleaf (Pinus echinata) pine-dominated forests requires the integration of ecological information with long-term silvicultural research from places such as the Crossett Experimental Forest (CEF). Conventional management practices such as timber harvesting or competition control have supplied...

  3. Reptile and amphibian responses to restoration of fire-maintained pine woodlands (United States)

    Roger W Perry; D. Craig Rudolph; Ronald E. Thill


    Fire-maintained woodlands and savannas are important ecosystems for vertebrates in many regions of the world. These ecosystems are being restored by forest managers, but little information exists on herpetofaunal responses to this restoration in areas dominated by shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata). We compared habitat characteristics and...

  4. Ridgetop fire history of an oak-pine forest in the Ozark Mountains of Arkansas (United States)

    Bear L. Engbring; Eric Heitzman; Martin A. Spetich


    A total of 53 fire-scarred Pinus echinata (shortleaf pine) trees were examined to reconstruct a ridgetop fi re chronology of an oak-pine forest in the Ozark Mountains of north-central Arkansas. This process yielded 104 fire scars dating to 61 separate fire years. Fire frequency was greatest during the Euro-American Settlement Period (1820–1900), when...

  5. Effect of site treatments on soil temperature and moisture and oak and pine growth and nutrient concentrations (United States)

    Felix, Jr. Ponder


    Five years after planting, measurements of soil moisture and temperature, leaf nutrient concentrations and growth, were compared for plots of northern red oak, white oak, and shortleaf pine for treatment combinations that included two levels each of harvesting intensity (organic matter removal), site disturbance (soil compaction), and weed control (control of the...

  6. Impact of Sustainable Forest Management on Harvest, Growth, and Regeneration of Southern Pine in the Piedmont After 5 Years of Monitoring (United States)

    Alexander Clark; James W. McMinn


    This paper describes a study established to monitor the implications of ecosystem management choices on natural loblolly and shortleaf pine stands on the Oconee National Forests in the Piedmont of Georgia. The impact of partial harvests, group selection cuts, seed tree cuts and no human disturbance on growth, mortality, species composition, and regeneration were...

  7. Lessons from 72 years of monitoring a once-cut pine-hardwood stand on the Crossett Experimental Forest, Arkansas, U.S.A (United States)

    Don C. Bragg; Michael G. Shelton


    The Crossett Experimental Forest was established in 1934 to provide landowners in the Upper West Gulf Coastal Plain with reliable, science-based advice on how to manage their loblolly (Pinus taeda) and shortleaf (Pinus echinata) pine-dominated forests. A key component of this program was the establishment of an unmanaged control, currently known as the Russell R....

  8. Frequent fire protects shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata) from introgression by loblolly pine (P. taeda). (United States)

    John F Stewart; Rodney E Will; Kevin M Robertson; Dana Nelson


    Across much of the globe, fire is a major disturbance agent of forest and grassland communities. The removal of fire from previously fire-maintained ecosystems, which has occurred in many areas, changes species composition, favoring later less fire tolerant species over fire-adapted ones. A recent measured increase in the rate of hybridization between the fire-adapted...

  9. Overstory density affects field performance of underplanted red oak (Quercus rubra L.) in Ontario (United States)

    Daniel C. Dey; William C. Parker


    Red oak seedlings were underplanted in a closed-canopy mature northern hardwood stand and an adjacent shelterwood in central Ontario. Overstory density effects on seedling survival and growth were assessed 2 yr after planting. After 2 yr, seedling survival was 90% in the uncut stand and over 99% in the shelterwood. Seedlings in the uncut stand experienced negligible or...

  10. Diameter-growth model across shortleaf pine range using regression tree analysis (United States)

    Daniel Yaussy; Louis Iverson; Anantha Prasad


    Diameter growth of a tree in most gap-phase models is limited by light, nutrients, moisture, and temperature. Growing-season temperature is represented by growing degree days (gdd), which is the sum of the average daily temperatures above a baseline temperature. Gap-phase models determine the north-south range of a species by the gdd limits at the north and south...

  11. Rehabilitation of Understocked Loblolly-Shortleaf Pine Stands - I. Recently Cutover Natural Stands (United States)

    James B. Baker; Michael G. Shelton


    A 1988 USDA Forest Service report indicated that 22% (40 million ac) of the commercial timberland in the South was understocked (less than 60% stocking) with desirable tree species for timber production (USDA Forest Service 1988). The understocked stands are usually the result of past har-vesting practices, natural catastrophes, or regeneration fail-ures. Understocked...

  12. Twenty five years long survival analysis of an individual shortleaf pine trees (United States)

    Pradip Saud; Thomas B. Lynch; James M. Guldin


    A semi parametric cox proportion hazard model is preferred when censored data and survival time information is available (Kleinbaum and Klein 1996; Alison 2010). Censored data are observations that have incomplete information related to survival time or event time of interest. In repeated forest measurements, usually observations are either right censored or...

  13. Effects of repeated burning on snag abundance in shortleaf pine woodlands (United States)

    Roger W. Perry; Phillip N. Jordan; Virginia L. McDaniel


    Forest managers are restoring and maintaining forest woodlands across substantial areas of the United States, and these efforts typically require the use of frequent prescribed fire. The effects of frequent prescribed fire on important habitat components such as snags remain unknown. We conducted a study to determine how snag densities are affected by repeated...

  14. Maximum likelihood estimation for predicting the probability of obtaining variable shortleaf pine regeneration densities (United States)

    Thomas B. Lynch; Jean Nkouka; Michael M. Huebschmann; James M. Guldin


    A logistic equation is the basis for a model that predicts the probability of obtaining regeneration at specified densities. The density of regeneration (trees/ha) for which an estimate of probability is desired can be specified by means of independent variables in the model. When estimating parameters, the dependent variable is set to 1 if the regeneration density (...

  15. Yield Tables and Stand Structure For Shortleaf Pine Plantations In Tennessee, Alabama, and Georgia Highlands (United States)

    Glendon W. Smalley; Robert L. Bailey


    Detailed schedules of trees per acre, basal area, mean tree height, and cubic-foot yields in eight volume categories by l-inch diameter classes are presented for all combinations of four site indexes, seven ages from seed, and six planting densities.

  16. Survival and growth of under-planted trees: a meta-analysis across four biomes. (United States)

    Paquette, Alain; Bouchard, André; Cogliastro, Alain


    The transformation of natural forest regeneration processes by human activities has created the need to develop and implement new models of forest management. Alternative silvicultural systems such as variable retention harvest, partial and patch cuts, and older forest management practices such as under-planting, are used in many forests around the world, particularly in North American oak stands, the boreal and coastal temperate rain forests of Canada and the United States, and in many degraded tropical regions of Asia and the Americas. Specific objectives are pursued in each of these biomes, but some are common to most regions, such as preservation of cover and structure and their associated benefits for natural or artificial regeneration due to moderation of the microclimate, development of optimal light and competition conditions, and reduced predation by herbivores. Shelterwoods are often presented as an alternative to clear-cutting to improve the survival of planted trees. A meta-analysis of published results with randomization tests was performed to test the relationship between overstory density and planted seedling growth and survival. Multiple comparisons were also used to reveal optimal levels of overstory density, if they exist. A majority of studies show that survival and growth improve as stand density decreases to an intermediate level, below which they either drop or stabilize. This level seems optimal in most conditions, as it is also more apt to fulfill other objectives imposed on today's forest activities, such as the conservation of forest processes and structures, and the reconstruction of degraded stands through the accelerated return of mid- to late-successional species.

  17. Mountain Pine Beetle (United States)

    Gene D. Amman; Mark D. McGregor; Robert E. Jr. Dolph


    The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, is a member of a group of beetles known as bark beetles: Except when adults emerge and attack new trees, the mountain pine beetle completes its life cycle under the bark. The beetle attacks and kills lodgepole, ponderosa, sugar, and western white pines. Outbreaks frequently develop in lodgepole pine stands that...

  18. Seeding and planting pines (United States)

    Ralph E. Willard; L. Max Schmollinger


    Pines that occur naturally in parts of the region, as well as those that do not, have been introduced throughout. Pines usually produce greater volumes of wood faster than hardwoods, but in many parts of the region there is no market for pine stumpage or logs. Aside from wood production, pines are established for Christmas trees, windbreaks, landscaping, erosion...

  19. Exploration of mechanisms regulating ectomycorrhizal colonization of boron-fertilized pine. [Pisolithus tinctorius

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrett, H.E.; Sword, M.A.


    The ectomycorrhizal association is a naturally occurring symbiotic relationship existing between ectomycorrhizal-forming fungi and the root system of some plants, including many coniferous species. Since boron fertilization (BF) has been reported to increase fungal colonization of clover and alfalfa, the effect of BF on fungal colonization and growth of shortleaf pine was examined. Inoculation of seedlings was shown to increase growth responses in boron treated plants. BF increases root sucrose concentrations required for fungal development and improves the nutritional balance of the plant. Mycorrhizae increase auxin levels in root (possibly increasing root primordial development) while BF decreases root auxin (possibly increasing root elongation). BF reduces phenolic concentrations in the root. BF enhances mycorrhizae and root development, and results in increased tree seedling growth. 36 refs., 9 figs.

  20. Pine Tortoise Scale (United States)

    Harvey J. MacAloney


    The pine tortoise scale (Toumeyella numismaticum (P. & M.)) is a soft scale that periodically causes a noticeable amount of mortality of hard pines. Although it was not described until 1920, when it was found on Scotch pine, in northern Wisconsin, there is evidence that it had caused injury much earlier in a number of localities in this and other States. Scale...

  1. Jeffrey Pine Beetle (United States)

    Richard H. Smith


    The Jeffrey pine beetle (Dendroctonus jeffreyi Hopk.), one of the bark beetles that kill trees by mining between the bark and the wood, is the principal insect enemy of Jeffrey pine. The beetle is of economic importance chiefly in California, where most of the Jeffrey pine grows, and is most destructive in old-growth stands in the timber-producing areas of northeastern...

  2. Lodgepole Pine Dwarf Mistletoe (United States)

    Frank G. Hawksworth; Oscar J. Dooling


    Lodgepole pine dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium americanum Nutt. ex Engelm.) is a native, parasitic, seed plant that occurs essentially throughout the range of lodgepole pine in North America. It is the most damaging disease agent in lodgepole pine, causing severe growth loss and increased tree mortality. Surveys in the Rocky Mountains show that the parasite is found in...

  3. Mountain Pine Beetle Fecundity and Offspring Size Differ Among Lodgepole Pine and Whitebark Pine Hosts


    Gross, Donovan


    Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis Engelmann) is a treeline species in the central Rocky Mountains. Its occupation of high elevations previously protected whitebark pine from long-term mountain pine beetle outbreaks. The mountain pine beetle, however, is currently reaching outbreaks of record magnitude in high-elevation whitebark pine. We used a factorial laboratory experiment to compare mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) life history characteristics between a typical host, ...

  4. Hurricane Katrina winds damaged longleaf pine less than loblolly pine (United States)

    Kurt H. Johnsen; John R. Butnor; John S. Kush; Ronald C. Schmidtling; C. Dana. Nelson


    Some evidence suggests that longleaf pine might be more tolerant of high winds than either slash pine (Pinus elliotii Englem.) or loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.). We studied wind damage to these three pine species in a common garden experiment in southeast Mississippi following Hurricane Katrina,...

  5. Pine weevil (Hylobius abietis) antifeedants from lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta). (United States)

    Bratt, K; Sunnerheim, K; Nordenhem, H; Nordlander, G; Langström, B


    Pine weevils (Hylobius abietis) fed less on bark of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) than on bark of Scots pine (P. sylvestris). Two pine weevil antifeedants, ethyl trans-cinnamate and ethyl 2,3-dibromo-3-phenyl-propanoate, were isolated from bark of lodgepole pine. These two compounds significantly reduced pine weevil feeding in a laboratory bioassay. In field assays, the second compound significantly decreased pine weevil damage on planted seedlings. Ethyl 2,3-dibromo-3-phenylpropanoate has not previously been reported as a natural product.

  6. Longleaf pine seedling production (United States)

    James P. Barnett


    Longleaf pine is a highly desirable species, resisting fire, insects and pathogens, and produces quality solid-wood products, but regeneration of the species has been difficult. Natural regeneration is feasible only on a small portion of the area considered to be longleaf pine type. Therefore, artificial regeneration must become a reliable means of regenerating the...

  7. Sugar pine and its hybrids (United States)

    W. B. Critchfield; B. B. Kinloch


    Unlike most white pines, sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana) is severely restricted in its ability to hybridize with other species. It has not been successfully crossed with any other North American white pine, nor with those Eurasian white pines it most closely resembles. Crosses with the dissimilar P. koraiensis and P....

  8. The longleaf pine resource (United States)

    John F. Kelly; William A. Bechtold


    Area of longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) in the Southern United States has declined from 12.2 to 3.8 million acres over the past 30 years. Longleaf pine, which once dominated vast portions of the region, now accounts for only 3 percent of the total timberland acreage in the 8 States where the species is found.Longleaf growing-stock volume has decreased by 12...

  9. Constraints on timescales and mechanics of magmatic underplating from InSAR observations of large active magma sills in the Earth's crust. (United States)

    Fialko, Y.


    Theoretical models of the granitoid magma generation due to magmatic underplating predict that anatectic melts are produced on quite short timescales of the order of the crystallization time of typical mafic underplates (e.g., 102-10^3 years for sill intrusions that are a few tens to a few hundred meters thick). If so, the intrusion of mafic underplates, the volume changes associated with in situ melting, and the subsequent evacuation of the resulting granitoid magmas can each generate geodetically observable deformation. Geodetic measurements in areas of contemporaneous large active magma bodies may therefore provide critical constraints on the timescales and dynamics of crustal anatexis. We use Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) observations in regions of the ongoing crustal magmatism to constrain typical rates of the large-scale melt generation and/or migration, and to test the proposed models of the granitic melt production. Our primary targets include large mid-crustal magma bodies imaged by seismic studies, in particular, the Socorro (New Mexico, USA), the Altiplano-Puna (south America), and the south Tibet (Asia) magma bodies. All these magma bodies are located at depth of 19-20 km, suggesting a strong rheological or buoyancy control on the transition from a vertical to a horizontal magma flow. Stacked interferometric data from the Socorro magma body indicate a quasi-steady uplift with a maximum rate of 3-4 mm/yr over the last 10 years covered by the InSAR observations. The uplift morphology can be well described by an elastic inflation of the Socorro sill. We show that deformation models that allow for the viscous-like rheology of the mid-to-lower crust cannot be easily reconciled with the geodetic data. However, thermodynamic modeling, in conjunction with inferences of the nearly constant uplift rates, suggest that the deformations associated with the intrusion emplacement must involve a significant inelastic component. Such inelastic

  10. Should ponderosa pine be planted on lodgepole pine sites? (United States)

    P.H. Cochran


    Repeated radiation frosts caused no apparent harm to the majority of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl.) seedlings planted on a pumice flat in south-central Oregon. For most but not all of the ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl.) seedlings planted with the lodgepole pine, however, damage from radiation frost resulted in...

  11. Southern Pine Bark Beetle Guild (United States)

    T. Evan Nebeker


    Dendroctonus frontalis (southern pine beetle), D. terebrans (black turpentine beetle), Ips avulsus (small southern pine engraver or four-spined engraver), I. grandicollis (five-spined engraver), and I. calligraphus (six-spined engraver) comprise the southern pine bark beetle guild. Often they are found sharing the same hosts in the Southeastern United States. They...

  12. Whitebark pine mortality related to white pine blister rust, mountain pine beetle outbreak, and water availability (United States)

    Shanahan, Erin; Irvine, Kathryn M.; Thoma, David P.; Wilmoth, Siri K.; Ray, Andrew; Legg, Kristin; Shovic, Henry


    Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) forests in the western United States have been adversely affected by an exotic pathogen (Cronartium ribicola, causal agent of white pine blister rust), insect outbreaks (Dendroctonus ponderosae, mountain pine beetle), and drought. We monitored individual trees from 2004 to 2013 and characterized stand-level biophysical conditions through a mountain pine beetle epidemic in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. Specifically, we investigated associations between tree-level variables (duration and location of white pine blister rust infection, presence of mountain pine beetle, tree size, and potential interactions) with observations of individual whitebark pine tree mortality. Climate summaries indicated that cumulative growing degree days in years 2006–2008 likely contributed to a regionwide outbreak of mountain pine beetle prior to the observed peak in whitebark mortality in 2009. We show that larger whitebark pine trees were preferentially attacked and killed by mountain pine beetle and resulted in a regionwide shift to smaller size class trees. In addition, we found evidence that smaller size class trees with white pine blister rust infection experienced higher mortality than larger trees. This latter finding suggests that in the coming decades white pine blister rust may become the most probable cause of whitebark pine mortality. Our findings offered no evidence of an interactive effect of mountain pine beetle and white pine blister rust infection on whitebark pine mortality in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. Interestingly, the probability of mortality was lower for larger trees attacked by mountain pine beetle in stands with higher evapotranspiration. Because evapotranspiration varies with climate and topoedaphic conditions across the region, we discuss the potential to use this improved understanding of biophysical influences on mortality to identify microrefugia that might contribute to successful whitebark pine conservation

  13. Sand Pine Symposium Proceedings (United States)

    USDA Forest Service Southern Forest Experiment Station


    Sand pine, a species well suited to the excessively drained soils common to several million acres in the Southeast, was the subject of this well-attended 3-day meeting. Papers presented included a review of the literature plus results of current research related to this species. Subjects covered ranged from seeds and seedlings to final harvest and conversion...

  14. Introduced Pine Sawfly (United States)

    Louis F. Wilson


    The introduced pine, sawfly (Diprion similis (Hartig)) in North America was first discovered in 1914 in a nursery in New Haven, Conn. This insect might have been introduced in the cocoon stage on nursery stock or packing material from Holland. Since its arrival, it has advanced steadily westward, reaching Pennsylvania before 1920 and Ontario by 1931. The present range...

  15. Diseases of lodgepole pine (United States)

    Frank G. Hawksworth


    Diseases are a major concern to forest managers throughout the lodgepole pine type. In many areas, diseases constitute the primary management problem. As might be expected for a tree that has a distribution from Baja California, Mexico to the Yukon and from the Pacific to the Dakotas, the diseases of chief concern vary in different parts of the tree's range. For...

  16. Longleaf Pine Genetics (United States)

    Ronald C. Schmidtling


    There has been a movement of late toward the use of natural regeneration for iongieaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) as well as for other forest tree species. If you have a good natural stand, and have plenty of time, natural regeneration will result in a suitable stand, and genetics is not relevant.

  17. Upper mantle diapers, lower crustal magmatic underplating, and lithospheric dismemberment of the Great Basin and Colorado Plateau regions, Nevada and Utah; implications from deep MT resistivity surveying (United States)

    Wannamaker, P. E.; Doerner, W. M.; Hasterok, D. P.


    In the rifted Basin and Range province of the southwestern U.S., a common faulting model for extensional basins based e.g. on reflection seismology data shows dominant displacement along master faults roughly coincident with the main topographic scarp. On the other hand, complementary data such as drilling, earthquake focal mechanisms, volcanic occurrences, and trace indicators such as helium isotopes suggest that there are alternative geometries of crustal scale faulting and material transport from the deep crust and upper mantle in this province. Recent magnetotelluric (MT) profiling results reveal families of structures commonly dominated by high-angle conductors interpreted to reflect crustal scale fault zones. Based mainly on cross cutting relationships, these faults appear to be late Cenozoic in age and are of low resistivity due to fluids or alteration (including possible graphitization). In the Ruby Mtns area of north-central Nevada, high angle faults along the margins of the core complex connect from near surface to a regional lower crustal conductor interpreted to contain high-temperature fluids and perhaps melts. Such faults may exemplify the high angle normal faults upon which the major earthquakes of the Great Basin appear to nucleate. A larger-scale transect centered on Dixie Valley shows major conductive crustal-scale structures connecting to conductive lower crust below Dixie Valley, the Black Rock desert in NW Nevada, and in east-central Nevada in the Monitor-Diamond Valley area. In the Great Basin-Colorado Plateau transition of Utah, the main structures revealed are a series of nested low-angle detachment structures underlying the incipient development of several rift grabens. All these major fault zones appear to overlie regions of particularly conductive lower crust interpreted to be caused by recent basaltic underplating. In the GB-CP transition, long period data show two, low-resistivity upper mantle diapirs underlying the concentrated

  18. High-pressure metamorphism in the Aegean, eastern Mediterranean: Underplating and exhumation from the Late Cretaceous until the Miocene to Recent above the retreating Hellenic subduction zone (United States)

    Ring, Uwe; Layer, Paul W.


    We report 40Ar/39Ar ages from various tectonic units in the Aegean and westernmost Turkey. On the basis of published geochronologic data and our 40Ar/39Ar ages we propose that the Aegean is made up of several high-pressure units, which were successively underplated from the Late Cretaceous until the Miocene. Ages for high-pressure metamorphism range from 80-83 Ma in parts of the Vardar-Izmir-Ankara suture zone in the north to 21-24 Ma for the Basal unit in the Cyclades and the external high-pressure belt on Crete in the south. Published seismic data suggest that high-pressure metamorphism is currently occurring underneath Crete. Younging of high-pressure metamorphism in a southerly direction mimics the southward retreat of the Hellenic subduction zone. We propose that distinct stages of high-pressure metamorphism were controlled by the underthrusting of fragments of mainly thinned continental crust and that these punctuated events were superposed on progressive slab retreat. By far most of the exhumation of the high-pressure units occurred early during the orogenic history in a forearc position.

  19. Evalution of the healthiness of winter wheat cultivated in conventional tillage, direct sowing and direct sowing with underplant crop of white clover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Moszczyńska


    Full Text Available Research of the healthiness of winter wheat depending on the soil tillage system and rate of nitrogen fertilization were carried out in 1998-2001. The largest threat to the healthiness of plants was tan spot, which was caused by Pyrenophora tritici-repentis, especially in cropping season 1999/2000. The soil tillage system diversified the intensification of occurence of this pathogen, only in two last years of research. The most infected by P. tritici-i was wheat, which was cultivated in the direct sowing. Application of underplant crop of white clover in the direct sowing contributed to the improvement of the plants healthiness. The highest rate of nitrogen fertilization (120 kg N.ha-1 in the highest degree favoured the damage of wheat by P. tritici-repentis, but only in two first years of research. The second pathogen Blumeria graminis, which caused powdery mildew of cereals, occured in small amount and didn't have any influence on the healthiness of winter wheat.

  20. Pine Creek uranium province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bower, M.B.; Needham, R.S.; Page, R.W.; Stuart-Smith, P.G.; Wyborn, L.A.I.


    The objective of this project is to help establish a sound geological framework of the Pine Creek region through regional geological, geochemical and geophysical studies. Uranium ore at the Coronation Hill U-Au mine is confined to a wedge of conglomerate in faulted contact with altered volcanics. The uranium, which is classified as epigenetic sandstone type, is derived from a uranium-enriched felsic volcanic source

  1. Ecophysiological comparison of 50-year-old longleaf pine, slash pine and loblolly pine. (United States)

    Lisa Samuelson; Tom Stokes; Kurt Johnsen


    Longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.), a species that once dominated the southeastern USA, is considered to be more drought tolerant than the principle plantation species in the South, loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) and slash pine (Pinus elliottii Engelm.), and so is predicted to better cope with increases in drought frequency associated with climate change. To...

  2. Mountain pine beetle infestations in relation to lodgepole pine diameters (United States)

    Walter E. Cole; Gene D. Amman


    Tree losses resulting from infestation by the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) were measured in two stands of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl.) where the beetle population had previously been epidemic. Measurement data showed that larger diameter trees were infested and killed first. Tree losses...

  3. Mapping quantitative trait loci controlling early growth in a (longleaf pine × slash pine) × slash pine BC1 family (United States)

    C. Weng; Thomas L. Kubisiak; C. Dana. Nelson; M. Stine


    Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were employed to map the genome and quantitative trait loci controlling the early growth of a pine hybrid F1 tree (Pinus palustris Mill. × P. elliottii Engl.) and a recurrent slash pine tree (P. ellottii Engl.) in a (longleaf pine × slash pine...

  4. Mountain pine beetles use volatile cues to locate host limber pine and avoid non-host Great Basin bristlecone pine (United States)

    Curtis A. Gray; Justin B. Runyon; Michael J. Jenkins; Andrew D. Giunta


    The tree-killing mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) is an important disturbance agent of western North American forests and recent outbreaks have affected tens of millions of hectares of trees. Most western North American pines (Pinus spp.) are hosts and are successfully attacked by mountain pine beetles whereas a handful of pine species are not...

  5. Climate influences on whitebark pine mortality from mountain pine beetle in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (United States)

    Polly C. Buotte; Jeffrey A. Hicke; Haiganoush K. Preisler; John T. Abatzoglou; Kenneth F. Raffa; Jesse A. Logan


    Extensive mortality of whitebark pine, beginning in the early to mid-2000s, occurred in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) of the western USA, primarily from mountain pine beetle but also from other threats such as white pine blister rust. The climatic drivers of this recent mortality and the potential for future whitebark pine mortality from mountain pine beetle...

  6. Perry Pinyon Pines Protection Project (United States)

    Daniel McCarthy


    Fuel reduction treatments around pinyon pine trees began as a simple project but ended in something more complex, enjoyable, and rewarding. The project eventually led to pinyon species (Pinus monophylla and P. quadrifolia) reforestation efforts, something that has been tried in the past with disappointing results. The Perry Pinyon Pines Protection Project and current...

  7. Natural Regeneration of Longleaf Pine (United States)

    William D. Boyer


    Natural regeneration is now a reliable alternative for existing longleaf pine forests. The shelterwood system, or modifications of it, has been used experimentally to regenerate longleaf pine for over 20 years, and regional tests have confirmed its value for a wide range of site conditions. Natural regeneration, because of its low cost when compared to other...

  8. The Austrian x red pine hybrid (United States)

    W. B. Critchfield


    The genetic improvement of red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.) presents tree breeders with one of their most difficult problems. Not only is this valuable species remarkably uniform, but until 1955 it resisted all attempts to cross it with other pines. In that year red pine and Austrian pine (P. nigra var. austriaca [...

  9. Carbon sequestration and natural longleaf pine ecosystems (United States)

    Ralph S. Meldahl; John S. Kush


    A fire-maintained longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) ecosystem may offer the best option for carbon (C) sequestration among the southern pines. Longleaf is the longest living of the southern pines, and products from longleaf pine will sequester C longer than most since they are likely to be solid wood products such as structural lumber and poles....

  10. Southern Pine Beetle Handbook: Southern Pine Beetles Can Kill Your Ornamental Pine (United States)

    Robert C. Thatcher; Jack E. Coster; Thomas L. Payne


    Southern pine beetles are compulsive eaters. Each year in the South from Texas to Virginia the voracious insects conduct a movable feast across thousands of acres of pine forests. Most trees die soon after the beetles sink their teeth into them.

  11. Identifying ponderosa pines infested with mountain pine beetles (United States)

    William F. McCambridge


    Trees successfully and unsuccessfully attacked by mountain pine beetles have several symptoms in common, so that proper diagnosis is not always easy. Guidelines presented here enable the observer to correctly distinguish nearly all attacked trees.

  12. Assessing longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) restoration after southern pine beetle kill using a compact experimental design (United States)

    J.-P. Berrill; C.M. Dagley


    A compact experimental design and analysis is presented of longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) survival and growth in a restoration project in the Piedmont region of Georgia, USA. Longleaf pine seedlings were planted after salvage logging and broadcast burning in areas of catastrophic southern pine beetle (Dendroctonus frontalis) attacks on even-aged mixed pine-hardwood...

  13. A ponderosa pine-lodgepole pine spacing study in central Oregon: results after 20 years. (United States)

    K.W. Seidel


    The growth response after 20 years from an initial spacing study established in a ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) and lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud.) plantation was measured in central Oregon. The study was designed to compare the growth rates of pure ponderosa pine, pure lodgepole pine, and a...

  14. Influence of pine straw harvesting, prescribed fire, and fertilization on a Louisiana longleaf pine site (United States)

    James D. Haywood


    This research was initiated in a 34-year-old, direct-seeded stand of longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) to study how pine straw management practices (harvesting, fire, and fertilization) affected the longleaf pine overstory and pine straw yields. A randomized complete block split-plot design was installed with two main plot treatments...

  15. Species determination of pine nuts in commercial samples causing pine nut syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Aase Æ.; Jessen, Flemming; Ballin, Nicolai Z.


    Consumption of pine nuts from the species of Pinus armandii has been reported to cause dysgeusia, commonly known as pine mouth, or pine nut syndrome (PNS). However, the number of reports on pine nut consumptions of the different species and PNS is limited. This leaves open the possibility...

  16. Mountain Pine Beetles Use Volatile Cues to Locate Host Limber Pine and Avoid Non-Host Great Basin Bristlecone Pine. (United States)

    Gray, Curtis A; Runyon, Justin B; Jenkins, Michael J; Giunta, Andrew D


    The tree-killing mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) is an important disturbance agent of western North American forests and recent outbreaks have affected tens of millions of hectares of trees. Most western North American pines (Pinus spp.) are hosts and are successfully attacked by mountain pine beetles whereas a handful of pine species are not suitable hosts and are rarely attacked. How pioneering females locate host trees is not well understood, with prevailing theory involving random landings and/or visual cues. Here we show that female mountain pine beetles orient toward volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from host limber pine (Pinus flexilis James) and away from VOCs of non-host Great Basin bristlecone pine (Pinus longaeva Bailey) in a Y-tube olfactometer. When presented with VOCs of both trees, females overwhelmingly choose limber pine over Great Basin bristlecone pine. Analysis of VOCs collected from co-occurring limber and Great Basin bristlecone pine trees revealed only a few quantitative differences. Noticeable differences included the monoterpenes 3-carene and D-limonene which were produced in greater amounts by host limber pine. We found no evidence that 3-carene is important for beetles when selecting trees, it was not attractive alone and its addition to Great Basin bristlecone pine VOCs did not alter female selection. However, addition of D-limonene to Great Basin bristlecone pine VOCs disrupted the ability of beetles to distinguish between tree species. When presented alone, D-limonene did not affect behavior, suggesting that the response is mediated by multiple compounds. A better understanding of host selection by mountain pine beetles could improve strategies for managing this important forest insect. Moreover, elucidating how Great Basin bristlecone pine escapes attack by mountain pine beetles could provide insight into mechanisms underlying the incredible longevity of this tree species.

  17. Southern Pine Based on Biorefinery Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ragauskas, Arthur J. [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Singh, Preet [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)


    This program seeks to develop an integrated southern pine wood to biofuels/biomaterials processing facility on the Recipient’s campus, that will test advanced integrated wood processing technologies at the laboratory scale, including: The generation of the bioethanol from pines residues and hemicelluloses extracted from pine woodchips; The conversion of extracted woodchips to linerboard and bleach grade pulps; and the efficient conversion of pine residues, bark and kraft cooking liquor into a useful pyrolysis oil.

  18. A Hydraulically Operated Pine Cone Cutter (United States)

    Carl W. Fatzinger; M.T. Proveaux


    Mature cones of slash pine (Pinus elliottii Engelm. var. elliottii) and longleaf pine (P. palustris Mill.) can be easily bisected along their longitudinal axes with the hydraulic pine cone cutter described. This cutter eliminates the two major problems of earlier models--undue operator fatigue and the...

  19. Silvical characteristics of Virginia pine (Pinus virginiana) (United States)

    Albert G., Jr. Snow


    Virginia pine has finally attained its rightful place among trees of commercial importance. It has done so in spite of being called "scrub pine" and "poverty pine" - and in spite of the term "forest weed", which has lingered long in the speech of oldtimers who remember the days of timber-plenty.

  20. Ecology of southwestern ponderosa pine forests (United States)

    William H. Moir; Brian W. Geils; Mary Ann Benoit; Dan Scurlock


    Ponderosa pine forests are important because of their wide distribution, commercial value, and because they provide habitat for many plants and animals. Ponderosa pine forests are noted for their variety of passerine birds resulting from variation in forest composition and structure modified by past and present human use. Subsequent chapters discuss how ponderosa pine...

  1. Study on Korean Pine Nut Processors


    Kang, Hag Mo; Choi, Soo Im; Sato, Noriko; Kim, Hyun; 佐藤, 宣子


    In the results of survey on operating state of pine nut processors located in Gapyeong–gun, Gyeonggi–do and Hongcheon–gun, Gangwon–do, representative pine nut producing area, the total purchasing amount of pine nuts with a cone of Gapyeong–gun, Gyeonggi–do was 500~4,000 bags (1 bag is 80 kg), of which average amount per processor was 2000 bags. The price range per bag of pine nuts was 470~620 thousand won and the average price was 550 thousand won. Total purchase price of pine nuts with a con...

  2. A Loblolly Pine Management Guide: Natural Regeneration of Loblolly Pine (United States)

    M. Boyd Edwards


    For many landowners, low cost makes natural regeneration an attractive alternative to planting when loblolly pine stands are harvested. Clearcutting, seed-tree, shelterwood, and selection methods can be used. Keys to success are a suitable adequate seed supply, sufficient moisture. and freedom from excessive competition.

  3. Pine needle abortion biomarker detected in bovine fetal fluids (United States)

    Pine needle abortion is a naturally occurring condition in free-range cattle caused by the consumption of pine needles from select species of cypress, juniper, pine, and spruce trees. Confirmatory diagnosis of pine needle abortion has previously relied on a combined case history of pine needle cons...

  4. Multiaged silviculture of ponderosa pine (United States)

    Kevin L. O' Hara


    Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa P. & C. Lawson) is highly suitable for management using multiaged systems. This suitability is primarily the result of a frequent, low severity disturbance regime, but also because it naturally occurs at low densities and has a long history of management to promote multiple age classes. Several different stocking...

  5. Fusiform Rust of Southern Pines (United States)

    W. R. Phelps; F. L. Czabator


    Fusiform rust, caused by the fungus Cronartium fusiforme Hedg. & Hunt ex Cumm., is distributed in the Southern United States from Maryland to Florida and west to Texas and southern Arkansas. Infections by the fungus, which develops at or near the point of infection, result in tapered, spindle-shaped swells, called galls, on branches and stems of pines. (see photo...

  6. Nutrient Management in Pine Forests (United States)

    Allan E. Tiarks


    Coastal plain soils are naturally low in fertility and many pine stands will give an economic response to fertilization, especially phosphorus. Maintaining the nutrients that are on the site by limiting displacement of logging slash during and after the harvest can be important in maintaining the productivity of the site and reducing the amount of fertilizer required...

  7. Geophysical investigations of underplating at the Middle American Trench, weathering in the critical zone, and snow water equivalent in seasonal snow (United States)

    St. Clair, James

    This dissertation consists of four chapters that are broadly related through the use of geophysical methods to investigate Earth processes. In Chapter 1, an along-strike seismic reflection/refraction data set is used to investigate the plate boundary beneath the forearc offshore Costa Rica. The convergent margin offshore Costa Rica is representative of the 19,000 km of subduction zones that are considered to be erosive, or that experience a net mass loss over time. At these margins, sediments along with material that is tectonically eroded from the overlying plate are presumably carried down the subduction zones and recycled into the mantle. In addition to the mass that they represent, sediments, eroded upper-plate material, and subducted oceanic crust carry fluids into the subduction zone, which influence both magma generating processes and the chemical composition of arc lavas. Thus, understanding the ultimate fate of subducted material along these margins is critical for evaluating both the chemical and mass balances. Beneath the forearc offshore Costa Rica, we observe an ˜40 km long, 1-to-3 km-thick lens of material sitting directly above the subducting Cocos plate. Directly above this lens, the forearc shows evidence for long-term uplift consistent with the steady growth of this lens. Our results suggest that the convergent margin at Costa Rica experience simultaneous outer-forearc erosion and underplating beneath the inner forearc. In Chapter 2, a combination of three-dimensional stress modeling and landscape scale geophysical imaging is used to test the hypothesis that topographic perturbations to regional stress fields control lateral variations in bedrock permeability. The permeability of bedrock fractures influences groundwater flow, water and nutrient availability for biota, chemical weathering rates, and the long-term evolution of life-sustaining layer at Earth's surface commonly referred to as the "critical zone" (CZ). The results of this study

  8. Loblolly pine: the ecology and culture of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) (United States)

    Robert P. Schultz


    Loblolly pine ranks as a highly valuable tree for its pulp, paper, and lumber products. In the South, loblolly is planted more than any other conifer. Loblolly Pine: The Ecology and Culture of Loblolly Pine (Pinus taeda L.) adds to the technical foundations laid by Ashe (1915) and Wahlenberg (1960). Agriculture Handbook 713 encompasses genetics, tree...

  9. Selection for resistance to white pine blister rust affects the abiotic stress tolerances of limber pine (United States)

    Patrick J. Vogan; Anna W. Schoettle


    Limber pine (Pinus flexilis) mortality is increasing across the West as a result of the combined stresses of white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola; WPBR), mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae), and dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium cyanocarpum) in a changing climate. With the continued spread of WPBR, extensive mortality will continue with strong selection...

  10. Potential for long-term seed storage for ex situ genetic conservation of high elevation white pine species – whitebark pine and foxtail pine case study (United States)

    R.A. Sniezko; A.J. Kegley


    Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) and foxtail pine (P. balfouriana) are conifers native to western North America. Due to several threats, including a non-native pathogen (Cronartium ribicola) and a changing climate, whitebark pine and foxtail pine are classified on the IUCN Red List as ‘endangered’ and ‘...

  11. Restoration planting options for limber pines impacted by mountain pine beetles and/or white pine blister rust in the Southern Rocky Mountains (United States)

    Anne Marie Casper; William R. Jacobi; Anna W. Schoettle; Kelly S. Burns


    Limber Pine (Pinus flexilis) populations in the southern Rock Mountains are severely threatened by the combined impacts of mountain pine beetles and white pine blister rust. Limber pine’s critical role these high elevation ecosystems heightens the importance of mitigating impacts. To develop forest-scale planting methods six seedling planting trial sites were installed...

  12. Foliar fungi of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris)


    Millberg, Hanna


    Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) is an ecologically and economically important tree species in Fennoscandia. Scots pine needles host a variety of fungi, some with the potential to profoundly influence their host. These fungi can have beneficial or detrimental effects with important implications for both forest health and primary production. In this thesis, the foliar fungi of Scots pine needles were investigated with the aim of exploring spatial and temporal patterns, and development with needle...

  13. Bio-composites made from pine straw (United States)

    Cheng Piao; Todd F. Shupe; Chung Y. Hse; Jamie Tang


    Pine straw is renewable natural resource that is under-utilized. The objective of this study was to evaluate the physical and mechanical performances of pine straw composites. Three panel density levels (0.8, 0.9, 1.0 g/cm2) and two resin content levels (1% pMDI + 4% UF, 2% pMDI + 4% UF) were selected as treatments. For the pine-straw-bamboo-...

  14. Dynamics of whlte pine in New England (United States)

    William B. Leak; J.B. Cullen; Thomas S. Frieswyk


    Analysis of growth, regeneration, and quality changes for white pine between the 1970's and 1980's in the six-state New England region. Growth rates seemed comparable among ail states except Rhode Island, where the percentage of growth (1.71%) seemed low. Over all states, the proportion of acreage in seedling/sapling white pine stands averaged too low (8%) to...

  15. Risk Assessment for the Southern Pine Beetle (United States)

    Andrew Birt


    The southern pine beetle (SPB) causes significant damage (tree mortality) to pine forests. Although this tree mortality has characteristic temporal and spatial patterns, the precise location and timing of damage is to some extent unpredictable. Consequently, although forest managers are able to identify stands that are predisposed to SPB damage, they are unable to...

  16. Diprionidae sawflies on lodgepole and ponderosa pines (United States)

    Eight species of Diprionidae feed on lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) and ponderosa pine (P. ponderosa) in western United States: Neodiprion burkei Middleton, N. annulus contortae Ross, N. autumnalis Smith, N. fulviceps (Cresson), N. gillettei (Rohwer), N. mundus Rohwer, N. ventralis Ross, and Zadi...

  17. Insects in IBL-4 pine weevil traps (United States)

    I. Skrzecz


    Pipe traps (IBL-4) are used in Polish coniferous plantations to monitor and control the pine weevil (Hylobius abietis L.). This study was conducted in a one-year old pine plantation established on a reforested clear-cut area in order to evaluate the impact of these traps on non-target insects. Evaluation of the catches indicated that species of

  18. Sequence of the Sugar Pine Megagenome (United States)

    Kristian A. Stevens; Jill L. Wegrzyn; Aleksey Zimin; Daniela Puiu; Marc Crepeau; Charis Cardeno; Robin Paul; Daniel Gonzalez-Ibeas; Maxim Koriabine; Ann E. Holtz-Morris; Pedro J. Martínez-García; Uzay U. Sezen; Guillaume Marçais; Kathie Jermstad; Patrick E. McGuire; Carol A. Loopstra; John M. Davis; Andrew Eckert; Pieter de Jong; James A. Yorke; Steven L. Salzberg; David B. Neale; Charles H. Langley


    Until very recently, complete characterization of the megagenomes of conifers has remained elusive. The diploid genome of sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana Dougl.) has a highly repetitive, 31 billion bp genome. It is the largest genome sequenced and assembled to date, and the first from the subgenus Strobus, or white pines, a group...

  19. High elevation white pines educational website (United States)

    Anna W. Schoettle; Michele Laskowski


    The high elevation five-needle white pines are facing numerous challenges ranging from climate change to invasion by a non-native pathogen to escalation of pest outbreaks. This website ( serves as a primer for managers and the public on the high elevation North American five-needle pines. It presents information on each...

  20. Longleaf Pine: Natural Regeneration and Management (United States)

    William D. Boyer


    Longleaf pine has long been recognized as a high-quality timber tree providing a number of valuable products. It is a versatile species with characteristics allowing the use of several silvicultural options. Both natural and artificial regeneration of longleaf pine are now practical management options. Natural regeneration is a lowcost alternative whenever sufficient...

  1. Regional Longleaf Pine (Pinus palustris) Natural Regeneration (United States)

    William D. Boyer


    Duration: 1968-present Objective: Test the shelterwood system of longleaf pine natural regeneration. Methods: Longleaf pine natural regeneration tests were established from 1966 through 1970 at ten locations in seven states from North Carolina to Louisiana. One of these was established on a 50-acre flatwoods site on Eglin AFB in 1968. Regeneration was initially...

  2. Regenerating the Natural Longleaf Pine Forest (United States)

    William D. Boyer


    Natural regeneration by the shldterwood system is a reliable, low-cost alternative for existing longleaf pine (Pine palustris Mill.) forests. The system is well suited to the nautral attributes and requirements of the species. It may be attractive to landownders wishing to retain a natural forest and aboid high costs of site preparation and...

  3. State of pine decline in the southeastern United States (United States)

    Lori Eckhardt; Mary Anne Sword Sayer; Don Imm


    Pine decline is an emerging forest health issue in the southeastern United States. Observations suggest pine decline is caused by environmental stress arising from competition, weather, insects and fungi, anthropogenic disturbances, and previous management. The problem is most severe for loblolly pine on sites that historically supported longleaf pine, are highly...

  4. Biogeography and diversity of pines in the Madrean Archipelago (United States)

    George M. Ferguson; Aaron D. Flesch; Thomas R. Van Devender


    Pines are important dominants in pine-oak, pine and mixed-conifer forests across the Colorado Plateau, southern Rocky Mountains, Sierra Madre Occidental, and in the intervening Sky Islands of the United States-Mexico borderlands. All 17 native species of pines in the Sky Islands region or their adjacent mountain mainlands reach the northern or southern margins of their...

  5. Length Research Paper The effects of the pine processionary moth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The pine processionary moth (PPM), causing significant damage on pine stands in Turkey, affects mainly crimean pine stands within the Ulus vicinity. To determine the damage, 20 sample plots of second site class crimean pine stands were measured; 10 of which were taken as the control sample and 10 of which were ...

  6. Evolutionary relationships of Slash Pine ( Pinus elliottii ) with its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    llozymes in bud tissue and monoterpene contents in xylem oleoresin of slash pine (Pinus elliottii) were analyzed from populations across the natural distribution, as well as those from other species in the AUSTRALES pines. Allozyme diversity measures of slash pine were similar to those found in other southern pines.

  7. Western yellow pine in Arizona and New Mexico (United States)

    Theodore S. Woolsey


    Western yellow pine is to the Southwest what white pine is to the Northeast, or longleaf pine to the Southeast. The commercial forests of Arizona and New Mexico are three-fourths western yellow pine, which furnishes by far the greater part of the lumber used locally as well as that shipped to outside markets. To describe the characteristics of the species and to...

  8. White pine blister rust resistance research in Minnesota and Wisconsin (United States)

    Andrew David; Paul Berrang; Carrie Pike


    The exotic fungus Cronartium ribicola causes the disease white pine blister rust on five-needled pines throughout North America. Although the effects of this disease are perhaps better known on pines in the western portion of the continent, the disease has also impacted regeneration and growth of eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L. ...

  9. White pine blister rust in the interior Mountain West (United States)

    Kelly Burns; Jim Blodgett; Dave Conklin; Brian Geils; Jim Hoffman; Marcus Jackson; William Jacobi; Holly Kearns; Anna Schoettle


    White pine blister rust is an exotic, invasive disease of white, stone, and foxtail pines (also referred to as white pines or five-needle pines) in the genus Pinus and subgenus Strobus (Price and others 1998). Cronartium ribicola, the fungus that causes WPBR, requires an alternate host - currants and gooseberries in the genus Ribes and species of Pedicularis...

  10. Histological observations on needle colonization by Cronartium ribicola in susceptible and resistant seedlings of whitebark pine and limber pine (United States)

    Jeffrey Stone; Anna Schoettle; Richard Sniezko; Angelia Kegley


    Resistance to white pine blister rust based on a hypersensitive response (HR) that is conferred by a dominant gene has been identified as functioning in needles of blister rust-resistant families of sugar pine, western white pine and southwestern white pine. The typical HR response displays a characteristic local necrosis at the site of infection in the needles during...

  11. Phylogenetics of Lophodermium from pine. (United States)

    Ortiz-García, Sol; Gernandt, David S; Stone, Jeffrey K; Johnston, Peter R; Chapela, Ignacio H; Salas-Lizana, Rodolfo; Alvarez-Buylla, Elena R


    Lophodermium comprises ascomycetous fungi that are both needle-cast pathogens and asymptomatic endophytes on a diversity of plant hosts. It is distinguished from other genera in the family Rhytismataceae by its filiform ascospores and ascocarps that open by a longitudinal slit. Nucleotide sequences of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of nuclear ribosomal DNA were used to infer phylogenetic relationships within Lophodermium. Twenty-nine sequences from approximately 11 species of Lophodermium were analyzed together with eight sequences from isolates thought to represent six other genera of Rhytismataceae: Elytroderma, Lirula, Meloderma, Terriera, Tryblidiopsis and Colpoma. Two putative Meloderma desmazieresii isolates occurred within the Lophodermium clade but separate from one another, one grouped with L. indianum and the other with L. nitens. An isolate of Elytroderma deformans also occurred within the Lophodermium clade but on a solitary branch. The occurrence of these genera within the Lophodermium clade might be due to problems in generic concepts in Rhytismataceae, such as emphasis on spore morphology to delimit genera, to difficulty of isolating Rhytismataceae needle pathogens from material that also is colonized by Lophodermium or to a combination of both factors. We also evaluated the congruence of host distribution and several morphological characters on the ITS phylogeny. Lophodermium species from pine hosts formed a monophyletic sister group to Lophodermium species from more distant hosts from the southern hemisphere, but not to L. piceae from Picea. The ITS topology indicated that Lophodermium does not show strict cospeciation with pines at deeper branches, although several closely related isolates have closely related hosts. Pathogenic species occupy derived positions in the pine clade, suggesting that pathogenicity has evolved from endophytism. A new combination is proposed, Terriera minor (Tehon) P.R. Johnst.

  12. Damage by pathogens and insects to Scots pine and lodgepole pine 25 years after reciprocal plantings in Canada and Sweden


    Fries, Anders


    A combined species - provenance - family experiment with Scots pine and lodgepole pine was planted in Canada and Sweden. One aim of the experiment was to evaluate the two species' sensitivities to pathogens and insects 25 years after establishment in their non-native continents. In Canada, Scots pine had better average survival than lodgepole pine, but survival rates among trees from the best seed-lots were equal. In Canada only western gall rust infected Scots pine to some extent, and mounta...

  13. Transcriptome resources and functional characterization of monoterpene synthases for two host species of the mountain pine beetle, lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) and jack pine (Pinus banksiana). (United States)

    Hall, Dawn E; Yuen, Macaire M S; Jancsik, Sharon; Quesada, Alfonso Lara; Dullat, Harpreet K; Li, Maria; Henderson, Hannah; Arango-Velez, Adriana; Liao, Nancy Y; Docking, Roderick T; Chan, Simon K; Cooke, Janice Ek; Breuil, Colette; Jones, Steven Jm; Keeling, Christopher I; Bohlmann, Jörg


    The mountain pine beetle (MPB, Dendroctonus ponderosae) epidemic has affected lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) across an area of more than 18 million hectares of pine forests in western Canada, and is a threat to the boreal jack pine (Pinus banksiana) forest. Defence of pines against MPB and associated fungal pathogens, as well as other pests, involves oleoresin monoterpenes, which are biosynthesized by families of terpene synthases (TPSs). Volatile monoterpenes also serve as host recognition cues for MPB and as precursors for MPB pheromones. The genes responsible for terpene biosynthesis in jack pine and lodgepole pine were previously unknown. We report the generation and quality assessment of assembled transcriptome resources for lodgepole pine and jack pine using Sanger, Roche 454, and Illumina sequencing technologies. Assemblies revealed transcripts for approximately 20,000 - 30,000 genes from each species and assembly analyses led to the identification of candidate full-length prenyl transferase, TPS, and P450 genes of oleoresin biosynthesis. We cloned and functionally characterized, via expression of recombinant proteins in E. coli, nine different jack pine and eight different lodgepole pine mono-TPSs. The newly identified lodgepole pine and jack pine mono-TPSs include (+)-α-pinene synthases, (-)-α-pinene synthases, (-)-β-pinene synthases, (+)-3-carene synthases, and (-)-β-phellandrene synthases from each of the two species. In the absence of genome sequences, transcriptome assemblies are important for defence gene discovery in lodgepole pine and jack pine, as demonstrated here for the terpenoid pathway genes. The product profiles of the functionally annotated mono-TPSs described here can account for the major monoterpene metabolites identified in lodgepole pine and jack pine.

  14. Hybrid pine for tough sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, W.H.


    A test planting of 30 first- and second-generation pitch x loblolly pine (pinus rigida x P. taeda) hybrids was established on a West Virginia minesoil in 1985. The site was considered orphaned because earlier attempts at revegetation were unsuccessful. The soil was acid (pH 4.6), lacking in nutrients, and compacted. Vegetation present at the time of planting consisted of a sparse cover of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) and poverty grass (Danthonia spicata) and a few sourwood (Oxydendrum arboreum) and mountain laurel (Kalmia latifolia) seedlings. In the planting trial, 30 different hybrids were set out in 4 tree linear plots replicated 5 times. The seedlings had been grown in containers for 1 yr before outplanting. Evaluations made after 6 growing seasons showed overall plantation survival was 93%; six hybrids and one open-pollinated cross survived 100%. Individual tree heights ranged from 50 to 425 cm with a plantation average of 235 cm (7.7 ft). Eleven of the hybrids had average heights that exceeded the plantation average. Another test planting of tree and shrub species on this site has very poor survival. Therefore, pitch x loblolly hybrid pine can be recommended for reclaiming this and similar sites

  15. Mountain pine beetle infestation of lodgepole pine in areas of water diversion. (United States)

    Smolinski, Sharon L; Anthamatten, Peter J; Bruederle, Leo P; Barbour, Jon M; Chambers, Frederick B


    The Rocky Mountains have experienced extensive infestations from the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins), affecting numerous pine tree species including lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. var. latifolia). Water diversions throughout the Rocky Mountains transport large volumes of water out of the basins of origin, resulting in hydrologic modifications to downstream areas. This study examines the hypothesis that lodgepole pine located below water diversions exhibit an increased incidence of mountain pine beetle infestation and mortality. A ground survey verified diversion structures in a portion of Grand County, Colorado, and sampling plots were established around two types of diversion structures, canals and dams. Field studies assessed mountain pine beetle infestation. Lodgepole pines below diversions show 45.1% higher attack and 38.5% higher mortality than lodgepole pines above diversions. These findings suggest that water diversions are associated with increased infestation and mortality of lodgepole pines in the basins of extraction, with implications for forest and water allocation management. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance of Lodgepole Pine Wood Chips Affected by the Mountain Pine Beetle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartwig Peemoeller


    Full Text Available In this study, wood-water interactions of mountain pine beetle affected lodgepole pine were found to vary with time since death. Based on an analysis of magnetization components and spin-spin relaxation times from 1H NMR, it was determined that the mountain pine beetle attack does not affect the crystalline structure of the wood. Both the amorphous structure and the water components vary with time since death, which could be due to the fungi present after a mountain pine beetle attack, as well as the fact that wood from the grey-stage of attack cycles seasonally through adsorption and desorption in the stand.

  17. 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance of Lodgepole Pine Wood Chips Affected by the Mountain Pine Beetle


    Todoruk, Tara M.; Hartley, Ian D.; Teymoori, Roshanak; Liang, Jianzhen; Peemoeller, Hartwig


    In this study, wood-water interactions of mountain pine beetle affected lodgepole pine were found to vary with time since death. Based on an analysis of magnetization components and spin-spin relaxation times from 1H NMR, it was determined that the mountain pine beetle attack does not affect the crystalline structure of the wood. Both the amorphous structure and the water components vary with time since death, which could be due to the fungi present after a mountain pine beetle attack, as wel...

  18. Restoring longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) stands: Effects of restoration treatments on natural loblolly pine regeneration (United States)

    Ben Knapp; Wang Geoff; Huifeng Hu; Joan Walker; Carsyn Tennant


    Historical land use and management practices in the southeastern United States have resulted in the dominance of loblolly pine on many upland sites that historically were occupied by longleaf pine. There is currently much interest in restoring high quality longleaf pine habitats to such areas, but managers may also desire the retention of some existing canopy trees to...

  19. Predictions of fire behavior and resistance to control: for use with photo series for the ponderosa pine type, ponderosa pine and associated species type, and lodgepole pine type. (United States)

    Franklin R. Ward; David V. Sandberg


    This publication presents tables on the behavior of fire and the resistance of fuels to control. The information is to be used with the publication, "Photo Series for Quantifying Forest Residues in the Ponderosa Pine Type, Ponderosa Pine and Associated Species Type, Lodgepole Pine Type" (Maxwell, Wayne G.; Ward, Franklin R. 1976. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-052....

  20. Noise abatement in a pine plantation (United States)

    R. E. Leonard; L. P. Herrington


    Observations on sound propagation were made in two red pine plantations. Measurements were taken of attenuation of prerecorded frequencies at various distances from the sound source. Sound absorption was strongly dependent on frequencies. Peak absorption was at 500 Hz.

  1. TBT recommends : Courtney Pine. Hansa disco night

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae


    Inglise jazzsaksofonisti Courtney Pine heliplaadi "Resistance" esitluskontserdist 15. dets. Rock Cafés Tallinnas. Inglise laulja Chris Norman läti ansamblitega üritusel "Hansa disco night Nr.4" 9. dets. Kipsala Hallis Riias

  2. Role of Fire in Lodgepole Pine Forests


    Lotan, James E; Brown, James K; Neuenschwander, Leon F


    Fire is one of the most important factors involved in the establishment and development of many lodgepole pine forests in North America. In the Rocky Mountain lodgepole pine is usually considered a fire-maintained seral type. But even here fires vary greatly in frequency, intensity, size, and other characteristics. A particular fire regime greatly affects forest succession, longevity of the species, stocking, and species composition; and fire also influences the incidence of insects and disea...

  3. Genetic and phenotypic resistance in lodgepole pine to attack by mountain pine beetle (United States)

    Alvin Yanchuk; Kimberly Wallin


    The recent outbreak of mountain pine beetle (MPB) (Dendroctonus ponderosae) in British Columbia provided an opportunity to examine genetic variation of differential attack and resistance in a 20-year old lodgepole pine open-pollinated (OP) family trial. Approximately 2,500 individuals from 180 OP parent-tree collections (~14 trees per parent), from...

  4. Mountain pine beetle-killed trees as snags in Black Hills ponderosa pine stands (United States)

    J. M. Schmid; S. A. Mata; W. C. Schaupp


    Mountain pine beetle-killed ponderosa pine trees in three stands of different stocking levels near Bear Mountain in the Black Hills National Forest were surveyed over a 5-year period to determine how long they persisted as unbroken snags. Rate of breakage varied during the first 5 years after MPB infestation: only one tree broke during the first 2 years in the three...

  5. Local and general above-stump biomass functions for loblolly pine and slash pine trees (United States)

    Carlos A. Gonzalez-Beneke; Salvador Gezan; Tmothy J. Albaugh; H. Lee Allen; Harold E. Burkhart; Thomas R. Fox; Eric J. Jokela; Christopher Maier; Timothy A. Martin; Rafael A. Rubilar; Lisa J. Samuelson


    There is an increasing interest in estimating biomass for loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) and slash pine (Pinus elliottii Engelm. var. elliottii), two of the most ecologically and commercially important tree species in North America. The majority of the available individual-tree allometric models are local, relying on stem diameter outside bark at breast height (dbh)...

  6. Forcing attacks of western pine beetles to test resistance of pines (United States)

    Richard H. Smith


    Success--defined as oviposition or tree-killing--was obtained by attracting western pine beetles to groups of pines with natural attractants and by en-massed forced attacks on individual trees combined with either physical or biological stress. Preliminary results show considerable agreement with laboratory tests of vapor toxicity.

  7. Strong partial resistance to white pine blister rust in sugar pine (United States)

    Bohun B. Kinloch, Jr.; Deems Burton; Dean A. Davis; Robert D. Westfall; Joan Dunlap; Detlev Vogler


    Quantitative resistance to white pine blister rust in 128 controlled- and open-pollinated sugar pine families was evaluated in a “disease garden”, where alternate host Ribes bushes were interplanted among test progenies. Overall infection was severe (88%), but with great variation among and within families: a 30-fold range in numbers of infections...

  8. Silvicultural Considerations in Managing Southern Pine Stands in the Context of Southern Pine Beetle (United States)

    James M. Guldin


    Roughly 30 percent of the 200 million acres of forest land in the South supports stands dominated by southern pines. These are among the most productive forests in the nation. Adapted to disturbance, southern pines are relatively easy to manage with even-aged methods such as clearcutting and planting, or the seed tree and shelterwood methods with natural regeneration....

  9. Preparation of Fe-cored carbon nanomaterials from mountain pine beetle-killed pine wood (United States)

    Sung Phil Mun; Zhiyong Cai; Jilei Zhang


    The mountain pine beetle-killed lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) wood treated with iron (III) nitrate solution was used for the preparation of Fe-cored carbon nanomaterials (Fe-CNs) under various carbonization temperatures. The carbonization yield of Fe-treated sample (5% as Fe) was always 1–3% higher (after ash compensation) than that of the non-...

  10. Carbon dynamics in central US Rockies lodgepole pine type after mountain pine beetle outbreaks (United States)

    E. Matthew Hansen; Michael C. Amacher; Helga Van Miegroet; James N. Long; Michael G. Ryan


    Mountain pine beetle-caused tree mortality has substantially changed live tree biomass in lodgepole pine ecosystems in western North America since 2000. We studied how beetle-caused mortality altered ecosystem carbon (C) stocks and productivity using a central US Rockies age sequence of ecosystem recovery after infestation, augmented with growth-and-yield...

  11. Mountain pine beetle attack alters the chemistry and flammability of lodgepole pine foliage (United States)

    Wesley G. Page; Michael J. Jenkins; Justin B. Runyon


    During periods with epidemic mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) populations in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud. var. latifolia Engelm.) forests, large amounts of tree foliage are thought to undergo changes in moisture content and chemistry brought about by tree decline and death. However, many of the presumed changes have yet to be...

  12. Mountain pine beetle-killed lodgepole pine for the production of submicron lignocellulose fibrils (United States)

    Ingrid Hoeger; Rolland Gleisner; Jose Negron; Orlando J. Rojas; J. Y. Zhu


    The elevated levels of tree mortality attributed to mountain pine beetle (MPB) (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) in western North American forests create forest management challenges. This investigation introduces the production of submicron or nanometer lignocellulose fibrils for value-added materials from the widely available resource represented by dead pines after...

  13. Is lodgepole pine mortality due to mountain pine beetle linked to the North American Monsoon? (United States)

    Sara A. Goeking; Greg C. Liknes


    Regional precipitation patterns may have influenced the spatial variability of tree mortality during the recent mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosa) (MPB) outbreak in the western United States. Data from the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Program show that the outbreak was especially severe in the state of Colorado where over 10 million lodgepole pines (...

  14. The influence of white pine blister rust on seed dispersal in whitebark pine (United States)

    Shawn T. McKinney; Diana F. Tomback


    We tested the hypotheses that white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola J.C. Fisch.) damage in whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis Engelm.) stands leads to reduced (1) seed cone density, (2) predispersal seed survival, and (3) likelihood of Clark's Nutcracker (Nucifraga columbiana (Wilson, 1811)) seed...

  15. An old-growth definition for xeric pine and pine-oak woodlands (United States)

    Paul A. Murphy; Gregory J. Nowacki


    The old-growth characteristics of xeric pine and pine-oak woodlands are summarized from a survey of the available scientific literature. This type occurs throughout the South and is usually found as small inclusions on ridgetops and south-facing slopes in the mountains or on excessively drained, sandy uplands in gentle terrain. Historically, this type has had frequent...

  16. White pine blister rust resistance in limber pine: Evidence for a major gene (United States)

    A. W. Schoettle; R. A. Sniezko; A. Kegley; K. S. Burns


    Limber pine (Pinus flexilis) is being threatened by the lethal disease white pine blister rust caused by the non-native pathogen Cronartium ribicola. The types and frequencies of genetic resistance to the rust will likely determine the potential success of restoration or proactive measures. These first extensive inoculation trials using individual tree seed collections...

  17. Threats, status & management options for bristlecone pines and limber pines in Southern Rockies (United States)

    A. W. Schoettle; K. S. Burns; F. Freeman; R. A. Sniezko


    High-elevation white pines define the most remote alpine-forest ecotones in western North America yet they are not beyond the reach of a lethal non-native pathogen. The pathogen (Cronartium ribicola), a native to Asia, causes the disease white pine blister rust (WPBR) and was introduced into western Canada in 1910. Whitebark (Pinus albicaulis) and...

  18. Site preparation as an aid to sugar pine regeneration (United States)

    H.A. Fowells


    On many thousands of acres of cut-over timber lands in California, brush of various species has gained such control of the soil that the success of natural reproduction is problematical. This condition is particularly serious in the high site quality sugar pine-white fir and sugar pine-ponderosa pine types, where the maintenance of sugar pine in the stands is a...

  19. Early longleaf pine seedling survivorship on hydric soils (United States)

    Susan Cohen; Joan Walker


    We established a study to evaluate site preparation in restoring longleaf pine on poorly drained sites. Most existing longleaf pine stands occur on drier sites, and traditional approaches to restoring longleaf pine on wetter sites may rely on intensive practices that compromise the integrity of the ground layer vegetation. We applied silvicultural treatments to improve...

  20. Direct seeding of pitch pine in southern New Jersey (United States)

    S. Little; C. B. Cranmer; H. A. Somes


    There is not enough pine reproduction in the woodlands of southern New Jersey. This increasingly important problem, which plagues the state's Pine Region, is especially severe where seed sources for natural regeneration are poor. In some of these areas, pulpwood cuttings have removed all pines large enough to bear many cones. In other areas, wildfires have killed...

  1. Mechanized row-thinning systems in slash pine plantations (United States)

    Walter C. Anderson; James E. Granskog


    Over the next decade or two, most of the 15 to 20 million acres of pine plantations in the South will become ready for a first commercial thinning. The magnitude and nature of the job is illustrated by the situation in slash pine-the most extensively planted of the southern pines.

  2. Historic forests and endemic mountain pine beetle and dwarf mistletoe (United States)

    Jose Negron


    Mountain pine beetle has always been a significant disturbance agent in ponderosa and lodgepole pine forests in Colorado. Most studies have examined the impacts to forest structure associated with epidemic populations of a single disturbance agent. In this paper we address the role of endemic populations of mountain pine and their interactions with dwarf mistletoe...

  3. Ecosystem-based management in the lodgepole pine zone (United States)

    Colin C. Hardy; Robert E. Keane; Catherine A. Stewart


    The significant geographic extent of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) in the interior West and the large proportion within the mixed-severity fire regime has led to efforts for more ecologically based management of lodgepole pine. New research and demonstration activities are presented that may provide knowledge and techniques to manage lodgepole pine...

  4. Restoring fire in lodgepole pine forests of the Intermountain west (United States)

    Colin C. Hardy; Ward W. McCaughey


    We are developing new management treatments for regenerating and sustaining lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) forests through emulation of natural disturbance processes. Lodgepole pine is the principal forest cover on over 26 million hectares in western North America. While infrequent, stand replacing fires following mountain pine beetle outbreaks are common to the...

  5. Direct and indirect chemical defence of pine against folivorous insects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mumm, R.; Hilker, M.


    The chemical defence of pine against herbivorous insects has been intensively studied with respect to its effects on the performance and behaviour of the herbivores as well as on the natural enemies of pine herbivores. The huge variety of terpenoid pine components play a major role in mediating

  6. Taxonomy, phylogeny, and coevolution of pines and their stem rusts (United States)

    C. I. Millar; B. B. Kinloch


    We review and reinterpret major events in the evolution of pines and their stem rusts using information from their taxonomy, genetics, biogeography, and fossil history. Understanding of pine evolution has been significantly revised in the last 20 years. Pines appear to have evolved early in the Mesozoic and to have diversified and migrated throughout middle latitudes...

  7. Natural regeneration of whitebark pine: Factors affecting seedling density (United States)

    S. Goeking; D. Izlar


    Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) is an ecologically important species in high-altitude areas of the western United States and Canada due to the habitat and food source it provides for Clark’s nutcrackers, red squirrels, grizzly bears, and other animals. Whitebark pine stands have recently experienced high mortality due to wildfire, white pine blister rust, and a...

  8. White pines, blister rust, and management in the Southwest (United States)

    D. A. Conklin; M Fairweather; D Ryerson; B Geils; D Vogler


    White pines in New Mexico and Arizona are threatened by the invasive disease white pine blister rust, Cronartium ribicola. Blister rust is already causing severe damage to a large population of southwestern white pine in the Sacramento Mountains of southern New Mexico. Recent detection in northern and western New Mexico suggests that a major expansion of the...

  9. White pines, Ribes, and blister rust: integration and action (United States)

    R. S. Hunt; B. W. Geils; K. E. Hummer


    The preceding articles in this series review the history, biology and management of white pine blister rust in North America, Europe and eastern Asia. In this integration, we connect and discuss seven recurring themes important for understanding and managing epidemics of Cronartium ribicola in the white pines (five-needle pines in subgenus Strobus). Information and...

  10. Early Results of Mycorrhizal Inoculation of Pine in Puerto Rico (United States)

    Charles B. Briscoe


    Despite the presence of more than 500 native tree species in Puerto Rico, many efforts have been made to introduce pine. These attempts have been made because, compared to the native species, pine has a much wider accepted market and has the longer fiber necessary as a component of kraft papers. In addition pine produces higher yields on poor sites, and its...

  11. Natural regeneration in the western white pine type (United States)

    Irvine T. Haig; Kenneth P. Davis; Robert H. Weidman


    The purpose of this bulletin is to bring together the available information on natural regeneration of the western white pine type, based on about 25 years of forest research and 30 years of national-forest timber-cutting experience. Western white pine (Pinus monticola) forms the key species of the valuable western white pine type of northern Idaho and contiguous...

  12. The growing knowledge base for limber pine - recent advances (United States)

    Anna W. Schoettle


    Progress is being made to build the science foundation for effective limber pine management. The power of repeated monitoring assessments now provides valuable condition trends for limber pine (Smith et al. 2013, Cleaver et al. 2015). In Canada, the proportion of dead limber pine increased from 2003-2004 and 2009 and WPBR infection increased from 33% to 43% putting...

  13. Biology, diagnosis and management of Heterobasidion Root Disease of southern pines (United States)

    Tyler J. Dreaden; Jason A.  Smith; Michelle M. Cram; David R   Coyle


    Heterobasidion root disease (previously called annosum, annosus, or Fomes root disease / root rot) is one of the most economically damaging forest diseases in the Northern Hemisphere. Heterobasidion root disease (HRD) in the southeastern U.S. is caused by the pathogen Heterobasidion irregulare, which infects loblolly, longleaf, pitch, shortleaf, slash, Virginia, and...

  14. Resilience of ponderosa and lodgepole pine forests to mountain pine beetle disturbance and limited regeneration (United States)

    Briggs, Jenny S.; Hawbaker, Todd J.; Vandendriesche, Don


    After causing widespread mortality in lodgepole pine forests in North America, the mountain pine beetle (MPB) has recently also affected ponderosa pine, an alternate host species that may have different levels of resilience to this disturbance. We collected field data in ponderosa pine- and lodgepole pine-dominated forests attacked by MPB in Colorado and then simulated stand growth over 200 years using the Forest Vegetation Simulator. We compared scenarios of no disturbance with scenarios of MPB-caused mortality, both with and without regeneration. Results indicated that basal area and tree density recovered to predisturbance levels relatively rapidly (within 1‐8 decades) in both forest types. However, convergence of the disturbed conditions with simulated undisturbed conditions took longer (12‐20+ decades) and was delayed by the absence of regeneration. In MPB-affected ponderosa pine forests without regeneration, basal area did not converge with undisturbed conditions within 200 years, implying lower resilience in this ecosystem. Surface fuels accumulated rapidly in both forest types after MPB-induced mortality, remaining high for 3‐6 decades in simulations. Our results suggest that future patterns of succession, regeneration, fuel loading, climate, and disturbance interactions over long time periods should be considered in management strategies addressing MPB effects in either forest type, but particularly in ponderosa pine.

  15. Population densities and tree diameter effects associated with verbenone treatments to reduce mountain pine beetle-caused mortality of lodgepole pine (United States)

    R.A. Progar; D.C. Blackford; D.R. Cluck; S. Costello; L.B. Dunning; T. Eager; C.L. Jorgensen; A.S. Munson; B. Steed; M.J. Rinella


    Mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (Coleoptera: CurcuIionidae: Scolytinae), is among the primary causes of mature lodgepole pine, Pinus contorta variety latifolia mortality. Verbenone is the only antiaggregant semiochemical commercially available for reducing mountain pine beetle infestation of...

  16. Revivification of a method for identifying longleaf pine timber and its application to southern pine relicts in southeastern Virginia (United States)

    Thomas L. Eberhardt; Philip M. Sheridan; Arvind A.R. Bhuta


    Abstract: Longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) cannot be distinguished from the other southern pines based on wood anatomy alone. A method that involves measuring pith and second annual ring diameters, reported by Arthur Koehler in 1932 (The Southern Lumberman, 145: 36–37), was revisited as an option for identifying longleaf pine timbers and stumps. Cross-section...

  17. Mountain pine beetle in lodgepole pine: mortality and fire implications (Project INT-F-07-03) (United States)

    Jennifer G. Klutsch; Daniel R. West; Mike A Battaglia; Sheryl L. Costello; José F. Negrón; Charles C. Rhoades; John Popp; Rick Caissie


    Mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) has infested over 2 million acres of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud.) forest since an outbreak began approximately in 2000 in north central Colorado. The tree mortality from mountain pine beetle outbreaks has the potential to alter stand composition and stand...

  18. Probability of infestation and extent of mortality models for mountain pine beetle in lodgepole pine forests in Colorado (United States)

    Jose F. Negron; Jennifer G. Klutsch


    The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, is a significant agent of tree mortality in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud.) forests throughout western North America. A large outbreak of mountain pine beetle caused extensive tree mortality in north-central Colorado beginning in the late 1990s. We use data from a network of plots established in...

  19. Status of white pine blister rust and seed collections in california's high-elevation white pine species (United States)

    J. Dunlap


    White pine blister rust (caused by the non-native pathogen Cronartium ribicola) reached northern California about 80 years ago. Over the years its spread southward had been primarily recorded on sugar pine. However, observations on its occurrence had also been reported in several of the higher elevation five-needled white pine species in California. Since the late...

  20. White pine blister rust resistance of 12 western white pine families at three field sites in the Pacific Northwest (United States)

    Richard A. Sniezko; Robert Danchok; Jim Hamlin; Angelia Kegley; Sally Long; James Mayo


    Western white pine (Pinus monticola Douglas ex D. Don) is highly susceptible to the non-native, invasive pathogen Cronartium ribicola, the causative agent of white pine blister rust. The susceptibility of western white pine to blister rust has limited its use in restoration and reforestation throughout much of western North...

  1. Development and assessment of 30-meter pine density maps for landscape-level modeling of mountain pine beetle dynamics (United States)

    Benjamin A. Crabb; James A. Powell; Barbara J. Bentz


    Forecasting spatial patterns of mountain pine beetle (MPB) population success requires spatially explicit information on host pine distribution. We developed a means of producing spatially explicit datasets of pine density at 30-m resolution using existing geospatial datasets of vegetation composition and structure. Because our ultimate goal is to model MPB population...

  2. Aromatic biosynthesis in pine tissues (United States)

    Cowles, J. R.


    Pinus elliotti is a woody plant species responsive to gravity and capable of synthesizing large quantities of lignin. Lignification begins very quickly after germination; lignin is detected in the vascular region within 4 days after germination and rapidly progresses up the hypocotyl. Young pine seedlings bend in response to geostimulation for about 10 days after germination, with the most rapid response time occurring in 4- to 5-day-old seedlings. Various chemicals were used to establish their effects on the geotropic response in this gymnosperm species. IAA completely arrests the geotropic response for 18 to 24 hr. Afterward the seedlings respond geostimulation as if they were not treated. The same pattern of response will occur with a second IAA treatment. If the synthetic auxin, 2-4,D, is used, the georesponse is permanently blocked. The method of application does not appear to be critical; addition of auxin to only one side of the seedling gave results similar to those obtained by treating the entire seedling.

  3. Genomic selection in maritime pine. (United States)

    Isik, Fikret; Bartholomé, Jérôme; Farjat, Alfredo; Chancerel, Emilie; Raffin, Annie; Sanchez, Leopoldo; Plomion, Christophe; Bouffier, Laurent


    A two-generation maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.) breeding population (n=661) was genotyped using 2500 SNP markers. The extent of linkage disequilibrium and utility of genomic selection for growth and stem straightness improvement were investigated. The overall intra-chromosomal linkage disequilibrium was r(2)=0.01. Linkage disequilibrium corrected for genomic relationships derived from markers was smaller (rV(2)=0.006). Genomic BLUP, Bayesian ridge regression and Bayesian LASSO regression statistical models were used to obtain genomic estimated breeding values. Two validation methods (random sampling 50% of the population and 10% of the progeny generation as validation sets) were used with 100 replications. The average predictive ability across statistical models and validation methods was about 0.49 for stem sweep, and 0.47 and 0.43 for total height and tree diameter, respectively. The sensitivity analysis suggested that prior densities (variance explained by markers) had little or no discernible effect on posterior means (residual variance) in Bayesian prediction models. Sampling from the progeny generation for model validation increased the predictive ability of markers for tree diameter and stem sweep but not for total height. The results are promising despite low linkage disequilibrium and low marker coverage of the genome (∼1.39 markers/cM). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Solar Decathlon 2015 - Indigo Pine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blouin, Vincent [Clemson Univ., SC (United States)


    The Solar Decathlon competition challenges students across the country to design and build a net-zero, market ready solar powered home. The bi-annual competition consists of ten contests that seek to balance the home on a scale of innovation. The ten contests were selected by to organizers to address all aspects of housing, including architecture, market appeal, engineering, communication, affordability, comfort, appliances, home life, commuting, and energy balance. Along with the criteria associated with the contests, the competition includes several design constraints that mirror those found in practical housing applications: including (but certainly not limited to) lot lines, building height, and ADA accessibility. The Solar Decathlon 2015 was held at the Orange Country Great Park in Irvine, CA. The 2015 competition was Clemson University’s first entry into the Solar Decathlon and was a notable milestone in the continued development of a home, called Indigo Pine. From the beginning, the team reconsidered the notion of sustainability as related to both the design of a home and the competition itself. The designing and building process for the home reflects a process which seamlessly moves between thinking and making to develop a comprehensive design with a method and innovations that challenge the conventions of residential construction. This report is a summary of the activities of the Clemson University team during the two-year duration of the project leading to the participation in the 2015 Solar Decathlon competition in Irvine California.

  5. The most important parasitic and saprophytic fungi in Austrian pine and Scots pine plantations in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karadžić Dragan


    Full Text Available In Austrian pine plantations in Serbia, the greatest damage is caused by the fungi Mycosphaerella pini, Sphaeropsis sapinea, Cenangium ferruginosum, Germmeniella abietina (in the mountain regions and occasionally Armillaria spp., Lophodermium spp. (seditiosum, conigenum, pinastri and Cyclaneusma niveum. In Scots pine plantations, the greatest damage is caused by the fungi Heterobasidion annosum (especially in plantations on sandy soils, Armillaria spp, Lophodermium seditiosum, L. pinastri, Cyclaneusma minus and Sphaeropsis sapinea. Damage caused by rust fungi (Coleosporium sennecionis, Melampsora pinitorqua and Cronartium flaccidum occurs less frequently. In mountainous regions in Scots pine plantations, great damage is caused by Phacidium infestans, Lophodermella sulcigena and Gremmeniella abietina.

  6. Magmatic underplating beneath the Rajmahal Traps: Gravity ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    surface correlative basalt in seismic and drilling results is ..... 2-D gravity model, partially constrained by available seismic section, along the DSS profile-II. SP is the DSS ... interpretation. One established procedure is to sep- arate regional and residual fields through convo- lution. Another common procedure is the manual.

  7. Magmatic underplating beneath the Rajmahal Traps: Gravity ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    To understand the impact of the magmatic process that originated in the deep mantle on the lower crustal level of the eastern Indian shield and adjoining Bengal basin the conspicuous gravity anomalies observed over the region have been modelled integrating with available geophysical information. The 3-D gravity ...

  8. Magmatic underplating beneath the Rajmahal Traps: Gravity ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Rajmahal Traps is characterized by N-S trend- ing fault controlled basement depression that con- nects the ... deformed in a cold, brittle fashion separated by down-dropped valleys/grabens. The grabens may fill with up to .... Keeping all other parameters constant, the boundary of the transitional layer together with its density ...

  9. Workshop proceedings: research and management in whitebark pine ecosystems (United States)

    Kendall, Katherine C.; Coen, Brenda


    The purpose of this workshop is to exchange information on on-going and soon-to-be-initiated whitebark pine research and management projects. By doing so we hope to encourage future work on this valuable species. We also hope to promote the use of consistent methods for evaluation and investigation of whitebark pine, and to provide avenues of collaboration. Speakers will present information on a variety of topics related to whitebark pine management and research. Featured presentation topics include anthropomorphic utilization of whitepark pine forests, whitebark pine natural regeneration, blister rust and the decline of whitebark pine, blister rust resistance studies, ecological mapping of the species, restoration and management projects, and survey/monitoring techniques. Information gained from these presentations may hopefully be used in the planning of future projects for the conservation of whitebark pine.

  10. White pine blister rust resistance in limber pine: evidence for a major gene. (United States)

    Schoettle, A W; Sniezko, R A; Kegley, A; Burns, K S


    Limber pine (Pinus flexilis) is being threatened by the lethal disease white pine blister rust caused by the non-native pathogen Cronartium ribicola. The types and frequencies of genetic resistance to the rust will likely determine the potential success of restoration or proactive measures. These first extensive inoculation trials using individual tree seed collections from >100 limber pine trees confirm that genetic segregation of a stem symptom-free trait to blister rust is consistent with inheritance by a single dominant resistance (R) gene, and the resistance allele appears to be distinct from the R allele in western white pine. Following previous conventions, we are naming the R gene for limber pine "Cr4." The frequency of the Cr4 allele across healthy and recently invaded populations in the Southern Rocky Mountains was unexpectedly high (5.0%, ranging from 0 to 13.9%). Cr4 is in equilibrium, suggesting that it is not a product of a recent mutation and may have other adaptive significance within the species, possibly related to other abiotic or biotic stress factors. The identification of Cr4 in native populations of limber pine early in the invasion progress in this region provides useful information for predicting near-term impacts and structuring long-term management strategies.

  11. Seedling regeneration on decayed pine logs after the deforestation events caused by pine wilt disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Fukasawa


    Full Text Available Coarse woody debris (CWD forms an important habitat suitable for tree seedling establishment, and the CWD decay process influences tree seedling community. In Japan, a severe dieback of Pinus densiflora Sieb. & Zucc. caused by pine wilt disease (PWD damaged huge areas of pine stands but creates huge mass of pine CWD. It is important to know the factors influencing seedling colonization on pine CWD and their variations among geographical gradient in Japan to expect forest regeneration in post-PWD stands. I conducted field surveys on the effects of latitude, climates, light condition, decay type of pine logs, and log diameter on tree seedling colonization at ten geographically distinct sites in Japan. In total, 59 tree taxa were recorded as seedlings on pine logs. Among them, 13 species were recorded from more than five sites as adult trees or seedlings and were used for the analyses. A generalized linear model showed that seedling colonization of Pinus densiflora was negatively associated with brown rot in sapwood, while that of Rhus trichocarpa was positively associated with brown rot in heartwood. Regeneration of Ilex macropoda had no relationships with wood decay type but negatively associated with latitude and MAT, while positively with log diameter. These results suggested that wood decay type is a strong determinant of seedling establishment for certain tree species, even at a wide geographical scale; however, the effect is tree species specific.

  12. Mountain Pine Beetle Dynamics and Reproductive Success in Post-Fire Lodgepole and Ponderosa Pine Forests in Northeastern Utah (United States)

    Lerch, Andrew P.; Pfammatter, Jesse A.


    Fire injury can increase tree susceptibility to some bark beetles (Curculionidae, Scolytinae), but whether wildfires can trigger outbreaks of species such as mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) is not well understood. We monitored 1173 lodgepole (Pinus contorta var. latifolia Doug.) and 599 ponderosa (Pinus ponderosa Doug. ex Law) pines for three years post-wildfire in the Uinta Mountains of northeastern Utah in an area with locally endemic mountain pine beetle. We examined how the degree and type of fire injury influenced beetle attacks, brood production, and subsequent tree mortality, and related these to beetle population changes over time. Mountain pine beetle population levels were high the first two post-fire years in lodgepole pine, and then declined. In ponderosa pine, populations declined each year after initial post-fire sampling. Compared to trees with strip or failed attacks, mass attacks occurred on trees with greater fire injury, in both species. Overall, a higher degree of damage to crowns and boles was associated with higher attack rates in ponderosa pines, but additional injury was more likely to decrease attack rates in lodgepole pines. In lodgepole pine, attacks were initially concentrated on fire-injured trees, but during subsequent years beetles attacked substantial numbers of uninjured trees. In ponderosa pine, attacks were primarily on injured trees each year, although these stands were more heavily burned and had few uninjured trees. In total, 46% of all lodgepole and 56% of ponderosa pines underwent some degree of attack. Adult brood emergence within caged bole sections decreased with increasing bole char in lodgepole pine but increased in ponderosa pine, however these relationships did not scale to whole trees. Mountain pine beetle populations in both tree species four years post-fire were substantially lower than the year after fire, and wildfire did not result in population outbreaks. PMID:27783632

  13. Mountain Pine Beetle Dynamics and Reproductive Success in Post-Fire Lodgepole and Ponderosa Pine Forests in Northeastern Utah. (United States)

    Lerch, Andrew P; Pfammatter, Jesse A; Bentz, Barbara J; Raffa, Kenneth F


    Fire injury can increase tree susceptibility to some bark beetles (Curculionidae, Scolytinae), but whether wildfires can trigger outbreaks of species such as mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) is not well understood. We monitored 1173 lodgepole (Pinus contorta var. latifolia Doug.) and 599 ponderosa (Pinus ponderosa Doug. ex Law) pines for three years post-wildfire in the Uinta Mountains of northeastern Utah in an area with locally endemic mountain pine beetle. We examined how the degree and type of fire injury influenced beetle attacks, brood production, and subsequent tree mortality, and related these to beetle population changes over time. Mountain pine beetle population levels were high the first two post-fire years in lodgepole pine, and then declined. In ponderosa pine, populations declined each year after initial post-fire sampling. Compared to trees with strip or failed attacks, mass attacks occurred on trees with greater fire injury, in both species. Overall, a higher degree of damage to crowns and boles was associated with higher attack rates in ponderosa pines, but additional injury was more likely to decrease attack rates in lodgepole pines. In lodgepole pine, attacks were initially concentrated on fire-injured trees, but during subsequent years beetles attacked substantial numbers of uninjured trees. In ponderosa pine, attacks were primarily on injured trees each year, although these stands were more heavily burned and had few uninjured trees. In total, 46% of all lodgepole and 56% of ponderosa pines underwent some degree of attack. Adult brood emergence within caged bole sections decreased with increasing bole char in lodgepole pine but increased in ponderosa pine, however these relationships did not scale to whole trees. Mountain pine beetle populations in both tree species four years post-fire were substantially lower than the year after fire, and wildfire did not result in population outbreaks.

  14. Mountain Pine Beetle Dynamics and Reproductive Success in Post-Fire Lodgepole and Ponderosa Pine Forests in Northeastern Utah.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew P Lerch

    Full Text Available Fire injury can increase tree susceptibility to some bark beetles (Curculionidae, Scolytinae, but whether wildfires can trigger outbreaks of species such as mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins is not well understood. We monitored 1173 lodgepole (Pinus contorta var. latifolia Doug. and 599 ponderosa (Pinus ponderosa Doug. ex Law pines for three years post-wildfire in the Uinta Mountains of northeastern Utah in an area with locally endemic mountain pine beetle. We examined how the degree and type of fire injury influenced beetle attacks, brood production, and subsequent tree mortality, and related these to beetle population changes over time. Mountain pine beetle population levels were high the first two post-fire years in lodgepole pine, and then declined. In ponderosa pine, populations declined each year after initial post-fire sampling. Compared to trees with strip or failed attacks, mass attacks occurred on trees with greater fire injury, in both species. Overall, a higher degree of damage to crowns and boles was associated with higher attack rates in ponderosa pines, but additional injury was more likely to decrease attack rates in lodgepole pines. In lodgepole pine, attacks were initially concentrated on fire-injured trees, but during subsequent years beetles attacked substantial numbers of uninjured trees. In ponderosa pine, attacks were primarily on injured trees each year, although these stands were more heavily burned and had few uninjured trees. In total, 46% of all lodgepole and 56% of ponderosa pines underwent some degree of attack. Adult brood emergence within caged bole sections decreased with increasing bole char in lodgepole pine but increased in ponderosa pine, however these relationships did not scale to whole trees. Mountain pine beetle populations in both tree species four years post-fire were substantially lower than the year after fire, and wildfire did not result in population outbreaks.

  15. Electromagnetic treatment of loblolly pine seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnett, J.P.; Krugman, S.L.


    Loblolly pine (Pinus faeda L.) seeds were exposed to an electromagnetic radiation treatment (Energy Transfer Process@, marketed by the Energy Transfer Corporation), and the effects of the treatments on seed germination, seedling development, disease resistance, and field performance of seedlings were evaluated. None of the evaluated variables showed any improvement over untreated controls

  16. Regional vegetation management standards for commercial pine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although the understanding gained from these trials allowed for the development of vegetation management standards, their operational and economic viability need to be tested on a commercial basis. Four pine trials were thus initiated to test the applicability of these standards when utilised on a commercial scale. Two of ...

  17. Compatible taper equation for loblolly pine (United States)

    J. P. McClure; R. L. Czaplewski


    Cao's compatible, segmented polynomial taper equation (Q. V. Cao, H. E. Burkhart, and T. A. Max. For. Sci. 26: 71-80. 1980) is fitted to a large loblolly pine data set from the southeastern United States. Equations are presented that predict diameter at a given height, height to a given top diameter, and volume below a given position on the main stem. All...

  18. Hydraulic adjustment of Scots pine across Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martínez-Vilalta, J.; Cochard, H.; Mencuccini, M.; Sterck, F.J.; Herrero, A.; Korhonen, J.F.J.; Llorens, P.; Nikinmaa, E.; Nolè, A.; Poyatos, R.; Ripullone, F.; Sass-Klaassen, U.; Zweifel, R.


    The variability of branch-level hydraulic properties was assessed across 12 Scots pine populations covering a wide range of environmental conditions, including some of the southernmost populations of the species. The aims were to relate this variability to differences in climate, and to study the

  19. Limber pine health in the Canadian Rockies (United States)

    Cyndi M. Smith; David Langor; Colin Myrholm; Jim Weber; Cameron Gillies; Jon Stuart-Smith


    Limber pine (Pinus flexilis) reaches the northern limit of its range at about 52 degrees latitude in Alberta (AB) and 51 degrees latitude in British Columbia (BC). Most populations are found on the eastern slopes of the Rocky Mountains, with a few disjunct populations west of the Continental Divide in southeastern BC.

  20. Genetic transformation of Pinus palustris (longleaf pine) (United States)

    Alex M. Diner


    Longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) is an important softwood species in the Southeast United States. In presettlement times, this species occupied extensive, pure stands throughout the Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plains from southeastern Virginia to eastern Texas, as well as south...

  1. What's known about managing eastern white pine (United States)

    Charles R. Lockard


    At the 1957 meeting of the Northeastern Forest Research Advisory Council the comment was made that although Eastern white pine has been the most studied forest tree species in the Northeast, the only literature on the management of the species was in reports on isolated and uncoordinated studies. There was no comprehensive compendium of knowledge.

  2. Economic Impacts of the Southern Pine Beetle (United States)

    John M. Pye; Thomas P. Holmes; Jeffrey P. Prestemon; David N. Wear


    This paper provides an overview of the timber economic impacts of the southern pine beetle (SPB). Although we anticipate that SPB outbreaks cause substantial economic losses to households that consume the nonmarket economic services provided by healthy forests, we have narrowly focused our attention here on changes in values to timber growers and wood-products...

  3. Electromagnetic Treatment of Loblolly Pine Seeds (United States)

    James P. Barnett; Stanley L. Krugman


    Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) seeds were exposed to an electromagnetic radiation treatment (Energy Transfer Process, marketed by the Energy Transfer Corporation), and the effects of the treatments on seed germination, seedling development, disease resistance, and field performance of seedlings were evaluated. None of the evaluated variables showed...

  4. Comparing Planting Tools for Container Longleaf Pine (United States)

    Daniel J. Leduc; James D. Haywood; Shi-Jean Susana Sung


    We examined if compressing the soil to make a planting hole with a custom-built, solid round dibble versus coring the soil with a commercially available tube dibble influenced container-grown longleaf pine seedling development differently. Seven teen months after planting, the planting tool did not significantly affect root collar diameter, shoot or root mass, root-to-...

  5. Direct-seedling pines in the south (United States)

    Harold J. Derr; William F. Mann


    Direct seeding of the southern pines is a versatile reforestation technique that is being widely accepted by land managers. On many sites it is more economical than planting nursery-grown seedlings or waiting for natural reproduction. It is applicable on some sites where access, terrain, or drainage conditions make planting difficult. Commercial trials have proved it...

  6. Anatomical characteristics of southern pine stemwood (United States)

    Elaine T. Howard; Floyd G. Manwiller


    To obtain a definitive description of the wood and anatomy of all 10 species of southern pine, juvenile, intermediate, and mature wood was sampled at three heights in one tree of each species and examined under a light microscope. Photographs and three-dimensional drawings were made to illustrate the morphology. No significant anatomical differences were found...

  7. Status of Pituophis ruthveni (Louisiana pine snake) (United States)

    D. Craig Rudolph; Shirley J. Burgdorf; Richard R. Schaefer; Richard N. Conner; Ricky W. Maxey


    Extensive trapping surveys across the historical range of Pituophis ruthveni (Louisiana Pine Snake) suggest that extant populations are extremely small and limited to remnant patches of suitable habitat in a highly fragmented landscape. Evaluation of habitat at all known historical localities of P. ruthveni documents the widespread...

  8. Insects associated with ponderosa pine in Colorado (United States)

    Robert E. Stevens; J. Wayne Brewer; David A. Leatherman


    Ponderosa pine serves as a host for a wide variety of insects. Many of these, including all the particularly destructive ones in Colorado, are discussed in this report. Included are a key to the major insect groups, an annotated list of the major groups, a glossary, and a list of references.

  9. Seed and Cone Insects of Southern Pines (United States)

    Southeastern Forest Experiment Station


    Distribution maps are included for all insect species, providing at a glance each insect's expected southern distribution. Knowledge of some distributions is incomplete. Accordingly, the range maps should be used as general rather than absolute guides.Insect species and their pine hosts are tabulated for each of the three damage...

  10. Technological developments in the southern pine industry (United States)

    Peter Koch


    the southern pines comprise the primary softwood timber species in the United States. Furter, their importance is increasing. It is estimated that, by the ear 2000, more than half (51 percent) of the softwood used in this country will come from the South.

  11. Parasitoids of the Southern Pine Beetle (United States)

    C. Wayne Berisford


    Hymenopterous parasitoids make up a significant portion of the natural enemy complex associated with the southern pine beetle (SPB). Collectively, parasitoids can affect the growth of individual SPB infestations and area populations by reducing the survival rates of developing SPB larval/pupal broods. A substantial body of information on parasitoids has been...

  12. Cone and Seed Maturation of Southern Pines (United States)

    James P. Barnett


    If slightly reduced yields and viability are acceptable, loblolly and slash cone collections can begin 2 to 3 weeks before maturity if the cones are stored before processing. Longleaf(P. palestris Mill.) pine cones should be collected only when mature, as storage decreased germination of seeds from immature cones. Biochemical analyses to determine reducing sugar...

  13. Regenerating Longleaf Pine with Natural Seeding (United States)

    William D. Boyer


    Natural regeneration is a practical and inexpensive option for existing longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) forests if all requirements for regeneration can be met. These requirements include an adequate seed supply, a seedbed of exposed mineral soil, timely control of competition, and protection of the established seedling stand. The shelterwood...

  14. Standard plans for southern pine bridges (United States)

    P. D. Hilbrich Lee; M. A. Ritter; M. H. Triche


    The development of standardized timber bridge plans and specifications is a key element in improving design and construction practices. The bridge plans presented were developed as a cooperative effort between the USDA Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory (FPL); the University of Alabama; and the Southern Pine Council and are the first step in developing...

  15. Wollemi Pine: Living Fossil from Jurassic Landscape

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 8; Issue 8. Wollemi Pine: Living Fossil from Jurassic Landscape. N S Leela. General Article Volume 8 Issue 8 August 2003 pp 43-47. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: ...

  16. Carbon sequestration and natural longleaf pine ecosystem (United States)

    Ram Thapa; Dean Gjerstad; John Kush; Bruce Zutter


    The Southeastern United States was once dominated by a longleaf pine ecosystem which ranged from Virginia to Texas and covered approximately 22 to 36 million ha. The unique fire tolerant species provided the necessary habitat for numerous plant and animal species. Different seasons of prescribed fire have various results on the ecosystem and the carbon which is stored...

  17. Pine Tolerance to Several New Herbicides (United States)

    J.L. Michael


    Four new chemicals and Velpar L (R) were applied at several rates to loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) seedlings ranging in age from approximately 1 month to 3 years. Of the chemicals applied (Oust(R) to 3 years DPX-6376, and Velpar L from DuPont. Lontrel(R) from Dow; and EL-187 from...

  18. The effect of water limitation on volatile emission, tree defense response, and brood success of Dendroctonus ponderosae in two pine hosts, lodgepole and jack pine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inka eLusebrink


    Full Text Available The mountain pine beetle (MPB; Dendroctonus ponderosae has recently expanded its range from lodgepole pine forest into the lodgepole × jack pine hybrid zone in central Alberta, within which it has attacked pure jack pine. This study tested the effects of water limitation on tree defense response of mature lodgepole and jack pine (Pinus contorta and Pinus banksiana trees in the field. Tree defense response was initiated by inoculation of trees with the MPB-associated fungus Grosmannia clavigera and measured through monoterpene emission from tree boles and concentration of defensive compounds in phloem, needles, and necrotic tissues. Lodgepole pine generally emitted higher amounts of monoterpenes than jack pine; particularly from fungal-inoculated trees. Compared to non-inoculated trees, fungal inoculation increased monoterpene emission in both species, whereas water treatment had no effect on monoterpene emission. The phloem of both pine species contains (--α-pinene, the precursor of the beetle’s aggregation pheromone, however lodgepole pine contains two times as much as jack pine. The concentration of defensive compounds was 70-fold greater in the lesion tissue in jack pine, but only 10-fold in lodgepole pine compared to healthy phloem tissue in each species, respectively. Water-deficit treatment inhibited an increase of L-limonene as response to fungal inoculation in lodgepole pine phloem. The amount of myrcene in jack pine phloem was higher in water-deficit trees compared to ambient trees. Beetles reared in jack pine were not affected by either water or biological treatment, whereas beetles reared in lodgepole pine benefited from fungal inoculation by producing larger and heavier female offspring. Female beetles that emerged from jack pine bolts contained more fat than those that emerged from lodgepole pine, even though lodgepole pine phloem had a higher nitrogen content than jack pine phloem. These results suggest that jack pine chemistry

  19. Sapwood Stored Resources Decline in Whitebark and Lodgepole Pines Attacked by Mountain Pine Beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). (United States)

    Lahr, Eleanor C; Sala, Anna


    Recent outbreaks of forest insects have been directly linked to climate change-induced warming and drought, but effects of tree stored resources on insects have received less attention. We asked whether tree stored resources changed following mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) attack and whether they affected beetle development. We compared initial concentrations of stored resources in the sapwood of whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis Engelmann) and lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Douglas ex. Louden) with resource concentrations one year later, in trees that were naturally attacked by beetles and trees that remained unattacked. Beetles did not select host trees based on sapwood resources-there were no consistent a priori differences between attacked versus unattacked trees-but concentrations of nonstructural carbohydrate (NSC), lipids, and phosphorus declined in attacked trees, relative to initial concentrations and unattacked trees. Whitebark pine experienced greater resource declines than lodgepole pine; however, sapwood resources were not correlated with beetle success in either species. Experimental manipulation confirmed that the negative effect of beetles on sapwood and phloem NSC was not due to girdling. Instead, changes in sapwood resources were related to the percentage of sapwood with fungal blue-stain. Overall, mountain pine beetle attack affected sapwood resources, but sapwood resources did not contribute directly to beetle success; instead, sapwood resources may support colonization by beetle-vectored fungi that potentially accelerate tree mortality. Closer attention to stored resource dynamics will improve our understanding of the interaction between mountain pine beetles, fungi, and host trees, an issue that is relevant to our understanding of insect range expansion under climate change. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions

  20. A review of the literature on seed fate in whitebark pine and the life history traits of Clark’s nutcracker and pine squirrels. (United States)

    Teresa J. Lorenz; Carol Aubry; Robin. Shoal


    Whitebark pine is a critical component of subalpine ecosystems in western North America, where it contributes to biodiversity and ecosystem function and in some communities is considered a keystone species. Whitebark pine is undergoing rangewide population declines attributed to the combined effects of mountain pine beetle, white pine blister rust, and fire suppression...

  1. First report of the white pine blister rust fungus, Cronartium ribicola, infecting Pinus flexilis on Pine Mountain, Humboldt National Forest, Elko County, northeastern Nevada, U.S.A. (United States)

    Detlev R. Vogler; Patricia E. Maloney; Tom Burt; Jacob W. Snelling


    In 2013, while surveying for five-needle white pine cone crops in northeastern Nevada, we observed white pine blister rust, caused by the rust pathogen Cronartium ribicola Fisch., infecting branches and stems of limber pines (Pinus flexilis James) on Pine Mountain (41.76975°N, 115.61622°W), Humboldt National Forest,...

  2. Silvicultural treatments for converting loblolly pine to longleaf pine dominance: Effects on resource availability and their relationships with planted longleaf pine seedlings (United States)

    Huifeng Hu; G.Geoff Wang; Joan L. Walker; Benjamin O. Knapp


    Throughout the southeastern United States, land managers are currently interested in converting loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantations to species rich longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) ecosystems. In a 3-year study on moderately well- to well-drained soils of the Lower Coastal Plain in North Carolina, we examined the...

  3. Diversity and decay ability of basidiomycetes isolated from lodgepole pines killed by the mountain pine beetle. (United States)

    Son, E; Kim, J-J; Lim, Y W; Au-Yeung, T T; Yang, C Y H; Breuil, C


    When lodgepole pines (Pinus contorta Douglas ex Louden var. latifolia Engelm. ex S. Watson) that are killed by the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) and its fungal associates are not harvested, fungal decay can affect wood and fibre properties. Ophiostomatoids stain sapwood but do not affect the structural properties of wood. In contrast, white or brown decay basidiomycetes degrade wood. We isolated both staining and decay fungi from 300 lodgepole pine trees killed by mountain pine beetle at green, red, and grey stages at 10 sites across British Columbia. We retained 224 basidiomycete isolates that we classified into 34 species using morphological and physiological characteristics and rDNA large subunit sequences. The number of basidiomycete species varied from 4 to 14 species per site. We assessed the ability of these fungi to degrade both pine sapwood and heartwood using the soil jar decay test. The highest wood mass losses for both sapwood and heartwood were measured for the brown rot species Fomitopsis pinicola and the white rot Metulodontia and Ganoderma species. The sap rot species Trichaptum abietinum was more damaging for sapwood than for heartwood. A number of species caused more than 50% wood mass losses after 12 weeks at room temperature, suggesting that beetle-killed trees can rapidly lose market value due to degradation of wood structural components.

  4. The Effect of Water Limitation on Volatile Emission, Tree Defense Response, and Brood Success of Dendroctonus ponderosae in Two Pine Hosts, Lodgepole, and Jack Pine


    Lusebrink, Inka; Erbilgin, Nadir; Evenden, Maya L.


    The mountain pine beetle (MPB; Dendroctonus ponderosae) has recently expanded its range from lodgepole pine forest into the lodgepole × jack pine hybrid zone in central Alberta, within which it has attacked pure jack pine. This study tested the effects of water limitation on tree defense response of mature lodgepole and jack pine (Pinus contorta and Pinus banksiana) trees in the field. Tree defense response was initiated by inoculation of trees with the MPB-associated fungus Grosmannia clavig...

  5. Diversity of Lophodermium species on pines


    Lazarev Vladimir S.


    Multiannual study of needle-cast disease on pines shows that Lophodermium species, as well as other widely-ranging micro-organism species, are characterized by high variability in morphology, physiology, biology pathogenic characters, epiphytotiology and other characteristics, which points to the assumption on the existence of biotypes, forms or still unidentified species in this genus. This paper presents the study results which contribute to the elucidation of the confusion regarding the ge...

  6. Tolerance of Loblolly Pines to Fusiform Rust (United States)

    Charles H. Walkinshaw; James P. Barnett


    Loblolly pines (Pinus taeda L.) that were 8 to 17 yr old tolerated one to three fusiform rust (Cronartium quercuum [Berk.] Miyabe ex Shirai f. sp. fusiforme) galls in their stems.Families with four or more galls in their stems lost 2.5% or more of the trees by age 17.In living trees with less than four stem galls, diameter growth was comparable to...

  7. ¹H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance of Lodgepole Pine Wood Chips Affected by the Mountain Pine Beetle. (United States)

    Todoruk, Tara M; Hartley, Ian D; Teymoori, Roshanak; Liang, Jianzhen; Peemoeller, Hartwig


    In this study, wood-water interactions of mountain pine beetle affected lodgepole pine were found to vary with time since death. Based on an analysis of magnetization components and spin-spin relaxation times from 1H NMR, it was determined that the mountain pine beetle attack does not affect the crystalline structure of the wood. Both the amorphous structure and the water components vary with time since death, which could be due to the fungi present after a mountain pine beetle attack, as well as the fact that wood from the grey-stage of attack cycles seasonally through adsorption and desorption in the stand.

  8. Dendrochronology of bristlecone pine, Pinus longaeva

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferguson, C.W.


    Since 1953 the Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research has conducted dendrochronological studies of bristlecone pine (Pinus longaeva) in the White Mountains of California. This research resulted in the establishment of a continuous tree-ring sequence of 8253 yr. The millennia-old pines have emerged as a unique source of chronological data and the precisely dated wood is essential to certain paleoenvironmental and geophysical investigations. Over 1000 dendrochronologically dated decade samples of bristlecone pine supplied to three C-14 laboratories have been used to calibrate the radiocarbon time scale for the past seven millennia, a development of far reaching consequences in the fields of archaeology and geology. In addition, recent advances in other methods of analyzing past climatic variability - techniques involving stable isotope ratios, amino acid racemization, remanent magnetism, and trace element abundances - have greatly increased the demand for the wood of known age and, hence, for chronology development. Spanning the past 7500 yr, 1138 prepared decade samples, with a total weight of nearly 16 kg are available for study.

  9. Calculating wind profiles above a pine forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, C.E.; Dexter, A.H.


    A major part of the environmental transport work at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) involves the dispersion of airborne pollutants (aerosols and gases). A major part of the Savannah River Plant (SRP) site is covered with pine forests. Because forests are ''rough'' surfaces which increase turbulence and surface shear stress and, hence, alter the dispersion patterns, the nature of the wind profiles above the forests is being investigated. Two methods for determining the surface shear caused by the atmospheric wind field over a pine plantation were compared. Friction velocity [the square root of the ratio of shearing stress over the density of air; U/sub */ = (stress/density)1/2] calculated by eddy correlation was compared with friction velocity calculated from wind profiles. Data from the first five meters above the pine forest were compared. The data indicated that there was no significant difference in the mean friction velocity measured by each method. However, there were large differences in individual values calculated by the two methods for many of the measurement periods. An attempt was made to reconcile the differences in the measured values, but no satisfactory method was found

  10. Limber pine conservation in Rocky Mountain National Park (United States)

    Jeff Connor; Anna Schoettle; Kelly Burns; Erin Borgman


    Limber pines are one of the most picturesque trees in Rocky Mountain National Park (RMNP). Growing in some of the park's most exposed rocky sites, the trees' gnarled trunks give testimony to fierce winds that buffet them in winter. Limber pines live to great ages, with some in the park exceeding 1,000 years. An especially photogenic stand of ancient trees...

  11. Constituent and induced tannin accumulations in roots of loblolly pines (United States)

    Charles H. Walkinshaw


    Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L [L.]) has become the most important source of wood fiber in the Southern United States. This tree is an excellent competitor and recovers well from a variety of adverse conditions. The author presents a histological study of tannin in pine roots to measure tannin abundance as a primary trait to evaluate root health at the...

  12. Financial performance of loblolly and longleaf pine plantations (United States)

    Steven D. Mills; Charles T. Stiff


    The financial performance of selected management regimes for loblolly (Pinus taeda L.) and longleaf pine (P. palustris Mill.) plantations were compared for four cases, each with low- and high-site productivity levels and each evaluated using 5 and 7 percent real discount rates. In all cases, longleaf pine was considered both with...

  13. Phoretic symbionts of the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) (United States)

    Javier E. Mercado; Richard W. Hofstetter; Danielle M. Reboletti; Jose F. Negron


    During its life cycle, the tree-killing mountain pine beetle Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins interacts with phoretic organisms such as mites, nematodes, fungi, and bacteria. The types of associations these organisms establish with the mountain pine beetle (MPB) vary from mutualistic to antagonistic. The most studied of these interactions are those between beetle and...

  14. Pine snake (Pituophis ruthveni and Pituophis mellanoleucus lodingi) hibernacula (United States)

    D.C. Rudolph; R.R. Schaefer; S.J. Burgdorf; M. Duran; R.N. Conner


    Snakes are often highly selective in the choice of sites for hibernation, and suitable sites can potentially be a limiting resource. Hibernating Louisiana Pine Snakes (Pituopllis ruthveni; N = 7) in eastern Texas and Black Pine Snakes (Pituophis melanoleucus lodingi; N = 5) in Mississippi were excavated to characterize their...

  15. Comparison of Monterey pine stress in urban and natural forests (United States)

    David J. Nowak; Joe R. McBride


    Monterey pine street trees within Carmel, California and its immediate vicinity, as well as forest-grown Monterey pine within adjacent natural stands, were sampled with regard to visual stress characteristics, and various environmental and biological variables. Two stress indices were computed, one hypothesized before data collection was based on relative foliage...

  16. Ecosystem-based management in the whitebark pine zone (United States)

    Robert E. Keane; Stephen F. Arno; Catherine A. Stewart


    Declining whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) forests have necessitated development of innovative methods to restore these ecologically valuable, high elevation ecosystems. We have began an extensive restoration study using prescribed fire and silvicultural cuttings to return native ecological processes to degenerating whitebark pine forests....

  17. The effects of a wildfire on pine seedling recruitment (United States)

    Paula C. Gnehm; Brad Hadley


    We investigated the effects of a single arson wildfire by comparing its impact on pine seedling recruitment with that of both prescribed fire and unburned compartments. Although a t-test detected no significant difference in pine seedling recruitment (p = 0.38), the "wildfire" treatment produced 127 more seedlings than the unburned...

  18. Loblolly pine karyotype using FISH and DAPI positive banding (United States)

    M. Nurul Islam-Faridi; C. Dana Nelson; Thomas L. Kubisiak; M.V. Gullirmo; V.H. McNamara; S. Ramakrishnan; H.J. Price; D.M. Stelly


    The pines (Pinus, 2n = 2x = 24) include many commercially important timber species. Pinus spp. have 12 pairs of chromosomes, with 10 or 11 pairs of long metacentric chromosomes and one pair of short sub-metacentric chromosomes (Sax and Sax 1933). The pines have been studied extensively with...

  19. Effect of dietary mugwort ( Artemisia vulgaris L.) and pine needle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of dietary mugwort and pine needle powder supplementation on growth performance, serum cholesterol, and meat quality of broilers were evaluated in a 35 days feed trial. 200 one day old broilers were randomly allocated to five dietary treatments (0, 1 and 2% mugwort or 1 and 2% pine needle powder) with ...

  20. Virginia pine seed viable two months before natural cone opening (United States)

    Thomas W., Jr. Church; Edward I. Sucoff


    Virginia pine (Pinus virginiana Mill.) seed used in nurseries and for forest seeding ordinarily is collected from standing or felled trees in autumn. Some questions that concern the seed collector are: How early in the season does Virginia pine seed ripen? How does seed viability change if the cones are left on the felled trees?

  1. Mineral Analysis of Pine Nuts (Pinusspp.) Grown in New Zealand. (United States)

    Vanhanen, Leo P; Savage, Geoffrey P


    Mineral analysis of seven Pinus species grown in different regions of New Zealand; Armand pine ( Pinus armandii Franch), Swiss stone pine ( Pinus cembra L.), Mexican pinyon ( Pinus cembroides Zucc. var. bicolor Little), Coulter pine ( Pinus coulteri D. Don), Johann's pine ( Pinus johannis M.F. Robert), Italian stone pine ( Pinus pinea L.) and Torrey pine ( Pinus torreyana Parry ex Carrière), was carried out using an inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrophotometer (ICP-OES) analysis. Fourteen different minerals (Al, B, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, S and Zn) were identified in all seven varieties, except that no Al or Na was found in Pinus coulteri D. Don. New Zealand grown pine nuts are a good source of Cu, Mg, Mn, P and Zn, meeting or exceeding the recommended RDI for these minerals (based on an intake of 50 g nuts/day) while they supplied between 39%-89% of the New Zealand RDI for Fe. Compared to other commonly eaten tree-nuts New Zealand grown pine nuts are an excellent source of essential minerals.

  2. Population Dynamics of Southern Pine Beetle in Forest Landscapes (United States)

    Andrew Birt


    Southern pine beetle (SPB) is an important pest of Southeastern United States pine forests. Periodic regional outbreaks are characterized by localized areas of tree mortality (infestations) surrounded by areas with little or no damage. Ultimately, this spatiotemporal pattern of tree mortality is driven by the dynamics of SPB populations—more specifically, by rates of...

  3. Straight studs are produced from southern pine cordwood (United States)

    Peter Koch


    A Process for converting southern pine veneer cores into 8-foot 2 by 4's of SPIB Stud grade and better has been developed at the Alexandria, Louisiana, Utilization Laboratory of the Southern Forest Experiment Station. The research leading to this development suggests that a similiar process would be practical for converting 8-foot southern pine cordwood into studs...

  4. Anaphylaxis to pine nut: cross-reactivity to Artemisia vulgaris? (United States)

    Rodrigues-Alves, R; Pregal, A; Pereira-Santos, M C; Branco-Ferreira, M; Lundberg, M; Oman, H; Pereira-Barbosa, M


    The use of pine nuts, the seeds of Pinus pinea, is on the increasing in the modern Mediterranean diet. Little more than 20 cases of allergy to this tree nut have been published, and cross-reactivity with pine pollen, peanut and almond has already been reported. We describe the case of a young boy with several episodes of anaphylaxis after pine nut ingestion. Specific IgE to pine nut and Artemisia vulgaris was demonstrated by skin prick tests and in vitro determination of specific IgE, although no IgE to pine pollen or other nuts was detected. Immunoblotting of Artemisia vulgaris and pine nut revealed two matching diffuse bands, just below 14 kDa and 30 kDa. The ImmunoCAP inhibition assays showed complete inhibition of pine nut specific IgE after serum incubation with Artemisia vulgaris extract. As far as we know, this is the first reported case of documented cross-reactivity between pine nut and Artemisia vulgaris.

  5. Growing stock levels in even-aged ponderosa pine (United States)

    Clifford A. Myers


    Growth of the most widely distributed pine in North America is under joint study by the western Forest and Range Experiment Stations of the U. S. Forest Service. Young, even-aged ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Laws.) stands are being examined over a wide range of tree sizes, stand densities, and site index. The single plan that co-...

  6. Cacogeusia following pine nut ingestion: a six patient case series

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hampton, Rachael L.; Scully, Crispian; Gandhi, Shan; Raber-Durlacher, Judith


    This is a retrospective case series of 6 patients complaining of a bad taste (cacogeusia) specifically metallogeusia, following the ingestion of pine nuts.(1) The taste arose always within 48h of ingestion, and in all but one patient spontaneously resolved within 14 days. Pine nuts also have a

  7. Grazing on Regeneration Sites Encourages Pine Seedling Growth (United States)

    Raymond D. Ratliff; Renee G. Denton


    Effects of season-long, deferred-rotation, and rest-rotation grazing, on ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) seedling growth and herbaceous vegetation control were studied in regeneration sites at Boyd Hill, Modoc National Forest, California. Seedlings were planted in 1989. Pine seedling survival and damage did not differ, but the...

  8. The longleaf pine forests of the southeast: requiem or renaissance? (United States)

    J. Larry Landers; David H. van Lear; William D. Boyer


    Longleaf pine once may have occupied as much as 92 million acres throughout the southeastern United States, making it the most extensive forest ecosystem in North America dominated by a single species. Probably less than 3 million acres now remain, and the survival of this once vast ecosystem is in doubt.Longleaf pine has many favorable attributes that suit it to a...

  9. Contamination of Pine Seeds by the Pitch Canker Fungus (United States)

    L. David Dwinell; S.W. Fraedrich


    The pitch canker fungus, Fusarium subglutinans f. sp. pini, has been identified as a significant problem in man pine seed orchards and nursuries in the South. THe fungus causes strobilus mortality, seed deterioation, and cankers on the main stem, branches, and shoots of pines Dwinell and others 1985). The pitche canker fungus...

  10. Photosynthesis and growth of selected scotch pine seed sources (United States)

    John C. Gordon; Gordon E. Gatherum


    A number of problems related to the culture of Scotch pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) arose following the increased planting of this species in Iowa. Therefore, a program of controlled-environment experiments to determine the effects of genetic and environmental factors on physiological processes important to the culture of Scotch pine was begun by the...

  11. White pines, Ribes, and blister rust: a review and synthesis (United States)

    Brian W. Geils; Kim E. Hummer; Richard S. Hunt


    For over a century, white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola) has linked white pines (Strobus) with currants and gooseberries (Ribes) in a complex and serious disease epidemic in Asia, Europe, and North America. Because of ongoing changes in climate, societal demands for forests and their amenities, and scientific advances in genetics and proteomics, our current...

  12. Exploring whitebark pine resilience in the crown of the continent (United States)

    Stacey A. Burke; Michael S. Quinn


    Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) populations are declining across western North America due to synergies of disturbances, both natural and anthropogenic. Losses at treeline may result in significant changes to the upper subalpine zone, which may result in a regime shift, thus affecting the ecological goods and services whitebark pine systems provide for other species...

  13. Silvicultural recommendations for the management of ponderosa pine forest (United States)

    Martin Alfonso Mendoza Briseno; Mary Ann Fajvan; Juan Manuel Chacon Sotelo; Alejandro Velazquez Martinez; Antonio Quinonez. Silva


    Ponderosa pines are the most important timber producing species in Mexico, and they also represent a major portion of the Usa and Canada timber production. These pines form near pure stands with simple and stable stand structure. They suffer only occasional disturbances, and they sustain a limited capacity to hold biodiversity and other senvironmental services. The...

  14. Severe burning treatment tested on lowland pine sites (United States)

    S. Little; E. B. Moore


    Since the prescribed use of fire is a fairly new silvicultural technique for preparing seedbeds for pine in the New Jersey pine region, it has been used rather cautiously. Burning treatments have been made in the winter, when periodic light fires can be easily controlled. The treatments have been used almost exclusively on upland sites.

  15. Improving harvester estimates of bark thickness for radiata pine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This describes a straight line, whereas radiata pine bark relative to DOB is thicker near the stem base and consistent over the remainder. PSP data set coefficients for this model overestimated upper stem bark thickness and underestimated lower stem values. The harvester model for Scots pine bark fitted better than the ...

  16. Converting Virginia pine stump diameters to diameters breast high (United States)

    Thomas W., Jr. Church


    Up until the last decade, practically no forest-management work had been done in stands of Virginia pine (Pinus virginiana Miller). It is still common practice to clear-cut the stand - with no consideration for a future crop. In some places this has resulted in satisfactory establishment of another pine stand. But usually hardwoods take over the site...

  17. Whitebark pine diameter growth response to removal of competition (United States)

    Robert E. Keane; Kathy L. Gray; Laura J. Dickinson


    Silvicultural cutting treatments may be needed to restore whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) forests, but little is known of the response of this species to removal of competition through prescribed burning or silvicultural cuttings. We analyzed stem cross-sections from 48 whitebark pine trees in Montana around which most of the competing vegetation...

  18. Possibilities of breeding weevil-resistant white pine strains (United States)

    Jonathan W. Wright; William J. Gabriel


    Eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L.) is a highly versatile species. It is easily planted, adaptable to a wide variety of soils and climates, and reproduces itself well. Also it grows rapidly and is capable of producing high-quality lumber. These characteristics once entitled white pine to a top position in the forest economy throughout much of the...

  19. Loblolly Pine Growth 16 Years After Four Site Preparation Treatments (United States)

    John C. Adams; Clyde Vidrine


    Thirteen-year growth results of 1-0 planted loblolly pine seedlings (Pinus taeda L.) on differently prepared upland mixed pine-hardwood sites located in north western Louisiana are presented. The study was designed as a randomized complete block consisting of three blocks of four site preparation treatments, which included: chop and burn, windrow,...

  20. Herbaceous weed control in loblolly pine plantations using flazasulfuron (United States)

    Andrew W. Ezell; Jimmie L. Yeiser


    A total of 13 treatments were applied at four sites (two in Mississippi and two in Texas) to evaluate the efficacy of flazasulfuron applied alone or in mixtures for providing control of herbaceous weeds. All sites were newly established loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantations. Plots were evaluated monthly until 180 days after treatment. No phytotoxicity on pine...

  1. Influence of Thinning and Pruning on Southern Pine Veneer Quality (United States)

    Mark D. Gibson; Terry R. Clason; Gary L. Hill; George A. Grozdits


    This paper presents the effects of intensive pine plantation management on veneer yields, veneer grade distribution and veneer MOE as measured by ultrasonic stress wave transmission (Metriguard). Veneer production trials were done at a commercial southern pine plywood plant to elucidate the effects of silvicultural treatments on veneer quality, yield, and modulus of...

  2. Native ectomycorrhizal fungi of limber and whitebark pine: Necessary for forest sustainability? (United States)

    Cathy L. Cripps; Robert K. Antibus


    Ectomycorrhizal fungi are an important component of northern coniferous forests, including those of Pinus flexilis (limber pine) and P. albicaulis (whitebark pine) which are being decimated by white pine blister rust and mountain pine beetles. Ectomycorrhizal fungi are known to promote seedling establishment, tree health, and may play a role in forest sustainability....

  3. Re-measurement of whitebark pine infection and mortality in the Canadian Rockies (United States)

    Cyndi M. Smith; Brenda Shepherd; Cameron Gillies; Jon Stuart-Smith


    Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) populations are under threat across the species' range from white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola), mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae), fire exclusion and climate change (Tomback and Achuff 2010). Loss of whitebark pine is predicted to have cascading effects on the following ecological services: provision of...

  4. Limber pine seed and seedling planting experiment in Waterton Lakes National Park, Canada (United States)

    Cyndi M. Smith; Graeme Poll; Cameron Gillies; Celina Praymak; Eileen Miranda; Justin Hill


    Limber pine plays an important role in the harsh environments in which it lives, providing numerous ecological services, especially because its large, wingless seeds serve as a high energy food source for many animals. Limber pine populations are declining due to a combination of white pine blister rust, mountain pine beetle, drought, and fire suppression. Outplanting...

  5. Recent trends in the afforestation and reforestation of nonindustrial private pine forests in Alabama (United States)

    William H. McWilliams


    A shrinking of Alabama's nonindustrial private pine forest prompted an analysis of recent trends in afforestation and regeneration. There has been an 828,100-acre addition to the nonindustrial pine-site timberland base from nonforest land uses. Planting has replaced natural seeding as the major cause of afforestation to pine. The area of nonindustrial pine-site...

  6. Soil moisture and the distribution of lodgepole and ponderosa pine: a review of the literature. (United States)

    Robert F. Tarrant


    Despite a number of published studies and observations of the factors affecting the distribution of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var, latifolia) and Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), some misunderstanding still exists as to the significance of the extensive stands of lodgepole pine in the ponderosa pine...

  7. Some recent developments in white-pine weevil research in the Northeast (United States)

    H. A. Jaynes


    Eastern white pine is one of the most important sawtimber species in the Northeast. This species would have still greater potential value were it not for the white-pine weevil, Pissodes strobi (Peck), its most serious insect pest. This is a native insect that occurs throughout the range of eastern white pine. A large percentage of the white pines in...

  8. Options for the management of white pine blister rust in the Rocky Mountain Region (United States)

    Kelly S. Burns; Anna W. Schoettle; William R. Jacobi; Mary F. Mahalovich


    This publication synthesizes current information on the biology, distribution, and management of white pine blister rust (WPBR) in the Rocky Mountain Region. In this Region, WPBR occurs within the range of Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine (Pinus aristata), limber pine (P. flexilis), and whitebark pine (P. albicaulis...

  9. Status of fusiform rust incidence in slash and loblolly pine plantations in the southeastern United States (United States)

    KaDonna C. Randolph


    Southern pine tree improvement programs have been in operation in the southeastern United States since the 1950s. Their goal has been to improve volume growth, tree form, disease resistance, and wood quality in southern pines, particularly slash pine (Pinus elliottii) and loblolly pine (P. taeda). The disease of focus has been...

  10. Influence of seed weight on early development of eastern white pine (United States)

    M. E., Jr. Demeritt; H. W., Jr. Hocker


    In the Northeast, eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L.) cannot be relied upon to consistently regenerate naturally due to the destruction of the cone crops by the white pine cone beetle (Conopthorus coniperda Schwarz). The white pine cone beetle has been reported to have destroyed the white pine cone crops for nine consecutive...

  11. Prediction and identification of Korean Pine (Pinus koraiensis) vicilin as a food allergen (abstract) (United States)

    RATIONALE: Pine nut allergy cases have been reported, but pine nut allergens remain to be identified and characterized. Korean pine nut is one of the major varieties of pine nuts that are widely consumed. Vicilins belong to one of a few protein families that contain more than 85% of the known food a...

  12. Insect-induced crystallization of white pine resins. I. white-pine weevil (United States)

    Frank S., Jr. Santamour


    In breeding programs designed to produce insect-resistant plants, a serious obstacle to progress often is the lack of efficient selection and testing criteria. Natural infestations of some insects are large and severe enough to allow selection of resistant plants directly from the natural plant population. However, the attacks of the white-pine weevil (...

  13. Nitrogen cycling following mountain pine beetle disturbance in lodgepole pine forests of Greater Yellowstone (United States)

    Jacob M. Griffin; Monica G. Turner; Martin Simard


    Widespread bark beetle outbreaks are currently affecting multiple conifer forest types throughout western North America, yet many ecosystem-level consequences of this disturbance are poorly understood. We quantified the effect of mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) outbreak on nitrogen (N) cycling through litter, soil, and vegetation in...

  14. Impact of a Mountain Pine Beetle Outbreak on Young Lodgepole Pine Stands in Central British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalesh Dhar


    Full Text Available The current mountain pine beetle (MPB (Dendroctonous ponderosae Hopkins epidemic has severely affected pine forests of Western Canada and killed millions of hectares of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud. var. latifolia Engelm. forest. Generally, MPB attack larger and older (diameter > 20 cm or >60 years of age trees, but the current epidemic extends this limit with attacks on even younger and smaller trees. The study’s aim was to investigate the extent of MPB attack in young pine stands and its possible impact on stand dynamics. Although MPB attacks were observed in trees as small as 7.5 cm diameter at breast height (DBH and as young as 13 years old, the degree of MPB attack (percent stems ha−1 increased with increasing tree diameter and age class (13–20, 21–40, 41–60, and 61–80 years old (6.4%, 49.4%, 62.6%, and 69.5% attack, respectively, by age class which is greater than that reported from previous epidemics for stands of this age. The mean density of surviving residual structure varied widely among age classes and ecological subzones. Depending on age class, 65% to 77% of the attacked stands could contribute to mid-term timber supply. The surviving residual structure of young stands offers an opportunity to mitigate the effects of MPB-attack on future timber supply, increase age class diversity, and enhance ecological resilience in younger stands.

  15. Remedial treatment of lodgepole pine infested with mountain pine beetle: efficacy of three insecticides (United States)

    Paul E. Tilden


    Lindane is registered for remedial control of bark beetles; however, forestry uses are controversial and alternative chemicals are needed. Chlorpyrifos (Dursban 4E), carbaryl (Sevimol 4), and fenitrothion (Sumithion 8E) at 1, 2, and 4 pct active ingredient, and lindane at the registered dosage of 0.6 pct were sprayed on lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta...

  16. The mountain pine beetle and whitebark pine waltz: Has the music changed? (United States)

    Barbara J. Bentz; Greta Schen-Langenheim


    The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) (MPB), is a bark beetle native to western North American forests, spanning wide latitudinal and elevational gradients. MPB infest and reproduce within the phloem of most Pinus species from northern Baja California in Mexico to central British Columbia in...

  17. Proactive intervention to sustain high-elevation pine ecosystems threatened by white pine blister rust (United States)

    Anna W. Schoettle; Richard A. Sniezko


    Only recently have efforts begun to address how management might prepare currently healthy forests to affect the outcome of invasion by established non-native pests. Cronartium ribicola, the fungus that causes the disease white pine blister rust (WPBR), is among the introductions into North America where containment and eradication have failed; the...

  18. Body temperature variations of the Louisiana pine snake (Pituophis ruthveni) in a longleaf pine ecosystem (United States)

    John G. Himes; Laurence M. Hardy; D. Craig Rudolph; Shirley J. Burgdorf


    The thermal ecology of the Louisiana pine snake, Pituophis ruthveni, was studied from 1993-97 in Louisiana and Texas. All snakes were implanted with temperature-sensitive radiotransmitters. Temperatures were recorded from snakes located above ground and underground and were compared between size and sex classes (juveniles, adult males, adult females). Associated air...

  19. EuroPineDB: a high-coverage web database for maritime pine transcriptome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cantón Francisco R


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pinus pinaster is an economically and ecologically important species that is becoming a woody gymnosperm model. Its enormous genome size makes whole-genome sequencing approaches are hard to apply. Therefore, the expressed portion of the genome has to be characterised and the results and annotations have to be stored in dedicated databases. Description EuroPineDB is the largest sequence collection available for a single pine species, Pinus pinaster (maritime pine, since it comprises 951 641 raw sequence reads obtained from non-normalised cDNA libraries and high-throughput sequencing from adult (xylem, phloem, roots, stem, needles, cones, strobili and embryonic (germinated embryos, buds, callus maritime pine tissues. Using open-source tools, sequences were optimally pre-processed, assembled, and extensively annotated (GO, EC and KEGG terms, descriptions, SNPs, SSRs, ORFs and InterPro codes. As a result, a 10.5× P. pinaster genome was covered and assembled in 55 322 UniGenes. A total of 32 919 (59.5% of P. pinaster UniGenes were annotated with at least one description, revealing at least 18 466 different genes. The complete database, which is designed to be scalable, maintainable, and expandable, is freely available at: It can be retrieved by gene libraries, pine species, annotations, UniGenes and microarrays (i.e., the sequences are distributed in two-colour microarrays; this is the only conifer database that provides this information and will be periodically updated. Small assemblies can be viewed using a dedicated visualisation tool that connects them with SNPs. Any sequence or annotation set shown on-screen can be downloaded. Retrieval mechanisms for sequences and gene annotations are provided. Conclusions The EuroPineDB with its integrated information can be used to reveal new knowledge, offers an easy-to-use collection of information to directly support experimental work (including

  20. Soil properties in 35 y old pine and hardwood plantations after conversion from mixed pine-hardwood forest (United States)

    D. Andrew Scott; Michael G. Messina


    Past management practices have changed much of the native mixed pine-hardwood forests on upland alluvial terraces of the western Gulf Coastal Plain to either pine monocultures or hardwood (angiosperm) stands. Changes in dominant tree species can alter soil chemical, biological, and physical properties and processes, thereby changing soil attributes, and ultimately,...

  1. Biochemical Assay Detects Feeding Damage to Loblolly Pine Seeds Caused by the Leaffooted Pine Seed Bug (Hemiptera: Coreidae) (United States)

    Cameron G. Lait; Daniel R. Miller; Sarah L. Bates; John H. Borden; Allison R. Kermode


    A large number of proteins in salivary gland extracts of the leaffooted pine seed bug, Leptoglossus corculus Say, were strongly recognized by a polyclonal antibody-based assay developed for detecting saliva of the western conifer seed bug, Lepfoglossus occidentalis Heidemann, in lodgepole pine, Pinus contorta var...

  2. The resin composition of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) attacked by the roundheaded pine beetle (Dendroctonus adjunctus) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) (United States)

    Melissa J. Fischer; Kristen M. Waring; Richard W. Hofstetter; Thomas E. Kolb


    Dendroctonus adjunctus is an aggressive bark beetle species that attacks several species of pine throughout its range from southern Utah and Colorado south to Guatemala. A current outbreak of D. adjunctus provided a unique opportunity to study the relationship between this beetle and pine resin chemistry in northern Arizona. We...

  3. Tree response and mountain pine beetle attack preference, reproduction, and emergence timing in mixed whitebark and lodgepole pines (United States)

    Barbara J. Bentz; Celia Boone; Kenneth F. Raffa


    Mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) is an important disturbance agent in Pinus ecosystems of western North America, historically causing significant tree mortality. Most recorded outbreaks have occurred in mid elevation lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta). In warm years, tree mortality also occurs at higher elevations in mixed species stands.

  4. Evolution of a research prototype expert system for endemic populations of mountain pine beetle in lodgepole pine forests (United States)

    Dale L. Bartos; Kent B. Downing


    A knowledge acquisition program was written to aid in obtaining knowledge from the experts concerning endemic populations of mountain pine beetle in lodgepole pine forest. An application expert system is then automatically generated by the knowledge acquisition program that contains the codified base of expert knowledge. Data can then be entered into the expert system...

  5. Changes in transpiration and foliage growth in lodgepole pine trees following mountain pine beetle attack and mechanical girdling (United States)

    Robert M. Hubbard; Charles C. Rhoades; Kelly Elder; Jose Negron


    The recent mountain pine beetle outbreak in North American lodgepole pine forests demonstrates the importance of insect related disturbances in changing forest structure and ecosystem processes. Phloem feeding by beetles disrupts transport of photosynthate from tree canopies and fungi introduced to the tree's vascular system by the bark beetles inhibit water...

  6. Characterizing the physical and genetic structure of the lodgepole pine × jack pine hybrid zone: mosaic structure and differential introgression. (United States)

    Cullingham, Catherine I; James, Patrick M A; Cooke, Janice E K; Coltman, David W


    Understanding the physical and genetic structure of hybrid zones can illuminate factors affecting their formation and stability. In north-central Alberta, lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud. var. latifolia) and jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb) form a complex and poorly defined hybrid zone. Better knowledge of this zone is relevant, given the recent host expansion of mountain pine beetle into jack pine. We characterized the zone by genotyping 1998 lodgepole, jack pine, and hybrids from British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Ontario, and Minnesota at 11 microsatellites. Using Bayesian algorithms, we calculated genetic ancestry and used this to model the relationship between species occurrence and environment. In addition, we analyzed the ancestry of hybrids to calculate the genetic contribution of lodgepole and jack pine. Finally, we measured the amount of gene flow between the pure species. We found the distribution of the pine classes is explained by environmental variables, and these distributions differ from classic distribution maps. Hybrid ancestry was biased toward lodgepole pine; however, gene flow between the two species was equal. The results of this study suggest that the hybrid zone is complex and influenced by environmental constraints. As a result of this analysis, range limits should be redefined.

  7. White pine blister rust in high-elevation white pines: Screening for simply-inherited, hypersensitive resistance (United States)

    Detlev R. Vogler; Annette Delfino-Mix; Anna W. Schoettle


    Recent concern about survival and recovery of high-elevation white pine ecosystems has returned white pine blister rust (caused by Cronartiurn ribicola) to prominence as a significant threat to forest health in the western U.S. (Sainman et al., 2003). This, in turn, has spurred new research into potential rust-resistance mechanisms in high-elevation...

  8. Nitrogen cycling responses to mountain pine beetle disturbance in a high elevation whitebark pine ecosystem. (United States)

    Keville, Megan P; Reed, Sasha C; Cleveland, Cory C


    Ecological disturbances can significantly affect biogeochemical cycles in terrestrial ecosystems, but the biogeochemical consequences of the extensive mountain pine beetle outbreak in high elevation whitebark pine (WbP) (Pinus albicaulis) ecosystems of western North America have not been previously investigated. Mountain pine beetle attack has driven widespread WbP mortality, which could drive shifts in both the pools and fluxes of nitrogen (N) within these ecosystems. Because N availability can limit forest regrowth, understanding how beetle-induced mortality affects N cycling in WbP stands may be critical to understanding the trajectory of ecosystem recovery. Thus, we measured above- and belowground N pools and fluxes for trees representing three different times since beetle attack, including unattacked trees. Litterfall N inputs were more than ten times higher under recently attacked trees compared to unattacked trees. Soil inorganic N concentrations also increased following beetle attack, potentially driven by a more than two-fold increase in ammonium (NH₄⁺) concentrations in the surface soil organic horizon. However, there were no significant differences in mineral soil inorganic N or soil microbial biomass N concentrations between attacked and unattacked trees, implying that short-term changes in N cycling in response to the initial stages of WbP attack were restricted to the organic horizon. Our results suggest that while mountain pine beetle attack drives a pulse of N from the canopy to the forest floor, changes in litterfall quality and quantity do not have profound effects on soil biogeochemical cycling, at least in the short-term. However, continuous observation of these important ecosystems will be crucial to determining the long-term biogeochemical effects of mountain pine beetle outbreaks.

  9. Nitrogen cycling responses to mountain pine beetle disturbance in a high elevation whitebark pine ecosystem (United States)

    Keville, Megan P.; Reed, Sasha C.; Cleveland, Cory C.


    Ecological disturbances can significantly affect biogeochemical cycles in terrestrial ecosystems, but the biogeochemical consequences of the extensive mountain pine beetle outbreak in high elevation whitebark pine (WbP) (Pinus albicaulis) ecosystems of western North America have not been previously investigated. Mountain pine beetle attack has driven widespread WbP mortality, which could drive shifts in both the pools and fluxes of nitrogen (N) within these ecosystems. Because N availability can limit forest regrowth, understanding how beetle-induced mortality affects N cycling in WbP stands may be critical to understanding the trajectory of ecosystem recovery. Thus, we measured above- and belowground N pools and fluxes for trees representing three different times since beetle attack, including unattacked trees. Litterfall N inputs were more than ten times higher under recently attacked trees compared to unattacked trees. Soil inorganic N concentrations also increased following beetle attack, potentially driven by a more than two-fold increase in ammonium (NH4+) concentrations in the surface soil organic horizon. However, there were no significant differences in mineral soil inorganic N or soil microbial biomass N concentrations between attacked and unattacked trees, implying that short-term changes in N cycling in response to the initial stages of WbP attack were restricted to the organic horizon. Our results suggest that while mountain pine beetle attack drives a pulse of N from the canopy to the forest floor, changes in litterfall quality and quantity do not have profound effects on soil biogeochemical cycling, at least in the short-term. However, continuous observation of these important ecosystems will be crucial to determining the long-term biogeochemical effects of mountain pine beetle outbreaks.

  10. Cambial injury in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta): mountain pine beetle vs fire. (United States)

    Arbellay, Estelle; Daniels, Lori D; Mansfield, Shawn D; Chang, Alice S


    Both mountain pine beetle (MPB) Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins and fire leave scars with similar appearance on lodgepole pine Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud. var. latifolia Engelm. that have never been compared microscopically, despite the pressing need to determine the respective effects of MPB and fire injury on tree physiology. We analysed changes in wood formation in naturally caused scars on lodgepole pine, and tested the hypotheses that (i) MPB and fire injury elicit distinct anomalies in lodgepole pine wood and (ii) anomalies differ in magnitude and/or duration between MPB and fire. Mountain pine beetle and fire injury reduced radial growth in the first year post-injury. Otherwise, radial growth and wood density increased over more than 10 years in both MPB and fire scars. We found that the general increase in radial growth was of greater magnitude (up to 27%) and of longer duration (up to 5 years) in fire scars compared with MPB scars, as shown in earlywood width. We also observed that the increase in latewood density was of greater magnitude (by 12%) in MPB scars, but of longer duration (by 4 years) in fire scars. Crystallinity decreased following MPB and fire injury, while microfibril angle increased. These changes in fibre traits were of longer duration (up to 4 years) in MPB scars compared with fire scars, as shown in microfibril angle. We found no significant changes in carbon and nitrogen concentrations. In conclusion, we stress that reduced competition and resistance to cavitation play an important role alongside cambial injury in influencing the type and severity of changes. In addition, more research is needed to validate the thresholds introduced in this study. Our findings serve as a foundation for new protocols to distinguish between bark beetle and fire disturbance, which is essential for improving our knowledge of historical bark beetle and fire regimes, and their interactions. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All

  11. Mountain Pine Beetle Host Selection Between Lodgepole and Ponderosa Pines in the Southern Rocky Mountains. (United States)

    West, Daniel R; Briggs, Jennifer S; Jacobi, William R; Negrón, José F


    Recent evidence of range expansion and host transition by mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins; MPB) has suggested that MPB may not primarily breed in their natal host, but will switch hosts to an alternate tree species. As MPB populations expanded in lodgepole pine forests in the southern Rocky Mountains, we investigated the potential for movement into adjacent ponderosa pine forests. We conducted field and laboratory experiments to evaluate four aspects of MPB population dynamics and host selection behavior in the two hosts: emergence timing, sex ratios, host choice, and reproductive success. We found that peak MPB emergence from both hosts occurred simultaneously between late July and early August, and the sex ratio of emerging beetles did not differ between hosts. In two direct tests of MPB host selection, we identified a strong preference by MPB for ponderosa versus lodgepole pine. At field sites, we captured naturally emerging beetles from both natal hosts in choice arenas containing logs of both species. In the laboratory, we offered sections of bark and phloem from both species to individual insects in bioassays. In both tests, insects infested ponderosa over lodgepole pine at a ratio of almost 2:1, regardless of natal host species. Reproductive success (offspring/female) was similar in colonized logs of both hosts. Overall, our findings suggest that MPB may exhibit equally high rates of infestation and fecundity in an alternate host under favorable conditions. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  12. The lodgepole × jack pine hybrid zone in Alberta, Canada: a stepping stone for the mountain pine beetle on its journey East across the boreal forest? (United States)

    Lusebrink, Inka; Erbilgin, Nadir; Evenden, Maya L


    Historical data show that outbreaks of the tree killing mountain pine beetle are often preceded by periods of drought. Global climate change impacts drought frequency and severity and is implicated in the range expansion of the mountain pine beetle into formerly unsuitable habitats. Its expanded range has recently reached the lodgepole × jack pine hybrid zone in central Alberta, Canada, which could act as a transition from its historical lodgepole pine host to a jack pine host present in the boreal forest. This field study tested the effects of water limitation on chemical defenses of mature trees against mountain pine beetle-associated microorganisms and on beetle brood success in lodgepole × jack pine hybrid trees. Tree chemical defenses as measured by monoterpene emission from tree boles and monoterpene concentration in needles were greater in trees that experienced water deficit compared to well-watered trees. Myrcene was identified as specific defensive compound, since it significantly increased upon inoculation with dead mountain pine beetles. Beetles reared in bolts from trees that experienced water deficit emerged with a higher fat content, demonstrating for the first time experimentally that drought conditions benefit mountain pine beetles. Further, our study demonstrated that volatile chemical emission from tree boles and phloem chemistry place the hybrid tree chemotype in-between lodgepole pine and jack pine, which might facilitate the host shift from lodgepole pine to jack pine.

  13. Diversity of Lophodermium species on pines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarev Vladimir S.


    Full Text Available Multiannual study of needle-cast disease on pines shows that Lophodermium species, as well as other widely-ranging micro-organism species, are characterized by high variability in morphology, physiology, biology pathogenic characters, epiphytotiology and other characteristics, which points to the assumption on the existence of biotypes, forms or still unidentified species in this genus. This paper presents the study results which contribute to the elucidation of the confusion regarding the genus name Lophodermium and the species, biotypes or forms described in the genus.

  14. Cadmium Removal from Aqueous Solutions by Ground Pine Cone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Izanloo, S Nasseri


    Full Text Available A study on the removal of cadmium ions from aqueous solutions by pine cone was conducted in batch conditions. Kinetic data and equilibrium removal isotherms were obtained. The influence of different experimental parameters such as contact time, initial concentration of cadmium, pine cone mass and particle size, and temperature on the kinetics of cadmium removal was studied. Results showed that the main parameters that played an important role in removal phenomenon were initial cadmium concentration, particle size and pine cone mass. The necessary time to reach equilibrium was between 4 and 7 hours based on the initial concentration of cadmium. The capacity of cadmium adsorption at equilibrium increased with the decrease of pine cone particle size. The capacity of cadmium adsorption at equilibrium by pine cone increased with the quantity of pine cone introduced (1–4 g/L. Temperature in the range of 20-30°C showed a restricted effect on the removal kinetics (13.56 mg/g at 20°C and a low capacity of adsorption about 11.48 mg/g at 30°C. The process followed pseudo second-order kinetics. The cadmium uptake of pine cone was quantitatively evaluated using adsorption isotherms. Results indicated that the Langmuir model gave a better fit to the experimental data in comparison with the Freundlich equation.

  15. Wind noise under a pine tree canopy. (United States)

    Raspet, Richard; Webster, Jeremy


    It is well known that infrasonic wind noise levels are lower for arrays placed in forests and under vegetation than for those in open areas. In this research, the wind noise levels, turbulence spectra, and wind velocity profiles are measured in a pine forest. A prediction of the wind noise spectra from the measured meteorological parameters is developed based on recent research on wind noise above a flat plane. The resulting wind noise spectrum is the sum of the low frequency wind noise generated by the turbulence-shear interaction near and above the tops of the trees and higher frequency wind noise generated by the turbulence-turbulence interaction near the ground within the tree layer. The convection velocity of the low frequency wind noise corresponds to the wind speed above the trees while the measurements showed that the wind noise generated by the turbulence-turbulence interaction is near stationary and is generated by the slow moving turbulence adjacent to the ground. Comparison of the predicted wind noise spectrum with the measured wind noise spectrum shows good agreement for four measurement sets. The prediction can be applied to meteorological estimates to predict the wind noise under other pine forests.

  16. Fire structures pine serotiny at different scales. (United States)

    Hernández-Serrano, Ana; Verdú, Miguel; González-Martínez, Santiago C; Pausas, Juli G


    Serotiny (delayed seed release with the consequent accumulation of a canopy seedbank) confers fitness benefits in environments with crown-fire regimes. Thus, we predicted that serotiny level should be higher in populations recurrently subjected to crown-fires than in populations where crown-fires are rare. In addition, under a high frequency of fires, space and resources are recurrently available, permitting recruitment around each mother to follow the seed rain shadow. Thus, we also predicted spatial aggregation of serotiny within populations. We compared serotiny, considering both the proportion and the age of serotinous cones, in populations living in contrasting fire regimes for two iconic Mediterranean pine species (Pinus halepensis, P. pinaster). We framed our results by quantitatively comparing the strength of the fire-serotiny relationship with previous studies worldwide. For the two species, populations living under high crown-fire recurrence regimes had a higher serotiny level than those populations where the recurrence of crown-fires was low. For P. halepensis (the species with higher serotiny), populations in high fire recurrence regimes had higher fine-scale spatial aggregation of serotiny than those inhabiting low fire recurrence systems. The strength of the observed fire-serotiny relationship in P. halepensis is among the highest in published literature. Fire regime shapes serotiny level among populations, and in populations with high serotiny, recurrent fires maintain a significant spatial structure for this trait. Consequently, fire has long-term evolutionary implications at different scales, emphasizing its prominent role in shaping the ecology of pines.

  17. Suitability of pines and other conifers as hosts for the invasive Mediterranean pine engraver (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) in North America. (United States)

    Lee, Jana C; Flint, Mary Louise; Seybold, Steven J


    The invasive Mediterranean pine engraver, Orthotomicus erosus (Wollaston) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), was detected in North America in 2004, and it is currently distributed in the southern Central Valley of California. It originates from the Mediterranean region, the Middle East, and Asia, and it reproduces on pines (Pinus spp.). To identify potentially vulnerable native and adventive hosts in North America, no-choice host range tests were conducted in the laboratory on 22 conifer species. The beetle reproduced on four pines from its native Eurasian range--Aleppo, Canary Island, Italian stone, and Scots pines; 11 native North American pines--eastern white, grey, jack, Jeffrey, loblolly, Monterey, ponderosa, red, Sierra lodgepole, singleleaf pinyon, and sugar pines; and four native nonpines--Douglas-fir, black and white spruce, and tamarack. Among nonpines, fewer progeny developed and they were of smaller size on Douglas-fir and tamarack, but sex ratios of progeny were nearly 1:1 on all hosts. Last, beetles did not develop on white fir, incense cedar, and coast redwood. With loblolly pine, the first new adults emerged 42 d after parental females were introduced into host logs at temperatures of 20-33 degrees C and 523.5 or 334.7 accumulated degree-days based on lower development thresholds of 13.6 or 18 degrees C, respectively.

  18. Evaluating potential fire behavior in lodgepole pine-dominated forests after a mountain pine beetle epidemic in north-central Colorado (United States)

    Jennifer G. Klutsch; Mike A. Battaglia; Daniel R. West; Sheryl L. Costello; Jose F. Negron


    A mountain pine beetle outbreak in Colorado lodgepole pine forests has altered stand and fuel characteristics that affect potential fire behavior. Using the Fire and Fuels Extension to the Forest Vegetation Simulator, potential fire behavior was modeled for uninfested and mountain pine beetle-affected plots 7 years after outbreak initiation and 10 and 80% projected...

  19. Documentation and user guides for SPBLOB: a computer simulation model of the join population dynamics for loblolly pine and the southern pine beetle (United States)

    John Bishir; James Roberds; Brian Strom; Xiaohai Wan


    SPLOB is a computer simulation model for the interaction between loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.), the economically most important forest crop in the United States, and the southern pine beetle (SPB: Dendroctonus frontalis Zimm.), the major insect pest for this species. The model simulates loblolly pine stands from time of planting...

  20. Interaction of an invasive bark beetle with a native forest pathogen: Potential effect of dwarf mistletoe on range expansion of mountain pine beetle in jack pine forests (United States)

    Jennifer Klutsch; Nadir Erbilgin


    In recent decades, climate change has facilitated shifts in species ranges that have the potential to significantly affect ecosystem dynamics and resilience. Mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) is expanding east from British Columbia, where it has killed millions of pine trees, primarily lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta...

  1. Effects of dwarf mistletoe on stand structure of lodgepole pine forests 21-28 years post-mountain pine beetle epidemic in central Oregon (United States)

    Michelle C. Agne; David C. Shaw; Travis J. Woolley; Mónica E. Queijeiro-Bolaños; Mai-He. Li


    Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) forests are widely distributed throughout North America and are subject to mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) epidemics, which have caused mortality over millions of hectares of mature trees in recent decades. Mountain pine beetle is known to influence stand structure, and has the ability to impact many forest processes....

  2. Prey handling and diet of Louisiana pine snakes (Pituophis ruthveni) and black pine snakes (P. melanoleucus lodingi), with comparisons to other selected colubrid snakes (United States)

    D. Craig Rudolph; Shirley J. Burgdorf; Richard N. Conner; Christopher S. Collins; Daniel Saenz; Richard R. Schaefer; Toni Trees; C. Michael Duran; Marc Ealy; John G. Himes


    Diet and prey handling behavior were determined for Louisiana pine snakes (Pituophis ruthveni) and black pine snakes (P. melanoleucus lodingi). Louisiana pine snakes prey heavily on Baird's pocket gophers (Geomys breviceps), with which they are sympatric, and exhibit specialized behaviors that facilitate...

  3. Effect of a fire retardant on the ignition of pine wood exposed to smoldering particles of pine bark (United States)

    Kasymov, Denis; Paletsky, Alexander


    This paper represents the laboratory research results on the interaction of smoldering pine bark particles with pine wood. Fire retardant treatment "FUKAM" was studied to estimate its effect on the probability of wood ignition. The wind speed and the number and geometric sizes of particles were varied in the experiments. The results have shown that the increase in the wind speed leads to the increase in the probability of wood ignition by the particles of the same size, and fire-retardant treatment significantly increases the protective properties of wood exposed to smoldering pine bark particles.

  4. Accumulation of cesium-137 and strontium-90 in ponderosa pine and monterey pine seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Entry, J.A.; Rygiewicz, P.T.; Emmingham, W.H.


    Because ponderosa pine Pinus ponderosa and Monterey pone (P. radiata D Don) have exceptionally fast growth rates and their abscised needles are not readily dispersed by wind, these species may be valuable for removing radioisotopes from contaminated soils. Ponderosa and Monterey pine seedlings were tested for their ability to accumulate 137 Cs and 90 Sr-characteristic radioisotopes of nuclear fallout-from contaminated soil. Seedlings were grown for 3 mo in 165 cm 3 sphagnum peat moss/perlite (1:1 V/V) in a growth chamber. In Exp. 1, seedling accumulation of 137 Cs and 90 Sr after 1 mo of exposure was measured. In Exp. 2, seedling accumulation of the radioisotopes during different-length exposures was measured. Seedling accumulation of 137 CS and 90 Sr at different concentrations of the radioisotopes in the growth medium was measured in Exp. 3. Ponderosa pine accumulated 6.3% of the 137 Cs and I.5% of the 90 Sr present in the growth medium after 1 mo; Monterey pine accumulated 8.3% of the 137 Cs and 4.5% of the 90 Sr. Accumulation of 137 Cs and 90 Sr by both coniferous species was curvilinearly related to duration of exposure. Accumulation of 137 Cs and 90 Sr by both species increased with increasing concentration in the growth medium and correlated curvilinearly with radioisotope concentration in the growth medium. Large areas throughout the world are contaminated with 137 Cs and 90 Sr as a result of nuclear weapons testing or atomic reactor accidents. The ability of trees to sequester and store 137 Cs and 90 Sr introduces the possibility of using reforestation to remediate contaminated soils

  5. Fire injury reduces inducible defenses of lodgepole pine against Mountain pine beetle. (United States)

    Powell, Erinn N; Raffa, Kenneth F


    We examined the effect of wildfire injury on lodgepole pine chemical defenses against mountain pine beetle. We compared the constitutive phloem chemistry among uninjured, lightly-, moderately-, and severely-injured trees, and the induced chemistry elicited by simulated beetle attack, among these same categories. We also compared the entry rates of caged female beetles into trees of these categories. The volatiles we studied included thirteen monoterpene hydrocarbons, four allylic monoterpene alcohols, one ester, and one phenyl propanoid, of which the monoterpene hydrocarbons always comprised 96% or more of the total. Fire injury reduced the total concentration of these compounds in the induced but not constitutive phloem tissue of lodgepole pines. Fire injury also affected the relative composition of some volatiles in both induced and constitutive phloem. For example, increased fire injury reduced 4-allylanisole, a host compound that inhibits mountain pine beetle aggregation. Increased fire injury also increased (-) α-pinene, which can serve as precursor of pheromone communication. However, it also reduced myrcene and terpinolene, which can serve as stimulants and synergists of pheromone communication. Beetle entry did not show statistical differences among fire injury categories, although there was a trend to increased entry with fire injury. These results suggest that the reduced ability of trees to mobilize induced chemical defenses is an important mechanism behind the higher incidence of attack on fire-injured trees in the field. Future studies should concentrate on whether beetles that enter fire-injured trees are more likely to elicit aggregation, based on the differences we observed in volatile composition.

  6. Soil contamination with silver nanoparticles reduces Bishop pine growth and ectomycorrhizal diversity on pine roots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweet, M. J., E-mail: [University of Derby, Environmental Sustainability Research Centre, College of Life and Natural Sciences (United Kingdom); Singleton, I. [Newcastle University, School of Biology (United Kingdom)


    Soil contamination by silver nanoparticles (AgNP) is of potential environmental concern but little work has been carried out on the effect of such contamination on ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF). EMF are essential to forest ecosystem functions as they are known to enhance growth of trees by nutrient transfer. In this study, soil was experimentally contaminated with AgNP (0, 350 and 790 mg Ag/kg) and planted with Bishop pine seedlings. The effect of AgNP was subsequently measured, assessing variation in pine growth and ectomycorrhizal diversity associated with the root system. After only 1 month, the highest AgNP level had significantly reduced the root length of pine seedlings, which in turn had a small effect on above ground plant biomass. However, after 4 months growth, both AgNP levels utilised had significantly reduced both pine root and shoot biomass. For example, even the lower levels of AgNP (350 mg Ag/kg) soil, reduced fresh root biomass by approximately 57 %. The root systems of the plants grown in AgNP-contaminated soils lacked the lateral and fine root development seen in the control plants (no AgNP). Although, only five different genera of EMF were found on roots of the control plants, only one genus Laccaria was found on roots of plants grown in soil containing 350 mg AgNP/kg. At the higher levels of AgNP contamination, no EMF were observed. Furthermore, extractable silver was found in soils containing AgNP, indicating potential dissolution of silver ions (Ag+) from the solid AgNP.

  7. Nutritional and pathogenic fungi associated with the pine engraver beetle trigger comparable defenses in Scots pine. (United States)

    Villari, Caterina; Battisti, Andrea; Chakraborty, Sourav; Michelozzi, Marco; Bonello, Pierluigi; Faccoli, Massimo


    Conifer bark beetles are often associated with fungal complexes whose components have different ecological roles. Some associated species are nutritionally obligate fungi, serving as nourishment to the larvae, whereas others are pathogenic blue-stain fungi known to be involved in the interaction with host defenses. In this study we characterized the local and systemic defense responses of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) against Ophiostoma brunneo-ciliatum Math. (a blue-stain pathogen) and Hyalorhinocladiella macrospora (Franke-Grosm.) Harr. (a nutritional fungus). These fungi are the principal associates of the pine engraver beetle, Ips acuminatus (Gyll.). Host responses were studied following inoculation with the fungi, singly and as a fungal complex, and by identifying and quantifying terpenoids, phenolic compounds and lignin. Although the length of the necrotic lesions differed between control (wound) and fungal treatments, only two compounds (pinosylvin monomethyl ether and (+)-α-pinene) were significantly affected by the presence of the fungi, indicating that Scots pine has a generic, rather than specific, induced response. The fact that both nutritional and blue-stain fungi triggered comparable induced defense responses suggests that even a non-pathogenic fungus may participate in exhausting host plant defenses, indirectly assisting in the beetle establishment process. Our findings contribute to the further development of current theory on the role of associated fungal complexes in bark beetle ecology.

  8. Anchored reference loci in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) for integrating pine genomics. (United States)

    Brown, G R; Kadel, E E; Bassoni, D L; Kiehne, K L; Temesgen, B; van Buijtenen, J P; Sewell, M M; Marshall, K A; Neale, D B


    Anchored reference loci provide a framework for comparative mapping. They are landmarks to denote conserved chromosomal segments, allowing the synthesis of genetic maps from multiple sources. We evaluated 90 expressed sequence tag polymorphisms (ESTPs) from loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) for this function. Primer sets were assayed for amplification and polymorphism in six pedigrees, representing two subgenera of Pinus and a distant member of the Pinaceae, Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirb.] Franco). On average, 89% of primer sets amplified in four species of subgenus Pinus, 49% in one species of subgenus Strobus, and 22% in Douglas-fir. Polymorphisms were detected for 37-61% of the ESTPs within each pedigree. Comparative mapping in loblolly and slash pine (P. elliottii Englm.) revealed that ESTPs mapped to the same location. Disrupted synteny or significant disruptions in colinearity were not detected. Thirty-five ESTPs met criteria established for anchor loci. The majority of those that did not meet these criteria were excluded when map location was known in only a single species. Anchor loci provide a unifying tool for the community, facilitating the creation of a "generic" pine map and serving as a foundation for studies on genome organization and evolution. PMID:11606554

  9. Nutrient accumulation in planted red and jack pine. (United States)

    David H. Alban


    Compares nutrient accumulation in adjacent plantations of red and jack pine in the upper Great Lakes. Describes equations developed to predict biomass and nutrient accumulation based on stand basal area and height.

  10. Borehole Temperatures at Pine Island Glacier, Antarctica, Version 1 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set is a time series of borehole temperatures at different depths from three thermistor strings deployed in three boreholes drilled through the Pine Island...

  11. Effect of ponderosa pine needle litter on grass seedling survival. (United States)

    Burt R. McConnell; Justin G. Smith


    Hard fescue survival rates were followed for 6 years on four different pine needle treatment plots. Needle litter had a significant effect on initial survival of fescue seedlings, but subsequent losses undoubtedly resulted from the interaction of many factors.

  12. Ambient TRS Study, Phase II, Pine Hill, Alabama, April 2002 (United States)

    Study that shows the findings of the first phase of an investigation to identify sources of TRS emission that have a ground level impact on the Weyerhaeuser's Pine Hill, Alabama pulp and paper complex.

  13. Ambient TRS Study, Phase I, Pine Hill, Alabama, February 2001 (United States)

    Study that shows the findings of the first phase of an investigation to identify sources of TRS emission that have a ground level impact on the Weyerhaeuser's Pine Hill, Alabama pulp and paper complex.

  14. Reverting urban exotic pine forests to Macchia and indigenous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    year long project, which will ultimately result in the transformation of 53 ha of urban pine forests to a more diverse natural vegetation cover. Public sentiment, harvesting procedures and future management practices are addressed. The forests ...

  15. Estimating value and volume of ponderosa pine trees by equations. (United States)

    Martin E. Plank


    Equations for estimating the selling value and tally volume for ponderosa pine lumber from the standing trees are described. Only five characteristics are required for the equations. Development and application of the system are described.

  16. Cone Storage and Seed Quality in Longleaf Pine (United States)

    F.T. Bonner


    Immature cones of longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) can be stored for at least 5 weeks without adversely affecting extraction or seed quality. Cone moisture should be below 50 percent before using heat to open cones.

  17. Vegetation - Pine Creek WA and Fitzhugh Creek WA [ds484 (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This fine-scale vegetation classification and map of the Pine Creek and Fitzhugh Creek Wildlife Areas, Modoc County, California was created following FGDC and...

  18. Straight studs from southern pine veneer cores and cordwood (United States)

    Peter Koch


    An economically feasible system has been developed for converting southern pine veneer cores into straight 8-foot studs (2). Prototype studs - two per core - were 100 percent SPIB stud grade and better.

  19. Methanotrophic abundance and community fingerprint in pine and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    methanotrophs) is important to assess the microbial oxidation of the greenhouse gas methane (CH4) in soil under different land uses. Soil samples were collected from two plantation plots of pine and tea in southern China. Methanotrophic abundance ...

  20. Seedbed Preparation Aids Natural Regeneration Of Longleaf Pine (United States)

    Thomas C. Croker


    In south-Alabama, establishment, survival, and growth of longleaf pine were improved by winter or fall burning before seedfall. Mechanical seedbed preparation was helpful after a fire and imperative when no burn was made.

  1. HOW to Identify and Control Stem Rusts of Jack Pine (United States)

    Kathryn Robbins; Dale K. Smeltzer; D. W. French

    Damage to jack pine caused by rust fungi includes growth reduction, cankers, death (by girdling or wind breakage), and creation of entryways for other fungi and insects. Seedlings and saplings are more seriously affected than older trees.

  2. "Reversed" intraguild predation: red fox cubs killed by pine marten. (United States)

    Brzeziński, Marcin; Rodak, Lukasz; Zalewski, Andrzej


    Camera traps deployed at a badger Meles meles set in mixed pine forest in north-eastern Poland recorded interspecific killing of red fox Vulpes vulpes cubs by pine marten Martes martes . The vixen and her cubs settled in the set at the beginning of May 2013, and it was abandoned by the badgers shortly afterwards. Five fox cubs were recorded playing in front of the den each night. Ten days after the first recording of the foxes, a pine marten was filmed at the set; it arrived in the morning, made a reconnaissance and returned at night when the vixen was away from the set. The pine marten entered the den several times and killed at least two fox cubs. It was active at the set for about 2 h. This observation proves that red foxes are not completely safe from predation by smaller carnivores, even those considered to be subordinate species in interspecific competition.

  3. Climate Change Altered Disturbance Regimes in High Elevation Pine Ecosystems (United States)

    Logan, J. A.


    Insects in aggregate are the greatest cause of forest disturbance. Outbreaks of both native and exotic insects can be spectacular events in both their intensity and spatial extent. In the case of native species, forest ecosystems have co-evolved (or at least co-adapted) in ways that incorporate these disturbances into the normal cycle of forest maturation and renewal. The time frame of response to changing climate, however, is much shorter for insects (typically one year) than for their host forests (decades or longer). As a result, outbreaks of forest insects, particularly bark beetles, are occurring at unprecedented levels throughout western North America, resulting in the loss of biodiversity and potentially entire ecosystems. In this talk, I will describe one such ecosystem, the whitebark pine association at high elevations in the north-central Rocky Mountains of the United States. White bark pines are keystone species, which in consort with Clark's nutcracker, build entire ecosystems at high elevations. These ecosystems provide valuable ecological services, including the distribution and abundance of water resources. I will briefly describe the keystone nature of whitebark pine and the historic role of mountain pine beetle disturbance in these ecosystems. The mountain pine beetle is the most important outbreak insect in forests of the western United States. Although capable of spectacular outbreak events, in historic climate regimes, outbreak populations were largely restricted to lower elevation pines; for example, lodgepole and ponderosa pines. The recent series of unusually warm years, however, has allowed this insect to expand its range into high elevation, whitebark pine ecosystems with devastating consequences. The aspects of mountain pine beetle thermal ecology that has allowed it to capitalize so effectively on a warming climate will be discussed. A model that incorporates critical thermal attributes of the mountain pine beetle's life cycle was

  4. Comparison of lodgepole and jack pine resin chemistry: implications for range expansion by the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin L. Clark


    Full Text Available The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae, is a significant pest of lodgepole pine in British Columbia (BC, where it has recently reached an unprecedented outbreak level. Although it is native to western North America, the beetle can now be viewed as a native invasive because for the first time in recorded history it has begun to reproduce in native jack pine stands within the North American boreal forest. The ability of jack pine trees to defend themselves against mass attack and their suitability for brood success will play a major role in the success of this insect in a putatively new geographic range and host. Lodgepole and jack pine were sampled along a transect extending from the beetle’s historic range (central BC to the newly invaded area east of the Rocky Mountains in north-central Alberta (AB in Canada for constitutive phloem resin terpene levels. In addition, two populations of lodgepole pine (BC and one population of jack pine (AB were sampled for levels of induced phloem terpenes. Phloem resin terpenes were identified and quantified using gas chromatography. Significant differences were found in constitutive levels of terpenes between the two species of pine. Constitutive α-pinene levels – a precursor in the biosynthesis of components of the aggregation and antiaggregation pheromones of mountain pine beetle – were significantly higher in jack pine. However, lower constitutive levels of compounds known to be toxic to bark beetles, e.g., 3-carene, in jack pine suggests that this species could be poorly defended. Differences in wounding-induced responses for phloem accumulation of five major terpenes were found between the two populations of lodgepole pine and between lodgepole and jack pine. The mountain pine beetle will face a different constitutive and induced phloem resin terpene environment when locating and colonizing jack pine in its new geographic range, and this may play a significant role in the ability of the

  5. Comparison of lodgepole and jack pine resin chemistry: implications for range expansion by the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). (United States)

    Clark, Erin L; Pitt, Caitlin; Carroll, Allan L; Lindgren, B Staffan; Huber, Dezene P W


    The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae, is a significant pest of lodgepole pine in British Columbia (BC), where it has recently reached an unprecedented outbreak level. Although it is native to western North America, the beetle can now be viewed as a native invasive because for the first time in recorded history it has begun to reproduce in native jack pine stands within the North American boreal forest. The ability of jack pine trees to defend themselves against mass attack and their suitability for brood success will play a major role in the success of this insect in a putatively new geographic range and host. Lodgepole and jack pine were sampled along a transect extending from the beetle's historic range (central BC) to the newly invaded area east of the Rocky Mountains in north-central Alberta (AB) in Canada for constitutive phloem resin terpene levels. In addition, two populations of lodgepole pine (BC) and one population of jack pine (AB) were sampled for levels of induced phloem terpenes. Phloem resin terpenes were identified and quantified using gas chromatography. Significant differences were found in constitutive levels of terpenes between the two species of pine. Constitutive α-pinene levels - a precursor in the biosynthesis of components of the aggregation and antiaggregation pheromones of mountain pine beetle - were significantly higher in jack pine. However, lower constitutive levels of compounds known to be toxic to bark beetles, e.g., 3-carene, in jack pine suggests that this species could be poorly defended. Differences in wounding-induced responses for phloem accumulation of five major terpenes were found between the two populations of lodgepole pine and between lodgepole and jack pine. The mountain pine beetle will face a different constitutive and induced phloem resin terpene environment when locating and colonizing jack pine in its new geographic range, and this may play a significant role in the ability of the insect to persist in

  6. Response of Korean pine's functional traits to geography and climate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yichen Dong

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the characteristics of Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis functional trait responses to geographic and climatic factors in the eastern region of Northeast China (41°-48°N and the linear relationships among Korean pine functional traits, to explore this species' adaptability and ecological regulation strategies under different environmental conditions. Korean pine samples were collected from eight sites located at different latitudes, and the following factors were determined for each site: geographic factors-latitude, longitude, and altitude; temperature factors-mean annual temperature (MAT, growth season mean temperature (GST, and mean temperature of the coldest month (MTCM; and moisture factors-annual precipitation (AP, growth season precipitation (GSP, and potential evapotranspiration (PET. The Korean pine functional traits examined were specific leaf area (SLA, leaf thickness (LT, leaf dry matter content (LDMC, specific root length (SRL, leaf nitrogen content (LNC, leaf phosphorus content (LPC, root nitrogen content (RNC, and root phosphorus content (RPC. The results showed that Korean pine functional traits were significantly correlated to latitude, altitude, GST, MTCM, AP, GSP, and PET. Among the Korean pine functional traits, SLA showed significant linear relationships with LT, LDMC, LNC, LPC, and RPC, and LT showed significant linear relationships with LDMC, SRL, LNC, LPC, RNC, and RPC; the linear relationships between LNC, LPC, RNC, and RPC were also significant. In conclusion, Korean pine functional trait responses to latitude resulted in its adaptation to geographic and climatic factors. The main limiting factors were precipitation and evapotranspiration, followed by altitude, latitude, GST, and MTCM. The impacts of longitude and MAT were not obvious. Changes in precipitation and temperature were most responsible for the close correlation among Korean pine functional traits, reflecting its adaption to habitat

  7. Rapid detection of Fusarium circinatum propagules on trapped pine beetles


    Fourrier, C.; Antoine, S.; Piou, Dominique; Ioos, R.


    Pitch canker is a destructive disease of pine caused by the fungus Fusarium circinatum. This taxon is listed as a quarantine fungus for several regional plant protection organizations throughout the world. Whereas long-distance spread of the disease is made possible through the trade of infected pine seeds, local spread is caused by aerial dispersion or insect transportation of the fungal conidia. Developing a reliable and efficient tool to detect of F. circinatum in insects would be very use...

  8. Allergy to pine nuts in a bird fancier. (United States)

    Jansen, A; Vermeulen, A; Dieges, P H; van Toorenenbergen, A W


    A patient is described with the bird-egg syndrome who experienced an anaphylactic reaction after eating some of her parrot's food (pine nuts: Pinus pinea). Specific IgE against this nut and another pine nut (P. cembra) was demonstrated by RAST. Cross-reactivity between these botanically related seeds was shown by RAST inhibition. Besides avian antigens, bird food antigens should be taken into consideration when symptoms of allergy occur on exposure to birds.

  9. Neotropical Migratory Bird Communities in a Developing Pine Plantation (United States)

    James G. Dickson; Richard N. Conner; J. Howard Williamson


    Birds were censused annually from 4 250-x80-in transects in a young pine plantation from age to 2 to 17 to assess changes in the bird community.Bird abundance was low and the bird communitry was the least diverse when the pine plantation was sparsely vegetated at age 2. As the plantation developed rapidly into the shrub stage, the bird communitry became more abundant...

  10. Wild Pigs: inciting factor in southern pine decline? (United States)

    Lori G. Eckhardt; Roger D. Menard; Stephen S. Ditchkoff


    During an investigation into southern pine decline at Fort Benning Georgia, the possibility of wild pigs (Sus scrofa) as an inciting factor became evident. Their rooting activity caused significant root damage on sites showing symptoms of pine decline. It was thought that perhaps the pigs may be moving around pathogenic fungi during their rooting activity in Pinus...

  11. Slash disposal burns in pine patch-cuttings...a dialogue (United States)

    Dale O. Hall


    Since 1963, there have been 17 slash disposal burns carried out successfully in pine patch-cuttings on the Challenge Experimental Forest, Yuba County, California. The burned units ranged from 2 to 46 acres. Costs per acre ranged from $8.42 to $60.97. Answers to questions most asked by foresters about broadcast burning pine slash are given in the form of a dialogue....

  12. Heterogeneity of interflavanoid bond Location in loblolly pine bark procyanidins (United States)

    Richard W. Hemingway; Joseph J. Karchesy; Gerald W. McGraw; Richard A. Wielesek


    Procyanidins B-1, B-3 and B-7 were obtained from Pinus taeda phloem in yields of 0.076, 0.021 and 0.034% of unextracted dry wt. Procyanidins B-1 and B-7 were produced in relative yields of 2.4:1 by biosynthetically patterned synthesis from catechin and loblolly pine tannins. Partial acid-catalysed thiolytic cleavage of loblolly pine phloem tannins...

  13. Seed release in serotinous lodgepole pine forests after mountain pine beetle outbreak. (United States)

    Teste, François P; Lieffers, Victor J; Landhausser, Simon M


    There are concerns that large-scale stand mortality due to mountain pine beetle (MPB) could greatly reduce natural regeneration of serotinous Rocky Mountain (RM) lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) because the closed cones are held in place without the fire cue for cone opening. We selected 20 stands (five stands each of live [control], 3 years since MPB [3-yr-MPB], 6 years since MPB [6-yr-MPB], and 9 years since MPB [9-yr-MPB] mortality) in north central British Columbia, Canada. The goal was to determine partial loss of serotiny due to fall of crown-stored cones via breakage of branches and in situ opening of canopy cones throughout the 2008 and 2009 growing seasons. We also quantified seed release by the opening of forest-floor cones, loss of seed from rodent predation, and cone burial. Trees killed by MPB three years earlier dropped approximately 3.5 times more cones via branch breakage compared to live stands. After six years, MPB-killed stands had released 45% of their canopy seed bank through cone opening, cone fall due to breakage, and squirrel predation. Further losses of canopy seed banks are expected with time since we found 9-yr-MPB stands had 38% more open canopy cones. This was countered by the development of a modest forest-floor seed bank (6% of the original canopy seed bank) from burial of cones; this seed bank may be ecologically important if a fire or anthropogenic disturbance reexposes these cones. If adequate levels of regeneration are to occur, disturbances to create seedbeds must occur shortly after tree mortality, before the seed banks are lost. Our findings also suggest that the sustained seed rain (over at least nine years) after MPB outbreak may be beneficial for population growth of ground-foraging vertebrates. Our study adds insight to the seed ecology of serotinous pines under a potentially continental-wide insect outbreak, threatening vast forests adapted to regeneration after fire. Key words: biotic disturbance; cone

  14. Radiocesium in a Danish pine forest ecosystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandberg, M.


    During the autumn of 1991, a Scots pine forest, Tisvilde Hegn, was investigated with respect to the distribution of radiocesium on compartments in the forest ecosystem. The sandy acidic soil is poor, with a approximately 5-cm thick layer of organic soil, and clay content is very low, between 0...... of the different components of the forest ecosystem to accumulate radiocesium. OR is defined as the ratio between the content of Cs-137 kg-1 (dry wt.) and the deposition per meter square. In vascular plants, mosses and lichens, OR varied between 0.01 and 0.1 m2/kg. In fungi, it varied between 0.05 and 4.5 m2/kg......-natural ecosystems in Denmark....

  15. Radiocesium in a Danish pine forest ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strandberg, Morten


    During the autumn of 1991, a Scots pine forest, Tisvilde Hegn, was investigated with respect to the distribution of radiocesium on compartments in the forest ecosystem. The sandy acidic soil is poor, with a circa 5-cm thick layer of organic soil, and clay content is very low, between 0 and 2%. Cesium from Chernobyl is still totally in the upper 5 cm, while almost half of the fallout cesium has penetrated to depths lower than 5 cm. More than 95% of the total amount of 137 Cs is in the soil compartment. The rest is mainly in the trees (3.4%) and vegetation (0.4%), moss and lichen included. The concentrations of radiocesium are highest in the endshoots of the pine trees, and lowest in the hardwood. There are indications that the Chernobyl cesium is mainly distributed in the parts of the trees that have been formed since 1986. Observed Ratios (OR) were used to characterize the ability of the different components of the forest ecosystem to accumulate radiocesium. OR is defined as the ratio between the content of 137 Cs kg -1 (dry wt.) and the deposition per meter square. In vascular plants, mosses and lichens, OR varied between 0.01 and 0.1 m 2 /kg. In fungi, it varied between 0.05 and 4.5 m 2 /kg, though generally it was between 0.2 and 1 m 2 /kg. OR ( 137 Cs kg -1 /dry wt. of meat x 137 Cs m -2 ) levels in three roe deer samples varied between 0.016 and 0.21 kg -1 /dry wt. With an annual harvest of around 70,000 animals, this might be the most important pathway of this radionuclide to man from semi-natural ecosystems in Denmark

  16. Mountain pine beetle infestation: GCxGCTOFMS and GC-MS of lodgepole pine (pinus contorta) acetone extractives (United States)

    Roderquita K. Moore; Michael Leitch; Erick Arellano-ruiz; Jonathon Smaglick; Doreen Mann


    The Rocky Mountains and western U.S. forests are impacted by the infestation of mountain pine beetles (MPB). MPB outbreak is killing pine and spruce trees at an alarming rate. These trees present a fuel build-up in the forest, which can result in catastrophic wildland fires. MPB carry blue-stain fungi from the genus Ophiostoma and transmit infection by burrowing into...

  17. Population structure of a lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) and jack pine (P. banksiana) complex as revealed by random amplified polymorphic DNA. (United States)

    Ye, Terrance Z; Yang, Rong-Cai; Yeh, Francis C


    We studied the population structure of a lodgepole (Pinus contorta Dougl.) and jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) complex in west central Alberta and neighboring areas by assessing random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) variability in 23 lodgepole pine, 9 jack pine, and 8 putative hybrid populations. Of 200 random primers screened, 10 that amplified 39 sharp and reproducible RAPDs were chosen for the study. None of the 39 RAPDs were unique to the parental species. RAPD diversity ranged from 0.085 to 0.190 among populations and averaged 0.143 for lodgepole pine, 0.156 for jack pine, 0.152 for hybrids, and 0.148 for all 40 populations. The estimated population differentiation based on G(ST) was 0.168 for hybrids, 0.162 for lodgepole pine, 0.155 for jack pine, and 0.247 across all 40 populations. Cluster analysis of genetic distances generally separated jack pine from lodgepole pine and hybrids, but no division could be identified that further separated lodgepole pine from hybrids. The observed weak to mild trend of "introgression by distance" in the complex and neighbouring areas was consistent with the view that introgressive hybridization between lodgepole and jack pines within and outside the hybrid zone may have been through secondary contact and primary intergradation, respectively.

  18. Effect of experience with pine (Pituophis melanoleucus) and king (Lampropeltis getulus) snake odors on Y-maze behavior of pine snake hatchlings. (United States)

    Burger, J; Boarman, W; Kurzava, L; Gochfeld, M


    The abilities of hatchling pine snakes (Pituophis melanoleucus) and king snakes (Lampropeltis getulus) to discriminate the chemical trails of pine and king snakes was investigated inY-maze experiments. Pine snakes were housed for 17 days either with shavings impregnated with pine snake odor, king snake odor, or no odor to test for the effect of experience on choice. Both pine and king snake hatchlings entered the arm with the pine snake odor and did not enter the arm with the king snake odor. The data support the hypothesis that hatchlings of both species can distinguish conspecific odors from other odors and that our manipulation of previous experience was without effect for pine snake hatchlings.

  19. Long-term benefits to the growth of ponderosa pines from controlling southwestern pine tip moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and weeds. (United States)

    Wagner, Michael R; Chen, Zhong


    The southwestern pine tip moth, Rhyacionia neomexicana (Dyar) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a native forest pest that attacks seedlings and saplings of ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws, in the southwestern United States. Repeated attacks can cause severe deformation of host trees and significant long-term growth loss. Alternatively, effective control of R. neomexicana, vegetative competition, or both in young pine plantations may increase survival and growth of trees for many years after treatments are applied. We test the null hypothesis that 4 yr of R. neomexicana and weed control with insecticide, weeding, and insecticide plus weeding would not have any residual effect on survival and growth of trees in ponderosa pine plantation in northern Arizona 14 yr post-treatment, when the trees were 18 yr old. Both insecticide and weeding treatment increased tree growth and reduced the incidence of southwestern pine tip moth damage compared with the control. However, weeding alone also significantly increased tree survival, whereas insecticide alone did not. The insecticide plus weeding treatment had the greatest tree growth and survival, and the lowest rate of tip moth damage. Based on these results, we rejected our null hypothesis and concluded that there were detectable increases in the survival and growth of ponderosa pines 14 yr after treatments applied to control R. neomexicana and weeds.

  20. To live fast or not: growth, vigor and longevity of old-growth ponderosa pine and lodgepole pine trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaufmann, M. R. [Forest Service, Fort Collins, CO (United States). Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station


    Old ponderosa pine and lodgepole pine trees were studied to determine volume growth patterns in relation to leaf area. Ponderosa pine trees varied in age from 166 to 432 years and were about 77 inches in diameter; lodgepole pine trees ranged in age from 250 to 296 years and were 31 inches in diameter. Trees of both species had flat tops, heavy branches and foliage distribution characteristic of older trees. Annual volume increments were determined from crossdated radial increments measured on discs at four meter height intervals; leaf areas were determined based on leaf area/branch sapwood area ratios. Ponderosa pine volume growth was found to have been gradual at first, reaching a plateau that persisted for a century or more, followed by a rapid increase, and a sudden decrease in growth to less than one half of the earlier rate and persisting at these levels for several decades. In lodgepole pine growth decline was less frequent and less spectacular; growth in general was more even, with slight annual variations. Volume growth in the most recent years prior to felling weakly correlated with leaf area. Growth efficiencies were generally higher for trees having the lowest leaf areas. The fact that these persisted for many decades with low growth efficiencies suggests that defence mechanisms are more effective in old trees than in younger ones. 16 refs., 8 figs.

  1. Growth and performance of loblolly pine genetic planting stock through eight years (United States)

    Randall J. Rousseau; Scott D. Roberts; Billy L. Herrin


    Currently, the need in the pine market is to develop higher sawtimber quality trees. The pine biomass and pulpwood market supports the low end of the product chain. However, we must improve on the quality of the southern pine for construction lumber if the southern region is expected to capture the shortfall of the sawtimber market expected in the future. Various pine...

  2. Mountain pine beetle-caused mortality over eight years in two pine hosts in mixed conifer stands of the southern Rocky Mountains (United States)

    West, Daniel R.; Briggs, Jennifer S.; Jacobi, William R.; Negrón, José F.


    Eruptive mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae, MPB) populations have caused widespread mortality of pines throughout western North America since the late 1990s. Early work by A.D. Hopkins suggested that when alternate host species are available, MPB will prefer to breed in the host to which it has become adapted. In Colorado, epidemic MPB populations that originated in lodgepole pine expanded into mixed-conifer stands containing ponderosa pine, a related host. We evaluated the susceptibility of both hosts to successful MPB colonization in a survey of 19 sites in pine-dominated mixed-conifer stands spanning 140 km of the Front Range, CO, USA. In each of three 0.2-ha plots at each site, we (1) assessed trees in the annual flights of 2008–2011 to compare MPB-caused mortality between lodgepole and ponderosa pine; (2) recorded previous MPB-caused tree mortality from 2004–2007 to establish baseline mortality levels; and (3) measured characteristics of the stands (e.g. tree basal area) and sites (e.g. elevation, aspect) that might be correlated with MPB colonization. Uninfested average live basal area of lodgepole and ponderosa pine was 74% of total basal area before 2004. We found that for both species, annual percent basal area of attacked trees was greatest in one year (2009), and was lower in all other years (2004–2007, 2008, 2010, and 2011). Both pine species had similar average total mortality of 38–39% by 2011. Significant predictors of ponderosa pine mortality in a given year were basal area of uninfested ponderosa pine and the previous year’s mortality levels in both ponderosa and lodgepole pine. Lodgepole pine mortality was predicted by uninfested basal areas of both lodgepole and ponderosa pine, and the previous year’s lodgepole pine mortality. These results indicate host selection by MPB from lodgepole pine natal hosts into ponderosa pine the following year, but not the reverse. In both species, diameters of attacked trees within each year

  3. Soil Preferences in Germination and Survival of Limber Pine in the Great Basin White Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian V. Smithers


    Full Text Available In the Great Basin, limber pine is a sub-alpine tree species that is colonizing newly available habitat above treeline in greater numbers than treeline-dominating Great Basin bristlecone pine, especially on dolomite soil, where few plants are able to grow and where limber pine adults are rare. To examine the role of soil type on germination and establishment of limber pine, I sowed limber pine seeds in containers of the three main White Mountains soil types in one location while measuring soil moisture and temperature. I found that dolomite soil retains water longer, and has higher soil water content, than quartzite and granite soils and has the coolest maximum growing season temperatures. Limber pine germination and survival were highest in dolomite soil relative to quartzite and granite where limber pine adults are more common. While adult limber pines are rare on dolomite soils, young limber pines appear to prefer them. This indicates that limber pine either has only recently been able to survive in treeline climate on dolomite or that bristlecone pine has some long-term competitive advantage on dolomite making limber pine, a species with 1500 year old individuals, an early succession species in Great Basin sub-alpine forests.

  4. Can microscale meteorological conditions predict the impact of white pine blister rust in Colorado and Wyoming? (United States)

    William R. Jacobi; Betsy A. Goodrich; Holly S. J. Kearns; Kelly S. Burns; Brian W. Geils


    White pine blister rust occurs when there are compatible interactions between susceptible hosts (white pines and Ribes spp.), inoculum (Cronartium ribicola spores), and local weather conditions during infection. The five spore stages of the white pine blister rust (WPBR) fungus have specific temperature and moisture conditions necessary for production, germination, and...

  5. Xylem monoterpenes of some hard pines of Western North America: three studies (United States)

    Richard H. Smith


    Monoterpene composition was studied in a number of hard pine species and results were compared with earlier work. (1) Intratree measurements showed strong constancy of composition in both single-stemmed and forked trees of ponderosa, Jeffrey, Coulter, and Jeffrey x ponderosa pines. In grafts of these and other pines, the scion influenced the root stock, but not the...

  6. Longleaf and loblolly pine seedlings respond differently to soil compaction, water content, and fertilization (United States)

    D. Andrew Scott; James A. Burger


    Aims Longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) is being restored across the U.S. South for a multitude of ecological and economic reasons, but our understanding of longleaf pine’s response to soil physical conditions is poor. On the contrary, our understanding of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) root and...

  7. Laccase modification of the physical properties of bark and pulp of loblolly pine and spruce pulp (United States)

    William Kenealy; John Klungness; Mandla Tshabalala; Eric Horn; Masood Akhtar; Roland Gleisner; Gisela Buschle-Diller


    Pine bark, pine pulp, and spruce pulp were reacted with laccase in the presence of phenolic laccase substrates to modify the fiber surface properties. The acid-base and dispersive characteristics of these modified steam-treated thermomechanical loblolly pine pulps were determined by inverse gas chromatography. Different combinations of substrates with laccase modified...

  8. Distribution of bark beetle attacks after whitebark pine restoration treatments: A case study (United States)

    Kristen M. Waring; Diana L. Six


    Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis Engelm.), an important component of high elevation ecosystems in the western United States and Canada, is declining due to fire exclusion, white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola J.C. Fisch.), and mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins). This study was...

  9. Species comparison of the physical properties of loblolly and slash pine wood and bark (United States)

    Thomas L. Eberhardt; Joseph Dahlen; Laurence Schimleck


    Composition of the southern pine forest is now predominated by two species, loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) and slash pine (Pinus elliottii Engelm.), owing to fire suppression activities, natural regeneration on abandoned agricultural lands, and extensive planting. Comparison of the wood and bark physical properties of these...

  10. Cost Effectiveness of Natural Regeneration for Sustaining Production Continuity in Commercial Pine Plantations (United States)

    T.R. Clason


    Reforestation is a key to production continuity in commercial pine plantations. Although natural and artificial regeneration methods have been used successfully for pine seedling establishment, it is seedling growth during early stage of plantation development that affects the financial potential of a pine plantation. A study was initiated to determine the effect of...

  11. Growth of longleaf and loblolly pine planted on South Carolina Sandhill sites.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cram, Michelle, M.; Outcalt, Kenneth, W.; Zarnoch, Stanley, J.


    Performance of longleaf (Pinus palustris Mill.) and loblolly pine (P. taeda L.) were compared 15–19 years after outplanting on 10 different sites in the sandhillsof South Carolina. The study was established from 1988 to 1992 with bareroot seedlings artificially inoculated with Pisolithus tinctorius (Pt) or naturally inoculated with mycorrhizae in the nursery. A containerized longleaf pine treatment with and without Pt inoculation was added to two sites in 1992. Effects of the Pt nursery treatment were mixed, with a decrease in survival of bareroot longleaf pine on two sites and an increase in survival on another site. The containerized longleaf pine treatment substantially increased survival, which led to greater volume compared with bareroot longleaf pine. Loblolly pine yielded more volume than longleaf pine on all sites but one, where survival was negatively affected by fire. Depth of sandy surface horizon affected mean annual height growth of both loblolly and longleaf pine. Height growth per year decreased with an increase in sand depth for both species. Multiple regression analysis of volume growth(ft3/ac per year) for both species indicated a strong relationship to depth of sandy soil and survival. After 15–19 years, loblolly pine has been more productive than longleaf pine, although longleaf pine productivity may be equal to or greater than that of loblolly pine on the soils with the deepest sandy surface layers over longer rotations.

  12. Impacts of logging and prescribed burning in longleaf pine forests managed under uneven-aged silviculture (United States)

    Ferhat Kara; Edward Francis Loewenstein


    The longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) ecosystem has historically been very important in the southeastern United States due to its extensive area and high biodiversity. Successful regeneration of longleaf pine forests requires an adequate number of well distributed seedlings. Thus, mortality of longleaf pine seedlings during logging operations...

  13. White pine in the American West: A vanishing species - can we save it? (United States)

    Leon F. Neuenschwander; James W. Byler; Alan E. Harvey; Geral I. McDonald; Denise S. Ortiz; Harold L. Osborne; Gerry C. Snyder; Arthur Zack


    Forest scientists ask that everyone, from the home gardener to the forest manager, help revive western white pine by planting it everywhere, even in nonforest environments such as our neighborhood streets, parks, and backyards. White pine, long ago considered the "King Pine," once dominated the moist inland forests of the Northwest, eventually spawning whole...

  14. Potential residual biomass in mature pine stands of the Midsouth, U.S.A. (United States)

    J.F. Rosson


    The extent, location, and ownership of residual woody biomass available on mature pine timberland prior to the harvest of log-size pine was determined for the Midsouth States. Most of this residual is on non-industrial private timberland. Sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.) and loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) are the dominant species in the residual. Stems of all...

  15. Within-stand variation in understorey vegetation affects fire behaviour in longleaf pine xeric sandhills (United States)

    Evelyn S. Wenk; G. Geoff Wang; Joan L. Walker


    The frequent fires typical of the longleaf pine ecosystem in the south-eastern USA are carried by live understorey vegetation and pine litter. Mature longleaf pine stands in the xeric sandhills region have a variable understory vegetation layer, creating several fuel complexes at the within-stand scale (20 m2). We identified three fuel complexes...

  16. Mapping pine mortality by aerial photography, Umstead State Park, North Carolina (United States)

    Clarence J. DeMars; Garey W. Slaughter; Lnla E. Greene; John H. Ghent


    In 1975-1976, pine trees killed by the southern pine beetle Dendroctonus frontalis Zimm.) in a 2l70-hectare (5362-acre) area at the William B. Umstead State Park in central North Carolina, were monitored by sequential color infrared aerial photography. From 1973 through summer 1975, beetles in 350 infestation spots killed more than 20,500 pines on...

  17. Preparing the landscape for invasion - Early intervention approaches for threatened high elevation white pine ecosystems (United States)

    Anna W. Schoettle; Richard A. Sniezko; Kelly S. Burns; Freeman Floyd


    White pine blister rust is now a permanent resident of North America. The disease continued to cause tree mortality and impact ecosystems in many areas. However, not all high elevation white pine ecosystems have been invaded; the pathogen is still spreading within the distributions of the whitebark, limber, foxtail, Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine and has yet to infect...

  18. Management guide to ecosystem restoration treatments: two-aged lodgepole pine forests of central Montana, USA (United States)

    Sharon M. Hood; Helen Y. Smith; David K. Wright; Lance S. Glasgow


    Lodgepole pine is one of the most widely distributed conifers in North America, with a mixed-severity rather than stand-replacement fire regime throughout much of its range. These lodgepole pine forests are patchy and often two-aged. Fire exclusion can reduce two-aged lodgepole pine heterogeneity. This management guide summarizes the effects of thinning and prescribed...

  19. Southern pine beetle regional outbreaks modeled on landscape, climate and infestation history (United States)

    Adrian J. Duehl; Frank H. Koch; Fred P. Hain


    The southern pine beetle (Dendroctonus frontalis, SPB) is the major insect pest of pine species in the southeastern United States. It attains outbreak population levels sufficient to mass attack host pines across the landscape at scales ranging from a single forest stand to interstate epidemics. This county level analysis selected and examined the best climatic and...

  20. An economic assessment of mountain pine beetle timber salvage in the west (United States)

    Jeffrey P. Prestemon; Karen L. Abt; Kevin M. Potter; Frank H. Koch


    The mountain pine beetle has killed lodgepole pine and other species of pines in the western United States in an ongoing epidemic. The most heavily affected states are in the interior West: Colorado, Idaho, Montana, and Wyoming, with smaller losses elsewhere. Timber salvage is one response to the epidemic, which could generate revenues for affected landowners and...

  1. Microsatellite DNA in genomic survey sequences and UniGenes of loblolly pine (United States)

    Craig S Echt; Surya Saha; Dennis L Deemer; C Dana Nelson


    Genomic DNA sequence databases are a potential and growing resource for simple sequence repeat (SSR) marker development in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.). Loblolly pine also has many expressed sequence tags (ESTs) available for microsatellite (SSR) marker development. We compared loblolly pine SSR densities in genome survey sequences (GSSs) to those in non-redundant...

  2. Evaluating future success of whitebark pine ecosystem restoration under climate change using simulation modeling (United States)

    Robert E. Keane; Lisa M. Holsinger; Mary F. Mahalovich; Diana F. Tomback


    Major declines of whitebark pine forests throughout western North America from the combined effects of mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) outbreaks, fire exclusion policies, and the exotic disease white pine blister rust (WPBR) have spurred many restoration actions. However, projected future warming and drying may further exacerbate the species’ decline and...

  3. Silvicultural approaches for management of eastern white pine to minimize impacts of damaging agents (United States)

    M.E. Ostry; G. Laflamme; S.A. Katovich


    Since the arrival to North America of Cronartium ribicola, management of eastern white pine has been driven by the need to avoid the actual or, in many areas, the perceived damage caused by white pine blister rust. Although white pine has lost much of its former dominance, it remains a valuable species for biotic diversity, aesthetics, wildlife...

  4. Resistance to white pine blister rust in Pinus flexilis and P (United States)

    Anna W. Schoettle; Richard A. Sniezko; Angelia Kegley; Jerry Hill; Kelly S. Burns


    The non-native fungus Cronartium ribicola, that causes white pine blister rust (WPBR), is impacting or threatening limber pine, Pinus flexilis, and Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine, Pinus aristata. In the Southern Rockies, where the rust invasion is still expanding, we have the opportunity to be proactive and prepare the landscape for invasion. Genetic...

  5. Reproduction cutting methods for naturally regenerated pine stands in the south (United States)

    James M. Guldin


    It is projected that plantations will make up 25 percent of the South's forest land area by the year 2040. Thus the remaining 75 percent of that area will consist of naturally regenerated pine, pine-hardwood, and hardwood stands. Naturally regenerated pines can be managed successfully by even-aged and unevenaged silvicultural systems when the reproduction cutting...

  6. Crown expansion following thinning in naturally regenerated and planted longleaf pine (United States)

    Steven B. Jack; Noah A. Jansen; Robert J. Mitchell


    The recent focus on restoration of longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) forests has frequently led to planting longleaf pine on old-field and cutover sites. While many perceptions regarding response of longleaf pine to management are based upon measurements in naturally regenerated stands, it is generally observed that crown development in planted longleaf stands is...

  7. Anticipating Good Longleaf Pine Cone Crops: The Key to Successful Natural Regeneration (United States)

    William D. Boyer


    Unlike other southern pines, or most intolerant pioneer species, longleaf pine is a poor seed producer. Cone crops are highly variable from year to-year, and also from place to place in the same year. Crops large enough to assure adequate regeneration are few and far between, especially in the longleaf pine belt of the southern Coastal Plains. Not only is this species...

  8. Development of sampling methods for the slash pine flower thrips Gnophothrips fuscus (Morgan), (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae) (United States)

    Carl W. Fatzinger; Wayne N. Dixen


    Slash pine flower thrips typically destroy about 24% of the flowers (cones) present in slash pine seed orchards. The seasonal distribution and abundance of slash pine flower thrips are being investigated and methods for sampling field populations of the insect are being evaluated for potential use in integrated pest management strategies. The efficacies of several...

  9. Wood and understory production under a range of ponderosa pine stocking levels, Black Hills, South Dakota (United States)

    Daniel W. Uresk; Carleton B. Edminster; Kieth E. Severson


    Stemwood and understory production (kg ha-1) were estimated during 3 nonconsecutive years on 5 growing stock levels of ponderosa pine including clearcuts and unthinned stands. Stemwood production was consistently greater at mid- and higher pine stocking levels, and understory production was greater in stands with less pine; however, there were no...

  10. Southern pine beetles in central hardwood forests: frequency, spatial extent, and changes to forest structure (United States)

    John Nowak; Kier Klepzig; D R Coyle; William Carothers; Kamal J K Gandhi


    EXCERPT FROM: Natural Disturbances and Historic Range Variation 2015. The southern pine beetle (SPB) is a major disturbance in pine forests throughout the range of southern yellow pines, and is a significant influence on forests throughout several Central Hardwood Region (CHR) ecoregions...

  11. Population densities and tree diameter effects associated with verbenone treatments to reduce mountain pine beetle-caused mortality of lodgepole pine. (United States)

    Progar, R A; Blackford, D C; Cluck, D R; Costello, S; Dunning, L B; Eager, T; Jorgensen, C L; Munson, A S; Steed, B; Rinella, M J


    Mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), is among the primary causes of mature lodgepole pine, Pinus contorta variety latifolia mortality. Verbenone is the only antiaggregant semiochemical commercially available for reducing mountain pine beetle infestation of lodgepole pine. The success of verbenone treatments has varied greatly in previous studies because of differences in study duration, beetle population size, tree size, or other factors. To determine the ability of verbenone to protect lodgepole pine over long-term mountain pine beetle outbreaks, we applied verbenone treatments annually for 3 to 7 yr at five western United States sites. At one site, an outbreak did not develop; at two sites, verbenone reduced lodgepole pine mortality in medium and large diameter at breast height trees, and at the remaining two sites verbenone was ineffective at reducing beetle infestation. Verbenone reduced mountain pine beetle infestation of lodgepole pine trees in treated areas when populations built gradually or when outbreaks in surrounding untreated forests were of moderate severity. Verbenone did not protect trees when mountain pine beetle populations rapidly increase.

  12. Identification of steroleosin in oil bodies of pine megagametophytes. (United States)

    Pasaribu, Buntora; Chung, Tse-Yu; Chen, Chii-Shiarng; Jiang, Pei-Luen; Tzen, Jason T C


    Three classes of integral proteins termed oleosin, caleosin and steroleosin have been identified in seed oil bodies of diverse angiosperm species. Recently, two oleosin isoforms and one caleosin were identified in megagametophyte oil bodies of pine (Pinus massoniana), a representative gymnosperm species. In this study, a putative steroleosin of approximately 41 kDa was observed in isolated oil bodies of pine megagametophytes, and its corresponding cDNA fragment was obtained by PCR cloning and further confirmed by mass spectrometric analysis. Phylogenetic tree analysis showed that pine steroleosin was evolutionarily more closely-related to steroleosin-B than steroleosin-A found in angiosperm seed oil bodies. As expected, artificial oil bodies constituted with recombinant steroleosin over-expressed in Escherichia coli were less stable and larger than native pine oil bodies. Filipin staining of artificial oil bodies sheltered by recombinant steroleosin with or without its sterol binding domain showed that the sterol binding domain was responsible for the sterol binding capability of steroleosin. Sterol-coupling dehydrogenase activity was demonstrated in artificial oil bodies constituted with recombinant steroleosin as well as in purified pine oil bodies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Use of lodgepole pine cover types by Yellowstone grizzly bears (United States)

    Mattson, D.J.


    Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) forests are a large and dynamic part of grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) habitat in the Yellowstone ecosystem. Research in other areas suggests that grizzly bears select for young open forest stands, especially for grazing and feeding on berries. Management guidelines accordingly recommend timber harvest as a technique for improving habitat in areas potentially dominated by lodgepole pine. In this paper I examine grizzly bear use of lodgepole pine forests in the Yellowstone area, and test several hypotheses with relevance to a new generation of management guidelines. Differences in grizzly bear selection of lodgepole pine cover types (defined on the basis of stand age and structure) were not pronounced. Selection furthermore varied among years, areas, and individuals. Positive selection for any lodgepole pine type was uncommon. Estimates of selection took 5-11 years or 4-12 adult females to stabilize, depending upon the cover type. The variances of selection estimates tended to stabilize after 3-5 sample years, and were more-or-less stable to slightly increasing with progressively increased sample area. There was no conclusive evidence that Yellowstone's grizzlies favored young (<40 yr) stands in general or for their infrequent use of berries. On the other hand, these results corroborated previous observations that grizzlies favored open and/or young stands on wet and fertile sites for grazing. These results also supported the proposition that temporally and spatially robust inferences require extensive, long-duration studies, especially for wide-ranging vertebrates like grizzly bears.

  14. Borax Stump Treatment for Control of Annosus Root Disease in the Eastside Pine Type Forests of Northeastern California (United States)

    John T. Kliejunas


    A historical perspective and description of recent studies on the use of borax to treat pine stumps against infection by Heterobasidion annosum in eastside pine stands of northeastern California are presented. The studies indicate that boraxing of pines in eastside pine stands is an effective means of preventing annosus infection. Data and...

  15. Influence of fire on mycorrhizal colonization of planted and natural whitebark pine seedlings: Ecology and management implications (United States)

    Paul E. Trusty; Cathy L. Cripps


    Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) is a threatened keystone species in subalpine zones of Western North America that plays a role in watershed dynamics and maintenance of high elevation biodiversity (Schwandt, 2006). Whitebark pine has experienced significant mortality due to white pine blister rust, mountain pine beetle outbreaks and successional replacement possibly...

  16. A 20-year reassessment of the health and status of whitebark pine forests in the Bob Marshall Wilderness Complex, Montana (United States)

    Molly L. Retzlaff; Signe B. Leirfallom; Robert E. Keane


    Whitebark pine plays a prominent role in high elevation ecosystems of the northern Rocky Mountains. It is an important food source for many birds and mammals as well as an essential component of watershed stabilization. Whitebark pine is vanishing from the landscape due to three main factors: white pine blister rust, mountain pine beetle outbreaks, and successional...

  17. Age, size and regeneration of old growth white pine at Dividing Lake Nature Reserve, Algonquin Park, Ontario (United States)

    Richard P. Guyette; Daniel C. Dey


    The age, mode of regeneration and diameter growth of white pine were determined in an old growth stand near Dividing Lake, Algonquin Provincial Park. The white pine ranged in age from 267 to 486 years. There was no significant relationship between white pine age and diameter (DBH). The distribution of tree ages indicated that the white pine component in this mixed...

  18. Hibernacula and summer den sites of pine snakes (Pituophis melanoleucus) in the New Jersey pine barrens (United States)

    Burger, J.; Zappalorti, R.T.; Gochfeld, M.; Boarman, W.I.; Caffrey, M.; Doig, V.; Garber, S.D.; Lauro, B.; Mikovsky, M.; Safina, C.; Saliva, Jorge


    We examined eight summer dens (used only in summer) and seven hibernacula (occupied both in winter and summer) of the snake Pituophis melanoleucus in the New Jersey Pine Barrens, comparing above ground characteristics of hibernacula and summer dens with characteristics at nearby random points. Temperatures at the soil surface and at 10 cm depth were significantly warmer, and there was less leaf cover around the random points compared to the entrances of the hibernacula and summer dens. Hibernacula had significantly more vegetation cover within 5 m, more leaf cover over the burrow entrance, and were closer to trees than were summer dens. Most hibernacula and summer dens were beside old fallen logs (73%), the entrance tunnels following decaying roots into the soil. Excavation of the hibernacula and summer dens indicated that most hibernacula appeared to be dug by the snakes and had an average of eight side chambers and 642 cm of tunnels, compared to less than one side chamber and 122 cm of tunnels for summer dens. Except for hatchlings, most snakes in hibernacula were located in individual chambers off the main tunnel; all snakes were at depths of 50-111 cm (X̄ = 79 cm). Pine snakes may select optimum hibernation sites which reduce winter mortality.

  19. Nonstructural carbohydrate dynamics of lodgepole pine dying from mountain pine beetle attack. (United States)

    Wiley, Erin; Rogers, Bruce J; Hodgkinson, Robert; Landhäusser, Simon M


    Bark beetle outbreaks are an important cause of tree death, but the process by which trees die remains poorly understood. The effect of beetle attack on whole-tree nonstructural carbohydrate (NSC) dynamics is particularly unclear, despite the potential role of carbohydrates in plant defense and survival. We monitored NSC dynamics of all organs in attacked and protected lodgepole pines (Pinus contorta) during a mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) outbreak in British Columbia, starting before beetle flight in June 2011 through October 2012, when most attacked trees had died. Following attack, NSC concentrations were first reduced in the attacked region of the bole. The first NSC reduction in a distant organ appeared in the needles at the end of 2011, while branch and root NSC did not decline until much later in 2012. Attacked trees that were still alive in October 2012 had less beetle damage, which was negatively correlated with initial bark sugar concentrations in the attack region. The NSC dynamics of dying trees indicate that trees were killed by a loss of water conduction and not girdling. Further, our results identify locally reduced carbohydrate availability as an important mechanism by which stressors like drought may increase tree susceptibility to biotic attack. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  20. Disposal of chemical agents and munitions stored at Pine Bluff Arsenal, Pine Bluff, Arkansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ensminger, J.T.; Hillsman, E.L.; Johnson, R.D.; Morrisey, J.A.; Staub, W.P.; Boston, C.R.; Hunsaker, D.B.; Leibsch, E.; Rickert, L.W.; Tolbert, V.R.; Zimmerman, G.P.


    The Pine Bluff Arsenal (PBA) near Pine Bluff, Arkansas, is one of eight continental United States (CONUS) Army installations where lethal unitary chemical agents and munitions are stored and where destruction of agents and munitions is proposed under the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP). The chemical agent inventory at PBA consists of approximately 12%, by weight, of the total US stockpile. The destruction of the stockpile is necessary to eliminate the risk to the public from continued storage and to dispose of obsolete and leaking munitions. In 1988 the US Army issued a Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (FPEIS) for the CSDP that identified on-site disposal of agents and munitions as the environmentally preferred alternative (i.e., the alternative with the least potential to cause significant adverse impacts). The purpose of this report is to examine the proposed implementation of on-site disposal at PBA in light of more recent and more detailed data than those on which the FPEIS is based. New population data were used to compute fatalities using the same computation methods and values for all other parameters as in the FPEIS. Results indicate that all alternatives are indistinguishable when the potential health impacts to the PBA community are considered. However, risks from on-site disposal are in all cases equal to or less than risks from other alternatives. Furthermore, no unique resources with the potential to prevent or delay implementation of on-site disposal at PBA have been identified.

  1. Annual cycle of Scots pine photosynthesis (United States)

    Hari, Pertti; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Kulmala, Liisa; Kulmala, Markku; Noe, Steffen; Petäjä, Tuukka; Vanhatalo, Anni; Bäck, Jaana


    Photosynthesis, i.e. the assimilation of atmospheric carbon to organic molecules with the help of solar energy, is a fundamental and well-understood process. Here, we connect theoretically the fundamental concepts affecting C3 photosynthesis with the main environmental drivers (ambient temperature and solar light intensity), using six axioms based on physiological and physical knowledge, and yield straightforward and simple mathematical equations. The light and carbon reactions in photosynthesis are based on the coherent operation of the photosynthetic machinery, which is formed of a complicated chain of enzymes, membrane pumps and pigments. A powerful biochemical regulation system has emerged through evolution to match photosynthesis with the annual cycle of solar light and temperature. The action of the biochemical regulation system generates the annual cycle of photosynthesis and emergent properties, the state of the photosynthetic machinery and the efficiency of photosynthesis. The state and the efficiency of the photosynthetic machinery is dynamically changing due to biosynthesis and decomposition of the molecules. The mathematical analysis of the system, defined by the very fundamental concepts and axioms, resulted in exact predictions of the behaviour of daily and annual patterns in photosynthesis. We tested the predictions with extensive field measurements of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) photosynthesis on a branch scale in northern Finland. Our theory gained strong support through rigorous testing.

  2. Regional geology of the Pine Creek Geosyncline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Needham, R.S.; Crick, I.H.; Stuart-Smith, P.G.


    The Pine Creek Geosyncline comprises about 14km of chronostratigraphic mainly pelitic and psammitic Lower Proterozoic sediments with interlayered tuff units, resting on granitic late Archaean complexes exposed as three small domes. Sedimentation took place in one basin, and most stratigraphic units are represented throughout the basin. The sediments were regionally deformed and metamorphosed at 1800Ma. Tightly folded greenschist facies strata in the centre grade into isoclinally deformed amphibolite facies metamorphics in the west and northeast. Pre and post-orogenic continental tholeiites, and post-orogenic granite diapirs intrude the Lower Proterozoic metasediments, and the granites are surrounded by hornfels zones up to 10km wide in the greenschist facies terrane. Cover rocks of Carpentarian (Middle Proterozoic) and younger ages rest on all these rocks unconformably and conceal the original basin margins. The Lower Proterozoic metasediments are mainly pelites (about 75 percent) which are commonly carbonaceous, lesser psammites and carbonates (about 10 percent each), and minor rudites (about 5 percent). Volcanic rocks make up about 10 percent of the total sequence. The environment of deposition ranges from shallow-marine to supratidal and fluviatile for most of the sequence, and to flysch in the topmost part. Poor exposure and deep weathering over much of the area hampers correlation of rock units; the correlation preferred by the authors is presented, and possible alternatives are discussed. Regional geological observations pertinent to uranium ore genesis are described. (author)

  3. Efficacy of two systemic insecticides injected into loblolly pine for protection against southern pine bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). (United States)

    Grosman, Donald M; Clarke, Stephen R; Upton, William W


    We evaluated the efficacy of systemic insecticides emamectin benzoate and fipronil for preventing mortality of individual loblolly pines, Pinus taeda L., as a result of attacks by southern pine bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) for two consecutive years in Mississippi (2005-2006) and Alabama (2006-2007). Trees were injected once in the spring of 2005 (Mississippi) or 2006 (Alabama) and then were baited with species-specific bark beetle lures several weeks later. The southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann, was the target species but was changed to Ips spp. in Mississippi (but not Alabama) the second year because of few southern pine beetle attacks on baited trees. Single injections of emamectin benzoate were effective in reducing tree mortality caused by bark beetles compared with untreated checks. Although less effective overall, fipronil also significantly reduced tree mortality from southern pine beetle compared with the checks during the second year in Alabama. Tree mortality continued well after the lures had been removed. Evaluations of bolts taken from experimental trees killed in 2006 indicated that emamectin benzoate effectively prevented parent bark beetle gallery construction and that fipronil significantly reduced lengths of galleries constructed by adult beetles, brood development, and emergence, compared with checks. In contrast, neither insecticide treatment prevented the bark beetles from inoculating blue stain fungi, Ophiostoma spp., into treated trees.

  4. Successful Colonization of Lodgepole Pine Trees by Mountain Pine Beetle Increased Monoterpene Production and Exhausted Carbohydrate Reserves. (United States)

    Roth, Marla; Hussain, Altaf; Cale, Jonathan A; Erbilgin, Nadir


    Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) forests have experienced severe mortality from mountain pine beetle (MPB) (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) in western North America for the last several years. Although the mechanisms by which beetles kill host trees are unclear, they are likely linked to pine defense monoterpenes that are synthesized from carbohydrate reserves. However, how carbohydrates and monoterpenes interact in response to MPB colonization is unknown. Understanding this relationship could help to elucidate how pines succumb to bark beetle attack. We compared concentrations of individual and total monoterpenes and carbohydrates in the phloem of healthy pine trees with those naturally colonized by MPB. Trees attacked by MPB had nearly 300% more monoterpenes and 40% less carbohydrates. Total monoterpene concentrations were most strongly associated with the concentration of sugars in the phloem. These results suggest that bark beetle colonization likely depletes carbohydrate reserves by increasing the production of carbon-rich monoterpenes, and other carbon-based secondary compounds. Bark beetle attacks also reduce water transport causing the disruption of carbon transport between tree foliage and roots, which restricts carbon assimilation. Reduction in carbohydrate reserves likely contributes to tree mortality.

  5. Using pheromones to protect heat-injured lodgepole pine from mountain pine beetle infestation. Forest Service research note

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amman, G.D.; Ryan, K.C.


    The bark beetle antiaggregative pheromones, verbenone and ipsdienol, were tested in protecting heat-injured lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud.) from mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) infestation in the Sawtooth National Recreation Area in central Idaho. Peat moss was placed around 70 percent of the basal circumference of lodgepole pines. When the peat moss was ignited, it simulated the smoldering of natural duff, generating temperatures that killed the cambium. The four treatments tested were uninjured tree, heat-injured tree, heat-injured tree treated with verbenone, and heat-injured tree treated with verbenone plus ipsdienol. Treatments were replicated 20 times. Mountain pine beetles were attracted into treatment blocks by placing mountain pine beetle tree baits on metal posts 3 to 5 meters from treated trees. Fisher's Extract Test showed that treatment and beetle infestation were not independent (P < 0.015). Check treatments contained more unattacked and mass-attacked trees, whereas pheromone treatments contained more unsuccessfully attacked trees.

  6. Pine wood decomposition ability of different Phlebiopsis gigantea isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Łakomy


    Full Text Available The ability of Phlebiopsis gigantea isolates, derived from different parts of Europe, to decompose pine wood was investigated. This ability was expressed by the loss of dry weight of pine wood blocks. Pine wood decay caused by the isolates of Ph. gigantea was similar. In addition there were no significant differences the decomposition ability at all the isolates, which were displayed as the loss of dry weight of wood. When the wood decay ability of two isolates were compared there were significant differences only between the less and the most effective isolates. This might be attributed to the low genetic variation among European population of this fungus. The isolates used in Finland and Poland as biopreparation were the most effective.

  7. Studies on Solid Wood. IV. Comparison of Nordic Pine Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørkmann, Anders


    The methods developed previously for measuring stiffness, creep, and axial compression of solid wood have been used for a comparative study of three specimens of pine (Pinus silvestris), collected at different latitudes in Scandinavia (North Sweden, South Finland and Denmark). Axial samples taken...... were obtained. In spite of the distinct differences in morphology, the pine specimens were generally quite similar. The specimens were also studied by other wood scientists, but a combined evaluation with the present results is not really possible without a deeper understanding of the wood...

  8. Growth, aboveground biomass, and nutrient concentration of young Scots pine and lodgepole pine in oil shale post-mining landscapes in Estonia. (United States)

    Kuznetsova, Tatjana; Tilk, Mari; Pärn, Henn; Lukjanova, Aljona; Mandre, Malle


    The investigation was carried out in 8-year-old Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia Engelm.) plantations on post-mining area, Northeast Estonia. The aim of the study was to assess the suitability of lodgepole pine for restoration of degraded lands by comparing the growth, biomass, and nutrient concentration of studied species. The height growth of trees was greater in the Scots pine stand, but the tree aboveground biomass was slightly larger in the lodgepole pine stand. The aboveground biomass allocation to the compartments did not differ significantly between species. The vertical distribution of compartments showed that 43.2% of the Scots pine needles were located in the middle layer of the crown, while 58.5% of the lodgepole pine needles were in the lowest layer of the crown. The largest share of the shoots and stem of both species was allocated to the lowest layer of the crown. For both species, the highest NPK concentrations were found in the needles and the lowest in the stems. On the basis of the present study results, it can be concluded that the early growth of Scots pine and lodgepole pine on oil shale post-mining landscapes is similar.

  9. Development of merchantable volume equations for natural brutian pine and black pine stands in Eğirdir District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramazan Özçelik


    Full Text Available Determination of stem standing volume is very useful for both sustainable management of timber resources and practical purposes in forestry. Brutian pine (Pinus brutia Ten. and black pine (Pinus nigra Arnold. are important raw material of forest products industry of Turkey. With ever changing market conditions, there is a need to accurately estimate tree volumes utilizing multiple upper stem merchantability limits. This is not currently possible with the existing total stem volume tables for these three species. Nowadays, taper equations are the best way to estimate volume for saw timber and biomass purposes. In this study, variable exponent taper equations evaluated and fitted to data come from 253 destructively sampled trees which were collected in natural brutian pine and black pine stands in Eğirdir district. For this aim, the taper equations of Lee et al. (2003, Kozak (2004, and Sharma and Zhang (2004 were used. A second-order continuous-time autoregressive error structure was used to correct the inherent autocorrelation in the hierarchical data. The proposed models generally performed better for Merchantable tree volume. Results show that the Kozak (2004 taper equation was superior to the other equations in predicting diameter and merchantable height, while The Sharma and Zhang (2004 taper model provided the best predictions for merchantable volume than the other models. The one of the important results of this study, the importance of checking fit statistics of taper equations for both diameters and volume estimations.As a results, Sharma and Zhang (2004 taper model recommended for estimating diameter at a specific height, height to a specific diameter along the stem, and merchantable volume for brutian pine and black pine stands in Eğirdir analyzed

  10. Thinning increases climatic resilience of red pine (United States)

    Magruder, Matthew; Chhin, Sophan; Palik, Brian; Bradford, John B.


    Forest management techniques such as intermediate stand-tending practices (e.g., thinning) can promote climatic resiliency in forest stands by moderating tree competition. Residual trees gain increased access to environmental resources (i.e., soil moisture, light), which in turn has the potential to buffer trees from stressful climatic conditions. The influences of climate (temperature and precipitation) and forest management (thinning method and intensity) on the productivity of red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.) in Michigan were examined to assess whether repeated thinning treatments were able to increase climatic resiliency (i.e., maintaining productivity and reduced sensitivity to climatic stress). The cumulative productivity of each thinning treatment was determined, and it was found that thinning from below to a residual basal area of 14 m2·ha−1 produced the largest average tree size but also the second lowest overall biomass per acre. On the other hand, the uncut control and the thinning from above to a residual basal area of 28 m2·ha−1 produced the smallest average tree size but also the greatest overall biomass per acre. Dendrochronological methods were used to quantify sensitivity of annual radial growth to monthly and seasonal climatic factors for each thinning treatment type. Climatic sensitivity was influenced by thinning method (i.e., thinning from below decreased sensitivity to climatic stress more than thinning from above) and by thinning intensity (i.e., more intense thinning led to a lower climatic sensitivity). Overall, thinning from below to a residual basal area of 21 m2·ha−1 represented a potentially beneficial compromise to maximize tree size, biomass per acre, and reduced sensitivity to climatic stress, and, thus, the highest level of climatic resilience.

  11. Ectomycorrhizal communities of ponderosa pine and lodgepole pine in the south-central Oregon pumice zone. (United States)

    Garcia, Maria O; Smith, Jane E; Luoma, Daniel L; Jones, Melanie D


    Forest ecosystems of the Pacific Northwest of the USA are changing as a result of climate change. Specifically, rise of global temperatures, decline of winter precipitation, earlier loss of snowpack, and increased summer drought are altering the range of Pinus contorta. Simultaneously, flux in environmental conditions within the historic P. contorta range may facilitate the encroachment of P. ponderosa into P. contorta territory. Furthermore, successful pine species migration may be constrained by the distribution or co-migration of ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF). Knowledge of the linkages among soil fungal diversity, community structure, and environmental factors is critical to understanding the organization and stability of pine ecosystems. The objectives of this study were to establish a foundational knowledge of the EMF communities of P. ponderosa and P. contorta in the Deschutes National Forest, OR, USA, and to examine soil characteristics associated with community composition. We examined EMF root tips of P. ponderosa and P. contorta in soil cores and conducted soil chemistry analysis for P. ponderosa cores. Results indicate that Cenococcum geophilum, Rhizopogon salebrosus, and Inocybe flocculosa were dominant in both P. contorta and P. ponderosa soil cores. Rhizopogon spp. were ubiquitous in P. ponderosa cores. There was no significant difference in the species composition of EMF communities of P. ponderosa and P. contorta. Ordination analysis of P. ponderosa soils suggested that soil pH, plant-available phosphorus (Bray), total phosphorus (P), carbon (C), mineralizable nitrogen (N), ammonium (NH4), and nitrate (NO3) are driving EMF community composition in P. ponderosa stands. We found a significant linear relationship between EMF species richness and mineralizable N. In conclusion, P. ponderosa and P. contorta, within the Deschutes National Forest, share the same dominant EMF species, which implies that P. ponderosa may be able to successfully establish

  12. Longleaf Pine: Why Plant It? Why Use Containers? (United States)

    James P. Barnett


    Longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.), although widely distributed in the presettlement forests of the southern Coastal Plain, now occupies less that 5 percent of its original range. A highly desirable species, it resists fire, insects, and disease, while producing excellent quality solid-wood products. Longleaf forests also represent an important...

  13. Fire ecology of Scots pine in Northwest Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hille, M.G.


    Keywords: biodiversity, fire ecology, fuel modelling, succession, tree regenerationIn this thesis the ecological consequences of forest fire are studied in North-west European Scots pine {Pinus sylvestris) forests. The focus is on post-fire succession, and the factors and mechanisms that influence

  14. Fall sowing and delayed germination of western white pine seed (United States)

    W. G. Wahlenberg


    Experiments to determine the best time to sow seed of western white pine (Pinus monticola) have been under way in the northern Rocky Mountain region since 1912, partly in northern Idaho at the Priest River Forest Experiment Station, but mainly at the Savenac nursery on the Lolo National Forest in western Montana. Climate and soil combine to make the problem essentially...

  15. Optimal Seedbed Requirements For Regenerating Table Mountain Pine (United States)

    Helen H. Mohr; Thomas A. Waldrop; Victor B. Shelburne


    High-intensity, stand replacement fires have been recommended to regenerate stands of Table Mountain pine (Pinus pungens Lamb.) because its seeds require mineral soil to germinate and seedlings are intolerant of shade. Recent prescribed fires have resulted in poor regeneration, even though crown fires created seedbeds with abundant insolation and...

  16. Moisture stress affects germination of longleaf and slash pine seeds (United States)

    James P. Barnett


    Osmotic stresses greater than 8 atm markedly reduced germination of both Pinus palustris Mill. P. elliotii Engelm. seeds. At stresses of 18 or more atm, no germination occurred. Moisture content at the onset of germination was twice as high in longleaf as in slash pine seeds.

  17. Environmental sustainability of intercropping switchgrass in a loblolly pine forest (United States)

    George Chescheir; Francois Birgand; Mohamed Youssef; Jami Nettles; Devendra Amatya


    A multi-institutional watershed study has been conducted since 2010 to quantify the environmental sustainability of planting switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) between wide rows of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.). The hypothesized advantage of this intercropping system is the production of biofuel feedstock to provide additional...

  18. Cobalt removal from wastewater using pine sawdust | Musapatika ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was observed that the combined effect of low adsorbent dose, high pH and high initial concentration of wastewater resulted in the highest adsorption capacity. The Freundlich isotherm provided a better fit to the experimental data than the Langmuir isotherm. Moreover, pine sawdust showed adsorption capabilities for ...

  19. Environmental impact analysis (EIA) concerning lodgepole pine forestry in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Bengt; Rosvall, Ola; Engelmark, Ola; Sjoeberg, Kjell


    This report presents an analysis of the ecological consequences of forestry with Canadian lodgepole pine introduced into Sweden. The report includes a compilation of present knowledge in the area, research priorities, and proposed measures for dealing with the negative environmental consequences that could arise. The point of departure of the analysis is a description of the properties of lodgepole pine, including species-specific characteristics of the tree, and changes in stand environment and silvicultural management practices that can be expected. The report describes the dispersal capacity of lodgepole pine in its new Swedish environment and the effects of host-parasite interactions. Thereafter, ecological effects on the capacity of the soil for sustainable production and on biological diversity at various scales (tree, stand, landscape) are analysed. Lodgepole pine forestry is also considered in relation to current laws and regulations as well as national and international environmental goals. At the end of the report, a strategy is proposed for handling the inevitable uncertainties associated with the introduction of exotic species 111 refs, 14 figs

  20. Soil water regime under homogeneous eucalyptus and pine forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, W.P.; Reichardt, K.


    Measurement of precipitation and monthly soil water content during two consecutive years, in 6-year old plantations of eucalypt and pine, and also in an open plot containing natural herbaceous vegetation, were used to compare the soil water regime of these vegetation covers. Precipitation was measured in the open plot with a recording and a non-recording rain gage. Soil water was assessed by the neutron scattering technique to a depth of 1,80 meters. Results indicate that there was, in general, water available in the soil over the entire period of study in all three vegetation conditions. The annual range of soil water in eucalypt, pine, and in natural herbaceous vegetation was essentially similar. The analysis of the average soil water regime showed that the soil under herbaceous vegetation was, generally, more umid than the soil under eucalypt and pine during the period of soil water recharge (September through February); during the period of soil water depletion, the opposite was true. Collectively, the results permit the conclusion that there were no adverse effects on the soil water regime which could be ascribed to reflorestation with eucalypt or pine, as compared with that observed for the natural herbaceous vegetation [pt

  1. Diet of the Louisiana pine snake (Pituophis ruthveni) (United States)

    D. Craig Rudolph; Christopher A. Melder; Josh Pierce; Richard R. Schaefer; Beau Gregory


    The Louisiana Pine Snake (Pituophis ruthveni) is a large-bodied constrictor endemic to western Louisiana and eastern Texas (Sweet and Parker 1991). Surveys suggest that the species has declined in recent decades and is now restricted to isolated habitat patches (Reichling 1995; Rudolph et al. 2006). Pituophis ruthveni is listed as...

  2. Bishop pine (Pinus muricata) of inland Marin County, CA (United States)

    Constance I. Millar


    The locations and characteristics of five, small, previously undescribed stands of bishop pine (Pinus muricata) in central Marin Co., California, are reported. Three stands lie on dry sites in the Kent Lake Drainage north of Mt. Tamalpais: San Geronimo Ridge, a spur ridge above Little Carson Cr., and Oat Hill. These stands are anomalous in occurring...

  3. Entrepreneurial and the Retirement Residence. The Pine Hill Experience. (United States)

    Gaskill, Paul L.


    The surge in the over-75 age group in the United States creates entrepreneurial opportunities in the older adult housing market. Pine Hill is a successful example of a retirement residence which responds to the older adult's need for independence and meaningful leisure involvement. Its planning, development and operation are described. (IAH)

  4. Seed Bank Viability in Disturbed Longleaf Pine Sites (United States)

    Susan Cohen; Richard Braham; Felipe Sanchez


    Some of the most species-rich areas and highest concentrations of threatened and endangered species in the southeastern United States are found in wet savanna and flatwood longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) communities. Where intensive forestry practices have eliminated much of the natural understory of the longleaf ecosystem, the potential for...

  5. An improved method for collecting and monitoring pine oleoresin (United States)

    Dick Karsky; Brian Strom; Harold Thistle


    A new method for collecting and monitoring pine oleoresin has been developed through a cooperative project involving the Missoula Technology Development Center (MTDC), Southern Research Station (Brian Strom, research entomologist), and the Forest Health Technology Enterprise Team. The new sampling unit (figure 1) is cast from rugged plastic. It provides a closed system...

  6. Soil and Foliar Guidelines for Phosphorus Fertilization of Loblolly Pine (United States)

    Carol G. Wells; D.M. Crutchfield; N.M. Berenyi; C.B. Davey


    Several established studies of phosphorus fertilization in 3-year-old plantations of loblolly pine were measured for tree height and sampled for soil tests and needle analysis in order to relate soil and needle content to response to fertilization. Soil tests with the extractant adopted by the North Carolina Soil Testing Laboratories and percentage of P in needles were...

  7. Camcore: Thirty-five years of Mesoamerican pine gene conservation (United States)

    J.L. Lopez; W.S. Dvorak; G.R. Hodge


    Camcore is an international tree breeding and conservation program with headquarters at North Carolina State University. Camcore was founded in 1980 as a cooperative, non-profit organization to identify and save the dwindling natural populations of pines in the highland regions of Guatemala in Central America. Funded by the private sector, the program has played an...

  8. Risk Analysis of Loblolly Pine Controlled Mass Pollination Program (United States)

    T.D. Byram; F.E. Bridgwater


    The economic success of controlled mass pollination (CMP) depends both upon the value of the genetic gain obtained and the cost per seed. Crossing the best six loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) parents currently available in each deployment region of the Western Gulf Forest Tree Improvement Program will produce seed with an average additional gain in mean...

  9. Inclusion of climatic variables in longleaf pine growth models (United States)

    Jyoti N. Rayamajhi; John S. Kush


    The Regional Longleaf Growth Study was established by the USDA Forest Service to study the dynamics of naturally regenerated, even-aged longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) stands. The study accounts for growth change over time by adding new sets of plots in the youngest age class every 10 years. To detect possible changes in productivity with time...

  10. An Unwelcome Guest in China: A Pine-Feeding Mealybug (United States)

    Jianghua Sun; Gary L. DeBarr; Tong-Xian Liu; C. Wayne Berisford; Stephen R. Clarke


    This story began in January 1988. Two business representatives from the Seed Company of the Ministry of the Forestry, People's Republic of China, visited the Southern Seed Company in Baldwin, Georgia, during a seed-buying trip. Just before leaving, they collected 70 scions from slash pines (Pinus elliotti) in a second-generation seed orchard...

  11. Genetic recombinational and physical linkage analyses on slash pine (United States)

    Rob Doudrick


    Slash pine is native to the southeastern USA, but is commercially valuable world-wide as a timber-,fiber- and resin-producing species. Breeding objectives emphasize selection for fusiform rust disease resistance. Identification of markers linked to genetic factors conditioning specificity should expand our knowledge of disease development. Towards this end, random...

  12. Heritability and intertrait correlations in breeding subpopulations of jack pine (United States)

    Don E. Riemenschneider


    Twenty breeding populations of jack pine were established in 1979 and 1980 in Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Michigan. Four populations were index populations and were each established at 4 locations by research cooperators. Sixteen populations were applied breeding populations and were established at single locations by public and private cooperators. Combined analysis of...

  13. The white pine - hemlock forests of the anthracite region (United States)

    C. F. Burnham; M. J. Ferree; F. E. Cunningham


    The white pine - hemlock forests are found chiefly on well drained slopes and along the sides of ravines. Though the area occupied by this type is less than 8 percent of the forest land in the region, it accounts for a quarter of the saw-timber area and 29 percent of the volume in saw-timber stands.

  14. Individual tree diameter, height, and volume functions for longleaf pine (United States)

    Carlos A. Gonzalez-Benecke; Salvador A. Gezan; Timothy A. Martin; Wendell P. Cropper; Lisa J. Samuelson; Daniel J. Leduc


    Currently, little information is available to estimate individual tree attributes for longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.), an important tree species of the southeastern United States. The majority of available models are local, relying on stem diameter outside bark at breast height (dbh, cm) and not including stand-level parameters. We developed...

  15. Estimating annual growth losses from drought in loblolly pine plantations (United States)

    Ralph L. Amateis; Harold E. Burkhart; Daniel Waiswa


    Growth data over the past 10 years from loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantations established across the natural range of the species were linked with annual rainfall data over the same period to evaluate the impact of drought on stand growth. Regression procedures were used to determine (1) whether dominant height growth or basal area growth or...

  16. Corewood in South African pine: necessity and opportunities for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Breeding programmes to date have created sound bases for further wood quality improvement of the various pine species, especially of the corewood zone. Opportunities for success are excellent as large variation in corewood properties still exists within the current breeding populations, combined with operationally ...

  17. Wollemi Pine: Living Fossil from Jurassic Landscape -RE ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Survey and Royal Botanical Gardens at Sydney made a thorough pine with mature leaves. investigation of the leaves and cones from this plant. The leaves are very much closer to the leaves of conifers called Araucarioids. Araucarioids were found in the sediments of New Zealand and Tas- mania, and estimated to be 50 to ...

  18. Eastern white pine: production, markets, and marketing of primary manufacturers (United States)

    Delton Alderman; Paul Duvall; Robert Smith; Scott Bowe


    Eastern white pine (EWP) production and manufacturing have been a staple of the forest products industry since the arrival of the first settlers in the United States. Current EWP market segments range from cabinets to flooring to log cabins to moulding to toys. Today's EWP producers and manufacturers are faced with unprecedented challenges from substitute products...

  19. Fire in longleaf pine stand management: an economic analysis (United States)

    Rodney L. Busby; Donald G. Hodges


    A simulation analysis of the economics of using prescribed fire as a forest management tool in the management of longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) plantations was conducted. A management regime using frequent prescribed fire was compared to management regimes involving fertilization and chemical release, chemical control, and mechanical control. Determining the...

  20. Annual and Geographic variations in cone production by longleaf pine (United States)

    William D. Boyer


    Abstract.Cone production by longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) has been monitored on sample trees in shelterwood stands since 1966. Eleven locations, three each-in Alabama and Florida and one in Louisiana, Mississippi, Georgia, South Carolina, and North Carolina were included in the study. Each location had two test areas, with...

  1. Heavy thinning of ponderosa pine stands: An Arizona case study (United States)

    Peter F. Ffolliott; Jr. Baker; Gerald J. Gottfried


    Growth and structural changes in a mosaic of even-aged ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) stands were studied for 25 years to determine the long-term impacts of a heavy thinning treatment to a basal-area level of 25 ft2/acre. Basal area and volume growth of these stands has increased since thinning and likely will continue to...

  2. Songbird ecology in southwestern ponderosa pine forests: A literature review (United States)

    William M. Block; Deborah M. Finch


    This publication reviews and synthesizes the literature about ponderosa pine forests of the Southwest, with emphasis on the biology, ecology, and conservation of songbirds. Critical bird-habitat management issues related to succession, snags, old growth, fire, logging, grazing, recreation, and landscape scale are addressed. Overviews of the ecology, current use, and...

  3. Lumber recovery from ponderosa pine in western Montana. (United States)

    Marlin E. Plank


    Lumber grade yields and recovery ratios are shown for a sample of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) in western Montana. About 9 percent of the lumber produced was in Select grades, 48 percent in Shop grades, and 43 percent in Common grades. Information on log scale and yield is presented in tables by log grade and diameter class....

  4. Recreation in whitebark pine ecosystems: Demand, problems, and management strategies (United States)

    David N. Cole


    Whitebark pine ecosystems are an important element of many of the most spectacular high-elevation landscapes in the western United States. They occupy upper subalpine and timberline zones in the prime recreation lands of the Cascades, the Sierra Nevada, and the Northern Rocky Mountains. This paper explores the nature of the recreational opportunities that the whitebark...

  5. Periodic Burning In Table Mountain-Pitch Pine Stands (United States)

    Russell B. Randles; David H. van Lear; Thomas A. Waldrop; Dean M. Simon


    Abstract - The effects of multiple, low intensity burns on vegetation and wildlife habitat in Table Mountain (Pinus pungens Lamb.)-pitch (Pinus rigida Mill.) pine communities were studied in the Blue Ridge Mountains of North Carolina. Treatments consisted of areas burned from one to four times at 3-4 year...

  6. An analysis of genetic architecture in populations of Ponderosa Pine (United States)

    Yan B. Linhart; Jeffry B. Mitton; Kareen B. Sturgeon; Martha L. Davis


    Patterns of genetic variation were studied in three populations of ponderosa pine in Colorado by using electrophoretically variable protein loci. Significant genetic differences were found between separate clusters of trees and between age classes within populations. In addition, data indicate that differential cone production and differential animal damage have...

  7. Competitive interactions among symbiotic fungi of the southern pine beetle (United States)

    Kier D. Klepzig; Richard T. Wilkens


    The southern pine beetle, a damaging pest of conifers, is intimately linked to three symbiotic fungi.Two fungi, Ceratocystiopsis ranaculosus and Entomocorticium sp. A, are transported within specialized structures (mycangia) in the beetle exoskeleton and are mutualists of the beetle.A third fungus, Ophiostoma minus, is transported externally on the beetle exoskeleton (...

  8. Dwarf Mistletoe of Ponderosa Pine in the Southwest (FIDL) (United States)

    Paul C. Lightle; Melvyn J. Weiss


    Southwestern dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobuim vaginatum subsp. cryptopodum) occurs essentially throughout the range of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa var. scopulorum) from northern Mexico through western Texas, Arizona, and New Mexico into Colorado and central Utah. In Arizona and New Mexico it is present on more than one-third of the commercial forest acreage and is...

  9. "New" pine species and hybrids: is there still potential? : creating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The potential of infusing genetic material into existing breeding programs, the introduction of ";new"; species, and hybridisation are discussed as options available to the tree breeder to increase variability and gain. Pinus patula is the most important pine species in South Africa. The provenance origin of the first introductions ...

  10. Altitudinal variation of some morphological characters of Scots pine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to investigate the altitudinal variation within and between Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) populations in Turkey using 23 morphological characters. Seeds were collected from 149 open-pollinated parents (trees) from five populations sampled from different altitudes in the natural distribution ...

  11. Alkaline pretreatment of Mexican pine residues for bioethanol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alkaline pretreatment of Mexican pine residues for bioethanol production. Claudia Elena Soto Alvarez, Javier López Miranda, Gustavo Pérez Verdín, Mario A. Rodríguez Pérez, Isaías Chairez Hernández ...

  12. Interim Site-index Curves for Longleaf Pine Plantations (United States)

    William D. Boyer


    No single set of site-index curves can be uniformly applied to young longleaf pine plantations without a sacrifice in reliability. A recent study using plantation remeasurement data indicated that planting-site condition (old fields and mechanically prepared or unprepared cutover forest sites) has a major impact on early plantation height growth. Stand density (...

  13. Radiation and energy balance dynamics over young chir pine ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The study clearly brought out the intimate link of albedo dynamics in chir pine system with dynamics of leaf area index (LAI), soil moisture, and changes in understory background. Rainfall was found to have tight linear coupling with latent heat fluxes. Latent heat flux during monsoon period was found to be higher in higher ...

  14. Pine Engraver, Ips pini, in the Western United States (FIDL) (United States)

    Sandra J. Kegley; R. Ladd Livingston; Kenneth E. Gibson


    The pine engraver, Ips pini (Say), is one of the most common and widely distributed bark beetles in North America. It occurs from southern Appalachia north to Maine and Quebec, westward across the northern United States and Canada, into the interior of Alaska, throughout the Pacific Coast States and the Rocky Mountain region, to northern Mexico. In the western United...

  15. Competing vegetation in ponderosa pine plantations: ecology and control (United States)

    Philip M. McDonald; Gary O. Fiddler


    Planted ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws. var. ponderosa) seedlings in young plantations in California are at a disadvantage compared with competing shrubs, forbs, and grasses. In many instances, roots of competing plants begin expanding and exploiting the soil earlier and in greater numbers, thereby capturing the...

  16. Allozyme diversity of selected and natural loblolly pine populations (United States)

    Ronald C. Schmidtling; E. Carroll; T. LaFarge


    Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) megagametophytes and embryos were examined electrophoretically to compare the extent and distribution of genetic variability in allozymes of selected and wild populations. Range-wide collections of three different types were investigated in this study. These consisted of seed sampled from (1) a provenance test...

  17. Biomass and biomass change in lodgepole pine stands in Alberta (United States)

    Robert A. Monserud; Shongming Huang; Yuqing Yang


    We describe methods and results for broad-scale estimation and mapping of forest biomass for the Canadian province of Alberta. Differences over successive decades provided an estimate of biomass change. Over 1500 permanent sample plots (PSP) were analyzed from across the range of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia Engelm...

  18. Are mice eating up all the pine seeds? (United States)

    Rafal Zwolak; Kerry Foresman; Elizabeth Crone; Dean Pearson; Yvette Ortega


    Wildlife, even miniscule mice, can play an important role in forest regeneration and composition by consuming seeds, seedlings, and saplings. Mice can, through sheer numbers, consume a tremendous number of seeds. We wanted to learn if deer mice could affect how ponderosa pine forests regenerate after fire.

  19. Growth and soil moisture in thinned lodgepole pine. (United States)

    Walter G. Dahms


    A lodgepole pine levels-of-growing-stock study showed that trees growing at lower stand densities had longer crowns and grew more rapidly in diameter but did not grow significantly faster in height. Gross cubic-volume increment decreased with decreasing stand density. The decrease was small per unit of density at the higher densities but much greater at the lower...

  20. Non-woody weed control in pine plantations (United States)

    Phillip M. Dougherty; Bob Lowery


    The cost and benefits derived from controlling non-woody competitors in pine planations were reviewed. Cost considerations included both the capital cost and biological cost that may be incurred when weed control treatments are applied. Several methods for reducing the cost of herbicide treatments were explored. Cost reduction considerations included adjustments in...

  1. Economics of Red Pine Management for Utility Pole Timber (United States)

    Gerald H. Grossman; Karen Potter-Witter


    Including utility poles in red pine management regimes leads to distinctly different management recommendations. Where utility pole markets exist, managing for poles will maximize net returns. To do so, plantations should be maintained above 110 ft2/ac, higher than usually recommended. In Michigan's northern lower peninsula, approximately...

  2. Nutrition challenges of longleaf pine in the southeast (United States)

    M.A. Sword Sayer; L.G. Eckhardt; E.A. Carter


    Low vigor of longleaf pine has been reported at Fort Benning in Georgia, and Eglin Air Force Base in Florida. In an effort to determine the cause of this problem, foliar nutrition was assessed. Results indicated that macro- and micronutrients were generally sufficient regardless of vigor status. Foliar Mn, however, was elevated at both locations. Excess Mn has the...

  3. Fire effects on ponderosa pine soils and their management implications (United States)

    W.W. Covington; S.S. Sackett


    Fire in southwestern ponderosa pine induces changes in soil properties including decreasing the amount of nutrients stored in fuels (forest floor, woody litter, and understory vegetation) increasing the amount of nutrients on the soil surface (the "ashbed effect"), and increasing the inorganic nitrogen and moisture content in the mineral soil. Soil...

  4. Crossability and relationships of the California big-cone pines (United States)

    William B. Critchfield


    In the genus Pinus, much of the information about species crossability that has accumulated during the past three decades has reinforced ideas about the relationships of pines based on other kinds of evidence. There are some conspicuous exceptions to this generalization, however, and the most thoroughly investigated of these exceptions is Jeffrey...

  5. Distribution of the cone insect, Dioryctria disclusa, in red pine. (United States)

    William J. Mattson


    Within the crowns of red pine, Pinus resinosa Ait., trees, larvae of the cone insect, Dioryctria disclusa Heinrich, tended to follow the distributions of their foods. Between-tree distributions of larvae, however, were relatable to food distributions in only two of five years. Cone damage/tree by D. disclusa increased linearly with cone abundance per tree when insect...

  6. Molecular dissection of white pine genetic resistance to Cronartium ribicola (United States)

    Jun-Jun Liu; Richard Sniezko


    Pinus monticola (Dougl. ex D. Don.) maintains a complex defence system that detects white pine blister rust pathogen (Cronartium ribicola J.C.Fisch.) and activates resistance responses. A thorough understanding of how it functions at the molecular level would provide us new strategies for creating forest trees with durable disease resistance. Our research focuses on...

  7. Evaluation of seed production of scots pine ( Pinus sylvestris L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research was carried out to investigate seed production in a 13 years-old scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) clonal seed orchard, including 30 clones. Eight of cone and seed traits as number of fertile and infertile scales, cone volume, cone number, filled and empty seed number, seed efficiency and 1000 seed weight were ...

  8. Avoidance of fire by Louisiana pine snakes, Pituophis melanoleucus ruthveni (United States)

    D. Craig Rudolph; Shirley J. Burgdorf; John C. Tull; Marc Ealy; Richard N. Conner; Richard R. Schaefer; Robert R. Fleet


    Wildfire and prescribed fire are important influences on pine ecosystems in the southeastern United States (Komarek 1968, 1974; Platt et al. 1988). Although considerable research on the impact of fire on vertebrates due to changes in vegetation structure has been reported, the direct impact of fire on vertebrates is not well known (Means and Campbell 1981). The...

  9. Pine Flat Dam Fish and Wildlife Habitat Restoration, Fresno, California

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library


    .... The largest city near the study area is Fresno, located to the west. The purpose of this study is to formulate measures and alternative plans to restore and protect the ecosystem at Pine Flat Lake and along the lower Kings River...

  10. Predicting lodgepole pine site index from climatic parameters in Alberta. (United States)

    Robert A. Monserud; Shongming Huang; Yuqing. Yang


    We sought to evaluate the impact of climatic variables on site productivity of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia Engelm.) for the province of Alberta. Climatic data were obtained from the Alberta Climate Model, which is based on 30-year normals from the provincial weather station network. Mapping methods were based...

  11. Frequency of comandra blister rust infection episodes on lodgepole pine (United States)

    William R. Jacobi; Brian W. Geils; Jane E. Taylor


    Comandra blister rust is a damaging canker disease of lodgepole pine in the Central Rocky Mountains. Our knowledge of previous blister rust outbreaks and the effects of weather and climate on rust epidemiology has not been sufficient to explain the frequency and severity of disease outbreaks. Thus, we sought to describe the seasonal and annual frequency and duration of...

  12. Experience with basal area estimation by prisms in lodgepole pine. (United States)

    James M. Trappe


    Estimation of basal area by prisms offers intriguing possibilities for reducing time and effort in making stand inventories. Increased inventory efficiency is a particular need in stands that are relatively low in value due to small stems, predominance of low value species or heavy defect. In the Pacific Northwest, lodgepole pine characteristically forms dense low-...

  13. Lodgepole pine in the Blue Mountains of northeastern Oregon. (United States)

    James M. Trappe; Robert W. Harris


    Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) is a major species in northeastern Oregon. The lodgepole type covers nearly 400,000 acres in the Blue and Wallowa Mountains, and individual trees are scattered over many of the remaining six million forested acres in this area (2). The type blankets large areas in watersheds in a region where spring floods and summer...

  14. Dynamics of dense direct-seeded stands of southern pines (United States)

    J.C.G. Goelz


    Direct seeding of southern pines is an effective method of artificial regeneration, producing extremely dense stands when survival exceeds expectations. Long-term studies of dense direct-seeded stands provide ideal data for exploring development of stands as they approach the limit of maximum stand density. I present data from seven studies with ages of stands ranging...

  15. Social and Political Impact of the Southern Pine Beetle (United States)

    Robert N. Coulson; James R. Meeker


    Impact is defined broadly to mean any effect on the forest environment resulting from the activities of the southern pine beetle (SPB). In this chapter we focus on social and political impact. Social impact deals with effects of the SPB on aesthetic, moral, and metaphysical values associated with forests. Two aspects of social impact are investigated: how the SPB...

  16. Predicting the above-ground biomass of calabrian pine ( Pinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Karaisalý Regional Forestry Management Area. Thirty three sample plots, each of 0.04 ha, were chosen in order to define the biomass equations of calabrian pine, the most common needle leave species in Turkey. A tree which is the most similar ...

  17. The Virginia pine sawfly in 1960 - a special cooperative report (United States)

    T. McIntyre; R. C. Heller; C. L. Morris


    An outbreak of the pine sawfly, Neodiprion pratti pratti (Dyar), has existed in Maryland since 1955. By 1959 the insect had spread throughout 14 million acres in the Coastal Plain and Piedmont of Virginia and into several North Carolina counties. Because egg surveys conducted in the spring of 1960 indicated a continuation of the epidemic, an aerial survey was conducted...

  18. Characterization of microsatellite markers in eastern white pine (United States)

    C. S. Echt; P. May-Marquardt; M. Hseih; R. Zahorchak


    An enrichment cloning method was evaluated for the isolation of microsatellite loci from eastern white pine and the resulting markers were examined for polymorphisms. A 200-fold enrichment was achieved for highly abundant (AC)n repeats, but for much less abundant (ACAG)n repeats an enrichment of only 20-fold was obtained....

  19. Stock size affects early growth of a loblolly pine (United States)

    David B. South; Al Lyons; Russ Pohl


    For decades, forest researchers in the South have known that early gains in survival and growth of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) can be achieved by planting large-diameter seedlings (South 1993; Wakeley 1949). For P. radiata, increasing size of planting stock also increases early growth of both seedlings (Mason and others 1996) and cuttings (South and others 2005)....

  20. Diseases of pines caused by the pitch canker fungus (United States)

    L. David Dwinell; Stephen W. Fraedrich; D. Adams


    Fusarium subglutinans f. sp. pini, the pitch canker fungus, causes a number of serious diseases of Pinus species. The pathogen infects a variety of vegetative and reproductive pine structures at different stages of maturity and produces a diversity of symptoms. When the pathogen infects the woody vegetative...