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Sample records for underpass crossing structures

  1. Is vertebrate mortality correlated to potential permeability by underpasses along low-traffic roads?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Juan D; Morelli, Federico; Arroyo, Natalia L; Durán, Jorge; Rodríguez, Alexandra; Rosal, Antonio; Palenzuela, María Del Valle; Rodríguez, Jesús D G P

    2018-09-01

    Road permeability to animal movements depends among several factors on structures which, integrated in the road design, operate as safe conducts to mitigate vehicle collision and barrier effects. There is abundant evidence that wildlife makes use of such structures as safe passages to cross roads. We analyzed the spatial relationship between road drainage elements (N = 253; mostly culverts) as potential faunal underpasses, and mortality due to vehicle collisions in two seasons and on four relatively low-traffic roads (roads, identifying and characterizing all potential underpasses. Overall frequencies of casualties and spatial distribution were highly variable both within and among these roads. We obtained an estimation of potential permeability for the different roads. We detected, located and described a wide supply and a very variable pattern of drainage culverts and other underpasses, with differences among roads in passage attributes potentially affecting permeability for wildlife, such as spatial arrangement, number, density (frequency or concentration of passages) and dimensions. We used Mantel tests to assess spatial congruence of passages and road-killed animals. We applied generalized linear mixed models fitted by maximum likelihood through Akaike Information Criterion to explain the variation in the distance of the 238 casualties to the nearest underpasses, with road transect and season as random factors, and traffic intensity, speed and vertebrate class as fixed effects. Both road-killed animals and underpass distribution followed aggregated patterns, and casualties were not significantly related to underpasses along any of the 4 roads. There were no differences in distance of casualties to the nearest underpass for the three vertebrate classes. Although existing underpasses were abundant, we could not correlate potential permeability with reduced mortality along these roads, and other factors potentially affecting roadkill aggregations should be

  2. Effectiveness of Wildlife Underpasses and Fencing to Reduce Wildlife–Vehicle Collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,; McCollister, Matthew F.

    2010-01-01

    Transportation planners are increasingly incorporating roadway design features to mitigate impacts of highways on wildlife and to increase driver safety. We used camera and track surveys to evaluate wildlife use before and after construction of 3 wildlife underpasses and associated fencing on a new section of United States Highway 64 in Washington County, North Carolina, USA. We recorded 242 occasions of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) use of underpass areas before highway construction began. Following completion of the highway, we collected 2,433 photographs of 9 species with deer representing 93% of all crossings. Adjusting for differences in number of monitoring days, white-tailed deer use of underpass areas averaged 6.7 times greater after the new highway and underpasses were completed. We recorded 3,614 wildlife crossings of ≥20 species based on track counts, representing most medium and large mammals known to occur in the area and several reptiles and birds. After completion of the highway, we documented wildlife mortality due to vehicle collisions during a 13-month period and recorded 128 incidences representing ≥24 species. Within fenced highway segments, mortalities were lowest near underpasses and increased with distance from the underpasses. However, we also documented more mortalities in fenced areas compared with unfenced areas. With greater distance from an underpass, animals with smaller home ranges seemed less likely to reach the underpass and instead attempted to climb over or crawl under fencing. Based on collision reports from adjacent highway sections, the new section of United States Highway 64 experienced approximately 58% fewer wildlife mortalities (primarily white-tailed deer), suggesting underpasses and fencing reduced the number of deer–vehicle collisions. Continuous fencing between underpasses may further reduce the number of vehicle collisions for deer but additional design features (e.g., buried fencing) should be

  3. Performance of Arch-Style Road Crossing Structures from Relative Movement Rates of Large Mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Z. Andis

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, an increasing number of highway construction and reconstruction projects have included mitigation measures aimed at reducing wildlife-vehicle collisions and maintaining habitat connectivity for wildlife. The most effective and robust measures include wildlife fences combined with wildlife underpasses and overpasses. The 39 wildlife crossing structures included along a 90 km stretch of US Highway 93 on the Flathead Indian Reservation in western Montana represent one of the most extensive of such projects. We measured movements of large mammal species at 15 elliptical arch-style wildlife underpasses and adjacent habitat between April and November 2015. We investigated if the movements of large mammals through the underpasses were similar to large mammal movements in the adjacent habitat. Across all structures, large mammals (all species combined were more likely to move through the structures than pass at a random location in the surrounding habitat. At the species level, white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus and mule deer (O. hemionus used the underpasses significantly more than could be expected based on their movement through the surrounding habitat. However, carnivorous species such as, black bear (Ursus americanus and coyote (Canis latrans moved through the underpasses in similar numbers compared to the surrounding habitat.

  4. Piloting a Non-Invasive Genetic Sampling Method for Evaluating Population-Level Benefits of Wildlife Crossing Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony P. Clevenger

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Intuitively, wildlife crossing structures should enhance the viability of wildlife populations. Previous research has demonstrated that a broad range of species will use crossing structures, however, questions remain as to whether these measures actually provide benefits to populations. To assess this, studies will need to determine the number of individuals using crossings, their sex, and their genetic relationships. Obtaining empirical data demonstrating population-level benefits for some species can be problematic and challenging at best. Molecular techniques now make it possible to identify species, individuals, their sex, and their genetic relatedness from hair samples collected through non-invasive genetic sampling (NGS. We describe efforts to pilot a method to assess potential population-level benefits of wildlife crossing structures. We tested the feasibility of a prototype NGS system designed to sample hair from black bears (Ursus americanus and grizzly bears (U. arctos at two wildlife underpasses. The piloted hair-sampling method did not deter animal use of the trial underpasses and was effective at sampling hair from more than 90% of the bear crossing events at the underpasses. Hair samples were also obtained from non-target carnivore species, including three out of five (60% cougar (Puma concolor crossing events. Individual identification analysis revealed that three female and two male grizzly bears used one wildlife underpass, whereas two female and three male black bears were identified as using the other underpass. Of the 36 hair samples from bears analyzed, five failed, resulting in an 87% extraction success rate, and six more were only identified to species. Overall, 70% of the hair samples from bears collected in the field had sufficient DNA for extraction purposes. Preliminary data from our NGS suggest the technique can be a reliable method to assess the population-level benefits of Banff wildlife crossings. Furthermore, NGS

  5. Data Envelopment Analysis for Technological, Environmental and Economic Analysis of Motorway Underpasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateřina Myšková

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Underpasses play an important role in ensuring permeability of line traffic structures (motorways, expressways for feral species. There are many studies, articles and methodological guidebooks available describing proper design principles for technical parameters of underpasses and their placement within the terrain. Width, height and length are the main technical parameters affecting wildlife migration. Wildlife behaviour and their requirements for the mentioned technical parameters of underpasses also have been examined in depth. In practically all cases, underpass functionality grows with increasing width and height. Of course, this also results in greater construction costs. The objective should therefore be to find a balanced compromise enabling “sufficient” functionality while maintaining “reasonable” costs. Data envelopment analysis (DEA provides a way to identify “good” solutions in the sense of “sufficient” underpass functionality with “reasonable” total costs. Underpass functionality calculations were based on a methodology for calculating migration potentials (Žák and Florian, 2013. Total costs were established according to actual construction work prices in the Czech Republic, including prices for preparations, design, construction, maintenance, and demolition. The results indicate that DEA can be used to find “good” solutions and can be of assistance in particular when planning measures to ensure motorways are permeable to wildlife.

  6. Deformation Monitoring of Motorway Underpasses Using Laser Scanning Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puente, I.; González-Jorge, H.; Riveiro, B.; Arias, P.

    2012-07-01

    The motorway Ourense - Celanova will become the next years in one of the main roads of inland Galicia (northwest region of Spain) that will connect quickly with the cities of Northern Portugal. This highway is projected as a public - private partnership between the regional government of Xunta de Galicia and the construction companies Copasa SA and Extraco SA. There are currently under construction the 19 km of this road and presents a number of structures as viaducts, overpasses and underpasses. The viaducts are part of the main road, allowing passage of the vehicles at conventional speed. Overpasses are mainly used in the connection of the highway with secondary roads. Moreover, the underpasses are better suited for the passage of wildlife animals, persons or agricultural machinery. The underpass arch-shape structures used for this project consist of two reinforced concrete voussoirs placed on two small concrete walls. For each set of voussoirs there are three joining points, two between the walls and the voussoirs and one between the both voussoirs at the top of the structure. These underpasses suffer significant mechanical stress during construction, because during the backfilling process asymmetric loads are applied to both sides. Thus, it is very important the monitoring of the structure using geodetic techniques as total stations, levels or laser scanners The underpass selected for this study is located at the kilometric point 4.9 of the highway, with a total length of 50.38 m, maximum span of 13.30 m and rise of 7.23 m. Voussoirs has a thickness of 0.35 m and a length of 2.52 m. The small lateral walls exhibit a height of 2.35 m and thickness of 0.85 m. The underpass presents a slope of approximately 4 % and the maximum height of the backfill over the top of the structure is 3.80 m. The foundation consists of a concrete slab arch-shape (curvature opposite the main arch) with a thickness of 0.7 m. The geodetic technology used for the deformation monitoring

  7. DEFORMATION MONITORING OF MOTORWAY UNDERPASSES USING LASER SCANNING DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Puente

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The motorway Ourense – Celanova will become the next years in one of the main roads of inland Galicia (northwest region of Spain that will connect quickly with the cities of Northern Portugal. This highway is projected as a public – private partnership between the regional government of Xunta de Galicia and the construction companies Copasa SA and Extraco SA. There are currently under construction the 19 km of this road and presents a number of structures as viaducts, overpasses and underpasses. The viaducts are part of the main road, allowing passage of the vehicles at conventional speed. Overpasses are mainly used in the connection of the highway with secondary roads. Moreover, the underpasses are better suited for the passage of wildlife animals, persons or agricultural machinery. The underpass arch-shape structures used for this project consist of two reinforced concrete voussoirs placed on two small concrete walls. For each set of voussoirs there are three joining points, two between the walls and the voussoirs and one between the both voussoirs at the top of the structure. These underpasses suffer significant mechanical stress during construction, because during the backfilling process asymmetric loads are applied to both sides. Thus, it is very important the monitoring of the structure using geodetic techniques as total stations, levels or laser scanners The underpass selected for this study is located at the kilometric point 4.9 of the highway, with a total length of 50.38 m, maximum span of 13.30 m and rise of 7.23 m. Voussoirs has a thickness of 0.35 m and a length of 2.52 m. The small lateral walls exhibit a height of 2.35 m and thickness of 0.85 m. The underpass presents a slope of approximately 4 % and the maximum height of the backfill over the top of the structure is 3.80 m. The foundation consists of a concrete slab arch-shape (curvature opposite the main arch with a thickness of 0.7 m. The geodetic technology used for the

  8. Study on Performance of Intersection Around The Underpass Using Micro Simulation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arliansyah, J.; Bawono, R. T.

    2018-03-01

    In order to overcome the problems of congestion at the major intersections in Palembang City, there have been grade separation constructions in the form of flyover or underpass. One of them is the intersection of Patal Pusri Underpass. The smooth traffic due to the underpass construction needs to be balanced by the arrangement management at the intersections located close to the underpass to get the best network performance since both affect each other performance. The Taman Kenten and Seduduk Putih junctions which are just 569 and 226 meters from the underpass of Patal Pusri has to be analyzed for its needs of management and traffic arrangements to reduce its impact on the performance of the intersection of Patal Pusri or vice versa. Some alternatives of management and traffic arrangements were developed to get the best solutions and the Vissim 8.00 microsimulation program was used to evaluate the performance of intersections in the network where the compared parameters are the value of the queue length and average delay. The results of the analysis and the conducted modeling show that the best solution to optimize the performance of the two junctions are to make geometric changes and diversion of traffic flow at Seduduk Putih Junction and making geometric changes at Taman Kenten Junction.

  9. KAJIAN EFEKTIVITAS PENGELOLAAN SIMPANG DENGAN UNDERPASS (STUDI KASUS SIMPANG TUGU NGURAH RAI DI PROVINSI BALI

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    Putu Alit Suthanaya

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available One option to overcome traffic jam that has been implemented was by building Bali Mandara toll road. However, the connection between the toll road with the Tugu Ngurah Rai intersection has caused traffic jam and long queue. Therefore, it is required to analyse appropriate traffic management at Tugu Ngurah Rai intersection. This study aims to analyze the existing performance of Tugu Ngurah Rai roundabout and to provide the alternatives control considering both signalized roundabout and separated-grade intersection of partial-type underpass. The analysis is conducted in accordance to the Indonesian Highway Capacity Manual (MKJI, 1997. The study showed the existing performance of Tugu Ngurah Rai roundabout was at the level of service C. In addition, the degree of saturation, average delay and queue probability of the roundabout were 0.652, 10.802 sec/pcu and 6%-25%, respectively. The roundabout is predicted to reach a level of service D in 2019 with the average delay of 26.664 sec/pcu. Installing signalized traffic control at Tugu Ngurah Rai roundabaout is unable to reduce the congestion, therefore, a separated-grade intersection of underpass is such a plausible alternative. An alternative design of underpass on north-south direction in 2019 is found to be better than east-west direction. The underpass on north-south direction will have a degree of saturation, average delay and queue probability of 0,517, 9.7118 sec/pcu and 12% - 21%, respectively. These condition is equal to a level of service B. Furthermore, considering the increase of traffic flow in 2026, the underpass is predicted to experience a level of service D with average delay of 20.773 sec/pcu.  Keywords: roundabout, signal, underpass, performance

  10. Underpasses for pedestrians and cyclists : User requirements and implications for design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Voordt, D.J.M.; van Wegen, H.B.R.

    1983-01-01

    In The Netherlands growing attention is being paid to slow traffic facilities. In order to increase road safety many municipalities build or intend to build underpasses for pedestrians and cyclists. However, such traffic solutions have disadvantages, too. Often people manifest feelings of being

  11. Wildlife underpasses on U.S. 64 in North Carolina: integrating management and science objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Mark D.; Van Manen, Frank T.; Wilson, Travis W.; Cox, David R.

    2010-01-01

    This chapter on wildlife underpasses on U.S. Highway 64 in North Carolina is from a book on highways, wildlife, and habitat connectivity. U.S. 64 is an important route in North Carolina connecting major population centers and highways that underwent a major upgrade from a two-lane rural road to a major highway. New routes were proposed for a large portion of the project (28 miles) to improve driver safety and increase speed limits to 70 miles per hour (from the previously posted 55 mph). The authors review the geographical, historical, political, and social setting; the roadway and environmental issues; the rationale for the project; critical factors; outcomes of the project; and lessons learned. The area of the project supports high wildlife densities, including American black bears, white-tailed deer, red wolves, and bobcats. Critical factors to be incorporated into wildlife mitigation measures: driver safety, underpass construction costs, and permitting by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The U.S. 64 underpasses, completed in 2005, were the first in North Carolina designed specifically for wildlife and according to specifications provided by the North Carolina Wildlife Resources Commission (NCWRC). The authors describe the underpass specifications recommended based on this project, including size, control of public access, fencing, gates, and maintenance (notably vegetation management). The authors conclude that one of the most beneficial outcomes of this project was the fact that, since the completion of the U.S. 64 underpasses, the North Carolina Department of Transportation (NCDOT) routinely considers wildlife passageways for road projects in the state.

  12. Vertebrate Ticks Distribution and Their Role as Vectors in Relation to Road Edges and Underpasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Juan D; Abreu-Yanes, Estefanía; Abreu-Acosta, Néstor; Flor, Manuel D; Foronda, Pilar

    2017-06-01

    Roads fragment vertebrate populations and affect the dynamics and dispersal patterns of vertebrate parasites. We evaluated how vertebrate ticks distribute near roads and road underpasses in human-caused road-fragmented landscapes in Seville, SW Spain. We sampled 49 stations with 93 individualized sampling points and assessed tick abundance. We explored the relationship between tick presence and abundance and distance to the nearest road and underpass (drainage culverts and other passages used by vertebrates), and landscape features through categorical regression and nonparametric statistics. The presence of the tick-borne pathogens Borrelia sp. and Bartonella sp. was also analyzed by PCR. We found preliminary evidence of high relative tick abundance next to roads and in the vicinity of road underpasses. Plant cover type was related to tick presence in this road context. Implications of road permeability and edge effect in patterns of vertebrate-tick relationships in road fragmentation contexts are discussed. Both Borrelia sp. and Bartonella sp. were detected in the ticks analyzed. This is the first report of these bacteria in ticks from Seville. The results confirm the potential risk of acquiring Lyme disease and bartonellosis in this area.

  13. STUDI KELAYAKAN EKONOMI PEMBANGUNAN UNDERPASS PADA SIMPANG JL. GATOT SUBROTO-JL. AHMAD YANI DI KOTA DENPASAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Sarasdevi Santosa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract : Based on data from the Central Statistics Agency (BPS of Bali in 2013, the population density in the Metropolitan area SARBAGITA (Denpasar-Badung-Gianyar-Tabanan was 1.057 inhabitants/km2 with an area of 1.753,63 km2 and population was 1.853.017 inhabitants. Availability of facilities and adequate transportation infrastructure is needed, but in fact the performance of roads in the city center has declined. It is characterized by an increase in travel delay problem. Traffic delay problems in the City of Denpasar commonly occur on the stretch of Gatot Subroto street. To minimize the existing problems, Denpasar City Government plans to develop an underpass at the intersection of Gatot Subroto street and Ahmad Yani street. The aim of this study was to analyze the direct benefits of underpass for road users, to analyze the costs necessary to realize and operate the underpass, and to analyze the economic feasibility of the underpass development investment. Based on primary data and secondary data were obtained from government agencies, the method of analysis in this study used the technique of Net Present Value (NPV, Benefit Cost Ratio (BCR and Internal Rate of Return (IRR. Economic analysis conducted in this study used three criteria (NPV, BCR and IRR with three interest rates (12%, 15% and 18% per year stating that the construction of an underpass was economically feasible. For example in the second scenario where the interest rate 15% gain on the analysis of value NPV, BCR and IRR respectively is Rp. 233.462.340.102,00; 1,948 and 30,81%. Suggestions can be submitted from this research is the need to contemplate the effect of changes in land use in areas close to the area around the underpass and needed further study that takes into account the needs of additional traffic lanes.

  14. Stream-crossing structure for deer fence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert M. Blair; James A. Hays; Louis Brunett

    1963-01-01

    Stream crossings are the most vulnerable points in a deer-proof fence. When an inadequately constructed crossing washes out, enclosed deer may escape and unwanted animals enter. Structures of the type described here have withstood 2 years of frequent, severe flooding in the pine-hardwood hills of central Louisiana.

  15. Cross-linked structure of network evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bassett, Danielle S., E-mail: dsb@seas.upenn.edu [Department of Bioengineering, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States); Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Sage Center for the Study of the Mind, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Wymbs, Nicholas F.; Grafton, Scott T. [Department of Psychology and UCSB Brain Imaging Center, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Porter, Mason A. [Oxford Centre for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, Mathematical Institute, University of Oxford, Oxford OX2 6GG (United Kingdom); CABDyN Complexity Centre, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX1 1HP (United Kingdom); Mucha, Peter J. [Carolina Center for Interdisciplinary Applied Mathematics, Department of Mathematics, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States); Department of Applied Physical Sciences, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States)

    2014-03-15

    We study the temporal co-variation of network co-evolution via the cross-link structure of networks, for which we take advantage of the formalism of hypergraphs to map cross-link structures back to network nodes. We investigate two sets of temporal network data in detail. In a network of coupled nonlinear oscillators, hyperedges that consist of network edges with temporally co-varying weights uncover the driving co-evolution patterns of edge weight dynamics both within and between oscillator communities. In the human brain, networks that represent temporal changes in brain activity during learning exhibit early co-evolution that then settles down with practice. Subsequent decreases in hyperedge size are consistent with emergence of an autonomous subgraph whose dynamics no longer depends on other parts of the network. Our results on real and synthetic networks give a poignant demonstration of the ability of cross-link structure to uncover unexpected co-evolution attributes in both real and synthetic dynamical systems. This, in turn, illustrates the utility of analyzing cross-links for investigating the structure of temporal networks.

  16. Cross-linked structure of network evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassett, Danielle S.; Wymbs, Nicholas F.; Grafton, Scott T.; Porter, Mason A.; Mucha, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    We study the temporal co-variation of network co-evolution via the cross-link structure of networks, for which we take advantage of the formalism of hypergraphs to map cross-link structures back to network nodes. We investigate two sets of temporal network data in detail. In a network of coupled nonlinear oscillators, hyperedges that consist of network edges with temporally co-varying weights uncover the driving co-evolution patterns of edge weight dynamics both within and between oscillator communities. In the human brain, networks that represent temporal changes in brain activity during learning exhibit early co-evolution that then settles down with practice. Subsequent decreases in hyperedge size are consistent with emergence of an autonomous subgraph whose dynamics no longer depends on other parts of the network. Our results on real and synthetic networks give a poignant demonstration of the ability of cross-link structure to uncover unexpected co-evolution attributes in both real and synthetic dynamical systems. This, in turn, illustrates the utility of analyzing cross-links for investigating the structure of temporal networks

  17. Construction of prefabricated railway underpasses and execution of the same using the thrust or driven-in cassion technique

    OpenAIRE

    Escribano Méndez, Ramón; López Palomar, Rafael

    1989-01-01

    "The best level crossing is a dead crossing", those involved are accustomed to say. Yet, until a short time ago, eliminating these conflictive crossings not only implied a great deal of money but prolonged building work, with the all too familiar sequel of precautions, speed restrictions and problems for rail traffic. However, a brand new system, based on using hydraulic jacks to drive the concrete structure of the crossing to a different level in the track embankment, allows the execution in...

  18. Structured ion impact: Doubly differential cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DuBois, R.D.

    1987-01-01

    The electron emission in coincidence with a projectile that has been ionized has been measured, thus making it possible to separate and identify electrons resulting from these various mechanisms. In 1985, coincidence doubly differential cross sections were measured for 400 to 750 keV/atomic mass unit (amu) He + impact on He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and H 2 O. Cross sections were measured for selected angles and for electron energies ranging from 10 to 1000 eV. Because of the coincidence mode of measurement, the total electron emission was subdivided into its target emission and its projectile emission components. The most interesting findings were that target ionization does not account for the electron emission spectrum at lower electron energies. A sizable percentage of these low-energy electrons were shown to originate as a result of simultaneous projectile/target ionizations. Similar features were observed for all targets and impact energies that were studied

  19. Calculation of atom displacement cross section for structure material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Ping; Xu Yiping

    2015-01-01

    The neutron radiation damage in material is an important consideration of the reactor design. The radiation damage of materials mainly comes from atom displacements of crystal structure materials. The reaction cross sections of charged particles, cross sections of displacements per atom (DPA) and KERMA are the basis of radiation damage calculation. In order to study the differences of DPA cross sections with different codes and different evaluated nuclear data libraries, the DPA cross sections for structure materials were calculated with UNF and NJOY codes, and the comparisons of results were given. The DPA cross sections from different evaluated nuclear data libraries were compared. And the comparison of DPA cross sections between NJOY and Monte Carlo codes was also done. The results show that the differences among these evaluated nuclear data libraries exist. (authors)

  20. The algebraic structure of crossed products

    CERN Document Server

    Karpilovsky, G

    2014-01-01

    In the past 15 years, the theory of crossed products has enjoyed a period of vigorous development. The foundations have been strengthened and reorganized from new points of view, especially from the viewpoint of graded rings.The purpose of this monograph is to give, in a self-contained manner, an up-to-date account of various aspects of this development, in an effort to convey a comprehensive picture of the current state of the subject. It is assumed that the reader has had the equivalent of a standard first-year graduate course, thus familiarity with basic ring-theoretic and g

  1. Formaldehyde cross-linking and structural proteomics: Bridging the gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasa, Savita; Ding, Xuan; Kast, Juergen

    2015-11-01

    Proteins are dynamic entities constantly moving and altering their structures based on their functions and interactions inside and outside the cell. Formaldehyde cross-linking combined with mass spectrometry can accurately capture interactions of these rapidly changing biomolecules while maintaining their physiological surroundings. Even with its numerous established uses in biology and compatibility with mass spectrometry, formaldehyde has not yet been applied in structural proteomics. However, formaldehyde cross-linking is moving toward analyzing tertiary structure, which conventional cross-linkers have already accomplished. The purpose of this review is to describe the potential of formaldehyde cross-linking in structural proteomics by highlighting its applications, characteristics and current status in the field. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Topological supersymmetric structure of hadron cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauron, P.; Nicolescu, B.; Ouvry, S.

    1980-12-01

    Recently a way of fully implementing unitarity in the framework of a Dual Topological Unitarization theory, including not only mesons but also baryons, was found. This theory consists in the topological description of hadron interactions involving confined quarks in terms of two 2-dimensional surfaces (a closed 'quantum' surface and a bounded 'classical' surface). We show that this description directly leads, at the zeroth order of the topological expansion, to certain relations between hadron cross-sections, in nice agreement with experimental data. A new topological suppression mechanism is shown to play an important dynamical role. We also point out a new topological supersymmetry property, which leads to realistic experimental consequences. A possible topological origin of the rho and ω universality relations emerges as a by-product of our study

  3. Grammatical Structures in Cross-Cultural Comparisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Анна Н Гладкова

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses how cultural information is embedded at the level of grammar and it treats grammar as inseparable from semantics and pragmatics. The study is done within the approach known as ethnosyntax. The article provides examples of cultural meaning embedded at the level of syntax relying on examples from Russian and English. In particular, it demonstrates variation in impersonal constructions in Russian and causative constructions in English. It then discusses variation in the use of grammatical structures due to the influence of cultural factors on the basis of ways of wording ‘requests’ in English and Russian. The linguistic examples in the discussion are sources from the Russian National Corpus for Russian and Collins Wordbanks Online for English. The article argues for the importance of culture-sensitive linguistic studies in language teaching.

  4. Cross-disciplinary Science and the Structure of Scientific Perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alrøe, Hugo Fjelsted; Noe, Egon

    2014-01-01

    of science, focusing on the synchronic structure of scientific perspectives across disciplines and not on the diachronic, historical structure of shifting perspectives within single disciplines that has been widely discussed since Kuhn and Feyerabend. We show what kinds of cross-disciplinary disagreement...

  5. The γ total cross section and the photon structure functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, G.

    1986-01-01

    A review on the current experimental status of the photon-photon total hadronic cross section as a function of energy and Q 2 is given in addition to the results obtained for the leptonic and hadronic photon structure functions. The results are discussed in terms of the point-like part of the photon and non-perturbative VDM part. It is shown that the cross section at Q 2 = 0 is well described by VDM derived models

  6. Thermal conductivity of carbon nanotube cross-bar structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, William J; Keblinski, Pawel

    2010-01-01

    We use non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD) to compute the thermal conductivity (κ) of orthogonally ordered cross-bar structures of single-walled carbon nanotubes. Such structures exhibit extremely low thermal conductivity in the range of 0.02-0.07 W m -1 K -1 . These values are five orders of magnitude smaller than the axial thermal conductivity of individual carbon nanotubes, and are comparable to the thermal conductivity of still air.

  7. Multiscale properties of DNA primary structure: cross-scale correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altajskij, M.V.; Ivanov, V.V.; Polozov, R.V.

    2000-01-01

    Cross-scale correlations of wavelet coefficients of the DNA coding sequences are calculated and compared to that of the generated random sequence of the same length. The coding sequences are shown to have strong correlation between large and small scale structures, while random sequences have not

  8. Structural deformation and intertube conductance of crossed carbon nanotube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Young-Gui; Mazzoni, Mario S.C.; Choi, Hyoung J.; Ihm, Jisoon; Louie, Steven G.

    2000-01-01

    We present a first-principles study of the structure and quantum electronic conductance of junctions consisting of two crossed (5,5) single-walled carbon nanotubes. The structures are determined by constrained minimization of total energy at a given force between the two tubes, simulating the effects of substrate-tube attraction or an applied force. We find that the intertube contact distance is very sensitive to the applied force in the range of 0-10 nN. The intertube conductance is sizable for realistic deformation expected from substrate interaction. The results explain the recent transport data on crossed nanotubes and show that these systems may be potentially useful as electromechanical devices

  9. Structural Deformation and Intertube Conductance of Crossed Carbon Nanotube Junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Young-Gui; Mazzoni, Mario S. C.; Choi, Hyoung Joon; Ihm, Jisoon; Louie, Steven G.

    2001-01-01

    We present a first-principles study of the structure and quantum electronic conductance of junctions consisting of two crossed (5,5) single-walled carbon nanotubes. The structures are determined by constrained minimization of total energy at a given force between the two tubes, simulating the effects of substrate-tube attraction or an applied force. We find that the intertube contact distance is very sensitive to the applied force in the range of 0--10nN. The intertube conductance is sizable for realistic deformation expected from substrate interaction. The results explain the recent transport data on crossed nanotubes and show that these systems may be potentially useful as electromechanical devices

  10. Intermediate structure studies of 234U cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, G.D.; Schindler, R.H.

    1976-01-01

    Neutron induced fission and total cross sections of 234 U have been measured over the neutron energy range from a few eV to several MeV. Neutron and fission widths for 118 cross section resonances below 1500 eV have been determined and give a class I level spacing of 10.64 + -0.46 eV and a neutron strength function of (0.857 +- 0.108)x10 -4 . These fine structure resonances comprise a narrow intermediate structure resonance in the sub-threshold fission cross section of 234 U. Parameters for the Lorentzian energy dependence of the mean fission width are deduced on the assumption that, relative to this mean, the observed fission widths have a Porter-Thomas distribution. Two large fission widths measured for resonances at 1092.5 eV and 1134 eV may indicate the presence of a second narrow intermediate structure resonance at about this energy. The class II level spacing derived from the observation of 7 resonances below 13 keV is 2.1 +-0.3 keV. Pronounced breaks in the fission cross section at 310 keV, 550 keV and 720 keV are assumed to be due to β-vibrational levels in the second minimum of the Strutinsky potential. Fluctuations due to the presence of class II resonances are strongly evident for each of these vibrational levels. It is shown that the fluctuations near 310 keV are consistent with parameters deduced from the low energy data and this enables parameters for the double humped fission barrier potential to be obtained

  11. Santos Basin Geological Structures Mapped by Cross-gradient Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jilinski, P.; Fontes, S. L.

    2011-12-01

    Introduction We mapped regional-scale geological structures localized in offshore zone Santos Basin, South-East Brazilian Coast. The region is dominated by transition zone from oceanic to continental crust. Our objective was to determine the imprint of deeper crustal structures from correlation between bathymetric, gravity and magnetic anomaly maps. The region is extensively studied for oil and gas deposits including large tectonic sub-salt traps. Our method is based on gradient directions and their magnitudes product. We calculate angular differences and cross-product and access correlation between properties and map structures. Theory and Method We used angular differences and cross-product to determine correlated region between bathymetric, free-air gravity and magnetic anomaly maps. This gradient based method focuses on borders of anomalies and uses its morphological properties to access correlation between their sources. We generated maps of angles and cross-product distribution to locate correlated regions. Regional scale potential fields maps of FA and MA are a reflection of the overlaying and overlapping effects of the adjacent structures. Our interest was in quantifying and characterizing the relation between shapes of magnetic anomalies and gravity anomalies. Results Resulting maps show strong correlation between bathymetry and gravity anomaly and bathymetry and magnetic anomaly for large strictures including Serra do Mar, shelf, continental slope and rise. All maps display the regional dominance of NE-SW geological structures alignment parallel to the shore. Special interest is presented by structures transgressing this tendency. Magnetic, gravity anomaly and bathymetry angles map show large correlated region over the shelf zone and smaller scale NE-SW banded structures over abyssal plane. From our interpretation the large band of inverse correlation adjacent to the shore is generated by the gravity effect of Serra do Mar. Disrupting structures including

  12. Risk assessment of underpass infrastructure project based on IS0 31000 and ISO 21500 using fishbone diagram and RFMEA (project risk failure mode and effects analysis) method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purwanggono, Bambang; Margarette, Anastasia

    2017-12-01

    Completion time of highway construction is very meaningful for smooth transportation, moreover expected number of ownership motor vehicle will increase each year. Therefore, this study was conducted with to analyze the constraints that contained in an infrastructure development project. This research was conducted on Jatingaleh Underpass Project, Semarang. This research was carried out while the project is running, on the implementation, this project is experiencing delays. This research is done to find out what are the constraints that occur in execution of a road infrastructure project, in particular that causes delays. The method that used to find the root cause is fishbone diagram to obtain a possible means of mitigation. Coupled with the RFMEA method used to determine the critical risks that must be addressed immediately on road infrastructure project. The result of data tabulation in this study indicates that the most possible mitigation tool to make a Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) recommendations to disrupt utilities that interfere project implementation. Process of risk assessment has been carried out systematically based on ISO 31000:2009 on risk management and for determination of delayed variables, the requirements of process groups according to ISO 21500:2013 on project management were used.

  13. Influence of cross-section structure on unfolded neutron spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ertek, C.; Vlasov, M.F.; Cross, B.; Smith, P.M.

    1979-01-01

    The influence of cross-section structure on neutron spectra unfolded by multiple foil activation technique, SAND-II case, has been studied. For three reactions with evident structure in neutron cross-section above threshold: 27Al(n,α)24Na, 31P(n,p)31Si and 32S(n,p)32P, two remarkably different sets of evaluated data were selected from the available evaluations; one set of data was ''smooth'', the structure having been averaged over by a smooth curve; the other set was ''sharp'' with structure given in detail. These data were used in unfolding procedure together with other reactions, the same in both cases (as well as input spectra and measured reaction rates). It was found that during unfolding calculations less iteration steps were needed to unfold the neutron flux spectrum with the set of ''sharp'' data. In case of ''smooth'' data it was difficult to obtain an agreement between measured and calculated activity values even by increasing the number of iteration steps. Contrary to expectations, considerable deformation of unfolded neutron flux spectrum has been observed in the case of the ''smooth'' data set. (author)

  14. Structure of a financial cross-correlation matrix under attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Gyuchang; Kim, SooYong; Kim, Junghwan; Kim, Pyungsoo; Kang, Yoonjong; Park, Sanghoon; Park, Inho; Park, Sang-Bum; Kim, Kyungsik

    2009-09-01

    We investigate the structure of a perturbed stock market in terms of correlation matrices. For the purpose of perturbing a stock market, two distinct methods are used, namely local and global perturbation. The former involves replacing a correlation coefficient of the cross-correlation matrix with one calculated from two Gaussian-distributed time series while the latter reconstructs the cross-correlation matrix just after replacing the original return series with Gaussian-distributed time series. Concerning the local case, it is a technical study only and there is no attempt to model reality. The term ‘global’ means the overall effect of the replacement on other untouched returns. Through statistical analyses such as random matrix theory (RMT), network theory, and the correlation coefficient distributions, we show that the global structure of a stock market is vulnerable to perturbation. However, apart from in the analysis of inverse participation ratios (IPRs), the vulnerability becomes dull under a small-scale perturbation. This means that these analysis tools are inappropriate for monitoring the whole stock market due to the low sensitivity of a stock market to a small-scale perturbation. In contrast, when going down to the structure of business sectors, we confirm that correlation-based business sectors are regrouped in terms of IPRs. This result gives a clue about monitoring the effect of hidden intentions, which are revealed via portfolios taken mostly by large investors.

  15. Theoretical foundations of the so-called cross-reference structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Sven

    1999-01-01

    A discussion of the concept of "structure" related to the concept of "cross-reference". On the basis of the distribution structures a completely new way of viewing the lexicographical cross-references of all sorts is presented....

  16. Taking action: A cross-modal investigation of discourse structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsi eKaiser

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Segmenting stimuli into events and understanding the relations between those events is crucial for understanding the world. For example, on the linguistic level, successful language use requires the ability to recognize semantic coherence relations between events (e.g. causality, similarity. However, relatively little is known about the mental representation of discourse structure. We report two experiments that used a cross-modal priming paradigm to investigate how humans represent the relations between events. Participants repeated a motor action modeled by the experimenter (e.g. rolled a ball towards mini bowling pins to knock them over, and then completed an unrelated sentence-continuation task (e.g. provided a continuation for Peter scratched John. …. In two experiments, we tested whether and how the coherence relations represented by the motor actions (e.g., causal events vs. non-causal events influence participants’ performance in the linguistic task. Our analyses focused on the coherence relations between the prompt sentences and participants’ continuations, as well as the referential shifts in the continuations. As a whole, the results suggest that the mental representations activated by motor actions overlap with the mental representations used during linguistic discourse-level processing, but nevertheless contain fine-grained information about sub-types of causality (reaction vs. consequence. In addition, the findings point to parallels between shifting one’s attention from one event to another and shifting one’s attention from one referent to another, and indicate that the event structure of causal sequences is conceptualized more like single events than like two distinct events. As a whole, the results point towards common representations activated by motor sequences and discourse-semantic relations, and further our understanding of the mental representation of discourse structure, an area that is still not yet well-understood.

  17. Applications of Multilevel Structural Equation Modeling to Cross-Cultural Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Mike W.-L.; Au, Kevin

    2005-01-01

    Multilevel structural equation modeling (MSEM) has been proposed as an extension to structural equation modeling for analyzing data with nested structure. We have begun to see a few applications in cross-cultural research in which MSEM fits well as the statistical model. However, given that cross-cultural studies can only afford collecting data…

  18. Cross validation for the classical model of structured expert judgment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colson, Abigail R.; Cooke, Roger M.

    2017-01-01

    We update the 2008 TU Delft structured expert judgment database with data from 33 professionally contracted Classical Model studies conducted between 2006 and March 2015 to evaluate its performance relative to other expert aggregation models. We briefly review alternative mathematical aggregation schemes, including harmonic weighting, before focusing on linear pooling of expert judgments with equal weights and performance-based weights. Performance weighting outperforms equal weighting in all but 1 of the 33 studies in-sample. True out-of-sample validation is rarely possible for Classical Model studies, and cross validation techniques that split calibration questions into a training and test set are used instead. Performance weighting incurs an “out-of-sample penalty” and its statistical accuracy out-of-sample is lower than that of equal weighting. However, as a function of training set size, the statistical accuracy of performance-based combinations reaches 75% of the equal weight value when the training set includes 80% of calibration variables. At this point the training set is sufficiently powerful to resolve differences in individual expert performance. The information of performance-based combinations is double that of equal weighting when the training set is at least 50% of the set of calibration variables. Previous out-of-sample validation work used a Total Out-of-Sample Validity Index based on all splits of the calibration questions into training and test subsets, which is expensive to compute and includes small training sets of dubious value. As an alternative, we propose an Out-of-Sample Validity Index based on averaging the product of statistical accuracy and information over all training sets sized at 80% of the calibration set. Performance weighting outperforms equal weighting on this Out-of-Sample Validity Index in 26 of the 33 post-2006 studies; the probability of 26 or more successes on 33 trials if there were no difference between performance

  19. Railway crossings: driving the structure under the railway by means of oleodinamic jacks

    OpenAIRE

    Escribano Méndez, Ramón; López Palomar, Rafael; Ruiz Viedma, Andrés J.

    1991-01-01

    "The best level crossing is a dead crossing", those involved are accustomed to say Yet, until a short time ago, eliminating these conflictive crossings not only implied a great deal of money but prolonged building work, with the all too familiar sequel of precautions, speed restrictions and problems for rail traffic. However, a brand new system, based on using hydraulic jacks to drive the concrete structure of the crossing to a different level in the track embankment, allows the execution in ...

  20. Nuclear structure effects on calculated fast neutron reaction cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avrigeanu, V.

    1992-01-01

    The importance of accurate low-lying level schemes for reaction cross section calculation and need for microscopically calculated levels are proved with reference to fast neutron induced reactions in the A = 50 atomic mass range. The uses of the discrete levels both for normalization of phenomenological level density approaches and within Hauser-Feshbach calculations are discussed in this respect. (Author)

  1. Influence of cross section variations on the structural behaviour of composite rotor blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, Helmut; Woerndle, Rudolf

    1991-09-01

    A highly sophisticated structural analysis is required for helicopter rotor blades with nonhomogeneous cross sections made from nonisotropic material. Combinations of suitable analytical techniques with FEM-based techniques permit a cost effective and sufficiently accurate analysis of these complicated structures. It is determined that in general the 1D engineering theory of bending combined with 2D theories for determining the cross section properties is sufficient to describe the structural blade behavior.

  2. Magnetic structure of cross-shaped permalloy arrays embedded in silicon wafers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machida, Kenji; Tezuka, Tomoyuki; Yamamoto, Takahiro; Ishibashi, Takayuki; Morishita, Yoshitaka; Koukitu, Akinori; Sato, Katsuaki

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the observed magnetic structure and the micromagnetic simulation of cross-shaped, permalloy (Ni 80 Fe 20 ) arrays embedded in silicon wafers. The nano-scale-width, cross-shaped patterns were fabricated using the damascene technique, electron beam lithography, and chemical mechanical polishing. The magnetic poles were observed as two pairs of bright and dark spots at the ends of the crossed-bars using a magnetic force microscope. The force gradient distributions were simulated based on micromagnetic calculations and tip's stray field calculations using the integral equation method. This process of calculation successfully explains the appearance of the poles and complicated spin structure at the crossing region

  3. Mapping protein structural changes by quantitative cross-linking

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kukačka, Zdeněk; Strohalm, Martin; Kavan, Daniel; Novák, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 89, NOV 2015 (2015), s. 112-120 ISSN 1046-2023 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0055; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0003; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Grant - others:OPPC(XE) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/24023 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Chemical cross-linking * Proteolysis * Mass spectrometry Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 3.503, year: 2015

  4. Structural changes in cross-border liabilities: A multidimensional approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Tanya; Spelta, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    We study the international interbank market through a geometric analysis of empirical data. The geometric analysis of the time series of cross-country liabilities shows that the systematic information of the interbank international market is contained in a space of small dimension. Geometric spaces of financial relations across countries are developed, for which the space volume, multivariate skewness and multivariate kurtosis are computed. The behavior of these coefficients reveals an important modification acting in the financial linkages since 1997 and allows us to relate the shape of the geometric space that emerges in recent years to the globally turbulent period that has characterized financial systems since the late 1990s. Here we show that, besides a persistent decrease in the volume of the geometric space since 1997, the observation of a generalized increase in the values of the multivariate skewness and kurtosis sheds some light on the behavior of cross-border interdependencies during periods of financial crises. This was found to occur in such a systematic fashion, that these coefficients may be used as a proxy for systemic risk.

  5. The shell structure effects in neutron cross section calculation by a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The role of the shell structure properties of the nucleus in the calculation of neutron-induced reaction cross-section data based on nuclear reaction theory has been investigated. In this investigation, measured, evaluated and calculated (n.p) reaction cross-section data on la spherical nucleus (i.e. 112Sn) and a deformed ...

  6. The flows structure in unsteady gas flow in pipes with different cross-sections

    OpenAIRE

    Plotnikov Leonid; Nevolin Alexandr; Nikolaev Dmitrij

    2017-01-01

    The results of numerical simulation and experimental study of the structure of unsteady flows in pipes with different cross sections are presented in the article. It is shown that the unsteady gas flow in a circular pipe is axisymmetric without secondary currents. Steady vortex structures (secondary flows) are observed in pipes with cross sections in the form of a square and an equilateral triangle. It was found that these secondary flows have a significant impact on gas flows in pipes of com...

  7. Can market structure explain cross-country differences in health?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Rybczynski

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available There is a well documented health disparity between several European countries and the United States. This health gap remains even after controlling for socioeconomic status and risk factors. At the same time, we note that the U.S. market structure is characterized by significantly more large corporations and "super-sized" retail outlets than Europe. Because big business is hierarchical in nature and has been reported to engender urban sprawl, inferior work environments, and loss of social capital, all identified as correlates of poor health, we suggest that differences in market structure may help account for some of the unexplained differences in health across Europe and North America. Using national level data, this study explores the relationship between market structure and health. We investigate whether individuals who live in countries with proportionately more small business are healthier than those who do not. We use two measures of national health: life expectancy at birth, and age-standardized estimates of diabetes rates. Results from ordinary least squares regressions suggest that, there is a large and statistically significant association between market structure (the ratio of small to total businesses and health, even after controlling income, public percent of health expenditure, and obesity rates. This association is robust to additional controls such as insufficient physical activity, smoking, alcohol disease, and air pollution.

  8. Achievement Motivation: A Cross-Cultural Comparison Of Structure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study is to analyze the structure of the achievement motive domain for samples from five states in Nigeria. It was hypothesized that data collected from the various samples will reflect the basic facets suggested by the definitional framework of achievement motivation. It was also hypothesized that the ...

  9. The Impact of Organizational Structure on Internal and External Integration: An empirical, cross-regional assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xenophon Koufteros

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We examine the effects of organizational structure on cross-functional integration, supplier integration, and customer integration and assess whether such effects vary by geographical region. Specifically, we investigate the impact of centralization, formalization, and complexity on both internal (cross-functional and external (supplier, customer integration. Relationships are examined across Western and East Asian environments using data collected from 238 manufacturing plants in eight countries. We find that structural features have differing impacts on cross-functional, supplier, and customer integration, and these effects vary across geographical regions.

  10. Study of the molecular structure and dynamics of bakelite with neutron cross section measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voi, D.L.

    1990-06-01

    The molecular structure and dynamics of calcined bakelite were studied with neutron transmission and scattering cross section measurements. The total cross sections determined were correlated with data obtained with infra-red spectroscopy, elemental analysis and other techniques to get the probable molecular formulae of bakelite. The total cross section determined showed a deviation smaller than 5% from the literature values. The frequency distribution as well as overall experimental results allowed to suggest a structural model like polycyclic hydrocarbons for bakelite calcined at 800 0 C. (F.E.). 65 refs, 31 figs, 5 tabs

  11. Importance of modal cross-correlations on wind loaded structures

    OpenAIRE

    Denoël, Vincent; Degée, Hervé; De Ville De Goyet, Vincent

    2006-01-01

    In civil engineering applications the dynamic analysis of large structure is often performed in a modal space. This method is known to offer an interesting decrease of the number of degrees of freedom as well as a decomposition of the structure’s response in “uncoupled” components. Even if the response in each mode can be computed independently from the responses in the other ones, in the context of stochastic loading, the coherence of these modal responses must be accounted fo...

  12. Three band crossings in the yrast structure of 162Hf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bingham, C.R.; Riedinger, L.L.; Courtney, L.H.

    1988-01-01

    The yrast sequence of 162 Hf has been observed up to a level tentatively assigned as 38 + and reveals a continuing rotational character up to that spin. Sharp backbends at rotational frequencies of 0.27 and 0.42 MeV/ℎ are attributed to isub(13/2) neutron and hsub(11/2) proton alignments, respectively. A gradual increase in the aligned angular momentum of the yrast levels between these two sharp backbends is attributed to the rotational alignment of a pair of negative parity quasineutrons (mostly hsub(9/2) in character). The interpretation of this effect is supported by the failure of the negative parity bands, which already contain this aligned hsub(9/2) neutron, to gain alignment in the same rotational frequency range. While the alignment of the hsub(9/2) quasineutrons has been predicted in the cranked shell model to occur in the rare-earth region with a large interaction strength, this represents the first clear observation of such a band crossing. (author)

  13. Phase structure of generalized Cross-Neveu models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimenko, K.G.

    1987-01-01

    A phase structure of models with n spinor multiplets has been considered in the space-time of dimension D=2,3. In the case when n=2 and D=3 there may occur vaccums | +> violating chiral invariance, as well as |-> violating P,T symmetry of the model. At D,n=2 depending on the sign of the constant g 12 there also exist two different vacua. It is shown here, that at sufficiently small g 12 the description of the model with the help of the leading order of 1/N expansion is incorrect (there appear tachyons). The properties of Gross-Neveu model have been dealt with at D=3, n=1 and the temperature and chemical potential not equal to zero

  14. Glycation induces formation of amyloid cross-beta structure in albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouma, Barend; Kroon-Batenburg, Loes M J; Wu, Ya-Ping; Brünjes, Bettina; Posthuma, George; Kranenburg, Onno; de Groot, Philip G; Voest, Emile E; Gebbink, Martijn F B G

    2003-10-24

    Amyloid fibrils are components of proteinaceous plaques that are associated with conformational diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, and familial amyloidosis. Amyloid polypeptides share a specific quarternary structure element known as cross-beta structure. Commonly, fibrillar aggregates are modified by advanced glycation end products (AGE). In addition, AGE formation itself induces protein aggregation. Both amyloid proteins and protein-AGE adducts bind multiligand receptors, such as receptor for AGE, CD36, and scavenger receptors A and B type I, and the serine protease tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA). Based on these observations, we hypothesized that glycation induces refolding of globular proteins, accompanied by formation of cross-beta structure. Using transmission electron microscopy, we demonstrate here that glycated albumin condensates into fibrous or amorphous aggregates. These aggregates bind to amyloid-specific dyes Congo red and thioflavin T and to tPA. In contrast to globular albumin, glycated albumin contains amino acid residues in beta-sheet conformation, as measured with circular dichroism spectropolarimetry. Moreover, it displays cross-beta structure, as determined with x-ray fiber diffraction. We conclude that glycation induces refolding of initially globular albumin into amyloid fibrils comprising cross-beta structure. This would explain how glycated ligands and amyloid ligands can bind to the same multiligand "cross-beta structure" receptors and to tPA.

  15. Mechanical properties of crossed-lamellar structures in biological shells: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X W; Ji, H M; Yang, W; Zhang, G P; Chen, D L

    2017-10-01

    The self-fabrication of materials in nature offers an alternate and powerful solution towards the grand challenge of designing advanced structural materials, where strength and toughness are always mutually exclusive. Crossed-lamellar structures are the most common microstructures in mollusks that are composed of aragonites and a small amount of organic materials. Such a distinctive composite structure has a fracture toughness being much higher than that of pure carbonate mineral. These structures exhibiting complex hierarchical microarchitectures that span several sub-level lamellae from microscale down to nanoscale, can be grouped into two types, i.e., platelet-like and fiber-like crossed-lamellar structures based on the shapes of basic building blocks. It has been demonstrated that these structures have a great potential to strengthen themselves during deformation. The observed underlying toughening mechanisms include microcracking, channel cracking, interlocking, uncracked-ligament bridging, aragonite fiber bridging, crack deflection and zig-zag, etc., which play vital roles in enhancing the fracture resistance of shells with the crossed-lamellar structures. The exploration and utilization of these important toughening mechanisms have attracted keen interests of materials scientists since they pave the way for the development of bio-inspired advanced composite materials for load-bearing structural applications. This article is aimed to review the characteristics of hierarchical structures and the mechanical properties of two kinds of crossed-lamellar structures, and further summarize the latest advances and biomimetic applications based on the unique crossed-lamellar structures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Structural and thermodynamic analysis of modified nucleosides in self-assembled DNA cross-tiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakker, Lauren; Marchi, Alexandria N; Harris, Kimberly A; LaBean, Thomas H; Agris, Paul F

    2014-01-01

    DNA Holliday junctions are important natural strand-exchange structures that form during homologous recombination. Immobile four-arm junctions, analogs to Holliday junctions, have been designed to self-assemble into cross-tile structures by maximizing Watson-Crick base pairing and fixed crossover points. The cross-tiles, self-assembled from base pair recognition between designed single-stranded DNAs, form higher order lattice structures through cohesion of self-associating sticky ends. These cross-tiles have 16 unpaired nucleosides in the central loop at the junction of the four duplex stems. The importance of the centralized unpaired nucleosides to the structure's thermodynamic stability and self-assembly is unknown. Cross-tile DNA nanostructures were designed and constructed from nine single-stranded DNAs with four shell strands, four arms, and a central loop containing 16 unpaired bases. The 16 unpaired bases were either 2'-deoxyribothymidines, 2'-O-methylribouridines, or abasic 1',2'-dideoxyribonucleosides. Thermodynamic profiles and structural base-stacking contributions were assessed using UV absorption spectroscopy during thermal denaturation and circular dichroism spectroscopy, respectively, and the resulting structures were observed by atomic force microscopy. There were surprisingly significant changes in the thermodynamic and structural properties of lattice formation as a result of altering only the 16 unpaired, centralized nucleosides. The 16 unpaired 2'-O-methyluridines were stabilizing and produced uniform tubular structures. In contrast, the abasic nucleosides were destabilizing producing a mixture of structures. These results strongly indicate the importance of a small number of centrally located unpaired nucleosides within the structures. Since minor modifications lead to palpable changes in lattice formation, DNA cross-tiles present an easily manipulated structure convenient for applications in biomedical and biosensing devices.

  17. The structure of cross-cultural musical diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzeszutek, Tom; Savage, Patrick E.; Brown, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Human cultural traits, such as languages, musics, rituals and material objects, vary widely across cultures. However, the majority of comparative analyses of human cultural diversity focus on between-culture variation without consideration for within-culture variation. In contrast, biological approaches to genetic diversity, such as the analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) framework, partition genetic diversity into both within- and between-population components. We attempt here for the first time to quantify both components of cultural diversity by applying the AMOVA model to music. By employing this approach with 421 traditional songs from 16 Austronesian-speaking populations, we show that the vast majority of musical variability is due to differences within populations rather than differences between. This demonstrates a striking parallel to the structure of genetic diversity in humans. A neighbour-net analysis of pairwise population musical divergence shows a large amount of reticulation, indicating the pervasive occurrence of borrowing and/or convergent evolution of musical features across populations. PMID:22072606

  18. The structure of cross-cultural musical diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzeszutek, Tom; Savage, Patrick E; Brown, Steven

    2012-04-22

    Human cultural traits, such as languages, musics, rituals and material objects, vary widely across cultures. However, the majority of comparative analyses of human cultural diversity focus on between-culture variation without consideration for within-culture variation. In contrast, biological approaches to genetic diversity, such as the analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) framework, partition genetic diversity into both within- and between-population components. We attempt here for the first time to quantify both components of cultural diversity by applying the AMOVA model to music. By employing this approach with 421 traditional songs from 16 Austronesian-speaking populations, we show that the vast majority of musical variability is due to differences within populations rather than differences between. This demonstrates a striking parallel to the structure of genetic diversity in humans. A neighbour-net analysis of pairwise population musical divergence shows a large amount of reticulation, indicating the pervasive occurrence of borrowing and/or convergent evolution of musical features across populations.

  19. Molecular dynamical and structural studies for the bakelite by neutron cross section measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voi, D.L.

    1992-05-01

    Neutron reaction cross sections were determined by transmission and scattering measurements, to study the dynamics and molecular structure of calcined bakelites. Total cross sections were determined, with a deviation smaller than 5%, from the literature values, by neutron transmission method and a specially devised approximation. These cross sections were then correlated with data obtained with infra-red spectroscopy, elemental analysis and other techniques to get the probable molecular formulae of bakelite. Double differential scattering cross sections, scattering law values and frequency distributions were determined with 15% error using the neutron inelastic scattering method. The frequency distributions as well as the overall results from all experimental techniques used in this work allowed to suggest a structural model like polycyclic hydrocarbons, for calcined bakelite at 800 0 C. (author)

  20. Search for structure in the low-energy anti p-p annihilation cross section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jastrzembski, E.; Haik, N.; McFarlane, W.K.; Mandelkern, M.A.; Schultz, D.C.; Amsler, C.; Hermann, C.C.; Wolfe, D.M.

    1980-01-01

    The relative cross section for annihilation of antiprotons on hydrogen into one or more charged pions was measured. Incident beam momentum was 600 MeV/c. Numbers of observed events (relative) were compared with those expected from the sensitivity of the apparatus. A phase-space model was used for p-barp annihilation. Relative cross sections are plotted vs invariant mass. Upper limits on cross sections for the formation of narrow resonances in the S region are given; previously reported structures are not confirmed. 2 figures, 1 table

  1. Fuzzy cross-model cross-mode method and its application to update the finite element model of structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yang; Xu Dejian; Li Yan; Duan Zhongdong

    2011-01-01

    As a novel updating technique, cross-model cross-mode (CMCM) method possesses a high efficiency and capability of flexible selecting updating parameters. However, the success of this method depends on the accuracy of measured modal shapes. Usually, the measured modal shapes are inaccurate since many kinds of measured noises are inevitable. Furthermore, the complete testing modal shapes are required by CMCM method so that the calculating errors may be introduced into the measured modal shapes by conducting the modal expansion or model reduction technique. Therefore, this algorithm is faced with the challenge of updating the finite element (FE) model of practical complex structures. In this study, the fuzzy CMCM method is proposed in order to weaken the effect of errors of the measured modal shapes on the updated results. Then two simulated examples are applied to compare the performance of the fuzzy CMCM method with the CMCM method. The test results show that proposed method is more promising to update the FE model of practical structures than CMCM method.

  2. Crossing Phenomena in Overhead Line Equipment (OHLE) Structure in 3D Space Considering Soil-Structure Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngamkhanong, Chayut; Kaewunruen, Sakdirat; Baniotopoulos, Charalampos; Papaelias, Mayorkinos

    2017-10-01

    Nowadays, the electric train becomes one of the efficient railway systems that are lighter, cleaner, quieter, cheaper and faster than a conventional train. Overhead line equipment (OHLE), which supplies electric power to the trains, is designed on the principle of overhead wires placed over the railway track. The OHLE is supported by mast structure which located at the lineside along the track. Normally, mast structure is a steel column or truss structure which supports the overhead wire carrying the power. Due to the running train and severe periodic force, such as an earthquake, in surrounding area may cause damage to the OHLE structure especially mast structure which leads to the failure of the electrical system. The mast structure needs to be discussed in order to resist the random forces. Due to the vibration effect, the natural frequencies of the structure are necessary. This is because when the external applied force occurs within a range of frequency of the structure, resonance effect can be expected which lead to the large oscillations and deflections. The natural frequency of a system is dependent only on the stiffness of the structure and the mass which participates with the structure, including self-weight. The modal analysis is used in order to calculate the mode shapes and natural frequencies of the mast structure during free vibration. A mast structure with varying rotational soil stiffness is used to observe the influence of soil-structure action. It is common to use finite element analysis to perform a modal analysis. This paper presents the fundamental mode shapes, natural frequencies and crossing phenomena of three-dimensional mast structure considering soil-structure interaction. The sensitivity of mode shapes to the variation of soil-structure interaction is discussed. The outcome of this study will improve the understanding of the fundamental dynamic behaviour of the mast structure which supports the OHLE. Moreover, this study will be a

  3. Experimental demonstration of a four-port photonic crystal cross-waveguide structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Yi; Heuck, Mikkel; Ek, Sara

    2012-01-01

    We report the design and fabrication of a four-port InP photonic crystal cavity-waveguide structure in which two crossing waveguides intersect in a cavity. Transmission measurements show that by exploiting mode-gap effects, high cross-talk suppression between the two waveguides can be obtained. I....... In addition, the waveguides couple to two distinct cavity resonances with different quality-factors as well as small mode volumes. This structure is promising for realizing ultra-fast, low-energy optical switches or memories....

  4. Computational investigation of kinetics of cross-linking reactions in proteins: importance in structure prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Pradipta; Kuntz, Irwin D

    2009-01-01

    The determination of protein structure using distance constraints is a new and promising field of study. One implementation involves attaching residues of a protein using a cross-linking agent, followed by protease digestion, analysis of the resulting peptides by mass spectroscopy, and finally sequence threading to detect the protein folds. In the present work, we carry out computational modeling of the kinetics of cross-linking reactions in proteins using the master equation approach. The rate constants of the cross-linking reactions are estimated using the pKas and the solvent-accessible surface areas of the residues involved. This model is tested with fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and cytochrome C. It is consistent with the initial experimental rate data for individual lysine residues for cytochrome C. Our model captures all observed cross-links for FGF and almost 90% of the observed cross-links for cytochrome C, although it also predicts cross-links that were not observed experimentally (false positives). However, the analysis of the false positive results is complicated by the fact that experimental detection of cross-links can be difficult and may depend on specific experimental conditions such as pH, ionic strength. Receiver operator characteristic plots showed that our model does a good job in predicting the observed cross-links. Molecular dynamics simulations showed that for cytochrome C, in general, the two lysines come closer for the observed cross-links as compared to the false positive ones. For FGF, no such clear pattern exists. The kinetic model and MD simulation can be used to study proposed cross-linking protocols.

  5. Novel Concepts of MS-Cleavable Cross-linkers for Improved Peptide Structure Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hage, Christoph; Falvo, Francesco; Schäfer, Mathias; Sinz, Andrea

    2017-10-01

    The chemical cross-linking/mass spectrometry (MS) approach is gaining increasing importance as an alternative method for studying protein conformation and for deciphering protein interaction networks. This study is part of our ongoing efforts to develop innovative cross-linking principles for a facile and efficient assignment of cross-linked products. We evaluate two homobifunctional, amine-reactive, and MS-cleavable cross-linkers regarding their potential for automated analysis of cross-linked products. We introduce the bromine phenylurea (BrPU) linker that possesses a unique structure yielding a distinctive fragmentation pattern on collisional activation. Moreover, BrPU delivers the characteristic bromine isotope pattern and mass defect for all cross-linker-decorated fragments. We compare the fragmentation behavior of the BrPU linker with that of our previously described MS-cleavable TEMPO-Bz linker (which consists of a 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxy moiety connected to a benzyl group) that was developed to perform free-radical-initiated peptide sequencing. Comparative collisional activation experiments (collision-induced dissociation and higher-energy collision-induced dissociation) with both cross-linkers were conducted in negative electrospray ionization mode with an Orbitrap Fusion mass spectrometer using five model peptides. As hypothesized in a previous study, the presence of a cross-linked N-terminal aspartic acid residue seems to be the prerequisite for the loss of an intact peptide from the cross-linked products. As the BrPU linker combines a characteristic mass shift with an isotope signature, it presents a more favorable combination for automated assignment of cross-linked products compared with the TEMPO-Bz linker. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  6. Role of special cross-links in structure formation of bacterial DNA polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Tejal; Manjunath, G. P.; Habib, Farhat; Lakshmi Vaddavalli, Pavana; Chatterji, Apratim

    2018-01-01

    Using data from contact maps of the DNA-polymer of Escherichia coli (E. Coli) (at kilobase pair resolution) as an input to our model, we introduce cross-links between monomers in a bead-spring model of a ring polymer at very specific points along the chain. Via suitable Monte Carlo simulations, we show that the presence of these cross-links leads to a particular organization of the chain at large (micron) length scales of the DNA. We also investigate the structure of a ring polymer with an equal number of cross-links at random positions along the chain. We find that though the polymer does get organized at the large length scales, the nature of the organization is quite different from the organization observed with cross-links at specific biologically determined positions. We used the contact map of E. Coli bacteria which has around 4.6 million base pairs in a single circular chromosome. In our coarse-grained flexible ring polymer model, we used 4642 monomer beads and observed that around 80 cross-links are enough to induce the large-scale organization of the molecule accounting for statistical fluctuations caused by thermal energy. The length of a DNA chain even of a simple bacterial cell such as E. Coli is much longer than typical proteins, hence we avoided methods used to tackle protein folding problems. We define new suitable quantities to identify the large scale structure of a polymer chain with a few cross-links.

  7. The First MS-Cleavable, Photo-Thiol-Reactive Cross-Linker for Protein Structural Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacobucci, Claudio; Piotrowski, Christine; Rehkamp, Anne; Ihling, Christian H.; Sinz, Andrea

    2018-04-01

    Cleavable cross-linkers are gaining increasing importance for chemical cross-linking/mass spectrometry (MS) as they permit a reliable and automated data analysis in structural studies of proteins and protein assemblies. Here, we introduce 1,3-diallylurea (DAU) as the first CID-MS/MS-cleavable, photo-thiol-reactive cross-linker. DAU is a commercially available, inexpensive reagent that efficiently undergoes an anti-Markovnikov hydrothiolation with cysteine residues in the presence of a radical initiator upon UV-A irradiation. Radical cysteine cross-linking proceeds via an orthogonal "click reaction" and yields stable alkyl sulfide products. DAU reacts at physiological pH and cross-linking reactions with peptides, and proteins can be performed at temperatures as low as 4 °C. The central urea bond is efficiently cleaved upon collisional activation during tandem MS experiments generating characteristic product ions. This improves the reliability of automated cross-link identification. Different radical initiators have been screened for the cross-linking reaction of DAU using the thiol-containing compounds cysteine and glutathione. Our concept has also been exemplified for the biologically relevant proteins bMunc13-2 and retinal guanylyl cyclase-activating protein-2. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  8. A Cross-Classified CFA-MTMM Model for Structurally Different and Nonindependent Interchangeable Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Tobias; Schultze, Martin; Jeon, Minjeong; Nussbeck, Fridtjof W; Praetorius, Anna-Katharina; Eid, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Multirater (multimethod, multisource) studies are increasingly applied in psychology. Eid and colleagues (2008) proposed a multilevel confirmatory factor model for multitrait-multimethod (MTMM) data combining structurally different and multiple independent interchangeable methods (raters). In many studies, however, different interchangeable raters (e.g., peers, subordinates) are asked to rate different targets (students, supervisors), leading to violations of the independence assumption and to cross-classified data structures. In the present work, we extend the ML-CFA-MTMM model by Eid and colleagues (2008) to cross-classified multirater designs. The new C4 model (Cross-Classified CTC[M-1] Combination of Methods) accounts for nonindependent interchangeable raters and enables researchers to explicitly model the interaction between targets and raters as a latent variable. Using a real data application, it is shown how credibility intervals of model parameters and different variance components can be obtained using Bayesian estimation techniques.

  9. A study of cross-bridge kelvin resistor structures for reliable measurement of low contact resistances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stavitski, N.; Klootwijk, J.H.; van Zeijl, H.W.; Kovalgin, Alexeij Y.; Wolters, Robertus A.M.

    2008-01-01

    The parasitic factors that strongly influence the measurement accuracy of Cross-Bridge Kelvin Resistor (CBKR) structures for low specific contact resistances (�?c) have been extensively discussed during last few decades and the minimum of the �?c value, which could be accurately extracted, was

  10. Electronic transport in graphene-based structures: An effective cross-section approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uppstu, Andreas; Saloriutta, Karri; Harju, Ari

    2012-01-01

    We show that transport in low-dimensional carbon structures with finite concentrations of scatterers can be modeled by utilizing scaling theory and effective cross sections. Our results are based on large-scale numerical simulations of carbon nanotubes and graphene nanoribbons, using a tight...

  11. Cross-Cultural Validation of the Five-Factor Structure of Social Goals: A Filipino Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Ronnel B.; Watkins, David A.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to test the cross-cultural validity of the five-factor structure of social goals that Dowson and McInerney proposed. Using both between-network and within-network approaches to construct validation, 1,147 Filipino high school students participated in the study. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the…

  12. The structure of a jet in cross flow at low velocity ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopalan, Shridhar; Abraham, Bruce M.; Katz, Joseph

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines in detail the flow structure and associated wall pressure fluctuations caused by the injection of a round, turbulent jet into a turbulent boundary layer. The velocity ratio, r, ratio of mean jet velocity to the mean cross flow, varies from 0.5 to 2.5 and the Reynolds number based on the cross flow speed and jet diameter is 1.9x10 4 . Particle image velocimetry is used to measure the flow and flush mounted pressure sensors installed at several locations used to determine the wall pressure. The results consist of sample instantaneous flow structures, distributions of mean velocity, vorticity and turbulence intensity, as well as wall pressure spectra. The flow structure depends strongly on the velocity ratio and there are two distinctly different regions. At low velocity ratios, namely r 2, the near-wall flow behind the jet resembles a Karman vortex street and the wall-normal vortical structures contain cross flow boundary layer vorticity. Autospectra of the pressure signals show that the effect of the jet is mainly in the 15-100 Hz range. At r 2, the wall pressure levels reach a plateau demonstrating the diminishing effect of the jet on the near-wall flow. Consistent with the flow structure, the highest wall pressure fluctuations occur off the jet centerline for r 2. Also, the advection speed of near-wall vortical structures increase with r at r 2 it is a constant

  13. Energy-averaged neutron cross sections of fast-reactor structural materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.; McKnight, R.; Smith, D.

    1978-02-01

    The status of energy-averaged cross sections of fast-reactor structural materials is outlined with emphasis on U.S. data programs in the neutron-energy range 1-10 MeV. Areas of outstanding accomplishment and significant uncertainty are noted with recommendations for future efforts. Attention is primarily given to the main constituents of stainless steel (e.g., Fe, Ni, and Cr) and, secondarily, to alternate structural materials (e.g., V, Ti, Nb, Mo, Zr). Generally, the mass regions of interest are A approximately 50 to 60 and A approximately 90 to 100. Neutron total and elastic-scattering cross sections are discussed with the implication on the non-elastic-cross sections. Cross sections governing discrete-inelastic-neutron-energy transfers are examined in detail. Cross sections for the reactions (n;p), (n;n',p), (n;α), (n;n',α) and (n;2n') are reviewed in the context of fast-reactor performance and/or diagnostics. The primary orientation of the discussion is experimental with some additional attention to the applications of theory, the problems of evaluation and the data sensitivity of representative fast-reactor systems

  14. Electronic structure and self-assembly of cross-linked semiconductor nanocrystal arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner, Dov; Azulay, Doron; Aharoni, Assaf; Salant, Assaf; Banin, Uri; Millo, Oded

    2008-01-01

    We studied the electronic level structure of assemblies of InAs quantum dots and CdSe nanorods cross-linked by 1,4-phenylenediamine molecules using scanning tunneling spectroscopy. We found that the bandgap in these arrays is reduced with respect to the corresponding ligand-capped nanocrystal arrays. In addition, a pronounced sub-gap spectral structure commonly appeared which can be attributed to unpassivated nanocrystal surface states or associated with linker-molecule-related levels. The exchange of the ligands by the linker molecules also affected the structural array properties. Most significantly, clusters of close-packed standing CdSe nanorods were formed

  15. A cross-coupled-structure-based temperature sensor with reduced process variation sensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tie Meng; Cheng Xu, E-mail: tiemeng@mprc.pku.edu.c [Microprocessor Research and Development Center, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2009-04-15

    An innovative, thermally-insensitive phenomenon of cascaded cross-coupled structures is found. And a novel CMOS temperature sensor based on a cross-coupled structure is proposed. This sensor consists of two different ring oscillators. The first ring oscillator generates pulses that have a period, changing linearly with temperature. Instead of using the system clock like in traditional sensors, the second oscillator utilizes a cascaded cross-coupled structure to generate temperature independent pulses to capture the result from the first oscillator. Due to the compensation between the two ring oscillators, errors caused by supply voltage variations and systematic process variations are reduced. The layout design of the sensor is based on the TSMC13G process standard cell library. Only three inverters are modified for proper channel width tuning without any other custom design. This allows for an easy integration of the sensor into cell-based chips. Post-layout simulations results show that an error lower than +-1.1 deg. C can be achieved in the full temperature range from -40 to 120 deg. C. As shown by SPICE simulations, the thermal insensitivity of the cross-coupled inverters can be realized for various TSMC technologies: 0.25 mum, 0.18 mum, 0.13 mum, and 65 nm.

  16. The cross-national structure of mental disorders: results from the World Mental Health Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jonge, Peter; Wardenaar, Klaas J; Lim, Carmen C W; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Alonso, Jordi; Andrade, Laura Helena; Bunting, Brendan; Chatterji, Somnath; Ciutan, Marius; Gureje, Oye; Karam, Elie G; Lee, Sing; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Moskalewicz, Jacek; Navarro-Mateu, Fernando; Pennell, Beth-Ellen; Piazza, Marina; Posada-Villa, José; Torres, Yolanda; Kessler, Ronald C; Scott, Kate

    2017-12-19

    The patterns of comorbidity among mental disorders have led researchers to model the underlying structure of psychopathology. While studies have suggested a structure including internalizing and externalizing disorders, less is known with regard to the cross-national stability of this model. Moreover, little data are available on the placement of eating disorders, bipolar disorder and psychotic experiences (PEs) in this structure. We evaluated the structure of mental disorders with data from the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview, including 15 lifetime mental disorders and six PEs. Respondents (n = 5478-15 499) were included from 10 high-, middle- and lower middle-income countries across the world aged 18 years or older. Confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) were used to evaluate and compare the fit of different factor structures to the lifetime disorder data. Measurement invariance was evaluated with multigroup CFA (MG-CFA). A second-order model with internalizing and externalizing factors and fear and distress subfactors best described the structure of common mental disorders. MG-CFA showed that this model was stable across countries. Of the uncommon disorders, bipolar disorder and eating disorder were best grouped with the internalizing factor, and PEs with a separate factor. These results indicate that cross-national patterns of lifetime common mental-disorder comorbidity can be explained with a second-order underlying structure that is stable across countries and can be extended to also cover less common mental disorders.

  17. Evidence for cross rift structural controls on deformation and seismicity at a continental rift caldera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Ryan; Biggs, Juliet; Wilks, Matthew; Nowacki, Andy; Kendall, J.-Michael; Ayele, Atalay; Lewi, Elias; Eysteinsson, Hjálmar

    2018-04-01

    In continental rifts structural heterogeneities, such as pre-existing faults and foliations, are thought to influence shallow crustal processes, particularly the formation of rift faults, magma reservoirs and surface volcanism. We focus on the Corbetti caldera, in the southern central Main Ethiopian Rift. We measure the surface deformation between 22nd June 2007 and 25th March 2009 using ALOS and ENVISAT SAR interferograms and observe a semi-circular pattern of deformation bounded by a sharp linear feature cross-cutting the caldera, coincident with the caldera long axis. The signal reverses in sign but is not seasonal: from June to December 2007 the region south of this structure moves upwards 3 cm relative to the north, while from December 2007 until November 2008 it subsides by 2 cm. Comparison of data taken from two different satellite look directions show that the displacement is primarily vertical. We discuss potential mechanisms and conclude that this deformation is associated with pressure changes within a shallow (statistically consistent with this fault structure, indicating that the fault has also controlled the migration of magma from a reservoir to the surface over tens of thousands of years. Spatial patterns of seismicity are consistent with a cross-rift structure that extents outside the caldera and to a depth of ∼30 km, and patterns of seismic anisotropy suggests stress partitioning occurs across the structure. We discuss the possible nature of this structure, and conclude that it is most likely associated with the Goba-Bonga lineament, which cross-cuts and pre-dates the current rift. Our observations show that pre-rift structures play an important role in magma transport and shallow hydrothermal processes, and therefore they should not be neglected when discussing these processes.

  18. Statistical Modelling of Resonant Cross Section Structure in URR, Model of the Characteristic Function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyumdjieva, N.

    2006-01-01

    A statistical model for the resonant cross section structure in the Unresolved Resonance Region has been developed in the framework of the R-matrix formalism in Reich Moore approach with effective accounting of the resonance parameters fluctuations. The model uses only the average resonance parameters and can be effectively applied for analyses of cross sections functional, averaged over many resonances. Those are cross section moments, transmission and self-indication functions measured through thick sample. In this statistical model the resonant cross sections structure is accepted to be periodic and the R-matrix is a function of ε=E/D with period 0≤ε≤N; R nc (ε)=π/2√(S n *S c )1/NΣ(i=1,N)(β in *β ic *ctg[π(ε i - = ε-iS i )/N]; Here S n ,S c ,S i is respectively neutron strength function, strength function for fission or inelastic channel and strength function for radiative capture, N is the number of resonances (ε i ,β i ) that obey the statistic of Porter-Thomas and Wigner's one. The simple case of this statistical model concerns the resonant cross section structure for non-fissile nuclei under the threshold for inelastic scattering - the model of the characteristic function with HARFOR program. In the above model some improvements of calculation of the phases and logarithmic derivatives of neutron channels have been done. In the parameterization we use the free parameter R l ∞ , which accounts the influence of long-distant resonances. The above scheme for statistical modelling of the resonant cross section structure has been applied for evaluation of experimental data for total, capture and inelastic cross sections for 232 Th in the URR (4-150) keV and also the transmission and self-indication functions in (4-175) keV. The set of evaluated average resonance parameters have been obtained. The evaluated average resonance parameters in the URR are consistent with those in the Resolved Resonance Region (CRP for Th-U cycle, Vienna, 2006

  19. Fog Collection on Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) Fibers: Influence of Cross Section and Surface Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azad, M A K; Krause, Tobias; Danter, Leon; Baars, Albert; Koch, Kerstin; Barthlott, Wilhelm

    2017-06-06

    Fog-collecting meshes show a great potential in ensuring the availability of a supply of sustainable freshwater in certain arid regions. In most cases, the meshes are made of hydrophilic smooth fibers. Based on the study of plant surfaces, we analyzed the fog collection using various polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fibers with different cross sections and surface structures with the aim of developing optimized biomimetic fog collectors. Water droplet movement and the onset of dripping from fiber samples were compared. Fibers with round, oval, and rectangular cross sections with round edges showed higher fog-collection performance than those with other cross sections. However, other parameters, for example, width, surface structure, wettability, and so forth, also influenced the performance. The directional delivery of the collected fog droplets by wavy/v-shaped microgrooves on the surface of the fibers enhances the formation of a water film and their fog collection. A numerical simulation of the water droplet spreading behavior strongly supports these findings. Therefore, our study suggests the use of fibers with a round cross section, a microgrooved surface, and an optimized width for an efficient fog collection.

  20. A Cross-Cultural Analysis of Personality Structure Through the Lens of the HEXACO Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ion, Andrei; Iliescu, Dragos; Aldhafri, Said; Rana, Neeti; Ratanadilok, Kattiya; Widyanti, Ari; Nedelcea, Cătălin

    2017-01-01

    Across 5 different samples, totaling more than 1,600 participants from India, Indonesia, Oman, Romania, and Thailand, the authors address the question of cross-cultural replicability of a personality structure, while exploring the utility of exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) as a data analysis technique in cross-cultural personality research. Personality was measured with an alternative, non-Five-Factor Model (FFM) personality framework, provided by the HEXACO-PI (Lee & Ashton, 2004 ). The results show that the HEXACO framework was replicated in some of the investigated cultures. The ESEM data analysis technique proved to be especially useful in investigating the between-group measurement equivalence of broad personality measures across different cultures.

  1. Vortex Structure Effects on Impingement, Effusion, and Cross Flow Cooling of a Double Wall Configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligrani, P. M.

    2018-03-01

    A variety of different types of vortices and vortex structures have important influences on thermal protection, heat transfer augmentation, and cooling performance of impingement cooling, effusion cooling, and cross flow cooling. Of particular interest are horseshoe vortices, which form around the upstream portions of effusion coolant concentrations just after they exit individual holes, hairpin vortices, which develop nearby and adjacent to effusion coolant trajectories, and Kelvin-Helmholtz vortices which form within the shear layers that form around each impingement cooling jet. The influences of these different vortex structures are described as they affect and alter the thermal performance of effusion cooling, impingement cooling, and cross flow cooling, as applied to a double wall configuration.

  2. Structure in K--nucleon total cross sections below 1.1 GeV/c

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carroll, A.S.; Chiang, I.; Kycia, T.F.; Li, K.K.; Mazur, P.O.; Michael, D.N.; Mockett, P.M.; Rahm, D.C.; Rubinstein, R.

    1976-01-01

    Total cross sections of K - p and K - d have been measured between 410 and 1070 MeV/c with high statistical precision. In addition to the well known Λ (1520), Λ (1820), and Σ (1769), we confirmed the presence of the Λ (1692) and the Σ (1670). We have also observed several structures which could be Y* resonances: Λ (1646), Λ (1735), Σ (1583), Σ (1608), Σ (1633), and Σ (1715)

  3. Chemical cross-linking and mass spectrometry as structure determination tools

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novák, Petr; Giannakopulos, A.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 13, - (2007), s. 105-113 ISSN 1469-0667 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB400200501; GA MŠk LC545 Grant - others:SE(XE) Marie Curie Actions TOK, Contract No. MTKD-CT-2004-014407 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : cross-linking * protein * high order structure Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.198, year: 2007

  4. Above-threshold structure in {sup 244}Cm neutron-induced fission cross section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maslov, V.M. [Radiation Physics and Chemistry Problems Inst., Minsk-Sosny (Belarus)

    1997-03-01

    The quasi-resonance structure appearing above the fission threshold in neutron-induced fission cross section of {sup 244}Cm(n,f) is interpreted. It is shown to be due to excitation of few-quasiparticle states in fissioning {sup 245}Cm and residual {sup 244}Cm nuclides. The estimate of quasiparticle excitation thresholds in fissioning nuclide {sup 245}Cm is consistent with pairing gap and fission barrier parameters. (author)

  5. A multilevel cross-lagged structural equation analysis for reciprocal relationship between social capital and health

    OpenAIRE

    Sessions, John; Yu, Ge; Fu, Yu; Wall, Matin

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the reciprocal relationship between individual social capital and perceived mental and physical health in the UK. Using data from the British Household Panel Survey from 1991 to 2008, we fitted cross-lagged structural equation models that include three indicators of social capital vis. social participation, social network, and loneliness. Given that multiple measurement points (level 1) are nested within individuals (level 2), we also applied a multilevel model to allow for re...

  6. Visual Grading and Structural Properties Assessment of Large Cross-Section Pinus radiata D. Don Timber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Hermoso Prieto

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of large cross-section timber for structural purposes has increased in Spain, and knowledge of its properties is strategically necessary. The Spanish visual strength-grading standard UNE 56544 (2011 efficiency applied to large cross-section structural timber was analyzed using a sample of 363 specimens of radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don. from the Basque Country and Catalonia, Spain. Different sizes were tested (80 × 120 × 2400 mm3, 150 × 250 × 5600 mm3, 150 × 250 × 4300 mm3, and 200 × 250 × 5000 mm3. Bending strength, modulus of elasticity, and density were obtained, and characteristic values were determined in order to assign strength class according to European standard EN 338 (2010. Knots and twists were the most relevant singularities for visual strength grading. It was concluded that large cross-section Spanish radiata pine timber was suitable for structures, and it was assigned to the C20 strength class.

  7. The flows structure in unsteady gas flow in pipes with different cross-sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnikov, Leonid; Nevolin, Alexandr; Nikolaev, Dmitrij

    2017-10-01

    The results of numerical simulation and experimental study of the structure of unsteady flows in pipes with different cross sections are presented in the article. It is shown that the unsteady gas flow in a circular pipe is axisymmetric without secondary currents. Steady vortex structures (secondary flows) are observed in pipes with cross sections in the form of a square and an equilateral triangle. It was found that these secondary flows have a significant impact on gas flows in pipes of complex configuration. On the basis of experimental researches it is established that the strong oscillatory phenomena exist in the inlet pipe of the piston engine arising after the closing of the intake valve. The placement of the profiled plots (with a cross section of a square or an equilateral triangle) in the intake pipe leads to the damping of the oscillatory phenomena and a more rapid stabilization of pulsating flow. This is due to the stabilizing effect of the vortex structures formed in the corners of this configuration.

  8. The flows structure in unsteady gas flow in pipes with different cross-sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plotnikov Leonid

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of numerical simulation and experimental study of the structure of unsteady flows in pipes with different cross sections are presented in the article. It is shown that the unsteady gas flow in a circular pipe is axisymmetric without secondary currents. Steady vortex structures (secondary flows are observed in pipes with cross sections in the form of a square and an equilateral triangle. It was found that these secondary flows have a significant impact on gas flows in pipes of complex configuration. On the basis of experimental researches it is established that the strong oscillatory phenomena exist in the inlet pipe of the piston engine arising after the closing of the intake valve. The placement of the profiled plots (with a cross section of a square or an equilateral triangle in the intake pipe leads to the damping of the oscillatory phenomena and a more rapid stabilization of pulsating flow. This is due to the stabilizing effect of the vortex structures formed in the corners of this configuration.

  9. Panel Data with Cross-Sectional Dependence Characterized by a Multi-Level Factor Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodríguez-Caballero, Carlos Vladimir

    A panel data model with a multi-level cross-sectional dependence is proposed. The factor structure is driven by top-level common factors as well as non-pervasive factors. I propose a simple method to filter out the full factor structure that overcomes limitations in standard procedures which may...... mix up both levels of unobservable factors and may hamper the identification of the model. The model covers both stationary and non-stationary cases and takes into account other relevant features that make the model well suited to the analysis of many types of time series frequently addressed...

  10. Improving Ambient Wind Environments of a Cross-flow Wind Turbine near a Structure by using an Inlet Guide Structure and a Flow Deflector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tadakazu TANINO; Shinichiro NAKAO; Genki UEBAYASHI

    2005-01-01

    A cross-flow wind turbine near a structure was tested for the performance. The results showed that the performance of a cross-flow wind turbine near a structure was up to 30% higher than the one without a structure.In addition, we tried to get higher performance of a cross-flow wind turbine by using an Inlet Guide Structure and a Flow Deflector. An Inlet Guide Structure was placed on the edge of a structure and a Flow Deflector was set near a cross-flow wind turbine and can improve ambient wind environments of the wind turbine, the maximum power coefficients were about 15 to 40% higher and the tip speed ratio range showing the high power coefficient was wide and the positive gradients were steep apparently.

  11. Design and 4D Printing of Cross-Folded Origami Structures: A Preliminary Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teoh, Joanne Ee Mei; An, Jia; Feng, Xiaofan; Zhao, Yue; Chua, Chee Kai; Liu, Yong

    2018-03-03

    In 4D printing research, different types of complex structure folding and unfolding have been investigated. However, research on cross-folding of origami structures (defined as a folding structure with at least two overlapping folds) has not been reported. This research focuses on the investigation of cross-folding structures using multi-material components along different axes and different horizontal hinge thickness with single homogeneous material. Tensile tests were conducted to determine the impact of multi-material components and horizontal hinge thickness. In the case of multi-material structures, the hybrid material composition has a significant impact on the overall maximum strain and Young's modulus properties. In the case of single material structures, the shape recovery speed is inversely proportional to the horizontal hinge thickness, while the flexural or bending strength is proportional to the horizontal hinge thickness. A hinge with a thickness of 0.5 mm could be folded three times prior to fracture whilst a hinge with a thickness of 0.3 mm could be folded only once prior to fracture. A hinge with a thickness of 0.1 mm could not even be folded without cracking. The introduction of a physical hole in the center of the folding/unfolding line provided stress relief and prevented fracture. A complex flower petal shape was used to successfully demonstrate the implementation of overlapping and non-overlapping folding lines using both single material segments and multi-material segments. Design guidelines for establishing cross-folding structures using multi-material components along different axes and different horizontal hinge thicknesses with single or homogeneous material were established. These guidelines can be used to design and implement complex origami structures with overlapping and non-overlapping folding lines. Combined overlapping folding structures could be implemented and allocating specific hole locations in the overall designs could be

  12. Design and 4D Printing of Cross-Folded Origami Structures: A Preliminary Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Ee Mei Teoh

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In 4D printing research, different types of complex structure folding and unfolding have been investigated. However, research on cross-folding of origami structures (defined as a folding structure with at least two overlapping folds has not been reported. This research focuses on the investigation of cross-folding structures using multi-material components along different axes and different horizontal hinge thickness with single homogeneous material. Tensile tests were conducted to determine the impact of multi-material components and horizontal hinge thickness. In the case of multi-material structures, the hybrid material composition has a significant impact on the overall maximum strain and Young’s modulus properties. In the case of single material structures, the shape recovery speed is inversely proportional to the horizontal hinge thickness, while the flexural or bending strength is proportional to the horizontal hinge thickness. A hinge with a thickness of 0.5 mm could be folded three times prior to fracture whilst a hinge with a thickness of 0.3 mm could be folded only once prior to fracture. A hinge with a thickness of 0.1 mm could not even be folded without cracking. The introduction of a physical hole in the center of the folding/unfolding line provided stress relief and prevented fracture. A complex flower petal shape was used to successfully demonstrate the implementation of overlapping and non-overlapping folding lines using both single material segments and multi-material segments. Design guidelines for establishing cross-folding structures using multi-material components along different axes and different horizontal hinge thicknesses with single or homogeneous material were established. These guidelines can be used to design and implement complex origami structures with overlapping and non-overlapping folding lines. Combined overlapping folding structures could be implemented and allocating specific hole locations in the overall

  13. Design and 4D Printing of Cross-Folded Origami Structures: A Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teoh, Joanne Ee Mei; Feng, Xiaofan; Zhao, Yue; Liu, Yong

    2018-01-01

    In 4D printing research, different types of complex structure folding and unfolding have been investigated. However, research on cross-folding of origami structures (defined as a folding structure with at least two overlapping folds) has not been reported. This research focuses on the investigation of cross-folding structures using multi-material components along different axes and different horizontal hinge thickness with single homogeneous material. Tensile tests were conducted to determine the impact of multi-material components and horizontal hinge thickness. In the case of multi-material structures, the hybrid material composition has a significant impact on the overall maximum strain and Young’s modulus properties. In the case of single material structures, the shape recovery speed is inversely proportional to the horizontal hinge thickness, while the flexural or bending strength is proportional to the horizontal hinge thickness. A hinge with a thickness of 0.5 mm could be folded three times prior to fracture whilst a hinge with a thickness of 0.3 mm could be folded only once prior to fracture. A hinge with a thickness of 0.1 mm could not even be folded without cracking. The introduction of a physical hole in the center of the folding/unfolding line provided stress relief and prevented fracture. A complex flower petal shape was used to successfully demonstrate the implementation of overlapping and non-overlapping folding lines using both single material segments and multi-material segments. Design guidelines for establishing cross-folding structures using multi-material components along different axes and different horizontal hinge thicknesses with single or homogeneous material were established. These guidelines can be used to design and implement complex origami structures with overlapping and non-overlapping folding lines. Combined overlapping folding structures could be implemented and allocating specific hole locations in the overall designs could be

  14. Cross-over between discrete and continuous protein structure space: insights into automatic classification and networks of protein structures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Pascual-García

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Structural classifications of proteins assume the existence of the fold, which is an intrinsic equivalence class of protein domains. Here, we test in which conditions such an equivalence class is compatible with objective similarity measures. We base our analysis on the transitive property of the equivalence relationship, requiring that similarity of A with B and B with C implies that A and C are also similar. Divergent gene evolution leads us to expect that the transitive property should approximately hold. However, if protein domains are a combination of recurrent short polypeptide fragments, as proposed by several authors, then similarity of partial fragments may violate the transitive property, favouring the continuous view of the protein structure space. We propose a measure to quantify the violations of the transitive property when a clustering algorithm joins elements into clusters, and we find out that such violations present a well defined and detectable cross-over point, from an approximately transitive regime at high structure similarity to a regime with large transitivity violations and large differences in length at low similarity. We argue that protein structure space is discrete and hierarchic classification is justified up to this cross-over point, whereas at lower similarities the structure space is continuous and it should be represented as a network. We have tested the qualitative behaviour of this measure, varying all the choices involved in the automatic classification procedure, i.e., domain decomposition, alignment algorithm, similarity score, and clustering algorithm, and we have found out that this behaviour is quite robust. The final classification depends on the chosen algorithms. We used the values of the clustering coefficient and the transitivity violations to select the optimal choices among those that we tested. Interestingly, this criterion also favours the agreement between automatic and expert classifications

  15. Damage Detection of Structures for Ambient Loading Based on Cross Correlation Function Amplitude and SVM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin-sheng Huo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An effective method for the damage detection of skeletal structures which combines the cross correlation function amplitude (CCFA with the support vector machine (SVM is presented in this paper. The proposed method consists of two stages. Firstly, the data features are extracted from the CCFA, which, calculated from dynamic responses and as a representation of the modal shapes of the structure, changes when damage occurs on the structure. The data features are then input into the SVM with the one-against-one (OAO algorithm to classify the damage status of the structure. The simulation data of IASC-ASCE benchmark model and a vibration experiment of truss structure are adopted to verify the feasibility of proposed method. The results show that the proposed method is suitable for the damage identification of skeletal structures with the limited sensors subjected to ambient excitation. As the CCFA based data features are sensitive to damage, the proposed method demonstrates its reliability in the diagnosis of structures with damage, especially for those with minor damage. In addition, the proposed method shows better noise robustness and is more suitable for noisy environments.

  16. Substructure identification for shear structures: cross-power spectral density method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Dongyu; Johnson, Erik A

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a substructure identification method for shear structures is proposed. A shear structure is divided into many small substructures; utilizing the dynamic equilibrium of a one-floor substructure, an inductive identification problem is formulated, using the cross-power spectral densities between structural floor accelerations and a reference response, to estimate the parameters of that one story. Repeating this procedure, all story parameters of the shear structure are identified from top to bottom recursively. An identification error analysis is performed for the proposed substructure method, revealing how uncertain factors (e.g. measurement noise) in the identification process affect the identification accuracy. According to the error analysis, a smart reference selection rule is designed to choose the optimal reference response that further enhances the identification accuracy. Moreover, based on the identification error analysis, explicit formulae are developed to calculate the variances of the parameter identification errors. A ten-story shear structure is used to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed substructure method. The simulation results show that the method, combined with the reference selection rule, can very accurately identify structural parameters despite large measurement noise. Furthermore, the proposed formulae provide good predictions for the variances of the parameter identification errors, which are vital for providing accurate warnings of structural damage. (paper)

  17. Pipeline inwall 3D measurement system based on the cross structured light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Da; Lin, Zhipeng; Xue, Lei; Zheng, Qiang; Wang, Zichi

    2014-01-01

    In order to accurately realize the defect detection of pipeline inwall, this paper proposes a measurement system made up of cross structured light, single CCD camera and a smart car, etc. Based on structured light measurement technology, this paper mainly introduces the structured light measurement system, the imaging mathematical model, and the parameters and method of camera calibration. Using these measuring principles and methods, the camera in remote control car platform achieves continuous shooting of objects and real-time rebound processing as well as utilizing established model to extract 3D point cloud coordinate to reconstruct pipeline defects, so it is possible to achieve 3D automatic measuring, and verifies the correctness and feasibility of this system. It has been found that this system has great measurement accuracy in practice.

  18. Fusion-fission probabilities, cross sections, and structure notes of superheavy nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowal, Michał; Cap, Tomasz; Jachimowicz, Piotr; Skalski, Janusz; Siwek-Wilczyńska, Krystyna; Wilczyński, Janusz

    2016-01-01

    Fusion – fission probabilities in the synthesis of heaviest elements are discussed in the context of the latest experimental reports. Cross sections for superheavy nuclei are evaluated using the “Fusion by Diffusion” (FBD) model. Predictive power of this approach is shown for experimentally known Lv and Og isotopes and predictions given for Z = 119, 120. Ground state and saddle point properties as masses, shell corrections, pairing energies, and deformations necessary for cross-section estimations are calculated systematically within the multidimensional microscopic-macroscopic method based on the deformed Woods-Saxon single-particle potential. In the frame of the FBD approach predictions for production of elements heavier than Z = 118 are not too optimistic. For this reason, and because of high instability of superheavy nuclei, we comment on some structure effects, connected with the K-isomerism phenomenon which could lead to a significant increase in the stability of these systems.

  19. The impact of parent-child interaction on brain structures: cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Hikaru; Taki, Yasuyuki; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Asano, Kohei; Asano, Michiko; Sassa, Yuko; Yokota, Susumu; Kotozaki, Yuka; Nouchi, Rui; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2015-02-04

    There is a vast amount of evidence from psychological studies that the amount of parent-child interaction affects the development of children's verbal skills and knowledge. However, despite the vast amount of literature, brain structural development associated with the amount of parent-child interaction has never been investigated. In the present human study, we used voxel-based morphometry to measure regional gray matter density (rGMD) and examined cross-sectional correlations between the amount of time spent with parents and rGMD among 127 boys and 135 girls. We also assessed correlations between the amount of time spent with parents and longitudinal changes that occurred a few years later among 106 boys and 102 girls. After correcting for confounding factors, we found negative effects of spending time with parents on rGMD in areas in the bilateral superior temporal gyrus (STG) via cross-sectional analyses as well as in the contingent areas of the right STG. We also confirmed positive effects of spending time with parents on the Verbal Comprehension score in cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses. rGMD in partly overlapping or contingent areas of the right STG was negatively correlated with age and the Verbal Comprehension score in cross-sectional analyses. Subsequent analyses revealed verbal parent-child interactions have similar effects on Verbal Comprehension scores and rGMD in the right STG in both cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses. These findings indicate that parent-child interactions affect the right STG, which may be associated with verbal skills. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/352233-13$15.00/0.

  20. Two-Phase Gas-Liquid Flow Structure Characteristics under Periodic Cross Forces Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Perevezentsev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a study of two-phase gas-liquid flow under the action of periodic cross forces. The work objective is to obtain experimental data for further analysis and have structure characteristics of the two-phase flow movement. For research, to obtain data without disturbing effect on the flow were used optic PIV (Particle Image Visualization methods because of their noninvasiveness. The cross forces influence was provided by an experimental stand design to change the angular amplitudes and the periods of channel movement cycle with two-phase flow. In the range of volume gas rates was shown a water flow rate versus the inclination angle of immovable riser section and the characteristic angular amplitudes and periods of riser section inclination cycle under periodic cross forces. Data on distribution of average water velocity in twophase flow in abovementioned cases were also obtained. These data allowed us to draw a conclusion that a velocity distribution depends on the angular amplitude and on the period of the riser section roll cycle. This article belongs to publications, which study two-phase flows with no disturbing effect on them. Obtained data give an insight into understanding a pattern of twophase gas-liquid flow under the action of periodic cross forces and can be used to verify the mathematical models of the CFD thermo-hydraulic codes. In the future, the work development expects taking measurements with more frequent interval in the ranges of angular amplitudes and periods of the channel movement cycle and create a mathematical model to show the action of periodic cross forces on two-phase gas-liquid flow.

  1. Cross-cultural structures of concentric and diametric dualism in Lévi-Strauss' structural anthropology: structures of relation underlying the self and ego relation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downes, Paul

    2003-02-01

    The parallels between Jung's and Lévi-Strauss' concentric cross-cultural structures of the unconscious are highlighted. Lévi-Strauss' basic contrasts between concentric and diametric dualisms are developed into psychologically relevant differences regarding symmetry, connection and separation, and interaction between foreground and background structures respectively. These contrasts between concentric and diametric structures are applied as a common structural framework for understanding Jungian conceptions of the self, the ego and their relations, Freudian views of compensation and repetition in obsessional neurosis, and Winnicott's conception of a child's transitional object. Developing the contrasts between concentric and diametric structures reveals a compensatory relation between both structures. This supports an argument that concentric structures express the self and diametric structures express the ego in their mutual compensatory interrelation. Contrasting concentric with diametric structures challenges traditional Western logic, including Fordham's view that it is contradictory to treat the self as both centre and totality. It also develops an understanding of Jung's transcendent function which seeks to go beyond the ego-shadow opposition.

  2. Predicting transmission of structure-borne sound power from machines by including terminal cross-coupling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohlrich, Mogens

    2011-01-01

    of translational terminals in a global plane. This paired or bi-coupled power transmission represents the simplest case of cross-coupling. The procedure and quality of the predicted transmission using this improved technique is demonstrated experimentally for an electrical motor unit with an integrated radial fan......Structure-borne sound generated by audible vibration of machines in vehicles, equipment and house-hold appliances is often a major cause of noise. Such vibration of complex machines is mostly determined and quantified by measurements. It has been found that characterization of the vibratory source...

  3. Price Discovery from Cross-Currency and FX Swaps: A Structural Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Yasuaki Amatatsu; Naohiko Baba

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates the relative role of price discovery between two long-term swap contracts that exchange between the U.S. dollar and the Japanese yen: cross-currency basis swap and FX (foreign exchange) swap. First, we show that these two swaps should be in a no-arbitrage relationship by allowing for differential risk premiums. Second, we empirically investigate the relative role of price discovery using the structural-form approach based on the state space models. Main finding are as ...

  4. Main Parameters Characterization of Bulk CMOS Cross-Like Hall Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Alexandra Paun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A detailed analysis of the cross-like Hall cells integrated in regular bulk CMOS technological process is performed. To this purpose their main parameters have been evaluated. A three-dimensional physical model was employed in order to evaluate the structures. On this occasion, numerical information on the input resistance, Hall voltage, conduction current, and electrical potential distribution has been obtained. Experimental results for the absolute sensitivity, offset, and offset temperature drift have also been provided. A quadratic behavior of the residual offset with the temperature was obtained and the temperature points leading to the minimum offset for the three Hall cells were identified.

  5. 20170917 - A Cross-platform Format to Associate NMR-extracted data (NMReDATA) to Chemical Structures (SMASHNMR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    An open initiative involving cross-disciplinary contributors of computer-assisted structure elucidation (CASE), including methodology specialists, software and database developers and the editorial board of Magnetic Resonance in Chemistry, is addressing the old problem of reporti...

  6. Sharp kink of DNA at psoralen-cross-link site deduced from crystal structure of psoralen-thymine monoadduct

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.H.; Peckler, S.; Graves, B.; Kanne, D.; Rapoport, H.; Hearst, J.E.

    1983-01-01

    Light-induced cross-linking of double-stranded nucleic acids by psoralens has been exploited to locate, in vivo or in vitro, those double-helical regions of DNA or RNA that can accommodate any structural changes caused by the psoralen cross-links. To determine three-dimensional structural parameters of the cross-link, we have solved the crystal structure of the psoralen-thymine monoadduct formed in photoreaction between calf thymus DNA and 8-methoxypsoralen (8MOP). There are eight possible configurations for psoralen-thymine monoadducts and 64 for diadducts. We describe here the structural details of a psoralen-thymine monoadduct obtained in a biological environment and the consequences of the photo-cross-link between 8MOP and double-helical DNA

  7. Design and fabrication of a chitosan hydrogel with gradient structures via a step-by-step cross-linking process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yongxiang; Yuan, Shenpo; Han, Jianmin; Lin, Hong; Zhang, Xuehui

    2017-11-15

    The development of scaffolds to mimic the gradient structure of natural tissue is an important consideration for effective tissue engineering. In the present study, a physical cross-linking chitosan hydrogel with gradient structures was fabricated via a step-by-step cross-linking process using sodium tripolyphosphate and sodium hydroxide as sequential cross-linkers. Chitosan hydrogels with different structures (single, double, and triple layers) were prepared by modifying the gelling process. The properties of the hydrogels were further adjusted by varying the gelling conditions, such as gelling time, pH, and composition of the crosslinking solution. Slight cytotoxicity was showed in MTT assay for hydrogels with uncross-linking chitosan solution and non-cytotoxicity was showed for other hydrogels. The results suggest that step-by-step cross-linking represents a practicable method to fabricate scaffolds with gradient structures. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Crossed Ga2O3/SnO2 multiwire architecture: a local structure study with nanometer resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Criado, Gema; Segura-Ruiz, Jaime; Chu, Manh-Hung; Tucoulou, Remi; López, Iñaki; Nogales, Emilio; Mendez, Bianchi; Piqueras, Javier

    2014-10-08

    Crossed nanowire structures are the basis for high-density integration of a variety of nanodevices. Owing to the critical role of nanowires intersections in creating hybrid architectures, it has become a challenge to investigate the local structure in crossing points in metal oxide nanowires. Thus, if intentionally grown crossed nanowires are well-patterned, an ideal model to study the junction is formed. By combining electron and synchrotron beam nanoprobes, we show here experimental evidence of the role of impurities in the coupling formation, structural modifications, and atomic site configuration based on crossed Ga2O3/SnO2 nanowires. Our experiment opens new avenues for further local structure studies with both nanometer resolution and elemental sensitivity.

  9. Band structures in two-dimensional phononic crystals with periodic Jerusalem cross slot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yinggang; Chen, Tianning; Wang, Xiaopeng; Yu, Kunpeng; Song, Ruifang

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a novel two-dimensional phononic crystal composed of periodic Jerusalem cross slot in air matrix with a square lattice is presented. The dispersion relations and the transmission coefficient spectra are calculated by using the finite element method based on the Bloch theorem. The formation mechanisms of the band gaps are analyzed based on the acoustic mode analysis. Numerical results show that the proposed phononic crystal structure can yield large band gaps in the low-frequency range. The formation mechanism of opening the acoustic band gaps is mainly attributed to the resonance modes of the cavities inside the Jerusalem cross slot structure. Furthermore, the effects of the geometrical parameters on the band gaps are further explored numerically. Results show that the band gaps can be modulated in an extremely large frequency range by the geometry parameters such as the slot length and width. These properties of acoustic waves in the proposed phononic crystals can potentially be applied to optimize band gaps and generate low-frequency filters and waveguides.

  10. Structuring of Amide Cross-Linked Non-Bridged and Bridged Alkyl-Based Silsesquioxanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, S C; de Zea Bermudez, V

    2018-02-06

    The development of sophisticated organized materials exhibiting enhanced properties is a challenging topic of the domain of organic/inorganic hybrid materials. This review, composed of four sections, reports the work we have carried out over the last 10 years on the synthesis of amide cross-linked alkyl/siloxane hybrids by means of sol-gel chemistry and self-directed assembly/self-organization routes relying on weak interactions (hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonding). The various as-produced lamellar structures displaying a myriad of morphologies, often closely resembling those found in natural materials, are discussed. The major role played by the synthetic conditions (pH, water content, co-solvent(s) nature/concentration and dopant presence/concentration), the alkyl chains (length and presence of ramification or not) and the number of the amide cross-links present in the precursor, is evidenced. Examples of highly organized hybrids structures incorporating ionic species (alkali and alkaline earth metal salts) and optically-active centers (organic dyes and lanthanide ions) are described. A useful qualitative relationship deduced between the emission quantum yield of the ordered hybrid materials and the degree of order of the hydrogen-bonded network is highlighted. © 2018 The Chemical Society of Japan & Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Effect of ageing and pulmonary inflammation on the incidence and number of cross-bridging structures in pneumothorax patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Tomoaki; Takahashi, Koji; Aburano, Tamio

    2011-01-01

    Background. There is an improved prognosis for T4 non-small-cell lung cancer in patients who show particular patterns of direct mediastinal invasion. The particular patterns suggest the presence of direct pathways other than the pulmonary hilum between each of the lungs and the mediastinum/chest wall. Purpose. To determine the incidence and number of such direct pathways in pneumothorax patients as well as the factors that affect the development of these pathways. Material and Methods. Two radiologists independently analyzed multidetector computed tomographic images of 81 patients with pneumothorax to assess the incidence and distribution pattern of the cross-bridging structures in the pleural cavity. Results. Cross-bridging structures were observed in the right pneumothorax in 34/54 (63%) patients and in the left pneumothorax in 19/32 (59%) patients. The number of cross-bridging structures was found to be positively correlated with ageing and pulmonary disease. The distribution patterns of cross-bridging structures were found to be specific in formation and often in repeated locations, regardless of the presence of pulmonary disease or the age of the patient. Conclusion. Cross-bridging structures in pneumothoraces were found more frequently in older patients and in patients with pulmonary disease. However, some of the cross-bridging structures may have been congenital because of their specific formations and repeated locations

  12. Effect of ageing and pulmonary inflammation on the incidence and number of cross-bridging structures in pneumothorax patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, Tomoaki; Takahashi, Koji; Aburano, Tamio (Dept. of Radiology, Asahikawa Medical Univ., Asahikawa, Hokkaido (Japan)), email: tomoaki3est@gmail.com

    2011-12-15

    Background. There is an improved prognosis for T4 non-small-cell lung cancer in patients who show particular patterns of direct mediastinal invasion. The particular patterns suggest the presence of direct pathways other than the pulmonary hilum between each of the lungs and the mediastinum/chest wall. Purpose. To determine the incidence and number of such direct pathways in pneumothorax patients as well as the factors that affect the development of these pathways. Material and Methods. Two radiologists independently analyzed multidetector computed tomographic images of 81 patients with pneumothorax to assess the incidence and distribution pattern of the cross-bridging structures in the pleural cavity. Results. Cross-bridging structures were observed in the right pneumothorax in 34/54 (63%) patients and in the left pneumothorax in 19/32 (59%) patients. The number of cross-bridging structures was found to be positively correlated with ageing and pulmonary disease. The distribution patterns of cross-bridging structures were found to be specific in formation and often in repeated locations, regardless of the presence of pulmonary disease or the age of the patient. Conclusion. Cross-bridging structures in pneumothoraces were found more frequently in older patients and in patients with pulmonary disease. However, some of the cross-bridging structures may have been congenital because of their specific formations and repeated locations

  13. Cross-correlative 3D micro-structural investigation of human bone processed into bone allografts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Atul Kumar; Gajiwala, Astrid Lobo; Rai, Ratan Kumar; Khan, Mohd Parvez; Singh, Chandan; Barbhuyan, Tarun; Vijayalakshmi, S.; Chattopadhyay, Naibedya; Sinha, Neeraj; Kumar, Ashutosh; Bellare, Jayesh R.

    2016-01-01

    Bone allografts (BA) are a cost-effective and sustainable alternative in orthopedic practice as they provide a permanent solution for preserving skeletal architecture and function. Such BA however, must be processed to be disease free and immunologically safe as well as biologically and clinically useful. Here, we have demonstrated a processing protocol for bone allografts and investigated the micro-structural properties of bone collected from osteoporotic and normal human donor samples. In order to characterize BA at different microscopic levels, a combination of techniques such as Solid State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (ssNMR), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), micro-computed tomography (μCT) and Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) were used for delineating the ultra-structural property of bone. ssNMR revealed the extent of water, collagen fine structure and crystalline order in the bone. These were greatly perturbed in the bone taken from osteoporotic bone donor. Among the processing methods analyzed, pasteurization at 60 °C and radiation treatment appeared to substantially alter the bone integrity. SEM study showed a reduction in Ca/P ratio and non-uniform distribution of elements in osteoporotic bones. μ-CT and MIMICS® (Materialize Interactive Medical Image Control System) demonstrated that pasteurization and radiation treatment affects the BA morphology and cause a shift in the HU unit. However, the combination of all these processes restored all-important parameters that are critical for BA integrity and sustainability. Cross-correlation between the various probes we used quantitatively demonstrated differences in morphological and micro-structural properties between BA taken from normal and osteoporotic human donor. Such details could also be instrumental in designing an appropriate bone scaffold. For the best restoration of bone microstructure and to be used as a biomaterial allograft, a step-wise processing method is recommended that preserves all

  14. Cross-correlative 3D micro-structural investigation of human bone processed into bone allografts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Atul Kumar [Centre for Research in Nanotechnology & Science, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India); Gajiwala, Astrid Lobo [Tissue Bank, Tata Memorial Hospital, Parel, Mumbai 400012 (India); Rai, Ratan Kumar [Centre of Biomedical Research, SGPGIMS Campus, Lucknow 226014 (India); Khan, Mohd Parvez [Division of Endocrinology, Center for Research in Anabolic Skeletal Targets in Health and Illness (ASTHI) CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226031 (India); Singh, Chandan [Centre of Biomedical Research, SGPGIMS Campus, Lucknow 226014 (India); Barbhuyan, Tarun [Division of Endocrinology, Center for Research in Anabolic Skeletal Targets in Health and Illness (ASTHI) CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226031 (India); Vijayalakshmi, S. [Centre for Research in Nanotechnology & Science, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India); Chattopadhyay, Naibedya [Division of Endocrinology, Center for Research in Anabolic Skeletal Targets in Health and Illness (ASTHI) CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226031 (India); Sinha, Neeraj, E-mail: neerajcbmr@gmail.com [Centre of Biomedical Research, SGPGIMS Campus, Lucknow 226014 (India); Kumar, Ashutosh, E-mail: ashutoshk@iitb.ac.in [Department of Biosciences and Bioengineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India); Bellare, Jayesh R., E-mail: jb@iitb.ac.in [Centre for Research in Nanotechnology & Science, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India); Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India)

    2016-05-01

    Bone allografts (BA) are a cost-effective and sustainable alternative in orthopedic practice as they provide a permanent solution for preserving skeletal architecture and function. Such BA however, must be processed to be disease free and immunologically safe as well as biologically and clinically useful. Here, we have demonstrated a processing protocol for bone allografts and investigated the micro-structural properties of bone collected from osteoporotic and normal human donor samples. In order to characterize BA at different microscopic levels, a combination of techniques such as Solid State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (ssNMR), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), micro-computed tomography (μCT) and Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) were used for delineating the ultra-structural property of bone. ssNMR revealed the extent of water, collagen fine structure and crystalline order in the bone. These were greatly perturbed in the bone taken from osteoporotic bone donor. Among the processing methods analyzed, pasteurization at 60 °C and radiation treatment appeared to substantially alter the bone integrity. SEM study showed a reduction in Ca/P ratio and non-uniform distribution of elements in osteoporotic bones. μ-CT and MIMICS® (Materialize Interactive Medical Image Control System) demonstrated that pasteurization and radiation treatment affects the BA morphology and cause a shift in the HU unit. However, the combination of all these processes restored all-important parameters that are critical for BA integrity and sustainability. Cross-correlation between the various probes we used quantitatively demonstrated differences in morphological and micro-structural properties between BA taken from normal and osteoporotic human donor. Such details could also be instrumental in designing an appropriate bone scaffold. For the best restoration of bone microstructure and to be used as a biomaterial allograft, a step-wise processing method is recommended that preserves all

  15. Application of multi-scale (cross-) sample entropy for structural health monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tzu-Kang; Liang, Jui-Chang

    2015-08-01

    This study proposes an information-theoretic structural health monitoring (SHM) system based on multi-scale entropy (MSE) and multi-scale cross-sample entropy (MSCE). By measuring the ambient vibration signal from a structure, the damage condition can be rapidly evaluated via MSE analysis. The damage location can then be detected by analyzing the signals of different floors under the same damage condition via MSCE analysis. Moreover, a damage index is proposed to efficiently quantify the SHM process. Unlike some existing SHM methods, no experimental database or numerical model is required. Instead, a reference measurement of the current stage can initiate and launch the SHM system. A numerical simulation of a four-story steel structure is used to verify that the damage location and condition can be detected by the proposed SHM algorithm, and the location can be efficiently quantified by the damage index. A seven-story scaled-down benchmark structure is then employed for experimental verification. Based on the results, the damage condition can be correctly assessed, and average accuracy rates of 63.4 and 86.6% for the damage location can be achieved using the MSCE and damage index methods, respectively. As only the ambient vibration signal is required with a set of initial reference measurements, the proposed SHM system can be implemented practically with low cost.

  16. Axial Crush of the Tubular Structure with Various Cee-Shaped Cross-Sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afshar, Reza; Ali, Aidy; Sahari, B B; Bayat, M

    2011-01-01

    Tubular structure with various Cee-shaped cross sections is numerically investigated in order to find the centre of gravity (COG) under axial crush by using program code of ANSYS/LS-DYNA. A subroutine is developed using this code to obtain the COG of deformed shape, during and after crush deformation. The effect of wall thickness of the structure on displacement of COG is also studied. Subsequently, the effect of opening angle of Cee become more prominent as the wall thickness of the structure decreases and as the thickness increases, displacement of the COG in crush direction almost stabilizes for all opening angle of Cee in the range of (10 0 - 90 0 ). Furthermore, Variation of I yy of structure with thicker wall for different cases of applied weight is approximately identical. The value of mass moment of inertia with respect to X and Z axes through the model COG (I zx ) in comparison with I yy can be neglected in the case of axial crush along Y direction.

  17. Informing conservation management about structural versus functional connectivity: a case-study of Cross River gorillas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imong, Inaoyom; Robbins, Martha M; Mundry, Roger; Bergl, Richard; Kühl, Hjalmar S

    2014-10-01

    Connectivity among subpopulations is vital for the persistence of small and fragmented populations. For management interventions to be effective conservation planners have to make the critical distinction between structural connectivity (based on landscape structure) and functional connectivity (which considers both landscape structure and organism-specific behavioral attributes) which can differ considerably within a given context. We assessed spatial and temporal changes in structural and functional connectivity of the Cross River gorilla Gorilla gorilla diehli (CRG) population in a 12,000 km(2) landscape in the Nigeria-Cameroon border region over a 23-year period, comparing two periods: 1987-2000 and 2000-2010. Despite substantial forest connections between occupied areas, genetic evidence shows that only limited dispersal occurs among CRG subpopulations. We used remotely sensed land-cover data and simulated human pressure (using a spatially explicit agent-based model) to assess human impact on connectivity of the CRG population. We calculated cost-weighted distances between areas occupied by gorillas as measures of connectivity (structural based on land-cover only, functional based on both land-cover and simulated human pressure). Whereas structural connectivity decreased by 5% over the 23-year period, functional connectivity decreased by 11%, with both decreasing more during the latter compared to the earlier period. Our results highlight the increasing threat of isolation of CRG subpopulations due to human disturbance, and provide insight into how increasing human influence may lead to functional isolation of wildlife populations despite habitat continuity, a pressing and common issue in tropical Africa often not accounted for when deciding management interventions. In addition to quantifying threats to connectivity, our study provides crucial evidence for management authorities to identify actions that are more likely to be effective for conservation of

  18. Target mass corrections to electroweak structure functions and perturbative neutrino cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kretzer, S.; Reno, M.H.

    2004-01-01

    We provide a complete and consistent framework to include subasymptotic perturbative as well as mass corrections to the leading twist (τ=2) evaluation of charged and neutral current weak structure functions and the perturbative neutrino cross sections. We reexamine previous calculations in a modern language and fill in the gaps that we find missing for a complete and ready-to-use 'NLO ξ-scaling' formulary. In particular, as a new result we formulate the mixing of the partonic and hadronic structure function tensor basis in the operator approach to deep inelastic scattering. As an underlying framework we follow the operator product expansion in the manner of Georgi and Politzer that allows the inclusion of target mass corrections at arbitrary order in QCD and we provide explicit analytical and numerical results at NLO. We compare this approach with a simpler collinear parton model approach to ξ scaling. Along with target mass corrections we include heavy quark mass effects as a calculable leading twist power suppressed correction. The complete corrections have been implemented into a Monte Carlo integration program to evaluate structure functions and/or integrated cross sections. As applications, we compare the operator approach with the collinear approximation numerically and we investigate the NLO and mass corrections to observables that are related to the extraction of the weak mixing angle from a Paschos-Wolfenstein-like relation in neutrino-iron scattering. We expect that the interpretation of neutrino scattering events in terms of oscillation physics and electroweak precision physics will benefit from our results

  19. Structural evaluation of a nanobody targeting complement receptor Vsig4 and its cross reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Yurong; Ouyang, Zhenlin; Schoonooghe, Steve; Luo, Siyu; De Baetselier, Patrick; Lu, Wuyuan; Muyldermans, Serge; Raes, Geert; Zheng, Fang

    2017-06-01

    Vsig4 is a recently identified immune regulatory protein related to the B7 family with dual functionality: a negative regulator of T cell activation and a receptor for the complement components C3b and C3c. Here we present a structural evaluation of a nanobody, Nb119, against the extracellular IgV domain protein of both mouse and human recombinant Vsig4, which have a high degree of sequence identity. Although mouse and human Vsig4 bind to Nb119 with a 250 times difference in dissociation constants, the interaction results in a highly identical assembly with a RMSD of 0.4Å. The molecular determinants for Vsig4 recognition and cross reactivity unveiled by the atomic structure of Nb119 in complex with mVsig4 and hVsig4 afford new insights useful for the further optimization of the nanobody for potential use in humans. Additionally, structural analysis of the Vsig4-Nb119 complexes indicates that Nb119 occupies the interface on Vsig4 recognized by the macroglobulin-like domains MG4 and MG5 of C3b. Thus an affinity-improved Nb119 may have the potential to influence the activation of both T cells and complement. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  20. The strength of compressed structures with CFRP materials reinforcement when exceeding the cross-section size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polskoy, Petr; Mailyan, Dmitry; Georgiev, Sergey; Muradyan, Viktor

    2018-03-01

    The increase of high-rise construction volume or «High-Rise Construction» requires the use of high-strength concrete and that leads to the reduction in section size of structures and to the decrease in material consumption. First of all, it refers to the compressed elements for which, when the transverse dimensions are reduced, their flexibility and deformation increase but the load bearing capacity decreases. Growth in construction also leads to the increase of repair and restoration works or to the strengthening of structures. The most effective method of their strengthening in buildings of «High-Rise Construction» is the use of composite materials which reduces the weight of reinforcement elements and labour costs on execution of works. In this article the results of experimental research on strength and deformation of short compressed reinforced concrete structures, reinforced with external carbon fiber reinforcement, are presented. Their flexibility is λh=10, and the cross-section dimensions ratio b/h is 2, that is 1,5 times more, than recommended by standards in Russia. The following research was being done for three kinds of strained and deformed conditions with different variants of composite reinforcement. The results of the experiment proved the real efficiency of composite reinforcement of the compressed elements with sides ratio equal to 2, increasing the bearing capacity of pillars till 1,5 times. These results can be used for designing the buildings of different number of storeys.

  1. Experimental determination of neutron capture cross sections of fast reactor structure materials integrated in intermediate energy spectra. Vol. 2: description of experimental structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tassan, S.

    1978-01-01

    A selection of technical documents is given concerning the experimental determination of the neutron capture cross-sections of fast reactor structural materials (Fe, Cr, Ni...) integrated over the intermediate energy spectra. The experimental structure project and modifications of the reactor RB2 for this experiment, together with criticality and safety calculations, are presented

  2. Measurements and calculations of integral capture cross-sections of structural materials in fast reactor spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seth, S.; Brunson, G.; Gmuer, K.; Jermann, M.; McCombie, C.; Richmond, R.; Schmocker, U.

    1979-01-01

    This paper relates the checking of integral data of steel and iron in fast reactor lattices. The fully-rodded GCFR benchmark lattice of the zero-energy reactor PROTEUS was successively modified by replacing the PuO 2 -UO 2 fuel rods by steel-18/8 or steel-37 (iron) rods. The neutron spectra of the modified lattices in fact have median energies close to that of a typical LMFBR. The replacement of fuel by the structural material of interest was such that in each case the value of k(infinity) was reduced to near-unity. This allowed the measurement of the lattice-k(infinity) by the null-reactivity technique. In addition, the principal reaction rates (namely U238 capture and fission, relative to Pu239 fission) and the neutron spectrum were measured. These directly measured integral data which are particularly sensitive to the steel cross-sections can be used for the checking and systematic adjustment of data sets. The results may also be analysed so as to derive specific values for the integral capture cross-sections of steel and iron. Neutron balance equations were set-up for each of the lattices using the measured k(infinity) and reaction rates

  3. Testing for Measurement and Structural Equivalence in Large-Scale Cross-Cultural Studies: Addressing the Issue of Nonequivalence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Barbara M.; van de Vijver, Fons J. R.

    2010-01-01

    A critical assumption in cross-cultural comparative research is that the instrument measures the same construct(s) in exactly the same way across all groups (i.e., the instrument is measurement and structurally equivalent). Structural equation modeling (SEM) procedures are commonly used in testing these assumptions of multigroup equivalence.…

  4. Fish mouths as engineering structures for vortical cross-step filtration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, S. Laurie; Roberts, Erin; Lineburg, Jillian; Brooks, Hannah

    2016-03-01

    Suspension-feeding fishes such as goldfish and whale sharks retain prey without clogging their oral filters, whereas clogging is a major expense in industrial crossflow filtration of beer, dairy foods and biotechnology products. Fishes' abilities to retain particles that are smaller than the pore size of the gill-raker filter, including extraction of particles despite large holes in the filter, also remain unexplained. Here we show that unexplored combinations of engineering structures (backward-facing steps forming d-type ribs on the porous surface of a cone) cause fluid dynamic phenomena distinct from current biological and industrial filter operations. This vortical cross-step filtration model prevents clogging and explains the transport of tiny concentrated particles to the oesophagus using a hydrodynamic tongue. Mass transfer caused by vortices along d-type ribs in crossflow is applicable to filter-feeding duck beak lamellae and whale baleen plates, as well as the fluid mechanics of ventilation at fish gill filaments.

  5. A Novel MS-Cleavable Azo Cross-Linker for Peptide Structure Analysis by Free Radical Initiated Peptide Sequencing (FRIPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacobucci, Claudio; Hage, Christoph; Schäfer, Mathias; Sinz, Andrea

    2017-10-01

    The chemical cross-linking/mass spectrometry (MS) approach is a growing research field in structural proteomics that allows gaining insights into protein conformations. It relies on creating distance constraints between cross-linked amino acid side chains that can further be used to derive protein structures. Currently, the most urgent task for designing novel cross-linking principles is an unambiguous and automated assignment of the created cross-linked products. Here, we introduce the homobifunctional, amine-reactive, and water soluble cross-linker azobisimidoester (ABI) as a prototype of a novel class of cross-linkers. The ABI-linker possesses an innovative modular scaffold combining the benefits of collisional activation lability with open shell chemistry. This MS-cleavable cross-linker can be efficiently operated via free radical initiated peptide sequencing (FRIPS) in positive ionization mode. Our proof-of-principle study challenges the gas phase behavior of the ABI-linker for the three amino acids, lysine, leucine, and isoleucine, as well as the model peptide thymopentin. The isomeric amino acids leucine and isoleucine could be discriminated by their characteristic side chain fragments. Collisional activation experiments were conducted via positive electrospray ionization (ESI) on two Orbitrap mass spectrometers. The ABI-mediated formation of odd electron product ions in MS/MS and MS3 experiments was evaluated and compared with a previously described azo-based cross-linker. All cross-linked products were amenable to automated analysis by the MeroX software, underlining the future potential of the ABI-linker for structural proteomics studies. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  6. The blood-brain barrier: structure, function and therapeutic approaches to cross it.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajes, Marta; Ramos-Fernández, Eva; Weng-Jiang, Xian; Bosch-Morató, Mònica; Guivernau, Biuse; Eraso-Pichot, Abel; Salvador, Bertrán; Fernàndez-Busquets, Xavier; Roquer, Jaume; Muñoz, Francisco J

    2014-08-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is constituted by a specialized vascular endothelium that interacts directly with astrocytes, neurons and pericytes. It protects the brain from the molecules of the systemic circulation but it has to be overcome for the proper treatment of brain cancer, psychiatric disorders or neurodegenerative diseases, which are dramatically increasing as the population ages. In the present work we have revised the current knowledge on the cellular structure of the BBB and the different procedures utilized currently and those proposed to cross it. Chemical modifications of the drugs, such as increasing their lipophilicity, turn them more prone to be internalized in the brain. Other mechanisms are the use of molecular tools to bind the drugs such as small immunoglobulins, liposomes or nanoparticles that will act as Trojan Horses favoring the drug delivery in brain. This fusion of the classical pharmacology with nanotechnology has opened a wide field to many different approaches with promising results to hypothesize that BBB will not be a major problem for the new generation of neuroactive drugs. The present review provides an overview of all state-of-the-art of the BBB structure and function, as well as of the classic strategies and these appeared in recent years to deliver drugs into the brain for the treatment of Central Nervous System (CNS) diseases.

  7. Mixing efficiency inside micro-droplets coalesced by two components in cross-structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yanlin; Liu, Zhaomiao; Pang, Yan

    2017-11-01

    The mixing of micro-droplets is used in analytical chemistry, medicine production and material synthesis owing to its advantages including the encapsulation and narrow time residence distribution. In this work, droplets are coalesced by two dispersed phase with different flow rates, generated in cross-structure and mixed in planar serpentine structure. The mixing efficiency of micro-droplets under control characters including the width of entrance and the flow rate of dispersed phases have been investigated by experiments and numerical simulations. The UDS (user-defined scalar) as dimensionless concentration of the solution is adopted in simulation, and is used to calculate the concentration and the mixing effect. By changing the flow rates and the entrances` width, the changing rules of the mixing characters have been obtained. The asymmetry distributions of components make rapid mixing process in half part of each droplet when travel through a straight channel. Increasing of the ratio of entrance width result into larger droplet and weaken the chaotic mixing effect. Meanwhile, the coalesced mechanism can be performed by ranging the ratio of flow rates, the ranges are also determined by the widths of entrances. The authors gratefully acknowledge the support of National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11572013).

  8. Effects of Thermal Cross-Linking on the Structure and Property of Asymmetric Membrane Prepared from the Polyacrylonitrile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Jin

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Improving the thermal and chemical stabilities of classical polymer membranes will be beneficial to extend their applications in the high temperature or aggressive environment. In this work, the asymmetric ultrafiltration membranes prepared from the polyacrylonitrile (PAN were used to fabricate the cross-linking asymmetric (CLA PAN membranes via thermal cross-linking in air to improve their thermal and chemical stabilities. The effects of thermal cross-linking parameters such as temperature and holding time on the structure, gas separation performance, thermal and chemical stabilities of PAN membranes were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, thermogravimetic analysis (TGA and gas permeation test. The thermal cross-linking significantly influences the chemical structure, microstructure and pore structure of PAN membrane. During the thermal cross-linking, the shrinkage of membrane and coalescence or collapse of pore and microstructure make large pores diminish, small pores disappear and pore volumes reduce. The gas permeances of CLA-PAN membranes increase as the increasing of cross-linking temperature and holding time due to the volatilization of small molecules. The CLA-PAN membranes demonstrate excellent thermal and chemical stabilities and present good prospects for application in ultrafiltration for water treatment and for use as a substrate for nanofiltration or gas separation with an aggressive and demanding environment.

  9. Preliminary study of the uranium potential of the Triassic Sanford basin and Colon cross structure, North Carolina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, C.H.

    1978-01-01

    A preliminary geologic investigation was conducted to determine if Triassic sedimentary rocks of the Sanford basin and Colon cross structure in North Carolina are favorable hosts for uranium deposits. Rocks of adjacent Carolina slate belt were also examined as a potential source of uranium. On the basis of favorability criteria for sandstone-type uranium deposits, and geologic and geophysical investigations of the study area, the most favorable sites for further investigation are (1) at the contacts between the Pekin and Cumnock and between the Pekin and Sanford Formations near the Colon cross structure and (2) at the base of the Jonesboro fault, which lies below the Sanford Formation, northwest of Sanford. The highly weathered granites southeast of the Jonesboro fault were a source of the detritus deposited on the cross structure and may have been a primary source of uranium. Uranium leached from the coarse sediment (Pekin Formation) of the cross structure may have been transported downdip and may have been precipitated by the carbonaceous shales of the Cumnock Formation on the western side of the cross structure or at the Pekin-Sanford contact to the east. The Jonesboro fault may provide an impermeable barrier to ground-water migration in the metamorphosed basement rocks below the Triassic sediments. Such a barrier would constitute a favorable site for the precipitation and retention of uranium. Scintillometer surveys and laboratory analyses indicate no anomalous surface radioactivity in the study area. However, deep surface weathering may have caused the uranium to be leached from the exposed rocks and redeposited at depth. Geologic investigations show that conditions which have proven favorable for deposition of uranium in other areas are present in the Triassic rocks of the Sanford basin and Colon cross structure. However, because of deep surface weathering, further subsurface studies are necessary to confirm the favorability of the rocks as hosts for uranium

  10. The construction phase’s influence to the moving ability of cross-sections of woven structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inogamdjanov, D.; Daminov, A.; Kasimov, O.

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to work out bases to predict properties for single layer flat woven fabrics depending on changes of construction phases. A structural model of cross-section of single layered fabric is described based on the Pierce’s model. Form transformation of the yarn like straight, semi-arch and arch yarn is considered according to the alteration of yarn tension under the theory of Novikov. The value contributions to movement index of warp and weft yarn and their total moving ability in cross-sections at all structure phases of fabric are summarized.

  11. Evaluation of the load carrying capacity of large cross section coniferous timber in standing structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arriaga, F.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A total of 85 large section timber pieces (Pinus sylvestris L. and Pinus pinaster Alt. found in a number of old buildings were visually analyzed and graded pursuant to Spanish standard UNE 56544 and German standard 4074. The object was to formulate a non-destructive method to reliably and effectively determine the mechanical properties of existing timber structures with large cross sections. A new system is proposed based on the chief visual grading parameters and consisting in a single grade; the percentage of rejections with this system is low. In this regard, a specific strength class is established for large cross section members in existing coniferous wood structures, namely F14/E9/D380 (MOR of 14 N/mm2, MOE of 9 kN/mm2 and characteristic density of 380 kg/m3. The use of ultrasonic velocity is proposed to define the next higher strength class - F16/E10/D380, to which timber with velocities of 4,900 m/s or over would be assigned.

    Se han clasificado visualmente 85 piezas de madera de gruesa sección (Pino silvestre y Pino pinaster procedentes de varios edificios antiguos de acuerdo con las normas UNE 56544 y DIN 4074. El objetivo es establecer una metodología no destructiva para asignar propiedades mecánicas a las piezas de estructuras existentes de madera con gruesas escuadrías con un nivel de seguridad y de rendimiento aceptables. Se propone un único grado de calidad con un porcentaje bajo de rechazos, aplicando los principales parámetros de la clasificación visual. De esta forma, se establece una clase resistente específica para las piezas de gruesa escuadría de estructuras de madera de conifera existentes definida como FI4/E9/D380 (resistencia característica a flexión igual a 14 N/mm2, módulo de elasticidad de 9 kN/mn2 y densidad característica de 380 kg/m3. Para alcanzar una clase resistente superior se propone utilizar el parámetro añadido de la

  12. New Structural Interpretation of the Central Confusion Range, Western Utah, Based On Balanced Cross Sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yezerski, D.; Greene, D. C.

    2009-12-01

    The Confusion Range is a topographically low mountain range in the Basin and Range of west-central Utah, located east of and in the hanging wall of the Snake Range core complex. Previous workers have used a gravity sliding model to interpret the Confusion Range as a large structural trough or synclinorium (e.g. Hose, 1977). Based on existing mapping (Hose, 1965; Hintze, 1974) and new field data, we use balanced and restored cross sections to reinterpret the structure of the Confusion Range as an east-vergent fold-and-thrust belt formed during the Sevier Orogeny. The Confusion Range consists of Cambro-Ordovician through Triassic strata, with predominantly thick-bedded, competent carbonate rocks in the lower Paleozoic (lPz) section and incompetent shales and thin-bedded carbonates in the upper Paleozoic (uPz) section. The contrasting mechanical behavior of these stratigraphic sections results in faulted folds within uPz carbonates above detachments in shale-rich units, deforming in response to ramp-flat thrust faulting of the underlying lPz units. East of the axis of the Conger Mountain (Mtn) syncline, we attribute the increase in structural elevation of lPz rocks to a subsurface thrust sheet consisting of lPz strata that advanced eastward via a high-angle ramp from a lower detachment in the Kanosh Shale to an upper detachment in the Pilot Shale. The doubling of lPz strata that resulted continues through the eastern Confusion Range where a series of small-displacement thrust faults comprising the Kings Canyon thrust system gently tilt strata to the west. In the Conger Range, west of the Conger Mtn syncline, our analysis focuses on reinterpreting the geometrically unlikely folding depicted in previous cross sections as more admissible, fault-cored, asymmetric, detached folding. In our interpretation, resistance created by a steeply-dipping thrust ramp in the lPz section west of Conger Mtn resulted in folding of uPz strata into an east-vergent anticline. Continued east

  13. Natural History of the Central Structural Abnormalities in Choroideremia: A Prospective Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman, Tomas S; Han, Grace; Serrano, Leona W; Fuerst, Nicole M; Charlson, Emily S; Pearson, Denise J; Chung, Daniel C; Traband, Anastasia; Pan, Wei; Ying, Gui-Shuang; Bennett, Jean; Maguire, Albert M; Morgan, Jessica I W

    2017-03-01

    To describe in detail the central retinal structure of a large group of patients with choroideremia (CHM). A prospective, cross-sectional, descriptive study. Patients (n = 97, age 6-71 years) with CHM and subjects with normal vision (n = 44; ages 10-50 years) were included. Subjects were examined with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD OCT) and near-infrared reflectance imaging. Visual acuity (VA) was measured during their encounter or obtained from recent ophthalmic examinations. Visual thresholds were measured in a subset of patients (n = 24) with automated static perimetry within the central regions (±15°) examined with SD OCT. Visual acuity and visual thresholds; total nuclear layer, inner nuclear layer (INL), and outer nuclear layer (ONL) thicknesses; and horizontal extent of the ONL and the photoreceptor outer segment (POS) interdigitation zone (IZ). Earliest abnormalities in regions with normally appearing retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) were the loss of the POS and ellipsoid zone associated with rod dysfunction. Transition zones (TZs) from relatively preserved retina to severe ONL thinning and inner retinal thickening moved centripetally with age. Most patients (88%) retained VAs better than 20/40 until their fifth decade of life. The VA decline coincided with migration of the TZ near the foveal center. There were outer retinal tubulations in degenerated, nonatrophic retina in the majority (69%) of patients. In general, RPE abnormalities paralleled photoreceptor degeneration, although there were regions with detectable but abnormally thin ONL co-localizing with severe RPE depigmentation and choroidal thinning. Abnormalities of the POS and rod dysfunction are the earliest central abnormalities observed in CHM. Foveal function is relatively preserved until the fifth decade of life. Migration of the TZs to the foveal center with foveal thinning and structural disorganization heralded central VA loss. The relationships established may help

  14. Examination of total cross section resonance structure of niobium and silicon in neutron transmission experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrianova, Olga; Lomakov, Gleb; Manturov, Gennady

    2017-09-01

    The neutron transmission experiments are one of the main sources of information about the neutron cross section resonance structure and effect in the self-shielding. Such kind of data for niobium and silicon nuclides in energy range 7 keV to 3 MeV can be obtained from low-resolution transmission measurements performed earlier in Russia (with samples of 0.027 to 0.871 atom/barn for niobium and 0.076 to 1.803 atom/barn for silicon). A significant calculation-to-experiment discrepancy in energy range 100 to 600 keV and 300 to 800 keV for niobium and silicon, respectively, obtained using the evaluated nuclear data library ROSFOND, were found. The EVPAR code was used for estimation the average resonance parameters in energy range 7 to 600 keV for niobium. For silicon a stochastic optimization method was used to modify the resolved resonance parameters in energy range 300 to 800 keV. The improved ROSFOND evaluated nuclear data files were tested in calculation of ICSBEP integral benchmark experiments.

  15. A multilevel cross-lagged structural equation analysis for reciprocal relationship between social capital and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ge; Sessions, John G; Fu, Yu; Wall, Martin

    2015-10-01

    We investigated the reciprocal relationship between individual social capital and perceived mental and physical health in the UK. Using data from the British Household Panel Survey from 1991 to 2008, we fitted cross-lagged structural equation models that include three indicators of social capital vis. social participation, social network, and loneliness. Given that multiple measurement points (level 1) are nested within individuals (level 2), we also applied a multilevel model to allow for residual variation in the outcomes at the occasion and individual levels. Controlling for gender, age, employment status, educational attainment, marital status, household wealth, and region, our analyses suggest that social participation predicts subsequent change in perceived mental health, and vice versa. However, whilst loneliness is found to be significantly related to perceived mental and physical health, reciprocal causality is not found for perceived mental health. Furthermore, we find evidence for reverse effects with both perceived mental and physical health appearing to be the dominant causal factor with respect to the prospective level of social network. Our findings thus shed further light on the importance of social participation and social inclusion in health promotion and aid the development of more effective public health policies in the UK. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Structure of a DNA glycosylase that unhooks interstrand cross-links

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullins, Elwood A.; Warren, Garrett M.; Bradley, Noah P.; Eichman, Brandt F. (Vanderbilt)

    2017-04-10

    DNA glycosylases are important editing enzymes that protect genomic stability by excising chemically modified nucleobases that alter normal DNA metabolism. These enzymes have been known only to initiate base excision repair of small adducts by extrusion from the DNA helix. However, recent reports have described both vertebrate and microbial DNA glycosylases capable of unhooking highly toxic interstrand cross-links (ICLs) and bulky minor groove adducts normally recognized by Fanconi anemia and nucleotide excision repair machinery, although the mechanisms of these activities are unknown. Here we report the crystal structure of Streptomyces sahachiroi AlkZ (previously Orf1), a bacterial DNA glycosylase that protects its host by excising ICLs derived from azinomycin B (AZB), a potent antimicrobial and antitumor genotoxin. AlkZ adopts a unique fold in which three tandem winged helix-turn-helix motifs scaffold a positively charged concave surface perfectly shaped for duplex DNA. Through mutational analysis, we identified two glutamine residues and a β-hairpin within this putative DNA-binding cleft that are essential for catalytic activity. Additionally, we present a molecular docking model for how this active site can unhook either or both sides of an AZB ICL, providing a basis for understanding the mechanisms of base excision repair of ICLs. Given the prevalence of this protein fold in pathogenic bacteria, this work also lays the foundation for an emerging role of DNA repair in bacteria-host pathogenesis.

  17. Defect analysis in GaN films of HEMT structure by cross-sectional cathodoluminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isobe, Yasuhiro; Hung, Hung; Oasa, Kohei; Ono, Tasuku; Onizawa, Takashi; Yoshioka, Akira; Takada, Yoshiharu; Saito, Yasunobu; Sugiyama, Naoharu; Tsuda, Kunio; Sugiyama, Toru; Mizushima, Ichiro

    2017-06-01

    Defect analysis of GaN films in high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) structures by cross-sectional cathodoluminescence (X-CL) is demonstrated as a useful technique for improving the current collapse of GaN-HEMT devices, and the relationship between crystal quality and device characteristics is also investigated. The crystal quality of intrinsic-GaN (i-GaN) and carbon-doped GaN produced clearly different peak intensities of blue luminescence (BL), yellow luminescence (YL), and band-edge emission (BE), which is independently detected by X-CL. Current collapse in GaN-HEMT devices is found to be determined by the BL/BE and YL/BE ratios at the top of the i-GaN layer, which is close to the channel. Moreover, the i-GaN thickness required in order to minimize the BL/BE and YL/BE ratios and the thickness dependency of GaN for minimizing the BL/BE and YL/BE ratios depending on the growth conditions can be evaluated by X-CL. However, there is no correlation between current collapse in GaN-HEMT devices and the YL/BE ratio by conventional photoluminescence because HEMT devices consist of multiple GaN layers and the YL signal is detected from the carbon-doped GaN layer. Thus, the X-CL analysis method is a useful technique for device design in order to suppress current collapse.

  18. Validity of the independent-processes approximation for resonance structures in electron-ion scattering cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badnell, N.R.; Pindzola, M.S.; Griffin, D.C.

    1991-01-01

    The total inelastic cross section for electron-ion scattering may be found in the independent-processes approximation by adding the resonant cross section to the nonresonant background cross section. We study the validity of this approximation for electron excitation of multiply charged ions. The resonant-excitation cross section is calculated independently using distorted waves for various Li-like and Na-like ions using (N+1)-electron atomic-structure methods previously developed for the calculation of dielectronic-recombination cross sections. To check the effects of interference between the two scattering processes, we also carry out detailed close-coupling calculations for the same atomic ions using the R-matrix method. For low ionization stages, interference effects manifest themselves sometimes as strong window features in the close-coupling cross section, which are not present in the independent-processes cross section. For higher ionization stages, however, the resonance features found in the independent-processes approximation are found to be in good agreement with the close-coupling results

  19. Extraction of Structure Function and Gluon Distribution Function at Low-x from Cross Section Derivative by Regge Behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boroun, G.R.

    2005-01-01

    An approximation method based on Regge behavior is presented. This new method relates the reduced cross section derivative and the structure function Regge behavior at low x. With the use of this approximation method, the C and λ parameters are calculated from the HERA reduced cross section data taken at low-x. Also, we calculate the structure functions F 2 (x,Q 2 ) even for low-x values, which have not been investigated. To test the validity of calculated structure functions, we find the gluon distribution function in the Leading order approximation based on Regge behaviour of structure function and compare to the NLO QCD fit to H1 data and NLO parton distribution function.

  20. A Field Study of Structures, Affordances, and Coordination Mechanisms of a Cross-Organizational Extended Team in Global Software Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zahedi, Mansooreh; Ali Babar, Muhammad

    Context: Growing popularity of Global Software Development (GSD) has resulted in an increasing number of cross-organizational teams that are formed according to Extended Team Model (ETM). There is little empirical body of knowledge about the structures (work, social, and communication) that may...... exist in these types of teams and the potential strengths and weaknesses of these structures in dealing with GSD challenges. Objective: This research has been motivated by the need of studying the types of work, communication and social structures designed and implemented for a cross...... interviews with both onshore and offshore team members. We applied qualitative data analysis approach called thematic analysis for finding the answers to our key research questions. Results: Our study has identified that the current work structure of ETM create several kinds of interdependencies for which...

  1. Glutaraldehyde cross-linking of amniotic membranes affects their nanofibrous structures and limbal epithelial cell culture characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Jui-Yang; Ma, David Hui-Kang

    2013-01-01

    Given that the cells can sense nanometer dimensions, the chemical cross-linking-mediated alteration in fibrillar structure of collagenous tissue scaffolds is critical to determining their cell culture performances. This article explores, for the first time, the effect of nanofibrous structure of glutaraldehyde (GTA) cross-linked amniotic membrane (AM) on limbal epithelial cell (LEC) cultivation. Results of ninhydrin assays demonstrated that the amount of new cross-links formed between the collagen chains is significantly increased with increasing the cross-linking time from 1 to 24 hours. By transmission electron microscopy, the AM treated with GTA for a longer duration exhibited a greater extent of molecular aggregation, thereby leading to a considerable increase in nanofiber diameter and resistance against collagenase degradation. In vitro biocompatibility studies showed that the samples cross-linked with GTA for 24 hours are not well-tolerated by the human corneal epithelial cell cultures. When the treatment duration is less than 6 hours, the biological tissues cross-linked with GTA for a longer time may cause slight reductions in 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium, inner salt, and anti-inflammatory activities. Nevertheless, significant collagen molecular aggregation also enhances the stemness gene expression, indicating a high ability of these AM matrices to preserve the progenitors of LECs in vitro. It is concluded that GTA cross-linking of collagenous tissue materials may affect their nanofibrous structures and corneal epithelial stem cell culture characteristics. The AM treated with GTA for 6 hours holds promise for use as a niche for the expansion and transplantation of limbal epithelial progenitor cells.

  2. Characterization of Piezoresistive PEDOT:PSS Pressure Sensors with Inter-Digitated and Cross-Point Electrode Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jer-Chyi; Karmakar, Rajat; Lu, Yu-Jen; Huang, Chiung-Yin; Wei, Kuo-Chen

    2015-01-01

    The piezoresistive characteristics of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) pressure sensors with inter-digitated (IDE) and cross-point electrode (CPE) structures have been investigated. A small variation of the resistance of the pressure sensors with IDE without bottom indium-tin-oxide (b-ITO) film and with CPE structures was observed owing to the single carrier-conducting pathway. For the IDE pressure sensors with b-ITO, the piezoresistive characteristics at low...

  3. A damage detection method for instrumented civil structures using prerecorded Green’s functions and cross-correlation

    OpenAIRE

    Heckman, Vanessa; Kohler, Monica; Heaton, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Automated damage detection methods have application to instrumented structures that are susceptible to types of damage that are difficult or costly to detect. The presented method has application to the detection of brittle fracture of welded beam-column connections in steel moment-resisting frames (MRFs), where locations of potential structural damage are known a priori. The method makes use of a prerecorded catalog of Green’s function templates and a cross-correlation method ...

  4. The structure of the forward elastic cross section in (10--14) GeV range. [Differential cross sections, peripheral exchange amplitude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carnegie, R K; Cashmore, R J; Davier, M; Leith, D W.G.S.; Walden, P; Williams, S H [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Calif. (USA)

    1975-11-10

    The logarithmic slope of the differential cross section for K/sup + -/p elastic scattering at 10 and 14 GeV, and for ..pi../sup + -/p and p/sup + -/p at 10 GeV has been measured. Rich structure is observed in the forward slope for all processes, which is well accounted for by the properties of a peripheral exchange amplitude for the nonexotic reactions, and by a peripheral component of the diffractive amplitude as clearly seen in the exotic processes, K/sup +/p and pp.

  5. School Attendance Problems and Youth Psychopathology: Structural Cross-Lagged Regression Models in Three Longitudinal Data Sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Jeffrey J.; Lynne-Landsman, Sarah D.; Langer, David A.; Wood, Patricia A.; Clark, Shaunna L.; Eddy, J. Mark; Ialongo, Nick

    2012-01-01

    This study tests a model of reciprocal influences between absenteeism and youth psychopathology using 3 longitudinal datasets (Ns = 20,745, 2,311, and 671). Participants in 1st through 12th grades were interviewed annually or biannually. Measures of psychopathology include self-, parent-, and teacher-report questionnaires. Structural cross-lagged…

  6. Cross-Bridge Kelvin resistor structures for reliable measurement of low contact resistances and contact interface characterization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stavitski, N.; Klootwijk, J.H.; van Zeijl, H.W.; Kovalgin, Alexeij Y.; Wolters, Robertus A.M.

    2009-01-01

    The parasitic factors that strongly influence the measurement accuracy of Cross-Bridge Kelvin Resistor (CBKR) structures for low specific contact resistances (�?�c) have been extensively discussed during last few decades and the minimum of the �?�c value, which could be accurately extracted, was

  7. Overview of a Project to Quantify Seismic Performance Factors for Cross Laminated Timber Structures in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Omar Amini; John W. van de Lindt; Shiling Pei; Douglas Rammer; Phil Line; Marjan Popovski

    2014-01-01

    Cross-laminated Timber (CLT) has been extensively used in Europe and is now gaining momentum in North America; both Canada and more recently the U.S. Construction projects have shown that CLT can effectively be used as an alternative construction material in mid-rise structures and has significant potential in commercial and industrial buildings. In the United States,...

  8. A BAYESIAN ESTIMATE OF THE CMB–LARGE-SCALE STRUCTURE CROSS-CORRELATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura-Santos, E. [Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, Rua do Matão trav. R 187, 05508-090, São Paulo—SP (Brazil); Carvalho, F. C. [Departamento de Física, Universidade do Estado do Rio Grande do Norte, 59610-210, Mossoró-RN (Brazil); Penna-Lima, M. [APC, AstroParticule et Cosmologie, Université Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/Irfu, Observatoire de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 10, rue Alice Domon et Léonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France); Novaes, C. P.; Wuensche, C. A., E-mail: emoura@if.usp.br, E-mail: fabiocabral@uern.br, E-mail: pennal@apc.in2p3.fr, E-mail: cawuenschel@das.inpe.br, E-mail: camilanovaes@on.br [Observatório Nacional, Rua General José Cristino 77, São Cristóvão, 20921-400, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2016-08-01

    Evidences for late-time acceleration of the universe are provided by multiple probes, such as Type Ia supernovae, the cosmic microwave background (CMB), and large-scale structure (LSS). In this work, we focus on the integrated Sachs–Wolfe (ISW) effect, i.e., secondary CMB fluctuations generated by evolving gravitational potentials due to the transition between, e.g., the matter and dark energy (DE) dominated phases. Therefore, assuming a flat universe, DE properties can be inferred from ISW detections. We present a Bayesian approach to compute the CMB–LSS cross-correlation signal. The method is based on the estimate of the likelihood for measuring a combined set consisting of a CMB temperature and galaxy contrast maps, provided that we have some information on the statistical properties of the fluctuations affecting these maps. The likelihood is estimated by a sampling algorithm, therefore avoiding the computationally demanding techniques of direct evaluation in either pixel or harmonic space. As local tracers of the matter distribution at large scales, we used the Two Micron All Sky Survey galaxy catalog and, for the CMB temperature fluctuations, the ninth-year data release of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe ( WMAP 9). The results show a dominance of cosmic variance over the weak recovered signal, due mainly to the shallowness of the catalog used, with systematics associated with the sampling algorithm playing a secondary role as sources of uncertainty. When combined with other complementary probes, the method presented in this paper is expected to be a useful tool to late-time acceleration studies in cosmology.

  9. Cross-frequency coupling in deep brain structures upon processing the painful sensory inputs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, C C; Chien, J H; Kim, J H; Chuang, Y F; Cheng, D T; Anderson, W S; Lenz, F A

    2015-09-10

    Cross-frequency coupling has been shown to be functionally significant in cortical information processing, potentially serving as a mechanism for integrating functionally relevant regions in the brain. In this study, we evaluate the hypothesis that pain-related gamma oscillatory responses are coupled with low-frequency oscillations in the frontal lobe, amygdala and hippocampus, areas known to have roles in pain processing. We delivered painful laser pulses to random locations on the dorsal hand of five patients with uncontrolled epilepsy requiring depth electrode implantation for seizure monitoring. Two blocks of 40 laser stimulations were delivered to each subject and the pain-intensity was controlled at five in a 0-10 scale by adjusting the energy level of the laser pulses. Local-field-potentials (LFPs) were recorded through bilaterally implanted depth electrode contacts to study the oscillatory responses upon processing the painful laser stimulations. Our results show that painful laser stimulations enhanced low-gamma (LH, 40-70 Hz) and high-gamma (HG, 70-110 Hz) oscillatory responses in the amygdala and hippocampal regions on the right hemisphere and these gamma responses were significantly coupled with the phases of theta (4-7 Hz) and alpha (8-1 2 Hz) rhythms during pain processing. Given the roles of these deep brain structures in emotion, these findings suggest that the oscillatory responses in these regions may play a role in integrating the affective component of pain, which may contribute to our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the affective information processing in humans. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Holocene surface-rupturing earthquakes along the Yadong Cross Structure (Himalaya)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferry, M. A.; Roth, T.; Jean-Francois, R.; Cattin, R.

    2017-12-01

    The Himalayan Arc accommodates 2 cm/yr of shortening from the India-Eurasia collision, mostly along the Main Himalayan Thust. Perpendicularly to the main structures, regional cross structures formed by en échelon grabens and half-grabens mark Quaternary extension from central Tibet to the Himalayas. The Yadong-Gulu Rift system is the most striking one with a total length of 500 km. Its southernmost segment -the 100-km-long Yadong half-graben- entrenches through the Himalayas and forms a 500-to-1500-m-deep asymmetric basin. The average basin surface elevation of 4500 m contrasts with high reliefs of the Jomolhari range that reach 7326 m. They are separated by the N15 Yadong normal fault (also called Jomolhari Fault System, JFS) that forms spectacular triangular facets and affects glacial landforms. Though observed as early as the 1980s, offset moraines were never studied in detail in terms of measured displacement or age determination. Recent efforts from paleoclimate studies yielded a high-resolution framework to identify the various stages of Holocene glacial advances and associated moraine formation. These landforms display specific geomorphometric features recognized regionally (ELA, rugosity, crest freshness) that allow correlating across the various glacial valleys within the Yadong Rift and across similar settings in western Bhutan and eastern Nepal. This serves as a robust basis to place our moraine sequence within the Holocene paleoclimatic record and propose formation ages. By combining satellite images from Sentinel-2 (10 m, visible and NIR), Pléiades (0.5 m, visible) and a Pléiades-derived tri-stereo photogrammetric DEM (1 m), we map the fault trace and affected landforms in details and extract topographic profiles to measure vertical offsets. Paleoclimatic age constraints yield age-vs-displacement measurements along the whole 100-km-long JFS and define a chronology of Holocene deformation events. Within the limits of our observations, we conclude

  11. Structure of the Dispase Autolysis-inducing Protein from Streptomyces mobaraensis and Glutamine Cross-linking Sites for Transglutaminase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiebig, David; Schmelz, Stefan; Zindel, Stephan; Ehret, Vera; Beck, Jan; Ebenig, Aileen; Ehret, Marina; Fröls, Sabrina; Pfeifer, Felicitas; Kolmar, Harald; Fuchsbauer, Hans-Lothar; Scrima, Andrea

    2016-09-23

    Transglutaminase from Streptomyces mobaraensis (MTG) is an important enzyme for cross-linking and modifying proteins. An intrinsic substrate of MTG is the dispase autolysis-inducing protein (DAIP). The amino acid sequence of DAIP contains 5 potential glutamines and 10 lysines for MTG-mediated cross-linking. The aim of the study was to determine the structure and glutamine cross-linking sites of the first physiological MTG substrate. A production procedure was established in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) to obtain high yields of recombinant DAIP. DAIP variants were prepared by replacing four of five glutamines for asparagines in various combinations via site-directed mutagenesis. Incorporation of biotin cadaverine revealed a preference of MTG for the DAIP glutamines in the order of Gln-39 ≫ Gln-298 > Gln-345 ∼ Gln-65 ≫ Gln-144. In the structure of DAIP the preferred glutamines do cluster at the top of the seven-bladed β-propeller. This suggests a targeted cross-linking of DAIP by MTG that may occur after self-assembly in the bacterial cell wall. Based on our biochemical and structural data of the first physiological MTG substrate, we further provide novel insight into determinants of MTG-mediated modification, specificity, and efficiency. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. Efficient realization of 3D joint inversion of seismic and magnetotelluric data with cross gradient structure constraint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, H.; Zhang, H.; Gao, J.

    2016-12-01

    Seismic and magnetotelluric (MT) imaging methods are generally used to characterize subsurface structures at various scales. The two methods are complementary to each other and the integration of them is helpful for more reliably determining the resistivity and velocity models of the target region. Because of the difficulty in finding empirical relationship between resistivity and velocity parameters, Gallardo and Meju [2003] proposed a joint inversion method enforcing resistivity and velocity models consistent in structure, which is realized by minimizing cross gradients between two models. However, it is extremely challenging to combine two different inversion systems together along with the cross gradient constraints. For this reason, Gallardo [2007] proposed a joint inversion scheme that decouples the seismic and MT inversion systems by iteratively performing seismic and MT inversions as well as cross gradient minimization separately. This scheme avoids the complexity of combining two different systems together but it suffers the issue of balancing between data fitting and structure constraint. In this study, we have developed a new joint inversion scheme that avoids the problem encountered by the scheme of Gallardo [2007]. In the new scheme, seismic and MT inversions are still separately performed but the cross gradient minimization is also constrained by model perturbations from separate inversions. In this way, the new scheme still avoids the complexity of combining two different systems together and at the same time the balance between data fitting and structure consistency constraint can be enforced. We have tested our joint inversion algorithm for both 2D and 3D cases. Synthetic tests show that joint inversion better reconstructed the velocity and resistivity models than separate inversions. Compared to separate inversions, joint inversion can remove artifacts in the resistivity model and can improve the resolution for deeper resistivity structures. We

  13. Electroproduction cross section of large-E bot hadrons at NLO and virtual photon structure function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontannaz, M.

    2004-01-01

    We calculate higher order corrections to the resolved component of the electroproduction cross section of large- E bot hadrons. The parton distributions in the virtual photon are studied in detail and a NLO parametrization of the latter is proposed. The contribution of the resolved component to the forward production of large- E bot hadrons is calculated and its connection with the BFKL cross section is discussed. (orig.)

  14. A Method for Vibration-Based Structural Interrogation and Health Monitoring Based on Signal Cross-Correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trendafilova, I

    2011-01-01

    Vibration-based structural interrogation and health monitoring is a field which is concerned with the estimation of the current state of a structure or a component from its vibration response with regards to its ability to perform its intended function appropriately. One way to approach this problem is through damage features extracted from the measured structural vibration response. This paper suggests to use a new concept for the purposes of vibration-based health monitoring. The correlation between two signals, an input and an output, measured on the structure is used to develop a damage indicator. The paper investigates the applicability of the signal cross-correlation and a nonlinear alternative, the average mutual information between the two signals, for the purposes of structural health monitoring and damage assessment. The suggested methodology is applied and demonstrated for delamination detection in a composite beam.

  15. Influence of 1,2-PB matrix cross-linking on structure and properties of selectively etched 1,2-PB-b-PDMS block copolymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Fengxiao; Andreasen, Jens Wenzel; Vigild, Martin Etchells

    2007-01-01

    of the cross-linked samples in toluene was converted into a degree of cross-linking following the Flory scheme; a simple relation between the Flory cross-linking degree and the fraction of consumed double bonds during the cross-linking reaction followed. The structure of the block copolymer at different stages...... of preparation was characterized by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). In addition, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) gave direct images of the nanoporous polymer structure. Nanocavities are accessible to methanol, and observations of methanol uptake were combined with structural information from SAXS...

  16. Glutaraldehyde cross-linking of amniotic membranes affects their nanofibrous structures and limbal epithelial cell culture characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai JY

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Jui-Yang Lai,1–3 David Hui-Kang Ma4,5 1Institute of Biochemical and Biomedical Engineering, 2Biomedical Engineering Research Center, 3Molecular Medicine Research Center, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan; 4Limbal Stem Cell Laboratory, Department of Ophthalmology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan; 5Department of Chinese Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan Abstract: Given that the cells can sense nanometer dimensions, the chemical cross-linking-mediated alteration in fibrillar structure of collagenous tissue scaffolds is critical to determining their cell culture performances. This article explores, for the first time, the effect of nanofibrous structure of glutaraldehyde (GTA cross-linked amniotic membrane (AM on limbal epithelial cell (LEC cultivation. Results of ninhydrin assays demonstrated that the amount of new cross-links formed between the collagen chains is significantly increased with increasing the cross-linking time from 1 to 24 hours. By transmission electron microscopy, the AM treated with GTA for a longer duration exhibited a greater extent of molecular aggregation, thereby leading to a considerable increase in nanofiber diameter and resistance against collagenase degradation. In vitro biocompatibility studies showed that the samples cross-linked with GTA for 24 hours are not well-tolerated by the human corneal epithelial cell cultures. When the treatment duration is less than 6 hours, the biological tissues cross-linked with GTA for a longer time may cause slight reductions in 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl-2-(4-sulfophenyl-2H-tetrazolium, inner salt, and anti-inflammatory activities. Nevertheless, significant collagen molecular aggregation also enhances the stemness gene expression, indicating a high ability of these AM matrices to preserve the progenitors of LECs in vitro. It is concluded that GTA cross-linking of collagenous tissue materials may affect their nanofibrous

  17. Total inelastic cross sections for potassium ion--atom collisions: Oscillations in the velocity dependence and correlation with molecular structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aquilanti, V.; Casavecchia, P.

    1976-01-01

    Electronic excitation leading to light emission in the wavelength range 350--800 nm has been studied by a crossed ion--atom beam technique for (K + , K) collisions, and the results are interpreted in terms of properties of the potential energy curves for the molecular ion K + 2 . The investigated velocity range is (1.3--12) x10 6 cm s -1 . The total cross section for the process K + (3p 6 1 S 0 ) +K(4s 2 S 1 / 2 ) →K + (3p 6 1 S 0 ) +K(4p 2 P 3 / 2 , 1 / 2 ) increases from threshold up to approx.10 -15 cm 2 at a velocity of approx.4.5x10 6 cm s -1 , and shows an oscillatory structure. The magnitude and over-all velocity dependence are attributed to a Σ--Pi curve crossing, and the oscillations to an interference effect, which is treated as an inelastic ''glory'' phenomenon. Cross sections for production of each of the fine structure components of K(4p), 2 P 3 / 2 , and 2 P 1 / 2 , have also been measured. Their ratio, which in the investigated velocity range is different from the statistical value, shows additional oscillations, which are discussed in terms of long range interference between alternate semiclassical paths

  18. A structural and kinetic study on myofibrils prevented from shortening by chemical cross-linking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, C; Sleep, J; Chaussepied, P; Travers, F; Barman, T

    1993-07-20

    In previous work, we studied the early steps of the Mg(2+)-ATPase activity of Ca(2+)-activated myofibrils [Houadjeto, M., Travers, F., & Barman, T. (1992) Biochemistry 31, 1564-1569]. The myofibrils were free to contract, and the results obtained refer to the ATPase cycle of myofibrils contracting with no external load. Here we studied the ATPase of myofibrils contracting isometrically. To prevent shortening, we cross-linked them with 1-ethyl-3-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl]carbodiimide (EDC). SDS-PAGE and Western blot analyses showed that the myosin rods were extensively cross-linked and that 8% of the myosin heads were cross-linked to the thin filament. The transient kinetics of the cross-linked myofibrils were studied in 0.1 M potassium acetate, pH 7.4 and 4 degrees C, by the rapid-flow quench method. The ATP binding steps were studied by the cold ATP chase and the cleavage and release of products steps by the Pi burst method. In Pi burst experiments, the sizes of the bursts were equal within experimental error to the ATPase site concentrations (as determined by the cold ATP chase methods) for both cross-linked (isometric) and un-cross-linked (isotonic) myofibrils. This shows that in both cases the rate-limiting step is after the cleavage of ATP. When cross-linked, the kcat of Ca(2+)-activated myofibrils was reduced from 1.7 to 0.8 s-1. This is consistent with the observation that fibers shortening at moderate velocity have a higher ATPase activity than isometric fibers.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. SUBJECTIVITIES OF SURVIVAL: CONCEPTUALISING JUST RESPONSES TO DISPLACEMENT, CROSS-BORDER MIGRATION AND STRUCTURAL VIOLENCE IN SOUTH AFRICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holscher, Dorothee

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the implications for social work of displacement, migration and structural violence in urban South Africa. To this end, I explore the life stories of five cross-border migrants. I find that all five form part of South Africa’s larger pool of surplus populations but face additional, citizenship-based forms of exclusion. Even though generally self-reliant, all of them experienced cumulative agency constraints and felt vulnerable. Against this background, I propose that current, refugee-centred services should be expanded and that interventions should be carefully balanced to attend to structural issues, inter-group conflict and the range of vulnerabilities articulated by cross-border migrants.

  20. Resonance structure of 32S+n from measurements of neutron total and capture cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halperin, J.; Johnson, C.H.; Winters, R.R.; Macklin, R.L.

    1980-01-01

    Neutron total and capture cross sections of 32 S have been measured up to 1100 keV neutron energy [E/sub exc/( 33 S) =9700 keV]. Spin and parity assignments have been made for 28 of the 64 resonances found in this region. Values of total radiation widths, reduced neutron widths, level spacings, and neutron strength functions have been evaluated for s/sub 1/2/, p/sub 1/2/, p/sub 3/2/, and d/sub 5/2/ levels. Single particle contributions using the valency model account for a significant portion of the total radiation width only for the p/sub 1/2/-wave resonances. A significant number of resonances can be identified with reported levels excited in 32 S(d,p) and 29 Si(α,n) reactions. A calculation of the Maxwellian average cross section appropriate to stellar interiors indicates an average capture cross section at 30 keV, sigma-bar approx. = 4.2(2) mb, a result that is relatively insensitive to the assumed stellar temperature. Direct (potential) capture and the s-wave resonance capture contributions to the thermal capture cross section do not fully account for the reported thermal cross section (530 +- 40 mb) and a bound state is invoked to account for the discrepancy

  1. Structural and Functional Characterization of an Ancient Bacterial Transglutaminase Sheds Light on the Minimal Requirements for Protein Cross-Linking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Catarina G; Plácido, Diana; Lousa, Diana; Brito, José A; Isidro, Anabela; Soares, Cláudio M; Pohl, Jan; Carrondo, Maria A; Archer, Margarida; Henriques, Adriano O

    2015-09-22

    Transglutaminases are best known for their ability to catalyze protein cross-linking reactions that impart chemical and physical resilience to cellular structures. Here, we report the crystal structure and characterization of Tgl, a transglutaminase from the bacterium Bacillus subtilis. Tgl is produced during sporulation and cross-links the surface of the highly resilient spore. Tgl-like proteins are found only in spore-forming bacteria of the Bacillus and Clostridia classes, indicating an ancient origin. Tgl is a single-domain protein, produced in active form, and the smallest transglutaminase characterized to date. We show that Tgl is structurally similar to bacterial cell wall endopeptidases and has an NlpC/P60 catalytic core, thought to represent the ancestral unit of the cysteine protease fold. We show that Tgl functions through a unique partially redundant catalytic dyad formed by Cys116 and Glu187 or Glu115. Strikingly, the catalytic Cys is insulated within a hydrophobic tunnel that traverses the molecule from side to side. The lack of similarity of Tgl to other transglutaminases together with its small size suggests that an NlpC/P60 catalytic core and insulation of the active site during catalysis may be essential requirements for protein cross-linking.

  2. Site-directed cross-linking: establishing the dimeric structure of the aspartate receptor of bacterial chemotaxis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milligan, D.L.; Koshland, D.E. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Cysteine residues introduced at specific locations in the aspartate receptor of Salmonella typhimurium provide anchor points for cross-linking and serve as chemical markers for structural studies of this oligomeric receptor. These markers have been used to measure the rate of subunit exchange between oligomeric receptors and to show that ligand binding inhibits this exchange. The cysteine-containing receptors can be oxidatively cross-linked to completion within the oligomeric receptor, indicating that the receptor has an even number of subunits. Based on this observation, a technique has been developed that can be used to determine the oligomeric structure of proteins under a variety of experimental conditions. The technique involves the measurement of the effect of dilution by cysteineless receptor subunits on cross-linking and reveals that the aspartate receptor is dimeric in detergent solution, in a mixed-micelle system, and in reconstituted membrane vesicles. Binding of aspartate does not change the oligomeric structure of the receptor, indicating that transmembrane signaling occurs within an oligomeric receptor of constant size

  3. Femtosecond laser-induced cross-periodic structures on a crystalline silicon surface under low pulse number irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xu; Jiang, Lan; Li, Xiaowei; Han, Weina; Liu, Yang; Wang, Andong; Lu, Yongfeng

    2015-01-01

    A cross-patterned surface periodic structure in femtosecond laser processing of crystalline silicon was revealed under a relatively low shots (4 energy slightly higher than the ablation threshold. The experimental results indicated that the cross-pattern was composed of mutually orthogonal periodic structures (ripples). Ripples with a direction perpendicular to laser polarization (R⊥) spread in the whole laser-modified region, with the periodicity around 780 nm which was close to the central wavelength of the laser. Other ripples with a direction parallel to laser polarization (R‖) were found to be distributed between two of the adjacent ripples R⊥, with a periodicity about the sub-wavelength of the irradiated laser, 390 nm. The geometrical morphology of two mutually orthogonal ripples under static femtosecond laser irradiation could be continuously rotated as the polarization directions changed, but the periodicity remained almost unchanged. The underlying physical mechanism was revealed by numerical simulations based on the finite element method. It was found that the incubation effect with multiple shots, together with the redistributed electric field after initial ablation, plays a crucial role in the generation of the cross-patterned periodic surface structures.

  4. The impact of intermediate structure on the average fission cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouland, O.; Lynn, J.E.; Talou, P.

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses two common approximations used to calculate average fission cross sections over the compound energy range: the disregard of the W II factor and the Porter-Thomas hypothesis made on the double barrier fission width distribution. By reference to a Monte Carlo-type calculation of formal R-matrix fission widths, this work estimates an overall error ranging from 12% to 20% on the fission cross section in the case of the 239 Pu fissile isotope in the energy domain from 1 to 100 keV with very significant impact on the competing capture cross section. This work is part of a recent and very comprehensive formal R-matrix study over the Pu isotope series and is able to give some hints for significant accuracy improvements in the treatment of the fission channel. (authors)

  5. Simulations of the atomic structure, energetics, and cross slip of screw dislocations in copper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel; Leffers, Torben

    1997-01-01

    Using nanoscale atomistic simulations it has been possible to address the problem of cross slip of a dissociated screw dislocation in an fee metal (Cu) by a method not suffering from the limitations imposed by elasticity theory. The focus has been on different dislocation configurations relevant...... linear-elasticity theory showing recombination or repulsion of the partials near the free surface. Such recombination at the free surface might be important in the context of cross slip because it allows the creation of the above-mentioned energetically favorable constriction alone. In addition we...... to monitor the annihilation process, thereby determining the detailed dislocation reactions during annihilation....

  6. Cross-cultural opening in German outpatient mental healthcare service: an exploratory study of structural and procedural aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mösko, Mike-Oliver; Gil-Martinez, Fernanda; Schulz, Holger

    2013-01-01

    Mental healthcare services need to be sensitive towards the cultural needs of patients. Cross-cultural opening is an organizational process to fulfil these needs. This study aims to provide representative structural and procedural data regarding the use of German outpatient mental healthcare services by allochthonous patients, the diversity of psychotherapists in outpatient mental healthcare service, the cross-cultural encounters of therapists and the cross-cultural sensitivity of psychotherapists working in this healthcare area. Of all public outpatient psychotherapists in Hamburg, 81% (n = 485) participated in this survey. Regarding the distribution of the population in this metropolis, allochthonous therapists were underrepresented. Unlike the overall distribution of foreign inhabitants, the largest groups of immigrant therapists came from England, German-speaking countries and other countries within the European Union. The proportion of allochthonous patients in outpatient mental healthcare service was almost half of the proportion of the allochthonous in the general population. Psychotherapists with a migration background regarded themselves as having a higher level of cross-cultural sensitivity than their native colleagues, especially those who have had fewer cross-cultural encounters. Overall, psychotherapists named different challenges in providing cross-cultural treatment. For the German outpatient mental healthcare service to be more accessible to immigrants and their descendants, a greater number of bilingual psychotherapists must gain access to the mental healthcare service, and more advanced cross-cultural sensitivity training and supervision should be provided. German outpatient psychotherapists are culturally and linguistically diverse. Nevertheless, psychotherapists with a migration background are underrepresented in outpatient mental healthcare services. Patients with a migration background are also underrepresented in the German outpatient mental

  7. Flame Structure of Vitiated Fuel-Rich Inverse Diffusion Flames in a Cross-Flow (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    downstream of the slot. The flame length increases as the blowing ratio increases as a result of the greater mass of air which reacts. Ignition of...attributed to the greater penetration of the jet into the cross-stream. It is noted that the flame lengths are similar for the different blowing ratios

  8. Structural attributes of two old-growth Cross Timbers stands in western Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Don C. Bragg; David W. Stahle; K. Chris Cerny

    2012-01-01

    Comprised of largely non-commercial, xeric, oak-dominated forests, the Cross Timbers in Arkansas have been heavily altered over the last two centuries, and thus only scattered parcels of old-growth timber remain. We inventoried and mapped two such stands on Fort Chaffee Military Training Center in Sebastian County, Arkansas. The west-facing Christmas Knob site is...

  9. Mesoscale structure and techno-functional properties of enzymatically cross-linked a-lactalbumin nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dhayal, S.K.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract

    The aim of this thesis is to understand the connection between molecular, meso and macroscales of enzymatically cross-linked proteins. It was hypothesised that the techno-functional properties at macroscale, such as bulk rheology and foam stability, are affected

  10. Structural Covariates of Homicide Rates : A European City Cross-National Comparative Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McCall, Patricia L.; Nieuwbeerta, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Most previous empirical comparative studies of homicide examine homicide rates across nations or subnational units within a single country. This study is the first in which a European cross-national city comparison is made. The article aims to provide insight into the extent that the homicide rates

  11. A displacement-based approach for determining non-linear effects on pre-tensioned-cable cross-braced structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giaccu, Gian Felice; Caracoglia, Luca

    2017-04-01

    Pre-tensioned-cable bracing systems are widely employed in structural engineering to limit lateral deflections and stabilize structures. A suitable configuration of the pre-tensioned-cable bracing systems in a structure is an important issue since the internal force distribution, emerging from the interaction with the existing structure, significantly affects the structural dynamic behavior. The design, however, is often based on the intuition and the previous experience of the engineer. In recent years, the authors have been investigating the non-linear dynamic response of cable systems, installed on cable-stayed bridges, and in particular the so-called "cable-cross-tie systems" forming a cable network. The bracing cables (cross-ties) can exhibit slackening or snapping. Therefore, a non-linear unilateral model, combined with the taut-cable theory, is required to simulate the incipient slackening conditions in the stays. Capitalizing from this work on non-linear cable dynamics, this paper proposes a new approach to analyze, in laterally- braced truss structures, the unilateral effects and dynamic response accounting for the loss in the pre-tensioning force imparted to the bracing cables. This effect leads to non-linear vibration of the structure. In this preliminary study, the free vibrations of the structure are investigated by using the "Equivalent Linearization Method". A performance coefficient, a real positive number between 0.5 and 1.0, is defined and employed to monitor the relative reduction in the apparent stiffness of the braces during structural vibration, "mode by mode". It is shown that the system can exhibit alternate unilateral behavior of the cross-braces. A reduction of the performance coefficient close to fifty percent is observed in the braces when the initial pre-tensioning force is small. On the other hand the performance coefficient tends to one in the case of a high level of pre-stress. It is concluded that the performance coefficient may

  12. Lumbar muscle structure and function in chronic versus recurrent low back pain: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goubert, Dorien; De Pauw, Robby; Meeus, Mira; Willems, Tine; Cagnie, Barbara; Schouppe, Stijn; Van Oosterwijck, Jessica; Dhondt, Evy; Danneels, Lieven

    2017-09-01

    Heterogeneity exists within the low back pain (LBP) population. Some patients recover after every pain episode, whereas others suffer daily from LBP complaints. Until now, studies rarely make a distinction between recurrent low back pain (RLBP) and chronic low back pain (CLBP), although both are characterized by a different clinical picture. Clinical experiences also indicate that heterogeneity exists within the CLBP population. Muscle degeneration, like atrophy, fat infiltration, alterations in muscle fiber type, and altered muscle activity, compromises proper biomechanics and motion of the spinal units in LBP patients. The amount of alterations in muscle structure and muscle function of the paraspinal muscles might be related to the recurrence or chronicity of LBP. The aim of this experimental study is to evaluate differences in muscle structure (cross-sectional area and lean muscle fat index) and muscle activity of the multifidus (MF) and erector spinae (ES) during trunk extension, in patients with RLBP, non-continuous CLBP, and continuous CLBP. This cross-sectional study took place in the university hospital of Ghent, Belgium. Muscle structure characteristics and muscle activity were assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Fifty-five adults with non-specific LBP (24 RLBP in remission, 15 non-continuous CLBP, 16 continuous CLBP) participated in this study. Total cross-sectional area, muscle cross-sectional area, fat cross-sectional area, lean muscle fat index, T2-rest and T2-shift were assessed. A T1-weighted Dixon MRI scan was used to evaluate spinal muscle cross-sectional area and fat infiltration in the lumbar MF and ES. Muscle functional MRI was used to evaluate the muscle activity of the lumbar MF and ES during a lumbar extension exercise. Before and after the exercise, a pain assessment was performed. This study was supported by grants from the Special Research Fund of Ghent University (DEF12/AOP/022) without potential conflict of interest

  13. Effective cross-section for dimuon production and experimental determination of the hadronic structure functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisz, S.

    1982-07-01

    High mass dimuon hadronic production is studied. This study is aimed at pion structure determination. The device is presented. The accessible luminosity is more than one scale order beyond the preceeding experiment one. The performant beam, the great acceptance and the good high mass dimuon selection are described. Parton model is introduced. Drell-Yann mechanism is reviewed. Hadronic structure, revealed during high mass muon pair production, is presented. In particular, pion structure is determined [fr

  14. Influence of weld structure on cross-weld creep behavior in P23 steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, D.J.; Degnan, C.C. [E.ON Engineering (United Kingdom); Brett, S.J. [RWE npower (United Kingdom); Buchanan, L.W. [Doosan Babcock (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-01

    A thick section pipe weld in low alloy steel P23 has been characterised by cross-weld creep rupture testing at a range of stresses, together with all-weld-metal and parent material testing, under the auspices of the UK High Temperature Power Plant Forum. The results generally show that the weld metal can be weak when tested in the transverse (cross-weld) orientation, and can fail with limited overall ductility by cracking in the zone of refined weld metal beneath the fusion boundary of the superposed weld bead. However, one specimen showed a much superior performance, which could be understood in terms of its locally more creep resistant weld macrostructure. The implications for P23 performance and weld manufacture are discussed. (orig.)

  15. Influence of structural properties on ballistic transport in nanoscale epitaxial graphene cross junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bock, Claudia; Weingart, Sonja; Karaissaridis, Epaminondas; Kunze, Ulrich; Speck, Florian; Seyller, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the influence of material and device properties on the ballistic transport in epitaxial monolayer graphene and epitaxial quasi-free-standing monolayer graphene. Our studies comprise (a) magneto-transport in two-dimensional (2D) Hall bars, (b) temperature- and magnetic-field-dependent bend resistance of unaligned and step-edge-aligned orthogonal cross junctions, and (c) the influence of the lead width of the cross junctions on ballistic transport. We found that ballistic transport is highly sensitive to scattering at the step edges of the silicon carbide substrate. A suppression of the ballistic transport is observed if the lead width of the cross junction is reduced from 50 nm to 30 nm. In a 50 nm wide device prepared on quasi-free-standing graphene we observe a gradual transition from the ballistic into the diffusive transport regime if the temperature is increased from 4.2 to about 50 K, although 2D Hall bars show a temperature-independent mobility. Thus, in 1D devices additional temperature-dependent scattering mechanisms play a pivotal role. (paper)

  16. Contribution of large-scale coherent structures towards the cross flow in two interconnected channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmood, A.; Rohde, M.; Hagen, T.H.J.J. van der; Mudde, R.F.

    2009-01-01

    Single phase cross flow through a gap region joining two vertical channels has been investigated experimentally for Reynolds numbers, based on the channels hydraulic diameter, ranging from 850 to 21000. The flow field in the gap region is investigated by 2D-PIV and the inter channel mass transfer is quantified by the tracer injection method. Experiments carried out for variable gap heights and shape show the existence of a street of large-scale counter rotating vortices on either side of the channel-gap interface, resulting from the mean velocity gradient in the gap and the main channel region. The appearance of the coherent vortices is subject to a threshold associated with the difference between the maximum and the minimum average stream wise velocities in the channel and the gap region, respectively. The auto power spectral density of the cross velocity component in the gap region exhibits a slope of -3 in the inertial range, indicating the 2D nature of these vortices. The presence of the large-scale vortices enhances the mass transfer through the gap region by approximately 63% of the mass transferred by turbulent mixing alone. The inter-channel mass transfer, due to cross flow, is found to be dependent not only on the large-scale vortices characteristics, but also on the gap geometry. (author)

  17. The structure of the mite allergen Blo t 1 explains the limited antibody cross-reactivity to Der p 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meno, Kåre H; Kastrup, Jette S; Kuo, I-Chun

    2017-01-01

    , recombinant proBlo t 1 (rproBlo t 1), determined at 2.1 Å resolution. Overall, the fold of rproBlo t 1 is characteristic for the pro-form of cysteine proteases from the C1A class. Structural comparison of experimentally mapped Der f 1/Der p1 IgG epitopes to the same surface patch on Blo t 1, as well...... as of sequence identity of surface exposed residues, suggests limited cross-reactivity between these allergens and Blo t 1. This is in agreement with ELISA inhibition results showing that, although cross-reactive human IgE epitopes exist, there are unique IgE epitopes for both Blo t 1 and Der p 1. This article...

  18. Influence of crossed fields in structures combining large grain, bulk (RE)BCO superconductors and soft ferromagnetic discs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philippe, M P; Fagnard, J F; Wéra, L; Vanderheyden, B; Vanderbemden, P; Morita, M; Nariki, S; Teshima, H; Caps, H

    2016-01-01

    Bulk (RE)BCO superconductors are able to trap record magnetic fields and can be used as powerful permanent magnets in various engineering applications such as rotating machines and magnetic bearings. When such superconducting (SC) “trapped field magnets” are combined to a ferromagnetic (FM) disc, the total magnetic moment is increased with respect to that of the superconductor alone. In the present work, we study experimentally the magnetic behaviour of such hybrid FM/SC structures when they are subjected to cycles of applied field that are orthogonal to their permanent magnetization, i.e. a “crossed-field” configuration. Experimental results show that the usual “crossed-field demagnetization” caused by the cycles of transverse field is strongly reduced in the presence of the ferromagnet. (paper)

  19. Chemical cross-linking and mass spectrometry for protein structural modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Back, Jaap Willem; de Jong, Luitzen; Muijsers, Anton O.; de Koster, Chris G.

    2003-01-01

    The growth of gene and protein sequence information is currently so rapid that three-dimensional structural information is lacking for the overwhelming majority of known proteins. In this review, efforts towards rapid and sensitive methods for protein structural characterization are described,

  20. Cross-bidge Kelvin resistor (CBKR) structures for measurement of low contact resistances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stavitski, N.; Klootwijk, J.H.; van Zeijl, H.W.; Boksteen, B.K.; Boksteen, B.K.; Kovalgin, Alexeij Y.; Wolters, Robertus A.M.

    2007-01-01

    A convenient test structure for measurement of the specific contact resistance (�?c) of metal-semiconductor junctions is the CBKR structure. During last few decades the parasitic factors which may strongly affect the measurements accuracy for �?c < 10-6 Ω • cm2 have been sufficiently discussed and

  1. Using cross correlations of turbulent flow-induced ambient vibrations to estimate the structural impulse response. Application to structural health monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabra, Karim G; Winkel, Eric S; Bourgoyne, Dwayne A; Elbing, Brian R; Ceccio, Steve L; Perlin, Marc; Dowling, David R

    2007-04-01

    It has been demonstrated theoretically and experimentally that an estimate of the impulse response (or Green's function) between two receivers can be obtained from the cross correlation of diffuse wave fields at these two receivers in various environments and frequency ranges: ultrasonics, civil engineering, underwater acoustics, and seismology. This result provides a means for structural monitoring using ambient structure-borne noise only, without the use of active sources. This paper presents experimental results obtained from flow-induced random vibration data recorded by pairs of accelerometers mounted within a flat plate or hydrofoil in the test section of the U.S. Navy's William B. Morgan Large Cavitation Channel. The experiments were conducted at high Reynolds number (Re > 50 million) with the primary excitation source being turbulent boundary layer pressure fluctuations on the upper and lower surfaces of the plate or foil. Identical deterministic time signatures emerge from the noise cross-correlation function computed via robust and simple processing of noise measured on different days by a pair of passive sensors. These time signatures are used to determine and/or monitor the structural response of the test models from a few hundred to a few thousand Hertz.

  2. Wakefield accelerator with hybrid plasma-dielectric structure of rectangular cross-section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiselev, V.A.; Linnik, A.F.; Mirnyj, V.I.; Onishchenko, I.N.; Uskov, V.V.

    2010-01-01

    Increase of wakefield intensity at its excitation by a long train of relativistic electron bunches in the rectangular dielectric structure when it is filled with plasma of resonant density was experimentally observed. The first portion of the bunches, produced by electron linac 'Almaz-2', ionizes gas at atmospheric pressure so that plasma frequency becomes equal to bunch repetition frequency and to the frequency of principal Eigen mode of the dielectric structure. Excitation enhancement at such resonant conditions is being studied taking into account the improvement of bunch train propagation in the transit channel caused by charge compensation with plasma and the electrodynamics change of the dielectric structure at filling with plasma.

  3. Nuclear hyperfine structure of muonium in CuCl resolved by means of avoided level crossing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, J.W.; Celio, M.; Keller, H.; Kuendig, W.; Odermatt, W.; Puempin, B.; Savic, I.M.; Simmler, H.; Estle, T.L.; Schwab, C.; Kiefl, R.F.; Renker, D.

    1990-01-01

    We report detailed avoided-level-crossing spectra of a muonium center (Mu II ) in single-crystal CuCl in a magnetic field range of 4--5 T and at a temperature of 100 K. The hyperfine parameters of the muon and the closest two shells of nuclei indicate that this center consists of muonium at a tetrahedral interstice with four Cu nearest neighbors and six Cl next-nearest neighbors and that the spin density is appreciable on the muon and on the ten neighboring nuclei but negligible elsewhere

  4. The Higher Order Structure of Environmental Attitudes: A Cross-Cultural Examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taciano L. Milfont

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Past research has suggested that Preservation and Utilization are the two higher order dimensions forming the hierarchical structure of environmental attitudes. This means that these two higher order dimensions could group all kinds of perceptions or beliefs regarding the natural environment people have. A crosscultural study was conducted in Brazil, New Zealand, and South Africa to test this hierarchical structure of environmental attitudes. Results from single- and multi-group confirmatory factor analyses demonstrated that environmental attitudes are a multidimensional construct, and that their first-order factors associate to each other to form a vertical structure. However, the question whether the vertical structure comprise a single higher order factor or two higher order factors still remains unanswered. These results are discussed and directions for future research trying to demonstrate that Preservation and Utilization, taken as distinct second-order environmental attitudes factors, are more empirically meaningful than a single and generalised environmental attitudes higher order factor are presented.

  5. Interpreting Interfacial Structure in Cross-Sectional STM Images of III-V Semiconductor Heterostructures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nosho, B. Z; Barvosa-Carter, W; Yang, M. J; Bennett, B. R; Whitman, L. J

    2000-01-01

    ...) can be used for the study of III-V heterostructure interfaces. The interpretation of interfacial structure in XSTM images is impeded by the fact that only every other III or V plane as grown on the (001...

  6. The Electronic Structure Signature of the Spin Cross-Over Transition of [Co(dpzca)2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Mu, Sai; Liu, Yang; Luo, Jian; Zhang, Jian; N'Diaye, Alpha T.; Enders, Axel; Dowben, Peter A.

    2018-05-01

    The unoccupied electronic structure of the spin crossover molecule cobalt (II) N-(2-pyrazylcarbonyl)-2-pyrazinecarboxamide, [Co(dpzca)2] was investigated, using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and compared with magnetometry (SQUID) measurements. The temperature dependence of the XAS and molecular magnetic susceptibility χmT are in general agreement for [Co(dpzca)2], and consistent with density functional theory (DFT). This agreement of magnetic susceptibility and X-ray absorption spectroscopy provides strong evidence that the changes in magnetic moment can be ascribed to changes in electronic structure. Calculations show the choice of Coulomb correlation energy U has a profound effect on the electronic structure of the low spin state, but has little influence on the electronic structure of the high spin state. In the temperature dependence of the XAS, there is also evidence of an X-ray induced excited state trapping for [Co(dpzca)2] at 15 K.

  7. A new sum rule relating the deep-inelastic polarized structure function to the cross section of photoproduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koretune, Susumu

    1993-01-01

    A sum rule which relates the deep-inelastic polarized structure function g 1 p (x,Q 2 ) to the cross section of photoproduction, (σ 3/2 -σ 1/2 ), is derived. This rule makes it possible to compare the integral of g 1 p (x,Q 2 ) with the Drell-Hearn-Gerasimov sum rule without worrying about contributions from higher twist terms. Further this sum rule shows that there may exist a dynamical mechanism which relates the low energy region to the high energy one. It is conjectured that the spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking of the vacuum is the origin of this mechanism. (author)

  8. Framing Attention in Japanese and American Comics: Cross-Cultural Differences in Attentional Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Neil; Taylor-Weiner, Amaro; Grossman, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    Research on visual attention has shown that Americans tend to focus more on focal objects of a scene while Asians attend to the surrounding environment. The panels of comic books – the narrative frames in sequential images – highlight aspects of a scene comparably to how attention becomes focused on parts of a spatial array. Thus, we compared panels from American and Japanese comics to explore cross-cultural cognition beyond behavioral experimentation by looking at the expressive mediums produced by individuals from these cultures. This study compared the panels of two genres of American comics (Independent and Mainstream comics) with mainstream Japanese “manga” to examine how different cultures and genres direct attention through the framing of figures and scenes in comic panels. Both genres of American comics focused on whole scenes as much as individual characters, while Japanese manga individuated characters and parts of scenes. We argue that this framing of space from American and Japanese comic books simulate a viewer’s integration of a visual scene, and is consistent with the research showing cross-cultural differences in the direction of attention. PMID:23015794

  9. Musharakah Tijarah Cross-Border Financing: Concept, Structure and Salient Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharullizuannizam Salehuddin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Musharakah Tijarah Cross-Border Financing (“Product” is the product to enable the Bank to undertake project and contract cross-border financing activities or other identified business ventures on “pure” Joint Venture basis, using the underlying Islamic financing contract of Musharakah. Musharakah concept has a low market share of less than 2.5% in the overall existing Islamic financing products in Malaysia. This product encourages mobilization of idle capital / cash entities and thus provides a basis for economic cooperation between these organizations in the society. The product also is expected to inject greater prosper to the Bank’s overall performance and ultimately able to assist small time landowners in a big way through business risk sharing. Musharakah provides an alternative investment, which will cater for Islamic investors and partners, especially from GCC, who may have been reluctant to invest in conventional or current debt-based financing scheme. With Musharakah concept, the most preferred and globally accepted Islamic financing, this can attract these investors to participate on similar risk-sharing arrangements through the creation of Specific Investment Account (SIA or Islamic Syndication to back financing made into the Joint Venture.

  10. Framing attention in Japanese and American comics: Cross-cultural differences in attentional structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil eCohn

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Research on visual attention has shown that Americans tend to focus more on focal objects of a scene while Asians attend to the surrounding environment. The panels of comic books— the narrative frames in sequential images—highlight aspects of a scene comparably to how attention becomes focused on parts of a spatial array. Thus, we compared panels from American and Japanese comics to explore cross-cultural cognition beyond behavioral experimentation by looking at the expressive mediums produced by individuals from these cultures. This study compared the panels of two genres of American comics (Independent and Mainstream comics with mainstream Japanese manga to examine how different cultures and genres direct attention through the framing of figures and scenes in comic panels. Both genres of American comics focused on whole scenes as much as individual characters, while Japanese manga individuated characters and parts of scenes. We argue that this framing of space from American and Japanese comic books simulate a viewer’s integration of a visual scene, and is consistent with the research showing cross-cultural differences in the direction of attention.

  11. Framing attention in Japanese and american comics: cross-cultural differences in attentional structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Neil; Taylor-Weiner, Amaro; Grossman, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    Research on visual attention has shown that Americans tend to focus more on focal objects of a scene while Asians attend to the surrounding environment. The panels of comic books - the narrative frames in sequential images - highlight aspects of a scene comparably to how attention becomes focused on parts of a spatial array. Thus, we compared panels from American and Japanese comics to explore cross-cultural cognition beyond behavioral experimentation by looking at the expressive mediums produced by individuals from these cultures. This study compared the panels of two genres of American comics (Independent and Mainstream comics) with mainstream Japanese "manga" to examine how different cultures and genres direct attention through the framing of figures and scenes in comic panels. Both genres of American comics focused on whole scenes as much as individual characters, while Japanese manga individuated characters and parts of scenes. We argue that this framing of space from American and Japanese comic books simulate a viewer's integration of a visual scene, and is consistent with the research showing cross-cultural differences in the direction of attention.

  12. New global fit to the total photon-proton cross-section σL+T and to the structure function F2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabbert, D.; Nardo, L. de

    2007-08-01

    A fit to world data on the photon-proton cross section σ L+T and the unpolarised structure function F 2 is presented. The 23-parameter ALLM model based on Reggeon and Pomeron exchange is used. Cross section data were reconstructed to avoid inconsistencies with respect to R of the published F 2 data base. Parameter uncertainties and correlations are obtained. (orig.)

  13. Chemical cross-linked polyvinyl alcohol/cellulose nanocrystal composite films with high structural stability by spraying Fenton reagent as initiator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Meili; Yu, Houyong; Gu, Jiping; Ye, Shounuan; Zhou, Yuwei

    2018-07-01

    Cross-linked polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) composite films with high structural stability were prepared by free radical copolymerization between cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) and maleic anhydride (MAH) modified PVA through spraying Fenton free radical as initiator. The influence of chemical cross-linked and physical network structure on mechanical, thermal and water absorption properties of the composite films were investigated. Compared to PVA and PVA/CNC composite film, significant improvements in the mechanical, thermal and water uptake properties of the cross-linked composite film were found. The tensile strength of the cross-linked composite film was enhanced from 23.1MPa (neat PVA film) and 32.6MPa (PVA/CNC-10%) to 42.5MPa, and the maximum thermal degradation temperature was increased from 266.8°C and 281.2°C to 366.7°C (cross-linked composite film). Besides, the water absorption was reduced from 385.9% and 220.6% to 175.7% for cross-linked composite film. It indicates that compared with physical network structure in PVA/CNC composite film, the multiple cross-linked networks showed excellent thermal stability, resistance of water swelling and structural stability at the same CNC loading level. Thus, the PVA/CNC composite film with the multiple cross-linked network shows greater property reinforcements. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Differential cross sections of fine-structure transitions in K(4P)-He and -Ar collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mestdagh, J.M.; de Pujo, P.; Pascale, J.; Cuvellier, J.; Berlande, J.

    1987-01-01

    Differential cross sections for the transition K(4P/sub 3/2/→4P/sub 1/2/) induced by He and Ar have been studied both experimentally and theoretically. Calculations were performed using a full quantal close-coupling formalism. The angular distribution of the scattered atoms is measured by Doppler shift (ADDS method). The comparison with the theoretical calculations is performed on the basis of thorough kinematic analysis. In addition, the polarization effects corresponding to the experimental conditions are taken into account carefully. This allows one to test the accuracy of various interaction potentials available for the K-He and -Ar systems. The most interesting result concerns the K-He l-dependent pseudopotentials, which are found accurate to a sufficiently high level to allow good predictions of the observed differential cross-section patterns. In particular the positions and amplitudes of the cross-section oscillations at large center-of-mass scattering angles are well reproduced. The results for Ar show that the K-Ar potentials must be improved. Finally, taking the K(4P)-He fine-structure transition as an example, it has been shown how polarization effects may be used in ADDS measurements to obtain information on the dynamics of the collision process

  15. Plasma out of thermodynamical equilibrium: influence of the plasma environment on atomic structure and collisional cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belkhiri, Madeny

    2014-01-01

    In hot dense plasmas, the free-electron and ion spatial distribution may strongly affect the atomic structure. To account for such effects we have implemented a potential correction based on the uniform electron gas model and on a Thomas-Fermi Approach in the Flexible Atomic Code (FAC). This code has been applied to obtain energies, wave-functions and radiative rates modified by the plasma environment. In hydrogen-like ions, these numerical results have been successfully compared to an analytical calculation based on first-order perturbation theory. In the case of multi-electron ions, we observe level crossings in agreement with another recent model calculation. Various methods for the collision cross-section calculations are reviewed. The influence of plasma environment on these cross-sections is analyzed in detail. Some analytical expressions are proposed for hydrogen-like ions in the limit where Born or Lotz approximations apply and are compared to the numerical results from the FAC code. Finally, from this work, we study the influence of the plasma environment on our collisional-radiative model so-called Foch. Because of this environment, the mean charge state of the ions increases. The line shift is observed on the bound-bound emission spectra. A good agreement is found between our work and experimental data on a Titanium plasma. (author) [fr

  16. NIMS structural materials databases and cross search engine - MatNavi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamazaki, M.; Xu, Y.; Murata, M.; Tanaka, H.; Kamihira, K.; Kimura, K. [National Institute for Materials Science, Tokyo (Japan)

    2007-06-15

    Materials Database Station (MDBS) of National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS) owns the world's largest Internet materials database for academic and industry purpose, which is composed of twelve databases: five concerning structural materials, five concerning basic physical properties, one for superconducting materials and one for polymers. All of theses databases are opened to Internet access at the website of http://mits.nims.go.jp/en. Online tools for predicting properties of polymers and composite materials are also available. The NIMS structural materials databases are composed of structural materials data sheet online version (creep, fatigue, corrosion and space use materials strength), microstructure for crept material database, Pressure vessel materials database and CCT diagram for welding. (orig.)

  17. Formation of cross-cutting structures with different porosity on thick silicon wafers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera A. Yuzova

    2017-06-01

    The second type pass-through structures include a macroporous silicon layer with a thickness of 250 μm which interlock in the depth of the silicon wafer to form a cavity with a size of 4–8 μm. For the formation of the second type structures we only used the first one of the abovementioned stages, the etching time being longer, i.e. 210 min. All the etching procedures were carried out in a cooling chamber at 5 °C. The developed technology will provided for easier and more reliable formation of the monolithic structures of membrane-electrode assembly micro fuel cells.

  18. Description of nuclear structure and cross sections for nucleon-nucleus scattering on the basis of effective Skyrme forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuprikov, V. I.; Pilipenko, V. V.; Soznik, A. P.; Tarasov, V. N.; Shlyakhov, N. A.

    2009-01-01

    The possibility of constructing such new versions of effective nucleon-nucleon forces that would make it possible to describe simultaneously the cross sections for nucleon-nucleus scattering and quantities characterizing nuclear matter and the structure of finite even-even nuclei is investigated on the basis of a microscopic nucleon-nucleus optical potential that is calculated by using effective Skyrme interaction. A procedure for optimizing the parameters of Skyrme forces by employing fits to specific angular distributions for neutron-nucleus scattering and by simultaneously testing the features of nuclear matter, the binding energy of the target nucleus, and its proton root-mean-square radius is proposed. A number of versions of modified Skyrme forces that ensure a reasonable description of both nucleon-nucleus scattering and the properties of nuclear structure are found on the basis of this procedure.

  19. Chemical structure, biosynthesis and synthesis of free and glycosylated pyridinolines formed by cross-link of bone and synovium collagen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasia, Luigi; Rota, Paola; Anastasia, Mario; Allevi, Pietro

    2013-09-21

    This review focuses on the chemical structure, biosynthesis and synthesis of free and glycosylated pyridinolines (Pyds), fluorescent collagen cross-links, with a pyridinium salt structure. Pyds derive from the degradation of bone collagen and have attracted attention for their use as biochemical markers of bone resorption and to assess fracture risk prediction in persons suffering from osteoporosis, bone cancer and other bone or collagen diseases. We consider and critically discuss all reported syntheses of free and glycosylated Pyds evidencing an unrevised chemistry, original and of general utility, analysis of which allows us to also support a previously suggested non-enzymatic formation of Pyds in collagen better rationalizing and justifying the chemical events.

  20. Gender imbalance in infant mortality: a cross-national study of social structure and female infanticide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuse, Kana; Crenshaw, Edward M

    2006-01-01

    Sex differentials in infant mortality vary widely across nations. Because newborn girls are biologically advantaged in surviving to their first birthday, sex differentials in infant mortality typically arise from genetic factors that result in higher male infant mortality rates. Nonetheless, there are cases where mortality differentials arise from social or behavioral factors reflecting deliberate discrimination by adults in favor of boys over girls, resulting in atypical male to female infant mortality ratios. This cross-national study of 93 developed and developing countries uses such macro-social theories as modernization theory, gender perspectives, human ecology, and sociobiology/evolutionary psychology to predict gender differentials in infant mortality. We find strong evidence for modernization theory, human ecology, and the evolutionary psychology of group process, but mixed evidence for gender perspectives.

  1. The distortion of the magnetotail equilibrium structure by a net cross-tail magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birn, J.

    1990-01-01

    Observations have shown that in addition to a y component associated with the flaring of the tail, a net y component of the magnetic field can persist in the geomagnetic tail, roughly proportional to the interplanetary B y . The author uses the tail equilibrium theory outlined by Birn (1987) to construct self-consistent three-dimensional models of the tail that include this effect. He finds that the net B yN field varies only weakly along field lines and across the tail. The presence of the net B yN in the neutral sheet implies that a part of the cross-tail current becomes field-aligned, flowing from the southern to the northern hemisphere for B yN > 0 and from north to south for B yN yN for small values. For a typical value of 2% of the lobe field strength the author finds a total current of 4.4 x 10 5 A flowing toward one hemisphere at x = -20 R E . This current, however is not expected to reach the Earth, because it decreases strongly along each field line away from the neutral sheet, due to a conversion into perpendicular current. The deformations of magnetic flux surfaces, implied by the models, are not consistent with an entirely closed magnetotail boundary. They suggest that in addition to traditional lobe field lines, interconnected with the solar wind field at large distances or high latitudes, there may be a class of field lines extending from the Earth into the magnetosheath region through the low latitude flanks of the tail. These field lines, which might even be associated with positive B z at a neutral sheet crossing, effectively reduce the region of closed flux. For typical values of B yN of 2% of the lobe field this effect is small, but for values above about 10%, not extremely unusual, it can be appreciable

  2. An extension of the theory of planned behavior to predict pedestrians' violating crossing behavior using structural equation modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hongmei; Romero, Stephanie Ballon; Qin, Xiao

    2016-10-01

    This paper aimed to examine pedestrians' self-reported violating crossing behavior intentions by applying the theory of planned behavior (TPB). We studied the behavior intentions regarding instrumental attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, the three basic components of TPB, and extended the theory by adding new factors including descriptive norm, perceived risk and conformity tendency to evaluate their respective impacts on pedestrians' behavior intentions. A questionnaire presented with a scenario that pedestrians crossed the road violating the pedestrian lights at an intersection was designed, and the survey was conducted in Dalian, China. Based on the 260 complete and valid responses, reliability and validity of the data for each question was evaluated. The data were then analyzed by using the structural equation modeling (SEM). The results showed that people had a negative attitude toward the behavior of violating road-crossing rules; they perceived social influences from their family and friends; and they believed that this kind of risky behavior would potentially harm them in a traffic accident. The results also showed that instrumental attitude and subjective norm were significant in the basic TPB model. After adding descriptive norm, subjective norm was no more significant. Other models showed that conformity tendency was a strong predictor, indicating that the presence of other pedestrians would influence behavioral intention. The findings could help to design more effective interventions and safety campaigns, such as changing people's attitude toward this violation behavior, correcting the social norms, increasing their safety awareness, etc. in order to reduce pedestrians' road crossing violations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Habitat structure and body size distributions: Cross-ecosystem comparison for taxa with determinate and indeterminate growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Kirsty L.; Allen, Craig R.; Barichievy, Chris; Nystrom, Magnus; Sundstrom, Shana M.; Graham, Nicholas A.J.

    2014-01-01

    Habitat structure across multiple spatial and temporal scales has been proposed as a key driver of body size distributions for associated communities. Thus, understanding the relationship between habitat and body size is fundamental to developing predictions regarding the influence of habitat change on animal communities. Much of the work assessing the relationship between habitat structure and body size distributions has focused on terrestrial taxa with determinate growth, and has primarily analysed discontinuities (gaps) in the distribution of species mean sizes (species size relationships or SSRs). The suitability of this approach for taxa with indeterminate growth has yet to be determined. We provide a cross-ecosystem comparison of bird (determinate growth) and fish (indeterminate growth) body mass distributions using four independent data sets. We evaluate three size distribution indices: SSRs, species size–density relationships (SSDRs) and individual size–density relationships (ISDRs), and two types of analysis: looking for either discontinuities or abundance patterns and multi-modality in the distributions. To assess the respective suitability of these three indices and two analytical approaches for understanding habitat–size relationships in different ecosystems, we compare their ability to differentiate bird or fish communities found within contrasting habitat conditions. All three indices of body size distribution are useful for examining the relationship between cross-scale patterns of habitat structure and size for species with determinate growth, such as birds. In contrast, for species with indeterminate growth such as fish, the relationship between habitat structure and body size may be masked when using mean summary metrics, and thus individual-level data (ISDRs) are more useful. Furthermore, ISDRs, which have traditionally been used to study aquatic systems, present a potentially useful common currency for comparing body size distributions

  4. Review of beetle forewing structures and their biomimetic applications in China: (I) On the structural colors and the vertical and horizontal cross-sectional structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jinxiang; Xie, Juan; Wu, Zhishen; Elbashiry, Elsafi Mohamed Adam; Lu, Yun

    2015-10-01

    This paper discusses the progress made in China in terms of the structural colors, microstructure and mechanical properties of the beetle forewing. 1) The forewing microstructures can be classified into six phases, the first three of which are characterized by sandwich, multilayer and fiber layer structures, respectively. The fracture behaviors resulting from these three phases suggest that different scale microstructures or coupled adjacent scale microstructures can determine the macroscopic mechanical behavior of the forewing. 2) The forewing colors are derived from three features: regulation of the structural parameters of the internal optical structures, i.e., a sculpted multilayer composite two-dimensional nanopillar structure grating system; scattering on the three-dimensional surface of the bowl-shaped structure; and reversible color changes due to changes in the physical microstructure of fluffs. Their formation mechanisms were clarified, and fibers with ecological biomimetic structural colors have been developed. 3) Beetles exhibit a lightweight sectional frame structure with a trabecular core structure. Both of the joints on the left and right are concave-convex butt-joint structures with burrs, which provide an efficient docking mechanism with high intensity. The forewing of dichotoma exhibits a non-equiangular layered structure, which results in anisotropy in its tensile strength. Finally, the authors propose potential new research directions for the next 20 years. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A new helical crossed-fibre structure of β-keratin in flight feathers and its biomechanical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingham-Soliar, Theagarten; Murugan, Nelisha

    2013-01-01

    The feather aerofoil is unequalled in nature. It is comprised of a central rachis, serial paired branches or barbs, from which arise further branches, the barbules. Barbs and barbules arise from the significantly thinner lateral walls (the epicortex) of the rachis and barbs respectively, as opposed to the thicker dorsal and ventral walls (the cortex). We hypothesized a microstructural design of the epicortex that would resist the vertical or shearing stresses. The microstructures of the cortex and epicortex of the rachis and barbs were investigated in several bird species by microbe-assisted selective disassembly and conventional methods via scanning electron microscopy. We report, preeminent of the finds, a novel system of crossed fibres (ranging from ∼100-800 nm in diameter), oppositely oriented in alternate layers of the epicortex in the rachis and barbs. It represents the first cross-fibre microstructure, not only for the feather but in keratin per se. The cortex of the barbs is comprised of syncitial barbule cells, definitive structural units shown in the rachidial cortex in a related study. The structural connection between the cortex of the rachis and barbs appears uninterrupted. A new model on feather microstructure incorporating the findings here and in the related study is presented. The helical fibre system found in the integument of a diverse range of invertebrates and vertebrates has been implicated in profound functional strategies, perhaps none more so potentially than in the aerofoil microstructure of the feather here, which is central to one of the marvels of nature, bird flight.

  6. Design and analysis of a cross-type structured-illumination confocal microscope for high speed and high resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young-Duk; Ahn, MyoungKi; Kim, Taejoong; Gweon, DaeGab; Yoo, Hongki

    2012-01-01

    There have been many studies about a super resolution microscope for many years. A super resolution microscope can detect the physical phenomena or morphology of a biological sample more precisely than conventional microscopes. The structured-illumination microscope (SIM) is one of the technologies that demonstrate super resolution. However, the conventional SIM requires more time to obtain one resolution-enhanced image than other super resolution microscopes. More specifically, the conventional SIM uses three images with a 120° phase difference for each direction and three different directions are image-processed to make one resolution enhancement by increasing the optical transfer function in three directions. In this paper, we present a novel cross structured-illumination confocal microscope (CSICM) that takes the advantage of the technology of both SIM and the confocal microscope. The CSICM uses only two directions with three phase difference images, for a total of six images. By reducing the number of images that must be obtained, the total image acquisition time and image reconstruction time in obtaining the final output images can be decreased, and the confocal microscope provides axial information of the sample automatically. We demonstrate our method of cross illumination and evaluate the performance of the CSICM and compare it to the conventional SIM and the confocal microscope. (paper)

  7. A functional and structural basis for TCR cross-resctivity in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lang, Heather L.E.; Jacobsen, Helle; Ikemizu, S.

    2002-01-01

    influence susceptibility to MS. We demonstrate that a T cell receptor (TCR) from an MS patient recognized both a DRB1*1501-restricted myelin basic protein (MBP) and DRB5*0101-restricted Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) peptide. Crystal structure determination of the DRB5*0101-EBV peptide complex revealed a marked......-associated diseases....

  8. Cross-habitat interactions among bivalve species control community structure on intertidal flats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donadi, S.; van der Heide, T.; van der Zee, E.M.; Eklöf, J.S.; van de Koppel, J.; Weerman, E.J.; Piersma, T.; Olff, H.; Eriksson, B.K.

    2013-01-01

    Increasing evidence shows that spatial interactions between sedentary organisms can structure communities and promote landscape complexity in many ecosystems. Here we tested the hypothesis that reef-forming mussels (Mytilus edulis L.), a dominant intertidal ecosystem engineer in the Wadden Sea,

  9. Cross-habitat interactions among bivalve species control community structure on intertidal flats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donadi, Serena; van der Heide, Tjisse; van der Zee, Els M.; Eklöf, Johan S.; van de Koppel, Johan; Weerman, Ellen J.; Piersma, Theunis; Olff, Han; Eriksson, Britas Klemens

    Increasing evidence shows that spatial interactions between sedentary organisms can structure communities and promote landscape complexity in many ecosystems. Here we tested the hypothesis that reef-forming mussels (Mytilus edulis L.), a dominant intertidal ecosystem engineer in the Wadden Sea,

  10. Fine structure transition cross sections for several alkali+rare gas systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, R.E.

    1975-01-01

    The energy dependence E(cm) 2 P1/2→ 2 P3/2 fine structure transition of the lowest excited states of the alkali are calculated for the following systems: Na, K, Rb+He, Ne, Ar and Cs+He. Encouraging agreement between theory and experiment is obtained [fr

  11. Cross-Bridge Kelvin Resistor (CBKR) structures for silicide-semiconductor junctions characterization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stavitski, N.; van Dal, M.J.H.; Klootwijk, J.H.; Wolters, Robertus A.M.; Kovalgin, Alexeij Y.; Schmitz, Jurriaan

    2006-01-01

    Analyzing the contact geometry factors for the conventional CBKR structures, it appeared that the contact geometries conventionally used for the metal-to-silicide contact resistance measurements were not always satisfactory to reveal the specific contact resistance values. To investigate these

  12. Cross-Correlation-Based Structural System Identification Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyungchul Yoon

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Computer vision techniques have been employed to characterize dynamic properties of structures, as well as to capture structural motion for system identification purposes. All of these methods leverage image-processing techniques using a stationary camera. This requirement makes finding an effective location for camera installation difficult, because civil infrastructure (i.e., bridges, buildings, etc. are often difficult to access, being constructed over rivers, roads, or other obstacles. This paper seeks to use video from Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs to address this problem. As opposed to the traditional way of using stationary cameras, the use of UAVs brings the issue of the camera itself moving; thus, the displacements of the structure obtained by processing UAV video are relative to the UAV camera. Some efforts have been reported to compensate for the camera motion, but they require certain assumptions that may be difficult to satisfy. This paper proposes a new method for structural system identification using the UAV video directly. Several challenges are addressed, including: (1 estimation of an appropriate scale factor; and (2 compensation for the rolling shutter effect. Experimental validation is carried out to validate the proposed approach. The experimental results demonstrate the efficacy and significant potential of the proposed approach.

  13. Data Structuring and Modeling of Dental Documentation in a Form of Interactive Dental Cross

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dostálová, T.; Zvárová, Jana; Seydlová, M.; Teuberová, Z.; Pieš, Martin; Hanzlíček, Petr

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 3 (2007), s. 288-290 ISSN 1881-4581 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1ET200300413 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : electronic health record * structured data entry Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science

  14. Syntactic Processing in Korean-English Bilingual Production: Evidence from Cross-Linguistic Structural Priming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jeong-Ah; Christianson, Kiel

    2009-01-01

    A structural priming experiment investigated whether grammatical encoding in production consists of one or two stages and whether oral bilingual language production is shared at the functional or positional level [Bock, J. K., Levelt, W. (1994). Language production. Grammatical encoding. In M. A. Gernsbacher (Ed.), "Handbook of psycholinguistics"…

  15. International cross-border migration in the South-East Baltic: factors, structure, consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yemelyanova Larisa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of an integrated research encompassing both the study of migration processes in the South-East Baltic (volume, structure, directions and the analysis of factors affecting migration mobility of the population as well as the assessment of migration influence on the socioeconomic development of three border territories.

  16. Thematic mapping of basement-related cross-strike structural discontinuities and their relationship to potential oil-bearing structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iranpanah, A. (Dept. of Geology, Univ. of Pittsburg at Bradford, Bradford, PA (US))

    1989-10-01

    This paper reports how a digitally enhanced Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper mosaic (TM) data, a hand-held color space photograph from one of the early NASA satellite missions (Gemini), and field data were used to delineate three major basement-structural discontinuities (CSDs) with the Zagros Basin of southwestern Iran. Three major subparallel CSDs are, from north to south, Kazerun-Qatar (N05{sup {degrees}W} trend), Razak (N17{degrees}E trend), and Oman (N18{degrees}E). These subparallel CSDs subdivide the Zagros Basin into northern, central, and southern sub-basins. The Razak and Oman CSD enclose a relatively nonproductive area, separating the southern Zagros sub-basin from more productive regions to the northwest and the nonproductive Makran Ranges to the southeast where chromite and iron deposits are common. These findings suggest that CSD may serve as an exploration guide for hydrocarbons and economic mineral deposits, and as a model for developing the tectonic framework of sedimentary basins. The results of this investigation also prove that lineament analysis is a potentially effective method for interpreting the basement-related CSD within a basin setting.

  17. Stream Crossings

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Physical measurements and attributes of stream crossing structures and adjacent stream reaches which are used to provide a relative rating of aquatic organism...

  18. Cross-cultural evidence for the two-facet structure of pride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yan; Chung, Joanne M; Cheng, Joey T; Tracy, Jessica L; Robins, Richard W; Chen, Xiao; Zheng, Yong

    2015-04-01

    Across six studies conducted in Mainland China and South Korea, the present research extended prior findings showing that pride is comprised of two distinct conceptual and experiential facets in the U.S.: a pro-social, achievement-oriented "authentic pride", and an arrogant, self-aggrandizing "hubristic pride". This same two-facet structure emerged in Chinese participants' semantic conceptualizations of pride (Study 1), Chinese and Koreans' dispositional tendencies to experience pride (Studies 2, 3a, and 3b), Chinese and Koreans' momentary pride experiences (Studies 3a, 3b, and 5), and Americans' pride experiences using descriptors derived indigenously in Korea (Study 4). Together, these studies provide the first evidence that the two-facet structure of pride generalizes to cultures with highly divergent views of pride and self-enhancement processes from North America.

  19. Cross-cultural evidence for the two-facet structure of pride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yan; Chung, Joanne M.; Cheng, Joey T.; Tracy, Jessica L.; Robins, Richard W.; Chen, Xiao; Zheng, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Across six studies conducted in Mainland China and South Korea, the present research extended prior findings showing that pride is comprised of two distinct conceptual and experiential facets in the U.S.: a pro-social, achievement-oriented “authentic pride”, and an arrogant, self-aggrandizing “hubristic pride”. This same two-facet structure emerged in Chinese participants’ semantic conceptualizations of pride (Study 1), Chinese and Koreans’ dispositional tendencies to experience pride (Studies 2, 3a, and 3b), Chinese and Koreans’ momentary pride experiences (Studies 3a, 3b, and 5), and Americans’ pride experiences using descriptors derived indigenously in Korea (Study 4). Together, these studies provide the first evidence that the two-facet structure of pride generalizes to cultures with highly divergent views of pride and self-enhancement processes from North America. PMID:27158171

  20. Characterization of Piezoresistive PEDOT:PSS Pressure Sensors with Inter-Digitated and Cross-Point Electrode Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jer-Chyi Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The piezoresistive characteristics of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene:polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS pressure sensors with inter-digitated (IDE and cross-point electrode (CPE structures have been investigated. A small variation of the resistance of the pressure sensors with IDE without bottom indium-tin-oxide (b-ITO film and with CPE structures was observed owing to the single carrier-conducting pathway. For the IDE pressure sensors with b-ITO, the piezoresistive characteristics at low and high pressure were similar to those of the pressure sensors with IDE without b-ITO and with CPE structures, respectively, leading to increased piezoresistive pressure sensitivity as the PEDOT:PSS film thickness decreased. A maximum sensitivity of more than 42 kΩ/Pa was achieved. When the normal pressure was applied, the increased number of conducting points or the reduced distance between the PEDOT oligomers within the PEDOT:PSS film resulted in a decrease of the resistance. The piezoresistive pressure sensors with a single carrier-conducting pathway, i.e., IDE without b-ITO and CPE structures, exhibited a small relaxation time and a superior reversible operation, which can be advantageous for fast piezoresistive response applications.

  1. Characterization of piezoresistive PEDOT:PSS pressure sensors with inter-digitated and cross-point electrode structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jer-Chyi; Karmakar, Rajat Subhra; Lu, Yu-Jen; Huang, Chiung-Yin; Wei, Kuo-Chen

    2015-01-05

    The piezoresistive characteristics of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) pressure sensors with inter-digitated (IDE) and cross-point electrode (CPE) structures have been investigated. A small variation of the resistance of the pressure sensors with IDE without bottom indium-tin-oxide (b-ITO) film and with CPE structures was observed owing to the single carrier-conducting pathway. For the IDE pressure sensors with b-ITO, the piezoresistive characteristics at low and high pressure were similar to those of the pressure sensors with IDE without b-ITO and with CPE structures, respectively, leading to increased piezoresistive pressure sensitivity as the PEDOT:PSS film thickness decreased. A maximum sensitivity of more than 42 kΩ/Pa was achieved. When the normal pressure was applied, the increased number of conducting points or the reduced distance between the PEDOT oligomers within the PEDOT:PSS film resulted in a decrease of the resistance. The piezoresistive pressure sensors with a single carrier-conducting pathway, i.e., IDE without b-ITO and CPE structures, exhibited a small relaxation time and a superior reversible operation, which can be advantageous for fast piezoresistive response applications.

  2. A self-synchronizing and low-cost structural health monitoring scheme based on zero crossing detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guyomar, Daniel; Lallart, Mickaël; Li, Kaixiang; Gauthier, Jean-Yves; Monnier, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Owing to their high specific strength and stiffness, composite materials are increasingly being used in aeronautics and astronautics, but such materials are vulnerable to impact damage and delamination. Structural health monitoring (SHM) techniques have been developed for detecting such defects in recent years. In situ, self-powered and low-cost SHM systems are a developmental tendency of this technique. This paper introduces the principles of a low-cost and self-synchronizing scheme for SHM. Based on the Lamb wave interactions with the structure, the proposed technique relies on detecting zero crossing time instants in order to derive an estimation of the structural state. It is shown that such a method provides a very simple and low-cost way to assess the structural integrity while being computationally efficient. Experimental investigations carried out on a composite plate with an increasing penetration hold validating the proposed technique show its effectiveness for detecting the damage. The proposed approach has also been applied on an aircraft outboard flap to detect the impact damage. The robustness is discussed versus time-shift and magnitude jitter assumptions by using the plate case. The temperature effect is also considered by defining a coefficient array in order to compensate for the material property changes. Finally, an embedded implementation of such a SHM technique is presented by using the proposed damage index

  3. Structural Determinants and Children's Oral Health: A Cross-National Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, S R; Foster Page, L; Thomson, W M; Broomhead, T; Bekes, K; Benson, P E; Aguilar-Diaz, F; Do, L; Hirsch, C; Marshman, Z; McGrath, C; Mohamed, A; Robinson, P G; Traebert, J; Turton, B; Gibson, B J

    2018-03-01

    Much research on children's oral health has focused on proximal determinants at the expense of distal (upstream) factors. Yet, such upstream factors-the so-called structural determinants of health-play a crucial role. Children's lives, and in turn their health, are shaped by politics, economic forces, and social and public policies. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between children's clinical (number of decayed, missing, and filled teeth) and self-reported oral health (oral health-related quality of life) and 4 key structural determinants (governance, macroeconomic policy, public policy, and social policy) as outlined in the World Health Organization's Commission for Social Determinants of Health framework. Secondary data analyses were carried out using subnational epidemiological samples of 8- to 15-y-olds in 11 countries ( N = 6,648): Australia (372), New Zealand (three samples; 352, 202, 429), Brunei (423), Cambodia (423), Hong Kong (542), Malaysia (439), Thailand (261, 506), United Kingdom (88, 374), Germany (1498), Mexico (335), and Brazil (404). The results indicated that the type of political regime, amount of governance (e.g., rule of law, accountability), gross domestic product per capita, employment ratio, income inequality, type of welfare regime, human development index, government expenditure on health, and out-of-pocket (private) health expenditure by citizens were all associated with children's oral health. The structural determinants accounted for between 5% and 21% of the variance in children's oral health quality-of-life scores. These findings bring attention to the upstream or structural determinants as an understudied area but one that could reap huge rewards for public health dentistry research and the oral health inequalities policy agenda.

  4. Structure determination of cyclo pentane terpene derivatives by crossed NMR and MS techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pianet, I.; Bourgeois, G. [Bordeaux-1 Univ., 33 - Talence (France); Dolatkhani, M.; Cramail, H.; Deffieux, A. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 33 - Talence (France)

    1995-10-01

    3 of the 4 stereoisomers of the 1-isopropenyl 2,3-dimethylcyclopentane, obtained from the cracking of 3,7-dimethylocta-1,6-diene, were purified and characterized. Dihedral angles, between the protons of the substituted carbons, have been determined by molecular modelling. Analysis of the NMR and mass spectra allowed us to access to the structure of the different isomers. (authors). 6 refs., 2 tabs.

  5. Impact of Cross-Axis Structural Dynamics on Validation of Linear Models for Space Launch System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Jing; Derry, Stephen D.; Zhou Zhiqiang; Newsom, Jerry R.

    2014-01-01

    A feasibility study was performed to examine the advisability of incorporating a set of Programmed Test Inputs (PTIs) during the Space Launch System (SLS) vehicle flight. The intent of these inputs is to provide validation to the preflight models for control system stability margins, aerodynamics, and structural dynamics. During October 2009, Ares I-X program was successful in carrying out a series of PTI maneuvers which provided a significant amount of valuable data for post-flight analysis. The resulting data comparisons showed excellent agreement with the preflight linear models across the frequency spectrum of interest. However unlike Ares I-X, the structural dynamics associated with the SLS boost phase configuration are far more complex and highly coupled in all three axes. This presents a challenge when implementing this similar system identification technique to SLS. Preliminary simulation results show noticeable mismatches between PTI validation and analytical linear models in the frequency range of the structural dynamics. An alternate approach was examined which demonstrates the potential for better overall characterization of the system frequency response as well as robustness of the control design.

  6. THE FOCAL STRUCTURE IN MANDARIN VP-ELLIPSIS: A CROSS-LINGUISTIC PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-Chi Wei

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that Soh’s (2007 ΣP analysis only partially explains polarity operation in Mandarin VP-ellipsis. With new examples of the use of the particle que ‘however’, a polarity contrast of ye ‘also’, we propose that there are two focus projections in VP-ellipsis. One is the contrastive FocP headed by ye or que higher than TP and the other is the polarity PolP headed by an affirmative polarity focus shi ‘be’ or a covert negative polarity focus lower than TP. Foc interacts with Pol by a way of polarity concord, which is responsible for the polarity symmetry or asymmetry across two conjuncts. We suggest that the polarity concord is achieved via the Agree operation (Chomsky 2000, 2001 in line with Watanabe’s (2004 feature copying analysis of the negative concord. A cross-linguistic investigation of languages of various word orders, including English (SVO, Japanese (SOV, Atayal (VOS, and Bunun (VSO lends support to this focus account.

  7. The structure of Ti-Ta welded joint and microhardness distribution over the cross section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fomin, Aleksandr A.; Koshuro, Vladimir A.; Egorov, Ivan S.; Shelkunov, Andrey Yu.; Zakharevich, Andrey M.; Steinhauer, Natalia N.; Rodionov, Igor V.

    2018-04-01

    In order to create highly efficient medical systems and measuring biosensors, an approach is frequently used, in which the constructive basis of the product is made of a high-strength biocompatible material (titanium, stainless steel), and the functional layer is made of a more expensive metal (Ta, Zr, Au, Pt, etc.) or ceramics (Ta2O5, ZrO2, CaTiO3, etc.). For a strong connection, e.g. titanium with tantalum, it is proposed to use diffusion butt welding. The heat generated by passing electric current (I is not less than 1.95-2.05 kA, P - not less than 9 kW, t = 250-1000 ms) and applied pressure (30-50 MPa) ensure an integral connection. To improve the quality of the joint, i.e. to exclude cracks and tightness, it is necessary to choose the right combination of the thickness of the welded parts. It was established that when titanium (2 mm thick) and tantalum (0.1-0.5 mm) are combined, a better Ti-Ta welded joint is formed when tantalum foil is used (0.5 mm). Here the distribution of hardness over the cross section of the sample, including the welding areas, is uniform and has no extremely high residual stresses of the tensile type.

  8. The effects of family structure and function on mental health during China's transition: a cross-sectional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yao; Zhang, Liuyi; Wang, Fang; Zhang, Ping; Ye, Beizhu; Liang, Yuan

    2017-05-05

    Social change, intensified by industrialization and globalization, has not only changed people's work lives but also their personal lives, especially in developing countries. The aim of this study was to provide evidence and recommendations regarding family structure, function, and mental health to actively respond to rapid social change. A cross-sectional survey was conducted face-to-face and door-to-door from July 2011 to September 2012 in Hubei Province, central China. Family structure comprised alone, couple, nuclear family, and extended family; family function was measured using the family APGAR (Adaptation, Partnership, Growth, Affection, and Resolve) scale, and mental health was measured using the Chinese version of the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). The urban-vs-rural difference of family structure among alone, couple, nuclear family, and extended family was statistically significant (5.21% vs 4.62%; 27.36% vs 13.14%; 33.22% vs 27.74%; 34.20% vs 54.50%, respectively; p family function was not statistically significant (8.11 ± 2.13 vs 8.09 ± 2.27, p = 0.9372). The general linear regression showed that the effect of family structure on mental health, whether urban or rural, was not significant, however, the effect of family function was significant, especially regarding better family functioning with better mental health. Combined the effects of family structure and function on mental health, the external form of family (family structure) may not be important; while the internal quality of role (family function) might be key. Improving the residents' family function would be a priority strategy for family practice with their mental health.

  9. Calculation of a Tunnel Cross Section Subjected to Fire – with a New Advanced Transient Concrete Model for Reinforced Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Schneider

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the structural application of a new thermal induced strain model for concrete – the TIS-Model. An advanced transient concrete model (ATCM is applied with the material model of the TIS-Model. The non-linear model comprises thermal strain, elastic strain, plastic strain and transient temperature strains, and load history modelling of restraint concrete structures subjected to fire.The calculations by finite element analysis (FEA were done using the SAFIR structural code. The FEA software was basically new with respect to the material modelling derived to use the new TIS-Model (as a transient model considers thermal induced strain. The equations of the ATCM consider a lot of capabilities, especially for considering irreversible effects of temperature on some material properties. By considering the load history during heating up, increasing load bearing capacity may be obtained due to higher stiffness of the concrete. With this model, it is possible to apply the thermal-physical behaviour of material laws for calculation of structures under extreme temperature conditions.A tunnel cross section designed and built by the cut and cover method is calculated with a tunnel fire curve. The results are compared with the results of a calculation with the model of the Eurocode 2 (EC2-Model. The effect of load history in highly loaded structures under fire load will be investigated.A comparison of this model with the ordinary calculation system of Eurocode 2 (EC2 shows that a better evaluation of the safety level was achieved with the new model. This opens a space for optimizing concrete structure design with transient temperature conditions up to 1000 °C. 

  10. In vitro reconstitution of sortase-catalyzed pilus polymerization reveals structural elements involved in pilin cross-linking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chungyu; Amer, Brendan R; Osipiuk, Jerzy; McConnell, Scott A; Huang, I-Hsiu; Hsieh, Van; Fu, Janine; Nguyen, Hong H; Muroski, John; Flores, Erika; Ogorzalek Loo, Rachel R; Loo, Joseph A; Putkey, John A; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Das, Asis; Clubb, Robert T; Ton-That, Hung

    2018-06-12

    Covalently cross-linked pilus polymers displayed on the cell surface of Gram-positive bacteria are assembled by class C sortase enzymes. These pilus-specific transpeptidases located on the bacterial membrane catalyze a two-step protein ligation reaction, first cleaving the LPXTG motif of one pilin protomer to form an acyl-enzyme intermediate and then joining the terminal Thr to the nucleophilic Lys residue residing within the pilin motif of another pilin protomer. To date, the determinants of class C enzymes that uniquely enable them to construct pili remain unknown. Here, informed by high-resolution crystal structures of corynebacterial pilus-specific sortase (SrtA) and utilizing a structural variant of the enzyme (SrtA 2M ), whose catalytic pocket has been unmasked by activating mutations, we successfully reconstituted in vitro polymerization of the cognate major pilin (SpaA). Mass spectrometry, electron microscopy, and biochemical experiments authenticated that SrtA 2M synthesizes pilus fibers with correct Lys-Thr isopeptide bonds linking individual pilins via a thioacyl intermediate. Structural modeling of the SpaA-SrtA-SpaA polymerization intermediate depicts SrtA 2M sandwiched between the N- and C-terminal domains of SpaA harboring the reactive pilin and LPXTG motifs, respectively. Remarkably, the model uncovered a conserved TP(Y/L)XIN(S/T)H signature sequence following the catalytic Cys, in which the alanine substitutions abrogated cross-linking activity but not cleavage of LPXTG. These insights and our evidence that SrtA 2M can terminate pilus polymerization by joining the terminal pilin SpaB to SpaA and catalyze ligation of isolated SpaA domains in vitro provide a facile and versatile platform for protein engineering and bio-conjugation that has major implications for biotechnology.

  11. Lamellar-crossing-structured Ni(OH){sub 2}/CNTs/Ni(OH){sub 2} nanocomposite for electrochemical supercapacitor materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Qingnan [Department of Chemistry, State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Wen, Ming, E-mail: m_wen@tongji.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Shanghai Key Lab of Chemical Assessment and Sustainability, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Chen, Shipei [Department of Chemistry, State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Wu, Qingsheng [Department of Chemistry, State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Shanghai Key Lab of Chemical Assessment and Sustainability, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2015-10-15

    Ni(OH){sub 2}/CNTs/Ni(OH){sub 2} lamellar-crossing-nanostructure with a single lamellar spacing of ∼5 nm was effectively constructed through two-phase-interface reaction process followed by the CNTs crossed among the lamellar-nanostructured Ni(OH){sub 2}. The resultant nanocomposite can offer large active surface areas and short diffusion paths for electrons and ions, and is investigated as a potential pseudocapacitor electrode material for electrochemical energy storage applications. Electrochemical data demonstrate that the as-prepared nanocomposite exhibits a high specific capacitance of ∼1600 F g{sup −1} at the scan rate of 1 mV s{sup −1} in 6 M KOH solution at normal pressure and temperature, which is great higher than Ni(OH){sub 2} (∼1200 F g{sup −1}). Furthermore, Ni(OH){sub 2}/CNTs/Ni(OH){sub 2} nanocomposite shows a higher energy density (∼125 Wh kg{sup −1}, 2 A g{sup −1}) and has a slightly decrease of 5% in specific capacitance after 1000 continuous charge/discharge cycles. - Graphical abstract: As-constructed Ni(OH){sub 2}/CNTs/Ni(OH){sub 2} lamellar-crossing-nanostructure exhibits remarkable enhancement in electrochemical stability and high specific capacity of ∼1600 F g{sup −1} at a scan rate of 1 mV s{sup −1}, suggesting promising potential for supercapacitor applications. - Highlights: • New designed lamellar-crossing-structured Ni(OH){sub 2}/CNTs/Ni(OH){sub 2} nanocomposites have been firstly reported in this work. • Ni(OH){sub 2}/CNTs/Ni(OH){sub 2} lamellar-crossing-nanostructures show firm nanostructure and excellent electrochemical stability. • Ni(OH){sub 2}/CNTs/Ni(OH){sub 2} nanocomposites exhibit excellent specific capacitance. • Ni(OH){sub 2}/CNTs/Ni(OH){sub 2} nanocomposites have the potential application in electrochemical energy storage applications.

  12. Examination of regional pollutant structure in the lower troposphere--some results of the diagnostic atmospheric cross-section experiment (DACSE-I)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sisterson, D.L.; Shannon, J.D.; Hales, J.M.

    1979-01-01

    The diurnal variation of the structure of pollutant transport and diffusion in the Ohio River Valley is examined by combining meteorological cross sections with vertical profiles of several air pollutants. An increased frequency of rawinsonde releases from NWS stations at Salem, Dayton and Pittsburgh during the period 1--10 August 1977 was supplemented on 5 and 6 August by vertical profiles taken along the cross-section line by an aircraft. The data on 5 August, a day without convective activity to complicate analyses, merit special study. Analyses of the b/sub scat/ structure superimposed on the meteorological cross sections lend support to the theory of horizontal transport of polluted layers above the nocturnal inversion or developing mixed layer without significant dilution. The effect of the daily breathing of the planetary boundary layer on the vertical structure of pollutants can be seen in the sequence of cross sections

  13. Structural changes in microferrogels cross-linked by magnetically anisotropic particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryzhkov, A.V., E-mail: ryzhkov.a@icmm.ru [Perm National Research Polytechnic University, Perm 614990 (Russian Federation); Institute of Continuous Media Mechanics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Ural Branch, Perm 614013 (Russian Federation); Raikher, Yu. L. [Institute of Continuous Media Mechanics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Ural Branch, Perm 614013 (Russian Federation)

    2017-06-01

    Chaining of magnetic nanoparticles in a microscopic ferrogel (MFG) due to interparticle interaction and external field is analyzed by the coarse-grained molecular dynamics. The embedded nanoparticles, unlike existing conventional models, are assumed to possess uniaxial magnetic anisotropy. By that, the consideration is brought closer to reality. Evolution of particle chains, both in length and straightness, is handled with the aid of “axial” radial distribution function that is sensitive to orientation of the aggregates. The effect of the particle magnetic anisotropy on the structural alterations as well as on volume changes of MFGs is demonstrated.

  14. The Structure of The Extended Psychosis Phenotype in Early Adolescence—A Cross-sample Replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigman, Johanna T. W.; Vollebergh, Wilma A. M.; Raaijmakers, Quinten A. W.; Iedema, Jurjen; van Dorsselaer, Saskia; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C.; van Os, Jim

    2011-01-01

    The extended psychosis phenotype, or the expression of nonclinical positive psychotic experiences, is already prevalent in adolescence and has a dose-response risk relationship with later psychotic disorder. In 2 large adolescent general population samples (n = 5422 and n = 2230), prevalence and structure of the extended psychosis phenotype was investigated. Positive psychotic experiences, broadly defined, were reported by the majority of adolescents. Exploratory analysis with Structural Equation Modelling (Exploratory Factor Analysis followed by Confirmatory Factor Analysis [CFA]) in sample 1 suggested that psychotic experiences were best represented by 5 underlying dimensions; CFA in sample 2 provided a replication of this model. Dimensions were labeled Hallucinations, Delusions, Paranoia, Grandiosity, and Paranormal beliefs. Prevalences differed strongly, Hallucinations having the lowest and Paranoia having the highest rates. Girls reported more experiences on all dimensions, except Grandiosity, and from age 12 to 16 years rates increased. Hallucinations, Delusions, and Paranoia, but not Grandiosity and Paranormal beliefs, were associated with distress and general measures of psychopathology. Thus, only some of the dimensions of the extended psychosis phenotype in young people may represent a continuum with more severe psychopathology and predict later psychiatric disorder. PMID:20044595

  15. Cross flow response of a cylindrical structure under local shear flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoo-Chul Kim

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The VIV (Vortex-Induced Vibration analysis of a flexible cylindrical structure under locally strong shear flow is presented. The model is made of Teflon and has 9.5m length, 0.0127m diameter, and 0.001m wall thickness. 11 2-dimensional accelerometers are installed along the model. The experiment has been conducted at the ocean engineering basin in the University of Tokyo in which uniform current can be generated. The model is installed at about 30 degree of slope and submerged by almost overall length. Local shear flow is made by superposing uniform current and accelerated flow generated by an impeller. The results of frequency and modal analysis are presented.

  16. Dynamic nucleus deformability and its effect on the structure of photoabsorption cross section and photodisintegration characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhivopistsev, F.A.; Shitikova, K.V.

    1979-01-01

    Considered is a microscopic theory of specific highly excited states of atomic nuclei-gigantic dipole resonances. Special attention is paid to the effect of complex states of different nature on the structure of the gigantic resonance and characteristics of photodisintegration. The pinning process by more complex states (both of collective and noncollective nature) brings about a condition, when a number of quasiparticles is added to the filled shell, so that the spheric nucleus form would become unstable (to the change of surface properties, ect.). In this case the closed shell is broken, that causes an increase of deformability of the nucleus composition in a highly excited state. The statistical group of 2p2h, 3p3h, et. states is of great value in explanation of characteristics of atomic nuclei photodisintegration, for it provides a statistical, irreversible process of preequilibrium decomposition

  17. In-plane current induced domain wall nucleation and its stochasticity in perpendicular magnetic anisotropy Hall cross structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sethi, P.; Murapaka, C.; Lim, G. J.; Lew, W. S.

    2015-01-01

    Hall cross structures in magnetic nanowires are commonly used for electrical detection of magnetization reversal in which a domain wall (DW) is conventionally nucleated by a local Oersted field. In this letter, we demonstrate DW nucleation in Co/Ni perpendicular magnetic anisotropy nanowire at the magnetic Hall cross junction. The DWs are nucleated by applying an in-plane pulsed current through the nanowire without the need of a local Oersted field. The change in Hall resistance, detected using anomalous Hall effect, is governed by the magnetic volume switched at the Hall junction, which can be tuned by varying the magnitude of the applied current density and pulse width. The nucleated DWs are driven simultaneously under the spin transfer torque effect when the applied current density is above a threshold. The possibility of multiple DW generation and variation in magnetic volume switched makes nucleation process stochastic in nature. The in-plane current induced stochastic nature of DW generation may find applications in random number generation

  18. Are Sport-Specific Profiles of Tendon Stiffness and Cross-Sectional Area Determined by Structural or Functional Integrity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Peter Wiesinger

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to determine whether distinct sets of tendon properties are seen in athletes engaged in sports with contrasting requirements for tendon function and structural integrity. Patellar and Achilles tendon morphology and force-deformation relation were measured by combining ultrasonography, electromyography and dynamometry in elite ski jumpers, distance runners, water polo players and sedentary individuals. Tendon cross-sectional area normalized to body mass2/3 was smaller in water polo players than in other athletes (patellar and Achilles tendon; -28 to -24% or controls (patellar tendon only; -9%. In contrast, the normalized cross-sectional area was larger in runners (patellar tendon only; +26% and ski jumpers (patellar and Achilles tendon; +21% and +13%, respectively than in controls. Tendon stiffness normalized to body mass2/3 only differed in ski jumpers, compared to controls (patellar and Achilles tendon; +11% and +27%, respectively and to water polo players (Achilles tendon only; +23%. Tendon size appears as an adjusting variable to changes in loading volume and/or intensity, possibly to preserve ultimate strength or fatigue resistance. However, uncoupled morphological and mechanical properties indicate that functional requirements may also influence tendon adaptations.

  19. Improved algorithms for the calculation of resolved resonance cross sections with applications to the structural Doppler effect in fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, R.N.; Toppel, B.J.; Henryson, H. II.

    1980-10-01

    Motivated by a need for an economical yet rigorous tool which can address the computation of the structural material Doppler effect, an extremely efficient improved RABANL capability has been developed utilizing the fact that the Doppler broadened line shape functions become essentially identical to the natural line shape functions or Lorentzian limits beyond about 100 Doppler widths from the resonance energy, or when the natural width exceeds about 200 Doppler widths. The computational efficiency has been further enhanced by preprocessing or screening a significant number of selected resonances during library preparation into composition and temperature independent smooth background cross sections. The resonances which are suitable for such pre-processing are those which are either very broad or those which are very weak. The former contribute very little to the Doppler effect and their self-shielding effect can readily be averaged into slowly varying background cross section data, while the latter contribute very little to either the Doppler or to self-shielding effects. To illustrate the accuracy and efficiency of the improved RABANL algorithms and resonance screening techniques, calculations have been performed for two systems, the first with a composition typical of the STF converter region and the second typical of an LMFBR core composition. Excellent agreement has been found for RABANL compared to the reference Monte Carlo solution obtained using the code VIM, and improved results have also been obtained for the narrow resonance approximation in the ultra-fine-group option of MC 2 -2

  20. LOW-FIDELITY COVARIANCES FOR NEUTRON CROSS SECTIONS ON 57 STRUCTURAL AND 31 HEAVY NUCLEI IN THE FAST REGION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PIGNI, M.T.; HERMAN, M.; OBLOZINSKY, P.

    2008-01-01

    We produced a large set of neutron cross section covariances in the energy range of 5 keV-20 MeV. The present set of data on 57 structural materials and 31 heavy nuclei follows our earlier work on 219 fission product materials and completes our extensive contribution to the low-fidelity covariance project (307 materials). This project aims to provide initial, low-fidelity yet consistent estimates of covariance data for nuclear criticality safety applications. The evaluation methodology combines the nuclear reaction model code EMPIRE which calculates sensitivity to nuclear reaction model parameters, and the Bayesian code KALMAN that propagates uncertainties of the model parameters to cross sections. Taking into account the large scale of the project, only marginal reference to experimental data was made. The covariances were derived from the perturbation of several key model parameters selected by the sensitivity analysis. These parameters refer to the optical model potential, the level densities and the strength of the pre-equilibrium emission. This work represents the first attempt ever to generate nuclear data covariances on such a large scale

  1. A comparison of micro-structured flat-plate and cross-cut heat sinks for thermoelectric generation application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rezania, Alireza; Rosendahl, L. A.

    2015-01-01

    . In this study, a micro-structured plate-fin heat sink is compared to a modified design of cross-cut heat sink applied to TEGs over a range of temperatures and thermal conductivities. The particular focus of this study is to explore the net power output from the TEG module. The three-dimensional governing...... equations for the flow and heat transfer are solved using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) in conjunction with the thermoelectric characteristics of the TEG over a wide range of flow inlet velocities. The results show that at small flow inlet velocity, the maximum net power output in TEG with plate......Heat sink configuration has strong impact on net power output from thermoelectric generators (TEGs). A weak cooling strategy can even cause negative net power output from the thermoelectric device. However, the net power output can be significantly improved by optimal design of the heat sink...

  2. Considerations for Achieving Cross-Platform Point Cloud Data Fusion across Different Dryland Ecosystem Structural States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swetnam, Tyson L; Gillan, Jeffrey K; Sankey, Temuulen T; McClaran, Mitchel P; Nichols, Mary H; Heilman, Philip; McVay, Jason

    2017-01-01

    Remotely sensing recent growth, herbivory, or disturbance of herbaceous and woody vegetation in dryland ecosystems requires high spatial resolution and multi-temporal depth. Three dimensional (3D) remote sensing technologies like lidar, and techniques like structure from motion (SfM) photogrammetry, each have strengths and weaknesses at detecting vegetation volume and extent, given the instrument's ground sample distance and ease of acquisition. Yet, a combination of platforms and techniques might provide solutions that overcome the weakness of a single platform. To explore the potential for combining platforms, we compared detection bias amongst two 3D remote sensing techniques (lidar and SfM) using three different platforms [ground-based, small unmanned aerial systems (sUAS), and manned aircraft]. We found aerial lidar to be more accurate for characterizing the bare earth (ground) in dense herbaceous vegetation than either terrestrial lidar or aerial SfM photogrammetry. Conversely, the manned aerial lidar did not detect grass and fine woody vegetation while the terrestrial lidar and high resolution near-distance (ground and sUAS) SfM photogrammetry detected these and were accurate. UAS SfM photogrammetry at lower spatial resolution under-estimated maximum heights in grass and shrubs. UAS and handheld SfM photogrammetry in near-distance high resolution collections had similar accuracy to terrestrial lidar for vegetation, but difficulty at measuring bare earth elevation beneath dense herbaceous cover. Combining point cloud data and derivatives (i.e., meshes and rasters) from two or more platforms allowed for more accurate measurement of herbaceous and woody vegetation (height and canopy cover) than any single technique alone. Availability and costs of manned aircraft lidar collection preclude high frequency repeatability but this is less limiting for terrestrial lidar, sUAS and handheld SfM. The post-processing of SfM photogrammetry data became the limiting factor

  3. A new helical crossed-fibre structure of β-keratin in flight feathers and its biomechanical implications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theagarten Lingham-Soliar

    Full Text Available The feather aerofoil is unequalled in nature. It is comprised of a central rachis, serial paired branches or barbs, from which arise further branches, the barbules. Barbs and barbules arise from the significantly thinner lateral walls (the epicortex of the rachis and barbs respectively, as opposed to the thicker dorsal and ventral walls (the cortex. We hypothesized a microstructural design of the epicortex that would resist the vertical or shearing stresses. The microstructures of the cortex and epicortex of the rachis and barbs were investigated in several bird species by microbe-assisted selective disassembly and conventional methods via scanning electron microscopy. We report, preeminent of the finds, a novel system of crossed fibres (ranging from ∼100-800 nm in diameter, oppositely oriented in alternate layers of the epicortex in the rachis and barbs. It represents the first cross-fibre microstructure, not only for the feather but in keratin per se. The cortex of the barbs is comprised of syncitial barbule cells, definitive structural units shown in the rachidial cortex in a related study. The structural connection between the cortex of the rachis and barbs appears uninterrupted. A new model on feather microstructure incorporating the findings here and in the related study is presented. The helical fibre system found in the integument of a diverse range of invertebrates and vertebrates has been implicated in profound functional strategies, perhaps none more so potentially than in the aerofoil microstructure of the feather here, which is central to one of the marvels of nature, bird flight.

  4. Analysis of the Causes and Recommendations on Elimination of Biological Damage of Structures During the Repair and Reconstruction of the State Biological Museum in Moscow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamskov Viktor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of mycological research on buildings of the State Biological Museum located in Moscow. Over time, the building maintenance conditions have worsened, in particular because of construction of high-rise buildings in the immediate vicinity of the museum, as well as construction of a greenhouse above the underground passage tunnel between buildings 1 and 2. Over the years, the temperature gradients, high humidity, wear and damage of wall waterproofing and foundations have caused leaks in the underpass tunnel and the biological corrosion of stone, wood and metal structures in indoor exhibition halls. In this connection, part of the survey was to determine the types and size of biological lesions in structures, determination of the causes of biological damage, and the development of measures to eliminate the mycological problems during repair and reconstruction works in the museum.

  5. Structure and Dissipation Characteristics of an Electron Diffusion Region Observed by MMS During a Rapid, Normal-Incidence Magnetopause Crossing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torbert, R. B.; Burch, J. L.; Argall, M. R.; Alm, L.; Farrugia, C. J.; Forbes, T. G.; Giles, B. L.; Rager, A.; Dorelli, J.; Strangeway, R. J.; Ergun, R. E.; Wilder, F. D.; Ahmadi, N.; Lindqvist, P.-A.; Khotyaintsev, Y.

    2017-12-01

    On 22 October 2016, the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) spacecraft encountered the electron diffusion region (EDR) when the magnetosheath field was southward, and there were signatures of fast reconnection, including flow jets, Hall fields, and large power dissipation. One rapid, normal-incidence crossing, during which the EDR structure was almost stationary in the boundary frame, provided an opportunity to observe the spatial structure for the zero guide field case of magnetic reconnection. The reconnection electric field was determined unambiguously to be 2-3 mV/m. There were clear signals of fluctuating parallel electric fields, up to 6 mV/m on the magnetosphere side of the diffusion region, associated with a Hall-like parallel current feature on the electron scale. The width of the main EDR structure was determined to be 2 km (1.8 de). Although the MMS spacecraft were in their closest tetrahedral separation of 8 km, the divergences and curls for these thin current structures could therefore not be computed in the usual manner. A method is developed to determine these quantities on a much smaller scale and applied to compute the normal component of terms in the generalized Ohm's law for the positions of each individual spacecraft (not a barocentric average). Although the gradient pressure term has a qualitative dependence that follows the observed variation of E + Ve × B, the quantitative magnitude of these terms differs by more than a factor of 2, which is shown to be greater than the respective errors. Thus, future research is required to find the manner in which Ohm's law is balanced.

  6. IgE and IgG cross-reactivity among Lol p I and Lol p II/III. Identification of the C-termini of Lol p I, II, and III as cross-reactive structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ree, R; van Leeuwen, W A; van den Berg, M; Weller, H H; Aalberse, R C

    1994-04-01

    In this study, the homologous C-termini of Lol p I, Lol p II, and Lol p III were shown to contain cross-reactive B-cell epitopes. This was demonstrated by inhibition studies with purified Lol p I, II, and III and synthetic peptides of their C-termini. It was ruled out that the observed cross-reactivity was caused by cross-contamination of the purified allergens. Both human IgE and IgG bound to the C-terminus of Lol p I. These antibodies were cross-reactive with Lol p II and, more specifically, with its C-terminus. Within a small panel of allergic patients, no cross-reactivity with Lol p III was found. A hyperimmune polyclonal rabbit antiserum against Lol p I also recognized the Lol p I C-terminus. As for human antibodies, cross-reactivity with Lol p II and its C-terminus was demonstrated. Cross-reactivity with Lol p III was demonstrated with C-terminal peptides, but not with native Lol p III. A polyclonal rabbit antiserum against Lol p II bound to the C-terminal peptides of both Lol p II and III. This binding was inhibited with Lol p I, confirming that cross-reactive structures exist not only on the C-termini of Lol p II and Lol p I, but also of Lol p III and Lol p I. The existence of cross-reactivity between Lol p I and Lol p II and III possibly contributes to the frequently observed cosensitization for these allergens in grass-pollen-allergic patients.

  7. Crystal structure of the Hendra virus attachment G glycoprotein bound to a potent cross-reactive neutralizing human monoclonal antibody.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Xu

    Full Text Available The henipaviruses, represented by Hendra (HeV and Nipah (NiV viruses are highly pathogenic zoonotic paramyxoviruses with uniquely broad host tropisms responsible for repeated outbreaks in Australia, Southeast Asia, India and Bangladesh. The high morbidity and mortality rates associated with infection and lack of licensed antiviral therapies make the henipaviruses a potential biological threat to humans and livestock. Henipavirus entry is initiated by the attachment of the G envelope glycoprotein to host cell membrane receptors. Previously, henipavirus-neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies (hmAb have been isolated using the HeV-G glycoprotein and a human naïve antibody library. One cross-reactive and receptor-blocking hmAb (m102.4 was recently demonstrated to be an effective post-exposure therapy in two animal models of NiV and HeV infection, has been used in several people on a compassionate use basis, and is currently in development for use in humans. Here, we report the crystal structure of the complex of HeV-G with m102.3, an m102.4 derivative, and describe NiV and HeV escape mutants. This structure provides detailed insight into the mechanism of HeV and NiV neutralization by m102.4, and serves as a blueprint for further optimization of m102.4 as a therapeutic agent and for the development of entry inhibitors and vaccines.

  8. NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF THE CRITICAL STATE OF THIN-WALLED STRUCTURE WITH Z-PROFILE CROSS SECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patryk Różyło

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The object of the study was the thin-walled profile with Z-shaped cross section made of the carbon-epoxy composite. Material model was prepared based on the implemented orthotropic properties. The purpose of study was to determine the value of the critical load at which buckling occurs, the form of buckling and operating characteristics in critical condition. In order to achieve this numerical analysis were carried out. Additionally, the effects of the modification in arrangement of layers of the laminate to the stability and strength of thin-walled composite structures was presented. Numerical studies were carried out using commercial simulation software - ABAQUS®. Within the FEM research, both forms of buckling and the associated critical load, dependent on the configuration the layers of the composite were achieved. Analysis of the obtained results, allowed the evaluation of the structure's work in relation to the level of energy consumption or rigidity estimation. In the paper only numerical simulations of the critical state were conducted.

  9. Cross-Sectional Information on Pore Structure and Element Distribution of Sediment Particles by SEM and EDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minghong Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between pollutants and sediment particles often occurs on the particle surface, so surface properties directly affect surface reaction. The physical and chemical processes occurring on sediment particle surfaces are microscopic processes and as such need to be studied from a microscopic perspective. In this study, field emission scanning electron microscopy (SEM and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS were adopted to observe and analyze the pore structure and element distribution of sediment particles. In particular, a special method of sample preparation was used to achieve the corresponding cross-sectional information of sediment particles. Clear images of a particle profile and pore microstructure were obtained by high-resolution SEM, while element distribution maps of sediment particles were obtained by EDS. The results provide an intuitive understanding of the internal microenvironment and external behavior of sediment particles, in addition to revealing a significant role of pore microstructure in the adsorption and desorption of pollutants. Thus, a combination of different experimental instruments and observation methods can provide real images and information on microscopic pore structure and element distribution of sediment particles. These results should help to improve our understanding of sediment dynamics and its environmental effects.

  10. Effectiveness of the GAEC cross-compliance standard Ploughing in good soil moisture conditions in soil structure protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Dell'Abate

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Researches have been carried out within the framework on the EFFICOND Project, focused at evaluating the effectiveness of the standards of Good Agricultural and Environmental Conditions (GAECs established for Cross Compliance implementation under EC Regulation 1782/2003. In particular the standard 3.1b deals with soil structure protection through appropriate machinery use, with particular reference to ploughing in good soil moisture conditions. The study deals with the evaluation of soil structure after tillage in tilth and no-tilth conditions at soil moisture contents other than the optimum water content for tillage. The Mean Weight Diameter (MWD of water stable aggregates was used as an indicator of tillage effectiveness. The study was carried out in the period 2008-2009 at six experimental farms belonging to Research Centres and Units of the Italian Agricultural Research Council (CRA with different pedo-climatic and cropping conditions. Farm management and data collection in the different sites were carried out by the local CRA researchers and technicians. The comparison of MWD values in tilth and no tilth theses showed statistically significant differences in most cases, depending on topsoil texture. On clay, clay loam, silty clay, and silty clay loam topsoils a general and significant increase of MWD values under no tilth conditions were observed. No significant differences were observed in silt loam and sandy loam textures, probably due to the weak soil structure of the topsoils. Moreover, ploughing in good soil moisture condition determined higher crop production and less weed development than ploughing in high soil moisture conditions.

  11. Optical properties and oxidation of carbonized and cross-linked structures formed in polycarbonate by plasma immersion ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosobrodova, E., E-mail: elenak@physics.usyd.edu.au [Department of Applied Plasma and Physics, School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Kondyurin, A. [Department of Applied Plasma and Physics, School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Chrzanowski, W. [Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Department of Nanobiomedical Science and BK21 PLUS NBM Global Research, Center for Regenerative Medicine, Dankook University, Cheonan 330-714 (Korea, Republic of); McCulloch, D.G. [School of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, Melbourne, Victoria 3001 (Australia); McKenzie, D.R.; Bilek, M.M.M. [Department of Applied Plasma and Physics, School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)

    2014-06-01

    Highlights: • Structure and properties of polycarbonate films spin-coated on silicon are studied. • The films have two thicknesses: thicker and thinner than a depth of ion penetration. • Effect of radio frequency plasma and plasma immersion ion implantation is compared. - Abstract: At ion fluences higher than 5 · 10{sup 15} ions/cm{sup 2}, plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) of polycarbonate (PC) results in a formation of a carbonized surface layer. The thickness of this layer is close to the depth of ion penetration. A comparison of PIII treated, spin-coated PC films with pre-treatment thicknesses designed to match and exceed the carbonized layer thickness is employed to study the properties of the carbonised layer independently from the less modified underlying structure. At ion fluencies higher than 10{sup 16} ions/cm{sup 2}, the thinner PC film is completely transformed into an amorphous carbon-like material with no traces of the initial PC structure. The thicker films, however, incorporated two layers: a top carbonised layer and a cross-linked layer below. Compared to the two-layered PC film, the completely carbonized layer was found to have a much higher concentration of C=O bonds and much lower concentration of O–H bonds after exposure to atmospheric oxygen. The refractive index of the thicker PC films PIII treated with high ion fluencies is close to the refractive index of diamond-like carbon. Anomalous dispersion of the refractive index of the thicker PC films is observed after formation of the carbonised layer. The refractive index of the thinner PC film has normal dispersion at all ion fluences. At ion fluences of 2 · 10{sup 16} ions/cm{sup 2}, both PC films were found to have the same etching rate as polystyrene. Washing in dichloromethane had no effect on the carbonised layer but affected the underlying material in the case of the thicker PC films leading to a wrinkled structure up to ion fluences of 2 · 10{sup 16} ions/cm{sup 2}. At

  12. A study of the effect of intermediate structure in the fission cross section of 239Pu on self-shielding factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganesan, S.

    1978-01-01

    A set of energy dependent fission widths of 1 + spin state corresponding to the recommended fission cross sections of Sowerby et al is evaluated by adjustment in the energy region 600 ev to 25 Kev. Corresponding to these mean fission widths of 1 + spin state, the intermediate resonance parameters based on Weigmann's formulation of Struitinsky's double humped fission barrier model are then obtained. Pseudorandom resonances are generated with and without the intermediate structure in the mean fission but leading to the same value of infinite dilution fission cross section. The effect of the intermediate structure on the self shielding factors was then investigated. (author)

  13. Protein and Peptide Gas-phase Structure Investigation Using Collision Cross Section Measurements and Hydrogen Deuterium Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khakinejad, Mahdiar

    Protein and peptide gas-phase structure analysis provides the opportunity to study these species outside of their explicit environment where the interaction network with surrounding molecules makes the analysis difficult [1]. Although gas-phase structure analysis offers a unique opportunity to study the intrinsic behavior of these biomolecules [2-4], proteins and peptides exhibit very low vapor pressures [2]. Peptide and protein ions can be rendered in the gas-phase using electrospray ionization (ESI) [5]. There is a growing body of literature that shows proteins and peptides can maintain solution structures during the process of ESI and these structures can persist for a few hundred milliseconds [6-9]. Techniques for monitoring gas-phase protein and peptide ion structures are categorized as physical probes and chemical probes. Collision cross section (CCS) measurement, being a physical probe, is a powerful method to investigate gas-phase structure size [3, 7, 10-15]; however, CCS values alone do not establish a one to one relation with structure(i.e., the CCS value is an orientationally averaged value [15-18]. Here we propose the utility of gas-phase hydrogen deuterium exchange (HDX) as a second criterion of structure elucidation. The proposed approach incudes extensive MD simulations to sample biomolecular ion conformation space with the production of numerous, random in-silico structures. Subsequently a CCS can be calculated for these structures and theoretical CCS values are compared with experimental values to produce a pool of candidate structures. Utilizing a chemical reaction model based on the gas-phase HDX mechanism, the HDX kinetics behavior of these candidate structures are predicted and compared to experimental results to nominate the best in-silico structures which match (chemically and physically) with experimental observations. For the predictive approach to succeed, an extensive technique and method development is essential. To combine CCS

  14. Structure and petroleum potential of the continental margin between Cross Sound and Icy Bay, northern Gulf of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruns, T.R.

    1982-01-01

    Major structural features of the Yakutat segment, the segment of the continental margin between Cross Sound and Icy Bay, northern Gulf of Alaska, are delineated by multichannel seismic reflection data. A large structural high is centered on Fairweather Ground and lies generally at the edge of the shelf from Cross Sound to west of the Alsek Valley. A basement uplift, the Dangerous River zone, along which the seismic acoustic basement shallows by up to two kilometers, extends north from the western edge of Fairweather Ground towards the mouth of the Dangerous River. The Dangerous River zone separates the Yakutat segment into two distinct subbasins. The eastern subbasin has a maximum sediment thickness of about 4 km, and the axis of the basin is near and parallel to the coast. Strata in this basin are largely of late Cenozoic age (Neogene and Quaternary) and approximately correlate with the onshore Yakataga Formation. The western subbasin has a maximum of at least 9 km of sediment, comprised of a thick (greater than 4.5 km) Paleogene section overlain by late Cenozoic strata. The Paleogene section is truncated along the Dangerous River zone by a combination of erosion, faulting, and onlap onto the acoustic basement. Within the western subbasin, the late Cenozoic basin axis is near and parallel to the coast, but the Paleogene basin axis appears to trend in a northwest direction diagonally across the shelf. Sedimentary strata throughout the Yakutat shelf show regional subsidence and only minor deformation except in the vicinity of the Fairweather Ground structural high, near and along the Dangerous River zone, and at the shoreline near Lituya Bay. Seismic data across the continental slope and adjacent deep ocean show truncation at the continental slope of Paleogene strata, the presence of a thick (to 6 km) undeformed or mildly deformed abyssal sedimentary section at the base of the slope that in part onlaps the slope, and a relatively narrow zone along the slope or at

  15. Collisional radiative model for Ar-O2 mixture plasma with fully relativistic fine structure cross sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priti, Gangwar, Reetesh Kumar; Srivastava, Rajesh

    2018-04-01

    A collisional radiative (C-R) model has been developed to diagnose the rf generated Ar-O2 (0%-5%) mixture plasma at low temperatures. Since in such plasmas the most dominant process is an electron impact excitation process, we considered several electron impact fine structure transitions in an argon atom from its ground as well as excited states. The cross-sections for these transitions have been obtained using the reliable fully relativistic distorted wave theory. Processes which account for the coupling of argon with the oxygen molecules have been further added to the model. We couple our model to the optical spectroscopic measurements reported by Jogi et al. [J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 47, 335206 (2014)]. The plasma parameters, viz. the electron density (ne) and the electron temperature (Te) as a function of O2 concentration have been obtained using thirteen intense emission lines out of 3p54p → 3p54s transitions observed in their spectroscopic measurements. It is found that as the content of O2 in Ar increases from 0%-5%, Te increases in the range 0.85-1.7 eV, while the electron density decreases from 2.76 × 1012-2.34 × 1011 cm-3. The Ar-3p54s (1si) fine-structure level populations at our extracted plasma parameters are found to be in very good agreement with those obtained from the measurements. Furthermore, we have estimated the individual contributions coming from the ground state, 1si manifolds and cascade contributions to the population of the radiating Ar-3p54p (2pi) states as a function of a trace amount of O2. Such information is very useful to understand the importance of various processes occurring in the plasma.

  16. Experimental Study on Variable-Amplitude Fatigue of Welded Cross Plate-Hollow Sphere Joints in Grid Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Feng Jiao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The fatigue stress amplitude of the welded cross plate-hollow sphere joint (WCPHSJ in a grid structure varies due to the random loading produced by suspending cranes. A total of 14 specimens considering three different types of WCPHSJs were prepared and tested using a specially designed test rig. Four typical loading conditions, “low-high,” “high-low,” “low-high-low,” and “high-low-high,” were first considered in the tests to investigate the fatigue behavior under variable load amplitudes, followed by metallographic analyses. The experimental and metallographic analysis results provide a fundamental understanding on the fatigue fracture form and fatigue mechanism of WCPHSJs. Based on the available data from constant-amplitude fatigue tests, the variable-amplitude fatigue life of the three types of WCPHSJs was estimated using the Miner rule and Corten-Dolan theory. Since both accumulative damage theories yield virtually same damaging results, the Miner rule is hence suggested to estimate the fatigue life of WCPHSJs.

  17. Red Phosphorus-Embedded Cross-Link-Structural Carbon Films as Flexible Anodes for Highly Reversible Li-Ion Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruan, Jiafeng [School of Materials; Yuan, Tao [School of Materials; Pang, Yuepeng [School of Materials; Xu, Xinbo [School of Materials; Yang, Junhe [School of Materials; Hu, Wenbin; Zhong, Cheng; Ma, Zi-Feng [Shanghai Electrochemical Energy Devices Research Center,; Bi, Xuanxuan [Chemical; Zheng, Shiyou [School of Materials

    2017-10-06

    Red phosphorus (P) is considered to be one of the most attractive anodic materials for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) due to its high theoretical capacity of 2596 mAh g–1. However, intrinsic characteristics such as the poor electronic conductivity and large volume expansion at lithiation impede the development of red P. Here, we design a new strategy to embed red P particles into a cross-link-structural carbon film (P–C film), in order to improve the electronic conductivity and accommodate the volume expansion. The red P/carbon film is synthesized via vapor phase polymerization (VPP) followed by the pyrolysis process, working as a flexible binder-free anode for LIBs. High cycle stability and good rate capability are achieved by the P–C film anode. With 21% P content in the film, it displays a capacity of 903 mAh g–1 after 640 cycles at a current density of 100 mA g–1 and a capacity of 460 mAh g–1 after 1000 cycles at 2.0 A g–1. Additionally, the Coulombic efficiency reaches almost 100% for each cycle. The superior properties of the P–C films together with their facile fabrication make this material attractive for further flexible and high energy density LIB applications.

  18. Visualization of cross-sectional flow structure during condensation of steam in a slightly inclined horizontal tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puseya, Andree; Kim, H. [Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, T. S. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    These flow characteristics called flow patterns still depend on a proper visualization technique in order to identify such local distribution. These proper distributions will have a dependence on the inclination of the tube as well, as it was demonstrated by Lips and Mayer. This work is focused on presenting an experimental investigation to visualize the cross sectional two-phase flow structure for condensation of steam in a horizontal tube and identify the liquid-gas interface using the axial-viewing technique. This innovative technique developed by Hewitt and more recently used in visualization works by Badie, permits the achievement to identify those systems in the area of interest by looking directly into the two-phase flow system during condensation of steam inside a pipe with technology such a high speed camera. An experimental work to visualize and locate the liquid-gas interface for steam condensation in horizontal tubes with slightly inclination was developed on this research The experimental results shows that the axial viewing technique works well with condensation phenomena and can be used for further developments in the field such as determination of liquid film geometry and calculation of void fraction.

  19. Geometrical and band-structure effects on phonon-limited hole mobility in rectangular cross-sectional germanium nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, H.; Mori, S.; Morioka, N.; Suda, J.; Kimoto, T.

    2014-01-01

    We calculated the phonon-limited hole mobility in rectangular cross-sectional [001], [110], [111], and [112]-oriented germanium nanowires, and the hole transport characteristics were investigated. A tight-binding approximation was used for holes, and phonons were described by a valence force field model. Then, scattering probability of holes by phonons was calculated taking account of hole-phonon interaction atomistically, and the linearized Boltzmann's transport equation was solved to calculate the hole mobility at low longitudinal field. The dependence of the hole mobility on nanowire geometry was analyzed in terms of the valence band structure of germanium nanowires, and it was found that the dependence was qualitatively reproduced by considering an average effective mass and the density of states of holes. The calculation revealed that [110] germanium nanowires with large height along the [001] direction show high hole mobility. Germanium nanowires with this geometry are also expected to exhibit high electron mobility in our previous work, and thus they are promising for complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) applications

  20. Latent structure and reliability analysis of the measure of body apperception: cross-validation for head and neck cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean-Pierre, Pascal; Fundakowski, Christopher; Perez, Enrique; Jean-Pierre, Shadae E; Jean-Pierre, Ashley R; Melillo, Angelica B; Libby, Rachel; Sargi, Zoukaa

    2013-02-01

    Cancer and its treatments are associated with psychological distress that can negatively impact self-perception, psychosocial functioning, and quality of life. Patients with head and neck cancers (HNC) are particularly susceptible to psychological distress. This study involved a cross-validation of the Measure of Body Apperception (MBA) for HNC patients. One hundred and twenty-two English-fluent HNC patients between 20 and 88 years of age completed the MBA on a Likert scale ranging from "1 = disagree" to "4 = agree." We assessed the latent structure and internal consistency reliability of the MBA using Principal Components Analysis (PCA) and Cronbach's coefficient alpha (α), respectively. We determined convergent and divergent validities of the MBA using correlations with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), observer disfigurement rating, and patients' clinical and demographic variables. The PCA revealed a coherent set of items that explained 38 % of the variance. The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure of sampling adequacy was 0.73 and the Bartlett's test of sphericity was statistically significant (χ (2) (28) = 253.64; p 0.05). The MBA is a valid and reliable screening measure of body apperception for HNC patients.

  1. Broadband cross-polarization-based heteronuclear dipolar recoupling for structural and dynamic NMR studies of rigid and soft solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharkov, B. B.; Chizhik, V. I.; Dvinskikh, S. V.

    2016-01-01

    Dipolar recoupling is an essential part of current solid-state NMR methodology for probing atomic-resolution structure and dynamics in solids and soft matter. Recently described magic-echo amplitude- and phase-modulated cross-polarization heteronuclear recoupling strategy aims at efficient and robust recoupling in the entire range of coupling constants both in rigid and highly dynamic molecules. In the present study, the properties of this recoupling technique are investigated by theoretical analysis, spin-dynamics simulation, and experimentally. The resonance conditions and the efficiency of suppressing the rf field errors are examined and compared to those for other recoupling sequences based on similar principles. The experimental data obtained in a variety of rigid and soft solids illustrate the scope of the method and corroborate the results of analytical and numerical calculations. The technique benefits from the dipolar resolution over a wider range of coupling constants compared to that in other state-of-the-art methods and thus is advantageous in studies of complex solids with a broad range of dynamic processes and molecular mobility degrees

  2. Physical Absorption of Green House Gases in Amines: The Influence of Functionality, Structure, and Cross-Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco, Gustavo A; Lachet, Véronique; Mackie, Allan D

    2016-12-29

    Monte Carlo simulations were performed in the isothermal-isobaric ensemble (NPT) to calculate the Henry constants of methane (CH 4 ), nitrous oxide (N 2 O), and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) in pure H 2 O, amines, and alkanolamines using the classical Lorentz-Berthelot combining rules (L-B). The Henry constants of N 2 O and CO 2 in water are highly overestimated and motivated us to propose a new set of unlike interactions. Contrarily, the Henry constant of N 2 O in MEA is underestimated by around 40%, and again, a new reoptimized cross unlike parameter is able to reproduce the constant to within 10%. An analysis is given of the relationship between the physical absorption of these gases and the chemical structure or functionality of 12 molecules including amines and alkanolamines using the anisotropic united atom intermolecular potential (AUA4). Finally, the solubility of N 2 O in an aqueous solution of monoethanolamine (MEA) at 30% (wt) was also studied. A Henry constant within 7% of the experimental value was found by using the reoptimized parameters along with L-B to account for the MEA + H 2 O unlike interactions. This very good agreement without additional adjustments for the MEA + H 2 O system may be attributed to the good excess properties predictions found in previous works for the binary mixture (MEA + H 2 O). However, further work, including additional alkanolamines in aqueous solutions at several concentrations, is required to verify this particular point.

  3. A cross-lagged structural equation model of relational aggression, physical aggression, and peer status in a Chinese culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Wan-Ling; Banny, Adrienne M; Kawabata, Yoshito; Crick, Nicki R; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2013-01-01

    This short-term longitudinal study examined the associations among relational aggression, physical aggression, and peer status (i.e., acceptance, rejection, and perceived popularity) across three time points, six months apart, in a Taiwanese sample. Participants were 198 fifth grade students (94 girls and 104 boys; Mean age = 10.35 years) from Taipei, Taiwan. Study variables were assessed using peer nomination procedure. Results from the cross-lagged structural equation models demonstrated that there were longitudinal associations between relational aggression and each of the peer status constructs while only one longitudinal association was found for physical aggression such that physical aggression positively predicted subsequent peer rejection. The longitudinal associations did not vary with gender. Results also showed high stabilities of relational aggression, physical aggression, and the three peer status constructs over 1 year as well as high concurrent association between relational and physical aggression. In addition, relational aggression and physical aggression were concurrently related to less acceptance, more rejection, and less perceived popularity, especially at the outset of the study. Findings of this study demonstrated both similarities and differences in relation to previous literature in primarily Western cultures. This study also highlights the bidirectional and complex nature of the association between aggression and peer status, which appears to depend on the form of aggression and on the particular indicator of peer status under study. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. The association between psychosocial and structural-level stressors and HIV injection drug risk behavior among Malaysian fishermen: A cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Michalopoulos, Lynn Murphy; Jiwatram-Negr?n, Tina; Choo, Martin K. K.; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; El-Bassel, Nabila

    2016-01-01

    Background Malaysian fishermen have been identified as a key-affected HIV population with HIV rates 10 times higher than national rates. A number of studies have identified that psychosocial and structural-level stressors increase HIV injection drug risk behaviors. The purpose of this paper is to examine psychosocial and structural-level stressors of injection drug use and HIV injection drug risk behaviors among Malaysian fishermen. Methods The study employs a cross-sectional design using res...

  5. Investigation of population structure in Gulf of Mexico Seepiophila jonesi (Polychaeta, Siboglinidae using cross-amplified microsatellite loci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunya Huang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Vestimentiferan tubeworms are some of the most recognizable fauna found at deep-sea cold seeps, isolated environments where hydrocarbon rich fluids fuel biological communities. Several studies have investigated tubeworm population structure; however, much is still unknown about larval dispersal patterns at Gulf of Mexico (GoM seeps. As such, researchers have applied microsatellite markers as a measure for documenting the transport of vestimentiferan individuals. In the present study, we investigate the utility of microsatellites to be cross-amplified within the escarpiid clade of seep vestimentiferans, by determining if loci originally developed for Escarpia spp. could be amplified in the GoM seep tubeworm, Seepiophila jonesi. Additionally, we determine if cross-amplified loci can reliably uncover the same signatures of high gene flow seen in a previous investigation of S. jonesi. Methods Seventy-seven S. jonesi individuals were collected from eight seep sites across the upper Louisiana slope (<1,000 m in the GoM. Forty-eight microsatellite loci that were originally developed for Escarpia laminata (18 loci and Escarpia southwardae (30 loci were tested to determine if they were homologous and polymorphic in S. jonesi. Loci found to be both polymorphic and of high quality were used to test for significant population structuring in S. jonesi. Results Microsatellite pre-screening identified 13 (27% of the Escarpia loci were homologous and polymorphic in S. jonesi, revealing that microsatellites can be amplified within the escarpiid clade of vestimentiferans. Our findings uncovered low levels of heterozygosity and a lack of genetic differentiation amongst S. jonesi from various sites and regions, in line with previous investigations that employed species-specific polymorphic loci on S. jonesi individuals retrieved from both the same and different seep sites. The lack of genetic structure identified from these populations supports the

  6. Resolved nuclear hyperfine structure of muonium centres in CuCl and GaAs by means of the avoided-level-crossing technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, J.W.; Keller, H.; Schmid, B.; Boesiger, K.; Kuendig, W.; Odermatt, W.; Patterson, B.D.; Puempin, B.; Simmler, H.; Savic, I.M.; Heming, M.; Reid, I.D.; Roduner, E.; Louwrier, P.W.F.

    1988-01-01

    Avoided-level-crossing resonances from isotropic muonium centres interacting with neighbouring nuclear spins in powdered CuCl are reported. The prominent resonances have a complex multiline structure and are strongly temperature-dependent. In addition, previously unobserved resonances in single-crystal GaAs from anomalous muonium interacting with a 71 Ga neighbour are presented. (orig.)

  7. Fault-related-folding structures and reflection seismic sections. Study by seismic modeling and balanced cross section; Danso ga kaizaisuru shukyoku kozo no keitai to jishin tansa danmen. 2. Seismic modeling oyobi balanced cross section ni yoru study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamagawa, T; Matsuoka, T [Japan Petroleum Exploration Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Tsukui, R [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Technology Research Center

    1997-05-27

    It occasionally happens that there exists a part where reflection near the thrust is not clearly observed in a thrust zone seismic survey cross section. For the effective interpretation of such an occurrence, the use of geological structures as well as the reflected pattern is effective. When the velocity structures for a fold structure having a listric fault caused anticline (unidirectionally inclined with a backlimb, without a forelimb) and for a fault propagation fold are involved, a wrong interpretation may be made since they look alike in reflection wave pattern despite their difference in geological structure. In the concept of balanced cross section, a check is performed, when the stratum after deformation is recovered to the time of deposition, as to whether the geologic stratum area is conserved without excess or shortage. An excess or shortage occurs if there is an error in the model, and this shows that the fault surface or fold structure is not correctly reflected. Positive application of geological knowledge is required in the processing and interpreting of data from a seismic survey. 6 refs., 6 figs.

  8. The structure of walking activity in people after stroke compared with older adults without disability: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Margaret A; Rudolph, Katherine S; Reisman, Darcy S

    2012-09-01

    People with stroke have reduced walking activity. It is not known whether this deficit is due to a reduction in all aspects of walking activity or only in specific areas. Understanding specific walking activity deficits is necessary for the development of interventions that maximize improvements in activity after stroke. The purpose of this study was to examine walking activity in people poststroke compared with older adults without disability. A cross-sectional study was conducted. Fifty-four participants poststroke and 18 older adults without disability wore a step activity monitor for 3 days. The descriptors of walking activity calculated included steps per day (SPD), bouts per day (BPD), steps per bout (SPB), total time walking per day (TTW), percentage of time walking per day (PTW), and frequency of short, medium, and long walking bouts. Individuals classified as household and limited community ambulators (n=29) did not differ on any measure and were grouped (HHA-LCA group) for comparison with unlimited community ambulators (UCA group) (n=22) and with older adults without disability (n=14). The SPD, TTW, PTW, and BPD measurements were greatest in older adults and lowest in the HHA-LCA group. Seventy-two percent to 74% of all walking bouts were short, and this finding did not differ across groups. Walking in all categories (short, medium, and long) was lowest in the HHA-LCA group, greater in the UCA group, and greatest in older adults without disability. Three days of walking activity were captured. The specific descriptors of walking activity presented provide insight into walking deficits after stroke that cannot be ascertained by looking at steps per day alone. The deficits that were revealed could be addressed through appropriate exercise prescription, underscoring the need to analyze the structure of walking activity.

  9. Structured expert elicitation about Listeria monocytogenes cross-contamination in the environment of retail deli operations in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoelzer, Karin; Oliver, Haley F; Kohl, Larry R; Hollingsworth, Jill; Wells, Martin T; Wiedmann, Martin

    2012-07-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is among the foodborne pathogens with the highest death toll in the United States. Ready-to-eat foods contaminated at retail are an important source of infection. Environmental sites in retail deli operations can be contaminated. However, commonly contaminated sites are unlikely to come into direct contact with food and the public health relevance of environmental contamination has remained unclear. To identify environmental sites that may pose a considerable cross-contamination risk, to elucidate potential transmission pathways, and to identify knowledge gaps, we performed a structured expert elicitation of 41 experts from state regulatory agencies and the food retail industry with practical experience in retail deli operations. Following the "Delphi" method, the elicitation was performed in three consecutive steps: questionnaire, review and discussion of results, second questionnaire. Hands and gloves were identified as important potential contamination sources. However, bacterial transfers to and from hands or gloves represented a major data gap. Experts agreed about transfer probabilities from cutting boards, scales, deli cases, and deli preparation sinks to product, and about transfer probabilities from floor drains, walk-in cooler floors, and knife racks to food contact surfaces. Comparison of experts' opinions to observational data revealed a tendency among experts with certain demographic characteristics and professional opinions to overestimate prevalence. Experts' votes clearly clustered into separate groups not defined by place of employment, even though industry experts may have been somewhat overrepresented in one cluster. Overall, our study demonstrates the value and caveats of expert elicitation to identify data gaps and prioritize research efforts. © 2011 Society for Risk Analysis.

  10. Structural and Functional Characterization of Anti-A33 Antibodies Reveal a Potent Cross-Species Orthopoxviruses Neutralizer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael H Matho

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Vaccinia virus A33 is an extracellular enveloped virus (EEV-specific type II membrane glycoprotein that is essential for efficient EEV formation and long-range viral spread within the host. A33 is a target for neutralizing antibody responses against EEV. In this study, we produced seven murine anti-A33 monoclonal antibodies (MAbs by immunizing mice with live VACV, followed by boosting with the soluble A33 homodimeric ectodomain. Five A33 specific MAbs were capable of neutralizing EEV in the presence of complement. All MAbs bind to conformational epitopes on A33 but not to linear peptides. To identify the epitopes, we have adetermined the crystal structures of three representative neutralizing MAbs in complex with A33. We have further determined the binding kinetics for each of the three antibodies to wild-type A33, as well as to engineered A33 that contained single alanine substitutions within the epitopes of the three crystallized antibodies. While the Fab of both MAbs A2C7 and A20G2 binds to a single A33 subunit, the Fab from MAb A27D7 binds to both A33 subunits simultaneously. A27D7 binding is resistant to single alanine substitutions within the A33 epitope. A27D7 also demonstrated high-affinity binding with recombinant A33 protein that mimics other orthopoxvirus strains in the A27D7 epitope, such as ectromelia, monkeypox, and cowpox virus, suggesting that A27D7 is a potent cross-neutralizer. Finally, we confirmed that A27D7 protects mice against a lethal challenge with ectromelia virus.

  11. MgADP-induced changes in the structure of myosin S1 near the ATPase-related thiol SH1 probed by cross-linking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajasekharan, K.N.; Mayadevi, M.; Agarwal, R.; Burke, M.

    1990-01-01

    The structural consequence of MgADP binding at the vicinity of the ATPase-related thiol SH1 (Cys-707) have been examined by subjecting myosin subfragment 1, premodified at SH2 (Cys-697) with N-ethylmaleimide (NEM), to reaction with the bifunctional reagent p-phenylenedimaleimide (pPDM) in the presence and absence of MgADP. By monitoring the changes in the Ca 2+ -ATPase activity as a function of reaction time, it appears that the reagent rapidly modifies SH1 irrespective of whether MgADP is present or not. In the absence of nucleotide, only extremely low levels of cross-linking to the 50-kDa middle segment of S1 can be detected, while in the presence of MgADP substantial cross-linking to this segment is observed. A similar cross-link is also formed if MgADP is added subsequent to the reaction of the SH2-NEM-premodified S1 with pPDM in the absence of nucleotide. Isolation of the labeled tryptic peptide from the cross-linked adduct formed with [ 14 C]pPDM, and subsequent partial sequence analyses, indicates that the cross-link is made from SH1 to Cys-522. Moreover, it appears that this cross-link results in the trapping of MgADP in this S1 species. These data suggest that the binding of MgADP results in a change in the structure of S1 in the vicinity of the SH1 thiol relative to the 50-kDa domain which enables Cys-522 to adopt the appropriate configuration to enable it to be cross-linked to SH1 by pPDM

  12. Differing Levels of Forestry Best Management Practices at Stream Crossing Structures Affect Sediment Delivery and Installation Costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian C. Morris

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Forestry best management practices (BMPs are used to reduce sedimentation from forest stream crossings. Three BMP treatments (BMP−, BMP-std, and BMP+ were applied to three forest road stream crossings (bridge, culvert, and ford. BMP− did not meet existing BMP guidelines, BMP-std met standard recommendations, and BMP+ treatments exceeded recommendations. Following BMP applications, three simulated rainfall intensities (low, medium, and high were applied in order to evaluate sediment delivery from crossing type and BMP level. During rainfall simulation, sediment concentrations (mg/L were collected with automated samplers and discharge (L/s was estimated to calculate total sediment loading. Costs of stream crossings and BMP levels were also quantified. Mean sediment associated with the three stream crossings were 3.38, 1.87, and 0.64 Mg for the BMP−, BMP-std, and BMP+ levels, respectively. Ford, culvert, and bridge crossings produced 13.04, 12.95, and 0.17 Mg of sediment during construction, respectively. BMP enhancement was more critical for sediment control at the culvert and ford crossings than at the bridge. Respective costs for BMP−, BMP-std, and BMP+ levels were $5,368, $5,658, and $5,858 for the bridge; $3,568, $4,166 and $4,595 for the culvert; and $180, $420 and $1,903 for the ford. Costs and sediment values suggest that current standard BMP levels effectively reduce stream sediment while minimizing costs.

  13. Associations between the structural and functional aspects of social relations and poor mental health: a cross-sectional register study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lise Røntved Hansen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Social relations influence mental health through different pathways. To capture the complexity of social relations, it is beneficial to consider both the structural (e.g., reachability of social network and social integration and functional (e.g., instrumental and emotional support aspects of the concept. Both aspects are rarely investigated simultaneously. This study aimed to examine the association between the structural and functional aspects of social relations and poor mental health. Methods The study was designed as a cross-sectional register study. We used data on mental health and social relations from 15,839 individuals aged 16–92 years with a mean age of 49.0 years (SD 17.9 who responded to The North Denmark Region Health Survey 2013 among residents in Northern Jutland, Denmark. The 12-Item Short-Form Health Survey measured mental health; a cut-off point of 44.5 was used to dichotomize participants into poor and good mental health. The categorization of social relations was inspired by Berkman et al.’s conceptual model of social relations and health. The analyses were performed with survey logistic regression. Results We found that 21.6% (n = 3422 of participants reported poor mental health, and 59% (n = 2020 of these were women. Being in contact with family and friends less than once a month statistically significantly increased the risk for poor mental health (Family OR = 1.78, 95% CI = 1.51–2.10 and Friends OR = 2.65, 95% CI = 2.30–3.06. The individuals who were not in contact with their network as often as they liked had a significantly higher risk for poor mental health (OR = 2.40, 95% CI = 2.20–2.62. Lack of instrumental support was associated with a higher risk for poor mental health (OR = 2.81, 95% CI = 2.26–3.48. We found an interaction between age and emotional support; the youngest population had the highest risk for poor mental health when they did not have access to

  14. Associations between the structural and functional aspects of social relations and poor mental health: a cross-sectional register study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Lise Røntved; Pedersen, Stinna Bibi; Overgaard, Charlotte; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Ullits, Line Rosenkilde

    2017-11-03

    Social relations influence mental health through different pathways. To capture the complexity of social relations, it is beneficial to consider both the structural (e.g., reachability of social network and social integration) and functional (e.g., instrumental and emotional support) aspects of the concept. Both aspects are rarely investigated simultaneously. This study aimed to examine the association between the structural and functional aspects of social relations and poor mental health. The study was designed as a cross-sectional register study. We used data on mental health and social relations from 15,839 individuals aged 16-92 years with a mean age of 49.0 years (SD 17.9) who responded to The North Denmark Region Health Survey 2013 among residents in Northern Jutland, Denmark. The 12-Item Short-Form Health Survey measured mental health; a cut-off point of 44.5 was used to dichotomize participants into poor and good mental health. The categorization of social relations was inspired by Berkman et al.'s conceptual model of social relations and health. The analyses were performed with survey logistic regression. We found that 21.6% (n = 3422) of participants reported poor mental health, and 59% (n = 2020) of these were women. Being in contact with family and friends less than once a month statistically significantly increased the risk for poor mental health (Family OR = 1.78, 95% CI = 1.51-2.10 and Friends OR = 2.65, 95% CI = 2.30-3.06). The individuals who were not in contact with their network as often as they liked had a significantly higher risk for poor mental health (OR = 2.40, 95% CI = 2.20-2.62). Lack of instrumental support was associated with a higher risk for poor mental health (OR = 2.81, 95% CI = 2.26-3.48). We found an interaction between age and emotional support; the youngest population had the highest risk for poor mental health when they did not have access to emotional support (Young OR = 5.26, 95% CI = 3

  15. Measurement of e-p→e-X differential cross sections at high Q2 and of the structure function xF3 with ZEUS at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kappes, A.

    2001-12-01

    The 16 pb -1 of e - p data taken with the ZEUS detector during the 1998/99 running period of HERA have been used to measure neutral current single- and double-differential cross sections in deep inelastic e - p scattering in the range 200 GeV 2 2 2 and 3.7.10 -3 2 is visible. A comparison of the measured e - p cross sections to those from e + p clearly reveals the influence of the Z-boson contribution for Q 2 >or∼ M Z 2 . This dependence is exploited to determine the mass of the Z boson, M Z , and by combining the e - p and e + p cross sections the parity violating structure function xF 3 is extracted for the first time in deep-inelastic ep scattering at ZEUS. (orig.)

  16. Differential cross sections for gamma-ray production by 14 MeV neutrons with several elements in structural materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murata, Isao; Yamamoto, Junji; Takahashi, Akito

    1988-01-01

    Energy differential cross sections for the gamma-rays produced from the (n,xγ) reactions by 14 MeV neutrons were measured in the gamma-ray energy range from 700 keV to 10 MeV using an NaI spectrometer. Results were obtained for the 8 natural elements; C, Al, Si, Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu and Mo. For prominent discrete gamma-rays in the differential cross sections, the production cross sections were determined by measuring angular distributions with a Ge detector. The gamma-ray energy covered the range between 500 and 3000 keV. The energy distributions have been compared with the differential cross sections evaluated in the nuclear data files of JENDL-3T, ENDL and ENDF/B-IV. The evaluations in JENDL-3T agreed fairly well with the measurements concerning the continuum energy spectra for secondary photons. Discrepancies appeared, however, for Si, Cr and Ni at the energies where the discrete gamma-rays were dominant. The ENDL evaluations were largely deviated from the experimental data. The production cross sections for the discrete gamma-rays in ENDL and ENDF/B-IV were available for the comparison with some of the measured cross sections. Results are presented for C, Al and Si. (author)

  17. Cross-Disciplinary Perceptions of Structured Interprofessional Rounds in Promoting Teamwork Within an Academic Tertiary Care Obstetric Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, Anthony; Vijjeswarapu, Mary A; Hickey, Margaret; Acker, David; Huang, Chuan-Chin; Tsen, Lawrence C

    2017-06-01

    In 2005, physician and nursing leaders at Brigham and Women's Hospital initiated structured interprofessional rounds (SIPRs) on the labor and delivery (L&D) suite to improve team communication. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of providers' perceptions of SIPRs and their effectiveness in improving teamwork. We hypothesized that on average, providers would perceive SIPRs as being effective in promoting teamwork, but ratings would differ among professional groups. After a factor analysis and internal consistency assessment, a 19-item paper-based questionnaire was used to evaluate providers' perceptions using a 5-point Likert scale. Respondents included L&D nurses, midwives, obstetricians, and anesthesiologists who participate in SIPRs. The primary aim was to evaluate the providers' perceptions of SIPRs and their association with professional roles. The outcome was total response score for each provider, ranging from 19 to 95; perception of SIPRs as being effective in promoting teamwork was defined as having a total response score of >66.5 (mean score, >3.5 per question). A univariable linear regression model was performed, followed by a multivariable analysis adjusting for predictors that modified the outcome; predictors included years of professional practice, years of experience on the L&D suite, number of clinical work hours worked weekly, and principal shift assignment among nurses. The associations between these predictors and providers' perceptions were assessed as a secondary aim. A total of 234 practitioners responded (100% response rate). The mean total response score (SD) for all providers was 73.3 (9.5). After multivariable adjustment, the mean total response scores were significantly higher for obstetric providers than for anesthesia (Δ mean, 6.5, 95% CI, 0.3, 12.7 P = .036) and midwifery (Δ mean, 12.5, 95% CI, 2.0, 23.0, P = .009) providers. Providers scored significantly lower if they worked >60 clinical hours per week compared with ≤20 (

  18. Allergens in Hymenoptera venom. XXV: The amino acid sequences of antigen 5 molecules and the structural basis of antigenic cross-reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, D R

    1993-11-01

    The complete amino acid sequences have been determined by solid-phase protein sequencing for eight different vespid venom antigen 5 molecules. These include five species of yellow jackets, Vespula squamosa, V. flavopilosa, V. germanica, V. pensylvanica and V. vidua, representing all three species groups; two variants from the European hornet, Vespa crabro; and a species of paper wasp, Polistes fuscatus, from a second subgenus. The new sequences were compared with the seven previously published sequences from yellow jackets, hornets, and wasps, and to that of Solenopsis invicta 3 allergen from imported fire ant venom. These comparisons provided structural evidence to support the observed high degree of cross-reactivity among the antigens of the common group of yellow jackets and among those of the two common North American subgenera of paper wasps studied. The antigen 5 of V. squamosa and of V. vidua were significantly different from those of the vulgaris group. Common features that could generate immunologic cross-reactivity were seen among the antigen 5 molecules of hornets of both genera and among those of yellow jackets, hornets, and paper wasps. The imported fire ant allergen has only minimal conserved areas in common with the vespid allergens, which explains the lack of observed IgE cross-reactivity. These results provide the structural basis for the cross-reactivity patterns observed in clinical practice and suggest that the commercial extracts of yellow jacket and paper wasp could be prepared with fewer carefully selected species.

  19. Neutron radiation damage studies in the structural materials of a 500 MWe fast breeder reactor using DPA cross-sections from ENDF / B-VII.1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Uttiyoarnab; Devan, K.; Bachchan, Abhitab; Pandikumar, G.; Ganesan, S.

    2018-04-01

    The radiation damage in the structural materials of a 500 MWe Indian prototype fast breeder reactor (PFBR) is re-assessed by computing the neutron displacement per atom (dpa) cross-sections from the recent nuclear data library evaluated by the USA, ENDF / B-VII.1, wherein revisions were taken place in the new evaluations of basic nuclear data because of using the state-of-the-art neutron cross-section experiments, nuclear model-based predictions and modern data evaluation techniques. An indigenous computer code, computation of radiation damage (CRaD), is developed at our centre to compute primary-knock-on atom (PKA) spectra and displacement cross-sections of materials both in point-wise and any chosen group structure from the evaluated nuclear data libraries. The new radiation damage model, athermal recombination-corrected displacement per atom (arc-dpa), developed based on molecular dynamics simulations is also incorporated in our study. This work is the result of our earlier initiatives to overcome some of the limitations experienced while using codes like RECOIL, SPECTER and NJOY 2016, to estimate radiation damage. Agreement of CRaD results with other codes and ASTM standard for Fe dpa cross-section is found good. The present estimate of total dpa in D-9 steel of PFBR necessitates renormalisation of experimental correlations of dpa and radiation damage to ensure consistency of damage prediction with ENDF / B-VII.1 library.

  20. Fault-related-folding structure and reflection seismic sections. Construction of earth model using balanced cross section; Danso ga kaizaisuru shukyoku kozo no keitai to jishin tansa danmen. 1. Balanced cross section wo mochiita chika model no kochiku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuoka, T; Tamagawa, T [Japan Petroleum Exploration Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Tsukui, R [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Technology Research Center

    1997-05-27

    Pre-stacking depth migration treatment is studied for the estimation of the fold configuration from seismic survey cross sections. The estimation of a velocity structure is necessary for the execution of such treatment, and the utilization of structural-geological knowledge is required for its interpretation. The concept of balanced cross section in relation to the fault-bend fold constructs a stratum structure model under conditions that the deformation during fold and fault formation is a planar strain, that there is no change in volume due to deformation, and that a fold is a parallel fold. In addition to the above geometric and kinetic approach, there is another fold formation process simulation model using a Newtonian fluid for study from the viewpoint of dynamics. This simulation stands on the presumption that the boundary contains a ramp that had been in presence before fold formation and that an incompressible viscous matter is mounted on the top surface. The viscous matter flows and deforms for the formation of an anticline on the ramp. Such enables the reproduction of a fault-bend fold formation process, and helpful discussion may be furthered on the dynamic aspect of this simulation. 5 refs., 4 figs.

  1. Cross-cultural examination of the structure of the Revised American Pain Society Patient Outcome Questionnaire (APS-POQ-R).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botti, Mari; Khaw, Damien; Jørgensen, Emmy Brandt; Rasmussen, Bodil; Hunter, Susan; Redley, Bernice

    2015-08-01

    This study investigated the cross-cultural factor stability and internal consistency of the Revised American Pain Society Patient Outcome Questionnaire (APS-POQ-R), a measure of the quality of postoperative pain management used internationally. We conducted exploratory factor analysis (EFA) of APS-POQ-R data from 2 point prevalence studies comprising 268 and 311 surveys of Danish and Australian medical-surgical patients, respectively. Parallel analysis indicated 4- and 3-factor solutions for Danish and Australian patients, respectively, which accounted for 58.1% and 52.9% of variance. Internal consistency was unsatisfactory among both Danish (Cronbach α = .54) and Australian (Cronbach α = .63) cohorts. There was a high degree of between-group similarity in item-factor loadings of variables coded as "pain experience," but not "pain management." This finding reflected cross-cultural differences in ratings of treatment satisfaction. For Danish patients, satisfaction was associated with the degree of pain severity and activity interference, whereas for Australian patients, satisfaction was associated with their perceived ability to participate in treatment. To facilitate further cross-cultural comparison, we compared our findings with past research conducted in the United States and Iceland. EFA supported the construct validity of the APS-POQ-R as a measure of "pain experience" but indicated that items measuring "pain management" may vary cross-culturally. Findings highlighted the need for further validation of the APS-POQ-R internationally. This study revealed the APS-POQ-R as a valid measure of postoperative pain experience for Danish and Australian patients. Measures of patients' perception of pain management were not robust to group differences in treatment expectations and demonstrated cross-cultural instability. Results highlighted the difficulties in establishing stable cross-cultural, cross-population subscales for the APS-POQ-R. Copyright © 2015

  2. A measurement of jet cross sections at low Q2 and an interpretation of the results in terms of a partonic structure of the virtual photon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.

    1999-09-01

    Measurements of single inclusive jet cross-sections are presented using deep inelastic scattering data from H1 in the kinematic region 0.65 2 2 and 0.3 2 2 and 0.1 T *2 >> Q 2 . The ratio σ(res)/σ(dir) is also presented and shows the partonic structure of the photon to decrease with increasing photon virtuality. (author)

  3. A cross-cultural investigation into the dimensional structure and stability of the Barriers to Research and Utilization Scale (BARRIERS Scale).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Brett; Brown, Ted; Costello, Shane

    2015-10-24

    It is important that scales exhibit strong measurement properties including those related to the investigation of issues that impact evidence-based practice. The validity of the Barriers to Research Utilization Scale (BARRIERS Scale) has recently been questioned in a systematic review. This study investigated the dimensional structure and stability of the 28 item BARRIERS Scale when completed by three groups of participants from three different cross-cultural environments. Data from the BARRIERS Scale completed by 696 occupational therapists from Australia (n = 137), Taiwan (n = 413), and the United Kingdom (n = 144) were analysed using principal components analysis, followed by Procrustes Transformation. Poorly fitting items were identified by low communalities, cross-loading, and theoretically inconsistent primary loadings, and were systematically removed until good fit was achieved. The cross-cultural stability of the component structure of the BARRIERS Scale was examined. A four component, 19 item version of the BARRIERS Scale emerged that demonstrated an improved dimensional fit and stability across the three participant groups. The resulting four components were consistent with the BARRIERS Scale as originally conceptualised. Findings from the study suggest that the four component, 19 item version of the BARRIERS Scale is a robust and valid measure for identifying barriers to research utilization for occupational therapists in paediatric health care settings across Australia, United Kingdom, and Taiwan. The four component 19 item version of the BARRIERS Scale exhibited good dimensional structure, internal consistency, and stability.

  4. Functional and Structural Findings of Neurodegeneration in Early Stages of Diabetic Retinopathy. Cross-sectional Analyses of Baseline Data of the EUROCONDOR project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santos, Ana Rita; Ribeiro, Luisa; Bandello, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    Cross-sectional study evaluating the relationship between: a) functional and structural measurements of neurodegeneration in initial stages of diabetic retinopathy (DR); and b) presence of neurodegeneration and early microvascular impairment. We analyzed baseline data of patients with type 2...... diabetes (n=449) enrolled in the EUROCONDOR study (NCT01726075). Functional studies by multifocal ERG (mfERG) evaluated neurodysfunction and structural measurements using spectral domain optical-coherence tomography (SD-OCT) evaluated neurodegeneration. The mfERG P1 amplitude was more sensitive than the P1...

  5. [The effect of structure of benzimidazoles on the character of forming intramolecular cross-links in DNA and chromatin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mil', E M; Zhil'tsova, V M; Biniukov, V I; Zhizhina, G P; Stoliarova, L G; Kuznetsov, Iu P

    1994-01-01

    An investigation of a number of benzimidazole class preparations, being distinguished by a position of aminomethyl substitutes, has been carried out. It has been shown, that the non-substituted preparation BIO-10 does not form UV-cross-links in DNA and chromatine; BIO-40, having one substitute in the position 2, causes the formation of inter-molecular cross-links DNA-DNA. The preparation BIO-50, having 2 aminomethyl groups in the imidazole nucleus positions 2 and 6, forms cross-links DNA-DNA and DNA-protein in chromatine. The generation of radicals by the preparations BIO-10 and BIO-50 has been studied by the EPR-method by use of spin trap. It has been demonstrated, that BIO-10, unlike BIO-50, actively generates superoxide. A supposition has been made, that an UV-formation of superoxide-radical in the presence of BIO-10 might be a reason of DNA-macromolecule destruction.

  6. Crystal structure of a Fanconi anemia-associated nuclease homolog bound to 5' flap DNA: basis of interstrand cross-link repair by FAN1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gwon, Gwang Hyeon; Kim, Youngran; Liu, Yaqi; Watson, Adam T.; Jo, Aera; Etheridge, Thomas J.; Yuan, Fenghua; Zhang, Yanbin; Kim, YoungChang; Carr, Anthony M.; Cho, Yunje

    2014-10-15

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder caused by defects in any of 15 FA genes responsible for processing DNA interstrand cross-links (ICLs). The ultimate outcome of the FA pathway is resolution of cross-links, which requires structure-selective nucleases. FA-associated nuclease 1 (FAN1) is believed to be recruited to lesions by a monoubiquitinated FANCI–FANCD2 (ID) complex and participates in ICL repair. Here, we determined the crystal structure of Pseudomonas aeruginosa FAN1 (PaFAN1) lacking the UBZ (ubiquitin-binding zinc) domain in complex with 5' flap DNA. All four domains of the right-hand-shaped PaFAN1 are involved in DNA recognition, with each domain playing a specific role in bending DNA at the nick. The six-helix bundle that binds the junction connects to the catalytic viral replication and repair (VRR) nuclease (VRR nuc) domain, enabling FAN1 to incise the scissile phosphate a few bases distant from the junction. The six-helix bundle also inhibits the cleavage of intact Holliday junctions. PaFAN1 shares several conserved features with other flap structure-selective nucleases despite structural differences. A clamping motion of the domains around the wedge helix, which acts as a pivot, facilitates nucleolytic cleavage. The PaFAN1 structure provides insights into how archaeal Holliday junction resolvases evolved to incise 5' flap substrates and how FAN1 integrates with the FA complex to participate in ICL repair.

  7. Adolescent depressive symptoms in India, Australia and USA: Exploratory Structural Equation Modelling of cross-national invariance and predictions by gender and age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Andrew J; Rowland, Bosco; Tran, Aiden; Solomon, Renatti F; Patton, George C; Catalano, Richard F; Toumbourou, John W

    2017-04-01

    The present study compares depressive symptoms in adolescents from three countries: Mumbai, India; Seattle, United States; and Melbourne, Australia measured using the Short Moods and Feelings Questionnaire (SMFQ). The study cross nationally compares SMFQ depressive symptom responses by age and gender. Data from a cross-nationally matched survey were used to compare factorial and measurement characteristics from samples of students from Grade 7 and 9 in Mumbai, India (n=3268) with the equivalent cohorts in the Washington State, USA (n=1907) and Victoria, Australia (n=1900). Exploratory Structural Equation Modelling (ESEM) was used to cross-nationally examine factor structure and measurement invariance. A number of reports suggesting that SMFQ is uni-dimensional were not supported in findings from any country. A model with two factors was a better fit and suggested a first factor clustering symptoms that were affective and physiologically based symptoms and a second factor of self-critical, cognitive symptoms. The two-factor model showed convincing cross national configural invariance and acceptable measurement invariance. The present findings revealed that adolescents in Mumbai, India, reported substantially higher depressive symptoms in both factors, but particularly for the self-critical dimension, as compared to their peers in Australia and the USA and that males in Mumbai report high levels of depressive symptoms than females in Mumbai. the cross sectional study collected data for adolescents in Melbourne and Seattle in 2002 and the data for adolescents in Mumbai was obtained in 2010-2011 CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that previous findings in developed nations of higher depressive symptoms amongst females compared to males may have an important cultural component and cannot be generalised as a universal feature of adolescent development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Dissociation Behavior of a TEMPO-Active Ester Cross-Linker for Peptide Structure Analysis by Free Radical Initiated Peptide Sequencing (FRIPS) in Negative ESI-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hage, Christoph; Ihling, Christian H; Götze, Michael; Schäfer, Mathias; Sinz, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    We have synthesized a homobifunctional amine-reactive cross-linking reagent, containing a TEMPO (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxy) and a benzyl group (Bz), termed TEMPO-Bz-linker, to derive three-dimensional structural information of proteins. The aim for designing this novel cross-linker was to facilitate the mass spectrometric analysis of cross-linked products by free radical initiated peptide sequencing (FRIPS). In an initial study, we had investigated the fragmentation behavior of TEMPO-Bz-derivatized peptides upon collision activation in (+)-electrospray ionization collision-induced dissociation tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-CID-MS/MS) experiments. In addition to the homolytic NO-C bond cleavage FRIPS pathway delivering the desired odd-electron product ions, an alternative heterolytic NO-C bond cleavage, resulting in even-electron product ions mechanism was found to be relevant. The latter fragmentation route clearly depends on the protonation of the TEMPO-Bz-moiety itself, which motivated us to conduct (-)-ESI-MS, CID-MS/MS, and MS 3 experiments of TEMPO-Bz-cross-linked peptides to further clarify the fragmentation behavior of TEMPO-Bz-peptide molecular ions. We show that the TEMPO-Bz-linker is highly beneficial for conducting FRIPS in negative ionization mode as the desired homolytic cleavage of the NO-C bond is the major fragmentation pathway. Based on characteristic fragments, the isomeric amino acids leucine and isoleucine could be discriminated. Interestingly, we observed pronounced amino acid side chain losses in cross-linked peptides if the cross-linked peptides contain a high number of acidic amino acids. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  9. Living and Coping with Ongoing Violence: A Cross-National Analysis of Children's Drawings Using Structured Rating Indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudenberg, Stephanie Linda; Jansen, Patricia; Fridjohn, Peter

    2001-01-01

    Investigated the effectiveness of analyzing drawings of 8- to 12-year-old children as a method of understanding the effects of living and coping with ongoing civic unrest. Compared drawings by white and black South African children with those of children from Belfast, Ireland. Found cross-national differences in stress, emotion, adjustment, and…

  10. Basic research on lattice structures focused on the reliance of the cross sectional area and additional coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kessler Julia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This scientific survey is about periodic lattice structures which are made by Selective Laser Melting (SLM. Selective laser melting is based on Additive Manufacturing. The increased use and increasing demand of lattice structures in different fields of applications forms the necessity of a closer look on complex structures. Lattice structures can be found in different fields of applications for example in lightweight applications, filters and heat exchangers. Because of the expanding of application areas and thus arising requirements, the quality improvement is indispensable. Additive manufacturing and especially the SLM process enable the manufacturing of highly complex shapes and structures. Further it allows the integration of lightweight structures within to be manufactured applications. These high performance structures and applications need specific boundary and process conditions [1-3]. The main aim of this survey is an extraction of important parameters concerning the shape of lattices. A first focus will be on mechanical properties and the therefore necessary tensile tests.

  11. Imitating intrinsic alignments: a bias to the CMB lensing-galaxy shape cross-correlation power spectrum induced by the large-scale structure bispectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkel, Philipp M.; Schäfer, Björn Malte

    2017-10-01

    Cross-correlating the lensing signals of galaxies and comic microwave background (CMB) fluctuations is expected to provide valuable cosmological information. In particular, it may help tighten constraints on parameters describing the properties of intrinsically aligned galaxies at high redshift. To access the information conveyed by the cross-correlation signal, its accurate theoretical description is required. We compute the bias to CMB lensing-galaxy shape cross-correlation measurements induced by non-linear structure growth. Using tree-level perturbation theory for the large-scale structure bispectrum, we find that the bias is negative on most angular scales, therefore mimicking the signal of intrinsic alignments. Combining Euclid-like galaxy lensing data with a CMB experiment comparable to the Planck satellite mission, the bias becomes significant only on smallest scales (ℓ ≳ 2500). For improved CMB observations, however, the corrections amount to 10-15 per cent of the CMB lensing-intrinsic alignment signal over a wide multipole range (10 ≲ ℓ ≲ 2000). Accordingly, the power spectrum bias, if uncorrected, translates into 2σ and 3σ errors in the determination of the intrinsic alignment amplitude in the case of CMB stage III and stage IV experiments, respectively.

  12. Quaternary structure of the ATPase complex of human 26S proteasomes determined by chemical cross-linking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann-Petersen, R; Tanaka, K; Hendil, K B

    2001-01-01

    and substrate specificity. Among the approximately 18 subunits of PA700 regulator, six are ATPases. The ATPases presumably recognize, unfold, and translocate substrates into the interior of the 26S proteasome. It is generally believed that the ATPases form a hexameric ring. By means of chemical cross......-linking, immunoprecipitation, and blotting, we have determined that the ATPases are organized in the order S6-S6'-S10b-S8-S4-S7. Additionally, we found cross-links between the ATPase S10b and the 20S proteasome subunit alpha6. Together with the previously known interaction between S8 and alpha1 and between S4 and alpha7......, these data establish the relative orientations of ATPases with respect to the 20S proteasome....

  13. Influence of the ordered structure of short-chain polymer molecule all-trans-β-carotene on Raman scattering cross section in liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu Guan-Nan; Li Zuo-Wei; Sun Cheng-Lin; Ou Yang Shun-Li; Wang Wei-Wei; Men Zhi-Wei

    2011-01-01

    We measured the resonant Raman spectra of all-trans-β-carotene in solvents with different densities and concentrations at different temperatures. The results demonstrated that the Raman scattering cross section (RSCS) of short-chain polymer all-trans-β-carotene is extremely high in liquid. Resonance and strong coherent weakly damped CC bond vibrating properties play important roles under these conditions. Coherent weakly damped CC bond vibration strength is associated with molecular ordered structure. All-trans-β-carotene has highly ordered structure and strong coherent weakly damped CC bond vibrating properties, which lead to large RSCS in the solvent with large density and low concentration at low temperature. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  14. WIMS-IST/DRAGON-IST side-step calculation of reactivity device and structural material incremental cross sections for Wolsong NPP Unit 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahmani, M.; McArthur, R.; Kim, B.G.; Kim, S.M.; Seo, H.-B.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the calculation of two-group incremental cross sections for all of the reactivity devices and incore structural materials for an RFSP-IST full-core model of Wolsong NPP Unit 1, in support of the conversion of the reference plant model to two energy groups. This is of particular interest since the calculation used the new standard 'side-step' approach, which is a three-dimensional supercell method that employs the Industry Standard Toolset (IST) codes DRAGON-IST and WIMS-IST with the ENDF/B-VI nuclear data library. In this technique, the macroscopic cross sections for the fuel regions and the device material specifications are first generated using the lattice code WIMS-IST with 89 energy groups. DRAGON-IST then uses this data with a standard supercell modelling approach for the three-dimensional calculations. Incremental cross sections are calculated for the stainless-steel adjuster rods (SS-ADJ), the liquid zone control units (LZCU), the shutoff rods (SOR), the mechanical control absorbers (MCA) and various structural materials, such as guide tubes, springs, locators, brackets, adjuster cables and support bars and the moderator inlet nozzle deflectors. Isotopic compositions of the Zircaloy-2, stainless steel and Inconel X-750 alloys in these items are derived from Wolsong NPP Unit 1 history dockets. Their geometrical layouts are based on applicable design drawings. Mid-burnup fuel with no moderator poison was assumed. The incremental cross sections and key aspects of the modelling are summarized in this paper. (author)

  15. Spatial Genetic Structure of Coffee-Associated Xylella fastidiosa Populations Indicates that Cross Infection Does Not Occur with Sympatric Citrus Orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco, Carolina S; Ceresini, Paulo C; Almeida, Rodrigo P P; Coletta-Filho, Helvécio D

    2017-04-01

    Xylella fastidiosa, an economically important plant-pathogenic bacterium, infects both coffee and citrus trees in Brazil. Although X. fastidiosa in citrus is well studied, knowledge about the population structure of this bacterium infecting coffee remains unknown. Here, we studied the population structure of X. fastidiosa infecting coffee trees in São Paulo State, Brazil, in four regions where citrus is also widely cultivated. Genotyping of over 500 isolates from coffee plants using 14 genomic microsatellite markers indicated that populations were largely geographically isolated, as previously found with populations of X. fastidiosa infecting citrus. These results were supported by a clustering analysis, which indicated three major genetic groups among the four sampled regions. Overall, approximately 38% of isolates showed significant membership coefficients not related to their original geographical populations (i.e., migrants), characterizing a significant degree of genotype flow among populations. To determine whether admixture occurred between isolates infecting citrus and coffee plants, one site with citrus and coffee orchards adjacent to each other was selected; over 100 isolates were typed from each host plant. No signal of natural admixture between citrus- and coffee-infecting isolates was found; artificial cross-infection assays with representative isolates also yielded no successful cross infection. A comparison determined that X. fastidiosa populations from coffee have higher genetic diversity and allelic richness compared with citrus. The results showed that coffee and citrus X. fastidiosa populations are effectively isolated from each other and, although coffee populations are spatially structured, migration has an important role in shaping diversity.

  16. Desorption of 3,3′-diindolylmethane from imprinted particles: An impact of cross-linker structure on binding capacity and selectivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klejn, Dorota; Luliński, Piotr; Maciejewska, Dorota, E-mail: dorota.maciejewska@wum.edu.pl

    2015-11-01

    Here, seven cross-linkers (six polar diacrylates or dimethacrylates of different lengths between double bonds, and one aromatic-divinylbenzene) were used to examine the impact of the cross-linker on binding capacity and selectivity of 3,3′-diindolylmethane (DIM) imprinted material. DIM participates in the suppression of viability of human ovarian and human breast cancer cell lines, but has low bioavailability. The investigations of novel imprinted polymer matrices for improvement of DIM release could allow to utilize not only a potency of DIM but also similar alkaloids, which are the important compounds with pharmacological activity. The bulk, thermal radical copolymerization of the cross-linkers in the presence of 3,3′-diindolylmethane (the template) and allylamine (the functional monomer) in dimethyl sulfoxide or in carbon tetrachloride (porogens) was carried out. The binding capacities of imprinted and non-imprinted polymers were compared, and two polymers (these were prepared using ethylene glycol dimethacrylate and polyethylene glycol dimethacrylate as the cross-linkers) with the highest selectivity and binding capacity were selected to desorption test. The desorption profile of polymer prepared using polyethylene glycol dimethacrylate as the cross-linker revealed sustained release of 3,3′-diindolylmethane, and this system was selected for further optimization of the cross-linker amounts. The morphology and structure of the selected particles were analyzed using SEM micrographs, {sup 13}C CP/MAS NMR spectroscopy, and BET measurements. The desorption of 3,3′-diindolylmethane from poly(allylamine-co-polyethylene glycol dimethacrylate) particles was in accordance with pseudo-second-order kinetics and the simplified Higuchi model indicated the diffusion controlled release of 3,3′-diindolylmethane. - Graphical abstract: Sustained release of 3,3′-diindolylmethane from cavity in imprinted poly(allylamine-co-polyethylene glycol dimethacrylate

  17. Desorption of 3,3′-diindolylmethane from imprinted particles: An impact of cross-linker structure on binding capacity and selectivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klejn, Dorota; Luliński, Piotr; Maciejewska, Dorota

    2015-01-01

    Here, seven cross-linkers (six polar diacrylates or dimethacrylates of different lengths between double bonds, and one aromatic-divinylbenzene) were used to examine the impact of the cross-linker on binding capacity and selectivity of 3,3′-diindolylmethane (DIM) imprinted material. DIM participates in the suppression of viability of human ovarian and human breast cancer cell lines, but has low bioavailability. The investigations of novel imprinted polymer matrices for improvement of DIM release could allow to utilize not only a potency of DIM but also similar alkaloids, which are the important compounds with pharmacological activity. The bulk, thermal radical copolymerization of the cross-linkers in the presence of 3,3′-diindolylmethane (the template) and allylamine (the functional monomer) in dimethyl sulfoxide or in carbon tetrachloride (porogens) was carried out. The binding capacities of imprinted and non-imprinted polymers were compared, and two polymers (these were prepared using ethylene glycol dimethacrylate and polyethylene glycol dimethacrylate as the cross-linkers) with the highest selectivity and binding capacity were selected to desorption test. The desorption profile of polymer prepared using polyethylene glycol dimethacrylate as the cross-linker revealed sustained release of 3,3′-diindolylmethane, and this system was selected for further optimization of the cross-linker amounts. The morphology and structure of the selected particles were analyzed using SEM micrographs, 13 C CP/MAS NMR spectroscopy, and BET measurements. The desorption of 3,3′-diindolylmethane from poly(allylamine-co-polyethylene glycol dimethacrylate) particles was in accordance with pseudo-second-order kinetics and the simplified Higuchi model indicated the diffusion controlled release of 3,3′-diindolylmethane. - Graphical abstract: Sustained release of 3,3′-diindolylmethane from cavity in imprinted poly(allylamine-co-polyethylene glycol dimethacrylate). - Highlights:

  18. Resolved nuclear hyperfine structure of muonium in CuCl by means of muon level-crossing resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, J.W.; Keller, H.; Odermatt, W.; Puempin, B.; Savic, I.M.; Simmler, H.; Dodds, S.A.; Estle, T.L.; Duvarney, R.C.; Chow, K.; Kadono, R.; Kiefl, R.F.; Li, Q.; Riseman, T.M.; Zhou, H.; Lichti, R.L.; Schwab, C.

    1991-01-01

    Detailed muon level-crossing resonance measurements of Mu I and Mu II centres in single crystals of CuCl are presented. The hyperfine and nuclear hyperfine parameters of the closest two shells of nuclei are remarkably similar for the two centres, indicating that both are located at the same tetrahedral interstitial site with four Cu nearest neighbours and six Cl next-nearest neighbours. About 30% of the total unpaired-electron spin density is located on the muon, about 60% on the four nearest neighbours and the rest on the six next-nearest neighbours, with nothing observable for any other shell. (orig.)

  19. Low-loss bloch wave guiding in open structures and highly compact efficient waveguide-crossing arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovic, Milos

    2011-03-08

    Low-loss waveguide structures may comprise a multimode waveguide supporting a periodic light intensity pattern, and attachments disposed at the waveguide adjacent low-intensity regions of the light intensity pattern.

  20. The error and covariance structures of the mean approach model of pooled cross-section and time series data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuamah, N.N.N.N.

    1991-01-01

    This paper postulates the assumptions underlying the Mean Approach model and recasts the re-expressions of the normal equations of this model in partitioned matrices of covariances. These covariance structures have been analysed. (author). 16 refs

  1. LES of turbulent jet in cross flow: Part 2 – POD analysis and identification of coherent structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavar, Dalibor; Meyer, Knud Erik

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents results of a Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) investigation of the LES based numerical simulation of the jet-in-crossflow (JICF) flowfield with Reynolds number based on the cross flow velocity and jet diameter Re=2400 and the velocity ratio of R=3.3. LES results are valida......The paper presents results of a Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) investigation of the LES based numerical simulation of the jet-in-crossflow (JICF) flowfield with Reynolds number based on the cross flow velocity and jet diameter Re=2400 and the velocity ratio of R=3.3. LES results...... results are directly compared and found to be in close agreement with results of a Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) based planar (2D) snapshot POD analysis by Meyer et al. (JFM 583, p. 199–227, 2007), indicating that LES is able to predict the same large scale flow dynamics as that captured by PIV. Some...... for the creation of wake vortices and that the wake vortex originates from the hanging vortex, but grows quickly by “sucking up” the wall boundary layer fluid and vorticity....

  2. Ditches and Drainage Structures, Culverts - cross drains were collected using a GPS for drainage basin project. Ditches are planned for the future., Published in 2005, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Effingham County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Ditches and Drainage Structures dataset current as of 2005. Culverts - cross drains were collected using a GPS for drainage basin project. Ditches are planned for...

  3. Cross-Cultural Competence of Specialists Engaged in International Business, Economic Relationships and Management: Content and Structure (With a view to business challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliya Aleksandrova

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this writing is to analyze the current trends in doing business nationally and globally, understand approaches to managing cross-cultural teams and identify professional requirements for graduates seeking benefitial and successful careers in international business, economic relationships and management. Analyzing relevant articles the author points out that today’s business environment is notably sustainability-driven and aimed at maintaining the conditions that allow it to flourish over time. Thus organizations’ leaders and managers are and will be aimed at building enduring business institutions. This leads us to the following assumptions: striving to improve businesses multinational companies are increasingly aimed at maintaining a competitive edge through close relatiponships and overwhelming collaboration with their extended networks of suppliers, customers and business partners. Under special consideration are issues of the content and structure of cross-cultural competence, because its acquiring enables economists and managers to achieve success in managing cross- cultural teams, establishing and cementing long-lasting business and economic relationships overseas. Current topics in pursuit are diverse and multifaceted. It is assumed that supporting discussion is involved from the works of P. Levice, G. Hofstede, F. Trompenarce, E. Holl, F. Klakhone, F. Strodeback, Michael H. Mescon, Michael Albert, Franklin Khedouri, Peter Druker, Chandra Vennaspoosa who dedicated their academic studies to understanding and evaluating practical essence and significance of cross-cultural competence for developing business globally. Not only does the study aim at identifying the content of cross-cultural competence, but also it is supposed to discovere its key components with a view to current business and management trends worldwide. The objective here is to thoroughly look through recent publications dedicated to the development of

  4. Popliteal cysts and subgastrocnemius bursitis are associated with knee symptoms and structural abnormalities in older adults: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yuelong; Jones, Graeme; Han, Weiyu; Antony, Benny; Wang, Xia; Cicuttini, Flavia; Ding, Changhai

    2014-03-03

    The role of popliteal cysts and subgastrocnemius bursitis in knee joint homeostasis is uncertain. The aim of this study is to describe cross-sectional associations between popliteal cysts, subgastrocnemius bursitis, knee symptoms and structural abnormalities in older adults. A cross-sectional sample of 900 randomly-selected subjects (mean age 63 years, 48% female) were studied. Knee pain, stiffness and dysfunction were assessed by self-administered Western Ontario McMaster Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) questionnaire. Radiographic knee osteophyte and joint space narrowing (JSN) were recorded. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was utilized to assess popliteal cysts, subgastrocnemius bursitis, cartilage defects and bone marrow lesions (BMLs). Popliteal cysts were present in 11.7% and subgastrocnemius bursitis in 12.7% of subjects. Subgastrocnemius bursitis was more common in those with popliteal cyst (36.2% versus 9.7%, P bursitis was associated with increased osteophytes and JSN in the medial tibiofemoral compartment. Both were significantly associated with cartilage defects in all compartments, and with BMLs in the medial tibiofemoral compartment. Furthermore, both popliteal cysts and subgastrocnemius bursitis were significantly associated with increased weight-bearing knee pain but these associations became non-significant after adjustment for cartilage defects and BMLs. Popliteal cysts and subgastrocnemius bursitis are associated with increased symptoms as well as radiographic and MRI-detected joint structural abnormalities. Longitudinal data will help resolve if they are a consequence or a cause of knee joint abnormalities.

  5. An equivalent frequency approach for determining non-linear effects on pre-tensioned-cable cross-braced structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giaccu, Gian Felice

    2018-05-01

    Pre-tensioned cable braces are widely used as bracing systems in various structural typologies. This technology is fundamentally utilized for stiffening purposes in the case of steel and timber structures. The pre-stressing force imparted to the braces provides to the system a remarkable increment of stiffness. On the other hand, the pre-tensioning force in the braces must be properly calibrated in order to satisfactorily meet both serviceability and ultimate limit states. Dynamic properties of these systems are however affected by non-linear behavior due to potential slackening of the pre-tensioned brace. In the recent years the author has been working on a similar problem regarding the non-linear response of cables in cable-stayed bridges and braced structures. In the present paper a displacement-based approach is used to examine the non-linear behavior of a building system. The methodology operates through linearization and allows obtaining an equivalent linearized frequency to approximately characterize, mode by mode, the dynamic behavior of the system. The equivalent frequency depends on both the mechanical characteristics of the system, the pre-tensioning level assigned to the braces and a characteristic vibration amplitude. The proposed approach can be used as a simplified technique, capable of linearizing the response of structural systems, characterized by non-linearity induced by the slackening of pre-tensioned braces.

  6. Generic structure and promotional elements in best-selling online book blurbs: a cross-cultural study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neslihan Önder

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the generic structure and promotional elements of the online fiction blurbs accompanying the 95 best-selling books from Amazon United Kingdom and Okuoku Turkey (1999-2011, a company that sells books online that are written in Turkish or translated into Turkish, and adds to the growing number of investigations into this genre (Kathpalia, 1997; Bhatia, 2004; Cacchiani, 2007; Gea-Valor, 2007; Gesuato, 2007; Basturkmen, 2009. Based on the findings, a two-level schematic structure (moves and steps is proposed for the blurbs following Swales (1990. The findings suggest that Amazon UK book blurbs have a six-move schematic structure: complimenting the author, book description, justifying the book by establishing a niche, book promotion, author’s background and author’s website/blog being the second, fourth and fifth obligatory moves. However, Okuoku book blurbs feature a five-move schematic structure with complimenting the author, book description, involving the reader in the text, book promotion and author’s background, the second and fourth being obligatory. Analysis of promotional elements in the corpora reveals that online fiction book blurbs employ the art of advertising through the use of favorable expressions (Bhatia, 2005 and innovative uses of rhetorical strategies to persuade the reader to read the book.

  7. Study of the molecular structure and dynamics of bakelite with neutron cross section measurements; Estudo da estrutura e da dinamica moleculares da baquelite atraves de medidas de secoes de choque para neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voi, D L

    1990-06-01

    The molecular structure and dynamics of calcined bakelite were studied with neutron transmission and scattering cross section measurements. The total cross sections determined were correlated with data obtained with infra-red spectroscopy, elemental analysis and other techniques to get the probable molecular formulae of bakelite. The total cross section determined showed a deviation smaller than 5% from the literature values. The frequency distribution as well as overall experimental results allowed to suggest a structural model like polycyclic hydrocarbons for bakelite calcined at 800{sup 0} C. (F.E.). 65 refs, 31 figs, 5 tabs.

  8. Structure-independent cross-validation between residual dipolar couplings originating from internal and external orienting media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbieri, Renato; Bertini, Ivano; Lee, Yong-Min; Luchinat, Claudio; Velders, Aldrik H.

    2002-01-01

    Lanthanide-substituted calcium binding proteins are known to partially orient in high magnetic fields. Orientation provides residual dipolar couplings (rdc's). Two of these systems, Tm 3+ - and Dy 3+ -substituted calbindin D 9k , dissolved in an external orienting medium (nonionic liquid crystalline phase) provide rdc values which are the sum of those induced by the lanthanides and by the liquid crystalline phase on the native calcium binding protein. This structure-independent check shows the innocence of the orienting medium with respect to the structure of the protein in solution. Furthermore, the simultaneous use of lanthanide substitution and external orienting media provides a further effective tool to control and tune the orientation tensor

  9. Structure of the physical therapy benefit in a typical Blue Cross Blue Shield preferred provider organization plan available in the individual insurance market in 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandstrom, Robert W; Lehman, Jedd; Hahn, Lee; Ballard, Andrew

    2013-10-01

    The Affordable Care Act of 2010 establishes American Health Benefit Exchanges. The benefit design of insurance plans in state health insurance exchanges will be based on the structure of existing small-employer-sponsored plans. The purpose of this study was to describe the structure of the physical therapy benefit in a typical Blue Cross Blue Shield (BCBS) preferred provider organization (PPO) health insurance plan available in the individual insurance market in 2011. A cross-sectional survey design was used. The physical therapy benefit within 39 BCBS PPO plans in 2011 was studied for a standard consumer with a standard budget. First, whether physical therapy was a benefit in the plan was determined. If so, then the structure of the benefit was described in terms of whether the physical therapy benefit was a stand-alone benefit or part of a combined-discipline benefit and whether a visit or financial limit was placed on the physical therapy benefit. Physical therapy was included in all BCBS plans that were studied. Ninety-three percent of plans combined physical therapy with other disciplines. Two thirds of plans placed a limit on the number of visits covered. The results of the study are limited to 1 standard consumer, 1 association of insurance companies, 1 form of insurance (a PPO), and 1 PPO plan in each of the 39 states that were studied. Physical therapy is a covered benefit in a typical BCBS PPO health insurance plan. Physical therapy most often is combined with other therapy disciplines, and the number of covered visits is limited in two thirds of plans.

  10. Enhanced knowledge of spontaneous reporting with structured educational programs in Korean community pharmacists: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yun Mi; Lee, Euni

    2017-05-30

    While spontaneous reporting (SR) is one of the important public health activities for community pharmacists to guard patients' safety, very few studies examined educational activities and its effects on knowledge about the SR system in Korea. This study described the association between knowledge of SR and educational activities targeting community pharmacists in Korea. Self-administered questionnaires were collected between September 1, 2014 and November 25, 2014. The questionnaires addressed sources of SR knowledge (structured educational programs, personal access to educational resources, and information by social network services) and knowledge about the Regional Pharmacovigilance Center designated for community pharmacists, the legal responsibility clause on the serious event reporting, and the reportable items. The association between the knowledge of SR and the educational activities was evaluated using analysis of variance or chi-squared tests. Overall, 766 questionnaires demonstrated that mean age and length of career in community pharmacies was 45.7 years and 15.9 years, respectively. A structured educational program was used in 63.1% of the participants followed by a personal access to educational resources (56.3%). An educational program offered by the Korean Pharmaceutical Association was the most frequently mentioned program (56.8%), and no regional disparity in the program between the metropolitan and rural areas was observed. Pharmacists who had personal access to educational resources identified SR knowledge contents less correctly than those who used a structured educational program or both (p education (p educational program was used alone or in combination with other educational methods. Knowledge on reportable items should be reinforced during the continuing education process.

  11. [Cross sectional study of structural quality of German intensive care units. A reevaluation of the DIVI register].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fölsch, C; Kofahl, N; Waydhas, C; Stiletto, R

    2013-09-01

    Effectiveness of intensive care treatment is essential to cope with increasing costs. The German national register of intensive care established by the German Interdisciplinary Association for Intensive Care Medicine (DIVI) contains basic data on the structure of intensive care units in Germany. A repeat analysis of data of the DIVI register within 8 years provides information for the development of intensive care units under different economic circumstances. The recent data on the structure of intensive care units were obtained in 2008 and compared with the primary multicenter study from 2000. The hospitals selected were a representative sample for the whole of Germany. Data on the status of the hospital, staff and technical facilities, foundation of the hospital and the statistics of mechanically ventilated patients were analyzed. The technical facilities and the number of staff have improved from 2000 to 2008. A smaller availability of diagnostic procedures and staff remain in hospitals for basic treatment outside normal working hours. The average utilization of intensive care unit beds was not altered. The existence of intermediate care units did not significantly change the proportion of patients with artificial ventilation or ventilation times. The number of beds in intensive care units was unchanged as was the average number of beds in units and the number of patients treated. A relevant number of beds of intensive care units shifted towards hospitals with private foundation without changes in the overall numbers. The structure of the hospitals was comparable at both time points. The introduction of intermediate care units did not alter ventilation parameters of patients in 2008 compared with 2000. There is no obvious medical reason for the shift of intensive care beds towards private hospitals. The number of staff and patients varied considerably between the intensive care units. The average number of patients treated per bed was not different between the

  12. Atrial and Ventricular Electrocardiographic Dromotropic Disturbances in Down Syndrome Patients with Structurally Normal Heart: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazdan Ghandi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: We designed a cross-sectional study to determine electrocardiographic disorders in Down syndrome patients with congenitally normal hearts in a bid to predict fatal cardiac arrhythmia in the future. Materials and Methods: We investigated 60 children with DS without congenital abnormal hearts. Sixty healthy juveniles were also included in the study as a control group. Physical examination, electrocardiography, and echocardiography were performed in all subjects. Corrected QT interval (QTc was measured according to Bazett’s formula. Results: Patients with DS consisted of 32 males (53.33%, and 28 females (46.66%, aged 6–13 (9.21 ± 6.24 years old. Healthy subjects comprised 31 males (51.66%, and 29 females (48.33% with a mean age of 9.15 ± 5.01. The two groups were significantly different in terms of heart rate (P=0.006, maximum P-wave duration (P=0.001, and P-wave dispersion (PWd, P=0.0001. There was no statistically significant difference regarding minimum P-wave duration (P=0.176. The patients with DS had a greater maximum QTc interval, QT dispersion, and corrected QT interval dispersion (QTc-d than the healthy control subjects (P=0.001. However, there was no difference in maximum QT interval and minimum QTc interval between the two groups (P=0.67 and P=0.553, respectively. A positive correlation was found between age, heart rate, and all electrocardiographic variables. Conclusion: All DS patients, even in the absence of concomitant congenital heart disease should be followed up carefully by electrocardiography, looking for increased PWd and QTc-d to detect predisposed cases to arrhythmia.

  13. Cross-linking of sodium caseinate-structured emulsion with transglutaminase alters postprandial metabolic and appetite responses in healthy young individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvonen, Kristiina R; Macierzanka, Adam; Lille, Martina E; Laaksonen, David E; Mykkänen, Hannu M; Niskanen, Leo K; Pihlajamäki, Jussi; Mäkelä, Kari A; Mills, Clare E N; Mackie, Alan R; Malcolm, Paul; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Poutanen, Kaisa S; Karhunen, Leila J

    2015-08-14

    The physico-chemical and interfacial properties of fat emulsions influence lipid digestion and may affect postprandial responses. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of the modification of the interfacial layer of a fat emulsion by cross-linking on postprandial metabolic and appetite responses. A total of fifteen healthy individuals (26.5 (sem 6.9) years and BMI 21.9 (sem 2.0) kg/m2) participated in a cross-over design experiment in which they consumed two isoenergetic (1924 kJ (460 kcal)) and isovolumic (250 g) emulsions stabilised with either sodium caseinate (Cas) or transglutaminase-cross-linked sodium caseinate (Cas-TG) in a randomised order. Blood samples were collected from the individuals at baseline and for 6 h postprandially for the determination of serum TAG and plasma NEFA, cholecystokinin (CCK), glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), glucose and insulin responses. Appetite was assessed using visual analogue scales. Postprandial TAG and NEFA responses and gastric emptying (GE) rates were comparable between the emulsions. CCK increased more after the ingestion of Cas-TG than after the ingestion of Cas (P< 0.05), while GLP-1 responses did not differ between the two test emulsions. Glucose and insulin profiles were lower after consuming Cas-TG than after consuming Cas (P< 0.05). The overall insulin, glucose and CCK responses, expressed as areas above/under the curve, did not differ significantly between the Cas and Cas-TG meal conditions. Satiety ratings were reduced and hunger, desire to eat and thirst ratings increased more after the ingestion of Cas-TG than after the ingestion of Cas (P< 0.05). The present results suggest that even a subtle structural modification of the interfacial layer of a fat emulsion can alter the early postprandial profiles of glucose, insulin, CCK, appetite and satiety through decreased protein digestion without affecting significantly on GE or overall lipid digestion.

  14. Brain tissues atrophy is not always the best structural biomarker of physiological aging: A multimodal cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherubini, Andrea; Caligiuri, Maria Eugenia; Péran, Patrice; Sabatini, Umberto; Cosentino, Carlo; Amato, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    This study presents a voxel-based multiple regression analysis of different magnetic resonance image modalities, including anatomical T1-weighted, T2* relaxometry, and diffusion tensor imaging. Quantitative parameters sensitive to complementary brain tissue alterations, including morphometric atrophy, mineralization, microstructural damage, and anisotropy loss, were compared in a linear physiological aging model in 140 healthy subjects (range 20-74 years). The performance of different predictors and the identification of the best biomarker of age-induced structural variation were compared without a priori anatomical knowledge. The best quantitative predictors in several brain regions were iron deposition and microstructural damage, rather than macroscopic tissue atrophy. Age variations were best resolved with a combination of markers, suggesting that multiple predictors better capture age-induced tissue alterations. These findings highlight the importance of a combined evaluation of multimodal biomarkers for the study of aging and point to a number of novel applications for the method described.

  15. The association between psychosocial and structural-level stressors and HIV injection drug risk behavior among Malaysian fishermen: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalopoulos, Lynn Murphy; Jiwatram-Negrón, Tina; Choo, Martin K K; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; El-Bassel, Nabila

    2016-06-02

    Malaysian fishermen have been identified as a key-affected HIV population with HIV rates 10 times higher than national rates. A number of studies have identified that psychosocial and structural-level stressors increase HIV injection drug risk behaviors. The purpose of this paper is to examine psychosocial and structural-level stressors of injection drug use and HIV injection drug risk behaviors among Malaysian fishermen. The study employs a cross-sectional design using respondent driven sampling methods. The sample includes 406 fishermen from Pahang state, Malaysia. Using multivariate logistic regressions, we examined the relationship between individual (depression), social (adverse interactions with the police), and structural (poverty-related) stressors and injection drug use and risky injection drug use (e.g.., receptive and non-receptive needle sharing, frontloading and back-loading, or sharing drugs from a common container). Participants below the poverty line had significantly lower odds of injection drug use (OR 0.52, 95 % CI: 0.27-0.99, p = 0.047) and risky injection drug use behavior (OR 0.48, 95 % CI: 0.25-0.93, p = 0.030). In addition, participants with an arrest history had higher odds of injection use (OR 19.58, 95 % CI: 9.81-39.10, p HIV injection drug risk behaviors.

  16. Level crossing, spin structure factor and quantum phases of the frustrated spin-1/2 chain with first and second neighbor exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manoranjan; Parvej, Aslam; Soos, Zoltán G

    2015-08-12

    The spin-1/2 chain with isotropic Heisenberg exchange J1, J2  >  0 between first and second neighbors is frustrated for either sign of J1. Its quantum phase diagram has critical points at fixed J1/J2 between gapless phases with nondegenerate ground state (GS) and quasi-long-range order (QLRO) and gapped phases with doubly degenerate GS and spin correlation functions of finite range. In finite chains, exact diagonalization (ED) estimates critical points as level crossing of excited states. GS spin correlations enter in the spin structure factor S(q) that diverges at wave vector qm in QLRO(q(m)) phases with periodicity 2π/q(m) but remains finite in gapped phases. S(q(m)) is evaluated using ED and density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) calculations. Level crossing and the magnitude of S(q(m)) are independent and complementary probes of quantum phases, based respectively on excited and ground states. Both indicate a gapless QLRO(π/2) phase between  -1.2  quantum critical points at small frustration J2 but disagree in the sector of weak exchange J1 between Heisenberg antiferromagnetic chains on sublattices of odd and even-numbered sites.

  17. Discharge dynamics of self-oriented microplasma coupling between cross adjacent cavities in micro-structure device driven by a bipolar pulse waveform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yaogong; Zhang, Xiaoning; Liu, Lingguang; Zhou, Xuan; Liu, Chunliang; Zhang, Qiaogen

    2018-04-01

    The excitation dynamics and self-oriented plasma coupling of a micro-structure plasma device with a rectangular cross-section are investigated. The device consists of 7 × 7 microcavity arrays, which are blended into a unity by a 50 μm-thick bulk area above them. The device is operated in argon with a pressure of 200 Torr, driven by a bipolar pulse waveform of 20 kHz. The discharge evolution is characterized by means of electrical measurements and optical emission profiles. It has been found that different emission patterns are observed within microcavities. The formation of these patterns induced by the combined action between the applied electric field and surface deactivation is discussed. The microplasma distribution in some specific regions along the diagonal direction of cavities in the bulk area is observed, and self-oriented microplasma coupling is explored, while the plasma interaction occurred between cross adjacent cavities, contributed by the ionization wave propagation. The velocity of ionization wave propagation is measured to be 1.2 km/s to 3.5 km/s. The exploration of this plasma interaction in the bulk area is of value to applications in electromagnetics and signal processing.

  18. in silico identification of cross affinity towards Cry1Ac pesticidal protein with receptor enzyme in Bos taurus and sequence, structure analysis of crystal proteins for stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebenezer, King Solomon; Nachimuthu, Ramesh; Thiagarajan, Prabha; Velu, Rajesh Kannan

    2013-01-01

    Any novel protein introduced into the GM crops need to be evaluated for cross affinity on living organisms. Many researchers are currently focusing on the impact of Bacillus thuringiensis cotton on soil and microbial diversity by field experiments. In spite of this, in silico approach might be helpful to elucidate the impact of cry genes. The crystal a protein which was produced by Bt at the time of sporulation has been used as a biological pesticide to target the insectivorous pests like Cry1Ac for Helicoverpa armigera and Cry2Ab for Spodoptera sp. and Heliothis sp. Here, we present the comprehensive in silico analysis of Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab proteins with available in silico tools, databases and docking servers. Molecular docking of Cry1Ac with procarboxypeptidase from Helicoverpa armigera and Cry1Ac with Leucine aminopeptidase from Bos taurus has showed the 125(th) amino acid position to be the preference site of Cry1Ac protein. The structures were compared with each other and it showed 5% of similarity. The cross affinity of this toxin that have confirmed the earlier reports of ill effects of Bt cotton consumed by cattle.

  19. Laser spectroscopic measurements of fine structure changing cross sections of alkali earth ions in collisions with molecular hydrogen (H2, D2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriwaki, Yoshiki; Matsuo, Yukari; Fukuyama, Yoshimitsu; Morita, Norio

    2006-01-01

    Production of alkali earth ions (Ca + , Sr + and Ba + ) by means of a laser ablation technique and measurement of their laser-induced fluorescence, cross sections of collision-induced transitions between the np 2 P J fine structure levels (n= 4, 5 and 6 for Ca + , Sr + and Ba + , respectively) due to collisions with hydrogen molecules at room temperature (298 K) has been performed. The cross sections thus determined for the collisions with H 2 and D 2 are σ(Ca + : 4p 2 P 3/2 → 4p 2 P 1/2 ) = 20.5 ± 0.5, 27.1 ± 1.3 A 2 , σ(Ca + : 4p 2 P 1/2 → 4p 2 P 3/2 ) = 13.2 ± 0.6, 18.7 ± 0.8 A 2 , σ(Sr + : 5p 2 P 3/2 → 5p 2 P 1/2 ) = 22.7 ± 0.4, 18.0 ± 0.4 A 2 and σ(Ba + : 6p 2 P 3/2 → 6p 2 P 1/2 ) 10.4 ± 0.1, 3.4 ± 0.2 A 2 , respectively

  20. Measurement of the Inclusive e{\\pm}p Scattering Cross Section at High Inelasticity y and of the Structure Function FL

    CERN Document Server

    Aaron, F D; Andreev, V; Backovic, S; Baghdasaryan, A; Baghdasaryan, S; Barrelet, E; Bartel, W; Behrend, O; Belov, P; Begzsuren, K; Belousov, A; Bizot, J C; Boudry, V; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I; Bracinik, J; Brandt, G; Brinkmann, M; Brisson, V; Britzger, D; Bruncko, D; Bunyatyan, A; Buschhorn, G; Bylinkin, A; Bystritskaya, L; Campbell, A J; Cantun Avila, K B; Ceccopieri, F; Cerny, K; Cerny, V; Chekelian, V; Cholewa, A; Contreras, J G; Coughlan, J A; Cvach, J; Dainton, J B; Daum, K; Delcourt, B; Delvax, J; De Wolf, E A; Diaconu, C; Dobre, M; Dodonov, V; Dossanov, A; Dubak, A; Eckerlin, G; Egli, S; Eliseev, A; Elsen, E; Favart, L; Fedotov, A; Felst, R; Feltesse, J; Ferencei, J; Fischer, D J; Fleischer, M; Fomenko, A; Gabathuler, E; Gayler, J; Ghazaryan, S; Glazov, A; Goerlich, L; Gogitidze, N; Gouzevitch, M; Grab, C; Grebenyuk, A; Greenshaw, T; Grell, B R; Grindhammer, G; Habib, S; Haidt, D; Helebrant, C; Henderson, R C.W; Hennekemper, E; Henschel, H; Herbst, M; Herrera, G; Hildebrandt, M; Hiller, K H; Hoffmann, D; Horisberger, R; Hreus, T; Huber, F; Jacquet, M; Janssen, X; Jonsson, L; Jung, A W; Jung, H; Kapichine, M; Katzy, J; Kenyon, I R; Kiesling, C; Klein, M; Kleinwort, C; Kluge, T; Knutsson, A; Kogler, R; Kostka, P; Kraemer, M; Kretzschmar, J; Kruger, K; Kutak, K; Landon, M P.J; Lange, W; Lastovicka-Medin, G; Laycock, P; Lebedev, A; Lendermann, V; Levonian, S; Lipka, K; List, B; List, J; Loktionova, N; Lopez-Fernandez, R; Lubimov, V; Makankine, A; Malinovski, E; Marage, P; Martyn, H U; Maxfield, S J; Mehta, A; Meyer, A B; Meyer, H; Meyer, J; Mikocki, S; Milcewicz-Mika, I; Moreau, F; Morozov, A; Morris, J V; Mozer, M U; Mudrinic, M; Muller, K; Naumann, Th; Newman, P R; Niebuhr, C; Nikiforov, A; Nikitin, D; Nowak, G; Nowak, K; Olsson, J E; Osman, S; Ozerov, D; Pahl, P; Palichik, V; Panagoulias, I; Pandurovic, M; Papadopoulou, Th; Pascaud, C; Patel, G D; Perez, E; Petrukhin, A; Picuric, I; Piec, S; Pirumov, H; Pitzl, D; Placakyte, R; Pokorny, B; Polifka, R; Povh, B; Radescu, V; Raicevic, N; Ravdandorj, T; Reimer, P; Rizvi, E; Robmann, P; Roosen, R; Rostovtsev, A; Rotaru, M; Ruiz Tabasco, J E; Rusakov, S; Salek, D; Sankey, D P.C; Sauter, M; Sauvan, E; Schmitt, S; Schoeffel, L; Schoning, A; Schultz-Coulon, H C; Sefkow, F; Shtarkov, L N; Shushkevich, S; Sloan, T; Smiljanic, I; Soloviev, Y; Sopicki, P; South, D; Spaskov, V; Specka, A; Staykova, Z; Steder, M; Stella, B; Stoicea, G; Straumann, U; Sykora, T; Thompson, P D; Toll, T; Tran, T H; Traynor, D; Truol, P; Tsakov, I; Tseepeldorj, B; Tsurin, I; Turnau, J; Urban, K; Valkarova, A; Vallee, C; Van Mechelen, P; Vargas, A; Vazdik, Y; von den Driesch, M; Wegener, D; Wunsch, E; Zacek, J; Zalesak, J; Zhang, Z; Zhokin, A; Zohrabyan, H; Zomer, F

    2011-01-01

    A measurement is presented of the inclusive neutral current e\\pm p scattering cross section using data collected by the H1 experiment at HERA during the years 2003 to 2007 with proton beam energies Ep of 920, 575, and 460 GeV. The kinematic range of the measurement covers low absolute four-momentum transfers squared, 1.5 GeV2 < Q2 < 120 GeV2, small values of Bjorken x, 2.9 \\cdot 10-5 < x < 0.01, and extends to high inelasticity up to y = 0.85. The structure function FL is measured by combining the new results with previously published H1 data at Ep = 920 GeV and Ep = 820 GeV. The new measurements are used to test several phenomenological and QCD models applicable in this low Q2 and low x kinematic domain.

  1. Antibodies directed to drug epitopes to investigate the structure of drug-protein photoadducts. Recognition of a common photobound substructure in tiaprofenic acid/ketoprofen cross-photoreactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahoz, A; Hernández, D; Miranda, M A; Pérez-Prieto, J; Morera, I M; Castell, J V

    2001-11-01

    Drug-induced photoallergy is an immune adverse reaction to the combined effect of drugs and light. From the mechanistic point of view, it first involves covalent binding of drug to protein resulting in the formation of a photoantigen. Hence, determination of the structures of drug-protein photoadducts is of great relevance to understand the molecular basis of photoallergy and cross-immunoreactivity among drugs. Looking for new strategies to investigate the covalent photobinding of drugs to proteins, we generated highly specific antibodies to drug chemical substructures. The availability of such antibodies has allowed us to discriminate between the different modes by which tiaprofenic acid (TPA), suprofen (SUP), and ketoprofen (KTP) photobind to proteins. The finding that the vast majority of the TPA photoadduct can be accounted for by means of antibody anti-benzoyl strongly supports the view that the drug binds preferentially via the thiophene ring, leaving the benzene ring more accessible. By contrast, selective recognition of SUP-protein photoadducts by antibody anti-thenoyl evidences a preferential coupling via the benzene ring leaving the thiophene moiety more distant from the protein matrix. In the case of KTP, photoadducts are exclusively recognized by antibody anti-benzoyl, indicating that the benzene ring is again more accessible. As a result of this research, we have been able to identify a common substructure that is present in TPA-albumin and KTP-albumin photoadducts. This is remarkable since, at a first sight, the greatest structural similarities can be found between TPA and SUP as they share the same benzoylthiophene chromophore. These findings can explain the previously reported observations of cross-reactivity to KTP (or TPA) in patients photosensitized to TPA (or KTP).

  2. Quantum efficiency and two-photon absorption cross-section of conjugated polyelectrolytes used for protein conformation measurements with applications on amyloid structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stabo-Eeg, Frantz [Norwegian University of Science and Technology, N-7491 Trondheim (Norway)], E-mail: Frantz.Stabo-Eeg@phys.ntnu.no; Lindgren, Mikael [Norwegian University of Science and Technology, N-7491 Trondheim (Norway); Nilsson, K. Peter R.; Inganaes, Olle; Hammarstroem, Per [IFM Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology Linkoeping University, S-581 83 Linkoeping (Sweden)

    2007-07-27

    Amyloid diseases such as Alzheimer's and spongiform encephalopathies evolve from aggregation of proteins due to misfolding of the protein structure. Early disease handling require sophisticated but yet simple techniques to follow the complex properties of the aggregation process. Conjugated polyelectrolytes (CPEs) have shown promising capabilities acting as optical biological sensors, since they can specifically bind to polypeptides both in solution and in solid phase. The structural changes in biomolecules can be monitored by changes of the optical spectra of the CPEs, both in absorption and emission modes. Notably, the studied CPEs possess multi-photon excitation capability, making them potential for in vivo imaging using laser scanning microscopy. Aggregation of proteins depends on concentration, temperature and pH. The optical effect on the molecular probe in various environments must also be investigated if applied in these environments. Here we present the results of quantum efficiency and two-photon absorption cross-section of three CPEs: POMT, POWT and PTAA in three different pH buffer systems. The extinction coefficient and quantum efficiency were measured. POMT was found to have the highest quantum efficiency being approximately 0.10 at pH 2.0. The two-photon absorption cross-section was measured for POMT and POWT and was found to be more than 18-25 times and 7-11 times that of Fluorescein, respectively. We also show how POMT fluorescence can be used to distinguish conformational differences between amyloid fibrils formed from reduced and non-reduced insulin in spectrally resolved images recorded with a laser scanning microscope using both one- and two-photon excitation.

  3. Impact of family structure and socio-demographic characteristics on child health and wellbeing in same-sex parent families: A cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouch, Simon Robert; McNair, Ruth; Waters, Elizabeth

    2016-05-01

    Children with same-sex attracted parents develop well in terms of their health and wellbeing. There are many recognised factors that have an impact on child health, in general, including individual, family and wider social mediators. The aim of this study is to determine the impact of family structure and socio-demographic characteristics on child health and wellbeing in Australian same-sex parent families. A cross-sectional survey of self-identified same-sex attracted parents from across Australia was used to collect information on child health and wellbeing between May and December 2012. Mixed-effects multiple linear regression models were used to identify associations between family structure/socio-demographic characteristics and child wellbeing. Child health outcomes were measured using the Child Health Questionnaire and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. In same-sex parent families, biological relationships, parental gender and parental education were not significantly associated with health and wellbeing. Parental income, rurality and stable parental relationships were associated with health and wellbeing, and living in a single-parent household was associated with poorer wellbeing. Stable dual parent families offer good outcomes for children with same-sex attracted parents. Family processes are most important. This study does not support the assertion that children require both male and female parents, nor that biological relationships are essential to health and wellbeing. This study provides scientific data from a cross-sectional Australian-based study to describe and understand health determinants for children in family contexts that comprise same-sex parent and all family contexts. It recommends equitable, stigma-free family support. © 2016 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  4. Validating the cross-cultural factor structure and invariance property of the Insomnia Severity Index: evidence based on ordinal EFA and CFA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Po-Yi; Yang, Chien-Ming; Morin, Charles M

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the factor structure of the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) across samples recruited from different countries. We tried to identify the most appropriate factor model for the ISI and further examined the measurement invariance property of the ISI across samples from different countries. Our analyses included one data set collected from a Taiwanese sample and two data sets obtained from samples in Hong Kong and Canada. The data set collected in Taiwan was analyzed with ordinal exploratory factor analysis (EFA) to obtain the appropriate factor model for the ISI. After that, we conducted a series of confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs), which is a special case of the structural equation model (SEM) that concerns the parameters in the measurement model, to the statistics collected in Canada and Hong Kong. The purposes of these CFA were to cross-validate the result obtained from EFA and further examine the cross-cultural measurement invariance of the ISI. The three-factor model outperforms other models in terms of global fit indices in Taiwan's population. Its external validity is also supported by confirmatory factor analyses. Furthermore, the measurement invariance analyses show that the strong invariance property between the samples from different cultures holds, providing evidence that the ISI results obtained in different cultures are comparable. The factorial validity of the ISI is stable in different populations. More importantly, its invariance property across cultures suggests that the ISI is a valid measure of the insomnia severity construct across countries. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Accuracy and reproducibility of simple cross-sectional linear and area measurements of brain structures and their comparison with volume measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whalley, H.C.; Wardlaw, J.M.

    2001-01-01

    Volumetric measurement of brain structure on brain images is regarded as a gold standard, yet is very time consuming. We wondered whether simple linear and area measurements might be as accurate and reproducible. Two observers independently measured the cross-sectional area of the corpus callosum, lentiform and caudate nuclei, thalamus, amygdalas, hippocampi, lateral and third ventricles, and the width of the sylvian and frontal interhemispheric fissures and brain stem on brain MRI of 55 patients using a program written in-house; one observer also measured the volumes of the basal ganglia, amygdalo-hippocampal complex and ventricular system using Analyze, and performed qualitative assessment of four regions (lateral and third ventricles, cortex, and medial temporal lobe) using the Lieberman score. All measures were performed blinded to all other information. Test objects of known size were also imaged with MRI and measured by the two observers using the in-house program. The true sizes of the test objects were measured using engineering calipers by two observers blind to the MRI results. Differences between the two observers using the same measurement method, and one observer using different methods, were calculated. The simple linear and cross-sectional area measurements were rapid (20 min versus 5 h for volumetric); were highly accurate for test-object measurement versus true size; had excellent intraobserver reliability; and, for most brain structures, the simple measures correlated highly significantly with volumetric measures. The simple measures were in general highly reproducible, the difference (as a percentage of the area or width of a region) between the two raters being around 10 %, range 0.1 %- 14.1 %, (similar to inter-rater variability in previous studies of volume measurements). The simple linear and area measures are reproducible and correlate well with the measured volumes, and there is a considerable time saving with the former. In circumstances

  6. Inner structure of the Puy de Dôme volcano: cross-comparison of geophysical models (ERT, gravimetry, muon imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Portal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Muon imaging of volcanoes and of geological structures in general is actively being developed by several groups in the world. It has the potential to provide 3-D density distributions with an accuracy of a few percent. At this stage of development, comparisons with established geophysical methods are useful to validate the method. An experiment has been carried out in 2011 and 2012 on a large trachytic dome, the Puy de Dôme volcano, to perform such a comparison of muon imaging with gravimetric tomography and 2-D electrical resistivity tomography. Here, we present the preliminary results for the last two methods. North–south and east–west resistivity profiles allow us to model the resistivity distribution down to the base of the dome. The modelling of the Bouguer anomaly provides models for the density distribution within the dome that are directly comparable with the results from the muon imaging. Our ultimate goal is to derive a model of the dome using the joint interpretation of all sets of data.

  7. Blind testing cross-linking/mass spectrometry under the auspices of the 11th critical assessment of methods of protein structure prediction (CASP11 [version 1; referees: 1 approved, 2 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Belsom

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Determining the structure of a protein by any method requires various contributions from experimental and computational sides. In a recent study, high-density cross-linking/mass spectrometry (HD-CLMS data in combination with ab initio structure prediction determined the structure of human serum albumin (HSA domains, with an RMSD to X-ray structure of up to 2.5 Å, or 3.4 Å in the context of blood serum. This paper reports the blind test on the readiness of this technology through the help of Critical Assessment of protein Structure Prediction (CASP. We identified between 201-381 unique residue pairs at an estimated 5% FDR (at link level albeit with missing site assignment precision evaluation, for four target proteins. HD-CLMS proved reliable once crystal structures were released. However, improvements in structure prediction using cross-link data were slight. We identified two reasons for this. Spread of cross-links along the protein sequence and the tightness of the spatial constraints must be improved. However, for the selected targets even ideal contact data derived from crystal structures did not allow modellers to arrive at the observed structure. Consequently, the progress of HD-CLMS in conjunction with computational modeling methods as a structure determination method, depends on advances on both arms of this hybrid approach.

  8. Cholinergic Potentiation and Audiovisual Repetition-Imitation Therapy Improve Speech Production and Communication Deficits in a Person with Crossed Aphasia by Inducing Structural Plasticity in White Matter Tracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthier, Marcelo L; De-Torres, Irene; Paredes-Pacheco, José; Roé-Vellvé, Núria; Thurnhofer-Hemsi, Karl; Torres-Prioris, María J; Alfaro, Francisco; Moreno-Torres, Ignacio; López-Barroso, Diana; Dávila, Guadalupe

    2017-01-01

    Donepezil (DP), a cognitive-enhancing drug targeting the cholinergic system, combined with massed sentence repetition training augmented and speeded up recovery of speech production deficits in patients with chronic conduction aphasia and extensive left hemisphere infarctions (Berthier et al., 2014). Nevertheless, a still unsettled question is whether such improvements correlate with restorative structural changes in gray matter and white matter pathways mediating speech production. In the present study, we used pharmacological magnetic resonance imaging to study treatment-induced brain changes in gray matter and white matter tracts in a right-handed male with chronic conduction aphasia and a right subcortical lesion (crossed aphasia). A single-patient, open-label multiple-baseline design incorporating two different treatments and two post-treatment evaluations was used. The patient received an initial dose of DP (5 mg/day) which was maintained during 4 weeks and then titrated up to 10 mg/day and administered alone (without aphasia therapy) during 8 weeks (Endpoint 1). Thereafter, the drug was combined with an audiovisual repetition-imitation therapy (Look-Listen-Repeat, LLR) during 3 months (Endpoint 2). Language evaluations, diffusion weighted imaging (DWI), and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) were performed at baseline and at both endpoints in JAM and once in 21 healthy control males. Treatment with DP alone and combined with LLR therapy induced marked improvement in aphasia and communication deficits as well as in selected measures of connected speech production, and phrase repetition. The obtained gains in speech production remained well-above baseline scores even 4 months after ending combined therapy. Longitudinal DWI showed structural plasticity in the right frontal aslant tract and direct segment of the arcuate fasciculus with both interventions. VBM revealed no structural changes in other white matter tracts nor in cortical areas linked by these tracts. In

  9. Small angle X-ray scattering and cross-linking for data assisted protein structure prediction in CASP 12 with prospects for improved accuracy

    KAUST Repository

    Ogorzalek, Tadeusz L.

    2018-01-04

    Experimental data offers empowering constraints for structure prediction. These constraints can be used to filter equivalently scored models or more powerfully within optimization functions toward prediction. In CASP12, Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) and Cross-Linking Mass Spectrometry (CLMS) data, measured on an exemplary set of novel fold targets, were provided to the CASP community of protein structure predictors. As HT, solution-based techniques, SAXS and CLMS can efficiently measure states of the full-length sequence in its native solution conformation and assembly. However, this experimental data did not substantially improve prediction accuracy judged by fits to crystallographic models. One issue, beyond intrinsic limitations of the algorithms, was a disconnect between crystal structures and solution-based measurements. Our analyses show that many targets had substantial percentages of disordered regions (up to 40%) or were multimeric or both. Thus, solution measurements of flexibility and assembly support variations that may confound prediction algorithms trained on crystallographic data and expecting globular fully-folded monomeric proteins. Here, we consider the CLMS and SAXS data collected, the information in these solution measurements, and the challenges in incorporating them into computational prediction. As improvement opportunities were only partly realized in CASP12, we provide guidance on how data from the full-length biological unit and the solution state can better aid prediction of the folded monomer or subunit. We furthermore describe strategic integrations of solution measurements with computational prediction programs with the aim of substantially improving foundational knowledge and the accuracy of computational algorithms for biologically-relevant structure predictions for proteins in solution. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  10. Subjective cognitive impairment and brain structural networks in Chinese gynaecological cancer survivors compared with age-matched controls: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yingchun; Cheng, Andy S K; Song, Ting; Sheng, Xiujie; Zhang, Yang; Liu, Xiangyu; Chan, Chetwyn C H

    2017-11-28

    Subjective cognitive impairment can be a significant and prevalent problem for gynaecological cancer survivors. The aims of this study were to assess subjective cognitive functioning in gynaecological cancer survivors after primary cancer treatment, and to investigate the impact of cancer treatment on brain structural networks and its association with subjective cognitive impairment. This was a cross-sectional survey using a self-reported questionnaire by the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Cognitive Function (FACT-Cog) to assess subjective cognitive functioning, and applying DTI (diffusion tensor imaging) and graph theoretical analyses to investigate brain structural networks after primary cancer treatment. A total of 158 patients with gynaecological cancer (mean age, 45.86 years) and 130 age-matched non-cancer controls (mean age, 44.55 years) were assessed. Patients reported significantly greater subjective cognitive functioning on the FACT-Cog total score and two subscales of perceived cognitive impairment and perceived cognitive ability (all p values impairment (r = -0.388, p = 0.034). When compared with non-cancer controls, a considerable proportion of gynaecological cancer survivors may exhibit subjective cognitive impairment. This study provides the first evidence of brain structural network alteration in gynaecological cancer patients at post-treatment, and offers novel insights regarding the possible neurobiological mechanism of cancer-related cognitive impairment (CRCI) in gynaecological cancer patients. As primary cancer treatment can result in a more random organisation of structural brain networks, this may reduce brain functional specificity and segregation, and have implications for cognitive impairment. Future prospective and longitudinal studies are needed to build upon the study findings in order to assess potentially relevant clinical and psychosocial variables and brain network measures, so as to more accurately understand the

  11. Small angle X-ray scattering and cross-linking for data assisted protein structure prediction in CASP 12 with prospects for improved accuracy

    KAUST Repository

    Ogorzalek, Tadeusz L.; Hura, Greg L.; Belsom, Adam; Burnett, Kathryn H.; Kryshtafovych, Andriy; Tainer, John A.; Rappsilber, Juri; Tsutakawa, Susan E.; Fidelis, Krzysztof

    2018-01-01

    Experimental data offers empowering constraints for structure prediction. These constraints can be used to filter equivalently scored models or more powerfully within optimization functions toward prediction. In CASP12, Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) and Cross-Linking Mass Spectrometry (CLMS) data, measured on an exemplary set of novel fold targets, were provided to the CASP community of protein structure predictors. As HT, solution-based techniques, SAXS and CLMS can efficiently measure states of the full-length sequence in its native solution conformation and assembly. However, this experimental data did not substantially improve prediction accuracy judged by fits to crystallographic models. One issue, beyond intrinsic limitations of the algorithms, was a disconnect between crystal structures and solution-based measurements. Our analyses show that many targets had substantial percentages of disordered regions (up to 40%) or were multimeric or both. Thus, solution measurements of flexibility and assembly support variations that may confound prediction algorithms trained on crystallographic data and expecting globular fully-folded monomeric proteins. Here, we consider the CLMS and SAXS data collected, the information in these solution measurements, and the challenges in incorporating them into computational prediction. As improvement opportunities were only partly realized in CASP12, we provide guidance on how data from the full-length biological unit and the solution state can better aid prediction of the folded monomer or subunit. We furthermore describe strategic integrations of solution measurements with computational prediction programs with the aim of substantially improving foundational knowledge and the accuracy of computational algorithms for biologically-relevant structure predictions for proteins in solution. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. Lead-lag cross-sectional structure and detection of correlated anticorrelated regime shifts: Application to the volatilities of inflation and economic growth rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei-Xing; Sornette, Didier

    2007-07-01

    We have recently introduced the “thermal optimal path” (TOP) method to investigate the real-time lead-lag structure between two time series. The TOP method consists in searching for a robust noise-averaged optimal path of the distance matrix along which the two time series have the greatest similarity. Here, we generalize the TOP method by introducing a more general definition of distance which takes into account possible regime shifts between positive and negative correlations. This generalization to track possible changes of correlation signs is able to identify possible transitions from one convention (or consensus) to another. Numerical simulations on synthetic time series verify that the new TOP method performs as expected even in the presence of substantial noise. We then apply it to investigate changes of convention in the dependence structure between the historical volatilities of the USA inflation rate and economic growth rate. Several measures show that the new TOP method significantly outperforms standard cross-correlation methods.

  13. Effect of Cross-linking Density on Creep and Recovery Behavior in Epoxy-Based Shape Memory Polymers (SMEPs) for Structural Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Kavitha V.; Ananthapadmanabha, G. S.; Dayananda, G. N.

    2016-12-01

    Epoxy-based shape memory polymers (SMEPs) are gaining importance in the area of aerospace structures due to their high strength and stiffness which is a primary requirement for an SMEP in structural applications. The understanding of viscoelastic behavior of SMEPs is very essential to assess their shape memory effect. In the present work, three types of SMEPs with varying cross-linking densities were developed by curing an aromatic epoxy resin with aliphatic amines. Glass transition temperature ( T g) was measured for these SMEPs using advanced rheometric expansion system, and from the T g measurements, a range of temperatures from glassy to rubbery regimes were chosen. At selected temperatures, creep-recovery tests were performed in order to evaluate the viscoelastic behavior of SMEPs and also to investigate the effect of temperature on creep-recovery. Further, a three-parameter viscoelastic model (Zener) was used to fit the data obtained from experiments. Model parameters like moduli of the springs and viscosity of the dashpot were evaluated by curve fitting. Results revealed that Zener model was well suited to describe the viscoelastic behavior of SMEPs as a function of test temperatures.

  14. Prevalence of lung structure abnormalities in patients with acromegaly and their relationship with gas exchange: cross-sectional analytical study with a control group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Palmeira Rodrigues

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Different functional respiratory alterations have been described in acromegaly, but their relationship with pulmonary tissue abnormalities is unknown. The objective of this study was to observe possible changes in lung structure and explain their relationship with gas exchange abnormalities. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional analytical study with a control group, conducted at a university hospital. METHODS: The study included 36 patients with acromegaly and 24 controls who were all assessed through high-resolution computed tomography of the thorax (CT. Arterial blood gas, effort oximetry and serum growth hormone (GH and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-1 were also assessed in the patients with acromegaly. RESULTS: The abnormalities found in the CT scan were not statistically different between the acromegaly and control groups: mild cylindrical bronchiectasis (P = 0.59, linear opacity (P = 0.29, nodular opacity (P = 0.28, increased attenuation (frosted glass; P = 0.48 and decreased attenuation (emphysema; P = 0.32. Radiographic abnormalities were not associated with serum GH and IGF-1. Hypoxemia was present in seven patients; however, in six of them, the hypoxemia could be explained by underlying clinical conditions other than acromegaly: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in two, obesity in two, bronchial infection in one and asthma in one. CONCLUSION: No changes in lung structure were detected through thorax tomography in comparison with the control subjects. The functional respiratory alterations found were largely explained by alternative diagnoses or had subclinical manifestations, without any plausible relationship with lung structural factors.

  15. Cholinergic Potentiation and Audiovisual Repetition-Imitation Therapy Improve Speech Production and Communication Deficits in a Person with Crossed Aphasia by Inducing Structural Plasticity in White Matter Tracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo L. Berthier

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Donepezil (DP, a cognitive-enhancing drug targeting the cholinergic system, combined with massed sentence repetition training augmented and speeded up recovery of speech production deficits in patients with chronic conduction aphasia and extensive left hemisphere infarctions (Berthier et al., 2014. Nevertheless, a still unsettled question is whether such improvements correlate with restorative structural changes in gray matter and white matter pathways mediating speech production. In the present study, we used pharmacological magnetic resonance imaging to study treatment-induced brain changes in gray matter and white matter tracts in a right-handed male with chronic conduction aphasia and a right subcortical lesion (crossed aphasia. A single-patient, open-label multiple-baseline design incorporating two different treatments and two post-treatment evaluations was used. The patient received an initial dose of DP (5 mg/day which was maintained during 4 weeks and then titrated up to 10 mg/day and administered alone (without aphasia therapy during 8 weeks (Endpoint 1. Thereafter, the drug was combined with an audiovisual repetition-imitation therapy (Look-Listen-Repeat, LLR during 3 months (Endpoint 2. Language evaluations, diffusion weighted imaging (DWI, and voxel-based morphometry (VBM were performed at baseline and at both endpoints in JAM and once in 21 healthy control males. Treatment with DP alone and combined with LLR therapy induced marked improvement in aphasia and communication deficits as well as in selected measures of connected speech production, and phrase repetition. The obtained gains in speech production remained well-above baseline scores even 4 months after ending combined therapy. Longitudinal DWI showed structural plasticity in the right frontal aslant tract and direct segment of the arcuate fasciculus with both interventions. VBM revealed no structural changes in other white matter tracts nor in cortical areas linked by these

  16. Brazilian Portuguese version of the Revised Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQR-Br): cross-cultural validation, reliability, and construct and structural validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupi, Jaqueline Basilio; Carvalho de Abreu, Daniela Cristina; Ferreira, Mariana Candido; Oliveira, Renê Donizeti Ribeiro de; Chaves, Thais Cristina

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to culturally adapt and validate the Revised Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQR) to Brazilian Portuguese, by the use of analysis of internal consistency, reliability, and construct and structural validity. A total of 100 female patients with fibromyalgia participated in the validation process of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the FIQR (FIQR-Br).The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was used for statistical analysis of reliability (test-retest), Cronbach's alpha for internal consistency, Pearson's rank correlation for construct validity, and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) for structural validity. It was verified excellent levels of reliability, with ICC greater than 0.75 for all questions and domains of the FIQR-Br. For internal consistency, alpha values greater than 0.70 for the items and domains of the questionnaire were observed. Moderate (0.40  0.70) correlations were observed for the scores of domains and total score between the FIQR-Br and FIQ-Br. The structure of the three domains of the FIQR-Br was confirmed by CFA. The results of this study suggest that that the FIQR-Br is a reliable and valid instrument for assessing fibromyalgia-related impact, and supports its use in clinical settings and research. The structure of the three domains of the FIQR-Br was also confirmed. Implications for Rehabilitation Fibromyalgia is a chronic musculoskeletal disorder characterized by widespread and diffuse pain, fatigue, sleep disturbances, and depression. The disease significantly impairs patients' quality of life and can be highly disabling. To be used in multicenter research efforts, the Revised Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQR) must be cross-culturally validated and psychometrically tested. This paper will make available a new version of the FIQR-Br since another version already exists, but there are concerns about its measurement properties. The availability of an instrument adapted to and validated for Brazilian

  17. The association between psychosocial and structural-level stressors and HIV injection drug risk behavior among Malaysian fishermen: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn Murphy Michalopoulos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaysian fishermen have been identified as a key-affected HIV population with HIV rates 10 times higher than national rates. A number of studies have identified that psychosocial and structural-level stressors increase HIV injection drug risk behaviors. The purpose of this paper is to examine psychosocial and structural-level stressors of injection drug use and HIV injection drug risk behaviors among Malaysian fishermen. Methods The study employs a cross-sectional design using respondent driven sampling methods. The sample includes 406 fishermen from Pahang state, Malaysia. Using multivariate logistic regressions, we examined the relationship between individual (depression, social (adverse interactions with the police, and structural (poverty-related stressors and injection drug use and risky injection drug use (e.g.., receptive and non-receptive needle sharing, frontloading and back-loading, or sharing drugs from a common container. Results Participants below the poverty line had significantly lower odds of injection drug use (OR 0.52, 95 % CI: 0.27-0.99, p = 0.047 and risky injection drug use behavior (OR 0.48, 95 % CI: 0.25-0.93, p = 0.030. In addition, participants with an arrest history had higher odds of injection use (OR 19.58, 95 % CI: 9.81-39.10, p < 0.001 and risky injection drug use (OR 16.25, 95 % CI: 4.73-55.85, p < 0.001. Participants with depression had significantly higher odds of engaging in risky injection drug use behavior (OR 3.26, 95 % 1.39-7.67, p = 0.007. Focusing on participants with a history of injection drug use, we found that participants with depression were significantly more likely to engage in risky drug use compared to participants below the depression cutoff (OR 3.45, 95 % CI: 1.23-9.66, p < 0.02. Conclusions Findings underscore the need to address psychosocial and structural-level stressors among Malaysian fishermen to reduce HIV injection drug risk behaviors.

  18. Structuralism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piaget, Jean

    Provided is an overview of the analytical method known as structuralism. The first chapter discusses the three key components of the concept of a structure: the view of a system as a whole instead of so many parts; the study of the transformations in the system; and the fact that these transformations never lead beyond the system but always…

  19. Functional and Structural Findings of Neurodegeneration in Early Stages of Diabetic Retinopathy: Cross-sectional Analyses of Baseline Data of the EUROCONDOR Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Ana Rita; Ribeiro, Luísa; Bandello, Francesco; Lattanzio, Rosangela; Egan, Catherine; Frydkjaer-Olsen, Ulrik; García-Arumí, José; Gibson, Jonathan; Grauslund, Jakob; Harding, Simon P; Lang, Gabriele E; Massin, Pascale; Midena, Edoardo; Scanlon, Peter; Aldington, Stephen J; Simão, Sílvia; Schwartz, Christian; Ponsati, Berta; Porta, Massimo; Costa, Miguel Ângelo; Hernández, Cristina; Cunha-Vaz, José; Simó, Rafael

    2017-09-01

    This cross-sectional study evaluated the relationship between 1 ) functional and structural measurements of neurodegeneration in the initial stages of diabetic retinopathy (DR) and 2 ) the presence of neurodegeneration and early microvascular impairment. We analyzed baseline data of 449 patients with type 2 diabetes enrolled in the European Consortium for the Early Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy (EUROCONDOR) study (NCT01726075). Functional studies by multifocal electroretinography (mfERG) evaluated neurodysfunction, and structural measurements using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) evaluated neurodegeneration. The mfERG P1 amplitude was more sensitive than the P1 implicit time and was lower in patients with Early Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) level 20-35 than in patients with ETDRS level <20 ( P = 0.005). In 58% of patients, mfERG abnormalities were present in the absence of visible retinopathy. Correspondence between SD-OCT thinning and mfERG abnormalities was shown in 67% of the eyes with ETDRS <20 and in 83% of the eyes with ETDRS level 20-35. Notably, 32% of patients with ETDRS 20-35 presented no abnormalities in mfERG or SD-OCT. We conclude that there is a link between mfERG and SD-OCT measurements that increases with the presence of microvascular impairment. However, a significant proportion of patients in our particular study population (ETDRS ≤35) had normal ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer thickness and normal mfERG findings. We raise the hypothesis that neurodegeneration may play a role in the pathogenesis of DR in many but not in all patients with type 2 diabetes. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  20. The influence of social structure on brood survival and development in a socially polymorphic ant: insights from a cross-fostering experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Jessica; Chapuisat, M

    2012-11-01

    Animal societies vary in the number of breeders per group, which affects many socially and ecologically relevant traits. In several social insect species, including our study species Formica selysi, the presence of either one or multiple reproducing females per colony is generally associated with differences in a suite of traits such as the body size of individuals. However, the proximate mechanisms and ontogenetic processes generating such differences between social structures are poorly known. Here, we cross-fostered eggs originating from single-queen (= monogynous) or multiple-queen (= polygynous) colonies into experimental groups of workers from each social structure to investigate whether differences in offspring survival, development time and body size are shaped by the genotype and/or prefoster maternal effects present in the eggs, or by the social origin of the rearing workers. Eggs produced by polygynous queens were more likely to survive to adulthood than eggs from monogynous queens, regardless of the social origin of the rearing workers. However, brood from monogynous queens grew faster than brood from polygynous queens. The social origin of the rearing workers influenced the probability of brood survival, with workers from monogynous colonies rearing more brood to adulthood than workers from polygynous colonies. The social origin of eggs or rearing workers had no significant effect on the head size of the resulting workers in our standardized laboratory conditions. Overall, the social backgrounds of the parents and of the rearing workers appear to shape distinct survival and developmental traits of ant brood. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2012 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  1. Evolution of Precipitation Structure During the November DYNAMO MJO Event: Cloud-Resolving Model Intercomparison and Cross Validation Using Radar Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaowen; Janiga, Matthew A.; Wang, Shuguang; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Rowe, Angela; Xu, Weixin; Liu, Chuntao; Matsui, Toshihisa; Zhang, Chidong

    2018-04-01

    Evolution of precipitation structures are simulated and compared with radar observations for the November Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) event during the DYNAmics of the MJO (DYNAMO) field campaign. Three ground-based, ship-borne, and spaceborne precipitation radars and three cloud-resolving models (CRMs) driven by observed large-scale forcing are used to study precipitation structures at different locations over the central equatorial Indian Ocean. Convective strength is represented by 0-dBZ echo-top heights, and convective organization by contiguous 17-dBZ areas. The multi-radar and multi-model framework allows for more stringent model validations. The emphasis is on testing models' ability to simulate subtle differences observed at different radar sites when the MJO event passed through. The results show that CRMs forced by site-specific large-scale forcing can reproduce not only common features in cloud populations but also subtle variations observed by different radars. The comparisons also revealed common deficiencies in CRM simulations where they underestimate radar echo-top heights for the strongest convection within large, organized precipitation features. Cross validations with multiple radars and models also enable quantitative comparisons in CRM sensitivity studies using different large-scale forcing, microphysical schemes and parameters, resolutions, and domain sizes. In terms of radar echo-top height temporal variations, many model sensitivity tests have better correlations than radar/model comparisons, indicating robustness in model performance on this aspect. It is further shown that well-validated model simulations could be used to constrain uncertainties in observed echo-top heights when the low-resolution surveillance scanning strategy is used.

  2. Nature of the Ag-Si interface in screen-printed contacts. A detailed transmission electron microscopy study of cross-sectional structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballif, C. [Fraunhofer ISE, Laboratory and Service Center Gelsenkirchen (Germany); Huljic, D.M.; Willeke, G. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Solare Energiesysteme (ISE), Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Hessler-Wyser, A. [Swiss Federal Inst. of Technology, CIME, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2002-07-01

    As screen printed contacts are the predominant metallisation technique in industrial production of Si solar cells, a better understanding of their properties is necessary. In this work, we show that high-quality cross-sectional samples can be prepared, whose study by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) reveals precisely the structure of the contact between the silver fingers and the Si. On diffused [100] Si wafers, direct firing of an Ag paste results in interfaces which are mainly composed of shaped Ag crystallites penetrating the emitter up to 120 nm. These crystallites are in epitaxial relation with the Sl substrate. When firing the contacts through a SiN{sub x} layer, larger Ag crystallites are present at the interface with Si and the orientation relation is lost. In both cases, high resolution TEM imaging and EDX analyses reveal a crystalline Ag/Si interface, where neither oxide nor glass frit can be detected. The presence of a significant glass frit layer between the Ag crystallites contacting the Si and the large Ag grains forming the bulk of the fingers can partly explain why lowly doped emitters are difficult to contact by screen-printing. (orig.)

  3. Camera Traps on Wildlife Crossing Structures as a Tool in Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) Management - Five-Years Monitoring of Wolf Abundance Trends in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šver, Lidija; Bielen, Ana; Križan, Josip; Gužvica, Goran

    2016-01-01

    The conservation of gray wolf (Canis lupus) and its coexistence with humans presents a challenge and requires continuous monitoring and management efforts. One of the non-invasive methods that produces high-quality wolf monitoring datasets is camera trapping. We present a novel monitoring approach where camera traps are positioned on wildlife crossing structures that channel the animals, thereby increasing trapping success and increasing the cost-efficiency of the method. In this way we have followed abundance trends of five wolf packs whose home ranges are intersected by a motorway which spans throughout the wolf distribution range in Croatia. During the five-year monitoring of six green bridges we have recorded 28 250 camera-events, 132 with wolves. Four viaducts were monitored for two years, recording 4914 camera-events, 185 with wolves. We have detected a negative abundance trend of the monitored Croatian wolf packs since 2011, especially severe in the northern part of the study area. Further, we have pinpointed the legal cull as probable major negative influence on the wolf pack abundance trends (linear regression, r2 > 0.75, P Croatia until there is more data proving population stability. In conclusion, quantitative methods, such as the one presented here, should be used as much as possible when assessing wolf abundance trends.

  4. Measurement of the inclusive e{sup {+-}}p scattering cross section at high inelasticity y and of the structure function F{sub L}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaron, F.D. [National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering (NIPNE), Bucharest (Romania); Bucharest Univ. (Romania). Faculty of Physics; Alexa, C. [National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering (NIPNE), Bucharest (Romania); Andreev, V. [Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (RU)] (and others)

    2010-12-15

    A measurement is presented of the inclusive neutral current e{sup {+-}}p scattering cross section using data collected by the H1 experiment at HERA during the years 2003 to 2007 with proton beam energies E{sub p} of 920, 575, and 460 GeV. The kinematic range of the measurement covers low absolute four-momentum transfers squared, 1.5 GeV{sup 2} < Q{sup 2} < 120 GeV{sup 2}, small values of Bjorken x, 2.9 . 10{sup -5} < x < 0.01, and extends to high inelasticity up to y=0.85. The structure function FL is measured by combining the new results with previously published H1 data at E{sub p} = 920 GeV and E{sub p} = 820 GeV. The new measurements are used to test several phenomenological and QCD models applicable in this low Q{sup 2} and low x kinematic domain. (orig.)

  5. Cross-Cultural Adaptation of the Profile Fitness Mapping Neck Questionnaire to Brazilian Portuguese: Internal Consistency, Reliability, and Construct and Structural Validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Mariana Cândido; Björklund, Martin; Dach, Fabiola; Chaves, Thais Cristina

    The purpose of this study was to adapt and evaluate the psychometric properties of the ProFitMap-neck to Brazilian Portuguese. The cross-cultural adaptation consisted of 5 stages, and 180 female patients with chronic neck pain participated in the study. A subsample (n = 30) answered the pretest, and another subsample (n = 100) answered the questionnaire a second time. Internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and construct validity (hypothesis testing and structural validity) were estimated. For construct validity, the scores of the questionnaire were correlated with the Neck Disability Index (NDI), and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia (TSK), and the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36). Internal consistency was determined by adequate Cronbach's α values (α > 0.70). Strong reliability was identified by high intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC > 0.75). Construct validity was identified by moderate and strong correlations of the Br-ProFitMap-neck with total NDI score (-0.56 50%, Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin index > 0.50, eigenvalue > 1, and factor loadings > 0.2. Br-ProFitMap-neck had adequate psychometric properties and can be used in clinical settings, as well as research, in patients with chronic neck pain. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Manganite based hetero-junction structure of La_0_._7Sr_0_._7_−_xCa_xMnO_3 and CaMnO_3_−_δ for cross-point arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hong-Sub; Park, Hyung-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Resistive random access memory and the corresponding cross-point array (CPA) structure have received a great deal of attention for high-density next generation non-volatile memory. However, the cross-talk issue of CPA structure by sneak current should be overcome to realize the highest density integration. To accomplish this, the sneak current can be minimized by high, nonlinear characteristic behaviors of resistive switching (RS). Therefore this study fabricated pnp bipolar hetero-junction structure using the perovskite manganite family, such as La_0_._7Sr_0_._3_−_xCa_xMnO_3 (LSCMO) and CaMnO_3_−_δ (CMO), to obtain nonlinear RS behavior. The pnp structure not only shows nonlinear characteristics, but also a tunable characteristic with Ca substitution. (paper)

  7. FLOOD RESILIENCE AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN URBAN NIGERIA: INTEGRATING TRADITIONAL AND NON-STRUCTURAL METHODS OF MITIGATING AND ADAPTING TO FLOODING IN CROSS RIVER STATE, SOUTH-EASTERN NIGERIA (II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RICHARD INGWE

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Flood resilience and sustainable development in urban Nigeria: integrating traditional and non-structural methods of mitigating and adapting to flooding in cross river state, south-eastern Nigeria. We examined application of non-structural measures in addition to conventional structural approaches by Government Agency and community for flood management in Cross River State (Nigeria at: regional-ambit and community levels. We used focus group discussion in depth interview, and observation methods to collect data from primary and secondary sources. Our findings include: emphasis on structural flood control measures by government agencies contrasted to use of rudimentary non-structural approaches by communities. Conceptual frames proposed for managing disasters include: emphasizing future climate change impacts based on multiple scales (temporal, spatial and societal and emphasizing historical response to disasters without increasing the visibility of climate change. We conclude that community institutions, non-government/civil society organizations should lead public institutions in promoting flood resilience based on integrated non-structural to structural measures and show recent developments regarding civil society coalition committed towards promoting environmental governance in Nigeria. Frequent flooding associated with huge losses of lives and property in the study areas, as in most of urban Nigeria, persuade us to recommend that strategically placed civil society be supported by donor/funding organizations to promote integrated non-structural and traditional-structural measures to achieve urban flood resilience nationwide.

  8. FLOOD RESILIENCE AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN URBAN NIGERIA: INTEGRATING TRADITIONAL AND NON-STRUCTURAL METHODS OF MITIGATING AND ADAPTING TO FLOODING IN CROSS RIVER STATE, SOUTH-EASTERN NIGERIA (I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RICHARD INGWE

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Flood resilience and sustainable development in urban Nigeria: integrating traditional and non-structural methods of mitigating and adapting to flooding in cross river state, south-eastern Nigeria. We examined application of non-structural measures in addition to conventional structural approaches by Government Agency and community for flood management in Cross River State (Nigeria at: regional-ambit and community levels. We used focus group discussion in depth interview, and observation methods to collect datafrom primary and secondary sources. Our findings include: emphasis on structural flood control measures by government agencies contrasted to use of rudimentary non-structural approaches by communities. Conceptual frames proposed for managing disasters include: emphasizing future climate change impacts based on multiple scales (temporal, spatial and societal and emphasizing historical response to disasters without increasing the visibility of climate change. We conclude that community institutions, non-government/civil society organizations should lead public institutions in promoting flood resilience based on integrated non-structural to structural measures and show recent developments regarding civil society coalition committed towards promoting environmental governance in Nigeria. Frequent flooding associated with huge losses of lives and property in the studyareas, as in most of urban Nigeria, persuade us to recommend that strategically placed civil society be supported by donor/funding organizations to promote integrated non-structural and traditional-structural measures to achieve urban flood resilience nationwide.

  9. New Geologic Map and Structural Cross Sections of the Death Valley Extended Terrain (southern Sierra Nevada, California to Spring Mountains, Nevada): Toward 3D Kinematic Reconstructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, B. M.; Axen, G. J.; Phillips, F. M.

    2017-12-01

    Tectonic reconstructions for the Death Valley extended terrain (S. Sierra Nevada to Spring Mountains) have evolved to include a growing number of offset markers for strike-slip fault systems but are mainly map view (2D) and do not incorporate a wealth of additional constraints. We present a new 1:300,000 digital geologic map and structural cross sections, which provide a geometric framework for stepwise 3D reconstructions of Late Cenozoic extension and transtension. 3D models will decipher complex relationships between strike-slip, normal, and detachment faults and their role in accommodating large magnitude extension/rigid block rotation. Fault coordination is key to understanding how extensional systems and transform margins evolve with changing boundary conditions. 3D geometric and kinematic analysis adds key strain compatibility unavailable in 2D reconstructions. The stratigraphic framework of Fridrich and Thompson (2011) is applied to rocks outside of Death Valley. Cenozoic basin deposits are grouped into 6 assemblages differentiated by age, provenance, and bounding unconformities, which reflect Pacific-North American plate boundary events. Pre-Cenozoic rocks are grouped for utility: for example, Cararra Formation equivalents are grouped because they form a Cordilleran thrust decollement zone. Offset markers are summarized in the associated tectonic map. Other constraints include fault geometries and slip rates, age, geometry and provenance of Cenozoic basins, gravity, cooling histories of footwalls, and limited seismic/well data. Cross sections were constructed parallel to net-transport directions of fault blocks. Surface fault geometries were compiled from previous mapping and projected to depth using seismic/gravity data. Cooling histories of footwalls guided geometric interpretation of uplifted detachment footwalls. Mesh surfaces will be generated from 2D section lines to create a framework for stepwise 3D reconstruction of extension and transtension in

  10. Cross-lagged structural equation models for the relationship between health-related state and behaviours and body bullying in adolescence: findings from longitudinal study ELANA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane S Straatmann

    Full Text Available We investigated the stability and the directionality of being body bullied and a set of four variables- 1 Body Mass Index (BMI, 2 moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA, 3 television time (TV and 4 video game/computer time (VG-, termed in the present study as 'health-related state and behaviours (HRSB'-across adolescence. The Adolescent Nutritional Assessment Longitudinal Study (ELANA is a cohort study conducted among middle school students from two public and four private schools in Rio de Janeiro-Brazil. We analysed data from 2010 (T1 and 2012 (T2 among 810 adolescents (aged 9-15 at T1. Gender-specific structural equation models (SEM were estimated, including autoregressive paths for the HRSB and being body bullied over time, correlations at T1 and T2, respectively, and cross-lagged effects. The results presented significant stability coefficients for almost all variables over time in both genders (except for MVPA in boys and girls and TV time among girls. There were positive correlations between BMI and being body bullied, as well as between TV and VG for boys (0.32, p<0.001 and 0.24, p<0.001, respectively and girls (0.30, p<0.001 and 0.30, p<0.001, respectively at T1. It remained significant at T2 (boys: 0.18, p<0.05 and 0.16, p<0.01; girls: 0.21, p<0.01 and 0.22, p<0.01, respectively. Examining the cross-lagged paths between being body bullied and HRSB, we observed that the reciprocal model provided the best fit for boys, indicating that BMI at T1 had a significant effect in being body bullied at T2 (0.12, p<0.05 and being body bullied at T1 had an effect on VG at T2 (0.14, p<0.01. Among girls the forward causation model showed the best fit, demonstrating a significant effect of being body bullied at T1 on VG at T2 (0.16, p<0.01. Apart from MVPA, both being body bullying and HRSB were largely stable across adolescence. For boys and girls alike, exposure to being body bullied seemed to increase their time spent on VG, while for boys

  11. The Structured Interview & Scoring Tool-Massachusetts Alzheimer's Disease Research Center (SIST-M): development, reliability, and cross-sectional validation of a brief structured clinical dementia rating interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okereke, Olivia I; Copeland, Maura; Hyman, Bradley T; Wanggaard, Taylor; Albert, Marilyn S; Blacker, Deborah

    2011-03-01

    The Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) and CDR Sum-of-Boxes can be used to grade mild but clinically important cognitive symptoms of Alzheimer disease. However, sensitive clinical interview formats are lengthy. To develop a brief instrument for obtaining CDR scores and to assess its reliability and cross-sectional validity. Using legacy data from expanded interviews conducted among 347 community-dwelling older adults in a longitudinal study, we identified 60 questions (from a possible 131) about cognitive functioning in daily life using clinical judgment, inter-item correlations, and principal components analysis. Items were selected in 1 cohort (n=147), and a computer algorithm for generating CDR scores was developed in this same cohort and re-run in a replication cohort (n=200) to evaluate how well the 60 items retained information from the original 131 items. Short interviews based on the 60 items were then administered to 50 consecutively recruited older individuals, with no symptoms or mild cognitive symptoms, at an Alzheimer's Disease Research Center. Clinical Dementia Rating scores based on short interviews were compared with those from independent long interviews. In the replication cohort, agreement between short and long CDR interviews ranged from κ=0.65 to 0.79, with κ=0.76 for Memory, κ=0.77 for global CDR, and intraclass correlation coefficient for CDR Sum-of-Boxes=0.89. In the cross-sectional validation, short interview scores were slightly lower than those from long interviews, but good agreement was observed for global CDR and Memory (κ≥0.70) as well as for CDR Sum-of-Boxes (intraclass correlation coefficient=0.73). The Structured Interview & Scoring Tool-Massachusetts Alzheimer's Disease Research Center is a brief, reliable, and sensitive instrument for obtaining CDR scores in persons with symptoms along the spectrum of mild cognitive change.

  12. The four-domain structure model of a depression scale for medical students: A cross-sectional study in Haiphong, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thao Thi Thu; Nguyen, Ngoc Thi Minh; Pham, Manh Van; Pham, Han Van; Nakamura, Hiroyuki

    2018-01-01

    Depression is a common mental health problem with a higher prevalence in medical students than in the general population. This study aims to investigate the association between depressive symptoms, particularly those in each domain of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CES-D) Scale, and related factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a random sample of 1319 medical students at Haiphong University of Medicine and Pharmacy in 2016. The CES-D scale and a self-reported questionnaire were used to identify the prevalence of depressive symptoms and related risk factors. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression were performed to assess the risk factors associated with depressive symptoms and the score for each structure factor. Depressive symptoms were observed in 514 (39%) students, including more males than females (44.2% vs 36.9%, p = 0.015). Students whose mothers' highest education level was primary school had a higher prevalence of depressive symptoms than students whose mothers had higher education levels (p = 0.038). There was a significant relationship between depressive symptoms and stressful life events, especially a decline in personal health. A higher correlation was found between the somatic complaints and depressive affect domains. The impacts of risk factors differed for each domain of the depression scale. Only the factor of achieving excellence showed no statistically significant associations with depressive symptoms and the scores on the four domains considered in this study. The high prevalence of depressive symptoms among medical students with risk factors and the impact of these risk factors on each domain of depression scale need further clarification to alleviate depression in students during their medical training.

  13. IgE and IgG cross-reactivity among Lol p I and Lol p II/III. Identification of the C-termini of Lol p I, II, and III as cross-reactive structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ree, R.; van Leeuwen, W. A.; van den Berg, M.; Weller, H. H.; Aalberse, R. C.

    1994-01-01

    In this study, the homologous C-termini of Lol p I, Lol p II, and Lol p III were shown to contain cross-reactive B-cell epitopes. This was demonstrated by inhibition studies with purified Lol p I, II, and III and synthetic peptides of their C-termini. It was ruled out that the observed

  14. Development, cross-species/genera transferability of novel EST-SSR markers and their utility in revealing population structure and genetic diversity in sugarcane

    KAUST Repository

    Singh, Ram K.

    2013-07-01

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrid) with complex polyploid genome requires a large number of informative DNA markers for various applications in genetics and breeding. Despite the great advances in genomic technology, it is observed in several crop species, especially in sugarcane, the availability of molecular tools such as microsatellite markers are limited. Now-a-days EST-SSR markers are preferred to genomic SSR (gSSR) as they represent only the functional part of the genome, which can be easily associated with desired trait. The present study was taken up with a new set of 351 EST-SSRs developed from the 4085 non redundant EST sequences of two Indian sugarcane cultivars. Among these EST-SSRs, TNR containing motifs were predominant with a frequency of 51.6%. Thirty percent EST-SSRs showed homology with annotated protein. A high frequency of SSRs was found in the 5\\'UTR and in the ORF (about 27%) and a low frequency was observed in the 3\\'UTR (about 8%). Two hundred twenty-seven EST-SSRs were evaluated, in sugarcane, allied genera of sugarcane and cereals, and 134 of these have revealed polymorphism with a range of PIC value 0.12 to 0.99. The cross transferability rate ranged from 87.0% to 93.4% in Saccharum complex, 80.0% to 87.0% in allied genera, and 76.0% to 80.0% in cereals. Cloning and sequencing of EST-SSR size variant amplicons revealed that the variation in the number of repeat-units was the main source of EST-SSR fragment polymorphism. When 124 sugarcane accessions were analyzed for population structure using model-based approach, seven genetically distinct groups or admixtures thereof were observed in sugarcane. Results of principal coordinate analysis or UPGMA to evaluate genetic relationships delineated also the 124 accessions into seven groups. Thus, a high level of polymorphism adequate genetic diversity and population structure assayed with the EST-SSR markers not only suggested their utility in various applications in genetics and genomics in

  15. Enhanced photoelectrochemical activity of electro-synthesized CdS-Bi2S3 composite films grown with self-designed cross-linked structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jana, A.; Bhattacharya, C.; Datta, J.

    2010-01-01

    In the present investigation thin semiconductor films of CdS, Bi 2 S 3 and their intermixed composite films have been electro-synthesized onto conducting glass substrate from nonaqueous bath containing various levels of the precursor salts of Cd 2+ and Bi 3+ . Spectrophotometric measurements determine the band gap energies of the composite films at ∼2.53 eV and ∼1.37 eV corresponding to the binary systems CdS and Bi 2 S 3 , respectively. The film matrices exhibit a unique structure of cross-linked nanoporous Bi 2 S 3 mesh containing spherical shaped CdS crystals distributed uniformly on the top of the surface as detected from the morphological studies through scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. X-ray diffraction studies show crystalline structure of the films of which the chemical compositions were determined through energy dispersive analysis of X-ray. The film matrices enriched with Cd exhibit high dielectric property as obtained from the capacitance measurement and substantial thermal stability derived from thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis. These films are found to be highly fluorescent in nature when subjected to spectrofluorimetric analysis. The Raman spectral data exhibit characteristic peaks that are associated with Cd-S and Bi-S bonds as well as the defects created by metal oxides. The spectrum also demonstrates that the changes in the relative position of the overtone bands are associated with compositional variation of the film surface. The study of electrochemical polarization of different films, derives the inherent stability of the matrices towards dissolution. This was followed by anodic stripping voltammetry to estimate the dissolved cations during polarization. Photoelectrochemical measurements demonstrate n-type semiconductivity of the films with high order of donor density and reasonable photoactivity under illuminated condition. It may be summarized that the blended intermix of CdS-Bi 2 S 3

  16. Structure effects in polarization and cross sections for A(p, p’)X inelastic reactions on {sup 40}Ca and {sup 12}C nuclei at 1 GeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miklukho, O. V., E-mail: miklukho-ov@pnpi.rncki.ru; Kisselev, A. Yu., E-mail: kisselev@mail.desy.de; Amalsky, G. M.; Andreev, V. A.; Gavrilov, G. E.; Izotov, A. A.; Kozlenko, N. G.; Kravchenko, P. V.; Levchenko, M. P.; Novinskiy, D. V.; Prokofiev, A. N., E-mail: prokofiev-an@pnpi.rncki.ru; Shvedchikov, A. V.; Trush, S. I.; Zhdanov, A. A. [National Research Centre Kurchatov Institute, Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute (Russian Federation)

    2017-03-15

    The polarization of secondary protons in the (p, p’) inelastic reactions on {sup 40}Ca and {sup 12}C nuclei at the initial proton energy of 1 GeV was measured over a wide range of scattered-proton momenta at a laboratory angle of Θ = 21°. The reaction cross sections were also measured. Scattered protons were detected by means of magnetic spectrometer equipped with a polarimeter based on multiwire-proportional chambers. A structure in the polarization and cross-section data, which is probably related to scattering off nucleon correlations in the nuclei involved, was observed.

  17. Effects of Genipin Concentration on Cross-Linked Chitosan Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering: Structural Characterization and Evidence of Biocompatibility Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Dimida

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Genipin (GN is a natural molecule extracted from the fruit of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis according to modern microbiological processes. Genipin is considered as a favorable cross-linking agent due to its low cytotoxicity compared to widely used cross-linkers; it cross-links compounds with primary amine groups such as proteins, collagen, and chitosan. Chitosan is a biocompatible polymer that is currently studied in bone tissue engineering for its capacity to promote growth and mineral-rich matrix deposition by osteoblasts in culture. In this work, two genipin cross-linked chitosan scaffolds for bone repair and regeneration were prepared with different GN concentrations, and their chemical, physical, and biological properties were explored. Scanning electron microscopy and mechanical tests revealed that nonremarkable changes in morphology, porosity, and mechanical strength of scaffolds are induced by increasing the cross-linking degree. Also, the degradation rate was shown to decrease while increasing the cross-linking degree, with the high cross-linking density of the scaffold disabling the hydrolysis activity. Finally, basic biocompatibility was investigated in vitro, by evaluating proliferation of two human-derived cell lines, namely, the MG63 (human immortalized osteosarcoma and the hMSCs (human mesenchymal stem cells, as suitable cell models for bone tissue engineering applications of biomaterials.

  18. Measurement of secondary gamma-ray production cross sections of structural materials for fusion reactor. Extraction of discrete and continuum components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Tetsuo; Morotomi, Ryutaro; Nishio, Takashi; Murata, Isao; Takahashi, Akito

    2000-01-01

    A new method to deal with measured spectrum of secondary gamma-rays induced by D-T neutrons with Ge detector is proposed. Subtracting background components and discrete peaks from the raw secondary gamma-ray spectrum, the continuum component of secondary gamma-ray was successfully extracted. By using unfolding process, the continuum component of the secondary gamma-ray production cross section was derived. The measured cross section data obtained by this method are very useful for precise evaluation of secondary gamma-ray production cross sections. (author)

  19. Interaction of polarized neutrons with polarized La nuclei and the structure of the cross section at energies up to 20 eV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfimenkov, V.P.; Mareev, Yu.D.; Novitskii, V.V.; Pikel'ner, L.B.; Skoi, V.R.

    1994-01-01

    Properties of lanthanum are investigated in an experiment on the interaction of polarized neutrons with polarized La nuclei. The total cross section for lanthanum is measured for neutron energies ranging from 0.4 to 10 eV. It is shown that one strong level below the neutron binding energy is sufficient for obtaining a good description of the lanthanum cross section in this energy range. The results on the cross section for the interaction of polarized projectiles on a polarized target confirm this conclusion. The spin of the 138 La neutron resonance at 3.0 eV is found to be J = 11 / 2 . 13 refs., 3 figs

  20. Analysis of the causes and recommendations on elimination of biological damage of structures during the repair and reconstruction of the State Biological Museum in Moscow.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamskov Victor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of mycological research on buildings of the State Biological Museum located in Moscow. The problems have been considered as for a complex of buildings of the State Biological Museum built in the late nineteenth century which, to the present time, has been operated almost in its original form. Over time, the building maintenance conditions have worsened, in particular because of construction of high-rise buildings in the immediate vicinity of the museum, as well as construction of a greenhouse above the underground passage tunnel between buildings 1 and 2. Over the years, the temperature gradients, high humidity, wear and damage of wall waterproofing and foundations have caused leaks in the underpass tunnel and the biological corrosion of stone, wood and metal structures in indoor exhibition halls. In this connection, part of the survey was to determine the types and size of biological lesions in structures, determination of the causes of biological damage, and the development of measures to eliminate the mycological problems during repair and reconstruction works in the museum.

  1. Identification of cross-reacting T-cell epitopes in structural and non-structural proteins of swine and pandemic H1N1 influenza A virus strains in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baratelli, Massimiliano; Pedersen, Lasse Eggers; Trebbien, Ramona

    2017-01-01

    Heterologous protection against swine influenza viruses (SwIVs) of different lineages is an important concern for the pig industry. Cross-protection between 'avian-like' H1N1 and 2009 pandemic H1N1 lineages has been observed previously, indicating the involvement of cross-reacting T-cells. Here...

  2. Contribution to the study of nuclear structure using neutron total cross-section measurements between 400 and 1200 keV: isolated resonances and intermediate structure; Contribution a l'etude de la structure nucleaire par des mesures de sections efficaces neutroniques entre 400 keV et 1200 keV. Resonances isolees et structure intermediaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabe, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-06-15

    The neutron total cross sections have been measured over the energy range 400 keV - 1200 keV for fluorine, aluminium, silicon, phosphorus, vanadium, chromium, manganese, iron, nickel, cobalt and lead with an energy spread of 3 keV. The neutrons were produced by the T (p,n) {sup 3}He reaction, the proton beam was supplied by a 2 MeV Van de Graaff. The structure in {sup 56}Fe has been studied in a more detailed way by measuring six angular distributions in the above range and the elastic scattering excitation curves at four angles. The measurements have made it possible to show the existence of the compound nucleus, as well as the presence of an intermediate structure in certain nuclei. (author) [French] Nous avons mesure les sections efficaces totales neutroniques entre 400 keV et 1200 keV du fluor, de l'aluminium, du silicium, du phosphore, du vanadium, du chrome, du manganese, du fer, du nickel, du cobalt et du plomb avec une dispersion en energie de 3 keV. Les neutrons etaient produits a l'aide de la reaction T (p,n) {sup 3}He, les protons etant acceleres par un Van de Graaff 2 MeV. Nous presentons de plus quatre courbes d'excitation de la diffusion elastique des neutrons sur le fer ainsi que six distributions angulaires. Ces mesures ont permis de mettre en evidence un certain nombres de resonances du noyau compose, ainsi que la presence d'une structure intermediaire dans. certains noyaux. (auteur)

  3. Weaving Action Learning into the Fabric of Manufacturing: The Impact of Humble Inquiry and Structured Reflection in a Cross-Cultural Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckman, Elizabeth A.

    2017-01-01

    This account of practice examines the implementation of and reactions to action learning through the Lean methodology in a unique, cross-cultural context. I review my time spent as a Lean coach; engaging with, training, and using action learning with employees in a garment manufacturing facility located in Bali, Indonesia. This research addresses…

  4. The polarization-angular structure and elliptical dichroism of the cross sections for three-photon bound-bound transitions in atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manakov, N.L.; Merem'yanin, A.V.

    1997-01-01

    Using the electric dipole approximation, we present, in invariant form, the cross section of an arbitrary three-photon transition between the discrete states of an atom with total angular momenta J i and J f . The cross section contains scalar and mixed products of the photon polarization vectors, and invariant atomic parameters dependent only on the photon frequencies. We determine the number of independent atomic parameters at fixed values of J i and J f and obtain their explicit expressions in terms of the reduced composite dipole matrix elements. The polarization dependence of the cross sections is expressed in terms of the degrees l and ξ of linear and circular photon polarizations. We analyze the phenomenon of dissipation-induced circular dichroism in three-photon processes, i.e., the difference Δ of the cross sections for opposite signs of the degree of circular polarization of all the photons. We study in detail the case of two identical photons and the phenomenon of elliptical dichroism, when Δ∼lξ holds and dichroism occurs only when the photons are elliptically polarized, with 0< vertical bar ξ vertical bar <1. Finally, we discuss the dissipation-induced effects of atom polarization in three-photon processes involving linearly polarized or unpolarized photons

  5. In situ study the effect of refiner on the microstructure evolution of variable cross-section structure by synchrotron X-ray radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Faguo; Zhang, Jiao; Dai, Yongbing; Bian, Fenggang; Fu, Yanan; Yin, Fucheng; Sun, Baode

    2015-10-01

    The formation of microstructures during solidification is strongly affected by the interaction that occurs between factors, such as heat field, melt flow, solute distribution, and number of effective nucleation cores. In this study, the microstructure evolution of a high-purity hypoeutectic Al-Cu alloy at its region of variable cross-section was studied using synchrotron radiation imaging. The characteristics of the thermal field, solute field, and flow field were analyzed according to these radiographs. The results showed that the region of variable cross-section is the site that is more prone to dendrite arms fracture. These dendrites spread radially from the center of the thin wall and the isotherms distribute as an arc-shape. These are the main reasons for the uneven distribution of the microstructure, which lead to undesirable phase formation and aggregation at the region of variable cross-section. The microstructure can be significantly refined and solute enrichment can be eliminated by adding refiners to alloys. Comparing these two conditions, it can be concluded that the solute and flow field distribution at the variable cross-section region is significantly affected, uniformity of the solidification microstructure is improved, and undesirable phases are eliminated by increase in effective heterogeneous nucleation cores.

  6. Heat shrinkable behavior, physico-mechanical and structure properties of electron beam cross-linked blends of high-density polyethylene with acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinholds, Ingars; Kalkis, Valdis; Merijs-Meri, Remo; Zicans, Janis; Grigalovica, Agnese

    2016-01-01

    In this study, heat-shrinkable composites of electron beam irradiated high-density polyethylene (HDPE) composites with acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR) were investigated. HDPE/NBR blends at a ratio of components 100/0, 90/10, 80/20, 50/50 and 20/80 wt% were prepared using a two-roll mill. The compression molded films were irradiated high-energy (5 MeV) accelerated electrons up to irradiation absorbed doses of 100–300 kGy. The effect of electron beam induced cross-linking was evaluated by the changes of mechanical properties, gel content and by the differences of thermal properties, detected by differential scanning calorimetry. The thermo-shrinkage forces were determined as the kinetics of thermorelaxation and the residual shrinkage stresses of previously oriented (stretched up to 100% at above melting temperature of HDPE and followed by cooling to room temperature) specimens of irradiated HDPE/NBR blends under isometric heating–cooling mode. The compatibility between the both components was enhanced due to the formation of cross-linked sites at amorphous interphase. The results showed increase of mechanical stiffness of composites with increase of irradiation dose. The values of gel fraction compared to thermorelaxation stresses increased with the growth of irradiation dose level, as a result of formation cross-linked sites in amorphous PP/NBR interphase. - Highlights: • Binary blends of HDPE/NBR have been irradiated with 5 MeV accelerated electrons. • Increase of NBR content and irradiation dose improves cross-linking efficiency. • Thermo-shrinkage and residual stresses are investigated for oriented specimens. • Cross-linked HDPE/NBR composites can be successfully used as thermos-shrinkable materials.

  7. 3D visualisation of the middle ear and adjacent structures using reconstructed multi-slice CT datasets, correlating 3D images and virtual endoscopy to the 2D cross-sectional images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodt, T.; Ratiu, P.; Kacher, D.F.; Anderson, M.; Jolesz, F.A.; Kikinis, R.; Becker, H.; Bartling, S.

    2002-01-01

    The 3D imaging of the middle ear facilitates better understanding of the patient's anatomy. Cross-sectional slices, however, often allow a more accurate evaluation of anatomical structures, as some detail may be lost through post-processing. In order to demonstrate the advantages of combining both approaches, we performed computed tomography (CT) imaging in two normal and 15 different pathological cases, and the 3D models were correlated to the cross-sectional CT slices. Reconstructed CT datasets were acquired by multi-slice CT. Post-processing was performed using the in-house software ''3D Slicer'', applying thresholding and manual segmentation. 3D models of the individual anatomical structures were generated and displayed in different colours. The display of relevant anatomical and pathological structures was evaluated in the greyscale 2D slices, 3D images, and the 2D slices showing the segmented 2D anatomy in different colours for each structure. Correlating 2D slices to the 3D models and virtual endoscopy helps to combine the advantages of each method. As generating 3D models can be extremely time-consuming, this approach can be a clinically applicable way of gaining a 3D understanding of the patient's anatomy by using models as a reference. Furthermore, it can help radiologists and otolaryngologists evaluating the 2D slices by adding the correct 3D information that would otherwise have to be mentally integrated. The method can be applied to radiological diagnosis, surgical planning, and especially, to teaching. (orig.)

  8. Measurements of event properties and multi-differential jet cross sections and impact of CMS measurements on Proton Structure and QCD parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Kaur, Anterpreet

    2017-01-01

    We present results on the measurements of characteristics of events with jets including jet-charge, investigations of shapes and jet mass distributions. The measurements are compared to theoretical predictions including those matched to parton shower and hadronization. Multi-differential jet cross sections are also presented over a wide range in transverse momenta from inclusive jets to multi-jet final states. These measurements have an impact on the determination of the strong coupling constant as well as on parton distribution functions (PDFs) and are helpful in the treatment of heavy flavours in QCD analyses. We also show angular correlations in multi-jet events at highest center-of-mass energies and compare the measurements to theoretical predictions including higher order parton radiation and coherence effects. Measurements of cross sections of jet and top-quark pair production are in particular sensitive to the gluon distribution in the proton, while the electroweak boson production - inclusive or asso...

  9. New results from the H1 experiment at HERA on jets, the proton structure function, rapidity gap events, charged current cross section and searches for new particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenshaw, T.; Mueller, K.

    1994-07-01

    The cross section of the charged current process e - p→ν e +hadrons is measured at HERA for transverse momenta of the hadron system larger than 25 GeV. The effect of the W propagator term is visible for the first time. A direct search for new particles is presented. No evidence for the production of leptoquarks, leptogluons R-parity violating squarks or excited electrons could be found. New exclusion limits are given. (orig.)

  10. Heat shrinkable behavior, physico-mechanical and structure properties of electron beam cross-linked blends of high-density polyethylene with acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinholds, Ingars; Kalkis, Valdis; Merijs-Meri, Remo; Zicans, Janis; Grigalovica, Agnese

    2016-03-01

    In this study, heat-shrinkable composites of electron beam irradiated high-density polyethylene (HDPE) composites with acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR) were investigated. HDPE/NBR blends at a ratio of components 100/0, 90/10, 80/20, 50/50 and 20/80 wt% were prepared using a two-roll mill. The compression molded films were irradiated high-energy (5 MeV) accelerated electrons up to irradiation absorbed doses of 100-300 kGy. The effect of electron beam induced cross-linking was evaluated by the changes of mechanical properties, gel content and by the differences of thermal properties, detected by differential scanning calorimetry. The thermo-shrinkage forces were determined as the kinetics of thermorelaxation and the residual shrinkage stresses of previously oriented (stretched up to 100% at above melting temperature of HDPE and followed by cooling to room temperature) specimens of irradiated HDPE/NBR blends under isometric heating-cooling mode. The compatibility between the both components was enhanced due to the formation of cross-linked sites at amorphous interphase. The results showed increase of mechanical stiffness of composites with increase of irradiation dose. The values of gel fraction compared to thermorelaxation stresses increased with the growth of irradiation dose level, as a result of formation cross-linked sites in amorphous PP/NBR interphase.

  11. Fast and Accurate Identification of Cross-Linked Peptides for the Structural Analysis of Large Protein Complexes and Elucidation of Interaction Networks. / Tahir, Salman; Bukowski-Wills, Jimi-Carlo; Rasmussen, Morten; Rappsilber, Juri

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Morten

    to investigate protein structure and protein-protein interactions. When applied to single proteins or small purified protein complexes, this methodology works well. However certain challenges arise when applied to more complex samples. One of the main problems is the combinatorial increase in the search space...... simplify a spectrum because we remove all peaks that are accounted for by the fragmentation of peptide one. This approach is highly sensitive and scales well as revealed by searching our data of synthetic cross-links against a large sequence database. Currently, against a protein database of >1300 proteins...... a spectrum is searched in 0.35 seconds - a vast improvement when compared to the exhaustive search method of combining every potential cross-link for each spectrum(60 hours). In fact the search time is comparable, if not better, than existing linear search engines. Furthermore, we auto-validate the results...

  12. Phylogenetic patterns and correlation of key structures for jumping: bone crests and cross-sectional areas of muscles in Leptodactylus (Anura, Leptodactylidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponssa, María Laura; Fratani, Jéssica; Abdala, Virginia

    2018-05-01

    Anurans are characterized by their saltatory mode of locomotion, which is associated with a specific morphology. The coordinated action of the muscles and bones of the pelvic girdle is key to the transmission of the force of the hindlimbs to the axial skeleton during jumping. Two features are critical for optimal locomotory performance: the cross-sectional area of muscle and the bone crest attachment sites. The first character is a proxy of the force exerted by the muscle, whereas the crests are muscle attachments sites related to muscle force. The provisory relationship between these features has previously been identified and bone crest size can be used to infer the magnitude and, therefore, muscle force in fossils records. In this work, we explore the correlation between the cross-sectional area of essential muscles to the jumping mechanism (longissimus dorsi, extensor iliotibialis B, tenuissimus, puboischiofemoralis internus B, coccygeo-sacralis and coccygeo-iliacus) and the bone crests where these muscles are inserted (dorsal tubercle, dorsal crest and urostylar crest) in species of the genus Leptodactylus. This genus, along with other leptodactylids, exhibits a diversity of locomotor modes, including jumping, hopping, swimming and burrowing. We therefore analyzed the morphometric variation in the two features, cross-sectional area and bone crest area, expecting a correlation with different locomotor types. Our results showed: (i) a correlation between the urostylar crest and the cross-sectional area of the related muscles; (ii) that the bone crest surface area of urostyle and ilium and the cross-sectional area of the corresponding muscles can be utilized to infer locomotor faculties in leptodactylid frogs; and (iii) that the evolution of both characters demonstrates a general tendency from lower values in leptodactylid ancestors to higher values in the Leptodactylus genus. The results attest to the importance of the comparison of current ecological and

  13. Crossed product algebras associated with topological dynamical systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Svensson, Pär Christian

    2009-01-01

    We study connections between topological dynamical systems and associated algebras of crossed product type. We derive equivalences between structural properties of a crossed product and dynamical properties of the associated system and furthermore derive qualitative results concerning the crossed

  14. The effect of riboflavin/UVA collagen cross-linking therapy on the structure and hydrodynamic behaviour of the ungulate and rabbit corneal stroma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally Hayes

    Full Text Available To examine the effect of riboflavin/UVA corneal crosslinking on stromal ultrastructure and hydrodynamic behaviour.One hundred and seventeen enucleated ungulate eyes (112 pig and 5 sheep and 3 pairs of rabbit eyes, with corneal epithelium removed, were divided into four treatment groups: Group 1 (28 pig, 2 sheep and 3 rabbits were untreated; Group 2 (24 pig were exposed to UVA light (3.04 mW/cm(2 for 30 minutes and Group 3 (29 pig and Group 4 (31 pig, 3 sheep and 3 rabbits had riboflavin eye drops applied to the corneal surface every 5 minutes for 35 minutes. Five minutes after the initial riboflavin instillation, the corneas in Group 4 experienced a 30 minute exposure to UVA light (3.04 mW/cm(2. X-ray scattering was used to obtain measurements of collagen interfibrillar spacing, spatial order, fibril diameter, D-periodicity and intermolecular spacing throughout the whole tissue thickness and as a function of tissue depth in the treated and untreated corneas. The effect of each treatment on the hydrodynamic behaviour of the cornea (its ability to swell in saline solution and its resistance to enzymatic digestion were assessed using in vitro laboratory techniques.Corneal thickness decreased significantly following riboflavin application (p<0.01 and also to a lesser extent after UVA exposure (p<0.05. With the exception of the spatial order factor, which was higher in Group 4 than Group 1 (p<0.01, all other measured collagen parameters were unaltered by cross-linking, even within the most anterior 300 microns of the cornea. The cross-linking treatment had no effect on the hydrodynamic behaviour of the cornea but did cause a significant increase in its resistance to enzymatic digestion.It seems likely that cross-links formed during riboflavin/UVA therapy occur predominantly at the collagen fibril surface and in the protein network surrounding the collagen.

  15. Exposure of tropoelastin to peroxynitrous acid gives high yields of nitrated tyrosine residues, di-tyrosine cross-links and altered protein structure and function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Degendorfer, Georg; Chuang, Christine Yu-Nung; Mariotti, Michele

    2018-01-01

    Elastin is an abundant extracellular matrix protein in elastic tissues, including the lungs, skin and arteries, and comprises 30–57% of the aorta by dry mass. The monomeric precursor, tropoelastin (TE), undergoes complex processing during elastogenesis to form mature elastic fibres. Peroxynitrous......-protein di-tyrosine cross-links have been characterized by mass spectrometry. Examination of human atherosclerotic lesions shows colocalization of 3-nitroTyr with elastin epitopes, consistent with TE or elastin modification in vivo, and also an association of 3-nitroTyr containing proteins and elastin...

  16. Optimization of Temperature Distributions in Critical Cross-sections of Load-bearing Structures of Measurement Optical Systems of Autonomous Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livshits Michael Yu.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem of the automatic thermogradient stabilization of the constructive elements sizes is discussed. The actual problem is the determination of the control algorithm controlled heat sources, providing them with the minimum possible number of minimal deviation from the desired temperature in a given cross-section design. The proposed procedure for solving optimal control of temperature distribution in the numerical design of its implementation, allows obtaining results that are suitable for approximate implementation in on-Board computers, Autonomous systems and significantly reduce thermal deformation component of the measurement error.

  17. Development, cross-species/genera transferability of novel EST-SSR markers and their utility in revealing population structure and genetic diversity in sugarcane

    KAUST Repository

    Singh, Ram K.; Jena, Satya N.; Khan, Mohammad Suhail; Yadav, Sonia; Banarjee, Nandita; Raghuvanshi, Saurabh; Bhardwaj, Vasudha; Dattamajumder, Sanjay K.; Kapur, Raman; Solomon, Sushil; Swapna, M.; Srivastava, Sangeeta; Tyagi, Akhilesh K.

    2013-01-01

    for population structure using model-based approach, seven genetically distinct groups or admixtures thereof were observed in sugarcane. Results of principal coordinate analysis or UPGMA to evaluate genetic relationships delineated also the 124 accessions

  18. The Structure of Nuclei Joint Analysis of Elastic, Inelastic Scattering and Total Reactions Cross-Sections for ^{90,94}Zr-Particles Data

    CERN Document Server

    Duysebaev, A D; Kuchtina, I N; Sadykov, B M; Slusarenko, L I; Tokarevsky, V V; Fayans, S A

    2001-01-01

    A complex analysis of experimental data of elastic, inelastic scattering and total reactions cross-sections of alpha-particles on ^{90,94}Zr nuclei is performed. Values of the deformation lengths and neutron-proton multipole matrix elements relations for 2_{1}^{+}- and 3_{1}^{+}-states of ^{90,92,94,96}Zr nuclei for different types of particles are obtained. A comparative analysis is made. Experimental data for inelastic scattering of 35.4, 40.0, 50.1 and 65.0 MeV alpha-particles on ^{90,94}Zr nuclei are analysed for understanding the phase shifts in frames of the unified approach.

  19. Large scale analysis of co-existing post-translational modifications in histone tails reveals global fine structure of cross-talk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwämmle, Veit; Aspalter, Claudia-Maria; Sidoli, Simone

    2014-01-01

    Mass spectrometry (MS) is a powerful analytical method for the identification and quantification of co-existing post-translational modifications in histone proteins. One of the most important challenges in current chromatin biology is to characterize the relationships between co-existing histone...... sample-specific patterns for the co-frequency of histone post-translational modifications. We implemented a new method to identify positive and negative interplay between pairs of methylation and acetylation marks in proteins. Many of the detected features were conserved between different cell types...... sites but negative cross-talk for distant ones, and for discrete methylation states at Lys-9, Lys-27, and Lys-36 of histone H3, suggesting a more differentiated functional role of methylation beyond the general expectation of enhanced activity at higher methylation states....

  20. Measurement of the inclusive e±p scattering cross section at high inelasticity y and of the structure function FL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaron, F.D.; Alexa, C.; Rotaru, M.; Stoicea, G.; Andreev, V.; Belousov, A.; Eliseev, A.; Fomenko, A.; Gogitidze, N.; Lebedev, A.; Loktionova, N.; Malinovski, E.; Rusakov, S.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Soloviev, Y.; Vazdik, Y.; Backovic, S.; Dubak, A.; Lastovicka-Medin, G.; Picuric, I.; Raicevic, N.; Baghdasaryan, A.; Baghdasaryan, S.; Zohrabyan, H.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Belov, P.; Brandt, G.; Brinkmann, M.; Britzger, D.; Campbell, A.J.; Cholewa, A.; Eckerlin, G.; Elsen, E.; Felst, R.; Fischer, D.J.; Fleischer, M.; Gayler, J.; Ghazaryan, S.; Glazov, A.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grebenyuk, A.; Grell, B.R.; Habib, S.; Haidt, D.; Helebrant, C.; Katzy, J.; Kleinwort, C.; Knutsson, A.; Kraemer, M.; Kutak, K.; Levonian, S.; Lipka, K.; List, J.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, J.; Niebuhr, C.; Nikiforov, A.; Nowak, K.; Olsson, J.E.; Pahl, P.; Panagoulias, I.; Papadopoulou, T.; Petrukhin, A.; Piec, S.; Pitzl, D.; Schmitt, S.; Sefkow, F.; South, D.; Staykova, Z.; Steder, M.; Toll, T.; Vargas, A.; Driesch, M. von den; Wuensch, E.; Behrend, O.; Wegener, D.; Begzsuren, K.; Ravdandorj, T.; Tseepeldorj, B.; Bizot, J.C.; Brisson, V.; Delcourt, B.; Jacquet, M.; Pascaud, C.; Tran, T.H.; Zhang, Z.; Zomer, F.; Boudry, V.; Moreau, F.; Specka, A.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Mudrinic, M.; Pandurovic, M.; Smiljanic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Kenyon, I.R.; Newman, P.R.; Thompson, P.D.; Bruncko, D.; Cerny, V.; Ferencei, J.; Bunyatyan, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Chekelian, V.; Dossanov, A.; Grindhammer, G.; Kiesling, C.; Kogler, R.; Shushkevich, S.; Bylinkin, A.; Bystritskaya, L.; Fedotov, A.; Lubimov, V.; Ozerov, D.; Rostovtsev, A.; Zhokin, A.; Cantun Avila, K.B.; Contreras, J.G.; Ruiz Tabasco, J.E.; Ceccopieri, F.; Delvax, J.; Wolf, E.A. de; Favart, L.; Hreus, T.; Janssen, X.; Marage, P.; Mozer, M.U.; Roosen, R.; Mechelen, P. van; Cerny, K.; Pokorny, B.; Polifka, R.; Salek, D.; Valkarova, A.; Zacek, J.; Coughlan, J.A.; Morris, J.V.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Cvach, J.; Reimer, P.; Zalesak, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Gabathuler, E.; Greenshaw, T.; Klein, M.; Kluge, T.; Kretzschmar, J.; Laycock, P.; Maxfield, S.J.; Mehta, A.; Patel, G.D.; Tsurin, I.; Daum, K.; Meyer, H.; Diaconu, C.; Hoffmann, D.; Sauvan, E.; Vallee, C.; Dobre, M.; List, B.; Placakyte, R.; Dodonov, V.; Povh, B.; Egli, S.; Hildebrandt, M.; Horisberger, R.; Feltesse, J.; Perez, E.; Schoeffel, L.; Goerlich, L.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz-Mika, I.; Nowak, G.; Sopicki, P.; Turnau, J.; Grab, C.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Sloan, T.; Hennekemper, E.; Herbst, M.; Jung, A.W.; Krueger, K.; Lendermann, V.; Schultz-Coulon, H.C.; Urban, K.; Henschel, H.; Hiller, K.H.; Kostka, P.; Lange, W.; Naumann, T.; Herrera, G.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Huber, F.; Pirumov, H.; Radescu, V.; Sauter, M.; Schoening, A.; Joensson, L.; Osman, S.; Jung, H.; Kapichine, M.; Makankine, A.; Morozov, A.; Nikitin, D.; Palichik, V.; Spaskov, V.; Landon, M.P.J.; Rizvi, E.; Traynor, D.; Martyn, H.U.; Mueller, K.; Robmann, P.; Straumann, U.; Truoel, P.; Stella, B.; Sykora, T.; Tsakov, I.

    2011-01-01

    A measurement is presented of the inclusive neutral current e ± p scattering cross section using data collected by the H1 experiment at HERA during the years 2003 to 2007 with proton beam energies E p of 920, 575, and 460 GeV. The kinematic range of the measurement covers low absolute four-momentum transfers squared, 1.5 GeV 2 2 2 , small values of Bjorken x, 2.9 .10 -5 L is measured by combining the new results with previously published H1 data at E p =920 GeV and E p =820 GeV. The new measurements are used to test several phenomenological and QCD models applicable in this low Q 2 and low x kinematic domain. (orig.)

  1. JENDL gas-production cross section file

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Tsuneo; Narita, Tsutomu

    1992-05-01

    The JENDL gas-production cross section file was compiled by taking cross-section data from JENDL-3 and by using the ENDF-5 format. The data were given to 23 nuclei or elements in light nuclei and structural materials. Graphs of the cross sections and brief description on their evaluation methods are given in this report. (author)

  2. Toy models of crossed Andreev reflection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melin, R; Jirari, H; Peysson, S

    2003-01-01

    We propose toy models of crossed Andreev reflection in multiterminal hybrid structures containing out-of-equilibrium conductors. We apply the description to two possible experiments: (i) to a device containing a large quantum dot inserted in a crossed Andreev reflection circuit, and (ii) to a device containing an Aharonov-Bohm loop inserted in a crossed Andreev reflection circuit

  3. Differences in self-rated health by employment contract and household structure among Japanese employees: a nationwide cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachi, Yuko; Inoue, Mariko; Nishikitani, Mariko; Yano, Eiji

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether the association between employment contract and self-rated health differs by household structure in a representative sample of employees in Japan. The participants were 81,441 male and 64,471 female employees aged 18-59 years who had participated in the 2010 Comprehensive Survey of Living Conditions. We assessed the interactive effect of employment contract (permanent or precarious) and household structure (couple only, couple with children, single parent, single person, or other multi-person) on fair/poor health, adjusting for covariates by using logistic regression. We then calculated the relative poverty rate by employment contract and household structure. The interaction effect was significant for women (p<0.001) but not for men (p=0.413). A higher percentage of female precarious workers who lived in single-parent households (20.2%) reported fair/poor health compared with those in other types of households (10.4-13.2%), although the prevalence of fair/poor health did not differ substantially by household structure among female permanent workers. The relative poverty rates of female precarious workers who lived in single-parent households were higher compared with those of other female workers. Our results suggest that female precarious workers are not a homogeneous group and that those living in single-parent households suffer from poor health due to low income and insufficient coverage by insurance firms and family-based safety nets.

  4. Asian International Students at an Australian University: Mapping the Paths between Integrative Motivation, Competence in L2 Communication, Cross-Cultural Adaptation and Persistence with Structural Equation Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Baohua

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the interrelationships of integrative motivation, competence in second language (L2) communication, sociocultural adaptation, academic adaptation and persistence of international students at an Australian university. Structural equation modelling demonstrated that the integrative motivation of international students has a…

  5. LDA measurements of coherent flow structures and cross-flow across the gap of a compound channel with two half-rods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bertocchi, F.; Rohde, M.; Kloosterman, J.L.

    2018-01-01

    The enhancement of heat transfer from fuel rods to coolant of a Liquid Metal Fast Reactor (LMFR) decreases the fuel temperature and, thus, improves the safety margin of the reactor. One of the mechanisms that increases heat transfer consists of large coherent structures that can occur across the

  6. Organizational Learning from Cross-Cultural Experiences: An Ethnomethodological Case Study Examining the Relative Importance of Social Structure and Cultural Values during Dynamic Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldecker, Gary T.

    2011-01-01

    This study explored how social structure and cultural values dynamically interact in collective learning between two religious organizations cooperating in a joint project. It further explored the enablers of and impediments to collective learning in this context. The study employed the theoretical framework provided by the Organizational Learning…

  7. Centroid crossing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swift, G.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents an algorithm for finding peaks in data spectra. It is based on calculating a moving centroid across the spectrum and picking off the points between which the calculated centroid crosses the channel number. Interpolation can then yield a more precise peak location. This algorithm can be implemented very efficiently requiring about one addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division operation per data point. With integer data and a centroid window equal to a power of two (so that the division can be done with shifts), the algorithm is particularly suited to efficient machine language implementation. With suitable adjustments (involving only little overhead except at suspected peaks), it is possible to minimize either false peak location or missing good peaks. Extending the method to more dimensions is straightforward although interpolating is more difficult. The algorithm has been used on a variety of nuclear data spectra with great success

  8. Cross-validation of the factorial structure of the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale (NEWS and its abbreviated form (NEWS-A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cerin Ester

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale (NEWS and its abbreviated form (NEWS-A assess perceived environmental attributes believed to influence physical activity. A multilevel confirmatory factor analysis (MCFA conducted on a sample from Seattle, WA showed that, at the respondent level, the factor-analyzable items of the NEWS and NEWS-A measured 11 and 10 constructs of perceived neighborhood environment, respectively. At the census blockgroup (used by the US Census Bureau as a subunit of census tracts level, the MCFA yielded five factors for both NEWS and NEWS-A. The aim of this study was to cross-validate the individual- and blockgroup-level measurement models of the NEWS and NEWS-A in a geographical location and population different from those used in the original validation study. Methods A sample of 912 adults was recruited from 16 selected neighborhoods (116 census blockgroups in the Baltimore, MD region. Neighborhoods were stratified according to their socio-economic status and transport-related walkability level measured using Geographic Information Systems. Participants self-completed the NEWS. MCFA was used to cross-validate the individual- and blockgroup-level measurement models of the NEWS and NEWS-A. Results The data provided sufficient support for the factorial validity of the original individual-level measurement models, which consisted of 11 (NEWS and 10 (NEWS-A correlated factors. The original blockgroup-level measurement model of the NEWS and NEWS-A showed poor fit to the data and required substantial modifications. These included the combining of aspects of building aesthetics with safety from crime into one factor; the separation of natural aesthetics and building aesthetics into two factors; and for the NEWS-A, the separation of presence of sidewalks/walking routes from other infrastructure for walking. Conclusion This study provided support for the generalizability of the individual

  9. Relationships among structural empowerment, psychological empowerment, intent to stay and burnout in nursing field in mainland China-based on a cross-sectional questionnaire research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Lina; Liu, Yanhui; Liu, Hongwei; Hu, Yu; Yang, Jipeng; Liu, Jingying

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the relationship among perceived structural empowerment, psychological empowerment, burnout and intent to stay by nurses in mainland China.With the shortage of nurses in many countries, including China, intent to stay is a dominant factor to influence the quality of care. Also, burnout is identified to negatively affect the quality of care. Empowered clinical nurse practical environment is related to intent to stay and burnout. In the current literature, there is a lack of data based on empowering environment discussing the relationship between burnout and intent to stay. The study used an anonymous questionnaire, filled voluntarily by 219 nurses from different sections in a city in mainland China, 2012.Structural equation modelling (SEM) was used to test the proposed hypotheses. Based on the SEM model, structural empowerment and psychological empowerment had significant positive effects on intent to stay of nurses and negative effects on burnout. Burnout had a significant negative effect on intent to stay. The final modified models yielded χ(2)  = 58.580, P > 0.05, χ(2) /df = 1.046, root mean square error of approximation = 0.015, Tucker-Lewis Index = 0.996, comparative fit index = 0.998,which indicated good fit indices. Creating a positive empowering workplace can encourage nurses to stay long and prevent burnout. Therefore, higher level of empowering environment is required. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  10. Measurement of deuteron-induced activation cross section for IFMIF accelerator structural materials in 22-40 MeV region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakao, Makoto; Hori, Jun-ichi; Ochiai, Kentaro; Sato, Satoshi; Yamauchi, Michinori; Nishitani, Takeo; Ishioka, Noriko S.

    2004-01-01

    The activation cross-sections for the deuteron-induced reactions have been obtained for Al, Cu and W in 22-40 MeV regions and compared with previous experimental ones and the data in ACSELAM library. For 27 Mg, ACSELAM were smaller than the present result by a factor of 1.3-2.0. For 24 Na, ACSELAM resembled experimental values in shape but were lower than these by about 1 order. For 61 Cu, 64 Cu, 62 Zn and 63 Zn, the present results resembled other experimental data and ACSELAM in shape. In the case of 61 Cu and 62 Zn, ACSELAM became higher than the present results by a factor of 2-4. In the case of 64 Cu and 63 Zn, ACSELAM and the present results were in agreement within 40%. For 181 Re, 182m+g Re and 183 Re, the present data and the data in ACSELAM were about same shapes and in agreement within 30%. For 184m+g Re, 186 Re and 187 W, the data in ACSELAM were different from the present data about 1.5-7 times. (author)

  11. Structures of Highly Twisted Amides Relevant to Amide N-C Cross-Coupling: Evidence for Ground-State Amide Destabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, Vittorio; Holzer, Wolfgang; Meng, Guangrong; Shi, Shicheng; Lalancette, Roger; Szostak, Roman; Szostak, Michal

    2016-10-04

    Herein, we show that acyclic amides that have recently enabled a series of elusive transition-metal-catalyzed N-C activation/cross-coupling reactions are highly twisted around the N-C(O) axis by a new destabilization mechanism of the amide bond. A unique effect of the N-glutarimide substituent, leading to uniformly high twist (ca. 90°) irrespective of the steric effect at the carbon side of the amide bond has been found. This represents the first example of a twisted amide that does not bear significant steric hindrance at the α-carbon atom. The (15) N NMR data show linear correlations between electron density at nitrogen and amide bond twist. This study strongly supports the concept of amide bond ground-state twist as a blueprint for activation of amides toward N-C bond cleavage. The new mechanism offers considerable opportunities for organic synthesis and biological processes involving non-planar amide bonds. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. How do we facilitate international clinical placements for nursing students: A cross-sectional exploration of the structure, aims and objectives of placements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Caroline A; Fetherston, Catherine M

    2018-07-01

    International clinical placements provide undergraduate students with a unique and complex clinical learning environment, to explore cultural awareness, experience different health care settings and achieve clinical competencies. Higher education institutions need to consider how to structure these placements to ensure appropriate and achievable aims and learning outcomes. In this study we described the structure, aims and learning outcomes associated with international clinical placement opportunities currently undertaken by Australian undergraduate nursing students in the Asia region. Forty eight percent (n = 18) of the institutions invited responded. Eight institutions met the inclusion criteria, one of which offered three placements in the region, resulting in 10 international placements for which data were provided. An online survey tool was used to collect data during August and September 2015 on international clinical placements conducted by the participating universities. Descriptive data on type and numbers of placements is presented, along with results from the content analysis conducted to explore data from open ended questions on learning aims and outcomes. One hundred students undertook 10 International Clinical Placements offered in the Asian region by eight universities. Variations across placements were found in the length of placement, the number of students participating, facilitator to student ratios and assessment techniques used. Five categories related to the aims of the programs were identified: 'becoming culturally aware through immersion', 'working with the community to promote health', 'understanding the role of nursing within the health care setting', 'translating theory into professional clinical practice', and 'developing relationships in international learning environments'. Four categories related to learning outcomes were identified: 'understanding healthcare and determinants of health', 'managing challenges', 'understanding the

  13. ASACUSA's radio-frequency quadrupole decelerator, open to show the four-rod structure along the centre, which crosses 35 resonator chambers formed by the vertical partitions.

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    2000-01-01

    The Radio-Frequency Quadrupole, RFQD, which further decelerates antiprotons ejected from the Antiproton Decelerator (AD). Starting from a momentum of 100 MeV/c (kinetic energy 5.3 MeV), the RFQD delivers very-low-energy antiprotons, adjustable between 10 and 110 keV, to the experiment ASACUSA. In picture _02, the view from the upstream end shows its 4-rod structure, traversing 35 resonator chambers formed by the vertical partitions. The tank has an inner diameter of 390 mm and is pumped to a vacuum of a few E-8 Torr.

  14. Abolition of set-aside schemes, associated impacts on habitat structure and modelling of potential effects of cross-farm regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levin, G.; Jepsen, Martin Rudbeck

    2010-01-01

    proportion of set-aside land was re-cultivated. With Denmark as case we apply an indicator to measure the effect of set-aside land on spatial structure of semi-natural habitats in term of habitat size and connectivity. Furthermore, we model effects of a hypothetical spatial regulation, where set-aside land...... reduces impacts. Effects increase with increasing size of farm agglomerations. However, marginal benefits become negligible at agglomeration sizes over 36 km(2). (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved...

  15. Crystal structures of three 4-substituted-2,2′-bipyridines synthesized by Sonogashira and Suzuki–Miyaura cross-coupling reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thuy Luong Thi Thu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Facile synthetic routes for three 4-substituted 2,2′-bipyridine derivatives, 4-[2-(4-methylphenylethynyl]-2,2′-bipyridine, C19H14N2, (I, 4-[2-(pyridin-3-ylethynyl]-2,2′-bipyridine, C17H11N3, (II, and 4-(indol-4-yl-2,2′-bipyridine, C18H13N3, (III, via Sonogashira and Suzuki–Miyaura cross-coupling reactions, respectively, are described. As indicated by X-ray analysis, the 2,2′-bipyridine core, the ethylene linkage and the substituents of (I and (II are almost planar [dihedral angles between the two ring systems: 8.98 (5 and 9.90 (6° for the two molecules of (I in the asymmetric unit and 2.66 (14° for (II], allowing π-conjugation. On the contrary, in (III, the indole substituent ring is rotated significantly out of the bipyridine plane [dihedral angle = 55.82 (3°], due to steric hindrance. The crystal packings of (I and (II are dominated by π–π interactions, resulting in layers of molecules parallel to (30-2 in (I and columns of molecules along the a axis in (II. The packing of (III exhibits zigzag chains of molecules along the c axis interacting through N—H...N hydrogen bonds and π–π interactions. The contributions of unknown disordered solvent molecules to the diffraction intensities in (II were removed with the SQUEEZE [Spek (2015. Acta Cryst. C71, 9–18] algorithm of PLATON. The given chemical formula and other crystal data do not take into account these solvent molecules.

  16. Factor Structure of the Spiritual Well-Being Scale: Cross-Cultural Comparisons Between Jordanian Arab and Malaysian Muslim University Students in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musa, Ahmad S

    2016-03-01

    This study reported the differences in factor structure of the Spiritual Well-Being Scale (SWBS) among Jordanian Arab and Malaysian Muslim participants and further examined its validity and reliability. A convenience sample of 553 Jordanian Arab and 183 Malaysian Malay Muslim university students was recruited from governmental universities in northern Jordan. The findings of this study revealed that this scale consists of two factors for the Jordanian Arab group, representing the "Religious Well-Being" and the "Existential Well-Being" subscales, and consists of three factors for the Malaysian group, representing the "Affiliation/Meaning and Purpose," "Positive Existential Well-Being/God Caring and Love," and "Alienation/Despair" subscales. In conclusion, the factor structure of the SWBS for both groups in this study was psychometrically sound with evidence of acceptable to good validity and reliability. Furthermore, this study supported the multidimensional nature of the SWBS and the earlier notion that ethnicity shapes responses to this scale. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. Structuring Pd Nanoparticles on 2H-WS2 Nanosheets Induces Excellent Photocatalytic Activity for Cross-Coupling Reactions under Visible Light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raza, Faizan; Yim, DaBin; Park, Jung Hyun; Kim, Hye-In; Jeon, Su-Ji; Kim, Jong-Ho

    2017-10-18

    Effective photocatalysts and their surface engineering are essential for the efficient conversion of solar energy into chemical energy in photocatalyzed organic transformations. Herein, we report an effective approach for structuring Pd nanoparticles (NPs) on exfoliated 2H-WS 2 nanosheets (WS 2 /PdNPs), resulting in hybrids with extraordinary photocatalytic activity in Suzuki reactions under visible light. Pd NPs of different sizes and densities, which can modulate the photocatalytic activity of the as-prepared WS 2 /PdNPs, were effectively structured on the basal plane of 2H-WS 2 nanosheets via a sonic wave-assisted nucleation method without any reductants at room temperature. As the size of Pd NPs on WS 2 /PdNPs increased, their photocatalytic activity in Suzuki reactions at room temperature increased substantially. In addition, it was found that protic organic solvents play a crucial role in activating WS 2 /PdNPs catalysts in photocatalyzed Suzuki reactions, although these solvents are generally considered much less effective than polar aprotic ones in the conventional Suzuki reactions promoted by heterogeneous Pd catalysts. A mechanistic investigation suggested that photogenerated holes are transferred to protic organic solvents, whereas photogenerated electrons are transferred to Pd NPs. This transfer makes the Pd NPs electron-rich and accelerates the rate-determining step, i.e., the oxidative addition of aryl halides under visible light. WS 2 /PdNPs showed the highest turnover frequency (1244 h -1 ) for photocatalyzed Suzuki reactions among previously reported photocatalysts.

  18. Scalable cross-point resistive switching memory and mechanism through an understanding of H2O2/glucose sensing using an IrOx/Al2O3/W structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Somsubhra; Maikap, Siddheswar; Samanta, Subhranu; Jana, Surajit; Roy, Anisha; Qiu, Jian-Tai

    2017-10-04

    The resistive switching characteristics of a scalable IrO x /Al 2 O 3 /W cross-point structure and its mechanism for pH/H 2 O 2 sensing along with glucose detection have been investigated for the first time. Porous IrO x and Ir 3+ /Ir 4+ oxidation states are observed via high-resolution transmission electron microscope, field-emission scanning electron spectroscopy, and X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy. The 20 nm-thick IrO x devices in sidewall contact show consecutive long dc cycles at a low current compliance (CC) of 10 μA, multi-level operation with CC varying from 10 μA to 100 μA, and long program/erase endurance of >10 9 cycles with 100 ns pulse width. IrO x with a thickness of 2 nm in the IrO x /Al 2 O 3 /SiO 2 /p-Si structure has shown super-Nernstian pH sensitivity of 115 mV per pH, and detection of H 2 O 2 over the range of 1-100 nM is also achieved owing to the porous and reduction-oxidation (redox) characteristics of the IrO x membrane, whereas a pure Al 2 O 3 /SiO 2 membrane does not show H 2 O 2 sensing. A simulation based on Schottky, hopping, and Fowler-Nordheim tunneling conduction, and a redox reaction, is proposed. The experimental I-V curve matches very well with simulation. The resistive switching mechanism is owing to O 2- ion migration, and the redox reaction of Ir 3+ /Ir 4+ at the IrO x /Al 2 O 3 interface through H 2 O 2 sensing as well as Schottky barrier height modulation is responsible. Glucose at a low concentration of 10 pM is detected using a completely new process in the IrO x /Al 2 O 3 /W cross-point structure. Therefore, this cross-point memory shows a method for low cost, scalable, memory with low current, multi-level operation, which will be useful for future highly dense three-dimensional (3D) memory and as a bio-sensor for the future diagnosis of human diseases.

  19. Financing universal health coverage—effects of alternative tax structures on public health systems: cross-national modelling in 89 low-income and middle-income countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Aaron; Gourtsoyannis, Yannis; Basu, Sanjay; McCoy, David; McKee, Martin; Stuckler, David

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background How to finance progress towards universal health coverage in low-income and middle-income countries is a subject of intense debate. We investigated how alternative tax systems affect the breadth, depth, and height of health system coverage. Methods We used cross-national longitudinal fixed effects models to assess the relationships between total and different types of tax revenue, health system coverage, and associated child and maternal health outcomes in 89 low-income and middle-income countries from 1995–2011. Findings Tax revenue was a major statistical determinant of progress towards universal health coverage. Each US$100 per capita per year of additional tax revenues corresponded to a yearly increase in government health spending of $9·86 (95% CI 3·92–15·8), adjusted for GDP per capita. This association was strong for taxes on capital gains, profits, and income ($16·7, 9·16 to 24·3), but not for consumption taxes on goods and services (−$4·37, −12·9 to 4·11). In countries with low tax revenues (tax revenue per year substantially increased the proportion of births with a skilled attendant present by 6·74 percentage points (95% CI 0·87–12·6) and the extent of financial coverage by 11·4 percentage points (5·51–17·2). Consumption taxes, a more regressive form of taxation that might reduce the ability of the poor to afford essential goods, were associated with increased rates of post-neonatal mortality, infant mortality, and under-5 mortality rates. We did not detect these adverse associations with taxes on capital gains, profits, and income, which tend to be more progressive. Interpretation Increasing domestic tax revenues is integral to achieving universal health coverage, particularly in countries with low tax bases. Pro-poor taxes on profits and capital gains seem to support expanding health coverage without the adverse associations with health outcomes observed for higher consumption taxes. Progressive tax

  20. Financing universal health coverage--effects of alternative tax structures on public health systems: cross-national modelling in 89 low-income and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Aaron; Gourtsoyannis, Yannis; Basu, Sanjay; McCoy, David; McKee, Martin; Stuckler, David

    2015-07-18

    How to finance progress towards universal health coverage in low-income and middle-income countries is a subject of intense debate. We investigated how alternative tax systems affect the breadth, depth, and height of health system coverage. We used cross-national longitudinal fixed effects models to assess the relationships between total and different types of tax revenue, health system coverage, and associated child and maternal health outcomes in 89 low-income and middle-income countries from 1995-2011. Tax revenue was a major statistical determinant of progress towards universal health coverage. Each US$100 per capita per year of additional tax revenues corresponded to a yearly increase in government health spending of $9.86 (95% CI 3.92-15.8), adjusted for GDP per capita. This association was strong for taxes on capital gains, profits, and income ($16.7, 9.16 to 24.3), but not for consumption taxes on goods and services (-$4.37, -12.9 to 4.11). In countries with low tax revenues (tax revenue per year substantially increased the proportion of births with a skilled attendant present by 6.74 percentage points (95% CI 0.87-12.6) and the extent of financial coverage by 11.4 percentage points (5.51-17.2). Consumption taxes, a more regressive form of taxation that might reduce the ability of the poor to afford essential goods, were associated with increased rates of post-neonatal mortality, infant mortality, and under-5 mortality rates. We did not detect these adverse associations with taxes on capital gains, profits, and income, which tend to be more progressive. Increasing domestic tax revenues is integral to achieving universal health coverage, particularly in countries with low tax bases. Pro-poor taxes on profits and capital gains seem to support expanding health coverage without the adverse associations with health outcomes observed for higher consumption taxes. Progressive tax policies within a pro-poor framework might accelerate progress toward achieving major

  1. Determining partial differential cross sections for low-energy electron photodetachment involving conical intersections using the solution of a Lippmann-Schwinger equation constructed with standard electronic structure techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Seungsuk; Yarkony, David R

    2011-05-07

    A method for obtaining partial differential cross sections for low energy electron photodetachment in which the electronic states of the residual molecule are strongly coupled by conical intersections is reported. The method is based on the iterative solution to a Lippmann-Schwinger equation, using a zeroth order Hamiltonian consisting of the bound nonadiabatically coupled residual molecule and a free electron. The solution to the Lippmann-Schwinger equation involves only standard electronic structure techniques and a standard three-dimensional free particle Green's function quadrature for which fast techniques exist. The transition dipole moment for electron photodetachment, is a sum of matrix elements each involving one nonorthogonal orbital obtained from the solution to the Lippmann-Schwinger equation. An expression for the electron photodetachment transition dipole matrix element in terms of Dyson orbitals, which does not make the usual orthogonality assumptions, is derived.

  2. Measurement of Inclusive ep Cross Sections at High Q2 at sqrt(s) = 225 and 252 GeV and of the Longitudinal Proton Structure Function FL at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Andreev, V.; Baghdasaryan, S.; Begzsuren, K.; Belousov, A.; Belov, P.; Boudry, V.; Brandt, G.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Britzger, D.; Buniatyan, A.; Bylinkin, A.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A.J.; Cantun Avila, K.B.; Ceccopieri, F.; Cerny, K.; Chekelian, V.; Contreras, J.G.; Dainton, J.B.; Daum, K.; De Wolf, E.A.; Diaconu, C.; Dobre, M.; Dodonov, V.; Dossanov, A.; Dubak, A.; Eckerlin, G.; Egli, S.; Elsen, E.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Feltesse, J.; Ferencei, J.; Fleischer, M.; Fomenko, A.; Gabathuler, E.; Gayler, J.; Ghazaryan, S.; Glazov, A.; Goerlich, L.; Gogitidze, N.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grab, C.; Grebenyuk, A.; Greenshaw, T.; Grindhammer, G.; Habib, S.; Haidt, D.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Herbst, M.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hladky, J.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hreus, T.; Huber, F.; Jacquet, M.; Janssen, X.; Jung, A.W.; Jung, H.; Kapichine, M.; Kiesling, C.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Kogler, R.; Kostka, P.; Kretzschmar, J.; Kruger, K.; Landon, M.P.J.; Lange, W.; Laycock, P.; Lebedev, A.; Levonian, S.; Lipka, K.; List, B.; List, J.; Lobodzinski, B.; Lubimov, V.; Malinovski, E.; Martyn, H.U.; Maxfield, S.J.; Mehta, A.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Mikocki, S.; Morozov, A.; Muller, K.; Naumann, Th.; Newman, P.R.; Niebuhr, C.; Nowak, G.; Nowak, K.; Olivier, B.; Olsson, J.E.; Ozerov, D.; Pahl, P.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G.D.; Perez, E.; Petrukhin, A.; Picuric, I.; Pirumov, H.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Pokorny, B.; Polifka, R.; Radescu, V.; Raicevic, N.; Raspereza, A.; Ravdandorj, T.; Reimer, P.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rotaru, M.; Rusakov, S.; Salek, D.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Sauter, M.; Sauvan, E.; Schmitt, S.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoning, A.; Schultz-Coulon, H.C.; Sefkow, F.; Shushkevich, S.; Soloviev, Y.; Sopicki, P.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, A.; Steder, M.; Stella, B.; Straumann, U.; Sykora, T.; Thompson, P.D.; Traynor, D.; Truol, P.; Tsakov, I.; Tseepeldorj, B.; Turnau, J.; Valkarova, A.; Vallee, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vazdik, Y.; Wegener, D.; Wunsch, E.; Zacek, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zlebcik, R.; Zohrabyan, H.; Zomer, F.

    2014-04-08

    Inclusive ep double differential cross sections for neutral current deep inelastic scattering are measured with the H1 detector at HERA. The data were taken with a lepton beam energy of 27.6 GeV and two proton beam energies of Ep = 460 and 575 GeV corresponding to centre-of-mass energies of 225 and 252 GeV, respectively. The measurements cover the region of 6.5 *10^{-4}<=x<= 0.65 for 35<=Q^2<=800 GeV^2 up to y = 0.85. The measurements are used together with previously published H1 data at Ep = 920 GeV and lower Q2 data at Ep = 460, 575 and 920 GeV to extract the longitudinal proton structure function FL in the region 1.5<=Q^2 <=800 GeV^2.

  3. Coincidence: Fortran code for calculation of (e, e'x) differential cross-sections, nuclear structure functions and polarization asymmetry in self-consistent random phase approximation with Skyrme interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavinato, M.; Marangoni, M.; Saruis, A.M.

    1990-10-01

    This report describes the COINCIDENCE code written for the IBM 3090/300E computer in Fortran 77 language. The output data of this code are the (e, e'x) threefold differential cross-sections, the nuclear structure functions, the polarization asymmetry and the angular correlation coefficients. In the real photon limit, the output data are the angular distributions for plane polarized incident photons. The code reads from tape the transition matrix elements previously calculated, by in continuum self-consistent RPA (random phase approximation) theory with Skyrme interactions. This code has been used to perform a numerical analysis of coincidence (e, e'x) reactions with polarized electrons on the /sup 16/O nucleous.

  4. Identity development, intelligence structure, and interests: a cross-sectional study in a group of Italian adolescents during the decision-making process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pellerone M

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Monica Pellerone,1 Alessia Passanisi,1 Mario Filippo Paolo Bellomo2 1Faculty of Human and Social Science, “Kore” University of Enna, Enna, 2Credito Emiliano Bank, Piazza Armerina, Italy Background: Forming one’s identity is thought to be the key developmental task of adolescence, but profound changes in personality traits also occur in this period. The negotiation of complex social settings, the creation of an integrated identity, and career choice are major tasks of adolescence. The adolescent, having to make choices for his or her future, has not only to consider his or her own aspirations and interests but also to possess a capacity for exploration and commitment; in fact, career commitments can be considered as a fit between the study or career that is chosen and personal values, skills, and preferences. Methods: The objective of the study reported here was to investigate the role of identity on profile of interests; the relation between identity and decisional style; the correlation between identity, aptitudes, interests, and school performance; and the predictive variables to school success. The research involved 417 Italian students who live in Enna, a small city located in Sicily, Italy, aged 16–19 years (197 males and 220 females in the fourth year (mean =17.2, standard deviation =0.52 and the fifth year (mean =18.2, standard deviation =0.64 of senior secondary school. The research lasted for one school year; the general group of participants consisted of 470 students, and although all participants agreed to be part of the research, there was a dropout rate of 11.28%. They completed the Ego Identity Process Questionnaire to measure their identity development, the Intelligence Structure Test to investigate aptitudes, the Self-Directed Search to value interests, and General Decision Making Style questionnaire to describe their individual decisional style. Results: The data showed that high-school performance was positively

  5. Cross-cultural comparisons of university students' science learning self-efficacy: structural relationships among factors within science learning self-efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ya-Ling; Liang, Jyh-Chong; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2018-04-01

    Science learning self-efficacy could be regarded as a multi-factor belief which comprises different aspects such as cognitive skills, practical work, and everyday application. However, few studies have investigated the relationships among these factors that compose science learning self-efficacy. Also, culture may play an important role in explaining the relationships among these factors. Accordingly, this study aimed to investigate cultural differences in science learning self-efficacy and examine the relationships within factors constituting science learning self-efficacy by adopting a survey instrument for administration to students in the U.S. and Taiwan. A total of 218 university students (62.40% females) were surveyed in the U.S.A, and 224 university students (49.10% females) in Taiwan were also invited to take part in the study. The results of the structural equation modelling revealed cultural differences in the relationships among the factors of science learning self-efficacy. It was found that U.S. students' confidence in their ability to employ higher-order cognitive skills tended to promote their confidence in their ability to accomplish practical work, strengthening their academic self-efficacy. However, the aforementioned mediation was not found for the Taiwanese participants.

  6. The structure and organisation of home-based postnatal care in public hospitals in Victoria, Australia: A cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Della A; McKay, Heather; Powell, Rhonda; Wahlstedt, Emma; Farrell, Tanya; Ford, Rachel; McLachlan, Helen L

    2016-04-01

    There is limited evidence regarding the provision of home-based postnatal care, resulting in a weak evidence-base for policy formulation and the further development of home-based postnatal care services. To explore the structure and organisation of public hospital home-based postnatal care in Victoria, Australia. An online survey including mostly closed-ended questions was sent to representatives of all public maternity providers in July 2011. The response rate of 87% (67/77) included rural (70%; n=47), regional (15%; n=10) and metropolitan (15%; n=10) services. The majority (96%, 64/67) provided home-based postnatal care. The median number of visits for primiparous women was two and for multiparous women, one. The main reason for no visit was the woman declining. Two-thirds of services attempted to provide some continuity of carer for home-based postnatal care. Routine maternal and infant observations were broadly consistent across the services, and various systems were in place to protect the safety of staff members during home visits. Few services had a dedicated home-based postnatal care coordinator. This study demonstrates that the majority of women receive at least one home-based postnatal visit, and that service provision on the whole is similar across the state. Further work should explore the optimum number and timing of visits, what components of care are most valued by women, and what model best ensures the timely detection and prevention of postpartum complications, be they psychological or physiological. Copyright © 2015 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Identity development, intelligence structure, and interests: a cross-sectional study in a group of Italian adolescents during the decision-making process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellerone, Monica; Passanisi, Alessia; Bellomo, Mario Filippo Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Forming one's identity is thought to be the key developmental task of adolescence, but profound changes in personality traits also occur in this period. The negotiation of complex social settings, the creation of an integrated identity, and career choice are major tasks of adolescence. The adolescent, having to make choices for his or her future, has not only to consider his or her own aspirations and interests but also to possess a capacity for exploration and commitment; in fact, career commitments can be considered as a fit between the study or career that is chosen and personal values, skills, and preferences. The objective of the study reported here was to investigate the role of identity on profile of interests; the relation between identity and decisional style; the correlation between identity, aptitudes, interests, and school performance; and the predictive variables to school success. The research involved 417 Italian students who live in Enna, a small city located in Sicily, Italy, aged 16-19 years (197 males and 220 females) in the fourth year (mean =17.2, standard deviation =0.52) and the fifth year (mean =18.2, standard deviation =0.64) of senior secondary school. The research lasted for one school year; the general group of participants consisted of 470 students, and although all participants agreed to be part of the research, there was a dropout rate of 11.28%. They completed the Ego Identity Process Questionnaire to measure their identity development, the Intelligence Structure Test to investigate aptitudes, the Self-Directed Search to value interests, and General Decision Making Style questionnaire to describe their individual decisional style. The data showed that high-school performance was positively associated with rational decision-making style and identity diffusion predicted the use of avoidant style. Interests were related to identity exploration; the differentiation of preferences was related to identity commitment; investigative

  8. Border Crossing/Entry Data - Boarder Crossing

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Border Crossing/Entry Data provides summary statistics for incoming crossings at the U.S.-Canadian and the U.S.-Mexican border at the port level. Data are available...

  9. Longitudinal sensitivity to change of MRI-based muscle cross-sectional area versus isometric strength analysis in osteoarthritic knees with and without structural progression: pilot data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannhauer, Torben; Sattler, Martina; Wirth, Wolfgang; Hunter, David J; Kwoh, C Kent; Eckstein, Felix

    2014-08-01

    Biomechanical measurement of muscle strength represents established technology in evaluating limb function. Yet, analysis of longitudinal change suffers from relatively large between-measurement variability. Here, we determine the sensitivity to change of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based measurement of thigh muscle anatomical cross sectional areas (ACSAs) versus isometric strength in limbs with and without structural progressive knee osteoarthritis (KOA), with focus on the quadriceps. Of 625 "Osteoarthritis Initiative" participants with radiographic KOA, 20 had MRI cartilage and radiographic joint space width loss in the right knee isometric muscle strength measurement and axial T1-weighted spin-echo acquisitions of the thigh. Muscle ACSAs were determined from manual segmentation at 33% femoral length (distal to proximal). In progressor knees, the reduction in quadriceps ACSA between baseline and 2-year follow-up was -2.8 ± 7.9 % (standardized response mean [SRM] = -0.35), and it was -1.8 ± 6.8% (SRM = -0.26) in matched, non-progressive KOA controls. The decline in extensor strength was more variable than that in ACSAs, both in progressors (-3.9 ± 20%; SRM = -0.20) and in non-progressive controls (-4.5 ± 28%; SRM = -0.16). MRI-based analysis of quadriceps muscles ACSAs appears to be more sensitive to longitudinal change than isometric extensor strength and is suggestive of greater loss in limbs with structurally progressive KOA than in non-progressive controls.

  10. Structural rationale for the cross-resistance of tumor cells bearing the A399V variant of elongation factor eEF1A1 to the structurally unrelated didemnin B, ternatin, nannocystin A and ansatrienin B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Murcia, Pedro A.; Cortés-Cabrera, Álvaro; Gago, Federico

    2017-10-01

    At least four classes of structurally distinct natural products with potent antiproliferative activities target the translation elongation factor eEF1A1, which is best known as the G-protein that delivers amino acyl transfer RNAs (aa-tRNAs) to ribosomes during mRNA translation. We present molecular models in atomic detail that provide a common structural basis for the high-affinity binding of didemnin B, ternatin, ansatrienin B and nannocystin A to eEF1A1, as well as a rationale based on molecular dynamics results that accounts for the deleterious effect of replacing alanine 399 with valine. The proposed binding site, at the interface between domains I and III, is eminently hydrophobic and exists only in the GTP-bound conformation. Drug binding at this site is expected to disrupt neither loading of aa-tRNAs nor GTP hydrolysis but would give rise to stabilization of this particular conformational state, in consonance with reported experimental findings. The experimental solution of the three-dimensional structure of mammalian eEF1A1 has proved elusive so far and the highly homologous eEF1A2 from rabbit muscle has been crystallized and solved only as a homodimer in a GDP-bound conformation. Interestingly, in this dimeric structure the large interdomain cavity where the drugs studied are proposed to bind is occupied by a mostly hydrophobic α-helix from domain I of the same monomer. Since binding of this α-helix and any of these drugs to domain III of eEF1A(1/2) is, therefore, mutually exclusive and involves two distinct protein conformations, one intriguing possibility that emerges from our study is that the potent antiproliferative effect of these natural products may arise not only from inhibition of protein synthesis, which is the current dogma, but also from interference with some other non-canonical functions. From this standpoint, this type of drugs could be considered antagonists of eEF1A1/2 oligomerization, a hypothesis that opens up novel areas of research.

  11. Structural and Behavioral Correlates of HIV Infection among Pregnant Women in a Country with a Highly Generalized HIV Epidemic: A Cross-Sectional Study with a Probability Sample of Antenatal Care Facilities in Swaziland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukhele, Bhekumusa Wellington; Techasrivichien, Teeranee; Suguimoto, S Pilar; Musumari, Patou Masika; El-Saaidi, Christina; Haumba, Samson; Tagutanazvo, Oslinah Buru; Ono-Kihara, Masako; Kihara, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    HIV disproportionately affects women in Sub-Saharan Africa. Swaziland bears the highest HIV prevalence of 41% among pregnant women in this region. This heightened HIV-epidemic reflects the importance of context-specific interventions. Apart from routine HIV surveillance, studies that examine structural and behavioral factors associated with HIV infection among women may facilitate the revitalization of existing programs and provide insights to inform context-specific HIV prevention interventions. This cross-sectional study employed a two-stage random cluster sampling in ten antenatal health care facilities in the Hhohho region of Swaziland in August and September 2015. Participants were eligible for the study if they were 18 years or older and had tested for HIV. Self-administered tablet-based questionnaires were used to assess HIV risk factors. Of all eligible pregnant women, 827 (92.4%) participated, out of which 297 (35.9%) were self-reportedly HIV positive. Among structural factors, family function was not significantly associated with self-reported HIV positive status, while lower than high school educational attainment (AOR, 1.65; CI, 1.14-3.38; P = 0.008), and income below minimum wage (AOR, 1.81; CI, 1.09-3.01; P = 0.021) were significantly associated with self-reported HIV positive status. Behavioral factors significantly associated with reporting a positive HIV status included; ≥2 lifetime sexual partners (AOR, 3.16; CI, 2.00-5.00; PHIV/AIDS-related knowledge level was high but not associated to self-reported HIV status (P = 0.319). Structural and behavioral factors showed significant association with self-reported HIV infection among pregnant women in Swaziland while HIV/AIDS-related knowledge and family function did not. This suggests that HIV interventions should be reinforced taking into consideration these findings. The findings also suggest the importance of future research sensitive to the Swazi and African sociocultural contexts, especially

  12. Structure of the Z Ring-associated Protein, ZapD, Bound to the C-terminal Domain of the Tubulin-like Protein, FtsZ, Suggests Mechanism of Z Ring Stabilization through FtsZ Cross-linking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Maria A; Huang, Kuo-Hsiang; Zeng, Wenjie; Janakiraman, Anuradha

    2017-03-03

    Cell division in most bacteria is mediated by the tubulin-like FtsZ protein, which polymerizes in a GTP-dependent manner to form the cytokinetic Z ring. A diverse repertoire of FtsZ-binding proteins affects FtsZ localization and polymerization to ensure correct Z ring formation. Many of these proteins bind the C-terminal domain (CTD) of FtsZ, which serves as a hub for FtsZ regulation. FtsZ ring-associated proteins, ZapA-D (Zaps), are important FtsZ regulatory proteins that stabilize FtsZ assembly and enhance Z ring formation by increasing lateral assembly of FtsZ protofilaments, which then form the Z ring. There are no structures of a Zap protein bound to FtsZ; therefore, how these proteins affect FtsZ polymerization has been unclear. Recent data showed ZapD binds specifically to the FtsZ CTD. Thus, to obtain insight into the ZapD-CTD interaction and how it may mediate FtsZ protofilament assembly, we determined the Escherichia coli ZapD-FtsZ CTD structure to 2.67 Å resolution. The structure shows that the CTD docks within a hydrophobic cleft in the ZapD helical domain and adopts an unusual structure composed of two turns of helix separated by a proline kink. FtsZ CTD residue Phe-377 inserts into the ZapD pocket, anchoring the CTD in place and permitting hydrophobic contacts between FtsZ residues Ile-374, Pro-375, and Leu-378 with ZapD residues Leu-74, Trp-77, Leu-91, and Leu-174. The structural findings were supported by mutagenesis coupled with biochemical and in vivo studies. The combined data suggest that ZapD acts as a molecular cross-linking reagent between FtsZ protofilaments to enhance FtsZ assembly. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  13. Modelling the effects of BLEVE blast on a building spanning an underpass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suddle, S.I.; Weerheijm, J.; Berg, A.C. van den; Vambersky, J.N.J.A.

    2008-01-01

    The use of space is being intensified near and above transport routes of hazardous materials. In The Netherlands, some buildings are even realized above infrastructure with transport of hazardous materials like LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas). An accident with an LPG-tank may result in a BLEVE

  14. Antiviral Resistance and Correlates of Virologic Failure in the first Cohort of HIV-Infected Children Gaining Access to Structured Antiretroviral Therapy in Lima, Peru: A Cross-Sectional Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rath Barbara A

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The impact of extended use of ART in developing countries has been enormous. A thorough understanding of all factors contributing to the success of antiretroviral therapy is required. The current study aims to investigate the value of cross-sectional drug resistance monitoring using DNA and RNA oligonucleotide ligation assays (OLA in treatment cohorts in low-resource settings. The study was conducted in the first cohort of children gaining access to structured ART in Peru. Methods Between 2002–5, 46 eligible children started the standard regimen of AZT, 3TC and NFV Patients had a median age of 5.6 years (range: 0.7-14y, a median viral load of 1.7·105 RNA/ml (range: 2.1·103 – 1.2·106, and a median CD4-count of 232 cells/μL (range: 1–1591. Of these, 20 patients were classified as CDC clinical category C and 31/46 as CDC immune category 3. At the time of cross-sectional analysis in 2005, adherence questionnaires were administered. DNA OLAs and RNA OLAs were performed from frozen PBMC and plasma, RNA genotyping from dried blood spots. Results During the first year of ART, 44% of children experienced virologic failure, with an additional 9% failing by the end of the second year. Virologic failure was significantly associated with the number of resistance mutations detected by DNA-OLA (p Conclusions Advanced immunosuppression at baseline and previous exposures to unsupervised brief cycles of ART significantly impaired treatment outcomes at a time when structured ART was finally introduced in his cohort. Brief maternal exposures to with AZT +/− NVP for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission did not affect treatment outcomes in this group of children. DNA-OLA from frozen PBMC provided a highly specific tool to detect archived drug resistance. RNA consensus genotyping from dried blood spots and RNA-OLA from plasma consistently detected drug resistance mutations, but merely in association with virologic failure.

  15. Health Insurance without Single Crossing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boone, Jan; Schottmüller, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    Standard insurance models predict that people with high risks have high insurance coverage. It is empirically documented that people with high income have lower health risks and are better insured. We show that income differences between risk types lead to a violation of single crossing...... in an insurance model where people choose treatment intensity. We analyse different market structures and show the following: If insurers have market power, the violation of single crossing caused by income differences and endogenous treatment choice can explain the empirically observed outcome. Our results do...

  16. Brain cortical structural differences between non-central nervous system cancer patients treated with and without chemotherapy compared to non-cancer controls: a cross-sectional pilot MRI study using clinically indicated scans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiroishi, Mark S.; Gupta, Vikash; Bigjahan, Bavrina; Cen, Steven Y.; Rashid, Faisal; Hwang, Darryl H.; Lerner, Alexander; Boyko, Orest B.; Liu, Chia-Shang Jason; Law, Meng; Thompson, Paul M.; Jahanshad, Neda

    2017-11-01

    Background: Increases in cancer survival have made understanding the basis of cancer-related cognitive impairment (CRCI) more important. CRCI neuroimaging studies have traditionally used dedicated research brain MRIs in breast cancer survivors with small sample sizes; little is known about other non-CNS cancers. However, there is a wealth of unused data from clinically-indicated MRIs that could be used to study CRCI. Objective: Evaluate brain cortical structural differences in those with non-CNS cancers using clinically-indicated MRIs. Design: Cross-sectional Patients: Adult non-CNS cancer and non-cancer control (C) patients who underwent clinically-indicated MRIs. Methods: Brain cortical surface area and thickness were measured using 3D T1-weighted images. An age-adjusted linear regression model was used and the Benjamini and Hochberg false discovery rate (FDR) corrected for multiple comparisons. Group comparisons were: cancer cases with chemotherapy (Ch+), cancer cases without chemotherapy (Ch-) and subgroup of lung cancer cases with and without chemotherapy vs C. Results: Sixty-four subjects were analyzed: 22 Ch+, 23 Ch- and 19 C patients. Subgroup analysis of 16 LCa was also performed. Statistically significant decreases in either cortical surface area or thickness were found in multiple ROIs primarily within the frontal and temporal lobes for all comparisons. Limitations: Several limitations were apparent including a small sample size that precluded adjustment for other covariates. Conclusions: Our preliminary results suggest that various types of non-CNS cancers, both with and without chemotherapy, may result in brain structural abnormalities. Also, there is a wealth of untapped clinical MRIs that could be used for future CRCI studies.

  17. Measurement of the D*± meson cross section and extraction of the charm contribution, Fc2(x, Q2), to the proton structure in deep inelastic ep scattering with the H1 detector at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Andreas Werner

    2009-01-01

    Inclusive production of D * mesons in deep inelastic scattering at HERA is studied using data taken with the H1 detector in the years 2004 to 2007 corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 347 pb -1 . The measurement covers the region 5 2 2 in photon virtuality and the increased region 0.02 * meson is restricted in transverse momentum and pseudorapidity to p T (D * )>1.5 GeV and vertical stroke η(D * ) vertical stroke c 2 (x,Q 2 ), to the proton structure in different QCD evolution schemes is derived from the D * cross sections and compared to next-to-leading order perturbative QCD predictions. This F c 2 measurement is performed using a factor of 18 more data compared to the previous H1 publication. The present thesis additionally describes a successfully completed hardware project: The commissioning and optimisation of the third level of the H1 Fast Track Trigger (FTT), which was fully operational from 2006 onwards. The FTT is integrated in the first three levels of the H1 trigger system and provides enhanced selectivity for events with charged particles. The third trigger level of the FTT performs a track-based event reconstruction within a latency of about 100 μs. The third trigger level of the FTT is realised by a farm of PowerPC boards. Furthermore, the FTT simulation is now incorporated into the H1 trigger simulation. (orig.)

  18. Partial-wave analysis of K/sup +/p elastic scattering. [Cross sections, polarization, dispersion relations, analytic smoothing threshold structure, 0. 78 to 2. 53 GeV/c

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cutkosky, R E; Hicks, H R; Sandusky, J; Shih, C C [Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, Pa. (USA); Kelly, R L [California Univ., Livermore (USA). Lawrence Livermore Lab.; Miller, R C; Yokosawa, A [Argonne National Lab., Ill. (USA)

    1976-01-05

    K/sup +/p cross-section and polarization data have been analyzed in the momentum range 0.78-2.53 GeV/c. Single energy fits were made using an ACE parametrization which had no cutoff in J, was analytic and has Regge-asymptotic behaviour in the cut cos theta plane, and contained explicit contributions from P, rho, A2, ..lambda.., ..sigma.., and low-mass di-pion exchange. Direct channel analyticity constraints were imposed by a partial wave dispersion relation interpolation procedure, fitting expansions in regulated-norm optimal bases to each partial wave which entered as a search parameter in the single energy fits. Output from these two programs was then used for a simultaneous fit by a linearized least squares program which provided input for another iterative fitting cycle. No strong evidence for the existence of exotic resonances was found. The method of analytic smoothing, in comparison with 'shortest path' methods, is found to allow more significant threshold structure to appear in the amplitudes.

  19. Measurement of inclusive ep cross sections at high Q{sup 2} at √(s) = 225 and 252 GeV and of the longitudinal proton structure function F{sub L} at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreev, V.; Belousov, A.; Fomenko, A.; Gogitidze, N.; Lebedev, A.; Malinovski, E.; Rusakov, S.; Vazdik, Y. [Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Baghdasaryan, A.; Baghdasaryan, S.; Zohrabyan, H. [Yerevan Physics Institute, Yerevan (Armenia); Begzsuren, K.; Ravdandorj, T.; Tseepeldorj, B. [Institute of Physics and Technology of the Mongolian Academy of Sciences, Ulaanbaatar (Mongolia); Belov, P.; Brinkmann, M.; Britzger, D.; Campbell, A.J.; Dodonov, V.; Eckerlin, G.; Elsen, E.; Fleischer, M.; Gayler, J.; Ghazaryan, S.; Glazov, A.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grebenyuk, A.; Habib, S.; Haidt, D.; Kleinwort, C.; Krueger, K.; Levonian, S.; Lipka, K.; List, B.; List, J.; Lobodzinski, B.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, J.; Niebuhr, C.; Olsson, J.E.; Ozerov, D.; Pahl, P.; Petrukhin, A.; Pirumov, H.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Radescu, V.; Raspereza, A.; Schmitt, S.; Sefkow, F.; Shushkevich, S.; South, D.; Steder, M.; Wuensch, E. [DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Boudry, V.; Specka, A. [LLR, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS/IN2P3, Palaiseau (France); Bradt, G. [Oxford University, Department of Physics, Oxford (United Kingdom); Brisson, V.; Jacquet, M.; Pascaud, C.; Zhang, Z.; Zomer, F. [LAL, Universite Paris-Sud, CNRS/IN2P3, Orsay (France); Buniatyan, A.; Huber, F.; Sauter, M.; Schoening, A. [Universitaet Heidelberg, Physikalisches Institut, Heidelberg (Germany); Bylinkin, A.; Bystritskaya, L.; Fedotov, A.; Rostovtsev, A. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Cantun Avila, K.B.; Contreras, J.G. [CINVESTAV, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Merida, Yucatan (Mexico); Ceccopieri, F.; Wolf, E.A. de; Favart, L.; Hreus, T.; Janssen, X.; Roosen, R.; Mechelen, P. van [Brussels and Universiteit Antwerpen, Inter-University Institute for High Energies ULB-VUB, Antwerp (Belgium); Cerny, K.; Pokorny, B.; Polifka, R.; Salek, D.; Valkarova, A.; Zacek, J.; Zlebcik, R. [Charles University, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Prague (Czech Republic); Chekelian, V.; Grindhammer, G.; Kiesling, C.; Olivier, B. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Munich (Germany); Dainton, J.B.; Gabathuler, E.; Greenshaw, T.; Klein, M.; Kretzschmar, J.; Laycock, P.; Maxfield, S.J.; Mehta, A.; Patel, G.D. [University of Liverpool, Department of Physics, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Daum, K.; Meyer, H. [Universitaet Wuppertal, Fachbereich C, Wuppertal (Germany); Diaconu, C.; Hoffmann, D.; Sauvan, E.; Vallee, C. [CPPM, Aix-Marseille Univ, CNRS/IN2P3, Marseille (France); Dobre, M.; Rotaru, M. [National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering (NIPNE), Bucharest (Romania); Dossanov, A. [Universitaet Hamburg, Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, Hamburg (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Munich (Germany); Dubak, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Munich (Germany); University of Montenegro, Faculty of Science, Podgorica (Montenegro); Egli, S.; Hildebrandt, M.; Horisberger, R. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen (Switzerland); Feltesse, J.; Perez, E.; Schoeffel, L. [CEA, DSM/Irfu, CE-Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Ferencei, J. [Slovak Academy of Sciences, Institute of Experimental Physics, Kosice (Slovakia); Goerlich, L.; Mikocki, S.; Nowak, G.; Sopicki, P.; Turnau, J. [Institute for Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland); Grab, C. [ETH, Institut fuer Teilchenphysik, Zurich (Switzerland); Henderson, R.C.W. [University of Lancaster, Department of Physics, Lancaster (United Kingdom); Herbst, M.; Jung, A.W.; Schultz-Coulon, H.C. [Universitaet Heidelberg, Kirchhoff-Institut fuer Physik, Heidelberg (Germany); Hladka, J.; Reimer, P. [Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Institute of Physics, Prague (Czech Republic); Jung, H. [Brussels and Universiteit Antwerpen, Inter-University Institute for High Energies ULB-VUB, Antwerp (Belgium); DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Kapichine, M.; Morozov, A.; Spaskov, V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (RU); Kogler, R.; Nowak, K. [Universitaet Hamburg, Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, Hamburg (DE); Kostka, P.; Lange, W.; Naumann, T. [DESY, Zeuthen (DE); Landon, M.P.J.; Rizvi, E.; Traynor, D. [University of London, School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary, London (GB); Lubimov, V. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (RU); Martyn, H.U. [I. Physikalisches Institut der RWTH, Aachen (DE); Mueller, K.; Robmann, P.; Straumann, U.; Truoel, P. [Physik-Institut der Universitaet Zuerich, Zurich (CH); Newman, P.R.; Thompson, P.D. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Birmingham (GB); Picuric, I.; Raicevic, N. [University of Montenegro, Faculty of Science, Podgorica (ME); Sankey, D.P.C. [STFC, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Oxfordshire (GB); Soloviev, Y. [DESY, Hamburg (DE); Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (RU); Stella, B. [Universita di Roma Tre (IT); INFN Roma 3, Dipartimento di Fisica, Rome (IT); Sykora, T. [Brussels and Universiteit Antwerpen, Inter-University Institute for High Energies ULB-VUB, Antwerp (BE); Charles University, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Prague (CZ); Tsakov, I. [Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Sofia (BG); Wegener, D. [Institut fuer Physik, TU Dortmund, Dortmund (DE); Collaboration: H1 Collaboration

    2014-04-15

    Inclusive ep double differential cross sections for neutral current deep inelastic scattering are measured with the H1 detector at HERA.The data were taken with a lepton beam energy of 27.6 GeV and two proton beam energies of E{sub p} = 460 and 575 GeV corresponding to centre-of-mass energies of 225 and 252 GeV, respectively. The measurements cover the region of 6.5 x 10{sup -4} ≤ x ≤ 0.65 for 35 ≤ Q{sup 2} ≤ 800 GeV{sup 2} up to y = 0.85. The measurements are used together with previously published H1 data at E{sub p} = 920 GeV and lower Q{sup 2} data at E{sub p} = 460, 575 and 920 GeV to extract the longitudinal proton structure function F{sub L} in the region 1.5 ≤ Q{sup 2} ≤ 800 GeV{sup 2}. (orig.)

  20. Structural and Behavioral Correlates of HIV Infection among Pregnant Women in a Country with a Highly Generalized HIV Epidemic: A Cross-Sectional Study with a Probability Sample of Antenatal Care Facilities in Swaziland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhekumusa Wellington Lukhele

    Full Text Available HIV disproportionately affects women in Sub-Saharan Africa. Swaziland bears the highest HIV prevalence of 41% among pregnant women in this region. This heightened HIV-epidemic reflects the importance of context-specific interventions. Apart from routine HIV surveillance, studies that examine structural and behavioral factors associated with HIV infection among women may facilitate the revitalization of existing programs and provide insights to inform context-specific HIV prevention interventions.This cross-sectional study employed a two-stage random cluster sampling in ten antenatal health care facilities in the Hhohho region of Swaziland in August and September 2015. Participants were eligible for the study if they were 18 years or older and had tested for HIV. Self-administered tablet-based questionnaires were used to assess HIV risk factors. Of all eligible pregnant women, 827 (92.4% participated, out of which 297 (35.9% were self-reportedly HIV positive. Among structural factors, family function was not significantly associated with self-reported HIV positive status, while lower than high school educational attainment (AOR, 1.65; CI, 1.14-3.38; P = 0.008, and income below minimum wage (AOR, 1.81; CI, 1.09-3.01; P = 0.021 were significantly associated with self-reported HIV positive status. Behavioral factors significantly associated with reporting a positive HIV status included; ≥2 lifetime sexual partners (AOR, 3.16; CI, 2.00-5.00; P<0.001, and ever cohabited (AOR, 2.39; CI, 1.66-3.43; P = 0.00. The most cited reason for having multiple sexual partners was financial gain. HIV/AIDS-related knowledge level was high but not associated to self-reported HIV status (P = 0.319.Structural and behavioral factors showed significant association with self-reported HIV infection among pregnant women in Swaziland while HIV/AIDS-related knowledge and family function did not. This suggests that HIV interventions should be reinforced taking into

  1. The cross linking of EPDM and NBR rubber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samardžija-Jovanović Suzana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In the process of macromolecule cross linking, the choice of type and quantity of the components and the experimental conditions are important to obtain the new cross linked materials with better mechanical and chemical characteristics. The cross linking method depends on the rubber type and structure. Intermolecular cross linking results in the formation elastomer network. The basis of the cross linking process, between ethylene propylene diene rubber (EPDM and acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (NBR, is a chemical reaction. Fillers and other additives are present in different mass ratios in the material. The exploitation properties of the cross linked materials depend on the quantity of additive in the cross linked systems.

  2. Bianisotropic metamaterials based on twisted asymmetric crosses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes-Avendaño, J A; Sampedro, M P; Juárez-Ruiz, E; Pérez-Rodríguez, F

    2014-01-01

    The effective bianisotropic response of 3D periodic metal-dielectric structures, composed of crosses with asymmetrically-cut wires, is investigated within a general homogenization theory using the Fourier formalism and the form-factor division approach. It is found that the frequency dependence of the effective permittivity for a system of periodically-repeated layers of metal crosses exhibits two strong resonances, whose separation is due to the cross asymmetry. Besides, bianisotropic metamaterials, having a base of four twisted asymmetric crosses, are proposed. The designed metamaterials possess negative refractive index at frequencies determined by the cross asymmetry, the gap between the arms of adjacent crosses lying on the same plane, and the type of Bravais lattice. (papers)

  3. Cross-Cultural Knowledge Management

    CERN Document Server

    Giudice, Manlio Del; Peruta, Maria Rosaria Della

    2012-01-01

    Cross-cultural knowledge management, an elusive yet consequential phenomenon, is becoming an increasingly essential factor in organizational practice and policy in the era of globalization. In order to overcome culturally shaped blind spots in conducting research in different settings, this volume highlights how the structuring of roles, interests, and power among different organizational elements, such as teams, departments, and management hierarchies (each comprised of members from different intellectual and professional backgrounds), generates various paradoxes and tensions that bring into

  4. Negative ion detachment cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Champion, R.L.; Doverspike, L.D.

    1992-10-01

    The authors have measured absolute cross sections for electron detachment and charge exchange for collision of O and S with atomic hydrogen, have investigated the sputtering and photodesorption of negative ions from gas covered surfaces, and have begun an investigation of photon-induced field emission of electrons from exotic structures. Brief descriptions of these activities as well as future plans for these projects are given below

  5. Structure and thermodynamic properties of (C5H12N)CuBr3: a new weakly coupled antiferromagnetic spin-1/2 chain complex lying in the 1D-3D dimensional cross-over regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Bingying; Wang, Yang; Zhang, Lijuan; Li, Shiyan

    2014-04-07

    Single crystals of a metal organic complex (C5H12N)CuBr3 (C5H12N = piperidinium, pipH for short) have been synthesized, and the structure was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. (pipH)CuBr3 crystallizes in the monoclinic group C2/c. Edging-sharing CuBr5 units link to form zigzag chains along the c axis, and the neighboring Cu(II) ions with spin-1/2 are bridged by bibromide ions. Magnetic susceptibility data down to 1.8 K can be well fitted by the Bonner-Fisher formula for the antiferromagnetic spin-1/2 chain, giving the intrachain magnetic coupling constant J ≈ -17 K. At zero field, (pipH)CuBr3 shows three-dimensional (3D) order below TN = 1.68 K. Calculated by the mean-field theory, the interchain coupling constant J' = -0.91 K is obtained and the ordered magnetic moment m0 is about 0.23 μB. This value of m0 makes (pipH)CuBr3 a rare compound suitable to study the 1D-3D dimensional cross-over problem in magnetism, since both 3D order and one-dimensional (1D) quantum fluctuations are prominent. In addition, specific heat measurements reveal two successive magnetic transitions with lowering temperature when external field μ0H ≥ 3 T is applied along the a' axis. The μ0H-T phase diagram of (pipH)CuBr3 is roughly constructed.

  6. FEMA DFIRM Cross Sections

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — FEMA Cross Sections are required for any Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map database where cross sections are shown on the Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM). Normally...

  7. Border Crossing Entry Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS) Border Crossing/Entry Data provides summary statistics for inbound crossings at the U.S.-Canadian and the U.S.-Mexican...

  8. Children's cross-ethnic friendships: Antecedents and consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jugert, P.; Feddes, A.R.; Rutland, A.; Nesdale, D.; Brown, C.S.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter reviews recent research on the antecedents of cross-ethnic friendships, on friendship stability and quality, as well as on their consequences. It discusses structural, intergroup, and family factors and its relationship to cross-ethnic friendships. Research shows that cross-ethnic

  9. Multilevel parametrization of fissile nuclei resonance cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukyanov, A.A.; Kolesov, V.V.; Janeva, N.

    1987-01-01

    Because the resonance interference has an important influence on the resonance structure of neutron cross sections energy dependence at lowest energies, multilevel scheme of the cross section parametrization which take into account the resonance interference is used for the description with the same provisions in the regions of the interferential maximum and minimum of the resonance cross sections of the fissile nuclei

  10. Novel mixing method for cross linker introduction into droplet emulsions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Land, KJ

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available the introduction of cross linker after droplet formation, together with the utilisation of topological microfluidic channel structures, allowing for the novel manufacture of particles. Flow over these structures has been simulated in order to choose the most...

  11. Crossed Module Bundle Gerbes; Classification, String Group and Differential Geometry

    OpenAIRE

    Jurco, Branislav

    2005-01-01

    We discuss nonabelian bundle gerbes and their differential geometry using simplicial methods. Associated to any crossed module there is a simplicial group NC, the nerve of the 1-category defined by the crossed module and its geometric realization |NC|. Equivalence classes of principal bundles with structure group |NC| are shown to be one-to-one with stable equivalence classes of what we call crossed module gerbes bundle gerbes. We can also associate to a crossed module a 2-category C'. Then t...

  12. Vinyldisiloxanes: their synthesis, cross coupling and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sore, Hannah F; Boehner, Christine M; Laraia, Luca; Logoteta, Patrizia; Prestinari, Cora; Scott, Matthew; Williams, Katharine; Galloway, Warren R J D; Spring, David R

    2011-01-21

    During the studies towards the development of pentafluorophenyldimethylsilanes as a novel organosilicon cross coupling reagent it was revealed that the active silanolate and the corresponding disiloxane formed rapidly under basic conditions. The discovery that disiloxanes are in equilibrium with the silanolate led to the use of disiloxanes as cross coupling partners under fluoride free conditions. Our previous report focused on the synthesis and base induced cross coupling of aryl substituted vinyldisiloxanes with aryl halides; good yields and selectivities were achieved. As a continuation of our research, studies into the factors which influence the successful outcome of the cross coupling reaction with both alkyl and aryl substituted vinyldisiloxanes were examined and a proposed mechanism discussed. Further investigation into expanding the breadth and diversity of substituted vinyldisiloxanes in cross coupling was explored and applied to the synthesis of unsymmetrical trans-stilbenes and cyclic structures containing the trans-alkene architecture.

  13. Cross Selling Management

    OpenAIRE

    Nufer, Gerd; Kelm, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Erfolgreiches Cross Selling Management bietet die Möglichkeit, die Profitabilität von Neu- oder Bestandskunden zu steigern und kann zur Verbesserung der Kundenzufriedenheit, Kundenbindung und Verlängerung des Kundenlebenszyklus beitragen. Um erfolgreiches Cross Selling Management zu betreiben, sind ein systematisches Vorgehen und die Bereitstellung von Unternehmensressourcen notwendig. Umfangreiche vorbereitende Maßnahmen stellen sicher, dass Cross Selling nicht dem Zufall überlassen wird. De...

  14. Cross currency swap valuation

    OpenAIRE

    Boenkost, Wolfram; Schmidt, Wolfgang M.

    2004-01-01

    Cross currency swaps are powerful instruments to transfer assets or liabilities from one currency into another. The market charges for this a liquidity premium, the cross currency basis spread, which should be taken into account by the valuation methodology. We describe and compare two valuation methods for cross currency swaps which are based upon using two different discounting curves. The first method is very popular in practice but inconsistent with single currency swap valuation methods....

  15. Crossed modules of racks

    OpenAIRE

    Crans, Alissa S.; Wagemann, Friedrich

    2014-01-01

    We generalize the notion of a crossed module of groups to that of a crossed module of racks. We investigate the relation to categorified racks, namely strict 2-racks, and trunk-like objects in the category of racks, generalizing the relation between crossed modules of groups and strict 2-groups. Then we explore topological applications. We show that by applying the rack-space functor, a crossed module of racks gives rise to a covering. Our main result shows how the fundamental racks associate...

  16. Multifractal Cross Wavelet Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Gao, Xing-Lu; Zhou, Wei-Xing; Stanley, H. Eugene

    Complex systems are composed of mutually interacting components and the output values of these components usually exhibit long-range cross-correlations. Using wavelet analysis, we propose a method of characterizing the joint multifractal nature of these long-range cross correlations, a method we call multifractal cross wavelet analysis (MFXWT). We assess the performance of the MFXWT method by performing extensive numerical experiments on the dual binomial measures with multifractal cross correlations and the bivariate fractional Brownian motions (bFBMs) with monofractal cross correlations. For binomial multifractal measures, we find the empirical joint multifractality of MFXWT to be in approximate agreement with the theoretical formula. For bFBMs, MFXWT may provide spurious multifractality because of the wide spanning range of the multifractal spectrum. We also apply the MFXWT method to stock market indices, and in pairs of index returns and volatilities we find an intriguing joint multifractal behavior. The tests on surrogate series also reveal that the cross correlation behavior, particularly the cross correlation with zero lag, is the main origin of cross multifractality.

  17. Evaluated cross section libraries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maqurno, B.A.

    1976-01-01

    The dosimetry tape (ENDF/B-IV tape 412) was issued in a general CSEWG distribution, August 1974. The pointwise cross section data file was tested with specified reference spectra. A group averaged cross section data file (620 groups based on tape 412) was tested with the above spectra and the results are presented in this report

  18. Jet inclusive cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Duca, V.

    1992-11-01

    Minijet production in jet inclusive cross sections at hadron colliders, with large rapidity intervals between the tagged jets, is evaluated by using the BFKL pomeron. We describe the jet inclusive cross section for an arbitrary number of tagged jets, and show that it behaves like a system of coupled pomerons

  19. Cross-link guided molecular modeling with ROSETTA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Kahraman

    Full Text Available Chemical cross-links identified by mass spectrometry generate distance restraints that reveal low-resolution structural information on proteins and protein complexes. The technology to reliably generate such data has become mature and robust enough to shift the focus to the question of how these distance restraints can be best integrated into molecular modeling calculations. Here, we introduce three workflows for incorporating distance restraints generated by chemical cross-linking and mass spectrometry into ROSETTA protocols for comparative and de novo modeling and protein-protein docking. We demonstrate that the cross-link validation and visualization software Xwalk facilitates successful cross-link data integration. Besides the protocols we introduce XLdb, a database of chemical cross-links from 14 different publications with 506 intra-protein and 62 inter-protein cross-links, where each cross-link can be mapped on an experimental structure from the Protein Data Bank. Finally, we demonstrate on a protein-protein docking reference data set the impact of virtual cross-links on protein docking calculations and show that an inter-protein cross-link can reduce on average the RMSD of a docking prediction by 5.0 Å. The methods and results presented here provide guidelines for the effective integration of chemical cross-link data in molecular modeling calculations and should advance the structural analysis of particularly large and transient protein complexes via hybrid structural biology methods.

  20. Cross-flow electrochemical reactor cells, cross-flow reactors, and use of cross-flow reactors for oxidation reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balachandran, Uthamalingam; Poeppel, Roger B.; Kleefisch, Mark S.; Kobylinski, Thaddeus P.; Udovich, Carl A.

    1994-01-01

    This invention discloses cross-flow electrochemical reactor cells containing oxygen permeable materials which have both electron conductivity and oxygen ion conductivity, cross-flow reactors, and electrochemical processes using cross-flow reactor cells having oxygen permeable monolithic cores to control and facilitate transport of oxygen from an oxygen-containing gas stream to oxidation reactions of organic compounds in another gas stream. These cross-flow electrochemical reactors comprise a hollow ceramic blade positioned across a gas stream flow or a stack of crossed hollow ceramic blades containing a channel or channels for flow of gas streams. Each channel has at least one channel wall disposed between a channel and a portion of an outer surface of the ceramic blade, or a common wall with adjacent blades in a stack comprising a gas-impervious mixed metal oxide material of a perovskite structure having electron conductivity and oxygen ion conductivity. The invention includes reactors comprising first and second zones seprated by gas-impervious mixed metal oxide material material having electron conductivity and oxygen ion conductivity. Prefered gas-impervious materials comprise at least one mixed metal oxide having a perovskite structure or perovskite-like structure. The invention includes, also, oxidation processes controlled by using these electrochemical reactors, and these reactions do not require an external source of electrical potential or any external electric circuit for oxidation to proceed.

  1. CAREN-4, ENDF/B Utility, Discontinuity Check at Resonance Region Boundary. CHECK-4, ENDF/B Utility, Structure Consistency Check and Format Check. CRECT, ENDF/B Utility, Data Correlation and Data Update. DICT-4, ENDF/B Utility, Section Table of Contents Generator. LISTF-4, ENDF/B Utility, Data Listing. RIGEL-4, ENDF/B Utility, Data Retrieval, BCD to BIN Conversion. SUMUP-4, ENDF/B Utility, Partial Cross-Sections Sum Check Against Tot Cross-Sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1975-08-01

    Description of problem or function: These programs are updated versions of ENDF/B checking, retrieval, and display codes capable of processing the Version-IV data files. RIGEL4 retrieves ENDF/B data and changes mode (BCD-BIN) or arrangement. Updated version processes decay data (mf=1, mt=457) and error files. CHECK4 checks the structure, consistency, and formats of ENDF data files. Updated version recognizes newly defined mt and mf numbers, checks mt=457 and the formats of the error files, contains RSIC photon file changes. SUMUP4 checks whether partial cross sections add up to the total. Updated version flags grid points present in the partial cross section, absent in the total. LISTF4 produces interpreted listings of ENDF/B data. Updated version lists mt=457, skips over error files, contains minor corrections. PLOTF4 produces plots of ENDF/B data. Updated version plots mt=457, skips over error files, contains minor corrections. RESEND processes ENDF materials with resonance parameters into a pointwise form. Capability of processing Adler-Adler parameters added. CRECT corrects ENDF/B data files. DICT4 generates a section table of contents (dictionary) for ENDF/B materials. CAREN4 tests for discontinuities across the limits of resonance ranges of an ENDF/B material. Updated version contains minor corrections.

  2. Applications of the BEam Cross section Analysis Software (BECAS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blasques, José Pedro Albergaria Amaral; Bitsche, Robert; Fedorov, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    A newly developed framework is presented for structural design and analysis of long slender beam-like structures, e.g., wind turbine blades. The framework is based on the BEam Cross section Analysis Software – BECAS – a finite element based cross section analysis tool. BECAS is used for the gener......A newly developed framework is presented for structural design and analysis of long slender beam-like structures, e.g., wind turbine blades. The framework is based on the BEam Cross section Analysis Software – BECAS – a finite element based cross section analysis tool. BECAS is used...... for the generation of beam finite element models which correctly account for effects stemming from material anisotropy and inhomogeneity in cross sections of arbitrary geometry. These type of modelling approach allows for an accurate yet computationally inexpensive representation of a general class of three...

  3. Adjustement of multigroup cross sections using fast reactor integral data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renke, C.A.C.

    1982-01-01

    A methodology for the adjustment of multigroup cross section is presented, structured with aiming to compatibility the limitated number of measured values of integral parameters known and disponible, and the great number of cross sections to be adjusted the group of cross section used is that obtained from the Carnaval II calculation system, understanding as formular the sets of calculation methods and data bases. The adjustment is realized, using the INCOAJ computer code, developed in function of one statistical formulation, structural from the bayer considerations, taking in account the measurement processes of cross section and integral parameters defined on statistical bases. (E.G.) [pt

  4. Joint ICFRM-14 (14. international conference on fusion reactor materials) and IAEA satellite meeting on cross-cutting issues of structural materials for fusion and fission applications. PowerPoint presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The Conference was devoted to the challenges in the development of new materials for advanced fission, fusion and hybrid reactors. The topics discussed include fuels and materials research under the high neutron fluence; post-irradiation examination; development of radiation resistant structural materials utilizing fission research reactors; core materials development for the advanced fuel cycle initiative; qualification of structural materials for fission and fusion reactor systems; application of charged particle accelerators for radiation resistance investigations of fission and fusion structural materials; microstructure evolution in structural materials under irradiation; ion beams and ion accelerators

  5. Bone Microarchitecture and Estimated Strength in 499 Adult Danish Women and Men: A Cross-Sectional, Population-Based High-Resolution Peripheral Quantitative Computed Tomographic Study on Peak Bone Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Stinus; Shanbhogue, V.; Folkestad, L.

    2014-01-01

    High-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) allows in vivo assessment of cortical and trabecular bone mineral density (BMD), geometry, and microarchitecture at the distal radius and tibia in unprecedented detail. In this cross-sectional study, we provide normative and de...... and descriptive HR-pQCT data from a large population-based sample of Danish Caucasian women and men (n = 499) aged 20-80 years. In young adults (...

  6. Neutral sheet crossings in the distant magnetotail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heikkila, W.J.; Slavin, J.A.; Smith, E.J.; Baker, D.N.; Zwickl, R.D.

    1985-01-01

    We have analyzed the magnetic field data from ISEE-3 in the distant magnetotail for 18 crossings of the cross-tail current sheet (or so-called natural sheet) to determine the direction of the normal component B/sub z/. The crossings occurred near the middle of the aberrated magnetotail (0 0.4 nT), consistent with closed field lines connected to the earth. In 3 cases B/sub z/ was very close to zero; in several instances there was structure in B/sub y/, suggesting localized currents with x or z directions. One may have been a magnetopause crossing. The strong preponderance of northward B/sub z/ favors a model of the magnetotail which is dominated by boundary layer plasma, flowing tailward on closed magnetic field lines, which requires the existence of an electric field in the sense from dusk to dawn. 37 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab

  7. Interaction in Balanced Cross Nested Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Paulo; Mexia, João T.; Carvalho, Francisco; Covas, Ricardo

    2011-09-01

    Commutative Jordan Algebras, CJA, are used in the study of mixed models obtained, through crossing and nesting, from simpler ones. In the study of cross nested models the interaction between nested factors have been systematically discarded. However this can constitutes an artificial simplification of the models. We point out that, when two crossed factors interact, such interaction is symmetric, both factors playing in it equivalent roles, while when two nested factors interact, the interaction is determined by the nesting factor. These interactions will be called interactions with nesting. In this work we present a coherent formulation of the algebraic structure of models enabling the choice of families of interactions between cross and nested factors using binary operations on CJA.

  8. Crossing simple resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, T.

    1985-08-01

    A simple criterion governs the beam distortion and/or loss of protons on a fast resonance crossing. Results from numerical integrations are illustrated for simple sextupole, octupole, and 10-pole resonances

  9. Cross-impact method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzić Nenad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper displays the application of the Cross-Impact method in pedagogy, namely a methodological approach which crosses variables in a novel, but statistically justified manner. The method is an innovation in pedagogy as well as in research methodology of social and psychological phenomena. Specifically, events and processes are crossed, that is, experts' predictions of about future interaction of events and processes. Therefore, this methodology is futuristic; it concerns predicting future, which is of key importance for pedagogic objectives. The paper presents two instances of the cross-impact approach: the longer, displayed in fourteen steps, and the shorter, in four steps. They are both accompanied with mathematic and statistical formulae allowing for quantification, that is, a numerical expression of the probability of a certain event happening in the future. The advantage of this approach is that it facilitates planning in education which so far has been solely based on lay estimates and assumptions.

  10. Cross-Platform Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina ENACHE

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Cross-platform - a concept becoming increasingly used in recent years especially in the development of mobile apps, but this consistently over time and in the development of conventional desktop applications. The notion of cross-platform software (multi-platform or platform-independent refers to a software application that can run on more than one operating system or computing architecture. Thus, a cross-platform application can operate independent of software or hardware platform on which it is execute. As a generic definition presents a wide range of meanings for purposes of this paper we individualize this definition as follows: we will reduce the horizon of meaning and we use functionally following definition: a cross-platform application is a software application that can run on more than one operating system (desktop or mobile identical or in a similar way.

  11. Floodplain Cross Section Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This table is required for any Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map database where cross sections are shown on the Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM). Normally any FIRM...

  12. Multitrajectory eikonal cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, R.E.

    1983-01-01

    With the use of reference and distorted transition operators, a time-correlation-function representation of the inelastic differential cross section has recently been used to obtain distorted eikonal cross sections. These cross sections involve straight-line and reference classical translational trajectories that are unaffected by any internal-state changes which have occurred during the collision. This distorted eikonal theory is now extended to include effects of internal-state changes on the translational motion. In particular, a different classical trajectory is associated with each pair of internal states. Expressions for these inelastic cross sections are obtained in terms of time-ordered cosine and sine memory functions using the Zwanzig-Feshbach projection-operator method. Explicit formulas are obtained in the time-disordered perturbation approximation

  13. HARP MHI- Cross Seamount

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — PIFSC and Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO) conducted passive acoustic monitoring for cetaceans at Cross Seamount in 2005 and 2006 using a High-Frequency...

  14. Crossing simple resonances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, T.

    1985-08-01

    A simple criterion governs the beam distortion and/or loss of protons on a fast resonance crossing. Results from numerical integrations are illustrated for simple sextupole, octupole, and 10-pole resonances.

  15. Cross validation in LULOO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Paul Haase; Nørgård, Peter Magnus; Hansen, Lars Kai

    1996-01-01

    The leave-one-out cross-validation scheme for generalization assessment of neural network models is computationally expensive due to replicated training sessions. Linear unlearning of examples has recently been suggested as an approach to approximative cross-validation. Here we briefly review...... the linear unlearning scheme, dubbed LULOO, and we illustrate it on a systemidentification example. Further, we address the possibility of extracting confidence information (error bars) from the LULOO ensemble....

  16. Metoda Criss-Cross

    OpenAIRE

    Papež, Jan

    2008-01-01

    This thesis describes the criss-cross method, which solves the tasks of linear programming and does not need primar or dual feasibility of the basis. At first, the single-phase simplex method, that needs primal feasibility, gets described. After that, we describe the dual simplex method, which needs dual feasibility. The criss-cross method combines both of these methods. All of mentioned methods are explained and demonstrated in several examples.

  17. Modificaciones en la estructura celular por microscopia confocal en pacientes con queratocono tratados por crosslinking Changes in the cell structure of patients with keratoconus under cross-linking treatment by using confocal microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madelyn Jareño Ochoa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: describir las modificaciones en la estructura celular corneal después del tratamiento con crosslinking en pacientes con queratocono. Métodos: la muestra estuvo conformada por 30 pacientes (30 ojos con queratocono progresivo a los que se les realizó crosslinking del colágeno corneal y microscopia confocal. Se analizaron como variables las alteraciones en los plexos nerviosos sub-basal y subepitelial, en los nervios estromales, las modificaciones de los queratocitos en estroma anterior y medio, los cambios de las células endoteliales, la profundidad del tratamiento, así como la presencia y evolución del haze y el edema estromal. Resultados: los plexos nerviosos sub-basal y subepitelial estuvieron ausentes durante el primer mes, hubo una recuperación parcial a los 6 meses (73,3 % y total al año. Las fibras nerviosas estromales estuvieron ausentes al mes, a los 6 meses se recuperaron en 96,7 % y de manera total al año. Se encontró alteración de la morfología de los queratocitos del estroma anterior y medio en el primer mes (96,7 %, con inicio de la repoblación celular en 83,3 % a los 3 meses y al año se evidenció una regeneración total. El edema estromal estuvo presente en el primer mes en 83,3 % de los casos, solo en 3,3 % a los 6 meses y al año no hubo ningún paciente. El haze se observó al mes y a los tres meses en el 100 % de los pacientes, predominó al mes en el grado II, a los seis meses con grado I y disminuyó a 60 % sin haze al año. No se encontraron alteraciones en la morfología o densidad de las células endoteliales. Conclusiones: los resultados obtenidos reafirman los criterios de que el crosslinking del colágeno corneal es un método de tratamiento seguro.Objective: to describe the changes of the corneal cellular structure of patients with keratoconus after the cross-linking treatment. Methods: the sample was made up of 30 eyes from 30 patients, who had progressive keratoconus and were treated with

  18. Front-Eddy Influence on Water Column Properties, Phytoplankton Community Structure, and Cross-Shelf Exchange of Diatom Taxa in the Shelf-Slope Area off Concepción (˜36-37°S)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Carmen E.; Anabalón, Valeria; Bento, Joaquim P.; Hormazabal, Samuel; Cornejo, Marcela; Correa-Ramírez, Marco A.; Silva, Nelson

    2017-11-01

    In eastern boundary current systems (EBCSs), submesoscale to mesocale variability contributes to cross-shore exchanges of water properties, nutrients, and plankton. Data from a short-term summer survey and satellite time series (January-February 2014) were used to characterize submesoscale variability in oceanographic conditions and phytoplankton distribution across the coastal upwelling and coastal transition zones north of Punta Lavapié, and to explore cross-shelf exchanges of diatom taxa. A thermohaline front (FRN-1) flanked by a mesoscale anticyclonic intrathermocline eddy (ITE-1), or mode-water eddy, persisted during the time series and the survey was undertaken during a wind relaxation event. At the survey time, ITE-1 contributed to an onshore intrusion of warm oceanic waters (southern section) and an offshore advection of cold coastal waters (northern section), with the latter forming a cold, high chlorophyll-a filament. In situ phytoplankton and diatom biomasses were highest at the surface in FRN-1 and at the subsurface in ITE-1, whereas values in the coastal zone were lower and dominated by smaller cells. Diatom species typical of the coastal zone and species dominant in oceanic waters were both found in the FRN-1 and ITE-1 interaction area, suggesting that this mixture was the result of both offshore and onshore advection. Overall, front-eddy interactions in EBCSs could enhance cross-shelf exchanges of coastal and oceanic plankton, as well as sustain phytoplankton growth in the slope area through localized upward injections of nutrients in the frontal zone, combined with ITE-induced advection and vertical nutrient inputs to the surface layer.

  19. Ab initio calculations of cross luminescence materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanchana, V.

    2016-01-01

    Abintio calculations have been performed to study the structural, electronic, and optical properties of ABX 3 (A=alkali, B=alkaline-earth, and X=halide) compounds. The ground state properties are calculated using the pseudopotential method with the inclusion of van der Waals interaction, which we find inevitable in reproducing the experimental structure properties in alkali iodides because of its layered structure. All calculations were performed using the Full-Potential Linearized Augmented Plane Wave method. The band structures are plotted with various functionals and we find the newly developed Tran and Blaha modified Becke-Johnson potential to improve the band gap significantly. The optical properties such as complex dielectric function, refractive index, and absorption spectra are calculated which clearly reveal the optically isotropic nature of these materials though being structurally anisotropic, which is the key requirement for ceramic scintillators. Cross luminescence materials are very interesting because of its fast decay. One of the major criteria for the cross luminescence to happen is the energy difference between valence band and next deeper core valence band being lesser when compared to energy gap of the compound, so that radiative electronic transition may occur between valence band and core valence band. We found this criteria to be satisfied in all the studied compounds leading to cross luminescence except for KSrI 3 , RbSrI 3 . The present study suggest that among the six compounds studied, CsSrI 3 , CsMgCl 3 , CsCaCl 3 , and CsSrCl 3 compounds are cross luminescence materials, which is well explained from the band structure, optical properties calculations. Chlorides are better scintillators that iodides and CsMgCl 3 is found to be promising one among the studied compounds. Apart from these materials we have also discussed electronic structure and optical properties of other scintillator compounds. (author)

  20. Compact fitting formulas for electron-impact cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y.K.

    1992-01-01

    Compact fitting formulas, which contain four fitting constants, are presented for electron-impact excitation and ionization cross sections of atoms and ions. These formulas can fit experimental and theoretical cross sections remarkably well, when resonant structures are smoothed out, from threshold to high incident electron energies (<10 keV), beyond which relativistic formulas are more appropriate. Examples of fitted cross sections for some atoms and ions are presented. The basic form of the formula is valid for both atoms and molecules

  1. "Financial Innovation and Risk Management: The Cross-Guarantee Solution"

    OpenAIRE

    Bert Ely

    1995-01-01

    The cross-guarantee concept, which is summarized below, will eliminate the regulatory moral hazard that electronic technology has greatly exacerbated in recent years. The paper concludes by outlining the many benefits cross-guarantees will bring to the financial system as well as the structural and international implications of using cross-guarantees to bring market-driven regulation to the financial services sector of the American economy.

  2. Multiscale Detrended Cross-Correlation Analysis of STOCK Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yi; Shang, Pengjian

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, we employ the detrended cross-correlation analysis (DCCA) to investigate the cross-correlations between different stock markets. We report the results of cross-correlated behaviors in US, Chinese and European stock markets in period 1997-2012 by using DCCA method. The DCCA shows the cross-correlated behaviors of intra-regional and inter-regional stock markets in the short and long term which display the similarities and differences of cross-correlated behaviors simply and roughly and the persistence of cross-correlated behaviors of fluctuations. Then, because of the limitation and inapplicability of DCCA method, we propose multiscale detrended cross-correlation analysis (MSDCCA) method to avoid "a priori" selecting the ranges of scales over which two coefficients of the classical DCCA method are identified, and employ MSDCCA to reanalyze these cross-correlations to exhibit some important details such as the existence and position of minimum, maximum and bimodal distribution which are lost if the scale structure is described by two coefficients only and essential differences and similarities in the scale structures of cross-correlation of intra-regional and inter-regional markets. More statistical characteristics of cross-correlation obtained by MSDCCA method help us to understand how two different stock markets influence each other and to analyze the influence from thus two inter-regional markets on the cross-correlation in detail, thus we get a richer and more detailed knowledge of the complex evolutions of dynamics of the cross-correlations between stock markets. The application of MSDCCA is important to promote our understanding of the internal mechanisms and structures of financial markets and helps to forecast the stock indices based on our current results demonstrated the cross-correlations between stock indices. We also discuss the MSDCCA methods of secant rolling window with different sizes and, lastly, provide some relevant implications and

  3. A subspecies of region crossing change, region freeze crossing change

    OpenAIRE

    Inoue, Ayumu; Shimizu, Ryo

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a local move on a link diagram named a region freeze crossing change which is close to a region crossing change, but not the same. We study similarity and difference between region crossing change and region freeze crossing change.

  4. Crossed molecular beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y.T.

    1976-01-01

    Research activities with crossed molecular beams at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory during 1976 are described. Topics covered include: scattering of Ar*, Kr*, with Xe; metastable rare gas interactions, He* + H 2 ; an atomic and molecular halogen beam source; a crossed molecular beam study of the Cl + Br 2 → BrCl + Br reaction; O( 3 P) reaction dynamics, development of the high pressure plasma beam source; energy randomization in the Cl + C 2 H 3 Br → Br + C 2 H 3 Cl reaction; high resolution photoionization studies of NO and ICl; photoionization of (H 2 O)/sub n/ and (NH 3 ) 2 ; photoionization mass spectroscopy of NH 3 + and O 3 + ; photo fragmentation of bromine; and construction of chemiluminescence-laser fluorescence crossed molecular beam machine

  5. Total cross section for e+e- → hadrons and its associated spectroscopy at SPEAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, H.L.

    1976-05-01

    The relation between the cross section for e + e - → hadrons and pp → e + e - + hadrons is briefly discussed. The structure of these cross sections is described in detail and its implications pointed out. 8 refs

  6. Exploring the underlying structure of mental disorders: cross-diagnostic differences and similarities from a network perspective using both a top-down and a bottom-up approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigman, J T W; van Os, J; Borsboom, D; Wardenaar, K J; Epskamp, S; Klippel, A; Viechtbauer, W; Myin-Germeys, I; Wichers, M

    2015-08-01

    It has been suggested that the structure of psychopathology is best described as a complex network of components that interact in dynamic ways. The goal of the present paper was to examine the concept of psychopathology from a network perspective, combining complementary top-down and bottom-up approaches using momentary assessment techniques. A pooled Experience Sampling Method (ESM) dataset of three groups (individuals with a diagnosis of depression, psychotic disorder or no diagnosis) was used (pooled N = 599). The top-down approach explored the network structure of mental states across different diagnostic categories. For this purpose, networks of five momentary mental states ('cheerful', 'content', 'down', 'insecure' and 'suspicious') were compared between the three groups. The complementary bottom-up approach used principal component analysis to explore whether empirically derived network structures yield meaningful higher order clusters. Individuals with a clinical diagnosis had more strongly connected moment-to-moment network structures, especially the depressed group. This group also showed more interconnections specifically between positive and negative mental states than the psychotic group. In the bottom-up approach, all possible connections between mental states were clustered into seven main components that together captured the main characteristics of the network dynamics. Our combination of (i) comparing network structure of mental states across three diagnostically different groups and (ii) searching for trans-diagnostic network components across all pooled individuals showed that these two approaches yield different, complementary perspectives in the field of psychopathology. The network paradigm therefore may be useful to map transdiagnostic processes.

  7. Learning of Cross-Sectional Anatomy Using Clay Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Chang-Seok; Kim, Ji-Young; Choe, Yeon Hyeon

    2009-01-01

    We incorporated clay modeling into gross anatomy and neuro-anatomy courses to help students understand cross-sectional anatomy. By making clay models, cutting them and comparing cut surfaces to CT and MR images, students learned how cross-sectional two-dimensional images were created from three-dimensional structure of human organs. Most students…

  8. Rationalization in the Nigerian Public Service: Implications for Cross ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study therefore assessed the effect of rationalization in the Nigerian Public Service using Cross River State Civil service as a case study. Data generated for the study were sourced from 308 public servants from selected ministries and parastatals in the Cross River State Civil Service using structured questionnaire.

  9. The study of triploid progenies crossed between different ploidy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study of triploid progenies crossed between different ploidy grapes. L Sun, G Zhang, A Yan, H Xu. Abstract. The cross between different ploidy grape was one of the effective ways to obtain new seedless cultivars, in this study, through testing the changes of the ovule weight and observing its anatomical structure, the ...

  10. Optical Model and Cross Section Uncertainties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman,M.W.; Pigni, M.T.; Dietrich, F.S.; Oblozinsky, P.

    2009-10-05

    Distinct minima and maxima in the neutron total cross section uncertainties were observed in model calculations using spherical optical potential. We found this oscillating structure to be a general feature of quantum mechanical wave scattering. Specifically, we analyzed neutron interaction with 56Fe from 1 keV up to 65 MeV, and investigated physical origin of the minima.We discuss their potential importance for practical applications as well as the implications for the uncertainties in total and absorption cross sections.

  11. Pullback and pushout crossed polymodules

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Crossed module; polygroup; crossed polymodule; action; pullback; pushout; fundamental relation. Mathematics Subject Classification. 13D99, 20N20, 18D35. 1. Introduction. Crossed module was defined by Whitehad in [21] and many have worked on this sub- ject. There are many examples of crossed module such as ...

  12. Phytoplankton Diversity in the Cross River Estuary of Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. MIKE HORSFALL

    This study was carried out to provide a concise set of structural based .... further growth of diatom in this zone due to rapid uptake of ... Table 1: Taxonomic listing and spatial distribution of phytoplankton species in Cross Rivers estuary. (+ =.

  13. Cross-language psycholinguistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cutler, A.

    1985-01-01

    Cross-linguistic research can be of valaue to psycholinguistics by allowing tests of hypotheses the testing of which would be severely confounded in a single language, and by providing simple and readily available control conditions. For a long time the resources of this kind of research were

  14. Cross-Cultural Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triandis, Harry C.; Brislin, Richard W.

    Cross-Cultural psychology refers to the collective efforts of researchers who work among people who live in different societies, with different languages and different forms of government. There are a number of benefits to the study of human behavior which can be accrued by carrying out research in various cultures, largely concerned with better…

  15. Cross-Cultural Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannen, Deborah

    A two-part presentation on cross-cultural communication consists of a discussion of cultural differences in interpersonal communication and an article from a Greek English-language publication concerning telephone use skills in a foreign country. Cultural differences in communication are divided into eight types and illustrated: (1) when to talk;…

  16. Cross-Cultural Leadership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga Minelgaite Snaebjornsson

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Ongoing low participation of women in global leadership calls for more research in this field. In this article, we set out to include gendered expectations toward leader behavior as part of cross-cultural leadership theory. Building on an existing body of research, we focus on propositions about the effects of gendered expectations on the leader, from the followers’ standpoint. The consideration of gendered effects from the follower standpoint is an under-researched area in leadership literature, and it is even more rarely to be found in empirical data. In every culture, there are certain expectations toward leaders of the two genders that influence their behavior. In this article, we will attempt to answer the following question: How does perceived leader behavior and gendered behavior relate to national culture and actual leader behavior? We present a conceptual model that seeks to incorporate gendered expectations into cross-cultural leadership as an answer. Moreover, we provide a conceptual guideline toward operationalization of the model. The model includes the potential of dissonance between male expectations as a dominating leadership role and female leadership. This might serve as an explanation as to why in some cases women are not seen as successful as men when they adopt a masculine leadership style. The article seeks to advance cross-cultural leadership theory by focusing on expected gendered leadership behavior. Our ideas and model could eventually contribute to the advancement of leadership theory, as well as contributing to gender studies, cross-cultural leadership, and business communication.

  17. K+ nucleus total cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawafta, R.

    1990-01-01

    The scattering of K + mesons from nuclei has attracted considerable interest in the last few years. The K + holds a very special position as the weakest of all strongly interaction probes. The average cross section is not larger than about 10 mb at lab momenta below 800 MeV/c, corresponding to a mean free path in the nucleus larger than 5 fm. Thus the K + is capable of probing the entire volume of the nucleus. Single scattering of the K + with a nucleon in the nucleus dominates the nuclear scattering, and only small and calculable higher order corrections are needed. The nucleon is a dynamical entity and its internal structure can, in principle, be altered by its surrounding nuclear environment. This work reports an experiment in which the K + is used to compare the nucleon in the nucleus with a free nucleon

  18. Triply differential cross sections for ionization of helium by electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brauner, M.; Briggs, J.S.; Broad, J.T.

    1991-01-01

    A correlated three-body continuum wavefunction, already successfully employed to describe hydrogen atom impact ionization, is used to calculate the triply-differential cross section for electron impact ionization of helium. A good description is obtained of all the major structure in the differential cross sections in both symmetric and asymmetric geometries. It is demonstrated how interference between the various projectile-target interactions is necessary to reproduce the experimentally observed structure. (author)

  19. Boundaries, injective envelopes, and reduced crossed products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bryder, Rasmus Sylvester

    In this dissertation, we study boundary actions, equivariant injective envelopes, as well as theideal structure of reduced crossed products. These topics have recently been linked to thestudy of C-simple groups, that is, groups with simple reduced group C-algebras.In joint work with Matthew Kennedy......, we consider reduced twisted crossed products overC-simple groups. For any twisted C-dynamical system over a C-simple group, we provethat there is a one-to-one correspondence between maximal invariant ideals in the underlyingC-algebra and maximal ideals in the reduced crossed product. When......*-algebras, and relate the intersection property for group actions on unital C*-algebras to the intersection property for theequivariant injective envelope. Moreover, we also prove that the equivariant injective envelopeof the centre of the injective envelope of a unital C*-algebra can be regarded as a C...

  20. Preparation and properties of silk sericin/cellulose cross-linking films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Kunyan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Silk sericin/cellulose cross-linked films were successfully prepared using glutaraldehyde as cross-linkinger. FTIR was applied to characterize the chemical structure of films. Cross-linked silk sericin film was found the peak intensity of FTIR for cross-linked film decreased markedly compared to pure silk sericin, which indicating cross-linking reaction has been occurred. The increasing value of swelling ratio also indicated the cross-linking has been happened. The cross-linking reaction increased the thermal decomposition temperature.

  1. The Serenity of the Meditating Mind: A Cross-Cultural Psychometric Study on a Two-Factor Higher Order Structure of Mindfulness, Its Effects, and Mechanisms Related to Mental Health among Experienced Meditators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Ulrich S.; Cebolla, Ausiàs; Glück, Tobias M.; Soler, Joaquim; Garcia-Campayo, Javier; von Moy, Theresa

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the psychometric and structural properties of the Five Facets Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) among meditators, to develop a short form, and to examine associations of mindfulness with mental health and the mechanisms of mindfulness. Methods Two independent samples were used, a German (n = 891) and a Spanish (n = 393) meditator sample, practicing various meditation styles. Structural and psychometric properties of the FFMQ were investigated with multigroup confirmatory factor analysis and exploratory structural equation modeling. Associations with mental health and mechanisms of mindfulness were examined with path analysis. Results The derived short form broadly matched a previous item selection in samples of non-meditators. Self-regulated Attention and Orientation to Experience governed the facets of mindfulness on a higher-order level. Higher-order factors of mindfulness and meditation experience were negatively associated with symptoms of depression and anxiety, and perceived stress. Decentering and nonattachment were the most salient mechanisms of mindfulness. Aspects of emotion regulation, bodily awareness, and nonattachment explained the effects of mindfulness on depression and anxiety. Conclusions A two-component conceptualization for the FFMQ, and for the study of mindfulness as a psychological construct, is recommended for future research. Mechanisms of mindfulness need to be examined in intervention studies. PMID:25330072

  2. The serenity of the meditating mind: a cross-cultural psychometric study on a two-factor higher order structure of mindfulness, its effects, and mechanisms related to mental health among experienced meditators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich S Tran

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the psychometric and structural properties of the Five Facets Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ among meditators, to develop a short form, and to examine associations of mindfulness with mental health and the mechanisms of mindfulness. METHODS: Two independent samples were used, a German (n = 891 and a Spanish (n = 393 meditator sample, practicing various meditation styles. Structural and psychometric properties of the FFMQ were investigated with multigroup confirmatory factor analysis and exploratory structural equation modeling. Associations with mental health and mechanisms of mindfulness were examined with path analysis. RESULTS: The derived short form broadly matched a previous item selection in samples of non-meditators. Self-regulated Attention and Orientation to Experience governed the facets of mindfulness on a higher-order level. Higher-order factors of mindfulness and meditation experience were negatively associated with symptoms of depression and anxiety, and perceived stress. Decentering and nonattachment were the most salient mechanisms of mindfulness. Aspects of emotion regulation, bodily awareness, and nonattachment explained the effects of mindfulness on depression and anxiety. CONCLUSIONS: A two-component conceptualization for the FFMQ, and for the study of mindfulness as a psychological construct, is recommended for future research. Mechanisms of mindfulness need to be examined in intervention studies.

  3. Structure, organization, and sequence of alpha satellite DNA from human chromosome 17: evidence for evolution by unequal crossing-over and an ancestral pentamer repeat shared with the human X chromosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waye, J S; Willard, H F

    1986-09-01

    The centromeric regions of all human chromosomes are characterized by distinct subsets of a diverse tandemly repeated DNA family, alpha satellite. On human chromosome 17, the predominant form of alpha satellite is a 2.7-kilobase-pair higher-order repeat unit consisting of 16 alphoid monomers. We present the complete nucleotide sequence of the 16-monomer repeat, which is present in 500 to 1,000 copies per chromosome 17, as well as that of a less abundant 15-monomer repeat, also from chromosome 17. These repeat units were approximately 98% identical in sequence, differing by the exclusion of precisely 1 monomer from the 15-monomer repeat. Homologous unequal crossing-over is suggested as a probable mechanism by which the different repeat lengths on chromosome 17 were generated, and the putative site of such a recombination event is identified. The monomer organization of the chromosome 17 higher-order repeat unit is based, in part, on tandemly repeated pentamers. A similar pentameric suborganization has been previously demonstrated for alpha satellite of the human X chromosome. Despite the organizational similarities, substantial sequence divergence distinguishes these subsets. Hybridization experiments indicate that the chromosome 17 and X subsets are more similar to each other than to the subsets found on several other human chromosomes. We suggest that the chromosome 17 and X alpha satellite subsets may be related components of a larger alphoid subfamily which have evolved from a common ancestral repeat into the contemporary chromosome-specific subsets.

  4. Test Structures For Bumpy Integrated Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehler, Martin G.; Sayah, Hoshyar R.

    1989-01-01

    Cross-bridge resistors added to comb and serpentine patterns. Improved combination of test structures built into integrated circuit used to evaluate design rules, fabrication processes, and quality of interconnections. Consist of meshing serpentines and combs, and cross bridge. Structures used to make electrical measurements revealing defects in design or fabrication. Combination of test structures includes three comb arrays, two serpentine arrays, and cross bridge. Made of aluminum or polycrystalline silicon, depending on material in integrated-circuit layers evaluated. Aluminum combs and serpentine arrays deposited over steps made by polycrystalline silicon and diffusion layers, while polycrystalline silicon versions of these structures used to cross over steps made by thick oxide layer.

  5. Cross-sector Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Würtz Jessen, Søren; Linnet, Andreas; Tscherning, Rasmus Wiinstedt

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this handbook is to help improve your opportunities for getting started on innovative and business development projects that reach beyond your own sector, commonly known as ’Cross-sector innovation’, or ’Cross innovation’ for short. We believe that there is a need for an easily read...... innovation handbook that can reach out to all sectors and potential partners whose point of departure, language use and understanding of customers is often very different to that of businesses. These differences constitute a resource for business development. If exploited they can lead to new ways of doing...... things and help us breakaway from the lull of the modes of expression and methods ‘customarily’ employed in business development. The handbook focuses on the interaction of “traditional’ businesses and sectors that belong to those known as the creative and the experience industries, i.e. designers...

  6. Cross-commodity hedges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simard, T.

    1999-01-01

    Energy risk management is the principal topic of this paper. Four major subjects are examined: cross-commodity trading objectives (reduce the risk of an underlying exposure in another commodity); portfolio risk reduction (an Alberta power distributor exposed to high pool prices could protect against high pool prices through a fixed price purchase of Alberta natural gas); tailoring pricing to customer needs (sell power to the gas producer indexed to the price of gas); and (4) reducing insurance costs (rather than purchasing downside protection (puts) individually against oil and gas prices, a producer could purchase a basket option). Since the key issue in cross-commodity transactions is the estimation of correlation, it is important to be prepared to alter correlation assumptions. 1 tab., 2 figs

  7. Cross Disciplinary Biometric Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Chengjun

    2012-01-01

    Cross disciplinary biometric systems help boost the performance of the conventional systems. Not only is the recognition accuracy significantly improved, but also the robustness of the systems is greatly enhanced in the challenging environments, such as varying illumination conditions. By leveraging the cross disciplinary technologies, face recognition systems, fingerprint recognition systems, iris recognition systems, as well as image search systems all benefit in terms of recognition performance.  Take face recognition for an example, which is not only the most natural way human beings recognize the identity of each other, but also the least privacy-intrusive means because people show their face publicly every day. Face recognition systems display superb performance when they capitalize on the innovative ideas across color science, mathematics, and computer science (e.g., pattern recognition, machine learning, and image processing). The novel ideas lead to the development of new color models and effective ...

  8. Cross cultural usability testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Torkil; Goyal, Shivam

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we present the results of a pilot study in Denmark of cross cultural effects on Think Aloud usability testing. We provide an overview of previous research on cross cultural usability evaluation with a special focus on the relationship between the evaluator and the test user....... This relation was studied in an experiment with usability testing of a localized clipart application in which eight participants from Denmark and India formed pairs of evaluator-test user. The test users were asked to think aloud and the evaluators' role were to facilitate the test users thinking aloud...... and hereby identify usability problems with the clipart application. Data on the evaluators' and test users' behaviour were recorded and analyzed by coding and summarizing statistics on these behavioural events. The results show that Think Aloud Usability Test of a localized application is most effectively...

  9. Distortion dependent intersystem crossing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stephansen, Anne Boutrup; Sølling, Theis Ivan

    2017-01-01

    . The effect is observed to increase in the presence of methyl-groups on the pinnacle carbon-atoms, where largest extents of r and p orbital-mixing are observed. This is fully consistent with the time-resolved spectroscopy data: Toluene and p-xylene show evidence for ultrafast triplet formation competing......The competition between ultrafast intersystem crossing and internal conversion in benzene, toluene, and p-xylene is investigated with time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy and quantum chemical calculations. By exciting to S2 out-of-plane symmetry breaking, distortions are activated at early...... times whereupon spin-forbidden intersystem crossing becomes (partly) allowed. Natural bond orbital analysis suggests that the pinnacle carbon atoms distorting from the aromatic plane change hybridization between the planar Franck-Condon geometry and the deformed (boat-shaped) S2 equilibrium geometry...

  10. Enhancing the ABC Cross

    OpenAIRE

    Euske, K.J.; Vercio, Alan

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the ABC Cross was to portray both a cost and process view of an organization as simply as possible. Unfortunately, the model’s simplified form does not capture the real value of activity-based costing (ABC) for cost accounting that emerged in the mid-1980s. Here we present several ABC models that can help functional and process managers make better decisions.

  11. Crossed beam experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolder, K.T.

    1976-01-01

    Many natural phenomena can only be properly understood if one has a detailed knowledge of interactions involving atoms, molecules, ions, electrons or photons. In the laboratory these processes are often studied by preparing beams of two types of particle and observing the reactions which occur when the beams intersect. Some of the more interesting of these crossed beam experiments and their results are discussed. Proposals to extend colliding beam techniques to high energy particle physics are also outlined. (author)

  12. Cross-cultural advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Пурчельянова, Н. Ю.

    2011-01-01

    The essence of successful advertising is to convince people that a product is meant for them. By purchasing it, they will receive some benefit (lifestyle, status, convenience, etc.). However, when an advertising campaign is taken abroad different values as to what enhances status or gives convenience exist. These differences make the original advertising campaign defunct. It is therefore critical to any cross cultural advertising campaign that an understanding of a particular culture is acqui...

  13. Dielectronic recombination cross sections for H-like ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pindzola, M.S.; Badnell, N.R.; Griffin, D.C.

    1990-01-01

    Dielectronic recombination cross sections for several H-like atomic ions are calculated in an isolated-resonance, distorted-wave approximation. Fine-structure and configuration-interaction effects are examined in detail for the O 7+ cross section. Hartree-Fock, intermediate-coupled, multiconfiguration dielectronic recombination cross sections for O 7+ are then compared with the recent experimental measurements obtained with the Test Storage Ring in Heidelberg. The cross-section spectra line up well in energy and the shape of the main resonance structures are comparable. The experimental integrated cross sections differ by up to 20% from theory, but this may be due in part to uncertainties in the electron distribution function

  14. Cross plane scattering correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao, L.; Karp, J.S.

    1990-01-01

    Most previous scattering correction techniques for PET are based on assumptions made for a single transaxial plane and are independent of axial variations. These techniques will incorrectly estimate the scattering fraction for volumetric PET imaging systems since they do not take the cross-plane scattering into account. In this paper, the authors propose a new point source scattering deconvolution method (2-D). The cross-plane scattering is incorporated into the algorithm by modeling a scattering point source function. In the model, the scattering dependence both on axial and transaxial directions is reflected in the exponential fitting parameters and these parameters are directly estimated from a limited number of measured point response functions. The authors' results comparing the standard in-plane point source deconvolution to the authors' cross-plane source deconvolution show that for a small source, the former technique overestimates the scatter fraction in the plane of the source and underestimate the scatter fraction in adjacent planes. In addition, the authors also propose a simple approximation technique for deconvolution

  15. The crossed phrenic phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghali, Michael George Zaki

    2017-01-01

    The cervical spine is the most common site of traumatic vertebral column injuries. Respiratory insufficiency constitutes a significant proportion of the morbidity burden and is the most common cause of mortality in these patients. In seeking to enhance our capacity to treat specifically the respiratory dysfunction following spinal cord injury, investigators have studied the “crossed phrenic phenomenon”, wherein contraction of a hemidiaphragm paralyzed by a complete hemisection of the ipsilateral cervical spinal cord above the phrenic nucleus can be induced by respiratory stressors and recovers spontaneously over time. Strengthening of latent contralateral projections to the phrenic nucleus and sprouting of new descending axons have been proposed as mechanisms contributing to the observed recovery. We have recently demonstrated recovery of spontaneous crossed phrenic activity occurring over minutes to hours in C1-hemisected unanesthetized decerebrate rats. The specific neurochemical and molecular pathways underlying crossed phrenic activity following injury require further clarification. A thorough understanding of these is necessary in order to develop targeted therapies for respiratory neurorehabilitation following spinal trauma. Animal studies provide preliminary evidence for the utility of neuropharmacological manipulation of serotonergic and adenosinergic pathways, nerve grafts, olfactory ensheathing cells, intraspinal microstimulation and a possible role for dorsal rhizotomy in recovering phrenic activity following spinal cord injury PMID:28761411

  16. The crossed phrenic phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael George Zaki Ghali

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The cervical spine is the most common site of traumatic vertebral column injuries. Respiratory insufficiency constitutes a significant proportion of the morbidity burden and is the most common cause of mortality in these patients. In seeking to enhance our capacity to treat specifically the respiratory dysfunction following spinal cord injury, investigators have studied the “crossed phrenic phenomenon”, wherein contraction of a hemidiaphragm paralyzed by a complete hemisection of the ipsilateral cervical spinal cord above the phrenic nucleus can be induced by respiratory stressors and recovers spontaneously over time. Strengthening of latent contralateral projections to the phrenic nucleus and sprouting of new descending axons have been proposed as mechanisms contributing to the observed recovery. We have recently demonstrated recovery of spontaneous crossed phrenic activity occurring over minutes to hours in C1-hemisected unanesthetized decerebrate rats. The specific neurochemical and molecular pathways underlying crossed phrenic activity following injury require further clarification. A thorough understanding of these is necessary in order to develop targeted therapies for respiratory neurorehabilitation following spinal trauma. Animal studies provide preliminary evidence for the utility of neuropharmacological manipulation of serotonergic and adenosinergic pathways, nerve grafts, olfactory ensheathing cells, intraspinal microstimulation and a possible role for dorsal rhizotomy in recovering phrenic activity following spinal cord injury

  17. The crossed phrenic phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghali, Michael George Zaki

    2017-06-01

    The cervical spine is the most common site of traumatic vertebral column injuries. Respiratory insufficiency constitutes a significant proportion of the morbidity burden and is the most common cause of mortality in these patients. In seeking to enhance our capacity to treat specifically the respiratory dysfunction following spinal cord injury, investigators have studied the "crossed phrenic phenomenon", wherein contraction of a hemidiaphragm paralyzed by a complete hemisection of the ipsilateral cervical spinal cord above the phrenic nucleus can be induced by respiratory stressors and recovers spontaneously over time. Strengthening of latent contralateral projections to the phrenic nucleus and sprouting of new descending axons have been proposed as mechanisms contributing to the observed recovery. We have recently demonstrated recovery of spontaneous crossed phrenic activity occurring over minutes to hours in C 1 -hemisected unanesthetized decerebrate rats. The specific neurochemical and molecular pathways underlying crossed phrenic activity following injury require further clarification. A thorough understanding of these is necessary in order to develop targeted therapies for respiratory neurorehabilitation following spinal trauma. Animal studies provide preliminary evidence for the utility of neuropharmacological manipulation of serotonergic and adenosinergic pathways, nerve grafts, olfactory ensheathing cells, intraspinal microstimulation and a possible role for dorsal rhizotomy in recovering phrenic activity following spinal cord injury.

  18. Multifractal Detrended Cross-Correlation Analysis of agricultural futures markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Lingyun; Chen Shupeng

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We investigated cross-correlations between China's and US agricultural futures markets. → Power-law cross-correlations are found between the geographically far but correlated markets. → Multifractal features are significant in all the markets. → Cross-correlation exponent is less than averaged GHE when q 0. - Abstract: We investigated geographically far but temporally correlated China's and US agricultural futures markets. We found that there exists a power-law cross-correlation between them, and that multifractal features are significant in all the markets. It is very interesting that the geographically far markets show strong cross-correlations and share much of their multifractal structure. Furthermore, we found that for all the agricultural futures markets in our studies, the cross-correlation exponent is less than the averaged generalized Hurst exponents (GHE) when q 0.

  19. Preparation of next generation set of group cross sections. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, Kunio

    2002-03-01

    This fiscal year, based on the examination result about the evaluation energy range of heavy element unresolved resonance cross sections, the upper energy limit of the energy range, where ultra-fine group cross sections are produced, was raised to 50 keV, and an improvement of the group cross section processing system was promoted. At the same time, reflecting the result of studies carried out till now, a function producing delayed neutron data was added to the general-purpose group cross section processing system , thus the preparation of general purpose group cross section processing system has been completed. On the other hand, the energy structure, data constitution and data contents of next generation group cross section set were determined, and the specification of a 151 groups next generation group cross section set was defined. Based on the above specification, a concrete library format of the next generation cross section set has been determined. After having carried out the above-described work, using the general-purpose group cross section processing system , which was complete in this study, with use of the JENDL-3. 2 evaluated nuclear data, the 151 groups next generation group cross section of 92 nuclides and the ultra fine group resonance cross section library for 29 nuclides have been prepared. Utilizing the 151 groups next generation group cross section set and the ultra-fine group resonance cross-section library, a bench mark test calculation of fast reactors has been performed by using an advanced lattice calculation code. It was confirmed, by comparing the calculation result with a calculation result of continuous energy Monte Carlo code, that the 151 groups next generation cross section set has sufficient accuracy. (author)

  20. Cross border M and A environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, M.B.

    1998-01-01

    An overview of the Canada-U.S. cross-border merger and acquisition environment and exchangeable share structure within the petroleum industry is provided. Recent U.S. acquisitions in Canada, Canadian investment conditions, indexed price analysis from January 1, 1997 to October 16, 1998, and a variety of other share price/cash flow statistics relevant to mergers and acquisitions are examined. tabs., figs