WorldWideScience

Sample records for underlying scientific principles

  1. Ethical principles of scientific communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baranov G. V.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available the article presents the principles of ethical management of scientific communication. The author approves the priority of ethical principle of social responsibility of the scientist.

  2. Applying Scientific Principles to Resolve Student Misconceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yue

    2012-01-01

    Misconceptions about sinking and floating phenomena are some of the most challenging to overcome (Yin 2005), possibly because explaining sinking and floating requires students to understand challenging topics such as density, force, and motion. Two scientific principles are typically used in U.S. science curricula to explain sinking and floating:…

  3. Principles and ethics in scientific communication in biomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donev, Doncho

    2013-12-01

    To present the basic principles and standards of scientific communication and writing a paper, to indicate the importance of honesty and ethical approach to research and publication of results in scientific journals, as well as the need for continuing education in the principles and ethics in science and publication in biomedicine. An analysis of relevant materials and documents, sources from the internet and published literature and personal experience and observations of the author. In the past more than 20 years there is an increasingly emphasized importance of respecting fundamental principles and standards of scientific communication and ethical approach to research and publication of results in peer review journals. Advances in the scientific community is based on honesty and equity of researchers in conducting and publishing the results of research and to develop guidelines and policies for prevention and punishment of publishing misconduct. Today scientific communication standards and definitions of fraud in science and publishing are generally consistent, but vary considerably policies and approach to ethics education in science, prevention and penal policies for misconduct in research and publication of results in scientific journals. It is necessary to further strengthen the capacity for education and research, and raising awareness about the importance and need for education about the principles of scientific communication, ethics of research and publication of results. The use of various forms of education of the scientific community, in undergraduate teaching and postgraduate master and doctoral studies, in order to create an ethical environment, is one of the most effective ways to prevent the emergence of scientific and publication dishonesty and fraud.

  4. Provincial responsibility for carbon emissions in China under different principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Youguo

    2015-01-01

    By applying a multi-regional input–output model, the study compares the provincial responsibility for carbon emissions and provincial carbon multipliers in China under seven responsibility-allocating principles, including three basic principles, the production, income and consumption principles, and four shared responsibility principles, the income-weighted, consumption weighted, comprehensive, and weighted comprehensive principles. Empirical results indicate that carbon multipliers of provinces under these principles are significantly different from one another. The carbon multipliers of provinces with higher ratios of carbon intensive sectors in their outputs are also larger. At the same time, the carbon multipliers of the same sector in the provinces are significantly different from one another. Changing the principle causes significant changes in the responsibility for carbon emissions of some provinces, but only slight changes in the responsibilities of some other provinces. However, the responsibilities of provinces with large economic sizes (output) are always the largest, whereas provinces with the smallest economic sizes are always the smallest regardless of the principles. Further, this study proposes a series of regional policies for carbon mitigation according to provincial carbon multipliers and responsibility allocation features under the different principles. - Highlights: • We link regional environmental responsibility to seven benefit principles. • We analyze provincial responsibility for carbon emissions in China. • We also report provincial carbon multipliers under different principles. • We compare the seven principles from the regional perspective. • Policy implications of the study are discussed.

  5. Saccharomyces genome database: underlying principles and organisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwight, Selina S; Balakrishnan, Rama; Christie, Karen R; Costanzo, Maria C; Dolinski, Kara; Engel, Stacia R; Feierbach, Becket; Fisk, Dianna G; Hirschman, Jodi; Hong, Eurie L; Issel-Tarver, Laurie; Nash, Robert S; Sethuraman, Anand; Starr, Barry; Theesfeld, Chandra L; Andrada, Rey; Binkley, Gail; Dong, Qing; Lane, Christopher; Schroeder, Mark; Weng, Shuai; Botstein, David; Cherry, J Michael

    2004-03-01

    A scientific database can be a powerful tool for biologists in an era where large-scale genomic analysis, combined with smaller-scale scientific results, provides new insights into the roles of genes and their products in the cell. However, the collection and assimilation of data is, in itself, not enough to make a database useful. The data must be incorporated into the database and presented to the user in an intuitive and biologically significant manner. Most importantly, this presentation must be driven by the user's point of view; that is, from a biological perspective. The success of a scientific database can therefore be measured by the response of its users - statistically, by usage numbers and, in a less quantifiable way, by its relationship with the community it serves and its ability to serve as a model for similar projects. Since its inception ten years ago, the Saccharomyces Genome Database (SGD) has seen a dramatic increase in its usage, has developed and maintained a positive working relationship with the yeast research community, and has served as a template for at least one other database. The success of SGD, as measured by these criteria, is due in large part to philosophies that have guided its mission and organisation since it was established in 1993. This paper aims to detail these philosophies and how they shape the organisation and presentation of the database.

  6. NATURAL-SCIENCE EDUCATION: SCIENTIFIC AND RELIGIOUS KNOWLEDGE CORRELATION IN THE VIEW OF A SYMMETRY PRINCIPLE. PART I. THE CONTENT OF A SYMMETRY PRINCIPLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaly L. Gapontsev

    2015-01-01

    problems of a science, in particular problems of a correlation of scientific and religious knowledge, and as a whole – forming of hierarchy of scientific disciplines that will include not only all existing scientific directions from strict deductive to empirical, but even those directions that are not recognised as scientific disciplines. Such possibilities are given by reason of the double logic status of concept «symmetry» – as the general inductive and as primary deductive phenomenon. Practical significance. Research outcomes can be useful and form a basis for optimisation of structure of the educational content – designing of a new throughline of the training providing formation of a complete picture of scientific knowledge. The necessity of such throughline is connected with education crisis in the conditions of continuously growing scope of information and as a result redundancy of curriculums. The disciplines of the general natural-science courses, such as «Natural-science World View» and «Concept of Modern Natural Sciences» can be independent elements of similar training under the condition of selection of its content according to a fundamental principle of symmetry. 

  7. Pre-Service Science Teachers' Perception of the Principles of Scientific Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can, Sendil; Kaymakci, Güliz

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the current study employing the survey method is to determine the pre-service science teachers' perceptions of the principles of scientific research and to investigate the effects of gender, grade level and the state of following scientific publications on their perceptions. The sampling of the current research is comprised of 125…

  8. Scientific principles for the identification of endocrine-disrupting chemicals: a consensus statement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solecki, Roland; Kortenkamp, Andreas; Bergman, Åke

    2017-01-01

    scientific principles for the identification of EDs. The paper discusses the consensus reached on background, definition of an ED and related concepts, sources of uncertainty, scientific principles important for ED identification, and research needs. It highlights the difficulty in retrospectively...... from different disciplines discussed principles and open questions on ED identification as outlined in a draft consensus paper at an expert meeting hosted by the German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR) in Berlin, Germany on 11-12 April 2016. Participants reached a consensus regarding...

  9. Multiple comparisons in drug efficacy studies: scientific or marketing principles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leo, Jonathan

    2004-01-01

    When researchers design an experiment to compare a given medication to another medication, a behavioral therapy, or a placebo, the experiment often involves numerous comparisons. For instance, there may be several different evaluation methods, raters, and time points. Although scientifically justified, such comparisons can be abused in the interests of drug marketing. This article provides two recent examples of such questionable practices. The first involves the case of the arthritis drug celecoxib (Celebrex), where the study lasted 12 months but the authors only presented 6 months of data. The second case involves the NIMH Multimodal Treatment Study (MTA) study evaluating the efficacy of stimulant medication for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder where ratings made by several groups are reported in contradictory fashion. The MTA authors have not clarified the confusion, at least in print, suggesting that the actual findings of the study may have played little role in the authors' reported conclusions.

  10. Scientific challenges underlying production document processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saund, Eric

    2011-01-01

    The Field of Document Recognition is bipolar. On one end lies the excellent work of academic institutions engaging in original research on scientifically interesting topics. On the other end lies the document recognition industry which services needs for high-volume data capture for transaction and back-office applications. These realms seldom meet, yet the need is great to address technical hurdles for practical problems using modern approaches from the Document Recognition, Computer Vision, and Machine Learning disciplines. We reflect on three categories of problems we have encountered which are both scientifically challenging and of high practical value. These are Doctype Classification, Functional Role Labeling, and Document Sets. Doctype Classification asks, "What is the type of page I am looking at?" Functional Role Labeling asks, "What is the status of text and graphical elements in a model of document structure?" Document Sets asks, "How are pages and their contents related to one another?" Each of these has ad hoc engineering approaches that provide 40-80% solutions, and each of them begs for a deeply grounded formulation both to provide understanding and to attain the remaining 20-60% of practical value. The practical need is not purely technical but also depends on the user experience in application setup and configuration, and in collection and groundtruthing of sample documents. The challenge therefore extends beyond the science behind document image recognition and into user interface and user experience design.

  11. Investigating underlying principles to guide health impact assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhri, Ali; Maleki, Mohammadreza; Gohari, Mahmoodreza; Harris, Patrick

    2014-06-01

    Many countries conduct Health Impact Assessment (HIA) of their projects and policies to predict their positive and negative health impacts. In recent years many guides have been developed to inform HIA practice, largely reflecting local developments in HIA. These guides have often been designed for specific contexts and specific need, making the choice between guides difficult. The objective of the current study is to identify underlying principles in order to guide HIA practice in Iran. This study was conducted in three stages: 1) Studies comparing HIA guidelines were reviewed to identify criteria used for comparison seeking emphasized principles. 2) The HIA characteristics extracted from published papers were categorized in order to determine the principles that could guide HIA practice. 3) Finally, these principles were agreed by experts using nominal group technique. The review of the studies comparing HIA guides demonstrated there are no clear comparison criteria for reviewing HIA guides and no study mentioned HIA principles. Investigating the HIA principles from peer-reviewed papers, we found 14 issues. These were, considering of general features in planning and conducting HIAs such as HIA stream, level, timing and type, considering of the wider socio-political and economic context, considering of economic, technical and legal aspects of HIA and capacities for HIA, rationality and comprehensiveness, using appropriate evidence, elaborating on HIA relation to other forms of Impact Assessment, considering of equity, and encouraging intersectoral and interdisciplinary cooperation, involvement of stakeholders and transparency as underlying principles to guide HIA practice. The results emphasize how critical these technical as well as tactical considerations are in the early scoping step of an HIA which plans the conduct of the HIA in reponse to local contextual issues. Determining the principles of HIA from peer-reviewed papers provides an opportunity for guiding

  12. Investigating Underlying Principles to Guide Health Impact Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Fakhri

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Many countries conduct Health Impact Assessment (HIA of their projects and policies to predict their positive and negative health impacts. In recent years many guides have been developed to inform HIA practice, largely reflecting local developments in HIA. These guides have often been designed for specific contexts and specific need, making the choice between guides difficult. The objective of the current study is to identify underlying principles in order to guide HIA practice in Iran. Methods This study was conducted in three stages: 1 Studies comparing HIA guidelines were reviewed to identify criteria used for comparison seeking emphasized principles. 2 The HIA characteristics extracted from published papers were categorized in order to determine the principles that could guide HIA practice. 3 Finally, these principles were agreed by experts using nominal group technique. Results The review of the studies comparing HIA guides demonstrated there are no clear comparison criteria for reviewing HIA guides and no study mentioned HIA principles. Investigating the HIA principles from peer-reviewed papers, we found 14 issues. These were, considering of general features in planning and conducting HIAs such as HIA stream, level, timing and type, considering of the wider socio-political and economic context, considering of economic, technical and legal aspects of HIA and capacities for HIA, rationality and comprehensiveness, using appropriate evidence, elaborating on HIA relation to other forms of Impact Assessment, considering of equity, and encouraging intersectoral and interdisciplinary cooperation, involvement of stakeholders and transparency as underlying principles to guide HIA practice. The results emphasize how critical these technical as well as tactical considerations are in the early scoping step of an HIA which plans the conduct of the HIA in reponse to local contextual issues. Conclusion Determining the principles of HIA from

  13. The precautionary principle in fisheries management under climate change: How the international legal framework formulate it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latifah, E.; Imanullah, M. N.

    2018-03-01

    One of the objectives of fisheries management is to reach long-term sustainable benefits of the fish stocks while reducing the risk of severe or irreversible damage to the marine ecosystem. Achieving this objective needs, the good scientific knowledge and understanding on fisheries management including scientific data and information on the fish stock, fishing catch, distribution, migration, the proportion of mature fish, the mortality rate, reproduction as well as the knowledge on the impact of fishing on dependent and associated species and other species belonging to the same ecosystem, and further the impact of climate change and climate variability on the fish stocks and marine ecosystem. Lack of this scientific knowledge may lead to high levels of uncertainty. The precautionary principle is one of the basic environmental principles needed in overcoming this problem. An essence of this principle is that, in facing the serious risk as a result of the limited scientific knowledge or the absence of complete evidence of harm, it should not prevent the precautionary measures in minimizing risks and protecting the fish stocks and ecosystem. This study aims to examine how the precautionary principle in fisheries management be formulated into the international legal framework, especially under the climate change framework.

  14. Ethics Teaching in Higher Education for Principled Reasoning: A Gateway for Reconciling Scientific Practice with Ethical Deliberation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aközer, Mehmet; Aközer, Emel

    2017-06-01

    This paper proposes laying the groundwork for principled moral reasoning as a seminal goal of ethics interventions in higher education, and on this basis, makes a case for educating future specialists and professionals with a foundation in philosophical ethics. Identification of such a seminal goal is warranted by (1) the progressive dissociation of scientific practice and ethical deliberation since the onset of a problematic relationship between science and ethics around the mid-19th century, and (2) the extensive mistrust of integrating ethics in science and engineering curricula beyond its "applied," "practical," or "professional" implications. Although calls by international scientific and educational bodies to strengthen ethics teaching in scientific education over the past quarter century have brought about a notion of combining competence in a certain field with competence in ethics, this is neither entrenched in the academic community, nor fleshed out as regards its core or instruments to realize it. The legitimate goals of ethics teaching in higher education, almost settled since the 1980s, can be subsumed under the proposed seminal goal, and the latter also would safeguard content and methods of ethics interventions against the intrusion of indoctrinative approaches. In this paper, derivation of the proposed seminal goal rests on an interpretation of the Kohlbergian cognitive-developmental conception of moral adulthood consisting in autonomous principled moral reasoning. This interpretation involves, based on Kant's conception of the virtuous person, integrating questions about the "good life" into the domain of principled reasoning.

  15. Gauge theories under incorporation of a generalized uncertainty principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kober, Martin

    2010-01-01

    There is considered an extension of gauge theories according to the assumption of a generalized uncertainty principle which implies a minimal length scale. A modification of the usual uncertainty principle implies an extended shape of matter field equations like the Dirac equation. If there is postulated invariance of such a generalized field equation under local gauge transformations, the usual covariant derivative containing the gauge potential has to be replaced by a generalized covariant derivative. This leads to a generalized interaction between the matter field and the gauge field as well as to an additional self-interaction of the gauge field. Since the existence of a minimal length scale seems to be a necessary assumption of any consistent quantum theory of gravity, the gauge principle is a constitutive ingredient of the standard model, and even gravity can be described as gauge theory of local translations or Lorentz transformations, the presented extension of gauge theories appears as a very important consideration.

  16. OZCAR: the French network of Critical Zone Observatories: principles and scientific objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braud, Isabelle; Gaillardet, Jérôme; Hankard, Fatim; Le Borgne, Tanguy; Nord, Guillaume; Six, Delphine; Galy, Catherine; Laggoun-Défarge, Fatima; Tallec, Tiphaine; Pauwels, Hélène

    2017-04-01

    This contribution aims at presenting the principles that underlined the creation of the OZCAR research infrastructure, gathering various Critical Zone Observatories in France, and the scientific questions that drives the observation settings. The Critical Zone includes the fine zone between the lower atmosphere at the top of the canopy down to the bedrock-soil interface. This lithosphere-atmosphere boundary is critical for the availability of life-sustaining resources and critical for humanity because this is the zone where we live, where we build our cities, from which we extract our food and our water and where we release most of our wastes. This is the fragile zone on which the natural ecosystem relies because this is where nutrients are being released from the rocks. OZCAR is a distributed research infrastructure gathering instrumented sites and catchments on continental surfaces all dedicated to the observation and monitoring of the different compartments of the Critical Zone at the national scale. All these observatories (more that 40) were all built up on specific questions (acid deposition, flood prediction, urban hydrology…), some of them more than 50 years ago, but they have all in common to be highly instrumented, permanently funded as infrastructures. They all share the same overarching goal of understanding and predicting the Critical Zone in a changing world. OZCAR gathers instrumented catchments, hydrogeological sites, peatlands, glacier and permafrost regions and a spatial observatory under the common umbrella of understanding water and biogeochemical cycles and the associated fluxes of energy by using natural gradients and experimentation. Based on the collaboration with Southern Countries, OZCAR's sites have a global coverage including tropical areas and high mountainous regions in the Andes and the Himalaya. OZCAR benefits from a French investments project called CRITEX (Innovative equipment for the critical zone, https://www.critex.fr/critex-3

  17. Design principles and developmental mechanisms underlying retinal mosaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Benjamin E; Keeley, Patrick W

    2015-08-01

    Most structures within the central nervous system (CNS) are composed of different types of neuron that vary in both number and morphology, but relatively little is known about the interplay between these two features, i.e. about the population dynamics of a given cell type. How such arrays of neurons are distributed within a structure, and how they differentiate their dendrites relative to each other, are issues that have recently drawn attention in the invertebrate nervous system, where the genetic and molecular underpinnings of these organizing principles are being revealed in exquisite detail. The retina is one of the few locations where these principles have been extensively studied in the vertebrate CNS, indeed, where the design principles of 'mosaic regularity' and 'uniformity of coverage' were first explicitly defined, quantified, and related to each other. Recent studies have revealed a number of genes that influence the formation of these histotypical features in the retina, including homologues of those invertebrate genes, although close inspection reveals that they do not always mediate comparable developmental processes nor elucidate fundamental design principles. The present review considers just how pervasive these features of 'mosaic regularity' and 'uniform dendritic coverage' are within the mammalian retina, discussing the means by which such features can be assessed in the mature and developing nervous system and examining the limitations associated with those assessments. We then address the extent to which these two design principles co-exist within different populations of neurons, and how they are achieved during development. Finally, we consider the neural phenotypes obtained in mutant nervous systems, to address whether a prospective gene of interest underlies those very design principles. © 2014 The Authors. Biological Reviews © 2014 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  18. Work of scientific and technological information under network environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yingxi; Huang Daifu; Yang Lifeng

    2010-01-01

    With the development of internet and information technology, the work of scientific and technological information is faced with great challenge. This article expounds the new changes of scientific and technological information in enterprise under network environment by giving a minute description on the situation the work faced and characteristic of the work. Not only does it carry out enthusiastic discussion upon problems which are present in the work of scientific and technological information in the company, but puts forward proposals and specific measures as well. Service theory is also offered by adjusting and reforming the resources construction, service ways and the job of providing contents. We should take vigorous action to the research work of scientific and technological information, changing the information directional service into knowledge providing service. (authors)

  19. Precautionary principles: a jurisdiction-free framework for decision-making under risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, Paolo F; Cox, Louis A; MacDonald, Thomas R

    2004-12-01

    Fundamental principles of precaution are legal maxims that ask for preventive actions, perhaps as contingent interim measures while relevant information about causality and harm remains unavailable, to minimize the societal impact of potentially severe or irreversible outcomes. Such principles do not explain how to make choices or how to identify what is protective when incomplete and inconsistent scientific evidence of causation characterizes the potential hazards. Rather, they entrust lower jurisdictions, such as agencies or authorities, to make current decisions while recognizing that future information can contradict the scientific basis that supported the initial decision. After reviewing and synthesizing national and international legal aspects of precautionary principles, this paper addresses the key question: How can society manage potentially severe, irreversible or serious environmental outcomes when variability, uncertainty, and limited causal knowledge characterize their decision-making? A decision-analytic solution is outlined that focuses on risky decisions and accounts for prior states of information and scientific beliefs that can be updated as subsequent information becomes available. As a practical and established approach to causal reasoning and decision-making under risk, inherent to precautionary decision-making, these (Bayesian) methods help decision-makers and stakeholders because they formally account for probabilistic outcomes, new information, and are consistent and replicable. Rational choice of an action from among various alternatives--defined as a choice that makes preferred consequences more likely--requires accounting for costs, benefits and the change in risks associated with each candidate action. Decisions under any form of the precautionary principle reviewed must account for the contingent nature of scientific information, creating a link to the decision-analytic principle of expected value of information (VOI), to show the

  20. The epidemiologic principles underlying traffic safety study designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, June H; Mooney, Stephen J

    2016-10-01

    This article describes the epidemiological principles underlying four observational study designs commonly used to assess traffic safety: the case-control, case-crossover, culpability and quasi-induced exposure designs. We focus in particular on the specific challenges for preventing bias using each design. Whereas recruiting controls representative of the source population poses a special challenge in case-control traffic safety studies, case-crossover designs are prone to recall bias, and culpability and quasi-induced exposure studies can be undermined by difficulties assigning crash responsibility. Using causal diagrams and worked examples, we provide a simple way to teach traffic safety designs to epidemiologists and to encourage proper application of epidemiological principles among researchers designing traffic safety studies. © The Author 2016; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  1. Tooth preparations for complete crowns: an art form based on scientific principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodacre, C J; Campagni, W V; Aquilino, S A

    2001-04-01

    No recent literature has reviewed the current scientific knowledge on complete coverage tooth preparations. This article traces the historic evolution of complete coverage tooth preparations and identifies guidelines for scientific tooth preparations. Literature covering 250 years of clinical practice was reviewed with emphasis on scientific data acquired during the last 50 years. Both a MEDLINE search and an extensive manual search were used to locate relevant articles written in English in the last 50 years. Teeth should be prepared so that they exhibit the following characteristics: 10 to 20 degrees of total occlusal convergence, a minimal occlusocervical dimension of 4 mm for molars and 3 mm for other teeth, and an occlusocervical-to-faciolingual dimension ratio of 0.4 or greater. Facioproximal and linguoproximal line angles should be preserved whenever possible. When the above features are missing, the teeth should be modified with auxiliary resistance features such as axial grooves or boxes, preferably on proximal surfaces. Finish line selection should be based on the type of crown/retainer, esthetic requirements, ease of formation, and personal experience. Expectations of enhanced marginal fit with certain finish lines could not be validated by recent research. Esthetic requirements and tooth conditions determine finish line locations relative to the gingiva, with a supragingival location being more acceptable. Line angles should be rounded, and a reasonable degree of surface smoothness is desired. Nine scientific principles have been developed that ensure mechanical, biologic, and esthetic success for tooth preparation of complete coverage restorations.

  2. Carbon Cycling, Climate Regulation, and Disturbances in Canadian Forests: Scientific Principles for Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Sébastien Landry

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Canadian forests are often perceived as pristine and among the last remaining wilderness, but the majority of them are officially managed and undergo direct land use, mostly for wood harvest. This land use has modified their functions and properties, often inadvertently (e.g., age structure but sometimes purposefully (e.g., fire suppression. Based on a review of the literature pertaining to carbon cycling, climate regulation, and disturbances from logging, fire, and insect outbreaks, we propose five scientific principles relevant for Canadian managed forests. Among these, a principle we wish to highlight is the need to properly account for the management-related fossil fuel emissions, because they will affect the global carbon cycle and climate for millennia unless massive atmospheric carbon dioxide removal becomes a reality. We also use these five principles to address questions of current interest to research scientists, forest managers, and policy makers. Our review focusses on total ecosystem carbon storage and various mechanisms through which forests affect climate, in particular albedo and aerosols forcings—including how disturbances influence all these elements—but also touches on other ecosystem goods and services. Our review underscores the importance of conducting >100-year time horizon studies of carbon cycling, climate regulation, and disturbances in Canadian managed forests.

  3. Teaching scientific principles through a computer-based, design-centered learning environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Michael Brian

    Research on science instruction indicates that the traditional science classroom is not always effective in improving students' scientific understanding. Physics courses, in particular, do not promote the ability to apply scientific principles for many reasons, based on their focus on procedural problem-solving and lab exercises. In this dissertation, I propose the Designing-to-Learn Architecture (DTLA), a design-centered goal-based scenario (GBS) architecture, theoretically grounded in the literature on design-centered learning environments, goal-based scenarios, intelligent tutoring systems and simulations. The DTLA offers an alternative approach to addressing the issues encountered in the traditional science classroom. The architecture consists of an artifact with associated design goals; components with component options; a simulation; a reference database; and guided tutorials. I describe the design of Goin' Up?, the prototype DTL application, serving as the basis for evaluating the effectiveness of the DTLA. I present results of interview and testing protocols from the formative evaluation of Goin' Up?, suggesting that learning outcomes, though not statistically significant, could be improved through DTLA enhancements informed by usage patterns in software sessions. I conclude with an analysis of the results and suggestions for improvements to the DTLA, including additional components to address reflection, provide support for novice designers, and offer tutorial guidance on the analysis of the artifact.

  4. Organizing principles underlying microorganism's growth-robustness trade-off.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolli, Alessandro; Salvador, Armindo

    2014-10-01

    Growth Robustness Reciprocity (GRR) is an intriguing microbial manifestation: the impairment of microorganism's growth enhances their ability to resist acute stresses, and vice-versa. This is caused by regulatory interactions that determine higher expression of protection mechanisms in response to low growth rates. But because such regulatory mechanisms are species-specific, GRR must result from convergent evolution. Why does natural selection favor such an outcome? We used mathematical models of optimal cellular resource allocation to identify the general principles underlying GRR. Non-linear optimization allowed to predict allocation patterns of biosynthetic resources (ribosomes devoted to the synthesis of each cell component) that maximize growth. These models predict the down-regulation of stress defenses under high substrate availabilities and low stress levels. Under these conditions, stress tolerance ensues from growth-related damage dilution: the higher the substrate availability, the fastest the dilution of damaged proteins by newly synthesized proteins, the lower the accumulation of damaged components into the cell. In turn, under low substrate availability growth is too slow for effective damage dilution, and the expression of the defenses up to some optimal level then increases growth. As a consequence, slow-growing cells are pre-adapted to withstand acute stresses. Therefore, the observed negative correlation between growth and stress tolerance can be explained as a consequence of optimal resource allocation for maximal growth. We acknowledge fellowship SFRH/BPD/90065/2012 and grants PEst-C/SAU/LA0001/2013-2014 and FCOMP-01-0124-FEDER-020978 financed by FEDER through the "Programa Operacional Factores de Competitividade, COMPETE" and by national funds through "FCT, Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia" (project PTDC/QUI-BIQ/119657/2010). Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. General principles underlying the decommissioning of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-03-01

    Previous statements on the use of the term 'decommissioning' by the International Atomic Energy Agency, the Atomic Energy Control Board, and the Advisory Committee on Nuclear Safety are reviewed, culminating in a particular definition for its use in this paper. Three decommissioning phases are identified and discussed, leading to eight general principles governing decommissioning including one related to financing

  6. Introductory Biology Textbooks Under-Represent Scientific Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dara B. Duncan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Attrition of undergraduates from Biology majors is a long-standing problem. Introductory courses that fail to engage students or spark their curiosity by emphasizing the open-ended and creative nature of biological investigation and discovery could contribute to student detachment from the field. Our hypothesis was that introductory biology books devote relatively few figures to illustration of the design and interpretation of experiments or field studies, thereby de-emphasizing the scientific process.To investigate this possibility, we examined figures in six Introductory Biology textbooks published in 2008. On average, multistep scientific investigations were presented in fewer than 5% of the hundreds of figures in each book. Devoting such a small percentage of figures to the processes by which discoveries are made discourages an emphasis on scientific thinking. We suggest that by increasing significantly the illustration of scientific investigations, textbooks could support undergraduates’ early interest in biology, stimulate the development of design and analytical skills, and inspire some students to participate in investigations of their own.

  7. Environmental Defense Fund Oil and Gas Methane Studies: Principles for Collaborating with Industry Partners while Maintaining Scientific Objectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamburg, S.

    2016-12-01

    Environmental Defense Fund (EDF) launched a series of 16 research studies in 2012 to quantify methane emissions from the U.S. oil and gas (O&G) supply chain. In addition to EDF's funding from philanthropic individuals and foundations and in-kind contributions from universities, over forty O&G companies contributed money to the studies. For a subset of studies that required partner companies to provide site access to measure their equipment, five common principles were followed to assure that research was objective and scientifically rigorous. First, academic scientists were selected as principal investigators (PIs) to lead the studies. In line with EDF's policy of not accepting money from corporate partners, O&G companies provided funding directly to academic PIs. Technical work groups and steering committees consisting of EDF and O&G partner staff advised the PIs in the planning and implementation of research, but PIs had the final authority in scientific decisions including publication content. Second, scientific advisory panels of independent experts advised the PIs in the study design, data analysis, and interpretation. Third, studies employed multiple methodologies when possible, including top-down and bottom-up measurements. This helped overcome the limitations of individual approaches to decrease the uncertainty of emission estimates and minimize concerns with data being "cherry-picked". Fourth, studies were published in peer-reviewed journals to undergo an additional round of independent review. Fifth, transparency of data was paramount. Study data were released after publication, although operator and site names of individual data points were anonymized to ensure transparency and allow independent analysis. Following these principles allowed an environmental organization, O&G companies, and academic scientists to collaborate in scientific research while minimizing conflicts of interest. This approach can serve as a model for a scientifically rigorous

  8. NATURAL-SCIENCE EDUCATION: SCIENTIFIC AND RELIGIOUS KNOWLEDGE CORRELATION IN THE VIEW OF A SYMMETRY PRINCIPLE. Ch. 2. Examples of religious content selection in general natural science courses based on the principle of symmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitalii L. Gapontsev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This work is aimed at demonstrating the possibility of the inclusion of religious elements contained in Holy Scripture and Holy Tradition in the general natural scientific courses based on the principle of symmetry.The method used in the work is confined to a comparison of perceptions formed in modern science and is closely related to the forms of symmetry and invariance principles (symmetry principles and, in particular, space-time concepts with those of the Book of Genesis. Such a comparison reveals the following unexpected feature: most profound presentation of modern natural sciences is closer to the provisions of Holy Scripture and Holy Tradition than a look at the same things existed in the earlier stages of the development of science. This allows the authors to formulate the hypothesis that in the process of development of scientific knowledge, it gradually becomes closer to the religious worldview. This process is slow, so its results have become visible only within 3500 years after the establishment of the truth of the Old Testament and 2000 years after the New Testament.Results and scientific novelty. The «firmament of heaven» and «water under the firmament» concepts are explained in the terms of the model of the Kleinert – Planck World crystal and understanding of the properties of matter and fields which are related with the conservation law of the wave-function parity. The relational nature of phenomena such as «life» and «death» in the course of universe evolution as a general trend is considered as the process of lowering the degree of symmetry of matter after the Big Bang wherein the Universe was created. The concepts used by E. Wigner for the description of the structure of the scientific knowledge are analysed. Its structure is determined by shapes and specific principles of the symmetry of exact sciences. The analysis of the concept «natural phenomenon» has shown that they are different in the degree of space

  9. Training principles for fascial connective tissues: scientific foundation and suggested practical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleip, Robert; Müller, Divo Gitta

    2013-01-01

    Conventional sports training emphasizes adequate training of muscle fibres, of cardiovascular conditioning and/or neuromuscular coordination. Most sports-associated overload injuries however occur within elements of the body wide fascial net, which are then loaded beyond their prepared capacity. This tensional network of fibrous tissues includes dense sheets such as muscle envelopes, aponeuroses, as well as specific local adaptations, such as ligaments or tendons. Fibroblasts continually but slowly adapt the morphology of these tissues to repeatedly applied challenging loading stimulations. Principles of a fascia oriented training approach are introduced. These include utilization of elastic recoil, preparatory counter movement, slow and dynamic stretching, as well as rehydration practices and proprioceptive refinement. Such training should be practiced once or twice a week in order to yield in a more resilient fascial body suit within a time frame of 6-24 months. Some practical examples of fascia oriented exercises are presented. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Demand of Insurance under the Cost-of-Capital Premium Calculation Principle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Merz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We study the optimal insurance design problem. This is a risk sharing problem between an insured and an insurer. The main novelty in this paper is that we study this optimization problem under a risk-adjusted premium calculation principle for the insurance cover. This risk-adjusted premium calculation principle uses the cost-of-capital approach as it is suggested (and used by the regulator and the insurance industry.

  11. Scientific conception on mechanisms of calcium homeostasis disorders under low dose effect of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abylaev, Zh.A.; Dospolova, Zh.G.

    1997-01-01

    Scientific conception of probable consequences of calcium homeostasis disorders in personals, exposed to low dose effect of ionizing radiation has been developed. Principle positions of the conception is that pathologic processes development have different ways of conducting. During predominance of low doses of external gamma-radiation there is leading pathologic mechanism (mechanism 1) of disorder neuroendocrine regulation of both the calcium and the phosphor. In this case sicks have disorders of both the vegetative tonus and the endocrine status. Under internal irradiation (mechanism 2) there is disfunction of organs and systems (bore changes and disorders of hormone status). These changes are considered as consequence of negative action on organism of incorporated long-living radionuclides. Radio-toxic factors action (mechanism 3) provokes the excess of hormones, which acting on bone tissue and could be cause of steroid osteoporosis. Influence of chronic stress factor (mechanism 4) enlarges and burden action on organism of low radiation doses. It is emphasized, that decisive role in development of pathologic processes has mechanism of disturbance of neuroendocrine regulation of calcium exchange

  12. The search for underlying principles of health impact assessment: progress and prospects: Comment on "Investigating underlying principles to guide health impact assessment".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Mirko S; Utzinger, Jürg

    2014-07-01

    Health Impact Assessment (HIA) is a relatively young field of endeavour, and hence, future progress will depend on the planning, implementation and rigorous evaluation of additional HIAs of projects, programmes and policies the world over. In the June 2014 issue of the International Journal of Health Policy and Management, Fakhri and colleagues investigated underlying principles of HIA through a comprehensive review of the literature and expert consultation. With an emphasis on the Islamic Republic of Iran, the authors identified multiple issues that are relevant for guiding HIA practice. At the same time, the study unravelled current shortcomings in the understanding and definition of HIA principles and best practice at national, regional, and global levels. In this commentary we scrutinise the research presented, highlight strengths and limitations, and discuss the findings in the context of other recent attempts to guide HIA.

  13. The Search for Underlying Principles of Health Impact Assessment: Progress and Prospects; Comment on “Investigating Underlying Principles to Guide Health Impact Assessment”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko S. Winkler

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Health Impact Assessment (HIA is a relatively young field of endeavour, and hence, future progress will depend on the planning, implementation and rigorous evaluation of additional HIAs of projects, programmes and policies the world over. In the June 2014 issue of the International Journal of Health Policy and Management, Fakhri and colleagues investigated underlying principles of HIA through a comprehensive review of the literature and expert consultation. With an emphasis on the Islamic Republic of Iran, the authors identified multiple issues that are relevant for guiding HIA practice. At the same time, the study unravelled current shortcomings in the understanding and definition of HIA principles and best practice at national, regional, and global levels. In this commentary we scrutinise the research presented, highlight strengths and limitations, and discuss the findings in the context of other recent attempts to guide HIA.

  14. General Principles for the welfare of animals in production systems: the underlying science and its application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, David; Duncan, Ian J H; Edwards, Sandra A; Grandin, Temple; Gregory, Neville G; Guyonnet, Vincent; Hemsworth, Paul H; Huertas, Stella M; Huzzey, Juliana M; Mellor, David J; Mench, Joy A; Spinka, Marek; Whay, H Rebecca

    2013-10-01

    In 2012, the World Organisation for Animal Health adopted 10 'General Principles for the Welfare of Animals in Livestock Production Systems' to guide the development of animal welfare standards. The General Principles draw on half a century of scientific research relevant to animal welfare: (1) how genetic selection affects animal health, behaviour and temperament; (2) how the environment influences injuries and the transmission of diseases and parasites; (3) how the environment affects resting, movement and the performance of natural behaviour; (4) the management of groups to minimize conflict and allow positive social contact; (5) the effects of air quality, temperature and humidity on animal health and comfort; (6) ensuring access to feed and water suited to the animals' needs and adaptations; (7) prevention and control of diseases and parasites, with humane euthanasia if treatment is not feasible or recovery is unlikely; (8) prevention and management of pain; (9) creation of positive human-animal relationships; and (10) ensuring adequate skill and knowledge among animal handlers. Research directed at animal welfare, drawing on animal behaviour, stress physiology, veterinary epidemiology and other fields, complements more established fields of animal and veterinary science and helps to create a more comprehensive scientific basis for animal care and management. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Temporal ventriloquism along the path of apparent motion: speed perception under different spatial grouping principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogulmus, Cansu; Karacaoglu, Merve; Kafaligonul, Hulusi

    2018-03-01

    The coordination of intramodal perceptual grouping and crossmodal interactions plays a critical role in constructing coherent multisensory percepts. However, the basic principles underlying such coordinating mechanisms still remain unclear. By taking advantage of an illusion called temporal ventriloquism and its influences on perceived speed, we investigated how audiovisual interactions in time are modulated by the spatial grouping principles of vision. In our experiments, we manipulated the spatial grouping principles of proximity, uniform connectedness, and similarity/common fate in apparent motion displays. Observers compared the speed of apparent motions across different sound timing conditions. Our results revealed that the effects of sound timing (i.e., temporal ventriloquism effects) on perceived speed also existed in visual displays containing more than one object and were modulated by different spatial grouping principles. In particular, uniform connectedness was found to modulate these audiovisual interactions in time. The effect of sound timing on perceived speed was smaller when horizontal connecting bars were introduced along the path of apparent motion. When the objects in each apparent motion frame were not connected or connected with vertical bars, the sound timing was more influential compared to the horizontal bar conditions. Overall, our findings here suggest that the effects of sound timing on perceived speed exist in different spatial configurations and can be modulated by certain intramodal spatial grouping principles such as uniform connectedness.

  16. The Spatial Vision Tree: A Generic Pattern Recognition Engine- Scientific Foundations, Design Principles, and Preliminary Tree Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Zia-ur; Jobson, Daniel J.; Woodell, Glenn A.

    2010-01-01

    New foundational ideas are used to define a novel approach to generic visual pattern recognition. These ideas proceed from the starting point of the intrinsic equivalence of noise reduction and pattern recognition when noise reduction is taken to its theoretical limit of explicit matched filtering. This led us to think of the logical extension of sparse coding using basis function transforms for both de-noising and pattern recognition to the full pattern specificity of a lexicon of matched filter pattern templates. A key hypothesis is that such a lexicon can be constructed and is, in fact, a generic visual alphabet of spatial vision. Hence it provides a tractable solution for the design of a generic pattern recognition engine. Here we present the key scientific ideas, the basic design principles which emerge from these ideas, and a preliminary design of the Spatial Vision Tree (SVT). The latter is based upon a cryptographic approach whereby we measure a large aggregate estimate of the frequency of occurrence (FOO) for each pattern. These distributions are employed together with Hamming distance criteria to design a two-tier tree. Then using information theory, these same FOO distributions are used to define a precise method for pattern representation. Finally the experimental performance of the preliminary SVT on computer generated test images and complex natural images is assessed.

  17. THE UNDERLYING PRINCIPLES OF SUSILO BAMBANG YUDHOYONO‘S THOUGHT PATTERNS IN HIS ENGLISH SPEECH TEXTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulistya ningsih

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The underlying principles of thought patterns as shown in SBY's English Speeches Texts are made because there are different responses from the public, a part of public praise that SBY is a good president, and others claim and criticize him that  he is slow (Djalal, 2007: forward page. This title so far has not been investigated. This research was aimed at finding out:  the underlying principles of SBY’s thought patterns in his English Speech Texts related to Javanese philosophy. This research is qualitative. The data selected from SBY’s speech Texts were analyzed using semantic and pragmastylistic theory then were related to Javanese philosophy. The findings are the underlying principles of SBY’s thought patterns based on Javanese philosophy manifested in his English Speech Texts are: first is Memayu Hayuning Bawana, Ambrasta dur Hangkara means to reach safety, peace, happiness and well-being of the world and its contents, to keep the world maintained and harmony. Second, Rukun agawe santosa crah agawe bubrah  means to build the condition of harmony, and avoid conflict, because conflict can be harmful to both parties. Third, tepa selira means keep thinking not to offend others or lighten the burdens of others, tolerance. Fourth is ana rembug becik dirembug means thru negotiations can avoid conflict and achieve cooperation, safety, peace and prosperity. In sum, the world peace can be reached thru discussions without war, soft powers.

  18. First-principles calculations of mechanical and electronic properties of silicene under strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Qin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We perform first-principles calculations of mechanical and electronic properties of silicene under strains. The in-plane stiffness of silicene is much smaller than that of graphene. The yielding strain of silicene under uniform expansion in the ideal conditions is about 20%. The homogeneous strain can introduce a semimetal-metal transition. The semimetal state of silicene, in which the Dirac cone locates at the Fermi level, can only persist up to tensile strain of 7% with nearly invariant Fermi velocity. For larger strains, silicene changes into a conventional metal. The work function is found to change significantly under biaxial strain. Our calculations show that strain tuning is important for applications of silicene in nanoelectronics.

  19. Principles, Economic and Institutional Prerequisites for Fiscal Decentralization under Conditions of Post-Conflict Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishnevsky Valentine P.

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to study principles, economic and institutional prerequisites for fiscal decentralization on post-conflict territories. It is determined that fiscal decentralization is one of the main ways to solve problems of post-conflict areas. There justified principles, economic and institutional prerequisites of fiscal decentralization on post-conflict territories with regard to the specificity of individual spheres of fiscal relations. Moreover, different spheres of fiscal relations require different approaches: the sphere of public revenues — providing economic efficiency with the formation of the tax structure contributing to the expansion of the tax base; the sphere of public spending — ensuring social justice and transparency in allocation of social cost at the local level; the sphere of subsidies — narrowing the scope of application of intergovernmental transfers with organizing the redistribution of financial resources under the principle of «center - post-conflict regions - post-conflict recipients»; the sphere of external assistance — ensuring proper coordination for cultivation of new co-operative institutions.

  20. Developing "Personality" Taxonomies: Metatheoretical and Methodological Rationales Underlying Selection Approaches, Methods of Data Generation and Reduction Principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uher, Jana

    2015-12-01

    Taxonomic "personality" models are widely used in research and applied fields. This article applies the Transdisciplinary Philosophy-of-Science Paradigm for Research on Individuals (TPS-Paradigm) to scrutinise the three methodological steps that are required for developing comprehensive "personality" taxonomies: 1) the approaches used to select the phenomena and events to be studied, 2) the methods used to generate data about the selected phenomena and events and 3) the reduction principles used to extract the "most important" individual-specific variations for constructing "personality" taxonomies. Analyses of some currently popular taxonomies reveal frequent mismatches between the researchers' explicit and implicit metatheories about "personality" and the abilities of previous methodologies to capture the particular kinds of phenomena toward which they are targeted. Serious deficiencies that preclude scientific quantifications are identified in standardised questionnaires, psychology's established standard method of investigation. These mismatches and deficiencies derive from the lack of an explicit formulation and critical reflection on the philosophical and metatheoretical assumptions being made by scientists and from the established practice of radically matching the methodological tools to researchers' preconceived ideas and to pre-existing statistical theories rather than to the particular phenomena and individuals under study. These findings raise serious doubts about the ability of previous taxonomies to appropriately and comprehensively reflect the phenomena towards which they are targeted and the structures of individual-specificity occurring in them. The article elaborates and illustrates with empirical examples methodological principles that allow researchers to appropriately meet the metatheoretical requirements and that are suitable for comprehensively exploring individuals' "personality".

  1. Elastic Scheduling of Scientific Workflows under Deadline Constraints in Cloud Computing Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazia Anwar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Scientific workflow applications are collections of several structured activities and fine-grained computational tasks. Scientific workflow scheduling in cloud computing is a challenging research topic due to its distinctive features. In cloud environments, it has become critical to perform efficient task scheduling resulting in reduced scheduling overhead, minimized cost and maximized resource utilization while still meeting the user-specified overall deadline. This paper proposes a strategy, Dynamic Scheduling of Bag of Tasks based workflows (DSB, for scheduling scientific workflows with the aim to minimize financial cost of leasing Virtual Machines (VMs under a user-defined deadline constraint. The proposed model groups the workflow into Bag of Tasks (BoTs based on data dependency and priority constraints and thereafter optimizes the allocation and scheduling of BoTs on elastic, heterogeneous and dynamically provisioned cloud resources called VMs in order to attain the proposed method’s objectives. The proposed approach considers pay-as-you-go Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS clouds having inherent features such as elasticity, abundance, heterogeneity and VM provisioning delays. A trace-based simulation using benchmark scientific workflows representing real world applications, demonstrates a significant reduction in workflow computation cost while the workflow deadline is met. The results validate that the proposed model produces better success rates to meet deadlines and cost efficiencies in comparison to adapted state-of-the-art algorithms for similar problems.

  2. General Principles and Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (CISG – Uniformity under an Interpretation Umbrella?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Lassila

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Globalization and digitalization of international sales creates needs to harmonize rules of international commercial contracts. The question is whether the harmonization should be done by binding rules or using soft law tools or through digitalization. In this article I argue on favor of harmonization through international contracts law rules’ international interpretation.The international interpretation principles used in this article are found from on Art. 7(1 of the Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (CISG which sets three interpretation rules: international character; promoting uniformity; and observance of good faith in international trade. These principles are not only principles of the CISG, but also principles commonly recognized in international commercial practice and also in domestic contract rules. I argue that by adopting an international interpretation umbrella – the meta-principle of international interpretation, cross-border contracts could be interpreted under the same principle no matter applicable substantial law. The meta-principle functions as an interpretation umbrella covering general principles and Articles of the CISG, general principles of international commercial contracts, Lex Mercatoria, and cross-border contract provision under national law.The outcomes points out that arbitral tribunals have interpreted general principles of the CISG and Lex Mercatoria in various ways. General principles and their application in case law is analyzed in connection with the Civil Code of the Russian Federation. Tribunals found that general principles of the CISG are applicable even if the CISG is not. It follows Art.’s 7(2 logic to promote international standard to cross-border contracts where the closes connection is international commercial practice rather than any national jurisdiction.

  3. First principles study of iron-bearing MgO under ultrahigh pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umemoto, K.; Hsu, H.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding of minerals under ultrahigh pressure is essential to model interiors of super-Earths. Chemical compositions of the super-Earths are expected to be similar to those of the Earth. Computational studies on Mg-Si-O ternary systems under ultrahigh pressures, which are difficult to be achieved by diamond-anvil-cell experiments, have been intensively performed (e.g., [1] for MgO, [2,3] for SiO2, and [4,5] for MgSiO3). However, as far as we know, these studies have been restricted to pure Mg-Si-O systems. In the mantles of super-Earths, we expect that there should be impurities as in the Earth's mantle. Among candidates of impurities, iron is especially important to model interiors of super-Earths. Here, we investigate iron-bearing MgO under ultrahigh pressures by first principles. We clarify effects of iron on the phase transition of MgO and thermodynamic quantities by first principles. The role of the 3d electrons will be elucidated. [1] Z. Wu, R. M. Wentzcovitch, K. Umemoto, B. Li, K. Hirose, and J. C. Zheng, J. Geophys. Res. 113, B06204 (2008). [2] S. Q. Wu, K. Umemoto, M. Ji, C. Z. Wang, K. M. Ho, and R. M. Wentzcovitch, Phys. Rev. B 83, 184102 (2011). [3] T. Tsuchiya and J. Tsuchiya, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 108, 1252 (2011) [4] S. Q. Wu, M. Ji, C. Z. Wang, M. C. Nguye, X. Zhao, K. Umemoto, R. M. Wentzcovitch, and K. M. Ho, J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 26, 035402 (2014). [5] H. Niu, A. R. Oganov, X.-C. Chen, and D. Li, Sci. Rep. 5, 18347 (2015).

  4. 50 CFR 216.16 - Prohibitions under the General Authorization for Level B harassment for scientific research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prohibitions under the General Authorization for Level B harassment for scientific research. 216.16 Section 216.16 Wildlife and Fisheries... Prohibitions under the General Authorization for Level B harassment for scientific research. It shall be...

  5. IFLA Principles Underlying Subject Heading Languages: strenghts and weaknesses revealed by user behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alenka Šauperl

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available IFLA Principles Underlying Subject Heading Languages were published in 1995 and translated into Slovene in 2002. They try to recover the theory of indexing languages from an analysis of subject heading languages that are used in libraries around the world. These guidelines are illustrated with examples from Splošni slovenski geslovnik (Slovene General Subject Headings, Sears List of Subject Headings, and Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH. Studies on the use of LCSH by users of library catalogs were reviewed to determine weaknesses of the IFLA Principles. Changes were suggested,which would make subject retrieval easier for users. The reviewed subject heading languages reflect the needs of traditional librarians and card catalogs. These often conflict with user needs, characteristics of online catalogs and modern librarians.Subject heading languages could be improved if we would take into account the vast knowledge of user behavior and capabilities of information technology. For a better subject access to library materials, we also need to understand the processes of subject analysis and subject description.

  6. FInal Report: First Principles Modeling of Mechanisms Underlying Scintillator Non-Proportionality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aberg, Daniel [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Sadigh, Babak [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Zhou, Fei [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-01-01

    This final report presents work carried out on the project “First Principles Modeling of Mechanisms Underlying Scintillator Non-Proportionality” at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory during 2013-2015. The scope of the work was to further the physical understanding of the microscopic mechanisms behind scintillator nonproportionality that effectively limits the achievable detector resolution. Thereby, crucial quantitative data for these processes as input to large-scale simulation codes has been provided. In particular, this project was divided into three tasks: (i) Quantum mechanical rates of non-radiative quenching, (ii) The thermodynamics of point defects and dopants, and (iii) Formation and migration of self-trapped polarons. The progress and results of each of these subtasks are detailed.

  7. Structural, Mechanical and Thermodynamic Properties under Pressure Effect of Rubidium Telluride: First Principle Calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bidai K.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available First-principles density functional theory calculations have been performed to investigate the structural, elastic and thermodynamic properties of rubidium telluride in cubic anti-fluorite (anti-CaF2-type structure. The calculated ground-state properties of Rb2Te compound such as equilibrium lattice parameter and bulk moduli are investigated by generalized gradient approximation (GGA-PBE that are based on the optimization of total energy. The elastic constants, Young’s and shear modulus, Poisson ratio, have also been calculated. Our results are in reasonable agreement with the available theoretical and experimental data. The pressure dependence of elastic constant and thermodynamic quantities under high pressure are also calculated and discussed.

  8. Alzheimer's Disease as Subcellular `Cancer' --- The Scale-Invariant Principles Underlying the Mechanisms of Aging ---

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murase, M.

    1996-01-01

    with self-organization, has been thought to underlie `creative' aspects of biological phenomena such as the origin of life, adaptive evolution of viruses, immune recognition and brain function. It therefore must be surprising to find that the same principles will also underlie `non-creative' aspects, for example, the development of cancer and the aging of complex organisms. Although self-organization has extensively been studied in nonliving things such as chemical reactions and laser physics, it is undoubtedly true that the similar sources of the order are available to living things at different levels and scales. Several paradigm shifts are, however, required to realize how the general principles of natural selection can be extensible to non-DNA molecules which do not possess the intrinsic nature of self-reproduction. One of them is, from the traditional, genetic inheritance view that DNA (or RNA) molecules are the ultimate unit of heritable variations and natural selection at any organization level, to the epigenetic (nongenetic) inheritance view that any non-DNA molecule can be the target of heritable variations and molecular selection to accumulate in certain biochemical environment. Because they are all enriched with a β-sheet content, ready to mostly interact with one another, different denatured proteins like β-amyloid, PHF and prions can individually undergo self-templating or self-aggregating processes out of gene control. Other paradigm shifts requisite for a break-through in the etiology of neurodegenerative disorders will be discussed. As it is based on the scale-invariant principles, the present theory also predicts plausible mechanisms underlying quite different classes of disorders such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), atherosclerosis, senile cataract and many other symptoms of aging. The present theory, thus, provides the consistent and comprehensive account to the origin of aging by means of natural selection and self-organization.

  9. Waves as the Symmetry Principle Underlying Cosmic, Cell, and Human Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungchul Ji

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In 1997, the author concluded that living cells use a molecular language (cellese that is isomorphic with the human language (humanese based on his finding that the former shared 10 out of the 13 design features of the latter. In 2012, the author postulated that cellese and humanese derived from a third language called the cosmic language (or cosmese and that what was common among these three kinds of languages was waves—i.e., sound waves for humanese, concentration waves for cellese, and quantum waves for cosmese. These waves were suggested to be the symmetry principle underlying cosmese, cellese, and humanese. We can recognize at least five varieties of waves—(i electromagnetic; (ii mechanical; (iii chemical concentration; (iv gravitational; and (v probability waves, the last being non-material, in contrast to the first four, which are all material. The study of waves is called “cymatics” and the invention of CymaScope by J. S. Reid of the United Kingdom in 2002 is expected to accelerate the study of waves in general. CymaScope has been used to visualize not only human sounds (i.e., humanese but also sounds made by individual cells (cellese in conjunction with Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM (unpublished observations of J. Gimzewski of UCLA and J. Reid. It can be predicted that the gravitational waves recently detected by the Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO will be visualized with CymaScope one day, thereby transforming gravitational waves into CymaGlyphs. Since cellese in part depends on RNA concentration waves (or RNA glyphs and humanese includes hieroglyphs that were decoded by Champollion in 1822, it seems reasonable to use cymaglyphs, RNA glyphs, and hieroglyphs as symbols of cosmese, cellese, and humanese, respectively, all based on the principle of waves as the medium of communication.

  10. Sociology of scientific knowledge and science education part 2: Laboratory life under the microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slezak, Peter

    1994-10-01

    This article is the second of two that examine some of the claims of contemporary sociology of scientific knowledge (SSK) and the bearing of these claims upon the rationale and practice of science teaching. In the present article the celebrated work Laboratory Life of Latour and Woolgar is critically examined. Its radical, iconoclastic view of science is shown to be not merely without foundation but an extravagant deconstructionist nihilism according to which all science is fiction and the world is said to be socially constructed by negotiation. On this view, the success of a theory is not due to its intellectual merits or explanatory plausibility but to the capacity of its proponents to “extract compliance” from others. If warranted, such views pose a revolutionary challenge to the entire Western tradition of science and the goals of science education which must be misguided and unrealizable in principle. Fortunately, there is little reason to take these views seriously, though their widespread popularity is cause for concern among science educators.

  11. First scientific dives of the Nereid Under Ice hybrid ROV in the Arctic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, C. R.; Boetius, A.; Whitcomb, L. L.; Jakuba, M.; Bailey, J.; Judge, C.; McFarland, C.; Suman, S.; Elliott, S.; Katlein, C.; Arndt, S.; Bowen, A.; Yoerger, D.; Kinsey, J. C.; Mayer, L.; Nicolaus, M.; Laney, S.; Singh, H.; Maksym, T. L.

    2014-12-01

    The first scientific dives of the new Nereid Under Ice (NUI) hybrid ROV were conducted in the Arctic Ocean in July 2014 on RV Polarstern cruise PS86, a German-US collaboration. NUI is the latest in a family of vehicles derived from the Nereus prototype, using a single optical fiber to provide real-time telemetry to and from a battery-powered vehicle allowing much greater lateral maneuverability relative to its support ship than a conventional ROV. During PS86, dives conducted in the Arctic Ocean (typical water depths ~4000m) were completed in >80% ice cover beneath multi-year ice that was typically 2-4m thick (increasing to depths of up to 20m beneath ridges). Dives extended up to 800m away from the ship and, over dive durations of approximately 5 hours each, covered survey tracklines of up to 3.7km at depths varying from "landing" on the underside of the sea-ice to maximum depths of 45m to conduct upward looking multibeam sonar mapping. Ultimately, the vehicle will be capable of both AUV and ROV mode operations at ranges of 10-20km away from the support ship and at up to 2000m water depth (including seafloor as well as under ice operations). During the current cruise, the following major science suites were utilized to prove a range of scientific capabilities of the vehicle in ice-covered oceans: multibeam mapping of rugged topography beneath multi-year sea-ice; video- and digital still photography of the under side of the ice, biota associated with the ice-water interface (algal material) and abundant fauna in the immediately underlying water column (ctenophores, larvaceans, copepods were all notable for their abundance in our study site over the Gakkel Ridge near 83N, 6W). Other scientific activities included: vertical profiles combining CTD data with a suite of biosensors to investigate the structure of primary productivity and biogeochemical cycling in minimally distrubed areas of the sunlit under-ice water column, revealing high stratification associated with

  12. Principles underlying the design of "The Number Race", an adaptive computer game for remediation of dyscalculia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Anna J; Dehaene, Stanislas; Pinel, Philippe; Revkin, Susannah K; Cohen, Laurent; Cohen, David

    2006-05-30

    Adaptive game software has been successful in remediation of dyslexia. Here we describe the cognitive and algorithmic principles underlying the development of similar software for dyscalculia. Our software is based on current understanding of the cerebral representation of number and the hypotheses that dyscalculia is due to a "core deficit" in number sense or in the link between number sense and symbolic number representations. "The Number Race" software trains children on an entertaining numerical comparison task, by presenting problems adapted to the performance level of the individual child. We report full mathematical specifications of the algorithm used, which relies on an internal model of the child's knowledge in a multidimensional "learning space" consisting of three difficulty dimensions: numerical distance, response deadline, and conceptual complexity (from non-symbolic numerosity processing to increasingly complex symbolic operations). The performance of the software was evaluated both by mathematical simulations and by five weeks of use by nine children with mathematical learning difficulties. The results indicate that the software adapts well to varying levels of initial knowledge and learning speeds. Feedback from children, parents and teachers was positive. A companion article describes the evolution of number sense and arithmetic scores before and after training. The software, open-source and freely available online, is designed for learning disabled children aged 5-8, and may also be useful for general instruction of normal preschool children. The learning algorithm reported is highly general, and may be applied in other domains.

  13. Principles underlying the design of "The Number Race", an adaptive computer game for remediation of dyscalculia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cohen Laurent

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adaptive game software has been successful in remediation of dyslexia. Here we describe the cognitive and algorithmic principles underlying the development of similar software for dyscalculia. Our software is based on current understanding of the cerebral representation of number and the hypotheses that dyscalculia is due to a "core deficit" in number sense or in the link between number sense and symbolic number representations. Methods "The Number Race" software trains children on an entertaining numerical comparison task, by presenting problems adapted to the performance level of the individual child. We report full mathematical specifications of the algorithm used, which relies on an internal model of the child's knowledge in a multidimensional "learning space" consisting of three difficulty dimensions: numerical distance, response deadline, and conceptual complexity (from non-symbolic numerosity processing to increasingly complex symbolic operations. Results The performance of the software was evaluated both by mathematical simulations and by five weeks of use by nine children with mathematical learning difficulties. The results indicate that the software adapts well to varying levels of initial knowledge and learning speeds. Feedback from children, parents and teachers was positive. A companion article 1 describes the evolution of number sense and arithmetic scores before and after training. Conclusion The software, open-source and freely available online, is designed for learning disabled children aged 5–8, and may also be useful for general instruction of normal preschool children. The learning algorithm reported is highly general, and may be applied in other domains.

  14. First-principles study of magnetism in Pd3Fe under pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Biswanath; Bhandary, Sumanta; Ghosh, Subhradip; Sanyal, Biplab

    2012-07-01

    Recent experiments on Pd3Fe intermetallics [M. L. Winterrose , Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.102.237202 102, 237202 (2009)] have revealed that the system behaves like a classical invar alloy under high pressure. The experimental pressure-volume relation suggests an anomalous volume collapse and a substantial increase in bulk modulus around the pressure where invar behavior is observed. With the help of first-principles density functional theory based calculations, we have explored various magnetic phases (ferromagnetic, fully and partially disordered local moment, spin spiral) in order to understand the effect of pressure on magnetism. Our calculations reveal that the system does not undergo a transition from a ferromagnetic to a spin-disordered state, as was thought to be the possible mechanism to explain the invar behavior of this system. We rather suggest that the anomaly in the system could possibly be due to the transition from a collinear state to noncollinear magnetic states upon the application of pressure.

  15. First-principles calculation of transport property in nano-devices under an external magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jingzhe; Zhang Jin; Han Rushan

    2008-01-01

    The mesoscopic quantum interference phenomenon (QIP) can be observed and behaves as the oscillation of conductance in nano-devices when the external magnetic field changes. Excluding the factor of impurities or defects, specific QIP is determined by the sample geometry. We have improved a first-principles method based on the matrix Green's function and the density functional theory to simulate the transport behaviour of such systems under a magnetic field. We have studied two kinds of QIP: universal conductance fluctuation (UCF) and Aharonov–Bohm effect (A–B effect). We find that the amplitude of UCF is much smaller than the previous theoretical prediction. We have discussed the origin of difference and concluded that due to the failure of ergodic hypothesis, the ensemble statistics is not applicable, and the conductance fluctuation is determined by the flux-dependent density of states (DOSs). We have also studied the relation between the UCF and the structure of sample. For a specific structure, an atomic circle, the A–B effect is observed and the origin of the oscillation is also discussed

  16. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition, and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on principles for deriving and applying Dietary Reference Values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    This Opinion of the EFSA Panel on Dietetic products, Nutrition, and Allergies (NDA) deals with the general principles for development and application of Dietary Reference Values (DRVs). These quantitative reference values for nutrient intakes for healthy individuals and populations are based...... on health criteria. Derived from DRVs, nutrients goals and recommendations take into account other criteria such as food composition or dietary habits, and may be used for assessment and planning of diets. It is proposed to derive the following DRVs: 1) Population Reference Intakes (PRI), 2) Average...

  17. TERTIARY ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES UNDER THE IMPACT OF SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL PROGRESS IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAUL-BOGDAN ZAMFIR

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The scientific and technical progress put its mark in a different manner on all activities that occur within contemporary economy and it was present in the entire evolution of human society, but its implications and effects were never so strong and extensive. There is no area of activity in which progress not to interfere, both as important mutations that they are happening in the all area of production factors, as well as the place and role of the human factor in the deployment of production processes. In the current period the progress has exceeded certain human limits, operating in other areas which until more now it seems unattainable by the achievements of new technology. In this paradigm are successfully integrated tertiary activities in which the scientific and technical progress entered with great difficulty.Nowadays we are witnessing spectacular evolutions whether we talk about movement of goods, education, research, health, transportation, arts and culture, etc. The purpose of this paper is to determine the degree in which scientific and technical progress. In this paper we proposed to determine the level in which the scientific and technical progress, had a decisive impact on the development of the tertiary sector in general and in Romania in particular , we shall specify which are the economic tertiary activities that adapt fast to new changes occurred in the system of informational society. In this context we have to mention the systems of intelligent transport, electronic governance, medical system based on ICT online educational systems, as a possible response of the tertiary sector to the adaptation of technological progress benefits. In the first part of this paper we focused on the conceptual delimitation of scientific concepts at which we refer often such as: technological progress and innovative services which inevitably determine the evolution of tertiary sector under the impact of new modern technologies. On this background

  18. First-principles study of ternary Li-Al-Te compounds under high pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Youchun; Tian, Fubo; Li, Da; Duan, Defang; Xie, Hui; Liu, Bingbing; Zhou, Qiang; Cui, Tian

    2018-02-01

    The ternary Li-Al-Te compounds were investigated by the first-principle evolutionary calculation based on density function theory. Apart from the known structure, I-42d LiAlTe2 and P3m1 LiAlTe2, several new structures were discovered, P-3m1 LiAlTe2, Pnma LiAlTe2, C2/c Li9AlTe2, Immm Li9AlTe2 and P4/mmm Li6AlTe. We determined that the I-42d LiAlTe2 firstly changed to P-3m1 phase at 6 GPa, and then into the Pnma structure at 65 GPa, Pnma phase was stable up at least to 120 GPa. I-42d LiAlTe2 was a pseudo-direct band gap semiconductor, but P-3m1 LiAlT2 was an indirect band gap semiconductor. This may be caused by the pressure effect. Subsequently, it was metallized under pressure. Pnma LiAlTe2 was also metallic at the pressure we studied. C2/c Li9AlTe2 was stable above 4 GPa, then turned into Immm phase at 60 GPa. C2/c Li9AlTe2 was an indirect band gap semiconductor. The results show that P4/mmm Li6AlTe was stable and metallized in the pressure range of 0.7-120 GPa. The calculations of DOS and PDOS indicate that the arrangement of electrons near Fermi energy can be affected by the increase of Li. The calculated ELF results and Bader charge analysis indicate that there was no covalent bond between Al and Te atoms for high-pressure Pnma LiAlTe2, Li9AlTe2 and Li6AlTe. For Li9AlTe2 and Li6AlTe, different from LiAlTe2, Al atoms not connect with Te atoms, but link with Li atoms. The results were further proved by Mulliken population analysis. And the weak covalent bonds between Li and Al atoms stem from the hybridization of Li s and Al p presented in PDOS diagrams. We further deduced that the pressure effect and the increase of Li content may result in the disappearance of Al-Te bonds for Li-Al-Te compound under extreme pressure.

  19. The scientific production of Nutrition published by the Scientific Electronic Library under the gaze of the evaluation of the Coordination for the Development of Higher Education Personnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco de Assis Guedes de VASCONCELOS

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: Perform analysis of the scientific production of Nutrition published by the Scientific Electronic Library under the gaze of the evaluation of Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior. Methods: Systematic search was performed in the 286 current title journals, using the "article search" path, the "subject index" window and the "Nutrition" indexer. The articles and periodicals selected were analyzed in order to answer the following questions: Which journals from Scientific Electronic Library publish articles on Nutrition? Do these journals have an impact factor as measured by the Journal Citation Reports? Which are? What is the classification of these journals by the areas of evaluation of Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior, specifically by the area of Nutrition? Results: We analyzed 779 articles published in 85 journals. The majority of articles (n=698; 89.6% were related to the area of Health Sciences. The five journals with higher volumes of articles were: Brazilian Journal of Nutrition, Reports in Public Health, Public Health Journal, Science & Public Health and Journal of Pediatrics. Most (62.4% does not have Journal Citation Reports. The Nutrition area not rated any journal in strata A1 and A2, classifying them from B1 to B4. For eight areas analyzed their specific journals were induced to the upper strata of Qualis (A1, A2 and B1. Conclusion: The analyzed journals are the main vehicles of circulation of scientific paradigms of national scientific communities. Considering the correlation of forces between the vehicles of circulation of scientific knowledge in the international context, stimuli for valorization and qualification of these journals are essential.

  20. A Scientific Decision Framework for Supplier Selection under Interval Valued Intuitionistic Fuzzy Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Krishankumar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new scientific decision framework (SDF under interval valued intuitionistic fuzzy (IVIF environment for supplier selection (SS. The framework consists of two phases, where, in the first phase, criteria weights are estimated in a sensible manner using newly proposed IVIF based statistical variance (SV method and, in the second phase, the suitable supplier is selected using ELECTRE (ELimination and Choice Expressing REality ranking method under IVIF environment. This method involves three categories of outranking, namely, strong, moderate, and weak. Previous studies on ELECTRE ranking reveal that scholars have only used two categories of outranking, namely, strong and weak, in the formulation of IVIF based ELECTRE, which eventually aggravates fuzziness and vagueness in decision making process due to the potential loss of information. Motivated by this challenge, third outranking category, called moderate, is proposed, which considerably reduces the loss of information by improving checks to the concordance and discordance matrices. Thus, in this paper, IVIF-ELECTRE (IVIFE method is presented and popular TOPSIS method is integrated with IVIFE for obtaining a linear ranking. Finally, the practicality of the proposed framework is demonstrated using SS example and the strength of proposed SDF is realized by comparing the framework with other similar methods.

  1. Analysis on the development of scientific and technical information under new competitive environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Tao

    2010-01-01

    The current external environment of information work has undergone profound changes. The world competition in Military fields, the development of national economy and the applications of high-technologies put forward higher requirements to intelligence work. Under the environment of global information integration, 'eyes and ears' roles of nuclear scientific and technical information will be more highlighted. In this context, we believe that the way of nuclear sci-tech information development should be focused on comprehensive research and be based on the building of information resources and advanced information technology methods, forming an integrated service system with capabilities of rapid resources, decision support, information assurance and sustainable development. The goal of nuclear sci-tech information development should be to serve the development of nuclear power and the popularization and application of nuclear technology in the fields of national economy, to implement the strategy of 'integrated intelligence support', to ensure the formation of rapid response capability, to enhance capabilities of decision support and science and technology development guidance, to build digital information resources and to constantly promote the research on network collaboration. This paper analyzes the characteristics of nuclear sci-tech information under new competitive environment, describes the ideas and goals of its development and proposes the way to achieve these goals. In order to provide the information support and service with the characteristics of rapid response, high quality and high efficiency, the paper also puts forward that under the new environment, we should optimize the service system, extend service functions, transform service mode, speed up the transformation on intelligence work, adjust and optimize business content and structure, promote business process re-engineering, and pay equal attention to 'ensuring demands' and 'guiding the future

  2. Earth's Earliest Ecosystems in the Classroom: The Use of Microbial Mats to Teach General Principles in Microbial Ecology, and Scientific Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beboutl, Brad M.; Bucaria, Robin

    2004-01-01

    Microbial mats are living examples of the most ancient biological communities on earth, and may also be useful models for the search for life elsewhere. They are centrally important to Astrobiology. In this lecture, we will present an introduction to microbial mats, as well as an introduction to our web-based educational module on the subject of microbial ecology, featuring living mats maintained in a mini "Web Lab" complete with remotely-operable instrumentation. We have partnered with a number of outreach specialists in order to produce an informative and educational web-based presentation, aspects of which will be exported to museum exhibits reaching a wide audience. On our web site, we will conduct regularly scheduled experimental manipulations, linking the experiments to our research activities, and demonstrating fundamental principles of scientific research.

  3. Charlotte: Scientific Modeling and Simulation Under the Software as a Service Paradigm, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA spends considerable effort supporting the efforts of collaborating researchers. These researchers are interested in interacting with scientific models provided...

  4. Method and apparatus for scientific analysis under low temperature vacuum conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winefordner, James D.; Jones, Bradley T.

    1990-01-01

    A method and apparatus for scientific analysis of a sample under low temperature vacuum conditions uses a vacuum chamber with a conveyor belt disposed therein. One end of the conveyor belt is a cool end in thermal contact with the cold stage of a refrigerator, whereas the other end of the conveyor belt is a warm end spaced from the refrigerator. A septum allows injection of a sample into the vacuum chamber on top of the conveyor belt for spectroscopic or other analysis. The sample freezes on the conveyor belt at the cold end. One or more windows in the vacuum chamber housing allow spectroscopic analysis of the sample. Following the spectroscopic analysis, the conveyor belt may be moved such that the sample moves toward the warm end of the conveyor belt where upon it evaporates, thereby cleaning the conveyor belt. Instead of injecting the sample by way of a septum and use of a syringe and needle, the present device may be used in series with capillary-column gas chromatography or micro-bore high performance liquid chromatography.

  5. [Principles and methods of mental health resource assessment in military personnel under conditions of demographic crisis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorona, A A; Syrkin, L D

    2011-03-01

    The article is devoted to developing the principles and methods of resource assessment of mental health military contingent in terms of demographic decline and reform of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation. From the standpoint of the concept of the mutual influence of the value-semantic components and the level of psychological adaptation resources demonstrates the possibility of evaluating resource capabilities of the psyche of military contingent.

  6. Building a platform for scientific-research cooperation under circumstances of realized asymmetry of potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiśniowski Witold

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Growing complexity of the environment arising both from the processes of globalization in world economy and from the development processes in Poland has become a strategic challenge for the Institute of Aviation. Significant disproportions of the potential of Poland, compared to Germany, United States, or China (especially in terms of the economic dimension and the adopted model for financing scientific research, as well as distant position of Polish universities on the scientific map of the world lead to the necessity to create a model for managing the Institute of Aviation based on internationalization of research and cooperation with leading scientific and (Ohio State University – OSU technological centres (General Electric – GE. The experiences of the Institute of Aviation show that what should be the basis of international competitiveness of research institutes is well educated scientific personnel, modern research infrastructure and competences of cooperation. A proof of this is 16-year-long strategic alliance (private-public partnership of the Institute and GE, cooperation with OSU and activities in European research consortia. The innovative dimension of scientific cooperation with OSU (2+2 formula, research internships, commission for predicting new directions of scientific research and other foreign partners allows the Institute of Aviation to achieve success in competition of international character.

  7. Are Scientific Abstracts Written in Poetic Verse an Effective Representation of the Underlying Research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illingworth, Samuel

    2016-04-01

    The central purpose of science is to explain (Purtill, 1970). However, who is that explanation for, and how is this explanation communicated once it has been deduced? Scientific research is typically communicated via papers in journals, with an abstract presented as a summary of that explanation. However, in many instances they may be written in a manner which is non-communicatory to a lay reader (Halliday and Martin, 2003). Research concerning climate change in particular demands to be communicated, because of its global relevance and the potential societal consequences of its findings. This study begins to investigate if poetry could be used as an alternative form of communication, by first assessing if poetic verse is an effective form of communication to other scientists. In order to assess this suitability, a survey was conducted in which two different groups of participants were asked questions based on a scientific abstract. One group of participants was given the original scientific abstract, whilst the second group was instead given a poem written about the scientific study. Quantitative analysis found that whilst a scientific audience found a poetic interpretation of a scientific abstract to be no less interesting or inspiring than the original prose, they did find it to be less accessible. However, further qualitative analysis suggested that the poem did a good job in conveying a similar meaning to that presented in the original abstract. The results of this study indicate that whilst for a scientific audience poetry should not replace the prose abstract, it could be used alongside the original format to inspire the reader to find out more about the topic. Further research is needed to investigate the effectiveness of this approach for a general audience. References: HALLIDAY, M. A. K. & MARTIN, J. R. 2003. Writing science: Literacy and discursive power, Taylor & Francis. PURTILL, R. 1970. The purpose of science. Philosophy of Science, 301-306.

  8. Vibroacoustic response of panels under diffuse acoustic field excitation from sensitivity functions and reciprocity principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetto, Christophe; Maxit, Laurent; Robin, Olivier; Berry, Alain

    2017-06-01

    This paper aims at developing an experimental method to characterize the vibroacoustic response of a panel to a diffuse acoustic field (DAF) excitation with a different laboratory setup than those used in standards (i.e., coupled rooms). The proposed methodology is based on a theoretical model of the DAF and on the measurement of the panel's sensitivity functions, which characterize its vibroacoustic response to wall plane waves. These functions can be estimated experimentally using variations of the reciprocity principle, which are described in the present paper. These principles can either be applied for characterizing the structural response by exciting the panel with a normal force at the point of interest or for characterizing the acoustic response (radiated pressure, acoustic intensity) by exciting the panel with a monopole and a dipole source. For both applications, the validity of the proposed approach is numerically and experimentally verified on a test case composed of a baffled simply supported plate. An implementation for estimating the sound transmission loss of the plate is finally proposed. The results are discussed and compared with measurements performed in a coupled anechoic-reverberant room facility following standards.

  9. Martensitic fcc-to-hcp transformations in solid xenon under pressure: a first-principles study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunja; Nicol, Malcolm; Cynn, Hyunchae; Yoo, Choong-Shik

    2006-01-27

    First-principles calculations reveal that the fcc-to-hcp pressure-induced transformation in solid xenon proceeds through two mechanisms between 5 and 70 GPa. The dynamics of the phase transition involves a sluggish stacking-disorder growth at lower pressures (path I) that changes to a path involving an orthorhombic distortion at higher pressures (path II). The switchover is governed by a delicate interplay of energetics (enthalpy of the system for the structural stability) and kinetics (energy barrier for the transition). The two types of martensitic transformations involved in this pressure-induced structural transformation are a twinned martensitic transition at lower pressures and a slipped martensitic transition at higher pressures.

  10. Optimisation of structural shielding of accelerator control room for compliance with ALARA principle under Indian conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, Masood; Singh, Brijesh

    1999-01-01

    The case of a 20 MV x-ray accelerator has been considered in this paper for optimisation. An internationally recommended value of α = US$ 1000 per person-sievert has been assumed. Cost of concrete has been assumed as US$ 82.7/m 3 . It is seen that, extra shielding is needed to satisfy the ALARA principle. Further, the amount of requisite shielding increases with the degree of occupancy and, also, if the local construction materials or the labour are cheaper than considered in this paper. Accordingly 1.5 to 4.75 HVLs may be needed as extra shielding in different situations. Therefore, a site specific and installation specific optimisation of shielding is necessary

  11. Understanding the Validity of Data: A Knowledge-Based Network Underlying Research Expertise in Scientific Disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Ros

    2016-01-01

    This article considers what might be taught to meet a widely held curriculum aim of students being able to understand research in a discipline. Expertise, which may appear as a "chain of practice," is widely held to be underpinned by networks of understanding. Scientific research expertise is considered from this perspective. Within…

  12. European Food Safety Authority; Outcome of the Public consultation on the Draft Opinion of the Scientific Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition, and Allergies (NDA) on principles for deriving and applying Dietary Reference Values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    On 11 April 2008, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) endorsed a draft Opinion on principles for deriving and applying Dietary Reference Values to be released for public consultation. This Scientific Report summarises the comments received through the public...

  13. Practical application of the ALARA principle in management of the nuclear legacy: optimization under uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Graham; Sneve, Malgorzata K.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Radiological protection has a long and distinguished history in taking a balanced approach to optimization. Both utilitarian and individual interests and perspectives are addressed through a process of constrained optimisation, with optimisation intended to lead to the most benefit to the most people, and constraints being operative to limit the degree of inequity among the individuals exposed. At least, expressed simplistically, that is what the recommendations on protection are intended to achieve. This paper examines the difficulties in achieving that objective, based on consideration of the active role of optimisation in regulatory supervision of the historic nuclear legacy. This example is chosen because the application of the ALARA principle has important implications for some very major projects whose objective is remediation of existing legacy facilities. But it is also relevant because timely, effective and cost efficient completion of those projects has implications for confidence in the future development of nuclear power and other uses of radioactive materials. It is also an interesting example because legacy management includes mitigation of some major short and long term hazards, but those mitigating measures themselves involve operations with their own risk, cost and benefit profiles. Like any other complex activity, a legacy management project has to be broken down into logistically feasible parts. However, from a regulatory perspective, simultaneous application of ALARA to worker protection, major accident risk mitigation and long-term environmental and human health protection presents its own challenges. Major uncertainties which exacerbate the problem arise from ill-characterised source terms, estimation of the likelihood of unlikely failures in operational processes, and prospective assessment of radiological impacts over many hundreds of years and longer. The projects themselves are set to run over decades, during which time the

  14. Lattice stabilities, mechanical and thermodynamic properties of Al3Tm and Al3Lu intermetallics under high pressure from first-principles calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu-Dong, Zhang; Wei, Jiang

    2016-02-01

    The effects of high pressure on lattice stability, mechanical and thermodynamic properties of L12 structure Al3Tm and Al3Lu are studied by first-principles calculations within the VASP code. The phonon dispersion curves and density of phonon states are calculated by using the PHONONPY code. Our results agree well with the available experimental and theoretical values. The vibrational properties indicate that Al3Tm and Al3Lu keep their dynamical stabilities in L12 structure up to 100 GPa. The elastic properties and Debye temperatures for Al3Tm and Al3Lu increase with the increase of pressure. The mechanical anisotropic properties are discussed by using anisotropic indices AG, AU, AZ, and the three-dimensional (3D) curved surface of Young’s modulus. The calculated results show that Al3Tm and Al3Lu are both isotropic at 0 GPa and anisotropic under high pressure. In the present work, the sound velocities in different directions for Al3Tm and Al3Lu are also predicted under high pressure. We also calculate the thermodynamic properties and provide the relationships between thermal parameters and temperature/pressure. These results can provide theoretical support for further experimental work and industrial applications. Project supported by the Scientific Technology Plan of the Educational Department of Liaoning Province and Liaoning Innovative Research Team in University, China (Grant No. LT2014004) and the Program for the Young Teacher Cultivation Fund of Shenyang University of Technology, China (Grant No. 005612).

  15. The first-principles calculations for the elastic properties of Zr2Al under compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Xiaoli; Wei Dongqing; Chen Xiangrong; Zhang Qingming; Gong Zizheng

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The calculated elastic constants C ij as a function of pressure P. Display Omitted Research highlights: → It is found that the five independent elastic constants increase monotonically with pressure. C 11 and C 33 vary rapidly as pressure increases, C 13 and C 12 becomes moderate. However, C 44 increases comparatively slowly with pressure. Figure shows excellent satisfaction of the calculated elastic constants of Zr 2 Al to these equations and hence in our calculation, the Zr 2 Al is mechanically stable at pressure up to 100 GPa. - Abstract: The first-principles calculations were applied to investigate the structural, elastic constants of Zr 2 Al alloy with increasing pressure. These properties are based on the plane wave pseudopotential density functional theory (DFT) method within the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) for exchange and correlation. The result of the heat of formation of Zr 2 Al crystal investigated is in excellent consistent with results from other study. The anisotropy, the shear modulus, and Young's modulus for the ideal polycrystalline Zr 2 Al are also studied. It is found that (higher) pressure can significantly improve the ductility of Zr 2 Al. Moreover, the elastic constants of Zr 2 Al increase monotonically and the anisotropies decrease with the increasing pressure. Finally, it is observed that Zr d electrons are mainly contributed to the density of states at the Fermi level.

  16. First Principles Prediction of Structure, Structure Selectivity, and Thermodynamic Stability under Realistic Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceder, Gerbrand [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Materials and Engineering

    2018-01-28

    Novel materials are often the enabler for new energy technologies. In ab-initio computational materials science, method are developed to predict the behavior of materials starting from the laws of physics, so that properties can be predicted before compounds have to be synthesized and tested. As such, a virtual materials laboratory can be constructed, saving time and money. The objectives of this program were to develop first-principles theory to predict the structure and thermodynamic stability of materials. Since its inception the program focused on the development of the cluster expansion to deal with the increased complexity of complex oxides. This research led to the incorporation of vibrational degrees of freedom in ab-initio thermodynamics, developed methods for multi-component cluster expansions, included the explicit configurational degrees of freedom of localized electrons, developed the formalism for stability in aqueous environments, and culminated in the first ever approach to produce exact ground state predictions of the cluster expansion. Many of these methods have been disseminated to the larger theory community through the Materials Project, pymatgen software, or individual codes. We summarize three of the main accomplishments.

  17. On the Possibility of a Scientific Theory of Scientific Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nola, Robert

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the philosophical strengths and weaknesses of Laudan's normative naturalism, which understands the principles of scientific method to be akin to scientific hypotheses, and therefore open to test like any principle of science. Contains 19 references. (Author/WRM)

  18. An investigation into the authorship of scientific data webs of a network under construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackson da Silva Medeiros

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to analyze the scientific authorship from the data sharing. For this purpose, it uses the Actor-Network Theory (ANT, which seeks, from an idea of symmetry between human and non-human, do not assume a division between those entities, allowing to view the establishment and dissolution of a network from the relationships that are created at different levels. The data collected, which were the basis for description and analysis from the literature that also emerged from what ware collected by observation, interviews and bibliographic materials. The study was carried out by the Repositório de Dados de Estudos Ecológicos do Programa de Pesquisa em Biodiversidade (PPBio. Concludes that conceptual and pragmatic objects can not be seen in isolate way, but like actors directly affected by the technology, should be considered important actants in the process of production, sharing and use of digital research data. The construction of scientific and social fact authorship is coordinated by a number of elements, such as data collection, curation, scientific data and its metadata, funding sources, data policy, repository and its management software for data and metadata, licensing, ownership and responsibility, acting like a kind of exploitation of a phenomena arrangement.

  19. Polymethylmethacrylate and radioisotopes in vertebral augmentation: an explanation of underlying principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Ariel E; Rosenstein, Barry S; Medich, David C; Martel, Christopher B; Hirsch, Joshua A

    2009-01-01

    We recently reported a novel concept for combining radioactive isotope technology with polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) cement used for vertebral augmentation and have advocated that pain physicians become aware of this new concept when treating malignant compression fractures. The use of vertebral augmentation for malignant compression fractures is steadily increasing, and the goal of this novel approach would be to stabilize the fractured vertebral body while also controlling proliferation of the tumor cells in the vertebral body that caused the vertebral fracture. This approach would therefore provide mechanical stabilization of the fractured vertebral body at the same time as direct targeting of the cancer cells causing the fracture. For our analysis, we investigated six specific radioisotopes with regard to physical and biologic properties as they would interact with PMMA and local bone metastatic disease, taking into consideration anatomical, biological and physical characteristics. The radioisotopes investigated include beta emitting (plus and minus) sources, as well as low energy and mid-energy photon sources and are: P-32, Ho-166, Y-90, I-125, F-18, and Tc-99m. We review the advantages and disadvantages of each radioisotope. In addition, this paper serves to provide pain physicians with a basic background of the biologic principles (Biologically Effective Dose) and statistical modeling (Monte Carlo method) used in that analysis. We also review the potential complications when using radioactive sources in a clinical setting. Understanding the methodologies employed in determining isotope selection empowers the practitioner by fostering understanding of this presently theoretical treatment option. We believe that embedding radioisotopes in PMMA is merely a first step in the road of local treatment for symptomatic local lesions in the setting of systemic disease.

  20. Comparative assessment of Japan's long-term carbon budget under different effort-sharing principles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuramochi, Takeshi; Asuka, Jusen; Fekete, Hanna; Tamura, Kentaro; Höhne, Niklas

    2016-01-01

    This article assesses Japan's carbon budgets up to 2100 in the global efforts to achieve the 2 °C target under different effort-sharing approaches based on long-term GHG mitigation scenarios published in 13 studies. The article also presents exemplary emission trajectories for Japan to stay

  1. The structural, mechanical, and electronic properties of LiAlB{sub 4} under pressure from first principles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tayran, Ceren; Aydin, Sezgin [Department of Physics, Sciences Faculty, Gazi University, 06500, Ankara (Turkey)

    2017-05-15

    The structural, elastic, mechanical, and electronic properties of lithium aluminum tetraboride (LiAlB{sub 4}) under hydrostatic pressure have been investigated by using first-principles density functional theory calculations. The effects of pressure on the lattice parameters, volume, and bond lengths are studied. It is indicated from the calculated elastic constants that LiAlB{sub 4} compound is mechanically stable on 0-40 GPa pressure range. And, by means of these elastic constants set, some mechanical properties such as bulk, shear and Young's moduli, and then Poisson's ratio are determined as a function of pressure. Also, the ductile or brittle nature of LiAlB{sub 4} is examined. Additionally, using the first-principles data obtained from the geometry optimizations, the hardness of LiAlB{sub 4} is calculated, and its nature is investigated under pressure. Furthermore, in order to reveal the effects of pressure on the electronic and binding behavior of the compound, band structures, total and partial density of states, charge densities, Mulliken atomic charges, and bond overlap populations are searched as a function of pressure. To check the stability of the compound, phonon dispersion curves are calculated. And, the results are compared with the other convenient borides. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  2. Thermo-Physical Properties of Ammonium Azide under High Pressure from First-Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landerville, Aaron; Steele, Brad; Oleynik, Ivan

    2013-03-01

    Polynitrogen compounds offer tremendous promise for use as insensitive high-explosives or propellants. While the existence of such compounds have been observed in Diamond Anvil Cells (DAC) under high pressure, recovery to ambient pressure and temperature has proven problematic. A current thrust towards the recovery, and ultimate manufacture, of materials rich in polymeric nitrogen has brought renewed attention to various nitrogen-rich compounds, particularly crystalline azides, as possible precursors. We investigate the thermo-physical properties and Raman spectra of one azide candidate - ammonium azide - under hydrostatic compression using density functional theory with an empirical van der Waals correction. Additionally, we perform structural minima searches to discern possible polymorphs that may help to elucidate dynamical processes leading to the production of a material rich in polymeric nitrogen, as well as its recovery from DAC.

  3. Earth's Earliest Ecosystems in the C: The Use of Microbial Mats to Demonstrate General Principles of Scientific Inquiry and Microbial Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebout, Brad M.; Bucaria, Robin

    2006-01-01

    Microbial mats are living examples of the most ancient biological communities on Earth. As Earth's earliest ecosystems, they are centrally important to understanding the history of life on our planet and are useful models for the search for life elsewhere. As relatively compact (but complete) ecosystems, microbial mats are also extremely useful for educational activities. Mats may be used to demonstrate a wide variety of concepts in general and microbial ecology, including the biogeochemical cycling of elements, photosynthesis and respiration, and the origin of the Earth's present oxygen containing atmosphere. Microbial mats can be found in a number of common environments accessible to teachers, and laboratory microbial mats can be constructed using materials purchased from biological supply houses. With funding from NASA's Exobiology program, we have developed curriculum and web-based activities centered on the use of microbial mats as tools for demonstrating general principles in ecology, and the scientific process. Our web site (http://microbes.arc.nasa.gov) includes reference materials, lesson plans, and a "Web Lab", featuring living mats maintained in a mini-aquarium. The site also provides information as to how research on microbial mats supports NASA's goals, and various NASA missions. A photo gallery contains images of mats, microscopic views of the organisms that form them, and our own research activities. An animated educational video on the web site uses computer graphic and video microscopy to take students on a journey into a microbial mat. These activities are targeted to a middle school audience and are aligned with the National Science Standards.

  4. [The embryonic stem cells research. Example of biotechnology progress under extra-scientific pressure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gámez Escalona, José Antonio

    2013-01-01

    The possibility to isolate, cultivate, preserve, characterize and differentiate Human Embryonic Stem Cells (ES) discovered by James Thomson and his colleagues in 1998 was a milestone in the history of Stem Cell Research. Immediately after this discovery many speculations were made about the therapeutic possibilities of ES, motivated by ideological, political and economic aspects. The episode made clear the lack of scientific rationality and ethics when assessing realities as meaningful as those of human embryos obtained by in vitro fertilization techniques (IVF) or human eggs. Therapeutic Cloning as a promise to produce ″tailored″ Stem Cells reported by Hwang and his team in 2004, ended up being a scandal within the scientific community. The technical difficulties and ethical controversies that arose from obtaining ES were insurmountable. In 2010 only two clinical trials were reported using these cells. Those trials were abandoned in late 2011 arguing financial reasons. The discovery of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell (iPS) in 2006 in mice and in 2007 in humans, represented the possibility of obtaining pluripotent stem cells without the need to destroy embryos. Today, the absence of clinical trials using ES, caused by financial difficulties as a result of its ineffectiveness, anticipates that the use of ES will be limited to certain experimental controls. Probably, the main contribution of Embryonic Stem Cells will be the understanding that biomedical research should follow an ethically and rationally based rigorous method that cannot be ignore.

  5. A First-Principles Comparison of CsI and Xe Under Shock Compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, M. R.; Jeanloz, R.; Militzer, B.

    2016-12-01

    Cesium iodide and xenon, isoelectronic (same number of electrons per atom) moderately high-Z compounds, are known to exhibit similar behaviors at high pressure, notably in their cold-compression equations of state[1, 2] and band gap closure pressures[3-6]. With such drastically different chemical bonding properties under ambient conditions, this salt and noble gas serve as a quintessential analog pair for high pressure science. In addition to practical benefit of understanding analogs for experimental extrapolations, investigating these materials under extreme conditions helps build a fundamental understanding of the relationship between thermodynamics and condensed matter. To better investigate those high pressure states which are at high temperature, as well as to allow for comparison to shock experiments, we have used density functional theory (DFT) calculations combined with molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to calculate high temperature/density pressures, internal energies, and band gaps along the Hugoniots (shock equations of state) of CsI and Xe up to 10,000 K. Since CsI is a solid at ambient conditions, we used its ambient density as its starting density for the Hugoniot calculation. For the starting density of Xe, we chose both its zero-pressure zero-temperature value and a value equal to the molar density of CsI, to construct two separate Hugoniots.

  6. High-temperature superconducting phase of HBr under pressure predicted by first-principles calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Qinyan; Lu, Pengchao; Xia, Kang; Sun, Jian; Xing, Dingyu

    2017-08-01

    The high pressure phases of HBr are explored with an ab initio crystal structure search. By taking into account the contribution of zero-point energy (ZPE), we find that the P 4 /n m m phase of HBr is thermodynamically stable in the pressure range from 150 to 200 GPa. The superconducting critical temperature (Tc) of P 4 /n m m HBr is evaluated to be around 73 K at 170 GPa, which is the highest record so far among binary halogen hydrides. Its Tc can be further raised to around 95K under 170 GPa if half of the bromine atoms in the P 4 /n m m HBr are substituted by the lighter chlorine atoms. Our study shows that, in addition to lower mass, higher coordination number, shorter bonds, and more highly symmetric environment for the hydrogen atoms are important factors to enhance the superconductivity in hydrides.

  7. Towards nearly zero-energy buildings. Definition of common principles under the EPBD. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermelink, A.; Schimschar, S.; Boermans, T. [Ecofys, Utrecht (Netherlands); Pagliano, L.; Zangheri, P.; Armani, R. [Energy Department, Politecnico di Milano, Milan (Italy); Voss, K.; Musall, E. [University of Wuppertal, Wuppertal (Germany)

    2013-02-15

    Europe aims at bringing about drastic reductions of greenhouse gas emissions in the residential and service sectors of about 90% compared to 1990 by 2050. Nearly Zero-Energy Buildings are a major element of European climate policy. Already by 2021, every new building in Europe has to meet this standard. During 2012, a consortium led by Ecofys undertook a study for the European Commission to provide more guidance to Member States and the Commission with regards to the implementation of the requirements for nearly zero-energy buildings under the EPBD. The study features benchmarks for nearly zero-energy buildings for different European climates, an analytical framework for evaluating Member States national plans for increasing the number of nearly zero energy buildings, a reporting template for these plans and an analysis of the convergence between cost optimal levels and nearly zero-energy buildings.

  8. In vitro thermal profile suitability assessment of acids and bases for thermochemical ablation: underlying principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Laura A; Anwer, Bilal; Brady, Ryan P; Smith, Benjamin C; Edelman, Theresa L; Misselt, Andrew J; Cressman, Erik N K

    2010-03-01

    To measure and compare temperature changes in a recently developed gel phantom for thermochemical ablation as a function of reagent strength and concentration with several acids and bases. Aliquots (0.5-1 mL) of hydrochloric acid or acetic acid and sodium hydroxide or aqueous ammonia were injected for 5 seconds into a hydrophobic gel phantom. Stepwise increments in concentration were used to survey the temperature changes caused by these reactions. Injections were performed in triplicate, measured with a thermocouple probe, and plotted as functions of concentration and time. Maximum temperatures were reached almost immediately in all cases, reaching 75 degrees C-110 degrees C at the higher concentrations. The highest temperatures were seen with hydrochloric acid and either base. More concentrated solutions of sodium hydroxide tended to mix incompletely, such that experiments at 9 M and higher were difficult to perform consistently. Higher concentrations for any reagent resulted in higher temperatures. Stronger acid and base combinations resulted in higher temperatures versus weak acid and base combinations at the same concentration. Maximum temperatures obtained are in a range known to cause tissue coagulation, and all combinations tested therefore appeared suitable for further investigation in thermochemical ablation. Because of the loss of the reaction chamber shape at higher concentrations of stronger agents, the phantom does not allow complete characterization under these circumstances. Adequate mixing of reagents to maximize heating potential and avoid systemic exposure to unreacted acid and base must be addressed if the method is to be safely employed in tissues. In addition, understanding factors that control lesion shape in a more realistic tissue model will be critical. Copyright 2010 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Management strategies for coral reefs and people under global environmental change: 25 years of scientific research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comte, Adrien; Pendleton, Linwood H

    2018-03-01

    Coral reef ecosystems and the people who depend on them are increasingly exposed to the adverse effects of global environmental change (GEC), including increases in sea-surface temperature and ocean acidification. Managers and decision-makers need a better understanding of the options available for action in the face of these changes. We refine a typology of actions developed by Gattuso et al. (2015) that could serve in prioritizing strategies to deal with the impacts of GEC on reefs and people. Using the typology we refined, we investigate the scientific effort devoted to four types of management strategies: mitigate, protect, repair, adapt that we tie to the components of the chain of impact they affect: ecological vulnerability or social vulnerability. A systematic literature review is used to investigate quantitatively how scientific effort over the past 25 years is responding to the challenge posed by GEC on coral reefs and to identify gaps in research. A growing literature has focused on these impacts and on management strategies to sustain coral reef social-ecological systems. We identify 767 peer reviewed articles published between 1990 and 2016 that address coral reef management in the context of GEC. The rate of publication of such studies has increased over the years, following the general trend in climate research. The literature focuses on protect strategies the most, followed by mitigate and adapt strategies, and finally repair strategies. Developed countries, particularly Australia and the United States, are over-represented as authors and locations of case studies across all types of management strategies. Authors affiliated in developed countries play a major role in investigating case studies across the globe. The majority of articles focus on only one of the four categories of actions. A gap analysis reveals three directions for future research: (1) more research is needed in South-East Asia and other developing countries where the impacts of

  10. The Obstacle Version of the Geometric Dynamic Programming Principle: Application to the Pricing of American Options Under Constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchard, Bruno; Vu, Thanh Nam

    2010-01-01

    We provide an obstacle version of the Geometric Dynamic Programming Principle of Soner and Touzi (J. Eur. Math. Soc. 4:201-236, 2002) for stochastic target problems. This opens the doors to a wide range of applications, particularly in risk control in finance and insurance, in which a controlled stochastic process has to be maintained in a given set on a time interval [0,T]. As an example of application, we show how it can be used to provide a viscosity characterization of the super-hedging cost of American options under portfolio constraints, without appealing to the standard dual formulation from mathematical finance. In particular, we allow for a degenerate volatility, a case which does not seem to have been studied so far in this context.

  11. Neutronic study of SCR core for under-sea scientific research vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odano, Naoteru; Ishida, Toshihisa [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Wada, Koji; Imai, Hiroshi [Hitachi Engineering Co., Ltd., Hitachi, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2001-07-01

    A very small reactor, SCR (Submersible Compact Reactor), whose thermal output is 1250 kW, is an integral-pressurized type reactor to be used as a power source for a scientific research vessel in medium region to approximately 300-m in depth of the Arctic Ocean. Neutronic study has been carried out for design of the SCR core of which could achieve continuous long-term operation without refueling for 10 years considering 50% of load factor of the core. In the present study, arrangement of fuel rods, {sup 235}U enrichment of UO{sub 2} fuel rods and reflector materials were surveyed. The {sup 235}U enrichment has been determined to be 9.5 wt% to satisfy design criteria. Design of the reflector as well as that of the fuel enrichment is one of important factors for determination of the core life because leakage of neutrons from a very small reactor is large. In the present study Be metal was adopted as a reflector material. The square and triangle arrangements of fuel rods were studied and the later one was adopted for the present design to make possible to reduce size of the core. Reactor physics parameters including reactivity coefficients and power distributions were evaluated for the determined core specifications. Reactor physics parameters related to core safety were also confirmed and the evaluated parameters indicated that the determined core specifications in this study satisfied design conditions. (author)

  12. Self-care under the perspective of Occupational Therapy: analysis of scientific production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Célia Titotto Castanharo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This is an exploratory descriptive study aiming to explain how self-care has been addressed by Occupational Therapy (OT. Data collection was carried out by consulting LILACS, SciELO databases and national journals of Occupational Therapy. From 1994 to 2012, twelve articles published by occupational therapists were selected considering the following keywords on abstracts or full texts: occupational therapy, self-care, daily activities or daily life activities. The results were submitted to integrative review and thematic analysis. The categories evidenced were self-care and activities of daily life; autonomy and independence for self-care; and intervention of OT favoring self-care by the individual. The results showed different dimensions of self-care when associated with the individual and private autonomy as well as with professional interdisciplinary practices of OT. The intervention in this area is directed to human performance in the cycles of life, faced with situations of vulnerability, such as disease and social exclusion. Adaptations, modifications, assistive technology resources and/or functional rehabilitation are used to promote the independence of individuals, favoring autonomy and recovery routines. We observed similarities between the conceptions of self-care found in the scientific production of OT and in the Orem’s concepts (1971-2001. In general, health professionals can achieve benefits to the systematization of knowledge that underlie their practice when they articulate them with the knowledge systematized by other areas.

  13. J/ψ+χcJ production at the B factories under the principle of maximum conformality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Sheng-Quan; Wu, Xing-Gang; Zheng, Xu-Chang; Shen, Jian-Ming; Zhang, Qiong-Lian

    2013-01-01

    Under the conventional scale setting, the renormalization scale uncertainty usually constitutes a systematic error for a fixed-order perturbative QCD estimation. The recently suggested principle of maximum conformality (PMC) provides a principle to eliminate such scale ambiguity in a step-by-step way. Using the PMC, all non-conformal terms in perturbative expansion series are summed into the running coupling, and one obtains a unique, scale-fixed, scheme-independent prediction at any finite order. In the paper, we make a detailed PMC analysis for both the polarized and the unpolarized cross sections for the double charmonium production process, e + +e − →J/ψ(ψ ′ )+χ cJ with (J=0,1,2). The running behavior for the coupling constant, governed by the PMC scales, are determined exactly for the specific processes. We compare our predictions with the measurements at the B factories, BaBar and Belle, and the theoretical estimations obtained in the literature. Because the non-conformal terms are different for various polarized and unpolarized cross sections, the PMC scales of these cross sections are different in principle. It is found that all the PMC scales are almost independent of the initial choice of renormalization scale. Thus, the large renormalization scale uncertainty usually adopted in the literature up to ∼40% at the NLO level, obtained from the conventional scale setting, for both the polarized and the unpolarized cross sections are greatly suppressed. It is found that the charmonium production is dominated by J=0 channel. After PMC scale setting, we obtain σ(J/ψ+χ c0 )=12.25 −3.13 +3.70 fb and σ(ψ ′ +χ c0 )=5.23 −1.32 +1.56 fb, where the squared average errors are caused by bound state parameters as m c , |R J/ψ (0)| and |R χ cJ ′ (0)|, which are non-perturbative error sources in different to the QCD scale setting problem. In comparison to the experimental data, a more accurate theoretical estimation shall be helpful for a precise

  14. Teaching Astronomy Through Art: Under Southern Skies -- Aboriginal and Western Scientific Perspectives of the Australian Night Sky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewski, S. R.; Boles, M. S.; Patterson, R. J.

    1999-12-01

    We have created an exhibit, Under Southern Skies -- Aboriginal and Western Scientific Perspectives of the Australian Night Sky, which has shown since June, 1999 in newly refurbished exhibit space at the Leander McCormick Observatory. The University of Virginia has a long and continuing tradition of astrometry starting with early parallax work at the McCormick Observatory, extending to our own NSF CAREER Award-funded projects, and including a long-term, ongoing southern parallax program at Mt. Stromlo and Siding Springs Observatories in Australia. Recently, through a gift of Mr. John Kluge, the University of Virginia has obtained one of the most extensive collections of Australian Aboriginal art outside of Australia. The goal of our exhibit is to unite the University's scientific, artistic and cultural connections to Australia through an exhibit focusing on different perspectives of the Australian night sky. We have brought together Australian Aboriginal bark and canvas paintings that feature astronomical themes, e.g., Milky Way, Moon, Magellanic Cloud and Seven Sisters Dreamings, from the Kluge-Ruhe and private collections. These paintings, from the Central Desert and Arnhem Land regions of Australia, are intermingled with modern, large format, color astronomical images of the same scenes. Descriptive panels and a small gallery guide explain the cultural, artistic and scientific aspects of the various thematic groupings based on particular southern hemisphere night sky objects and associated Aboriginal traditions and stories. This unusual combination of art and science not only provides a unique avenue for educating the public about both astronomy and Australian Aboriginal culture, but highlights mankind's ancient and continuing connection to the night sky. We appreciate funding from NSF CAREER Award #AST-9702521, a Cottrell Scholar Award from The Research Corporation, and the Dept. of Astronomy and Ruhe-Kluge Collection at the University of Virginia.

  15. Mach's Principle

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    popularize science. The underlying idea in Mach's principle is that the origin of inertia or mass of a particle is a dynamical quantity determined by the environ- ... Knowing the latitude of the location of the pendulum it is possible to calculate the Earth's spin period. The two methods give the same answer. At first sight this does ...

  16. Elastic properties and electronic structure of WS{sub 2} under pressure from first-principles calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Li [Sichuan Univ., Chengdu (China). Inst. of Atomic and Molecular Physics; Civil Aviation Flight Univ. of China, Guanghan (China). Dept. of Physics; Zeng, Zhao-Yi [Chongqing Normal Univ., Chongqing (China). College of Physics and Electronic Engineering; Liang, Ting; Tang, Mei; Cheng, Yan [Sichuan Univ., Chengdu (China). Inst. of Atomic and Molecular Physics

    2017-07-01

    The influence of pressure on the elastic and mechanical properties of the hexagonal transition-metal dichalcogenide WS{sub 2} is investigated using the first-principles calculations. With the increase in pressure, the lattice parameters and the volume of WS{sub 2} decrease, which is exactly in agreement with the available experimental data and other calculated results. The elastic constants C{sub ij}, bulk modulus B, shear modulus G, Young's modulus E, and Poisson's ratio σ of WS{sub 2} also increase with pressure. At last, for the first time, the band gaps of energy, the partial density of states, and the total density of states under three different pressures are obtained and analysed. It is found that the band gap of WS{sub 2} decreases from 0.843 to 0 eV when the external pressure varies from 0 to 20 GPa, which implies that WS{sub 2} may transform from semiconductors to semimetal phase at a pressure about 20 GPa.

  17. Intra-EVA Space-to-Ground Interactions when Conducting Scientific Fieldwork Under Simulated Mars Mission Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaton, Kara H.; Chappell, Steven P.; Abercromby, Andrew F. J.; Lim, Darlene S. S.

    2018-01-01

    The Biologic Analog Science Associated with Lava Terrains (BASALT) project is a four-year program dedicated to iteratively designing, implementing, and evaluating concepts of operations (ConOps) and supporting capabilities to enable and enhance scientific exploration for future human Mars missions. The BASALT project has incorporated three field deployments during which real (non-simulated) biological and geochemical field science have been conducted at two high-fidelity Mars analog locations under simulated Mars mission conditions, including communication delays and data transmission limitations. BASALT's primary Science objective has been to extract basaltic samples for the purpose of investigating how microbial communities and habitability correlate with the physical and geochemical characteristics of chemically altered basalt environments. Field sites include the active East Rift Zone on the Big Island of Hawai'i, reminiscent of early Mars when basaltic volcanism and interaction with water were widespread, and the dormant eastern Snake River Plain in Idaho, similar to present-day Mars where basaltic volcanism is rare and most evidence for volcano-driven hydrothermal activity is relict. BASALT's primary Science Operations objective has been to investigate exploration ConOps and capabilities that facilitate scientific return during human-robotic exploration under Mars mission constraints. Each field deployment has consisted of ten extravehicular activities (EVAs) on the volcanic flows in which crews of two extravehicular and two intravehicular crewmembers conducted the field science while communicating across time delay and under bandwidth constraints with an Earth-based Mission Support Center (MSC) comprised of expert scientists and operators. Communication latencies of 5 and 15 min one-way light time and low (0.512 Mb/s uplink, 1.54 Mb/s downlink) and high (5.0 Mb/s uplink, 10.0 Mb/s downlink) bandwidth conditions were evaluated. EVA crewmembers communicated

  18. Principles of applied statistics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cox, D. R; Donnelly, Christl A

    2011-01-01

    .... David Cox and Christl Donnelly distil decades of scientific experience into usable principles for the successful application of statistics, showing how good statistical strategy shapes every stage of an investigation...

  19. First-principles calculation of thermodynamic stability of acids and bases under pH environment: A microscopic pH theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Hyun; Kim, Kwiseon; Zhang, S. B.

    2012-04-01

    Despite being one of the most important thermodynamic variables, pH has yet to be incorporated into first-principles thermodynamics to calculate stability of acidic and basic solutes in aqueous solutions. By treating the solutes as defects in homogeneous liquids, we formulate a first-principles approach to calculate their formation energies under proton chemical potential, or pH, based on explicit molecular dynamics. The method draws analogy to first-principle calculations of defect formation energies under electron chemical potential, or Fermi energy, in semiconductors. From this, we propose a simple pictorial representation of the general theory of acid-base chemistry. By performing first-principles molecular dynamics of liquid water models with solutes, we apply the formulation to calculate formation energies of various neutral and charged solutes such as H+, OH-, NH3, NH4+, HCOOH, and HCOO- in water. The deduced auto-dissociation constant of water and the difference in the pKa values of NH3 and HCOOH show good agreement with known experimental values. Our first-principles approach can be further extended and applied to other bio- and electro-chemical molecules such as amino acids and redox reaction couples that could exist in aqueous environments to understand their thermodynamic stability.

  20. Prior to Economic Treatment of Emissions and Their Uncertainties Under the Kyoto Protocol: Scientific Uncertainties That Must Be Kept in Mind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonas, M.; Nilsson, S.

    2007-01-01

    In a step-by-step exercise - beginning at full greenhouse gas accounting (FGA) and ending with the temporal detection of emission changes - we specify the relevant physical scientific constraints on carrying out temporal signal detection under the Kyoto Protocol and identify a number of scientific uncertainties that economic experts must consider before dealing with the economic aspects of emissions and their uncertainties under the Protocol. In addition, we answer one of the crucial questions that economic experts might pose: how credible in scientific terms are tradable emissions permits? Our exercise is meant to provide a preliminary basis for economic experts to carry out useful emissions trading assessments and specify the validity of their assessments from the scientific point of view, that is, in the general context of a FGA-uncertainty-verification framework. Such a basis is currently missing

  1. A Protocol for Evaluating Contextual Design Principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Stamps

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper explains how scientific data can be incorporated into urban design decisions, such as evaluating contextual design principles. The recommended protocols are based on the Cochrane Reviews that have been widely used in medical research. The major concepts of a Cochrane Review are explained, as well as the underlying mathematics. The underlying math is meta-analysis. Data are reported for three applications and seven contextual design policies. It is suggested that use of the Cochrane protocols will be of great assistance to planners by providing scientific data that can be used to evaluate the efficacies of contextual design policies prior to implementing those policies.

  2. Cosmological principles. II. Physical principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, E.R.

    1974-01-01

    The discussion of cosmological principle covers the uniformity principle of the laws of physics, the gravitation and cognizability principles, and the Dirac creation, chaos, and bootstrap principles. (U.S.)

  3. Principles underlying the epizootiology of viral hemorrhagic septicemia in Pacific herring and other fishes throughout the North Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershberger, Paul K.; Garver, Kyle A.; Winton, James R.

    2016-01-01

    Although viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) typically occurs at low prevalence and intensity in natural populations of Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii) and other marine fishes in the Northeast Pacific Ocean, epizootics of the resulting disease (VHS) periodically occur, often in association with observed fish kills. Here we identify a list of principles, based on a combination of field studies, controlled laboratory experiments, and previously unpublished observations, that govern the epizootiology of VHS in Pacific herring. A thorough understanding of these principles provides the basis for identifying risk factors that predispose certain marine fish populations to VHS epizootics, including the lack of population resistance, presence of chronic viral carriers in a population, copious viral shedding by infected individuals, cool water temperatures, limited water circulation patterns, and gregarious host behavioral patterns. Further, these principles are used to define the epizootiological stages of the disease in Pacific herring, including the susceptible (where susceptible individuals predominate a school or subpopulation), enzootic (where infection prevalence and intensity are often below the limits of reasonable laboratory detection), disease amplification (where infection prevalence and intensity increase rapidly), outbreak (often accompanied by host mortalities with high virus loads and active shedding), recovery (in which the mortality rate and virus load decline owing to an active host immune response), and refractory stages (characterized by little or no susceptibility and where viral clearance occurs in most VHS survivors). In addition to providing a foundation for quantitatively assessing the potential risks of future VHS epizootics in Pacific herring, these principles provide insights into the epizootiology of VHS in other fish communities where susceptible species exist.

  4. Scientifically artistic - artistically scientific

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2013-01-01

    From 5 to 7 June, two Austrian high-school classes met in Graz (Austria) for the Art&Science@School project. Launched by Michael Hoch from the CMS collaboration, the programme aims to show them another face of science through art.       On the first day, 62 teenagers from the BORG and GIBS schools attended a masterclass, where scientists from the CMS institute HEPHY (Vienna) provided information on colliders and detectors at CERN and explained the principles of high-energy physics. The students even had the chance to analyse real CERN data sets to “find” new particles. They also discovered the close link between science and art over the centuries and how contemporary artists visualise modern science and technology today. On the second day, under the supervision of art teachers, the students created an artwork from idea and concept to realisation and presentation. “I was completely amazed by the standard of the four artworks and by ...

  5. Effective regulation under conditions of scientific uncertainty: how collaborative networks contribute to occupational health and safety regulation for nanomaterials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reichow, Aline

    2015-01-01

    This thesis seeks to understand, and evaluate, the contribution of business associations within the United States (US) and German chemical sector, to the effective regulation of nanomaterials. In the effective regulation of new technologies characterized by high scientific uncertainty, with

  6. "Air Toxics under the Big Sky": Examining the Effectiveness of Authentic Scientific Research on High School Students' Science Skills and Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Tony J.; Delaloye, Naomi; Adams, Earle Raymond; Ware, Desirae; Vanek, Diana; Knuth, Randy; Hester, Carolyn Laurie; Marra, Nancy Noel; Holian, Andrij

    2016-01-01

    "Air Toxics Under the Big Sky" is an environmental science outreach/education program that incorporates the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) 8 Practices with the goal of promoting knowledge and understanding of authentic scientific research in high school classrooms through air quality research. This research explored: (1)…

  7. First-principles study on the phase transitions, crystal stabilities and thermodynamic properties of TiN under high pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xinjun; Liu, Changdong; Guo, Yongliang; Sun, Deyan; Ke, Xuezhi

    2018-03-01

    The structural and thermodynamic properties of titanium nitride (TiN) have been investigated by merging first-principles calculations and particle-swarm algorithm. The three phases are identified for TiN, including the B1, the P63 / mmc, and the B2 phases. A new phase of anti-TiP structure with the space group P63 / mmc has been predicted. The calculated phase transition from the B1 to the P63 / mmc occurs at 270 GPa. The vibrational, elastic, and thermodynamic properties for the three phases have been calculated and discussed.

  8. The tunneling radiation of a black hole with a f( R) global monopole under generalized uncertainty principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lingshen; Cheng, Hongbo

    2018-03-01

    The Parikh-Kraus-Wilczeck tunneling radiation of black hole involving a f( R) global monopole is considered based on the generalized uncertainty principle. The influences from global monopole, f( R) gravity and the corrections to the uncertainty appear in the expression of black hole entropy difference. It is found that the global monopole and the revision of general relativity both hinder the black hole from emitting the photons. The two parts as corrections to the uncertainty make the entropy difference of this kind of black hole larger or smaller respectively.

  9. Basic principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, P.D.

    1996-01-01

    Some basic explanations are given of the principles underlying the nuclear fuel cycle, starting with the physics of atomic and nuclear structure and continuing with nuclear energy and reactors, fuel and waste management and finally a discussion of economics and the future. An important aspect of the fuel cycle concerns the possibility of ''closing the back end'' i.e. reprocessing the waste or unused fuel in order to re-use it in reactors of various kinds. The alternative, the ''oncethrough'' cycle, discards the discharged fuel completely. An interim measure involves the prolonged storage of highly radioactive waste fuel. (UK)

  10. Globalization and Equitable Use of Natural Resources in the Contemporary World: A Diagnosis Under the Bias of The Principle of Intergenerational Equity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Marcelo Mendes

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Article  conduct  an  assessment  of  globalization  has  unleashed  the  commodification/depredation of natural resources in local/global scale to meet the interests of the market and the performance of the principle of intergenerational equity to try to curb this phenomenon. The research makes use of the deductive method, and uses dialectical contributions in order to implement a more accurate analysis of the phenomenon. At first, time will address under as globalization changes in consumption patterns of individuals in local/global level. Finally, it will take shape-the role of the principle of intergenerational equity by the legal system to try to curb ecological degradation.

  11. High spatial resolution satellite observations for validation of MODIS land products: IKONOS observations acquired under the NASA scientific data purchase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey T. Morisette; Jaime E. Nickeson; Paul Davis; Yujie Wang; Yuhong Tian; Curtis E. Woodcock; Nikolay Shabanov; Matthew Hansen; Warren B. Cohen; Doug R. Oetter; Robert E. Kennedy

    2003-01-01

    Phase 1I of the Scientific Data Purchase (SDP) has provided NASA investigators access to data from four different satellite and airborne data sources. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) land discipline team (MODLAND) sought to utilize these data in support of land product validation activities with a lbcus on tile EOS Land Validation Core Sites. These...

  12. Evolution of the bonding mechanism of ZnO under isotropic compression: A first-principles study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, G.C.; Sun, L.Z.; Wang, J.B.; Zhong, X.L.; Zhou, Y.C.

    2008-01-01

    The electronic structure and the bonding mechanism of ZnO under isotropic pressure have been studied by using the full-potential linear augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method within the density-functional theory (DFT) based on LDA+U exchange correlation (EXC) potential. We used the theory of Atoms in Molecules (AIM) method to analyze the change of the charge transfer and the bonding strength under isotropic pressure. The results of the theoretical analysis show that charge transfer between Zn and O atomic basins nearly linearly increases with the increasing pressure. Charge density along the Zn-O bond increases under the high pressure. The bonding strength and the ionicity of Zn-O bond also increase with the increasing pressure. The linear evolution process of the bonding mechanism under isotropic pressure was shown clearly in the present paper

  13. Principles of dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Hill, Rodney

    2013-01-01

    Principles of Dynamics presents classical dynamics primarily as an exemplar of scientific theory and method. This book is divided into three major parts concerned with gravitational theory of planetary systems; general principles of the foundations of mechanics; and general motion of a rigid body. Some of the specific topics covered are Keplerian Laws of Planetary Motion; gravitational potential and potential energy; and fields of axisymmetric bodies. The principles of work and energy, fictitious body-forces, and inertial mass are also looked into. Other specific topics examined are kinematics

  14. QSAR prediction of estrogen activity for a large set of diverse chemicals under the guidance of OECD principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huanxiang; Papa, Ester; Gramatica, Paola

    2006-11-01

    A large number of environmental chemicals, known as endocrine-disrupting chemicals, are suspected of disrupting endocrine functions by mimicking or antagonizing natural hormones, and such chemicals may pose a serious threat to the health of humans and wildlife. They are thought to act through a variety of mechanisms, mainly estrogen-receptor-mediated mechanisms of toxicity. However, it is practically impossible to perform thorough toxicological tests on all potential xenoestrogens, and thus, the quantitative structure--activity relationship (QSAR) provides a promising method for the estimation of a compound's estrogenic activity. Here, QSAR models of the estrogen receptor binding affinity of a large data set of heterogeneous chemicals have been built using theoretical molecular descriptors, giving full consideration to the new OECD principles in regulation for QSAR acceptability, during model construction and assessment. An unambiguous multiple linear regression (MLR) algorithm was used to build the models, and model predictive ability was validated by both internal and external validation. The applicability domain was checked by the leverage approach to verify prediction reliability. The results obtained using several validation paths indicate that the proposed QSAR model is robust and satisfactory, and can provide a feasible and practical tool for the rapid screening of the estrogen activity of organic compounds.

  15. A Critical Analysis of Chromotherapy and Its Scientific Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Azeemi, Samina T. Yousuf; Raza, Mohsin

    2005-01-01

    Chromotherapy is a method of treatment that uses the visible spectrum (colors) of electromagnetic radiation to cure diseases. It is a centuries-old concept used successfully over the years to cure various diseases. We have undertaken a critical analysis of chromotherapy and documented its scientific evolution to date. A few researchers have tried to discover the underlying scientific principles, but without quantitative study. Sufficient published material can be found about the subject t...

  16. First-principles predictions of structural, mechanical and electronic properties of βTiNb under high pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z. P.; Fang, Q. H.; Li, J.; Liu, B.

    2018-04-01

    Structural, mechanical and electronic properties of βTiNb alloy under high pressure have been investigated based on the density functional theory (DFT). The dependences of dimensionless volume ratio, elastic constants, bulk modulus, Young's modulus, shear modulus, ductile/brittle, anisotropy and Poisson's ratio on applied pressure are all calculated successfully. The results reveal that βTiNb alloy is mechanically stable under pressure below 23.45 GPa, and the pressure-induced phase transformation could occur beyond this critical value. Meanwhile, the applied pressure can effectively promote the mechanical properties of βTiNb alloy, including the resistances to volume change, elastic deformation and shear deformation, as well as the material ductility and metallicity. Furthermore, the calculated electronic structures testify that βTiNb alloy performs the metallicity and the higher pressure reduces the structural stability of unit cell.

  17. Air Toxics Under the Big Sky: Examining the Effectiveness of Authentic Scientific Research on High School Students' Science Skills and Interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Tony J; Delaloye, Naomi; Adams, Earle Raymond; Ware, Desirae; Vanek, Diana; Knuth, Randy; Hester, Carolyn Laurie; Marra, Nancy Noel; Holian, Andrij

    2016-01-01

    Air Toxics Under the Big Sky is an environmental science outreach/education program that incorporates the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) 8 Practices with the goal of promoting knowledge and understanding of authentic scientific research in high school classrooms through air quality research. A quasi-experimental design was used in order to understand: 1) how the program affects student understanding of scientific inquiry and research and 2) how the open inquiry learning opportunities provided by the program increase student interest in science as a career path . Treatment students received instruction related to air pollution (airborne particulate matter), associated health concerns, and training on how to operate air quality testing equipment. They then participated in a yearlong scientific research project in which they developed and tested hypotheses through research of their own design regarding the sources and concentrations of air pollution in their homes and communities. Results from an external evaluation revealed that treatment students developed a deeper understanding of scientific research than did comparison students, as measured by their ability to generate good hypotheses and research designs, and equally expressed an increased interest in pursuing a career in science. These results emphasize the value of and need for authentic science learning opportunities in the modern science classroom.

  18. Air Toxics Under the Big Sky: Examining the Effectiveness of Authentic Scientific Research on High School Students’ Science Skills and Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaloye, Naomi; Adams, Earle Raymond; Ware, Desirae; Vanek, Diana; Knuth, Randy; Hester, Carolyn Laurie; Marra, Nancy Noel; Holian, Andrij

    2016-01-01

    Air Toxics Under the Big Sky is an environmental science outreach/education program that incorporates the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) 8 Practices with the goal of promoting knowledge and understanding of authentic scientific research in high school classrooms through air quality research. A quasi-experimental design was used in order to understand: 1) how the program affects student understanding of scientific inquiry and research and 2) how the open inquiry learning opportunities provided by the program increase student interest in science as a career path. Treatment students received instruction related to air pollution (airborne particulate matter), associated health concerns, and training on how to operate air quality testing equipment. They then participated in a yearlong scientific research project in which they developed and tested hypotheses through research of their own design regarding the sources and concentrations of air pollution in their homes and communities. Results from an external evaluation revealed that treatment students developed a deeper understanding of scientific research than did comparison students, as measured by their ability to generate good hypotheses and research designs, and equally expressed an increased interest in pursuing a career in science. These results emphasize the value of and need for authentic science learning opportunities in the modern science classroom. PMID:28286375

  19. Air Toxics Under the Big Sky: examining the effectiveness of authentic scientific research on high school students' science skills and interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Tony J.; Delaloye, Naomi; Adams, Earle Raymond; Ware, Desirae; Vanek, Diana; Knuth, Randy; Hester, Carolyn Laurie; Marra, Nancy Noel; Holian, Andrij

    2016-04-01

    Air Toxics Under the Big Sky is an environmental science outreach/education program that incorporates the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) 8 Practices with the goal of promoting knowledge and understanding of authentic scientific research in high school classrooms through air quality research. This research explored: (1) how the program affects student understanding of scientific inquiry and research and (2) how the open-inquiry learning opportunities provided by the program increase student interest in science as a career path. Treatment students received instruction related to air pollution (airborne particulate matter), associated health concerns, and training on how to operate air quality testing equipment. They then participated in a yearlong scientific research project in which they developed and tested hypotheses through research of their own design regarding the sources and concentrations of air pollution in their homes and communities. Results from an external evaluation revealed that treatment students developed a deeper understanding of scientific research than did comparison students, as measured by their ability to generate good hypotheses and research designs, and equally expressed an increased interest in pursuing a career in science. These results emphasize the value of and need for authentic science learning opportunities in the modern science classroom.

  20. The normative basis of the Precautionary Principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schomberg, Rene von

    2006-01-01

    sequence in an ideal world (e.g. from the political level downwards), practically the 'entry' stage can be at any level and those levels do not represent a hierarchy in any sense. Practices which were formerly not based on the precautionary principle may become based on the precautionary principle by discussions which arise at the science/policy interface. I conclude with an overall definition of the precautionary principle (rather than a specified definition of the precautionary principle for a particular area, such as the environment, human health or food safety) while remaining within the wide scope and limits of the recent rulings of the European Court of Justice, the broad EU endorsement of the European Guidelines on the precautionary principle, and international obligations under international Treaties such as those under the WTO and the UN. The definition contains all the normative dimensions discussed in this contribution: Where, following an assessment of available scientific information, there are reasonable grounds for concern for the possibility of adverse effects but scientific uncertainty persists, provisional risk management measures based on a broad cost/benefit analysis whereby priority will be given to human health and the environment, necessary to ensure the chosen high level of protection in the Community and proportionate to this level of protection, may be adopted, pending further scientific information for a more comprehensive risk assessment, without having to wait until the reality and seriousness of those adverse effects become fully apparent

  1. The normative basis of the Precautionary Principle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schomberg, Rene von [European Commission, Directorate General for Research, Brussels (Belgium)

    2006-09-15

    particular sequence in an ideal world (e.g. from the political level downwards), practically the 'entry' stage can be at any level and those levels do not represent a hierarchy in any sense. Practices which were formerly not based on the precautionary principle may become based on the precautionary principle by discussions which arise at the science/policy interface. I conclude with an overall definition of the precautionary principle (rather than a specified definition of the precautionary principle for a particular area, such as the environment, human health or food safety) while remaining within the wide scope and limits of the recent rulings of the European Court of Justice, the broad EU endorsement of the European Guidelines on the precautionary principle, and international obligations under international Treaties such as those under the WTO and the UN. The definition contains all the normative dimensions discussed in this contribution: Where, following an assessment of available scientific information, there are reasonable grounds for concern for the possibility of adverse effects but scientific uncertainty persists, provisional risk management measures based on a broad cost/benefit analysis whereby priority will be given to human health and the environment, necessary to ensure the chosen high level of protection in the Community and proportionate to this level of protection, may be adopted, pending further scientific information for a more comprehensive risk assessment, without having to wait until the reality and seriousness of those adverse effects become fully apparent.

  2. Guiding Principles for Data Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    The principles in the document are intended to help guide the identification of data needs, promote and optimize full use of existing knowledge, provide consistency in the data request process across all scientific disciplines for pesticide review.

  3. Polymer electrolyte fuel cells physical principles of materials and operation

    CERN Document Server

    Eikerling, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The book provides a systematic and profound account of scientific challenges in fuel cell research. The introductory chapters bring readers up to date on the urgency and implications of the global energy challenge, the prospects of electrochemical energy conversion technologies, and the thermodynamic and electrochemical principles underlying the operation of polymer electrolyte fuel cells. The book then presents the scientific challenges in fuel cell research as a systematic account of distinct components, length scales, physicochemical processes, and scientific disciplines. The main part of t

  4. 4. Principles of Art from Antiquity to Contemporary Pedagogy in the Context of Methodology of Art Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olimpiada Arbuz-Spatari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The methodologies of Art Education is a system of educational documents - principles, rules, methods, procedures, forms - designed determinative - reflective thinking from teleology, content, communication arts / cultural / scientific, reception and receiver topic communicating, and are subject oriented educated / creator student under the laws of education, communication and artistic principles.

  5. Study of blood flow inside the stenosis vessel under the effect of solenoid magnetic field using ferrohydrodynamics principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badfar, Homayoun; Motlagh, Saber Yekani; Sharifi, Abbas

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, biomagnetic blood flow in the stenosis vessel under the effect of the solenoid magnetic field is studied using the ferrohydrodynamics (FHD) model. The parabolic profile is considered at an inlet of the axisymmetric stenosis vessel. Blood is modeled as electrically non-conducting, Newtonian and homogeneous fluid. Finite volume and the SIMPLE (Semi-Implicit Method for Pressure Linked Equations) algorithm are utilized to discretize governing equations. The investigation is studied at different magnetic numbers ( MnF=164, 328, 1640 and 3280) and the number of the coil loops (three, five and nine loops). Results indicate an increase in heat transfer, wall shear stress and energy loss (pressure drop) with an increment in the magnetic number (ratio of Kelvin force to dynamic pressure force), arising from the FHD, and the number of solenoid loops. Furthermore, the flow pattern is affected by the magnetic field, and the temperature of blood can be decreased up to 1.48 {}°C under the effect of the solenoid magnetic field with nine loops and reference magnetic field ( B0) of 2 tesla.

  6. The Registration of Special Notarial Bonds under the Security by Means of Movable Property Act and the Publicity Principle: Lessons from Developments in Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lefa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Many people do not own immovable property to offer as security but do have movable property which can be offered as security for the repayment of a debt. In today's world, where the costs of a motor car can exceed that of a house, the increasing value of movable things makes them popular and appropriate security objects. Under the common law pledge, delivery of the movable property from the pledgor (the debtor to the pledgee (the creditor has to take place in order for the pledgee to acquire a real security right in the property. Delivery of the property is aimed at ensuring compliance with the publicity principle. The principle of publicity entails that the existence of a real security must be known to the public. With the aim of promoting commerce, certain countries have taken the initiative in reforming their laws on pledge to allow the debtor to retain possession of the movable property that serves as security. Furthermore, technology has advanced to a level where national registration systems which can be accessed easily and at minimal cost can be established. The South African legislature enacted the Security by Means of Movable Property Act 57 of 1993 which makes provision for a pledge without possession. This Act deemed a duly registered notarial bond over specified movable property to have been delivered as if delivery had in fact taken place, thereby substituting the common law delivery requirement with registration in the Deeds Office. On 30 May 2013 the Belgian House of Representatives adopted a Belgian Pledge Act which allows for a non-possessory pledge on movable property subject to registration in a newly created public register called the Electronic Pledge Register. This article therefore examines the efficacy of the registration system of special notarial bonds in South African law and whether this form of registration complies with the publicity principle looking at the developments of a computerised registration system taking

  7. First principles and Debye model study of the thermodynamic, electronic and optical properties of MgO under high-temperature and pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Yurun; Li, Huayang; Wang, Hongjuan; He, Kaihua; Wang, Qingbo

    2018-02-01

    First principles and quasi-harmonic Debye model have been used to study the thermodynamic properties, enthalpies, electronic and optical properties of MgO up to the core-mantle boundary (CMB) condition (137 GPa and 3700 K). Thermodynamic properties calculation includes thermal expansion coefficient and capacity, which have been studied up to the CMB pressure (137 GPa) and temperature (3700 K) by the Debye model with generalized gradient approximation (GGA) and local-density approximation (LDA). First principles with hybrid functional method (PBE0) has been used to calculate the electronic and optical properties under pressure up to 137 GPa and 0 K. Our results show the Debye model with LDA and first principles with PBE0 can provide accurate thermodynamic properties, enthalpies, electronic and optical properties. Calculated enthalpies show that MgO keep NaCl (B1) structure up to 137 GPa. And MgO is a direct bandgap insulator with a 7.23 eV calculated bandgap. The bandgap increased with increasing pressure, which will induce a blue shift of optical properties. We also calculated the density of states (DOS) and discussed the relation between DOS and band, optical properties. Equations were used to fit the relations between pressure and bandgaps, absorption coefficient (α(ω)) of MgO. The equations can be used to evaluate pressure after careful calibration. Our calculations can not only be used to identify some geological processes, but also offer a reference to the applications of MgO in the future.

  8. Phase transition, elastic and electronic properties of topological insulator Sb2Te3 under pressure: First principle study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing, Lu; Huai-Yong, Zhang; Yan, Cheng; Xiang-Rong, Chen; Guang-Fu, Ji

    2016-02-01

    The phase transition, elastic and electronic properties of three phases (phase I, II, and III) of Sb2Te3 are investigated by using the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) with the PBESOL exchange-correlation functional in the framework of density-functional theory. Some basic physical parameters, such as lattice constants, bulk modulus, shear modulus, Young’s modulus, Poisson’s ratio, acoustic velocity, and Debye temperature Θ are calculated. The obtained lattice parameters under various pressures are consistent with experimental data. Phase transition pressures are 9.4 GPa (I → II) and 14.1 GPa (II → III), which are in agreement with the experimental results. According to calculated elastic constants, we also discuss the ductile or brittle characters and elastic anisotropies of three phases. Phases I and III are brittle, while phase II is ductile. Of the three phases, phase II has the most serious degree of elastic anisotropy and phase III has the slightest one. Finally, we investigate the partial densities of states (PDOSs) of three phases and find that the three phases possess some covalent features. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11204192 and 11174214) and Jointly supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China and the China Academy of Engineering Physics (NSAF) (Grant No. U1430117).

  9. First-Row Transition Metal Based Catalysts for the Oxygen Evolution Reaction under Alkaline Conditions: Basic Principles and Recent Advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Fei; Zhou, Min; Zhou, Yuxue; Zeng, Xianghua

    2017-12-01

    Owing to its abundance, high gravimetric energy density, and environmental friendliness, hydrogen is a promising renewable energy to replace fossil fuels. One of the most prominent routes toward hydrogen acquisition is water splitting, which is currently bottlenecked by the sluggish kinetics of oxygen evolution reaction (OER). Numerous of electrocatalysts have been developed in the past decades to accelerate the OER process. Up to now, the first-row transition metal based compounds are in pole position under alkaline conditions, which have become subjects of extensive studies. Recently, significant advances in providing compelling catalytic performance as well as exploring their catalytic mechanisms have been achieved in this area. In this review, we summarized the fundamentals and recent progresses in first-row transition metal based OER catalysts, with special emphasis on the pathways of promoting catalytic performance by concrete strategies. New insight into material design, particularly the role of experimental approaches in the electrocatalytic performance and reaction mechanisms of OER are expected to be provided. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Evolutionary Connectionism: Algorithmic Principles Underlying the Evolution of Biological Organisation in Evo-Devo, Evo-Eco and Evolutionary Transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Richard A; Mills, Rob; Buckley, C L; Kouvaris, Kostas; Jackson, Adam; Powers, Simon T; Cox, Chris; Tudge, Simon; Davies, Adam; Kounios, Loizos; Power, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms of variation, selection and inheritance, on which evolution by natural selection depends, are not fixed over evolutionary time. Current evolutionary biology is increasingly focussed on understanding how the evolution of developmental organisations modifies the distribution of phenotypic variation, the evolution of ecological relationships modifies the selective environment, and the evolution of reproductive relationships modifies the heritability of the evolutionary unit. The major transitions in evolution, in particular, involve radical changes in developmental, ecological and reproductive organisations that instantiate variation, selection and inheritance at a higher level of biological organisation. However, current evolutionary theory is poorly equipped to describe how these organisations change over evolutionary time and especially how that results in adaptive complexes at successive scales of organisation (the key problem is that evolution is self-referential, i.e. the products of evolution change the parameters of the evolutionary process). Here we first reinterpret the central open questions in these domains from a perspective that emphasises the common underlying themes. We then synthesise the findings from a developing body of work that is building a new theoretical approach to these questions by converting well-understood theory and results from models of cognitive learning. Specifically, connectionist models of memory and learning demonstrate how simple incremental mechanisms, adjusting the relationships between individually-simple components, can produce organisations that exhibit complex system-level behaviours and improve the adaptive capabilities of the system. We use the term "evolutionary connectionism" to recognise that, by functionally equivalent processes, natural selection acting on the relationships within and between evolutionary entities can result in organisations that produce complex system-level behaviours in evolutionary

  11. Forest fine-root production and nitrogen use under elevated CO2: Contrasting responses explained by a common principle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franklin, Oscar [International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis; McMurtrie, Ross E [ORNL; Iversen, Colleen M [ORNL; Crous, Kristine [University of Michigan; Finzi, Adrien C [Boston University; Tissue, David Thomas [ORNL; Ellsworth, David [ORNL; Oren, Ram [ORNL; Norby, Richard J [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    Despite the importance of nitrogen (N) limitation of forest carbon (C) sequestration at rising atmospheric CO2 concentration, the mechanisms responsible are not well understood. To elucidate the interactive effects of elevated CO2 (eCO2) and soil N availability on forest productivity and C allocation, we hypothesized that 1) trees maximize fitness by allocating N and C to maximize their net growth, and 2) that N uptake is controlled by root exploration for N. We tested this model using data collected in FACE sites dominated by evergreen (Pinus taeda; Duke Forest) and deciduous (Liquidambar styraciflua; Oak Ridge National Laboratory ORNL) trees. The model explained 80-95% of variation in productivity and N-uptake data among eCO2, N fertilization and control treatments over six years. The model explains why fine-root production increased, and why N uptake increased despite reduced soil N availability under eCO2 at ORNL and Duke. In agreement with observations at other sites, soil N availability reduced below a critical level diminishes all eCO2 responses. At Duke, a negative feedback between reduced soil N availability and N uptake counteracted progressive reduction in soil N availability at eCO2. At ORNL, decreasing soil N availability was perpetuated as it generated no reduction in N uptake, due to strongly increased production of fast turnover fine-roots. This implies that species with fast root turnover could be more prone to progressive N limitation of carbon sequestration in woody biomass than species with slow root turnover, such as evergreens.

  12. NOGAP B. 2; List of scientific names of algae, invertebrates, and vertebrates captured under NOGAP subprojects B. 2. 1 and B. 2. 3, 1984 to 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopky, G.E.; Lawrence, M.J.; McRae, S.M.; Chiperzak, D.B.

    1994-01-01

    To provide background data for assessing the implications of hydrocarbon development on the Canadian Arctic coastal shelf, zooplankton were collected from the Canadian Beaufort Sea shelf under the Northern Oil and Gas Program (NOGAP). A summary of the scientific names of all algae, invertebrates, and vertebrates captured is given in three forms: according to phylogenetic relationships; ordered numerically by species codes assigned according to a species catalogue developed exclusively for the program; and alphabetically by species name or taxonomic group name. A total of 787 taxonomic identifications were assigned to specimens captured. Five phyla, seven classes, and 127 genera and/or species under the Kingdom Protista and 24 phyla, 39 classes, 96 orders, 261 families, and 518 genera and/or species under the Kingdom Animalia were represented in the organisms captured. 235 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  13. A science confidence gap: Education, trust in scientific methods, and trust in scientific institutions in the United States, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achterberg, Peter; de Koster, Willem; van der Waal, Jeroen

    2017-08-01

    Following up on suggestions that attitudes toward science are multi-dimensional, we analyze nationally representative survey data collected in the United States in 2014 ( N = 2006), and demonstrate the existence of a science confidence gap: some people place great trust in scientific methods and principles, but simultaneously distrust scientific institutions. This science confidence gap is strongly associated with level of education: it is larger among the less educated than among the more educated. We investigate explanations for these educational differences. Whereas hypotheses deduced from reflexive-modernization theory do not pass the test, those derived from theorizing on the role of anomie are corroborated. The less educated are more anomic (they have more modernity-induced cultural discontents), which not only underlies their distrust in scientific institutions, but also fuels their trust in scientific methods and principles. This explains why this science confidence gap is most pronounced among the less educated.

  14. Algorithmic Principles of Mathematical Programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faigle, Ulrich; Kern, Walter; Still, Georg

    2002-01-01

    Algorithmic Principles of Mathematical Programming investigates the mathematical structures and principles underlying the design of efficient algorithms for optimization problems. Recent advances in algorithmic theory have shown that the traditionally separate areas of discrete optimization, linear

  15. Principle of natural and artificial radioactive series equivalency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasilyeva, A.N.; Starkov, O.V.

    2001-01-01

    In the present paper one approach used under development of radioactive waste management conception is under consideration. This approach is based on the principle of natural and artificial radioactive series radiotoxic equivalency. The radioactivity of natural and artificial radioactive series has been calculated for 10 9 - years period. The toxicity evaluation for natural and artificial series has also been made. The correlation between natural radioactive series and their predecessors - actinides produced in thermal and fast reactors - has been considered. It has been shown that systematized reactor series data had great scientific significance and the principle of differential calculation of radiotoxicity was necessary to realize long-lived radioactive waste and uranium and thorium ore radiotoxicity equivalency conception. The calculations show that the execution of equivalency principle is possible for uranium series (4n+2, 4n+1). It is a problem for thorium. series. This principle is impracticable for neptunium series. (author)

  16. Foreword to 'Multiscale structural biology: biophysical principles and mechanisms underlying the action of bio-nanomachines', a special issue in Honour of Fumio Arisaka's 70th birthday.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Damien; Takagi, Junichi; Nakamura, Haruki

    2018-03-02

    This issue of Biophysical Reviews, titled 'Multiscale structural biology: biophysical principles and mechanisms underlying the action of bio-nanomachines', is a collection of articles dedicated in honour of Professor Fumio Arisaka's 70th birthday. Initially, working in the fields of haemocyanin and actin filament assembly, Fumio went on to publish important work on the elucidation of structural and functional aspects of T4 phage biology. As his career has transitioned levels of complexity from proteins (hemocyanin) to large protein complexes (actin) to even more massive bio-nanomachinery (phage), it is fitting that the subject of this special issue is similarly reflective of his multiscale approach to structural biology. This festschrift contains articles spanning biophysical structure and function from the bio-molecular through to the bio-nanomachine level.

  17. The impact of the document international work group in death, dying and bereavement: assumptions and principles underlying standards for terminal care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vachon, Mary L S

    This article reflects on the development and impact of the International Workgroup on Death, Dying and Bereavement's (IWG) pivotal document on The Assumptions and Principles Underlying Standards for Terminal Care. It was at the Ars Moriendi meetings in Columbia, Maryland that the author first met Bob and Bunny Kastenbaum. The meeting led to the development of IWG and the first task of this group was the development of the "Standards" document. The initial document reflected the pioneering work already being done by Kastenbaum and others on the committee and then was formative in the development of other documents such as the National Hospice Association Standards. Participants in the original workgroup were asked for their reflections on the significance of the document and the literature was surveyed to assess the impact of the "Standards" document on the field.

  18. Fundamental Principles of Alarm Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Us, Tolga; Jensen, Niels; Lind, Morten

    2011-01-01

    Traditionally alarms are designed on the basis of empirical guidelines rather than on a sound scientific framework rooted in a theoretical foundation for process and control system design. This paper proposes scientific principles and a methodology for design of alarms based on a functional...

  19. Toward executable scientific publications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strijkers, R.J.; Cushing, R.; Vasyunin, D.; Laat, C. de; Belloum, A.S.Z.; Meijer, R.J.

    2011-01-01

    Reproducibility of experiments is considered as one of the main principles of the scientific method. Recent developments in data and computation intensive science, i.e. e-Science, and state of the art in Cloud computing provide the necessary components to preserve data sets and re-run code and

  20. The Scientific Outlook

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C V Raman. The Scientific Outlook. IT IS CUSTOMARY in all branches of science to associate the names of eminent men with the facts and principles discovered by them which form the foundations of the subjects. This practice is found to be useful since it helps to abbreviate and give precision to the terminology of science.

  1. The Scientific Enterprise

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Srimath

    that led to the Big Bang, etc. Then there are matters relating to ... In some instances, one may have collected a mass of experimental data pertaining to a phenomenon, but the data may be ... love, values like honesty, and ethical principles like compassion and kindness, will never be fully amenable to scientific analysis.

  2. Climate Twins - a tool to explore future climate impacts by assessing real world conditions: Exploration principles, underlying data, similarity conditions and uncertainty ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loibl, Wolfgang; Peters-Anders, Jan; Züger, Johann

    2010-05-01

    To achieve public awareness and thorough understanding about expected climate changes and their future implications, ways have to be found to communicate model outputs to the public in a scientifically sound and easily understandable way. The newly developed Climate Twins tool tries to fulfil these requirements via an intuitively usable web application, which compares spatial patterns of current climate with future climate patterns, derived from regional climate model results. To get a picture of the implications of future climate in an area of interest, users may click on a certain location within an interactive map with underlying future climate information. A second map depicts the matching Climate Twin areas according to current climate conditions. In this way scientific output can be communicated to the public which allows for experiencing climate change through comparison with well-known real world conditions. To identify climatic coincidence seems to be a simple exercise, but the accuracy and applicability of the similarity identification depends very much on the selection of climate indicators, similarity conditions and uncertainty ranges. Too many indicators representing various climate characteristics and too narrow uncertainty ranges will judge little or no area as regions with similar climate, while too little indicators and too wide uncertainty ranges will address too large regions as those with similar climate which may not be correct. Similarity cannot be just explored by comparing mean values or by calculating correlation coefficients. As climate change triggers an alteration of various indicators, like maxima, minima, variation magnitude, frequency of extreme events etc., the identification of appropriate similarity conditions is a crucial question to be solved. For Climate Twins identification, it is necessary to find a right balance of indicators, similarity conditions and uncertainty ranges, unless the results will be too vague conducting a

  3. "A century of civilization under the influence of eugenics": Dr. Enrique Diego Madrazo, socialism and scientific progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleminson, Richard

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses the thought of one of the pioneers of eugenics in Spain, Dr. Enrique Diego Madrazo. In particular, it analyses his 1930 essay Un siglo de civilización bajo la influencia eugenésica [A Century of Civilization under the Influence of Eugenics], as the most explicit work on the eugenic utopia he advocated. This work, because of its breadth, was also one of the most extensive and detailed accounts of the steps to be taken towards the eugenic society that was produced. The present analysis of his work assesses the degree to which his thought, which has been described as "utopian socialist", in fact corresponded to that epithet, given the politically authoritarian nature and the gender bias of some aspects of his one-hundred year plan for the creation of a eugenic society. The article also places Madrazo's thought in the context of his time and other national currents of eugenic thought.

  4. First-principles investigation of the structural, mechanical and thermodynamic properties of Al2Cu phase under various pressure and temperature conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jinzhong; Zhao, Yuhong; Hou, Hua; Han, Peide

    2017-12-01

    The crystal structure, phase stability, mechanical and thermodynamic properties of the Al2Cu (θ), Al2Cu (θ‧) and Al2Cu (Ω) phases are studied by the first-principles method. The predicted lattice constants are consistent with the available literature data. θ, θ‧ and Ω phases are thermodynamically stable, and do not undergo any phase transition under pressure. The values of B for Ω are larger than that for θ and θ‧ phases, while the values of G for θ are smaller than that for Ω and θ‧ phases. The studies also reveal that pressure can improve the elastic anisotropy of the θ, θ‧ and Ω phases. The Debye temperature, heat capacity and thermal expansion coefficient for the phases are determined by the quasi-harmonic Debye model. Under identical conditions, the values of ΘD from high to low is in the following order: θ‧>Ω>θ. The heat capacity and thermal expansion coefficient for θ, θ‧ and Ω phases decrease with pressure when the temperature is kept constant. In contrast, thermal expansion coefficient α is more sensitive to any changes in pressure than any temperature change in the temperature range, 300-800 K.

  5. First Principles Study on Structure Stability and Mechanical Properties of YNi2B2C and LuNi2B2C under Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Liu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The pressure effects on the lattice parameters and elastic constants of the tetragonal RNi 2 B 2 C (R=Y, Lu are investigated by means of the first principles. The predicted lattice constants and elastic constants of YNi 2 B 2 C and LuNi 2 B 2 C at 0 GPa agree well with the available data. By the elastic stability criteria under isotropic pressure, it is predicted that YNi 2 B 2 C and LuNi 2 B 2 C with tetragonal structure are not mechanically stable above 93 GPa and 50 GPa, respectively. Pugh’s modulus ratio, Poisson’s ratio, Vickers hardness, elastic anisotropy and Debye temperature of YNi 2 B 2 C in the pressure range of 0–100 GPa and LuNi 2 B 2 C in the pressure range of 0-60 GPa are further investigated. It is shown that the ductility and Debye temperature of tetragonal RNi 2 B 2 C (R=Y, Lu increase with increasing pressure, and LuNi 2 B 2 C is more ductile and lower Debye temperature than YNi 2 B 2 C under different pressures.

  6. First principles calculations of structural, elastic, electronic properties of Ir{sub 3}Zr with L1{sub 2} structure under high pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Na; Wang, Xueye, E-mail: wxueye@xtu.edu.cn; Wan, Yali

    2015-07-15

    The effects of pressure on the structural, elastic and electronic properties of Ir{sub 3}Zr are investigated by means of the first-principles calculations based on the density functional theory with generalized gradient approximation and local density approximation methods. The calculated lattice parameters and elastic modulus of Ir{sub 3}Zr at zero pressure are in good agreement with available experimental and theoretical results. The values of elastic constants (C{sub 11}, C{sub 12}, C{sub 44}), bulk modulus (B), shear modulus (G), Young modulus (E), Poisson's ratio (υ), anisotropy index (A) and Debye temperature (T{sub D}) present the linearly increasing dependences on the external pressure. Additionally, the B/G values exhibit an upward trend with increasing pressure, which means that higher pressure can improve its ductility. Ir{sub 3}Zr exhibits a brittle characteristic at zero pressure. When the pressure reaches 10 GPa, the Cauchy pressure and B/G value show ductile feature. In addition, the pressure-dependence behavior of density of states, Mulliken charge and bond length are analyzed. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • The elastic and electronic properties of Ir{sub 3}Zr under pressure are investigated. • The elastic constants, elastic moduli increase with the pressure increasing. • When the pressure reaches 10 GPa, Ir{sub 3}Zr changes from brittle to ductile. • Ir{sub 3}Zr remains as a stable structure and no structural transition under pressure.

  7. Intelligent instrumentation principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Bhuyan, Manabendra

    2011-01-01

    With the advent of microprocessors and digital-processing technologies as catalyst, classical sensors capable of simple signal conditioning operations have evolved rapidly to take on higher and more specialized functions including validation, compensation, and classification. This new category of sensor expands the scope of incorporating intelligence into instrumentation systems, yet with such rapid changes, there has developed no universal standard for design, definition, or requirement with which to unify intelligent instrumentation. Explaining the underlying design methodologies of intelligent instrumentation, Intelligent Instrumentation: Principles and Applications provides a comprehensive and authoritative resource on the scientific foundations from which to coordinate and advance the field. Employing a textbook-like language, this book translates methodologies to more than 80 numerical examples, and provides applications in 14 case studies for a complete and working understanding of the material. Beginn...

  8. PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES ON FISCAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morar Ioan Dan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Fiscal science advertise in most analytical situations, while the principles reiterated by specialists in the field in various specialized works The two components of taxation, the tax system relating to the theoretical and the practical procedures relating to tax are marked by frequent references and invocations of the underlying principles to tax. This paper attempts a return on equity fiscal general vision as a principle often invoked and used to justify tax policies, but so often violated the laws fiscality . Also want to emphasize the importance of devising procedures to ensure fiscal equitable treatment of taxpayers. Specific approach of this paper is based on the notion that tax equity is based on equality before tax and social policies of the executive that would be more effective than using the other tax instruments. I want to emphasize that if the scientific approach to justify the unequal treatment of the tax law is based on the various social problems of the taxpayers, then deviates from the issue of tax fairness justification explaining the need to promote social policies usually more attractive to taxpayers. Modern tax techniques are believed to be promoted especially in order to ensure an increasing level of high efficiency at the expense of the taxpayers obligations to ensure equality before the law tax. On the other hand, tax inequities reaction generates multiple recipients from the first budget plan, but finalities unfair measures can not quantify and no timeline for the reaction, usually not known. But while statistics show fluctuations in budgetary revenues and often find in literature reviews and analysis relevant to a connection between changes in government policies, budget execution and outcome. The effects of inequality on tax on tax procedures and budgetary revenues are difficult to quantify and is among others to this work. Providing tax equity without combining it with the principles of discrimination and neutrality

  9. Variational principles in physics

    CERN Document Server

    Basdevant, Jean-Louis

    2007-01-01

    Optimization under constraints is an essential part of everyday life. Indeed, we routinely solve problems by striking a balance between contradictory interests, individual desires and material contingencies. This notion of equilibrium was dear to thinkers of the enlightenment, as illustrated by Montesquieu’s famous formulation: "In all magistracies, the greatness of the power must be compensated by the brevity of the duration." Astonishingly, natural laws are guided by a similar principle. Variational principles have proven to be surprisingly fertile. For example, Fermat used variational methods to demonstrate that light follows the fastest route from one point to another, an idea which came to be known as Fermat’s principle, a cornerstone of geometrical optics. Variational Principles in Physics explains variational principles and charts their use throughout modern physics. The heart of the book is devoted to the analytical mechanics of Lagrange and Hamilton, the basic tools of any physicist. Prof. Basdev...

  10. New class of photocatalytic materials and a novel principle for efficient water splitting under infrared and visible light: MgB2 as unexpected example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravets, V G; Grigorenko, A N

    2015-11-30

    Water splitting is unanimously recognized as environment friendly, potentially low cost and renewable energy solution based on the future hydrogen economy. Especially appealing is photocatalytic water splitting whereby a suitably chosen catalyst dramatically improves efficiency of the hydrogen production driven by direct sunlight and allows it to happen even at zero driving potential. Here, we suggest a new class of stable photocatalysts and the corresponding principle for catalytic water splitting in which infrared and visible light play the main role in producing the photocurrent and hydrogen. The new class of catalysts - ionic or covalent binary metals with layered graphite-like structures - effectively absorb visible and infrared light facilitating the reaction of water splitting, suppress the inverse reaction of ion recombination by separating ions due to internal electric fields existing near alternating layers, provide the sites for ion trapping of both polarities, and finally deliver the electrons and holes required to generate hydrogen and oxygen gases. As an example, we demonstrate conversion efficiency of ~27% at bias voltage Vbias = 0.5V for magnesium diboride working as a catalyst for photoinduced water splitting. We discuss its advantages over some existing materials and propose the underlying mechanism of photocatalytic water splitting by binary layered metals.

  11. First-principle study of the structural, electronic, and optical properties of cubic InN{sub x}P{sub 1-x} ternary alloys under hydrostatic pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hattabi, I. [Ibn Khaldoun Univ. de Tiaret (Algeria). Lab. Synthese et Catalyse; Abdiche, A.; Riane, R. [Sidi-bel-Abbes Univ. (Algeria). Applied Materials Lab.; Moussa, R. [Sidi-bel-Abbes Univ. (Algeria). Physic Dept.; Hadji, K. [Ibn Khaldoun Univ. de Tiaret (Algeria). Science and Technology Dept.; Soyalp, F. [Yuezuencue Yil Univ., Van (Turkey). Dept. of Physics; Varshney, Dinesh [Devi Ahilya Univ., Indore (India). Materials Science Lab.; Syrotyuk, S.V. [National Univ. ' Lviv Polytechnic' , Lviv (Ukraine). Semiconductor Electronics Dept.; Khenata, R. [Mascara Univ. (Algeria). Lab. de Physique Quantique et de Modelisation Mathematique (LPQ3M)

    2016-07-01

    In this article, we present results of the first-principle study of the structural, electronic, and optical properties of the InN, InP binary compounds and their related ternary alloy InN{sub x}P{sub 1-x} in the zinc-blend (ZB) phase within a nonrelativistic full potential linearised augmented plan wave (FP-LAPW) method using Wien2k code based on the density functional theory (DFT). Different approximations of exchange-correlation energy were used for the calculation of the lattice constant, bulk modulus, and first-order pressure derivative of the bulk modulus. Whereas the lattice constant decreases with increasing nitride composition x. Our results present a good agreement with theoretical and experimental data. The electronic band structures calculated using Tran-Blaha-modified Becke-Johnson (TB-mBJ) approach present a direct band gap semiconductor character for InN{sub x}P{sub 1-x} compounds at different x values. The electronic properties were also calculated under hydrostatic pressure for (P=0.00, 5.00, 10.0, 15.0, 20.0, 25.0 GPa) where it is found that the InP compound change from direct to indirect band gap at the pressure P≥7.80 GPa. Furthermore, the pressure effect on the dielectric function and the refractive index was carried out. Results obtained in our calculations present a good agreement with available theoretical reports and experimental data.

  12. First-Principle Study of the Structural, Electronic, and Optical Properties of Cubic InNxP1-x Ternary Alloys under Hydrostatic Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattabi, I.; Abdiche, A.; Moussa, R.; Riane, R.; Hadji, K.; Soyalp, F.; Varshney, Dinesh; Syrotyuk, S. V.; Khenata, R.

    2016-09-01

    In this article, we present results of the first-principle study of the structural, electronic, and optical properties of the InN, InP binary compounds and their related ternary alloy InNxP1-x in the zinc-blend (ZB) phase within a nonrelativistic full potential linearised augmented plan wave (FP-LAPW) method using Wien2k code based on the density functional theory (DFT). Different approximations of exchange-correlation energy were used for the calculation of the lattice constant, bulk modulus, and first-order pressure derivative of the bulk modulus. Whereas the lattice constant decreases with increasing nitride composition x. Our results present a good agreement with theoretical and experimental data. The electronic band structures calculated using Tran-Blaha-modified Becke-Johnson (TB-mBJ) approach present a direct band gap semiconductor character for InNxP1-x compounds at different x values. The electronic properties were also calculated under hydrostatic pressure for (P=0.00, 5.00, 10.0, 15.0, 20.0, 25.0 GPa) where it is found that the InP compound change from direct to indirect band gap at the pressure P≥7.80 GPa. Furthermore, the pressure effect on the dielectric function and the refractive index was carried out. Results obtained in our calculations present a good agreement with available theoretical reports and experimental data.

  13. TAYLOR’S SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitrios N. KOUMPAROULIS; Dionysios K. SOLOMOS

    2012-01-01

    Frederick Taylor is known as the father of modern management. Taylor’s scientific management revolutionized industry and helped shape the modern organization. Scientific management revolutionized industry because it explains how to increase production by working smarter, not harder. Taylor’s ideas were not limited to only serving the company’s bottom line but from the increase in productivity benefited the workforce as well. The principles of scientific management have become a machine of uni...

  14. Scientific Eschatology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noyes, H

    2005-03-18

    The future evolution of the universe suggested by the cosmological model proposed earlier at this meeting by the authors is explored. The fundamental role played by the positive ''cosmological constant'' is emphasized. Dyson's 1979 paper entitled ''Time Without End'' is briefly reviewed. His most optimistic scenario requires that the universe be geometrically open and that biology is structural in the sense that the current complexity of human society can be reproduced by scaling up its (quantum mechanical) structure to arbitrary size. If the recently measured ''cosmological constant'' is indeed a fundamental constant of nature, then Dyson's scenario is, for various reasons, ruled out by the finite (De Sitter) horizon due to exponential expansion of the resulting space. However, the finite temperature of that horizon does open other interesting options. If, as is suggested by the cosmology under consideration, the current exponential expansion of the universe is due to a phase transition which fixes a physical boundary condition during the early radiation dominated era, the behavior of the universe after the relevant scale factor crosses the De Sitter radius opens up still other possibilities. The relevance of Martin Rees' apocalyptic eschatology recently presented in his book ''Our Final Hour'' is mentioned. It is concluded that even for the far future, whether or not cultural and scientific descendants of the current epoch will play a role in it, an understanding (sadly, currently lacking) of community and political evolution and control is essential for a preliminary treatment of what could be even vaguely called scientific eschatology.

  15. Variational principles

    CERN Document Server

    Moiseiwitsch, B L

    2004-01-01

    This graduate-level text's primary objective is to demonstrate the expression of the equations of the various branches of mathematical physics in the succinct and elegant form of variational principles (and thereby illuminate their interrelationship). Its related intentions are to show how variational principles may be employed to determine the discrete eigenvalues for stationary state problems and to illustrate how to find the values of quantities (such as the phase shifts) that arise in the theory of scattering. Chapter-by-chapter treatment consists of analytical dynamics; optics, wave mecha

  16. Implementation and enforcement of the 3Rs principle in the field of transgenic animals used for scientific purposes. Report and recommendations of the BfR expert workshop, May 18-20, 2009, Berlin, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretlow, Ariane; Butzke, Daniel; Goetz, Mario E; Grune, Barbara; Halder, Marlies; Henkler, Frank; Liebsch, Manfred; Nobiling, Rainer; Oelgeschlaeger, Michael; Reifenberg, Kurt; Schaefer, Bernd; Seiler, Andrea; Luch, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    In 2007, 2.7 million vertebrates were used for animal experiments and other scientific purposes in Germany alone. Since 1998 there has been an increase in the number of animals used for research purposes, which is partly attributable to the growing use of transgenic animals. These animals are, for instance, used as in vivo models to mimic human diseases like diabetes, cancer or Alzheimer's disease. Here, transgenic model organisms serve as valuable tools, being instrumental in facilitating the analysis of the molecular mechanisms underlying human diseases, and might contribute to the development of novel therapeutic approaches. Due to variable and, sometimes low, efficiency (depending on the species used), however, the generation of such animals often requires a large number of embryo donors and recipients. The experts evaluated methods that could possibly be utilised to reduce, refine or even replace experiments with transgenic vertebrates in the mid-term future. Among the promising alternative model organisms available at the moment are the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and the roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans. Specific cell culture experiments or three-dimensional (3D) tissue models also offer valuable opportunities to replace experiments with transgenic animals or reduce the number of laboratory animals required by assisting in decision-making processes. Furthermore, at the workshop an in vitro technique was presented which permits the production of complete human antibodies without using genetically modified ("humanised") animals. Up to now, genetically modified mice are widely used for this purpose. Improved breeding protocols, enhanced efficiency of mutagenesis as well as training of laboratory personnel and animal keepers can also help to reduce the numbers of laboratory animals. Well-trained staff in particular can help to minimise the pain, suffering and discomfort of animals and, at the same time, improve the quality of data obtained from animal

  17. Teaching/learning principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankins, D. B.; Wake, W. H.

    1981-01-01

    The potential remote sensing user community is enormous, and the teaching and training tasks are even larger; however, some underlying principles may be synthesized and applied at all levels from elementary school children to sophisticated and knowledgeable adults. The basic rules applying to each of the six major elements of any training course and the underlying principle involved in each rule are summarized. The six identified major elements are: (1) field sites for problems and practice; (2) lectures and inside study; (3) learning materials and resources (the kit); (4) the field experience; (5) laboratory sessions; and (6) testing and evaluation.

  18. Mach's Principle

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    that allows one to write down the laws of motion and arrive at the concept of inertia is somehow intimately re- lated to the background of distant parts of the universe. This argument is known as `Mach's principle' and we will analyse its implications further. When expressed in the framework of the absolute space,. Newton's ...

  19. Safety Principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Grinenko

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The offered material in the article is picked up so that the reader could have a complete representation about concept “safety”, intrinsic characteristics and formalization possibilities. Principles and possible strategy of safety are considered. A material of the article is destined for the experts who are taking up the problems of safety.

  20. TSCA Scientific Peer Review Committees

    Science.gov (United States)

    The SACC will provide independent scientific advice and recommendations to the EPA on the scientific basis for risk assessments, methodologies, and pollution prevention measures and approaches for chemicals regulated under TSCA.

  1. Scientific Publication Ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman İnci

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Science based on consciousness of responsibility and principles of trust puts academics under an obligation to act according to the values and principles, ethical attitudes and standards of behaviour. A quest for perfectness, to observe truth and show respect for the dignity and value of each individual should be a fundamental principle. In this context, academic freedom and autonomy, academic integrity,  responsibility and accountabily, respect for others, the protection of the fundamental rights and competence are among the core values of academic merit. Science is not possible without ethics. Protection of academic value is essential for an academic publication. It is also fundamental that academics should not behave contrary to the ethics values. It is assumed that academic studies are conducted honestly, based on true foundations, that the research data are collected according to the correct methods, accurate statistics are used and results are reported accordingly. It is also assumed that professional standards are carried out in software presentation and share of results. The exceptional methods in academical publications should be classified as those carried out intentionally, aiming to mislead the related studies and the others to be distinguished from the ones carried out by some ignorances and various innocent facts. The most serious infraction of the ethical rules and standards is the ‘academic misappropriation’. Among all, the most crucial one is the academic plagiarism, which is transferring the production of some other person under one’s own name or stealing away the work of other persons. Creating some not-existing data and results, and fabrication is inventing some information just by sitting at the table. Changing the datas and results without scientific reasoning, and falsification is accepted as another and the third kind of misappropriation (FTP. Their most important difference from the other kinds is

  2. The principle of optimisation: reasons for success and legal criticism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Regalado, Luis

    2008-01-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has adopted new recommendations in 2007. In broad outlines they fundamentally continue the recommendations already approved in 1990 and later on. The principle of optimisation of protection, together with the principles of justification and dose limits, remains playing a key role of the ICRP recommendations, and it has so been for the last few years. This principle, somehow reinforced in the 2007 ICRP recommendations, has been incorporated into norms and legislation which have peacefully been in force in many countries all over the world. There are three main reasons to explain the success in the application of the principle of optimisation in radiological protection: First, the subjectivity of the sentence that embraces the principle of optimisation, 'As low as reasonably achievable' (ALARA), that allows different valid interpretations under different circumstances. Second, the pragmatism and adaptability of ALARA to all exposure situations. And third, the scientific humbleness which is behind the principle of optimisation, which makes a clear contrast with the old fashioned scientific positivism that enshrined scientist opinions. Nevertheless, from a legal point of view, there is some criticism cast over the principle of optimisation in radiological protection, where it has been transformed in compulsory norm. This criticism is based on two arguments: The lack of democratic participation in the process of elaboration of the norm, and the legal uncertainty associated to its application. Both arguments are somehow known by the ICRP which, on the one hand, has broadened the participation of experts, associations and the professional radiological protection community, increasing the transparency on how decisions on recommendations have been taken, and on the other hand, the ICRP has warned about the need for authorities to specify general criteria to develop the principle of optimisation in national

  3. Scientific news

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1994-01-01

    The Rijksherbarium/Hortus Botanicus acquired funds through NWO (Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research) to participate in a 7-year interdisciplinary cooperative programme of Indonesian and Dutch scientific institutions aiming at research in Irian Jaya, Cenderawasih province (the Bird’s

  4. Thermodynamic properties of ideal Fermi gases in a harmonic potential in an n-dimensional space under the generalized uncertainty principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Heling; Ren, Jinxiu; Wang, Wenwei; Yang, Bin; Shen, Hongjun

    2018-02-01

    Using the semi-classical (Thomas-Fermi) approximation, the thermodynamic properties of ideal Fermi gases in a harmonic potential in an n-dimensional space are studied under the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP). The mean particle number, internal energy, heat capacity and other thermodynamic variables of the Fermi system are calculated analytically. Then, analytical expressions of the mean particle number, internal energy, heat capacity, chemical potential, Fermi energy, ground state energy and amendments of the GUP are obtained at low temperatures. The influence of both the GUP and the harmonic potential on the thermodynamic properties of a copper-electron gas and other systems with higher electron densities are studied numerically at low temperatures. We find: (1) When the GUP is considered, the influence of the harmonic potential is very much larger, and the amendments produced by the GUP increase by eight to nine orders of magnitude compared to when no external potential is applied to the electron gas. (2) The larger the particle density, or the smaller the particle masses, the bigger the influence of the GUP. (3) The effect of the GUP increases with the increase in the spatial dimensions. (4) The amendments of the chemical potential, Fermi energy and ground state energy increase with an increase in temperature, while the heat capacity decreases. T F0 is the Fermi temperature of the ideal Fermi system in a harmonic potential. When the temperature is lower than a certain value (0.22 times T F0 for the copper-electron gas, and this value decreases with increasing electron density), the amendment to the internal energy is positive, however, the amendment decreases with increasing temperature. When the temperature increases to the value, the amendment is zero, and when the temperature is higher than the value, the amendment to the internal energy is negative and the absolute value of the amendment increases with increasing temperature. (5) When electron

  5. 77 FR 8883 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Scientific Considerations in Demonstrating Biosimilarity to a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-15

    ... reference product for the purpose of submitting a marketing application through an abbreviated licensure... submitting a marketing application through the abbreviated licensure pathway under section 351(k) of the... FDA will use to review applications for biosimilar products; and General scientific principles in...

  6. 1993 Annual report on scientific programs: A broad research program on the sciences of complexity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    This report provides a summary of many of the research projects completed by the Santa Fe Institute (SFI) during 1993. These research efforts continue to focus on two general areas: the study of, and search for, underlying scientific principles governing complex adaptive systems, and the exploration of new theories of computation that incorporate natural mechanisms of adaptation (mutation, genetics, evolution).

  7. Zymography Principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkesman, Jeff; Kurz, Liliana

    2017-01-01

    Zymography, the detection, identification, and even quantification of enzyme activity fractionated by gel electrophoresis, has received increasing attention in the last years, as revealed by the number of articles published. A number of enzymes are routinely detected by zymography, especially with clinical interest. This introductory chapter reviews the major principles behind zymography. New advances of this method are basically focused towards two-dimensional zymography and transfer zymography as will be explained in the rest of the chapters. Some general considerations when performing the experiments are outlined as well as the major troubleshooting and safety issues necessary for correct development of the electrophoresis.

  8. Evaluating a scientific collaboratory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnenwald, Diane H.; Whitton, Mary C.; Maglaughlin, Kelly L.

    2003-01-01

    , the quantitative data showed no statistically significant differences with respect to effectiveness and adoption.The qualitative data helped explain this null result: participants reported advantages and disadvantages working under both conditions and developed work-arounds to cope with the perceived disadvantages......The evaluation of scientific collaboratories has lagged behind their development. Do the capabilities afforded by collaboratories outweigh their disadvantages? To evaluate a scientific collaboratory system, we conducted a repeated-measures controlled experiment that compared the outcomes...

  9. 36 CFR 219.2 - Principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Forest System Land and Resource Management Planning Purpose and Principles § 219.2 Principles. The... planning to guide management of the National Forest System is to maintain or restore ecological... sustainability and benefits from independent scientific peer review. (3) Planning is based on the temporal and...

  10. Gamescape Principles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nobaew, Banphot; Ryberg, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    developed by Buckingham. It supplements and extends this framework by offering a more detailed account of how visual principles and elements in games can be analysed. In developing this visual grammar we draw theoretically on existing approaches within: the arts, history, film study, semiotics, multimodal...... analysis, and game studies. We illustrate the theoretical and analytical framework by analysing samples of screenshots and video clips collected from the online game “World of Warcraft” (WoW) where we have conducted our online research. The research data is supplemented by ethnographic data (observation......This paper proposes a new theoretical framework or visual grammar for analysing visual aspects of digital 3D games, and for understanding more deeply the notion of Visual Digital Game Literacy. The framework focuses on the development of a visual grammar by drawing on the digital literacy framework...

  11. Scientific communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksander Kobylarek

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article tackles the problem of models of communication in science. The formal division of communication processes into oral and written does not resolve the problem of attitude. The author defines successful communication as a win-win game, based on the respect and equality of the partners, regardless of their position in the world of science. The core characteristics of the process of scientific communication are indicated , such as openness, fairness, support, and creation. The task of creating the right atmosphere for science communication belongs to moderators, who should not allow privilege and differentiation of position to affect scientific communication processes.

  12. Scientific millenarianism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinberg, A.M.

    1997-01-01

    Today, for the first time, scientific concerns are seriously being addressed that span future times--hundreds, even thousands, or more years in the future. One is witnessing what the author calls scientific millenarianism. Are such concerns for the distant future exercises in futility, or are they real issues that, to the everlasting gratitude of future generations, this generation has identified, warned about and even suggested how to cope with in the distant future? Can the four potential catastrophes--bolide impact, CO 2 warming, radioactive wastes and thermonuclear war--be avoided by technical fixes, institutional responses, religion, or by doing nothing? These are the questions addressed in this paper

  13. Scientific meetings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    One of the main aims of the IAEA is to foster the exchange of scientific and technical information and one of the main ways of doing this is to convene international scientific meetings. They range from large international conferences bringing together several hundred scientists, smaller symposia attended by an average of 150 to 250 participants and seminars designed to instruct rather than inform, to smaller panels and study groups of 10 to 30 experts brought together to advise on a particular programme or to develop a set of regulations. The topics of these meetings cover every part of the Agency's activities and form a backbone of many of its programmes. (author)

  14. Are scientific abstracts written in poetic verse an effective representation of the underlying research? [version 3; referees: 1 approved, 2 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Illingworth

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The central purpose of science is to explain (Purtill, 1970. However, who is that explanation for, and how is this explanation communicated once it has been deduced? Scientific research is typically communicated via papers in journals, with an abstract presented as a summary of that explanation. However, in many instances they may be written in a manner which is non-communicatory to a lay reader (Halliday & Martin, 2003. This study begins to investigate if poetry could be used as an alternative form of communication, by first assessing if poetic verse is an effective form of communication to other scientists. In order to assess this suitability, a survey was conducted in which two different groups of participants were asked questions based on a scientific abstract. One group of participants was given the original scientific abstract, whilst the second group was instead given a poem written about the scientific study. Quantitative analysis found that whilst a scientific audience found a poetic interpretation of a scientific abstract to be no less interesting or inspiring than the original prose, they did find it to be less accessible. However, further qualitative analysis suggested that the poem did a good job in conveying a similar meaning to that presented in the original abstract. The results of this study indicate that whilst for a scientific audience poetry should not replace the prose abstract, it could be used alongside the original format to inspire the reader to find out more about the topic. Further research is needed to investigate the effectiveness of this approach for a non-expert audience. Alternative version:   Are scientific papers understood, By anyone from outside of the field; And is an abstract really any good, If jargon means its secrets aren’t revealed? Could poetry present a different way, Of summing up research in a nutshell;  Presented in a language for the lay, Yet still useful for scientists as well? This study

  15. President's message: We must remain committed to scientific integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhaden, Michael

    2012-02-01

    During the third week of February our global community of Earth and space scientists witnessed the shocking fall from grace of an accomplished AGU member who betrayed the principles of scientific integrity. In doing so he compromised AGU's credibility as a scientific society, weakened the public's trust in scientists, and produced fresh fuel for the unproductive and seemingly endless ideological firestorm surrounding the reality of the Earth's changing climate. Peter Gleick resigned as chair of AGU's Task Force on Scientific Ethics on 16 February, prior to admitting in a blog post that he obtained documents from the Heartland Institute under false pretenses. His transgression cannot be condoned, regardless of his motives. It is a tragedy that requires us to stop and reflect on what we value as scientists and how we want to be perceived by the public. Here are a few things that come immediately to mind:

  16. Scientific Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    1967-01-01

    Justification for this approach stems, first, from the sheer cost of trying to test at all levels. More significant is the fact that system-level tests are...specific impulses have been well worth the price until recently, when large production runs of small rockets (Scouts) and the sheer size of boosters in the...length: about 12 meters. Energy in unwanted oscillations is dissipated as heat in the damping spring. 348 SCIENTIFIC SATELLITES S/-- Piano Wire Silicone

  17. Scientific integrity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merlo, Domenico Franco; Vahakangas, Kirsi; Knudsen, Lisbeth E.

    2008-01-01

    Environmental health research is a relatively new scientific area with much interdisciplinary collaboration. Regardless of which human population is included in field studies (e.g., general population, working population, children, elderly, vulnerable sub-groups, etc.) their conduct must guarantee...... consent was obtained.Integrity is central to environmental health research searching for causal relations. It requires open communication and trust and any violation (i.e., research misconduct, including fabrication or falsification of data, plagiarism, conflicting interests, etc.) may endanger...

  18. Scientific Crossbreeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidtfeldt, Rolf

    This thesis presents an alternative approach to the analysis of interdisciplinarity. One of the basic reasons for developing an alternative method for evaluation of interdisciplinary activities is that epistemic issues are insufficiently dealt with in the existing literature on the topic. To deve......This thesis presents an alternative approach to the analysis of interdisciplinarity. One of the basic reasons for developing an alternative method for evaluation of interdisciplinary activities is that epistemic issues are insufficiently dealt with in the existing literature on the topic....... To develop a more adequate way of capturing what is at stake in interdisciplinarity, I suggest drawing inspiration from the contemporary philosophical literature on scientific representation. The development of a representation based approach to the analysis of interdisciplinarity, and the discussion...... of the concept of “scientific discipline” and disciplinary difference. This chapter provides reasons to assume that conventional scientific taxonomies do not provide a good basis for analysing epistemic aspects of interdisciplinary science. On this background it is argued that the concept of “approaches...

  19. JOURNAL OF ACCOUNTING UNIVERSE: AN ANALYSIS OF THE SCIENTIFIC PRODUCTION PROFILE UNDER OPTIC BIBLIOMETRICS AND SOCIAL NETWORK FROM 2005 A 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, Henrique César Melo

    2014-01-01

    This article has mapped the profile and the evolution of scientific Journal of Accounting Universe. To this end, we analyzed the publications made this journal from 2005 to 2012. This study is based on bibliometric analysis techniques and social network, using descriptive statistics in 245 articles identified through desk research. The main results were as follows: predominance of articles in partnership; Souza, M. A. e Feliu, R. V, were the authors who have published more; centrality of co-a...

  20. Principles of European Contract Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, Ole; Beale, Hugh

    in developing a common European legal culture. The European Parliament has twice called for the creation of a European Civil Code. The principles of European contract law are essential steps in these projects. This text provides a comprehensive guide to the Principles of European contract law. They have been......This text provides a comprehensive guide to the principles of European contract law. They have been drawn up by an independent body of experts from each Member State of the EU, under a project supported by the European Commission and many other organizations. The principles are stated in the form...... of articles, with a detailed commentary explaining the purpose and operation of each article and its relation to the remainder. Each article also has extensive comparative notes surveying the national laws and other international provisions on the topic. "The Principles of European Contract Law Parts I &...

  1. Reducing repeat pregnancies in adolescence: applying realist principles as part of a mixed-methods systematic review to explore what works, for whom, how and under what circumstances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Joanna M; Rycroft-Malone, Jo; Aslam, Rabeea'h; Hendry, Maggie; Pasterfield, Diana; Whitaker, Rhiannon

    2016-09-20

    Previous research has demonstrated emotional, psychological and educational harm to young mothers following unintended conceptions. The UK has one of the highest rates of pregnancies in adolescence in Western Europe with a high proportion of these being repeat pregnancies, making it a topic of interest for public health policy makers, and health and social care practitioners. As part of a wider mixed-methods systematic review, realist principles were applied to synthesise evidence about interventions aiming to reduce repeat pregnancies in adolescence. A multi-streamed, mixed-methods systematic review was conducted searching 11 major electronic databases and 9 additional databases from 1995 onwards, using key terms such as pregnancy, teen or adolescent. The principles of realist synthesis were applied to all included literature to uncover theories about what works, for whom, how and in what context. Initial theory areas were developed through evidence scoping, group discussion by the authors and stakeholder engagement to uncover context + mechanism = outcome (CMO) configurations and related narratives. The searches identified 8,664 documents initially, and 403 in repeat searches, filtering to 81 included studies, including qualitative studies, randomised controlled trials, quantitative studies and grey literature. Three CMO configurations were developed. The individual experiences of young mothers' triggered self-efficacy, notions of perceived risks, susceptibility and benefits of pregnancy, resulting in the adolescent taking control of their fertility and sexual encounters. The choice between motherhood and other goals triggered notions of motivations, resulting in the adolescent managing their expectations of motherhood and controlling their fertility and sexual encounters. Barriers and facilitators to accessing services triggered notions of connectedness and self-determination; resulting in interventions that are tailored so they are relevant to young

  2. Training Packages: The Scientific Management of Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, John

    The theory of scientific management was established as a way to increase workers' productivity. The following are among the key principles underpinning scientific management: task simplification and division of labor boost productivity; management must control the planning of work down to its minutiae; and remuneration should be based on output.…

  3. 5 CFR 551.202 - General principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General principles. 551.202 Section 551... ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Exemptions and Exclusions § 551.202 General principles. In all exemption determinations, the agency must observe the following principles: (a) Each employee is presumed to...

  4. 24 CFR 3282.402 - General principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General principles. 3282.402... and Remedial Actions § 3282.402 General principles. (a) Nothing in this subpart or in these... manufactured home manufacturers to provide remedial actions under this subpart is limited by the principle that...

  5. Principles of mathematical modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Dym, Clive

    2004-01-01

    Science and engineering students depend heavily on concepts of mathematical modeling. In an age where almost everything is done on a computer, author Clive Dym believes that students need to understand and "own" the underlying mathematics that computers are doing on their behalf. His goal for Principles of Mathematical Modeling, Second Edition, is to engage the student reader in developing a foundational understanding of the subject that will serve them well into their careers. The first half of the book begins with a clearly defined set of modeling principles, and then introduces a set of foundational tools including dimensional analysis, scaling techniques, and approximation and validation techniques. The second half demonstrates the latest applications for these tools to a broad variety of subjects, including exponential growth and decay in fields ranging from biology to economics, traffic flow, free and forced vibration of mechanical and other systems, and optimization problems in biology, structures, an...

  6. Regulating food law : risk analysis and the precautionary principle as general principles of EU food law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szajkowska, A.

    2012-01-01

    In food law scientific evidence occupies a central position. This study offers a legal insight into risk analysis and the precautionary principle, positioned in the EU as general principles applicable to all food safety measures, both national and EU. It develops a new method of looking at these

  7. Structural phases arising from reconstructive and isostructural transitions in high-melting-point oxides under hydrostatic pressure: A first-principles study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Hao; Kuang, Xiao-Yu; Mao, Ai-Jie; Yang, Yurong; Xu, Changsong; Sayedaghaee, S. Omid; Bellaiche, L.

    2018-01-01

    High-melting-point oxides of chemical formula A B O3 with A =Ca , Sr, Ba and B =Zr , Hf are investigated as a function of hydrostatic pressure up to 200 GPa by combining first-principles calculations with a particle swarm optimization method. Ca- and Sr-based systems: (1) first undergo a reconstructive phase transition from a perovskite state to a novel structure that belongs to the post-post-perovskite family and (2) then experience an isostructural transition to a second, also new post-post-perovskite state at higher pressures, via the sudden formation of a specific out-of-plane B -O bond. In contrast, the studied Ba compounds evolve from a perovskite phase to a third novel post-post-perovskite structure via another reconstructive phase transition. The original characteristics of these three different post-post-perovskite states are emphasized. Unusual electronic properties, including significant piezochromic effects and an insulator-metal transition, are also reported and explained.

  8. PLAGIARISM IN SCIENTIFIC PUBLISHING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masic, Izet

    2012-01-01

    Scientific publishing is the ultimate product of scientist work. Number of publications and their quoting are measures of scientist success while unpublished researches are invisible to the scientific community, and as such nonexistent. Researchers in their work rely on their predecessors, while the extent of use of one scientist work, as a source for the work of other authors is the verification of its contributions to the growth of human knowledge. If the author has published an article in a scientific journal it cannot publish the article in any other journal h with a few minor adjustments or without quoting parts of the first article, which are used in another article. Copyright infringement occurs when the author of a new article with or without the mentioning the author used substantial portions of previously published articles, including tables and figures. Scientific institutions and universities should,in accordance with the principles of Good Scientific Practice (GSP) and Good Laboratory Practices (GLP) have a center for monitoring,security, promotion and development of quality research. Establish rules and compliance to rules of good scientific practice are the obligations of each research institutions,universities and every individual-researchers,regardless of which area of science is investigated. In this way, internal quality control ensures that a research institution such as a university, assume responsibility for creating an environment that promotes standards of excellence, intellectual honesty and legality. Although the truth should be the aim of scientific research, it is not guiding fact for all scientists. The best way to reach the truth in its study and to avoid the methodological and ethical mistakes is to consistently apply scientific methods and ethical standards in research. Although variously defined plagiarism is basically intended to deceive the reader’s own scientific contribution. There is no general regulation of control of

  9. Plagiarism in scientific publishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masic, Izet

    2012-12-01

    Scientific publishing is the ultimate product of scientist work. Number of publications and their quoting are measures of scientist success while unpublished researches are invisible to the scientific community, and as such nonexistent. Researchers in their work rely on their predecessors, while the extent of use of one scientist work, as a source for the work of other authors is the verification of its contributions to the growth of human knowledge. If the author has published an article in a scientific journal it cannot publish the article in any other journal h with a few minor adjustments or without quoting parts of the first article, which are used in another article. Copyright infringement occurs when the author of a new article with or without the mentioning the author used substantial portions of previously published articles, including tables and figures. Scientific institutions and universities should,in accordance with the principles of Good Scientific Practice (GSP) and Good Laboratory Practices (GLP) have a center for monitoring,security, promotion and development of quality research. Establish rules and compliance to rules of good scientific practice are the obligations of each research institutions,universities and every individual-researchers,regardless of which area of science is investigated. In this way, internal quality control ensures that a research institution such as a university, assume responsibility for creating an environment that promotes standards of excellence, intellectual honesty and legality. Although the truth should be the aim of scientific research, it is not guiding fact for all scientists. The best way to reach the truth in its study and to avoid the methodological and ethical mistakes is to consistently apply scientific methods and ethical standards in research. Although variously defined plagiarism is basically intended to deceive the reader's own scientific contribution. There is no general regulation of control of

  10. The gauge principle vs. the equivalence principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gates, S.J. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Within the context of field theory, it is argued that the role of the equivalence principle may be replaced by the principle of gauge invariance to provide a logical framework for theories of gravitation

  11. Socioeconomic Implications of Achieving 2.0 °C and 1.5 °C Climate Targets under Scientific Uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, X.; Takahashi, K.; Fujimori, S.; Hasegawa, T.; Tanaka, K.; Shiogama, H.; Emori, S.; LIU, J.; Hanasaki, N.; Hijioka, Y.; Masui, T.

    2017-12-01

    Large uncertainty exists in the temperature projections, including contributions from carbon cycle, climate system and aerosols. For the integrated assessment models (IAMs), like DICE, FUND and PAGE, however, the scientific uncertainties mainly rely on the distribution of (equilibrium) climate sensitivity. This study aims at evaluating the emission pathways by limiting temperature increase below 2.0 ºC or 1.5 ºC after 2100 considering scientific uncertainties, and exploring how socioeconomic indicators are affected by such scientific uncertainties. We use a stochastic version of the SCM4OPT, with an uncertainty measurement by considering alternative ranges of key parameters. Three climate cases, namely, i) base case of SSP2, ii) limiting temperature increase below 2.0 ºC after 2100 and iii) limiting temperature increase below 1.5 ºC after 2100, and three types of probabilities - i) >66% probability or likely, ii) >50% probability or more likely than not and iii) the mean of the probability distribution, are considered in the study. The results show that, i) for the 2.0ºC case, the likely CO2 reduction rate in 2100 ranges from 75.5%-102.4%, with mean value of 88.1%, and 93.0%-113.1% (mean 102.5%) for the 1.5ºC case; ii) a likely range of forcing effect is found for the 2.0 ºC case (2.7-3.9 Wm-2) due to scientific uncertainty, and 1.9-3.1 Wm-2 for the 1.5 ºC case; iii) the carbon prices within 50% confidential interval may differ a factor of 3 for both the 2.0ºC case and the 1.5 ºC case; iv) the abatement costs within 50% confidential interval may differ a factor of 4 for both the 2.0ºC case and the 1.5 ºC case. Nine C4MIP carbon cycle models and nineteen CMIP3 AOGCMs are used to account for the scientific uncertainties, following MAGICC 6.0. These uncertainties will result in a likely radiative forcing range of 6.1-7.5 Wm-2 and a likely temperature increase of 3.1-4.5 ºC in 2100 for the base case of SSP2. If we evaluate the 2 ºC target by limiting the

  12. Taylor’s Scientific Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Koumparoulis

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Frederick Taylor is known as the father of modern management. Taylor’s scientific management revolutionized industry and helped shape modern organization. Scientific management revolutionized industry because it explains how to increase production by working smarter, not harder. Taylor’s ideas were not limited to only serving the company’s bottom line but the increase in productivity benefited the workforce as well. The principles of scientific management became a machine of universal efficiency since there was a widespread use of scientific management worldwide and beyond the scope of the workplace. Taylor’s theories on using science and statistical fact have become a guideline that many have followed to great success.

  13. Equivalence principles and electromagnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, W.-T.

    1977-01-01

    The implications of the weak equivalence principles are investigated in detail for electromagnetic systems in a general framework. In particular, it is shown that the universality of free-fall trajectories (Galileo weak equivalence principle) does not imply the validity of the Einstein equivalence principle. However, the Galileo principle plus the universality of free-fall rotation states does imply the Einstein principle.

  14. Review of the Monograph: “While Analyzing the Past, to Think about the Future” (under the scientific supervision of Doctor of Economics, Professor V.A. Ilyin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyacheslav Veniaminovich Lokosov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The publication is dedicated to the twentyfifth anniversary of the Institute of Socio-Economic Development of Territories of RAS (ISEDT RAS. Starting as a Department of the Institute of Economic Problems of Kola Scientific Centre of RAS studying the problems of socio-economic development of the Vologda Oblast, the Institute has gone a long way of creative development and become widely known in Russia and abroad due to superior (and in some cases unique studies of regional development on the example of the Vologda Oblast

  15. A scientific and animal welfare assessment of the OECD Health Effects Test Guidelines for the safety testing of chemicals under the European Union REACH system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combes, Robert D; Gaunt, Ian; Balls, Michael

    2004-09-01

    We have assessed each of the OECD Health Effects Test Guidelines (TGs) that were included in an annex to the Internet consultation issued by the European Commission relating to the Registration, Evaluation and Authorisation of Chemicals (REACH) legislation for the testing of new and existing chemical substances. Each guideline has been analysed with respect to its design and its scientific and animal welfare implications, the extent to which it makes use of modern techniques, and its suitability to be used in the REACH system for the testing of large numbers of chemicals. The scientific basis of the test and its justification are considered, as well as the numbers of animals required, and the potential adverse effects on them. The prospects and possibilities for applying the Three Rs (reduction, refinement and replacement) to each of the TGs are also discussed. We have proposed an overall testing strategy for how these TGs and other methods could best be deployed for chemicals testing, should it be necessary to fill data gaps. Certain TGs have been omitted from the strategy, when we have considered them to be unnecessary for chemicals testing. A series of recommendations has been made for improving the TGs with regard to both their scientific content and ways in which they could be better designed in relation to optimising the use of the animals concerned, and minimising adverse welfare consequences to them. Our investigations show that there is an urgent need to update the TGs to reflect modern techniques and methods, and to use current approaches for applying refinement strategies to improve the scientific and animal welfare aspects of the procedures used. Improvements can and should be made in all aspects of toxicity testing, from sample preparation, and animal housing, care and feeding, to dose formulation, test material administration, and the histopathological and clinical analysis of tissue samples. Opportunities for streamlining individual assays are very

  16. Scientific Tourism in Armenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashchyan, Davit

    2016-12-01

    The Scientific Tourism is relatively new direction in the world, however it already has managed to gain great popularity. As it is, it has arisen in 1980s, but its ideological basis comes from the earliest periods of the human history. In Armenia, it is a completely new phenomenon and still not-understandable for many people. At global level, the Scientific Tourism has several definitions: for example, as explains the member of the scientific tourist centre of Zlovlen Mrs. Pichelerova "The essence of the scientific tourism is based on the provision of the educational, cultural and entertainment needs of a group of people of people who are interested in the same thing", which in our opinion is a very comprehensive and discreet definition. We also have our own views on this type of tourism. Our philosophy is that by keeping the total principles, we put the emphasis on the strengthening of science-individual ties. Our main emphasis is on the scientific-experimental tourism. But this does not mean that we do not take steps to other forms of tourism. Studying the global experience and combining it with our resources, we are trying to get a new interdisciplinary science, which will bring together a number of different professionals as well as individuals, and as a result will have a new lore. It is in this way that an astronomer will become an archaeologist, an archaeologist will become an astrophysicist, etc. Speaking on interdisciplinary sciences, it's worth mentioning that in recent years, the role of interdisciplinary sciences at global level every day is being considered more and more important. In these terms, tourism is an excellent platform for the creation of interdisciplinary sciences and, therefore, the preparation of corresponding scholars. Nevertheless, scientific tourism is very important for the revelation, appreciation and promotion of the country's historical-cultural heritage and scientific potential. Let us not forget either that tourism in all its

  17. Software Defects, Scientific Computation and the Scientific Method

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2011-01-01

    Computation has rapidly grown in the last 50 years so that in many scientific areas it is the dominant partner in the practice of science. Unfortunately, unlike the experimental sciences, it does not adhere well to the principles of the scientific method as espoused by, for example, the philosopher Karl Popper. Such principles are built around the notions of deniability and reproducibility. Although much research effort has been spent on measuring the density of software defects, much less has been spent on the more difficult problem of measuring their effect on the output of a program. This talk explores these issues with numerous examples suggesting how this situation might be improved to match the demands of modern science. Finally it develops a theoretical model based on an amalgam of statistical mechanics and Hartley/Shannon information theory which suggests that software systems have strong implementation independent behaviour and supports the widely observed phenomenon that defects clust...

  18. Implicit normativity in scientific advice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folker, Anna Paldam; Andersen, Hanne; Sandøe, Peter

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on implicit normative considerations underlying scientific advice-those normative questions, decisions, or issues that scientific advisers and the general public are not fully aware of but that nevertheless have implications for the character of the advice given. Using nutritio...

  19. Scientific Freedom and Human Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Elisa

    2000-03-01

    As part of her ongoing work monitoring issues at the intersection of science and human rights, Ms. Munoz has highlighted violations of academic freedom in Serbia and Iran, the denial of visas and travel licenses to U.S. and Cuban scientists, interference with scientific freedom in Brazil, Mexico, Russia, and the Ukraine, the use of organs from executed prisoners in China, legislation jeopardizing women's health in Iran, and the closure of centers for the treatment of torture survivors in Turkey. Such violations contravene international human rights principles listed in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and other international human rights covenants. Ms. Munoz will describe current violations of scientific freedom and the relevant international principles on which these freedoms rest.

  20. Risk Society, Bioethics and the Precautionary Principle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Pereira dos Santos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of medicine has causing great shiver in society, given the progress made in the context of biomedicine and genetic events that provided before thoughtless as the assisted reproduction techniques, therapeutic cloning, surgery for transmutation of sex, as well as focused clinical procedures prolonging life. These events do not occur without causing ethical dilemmas that require a reflection on the limits and degrees of acceptability in the methods and practices used by health professionals, biologists, scientists, pharmacists and others involved in the manipulation of genetic material and trials with humans. From this perspective, this paper, from the analytical assessment of the Bioethics paradigms, promotes the correlation between human dignity, scientific progress and rights of future generations under inflows arising from advances in science and technology in a society of risk and the ambivalence. The analysis of the issues is promoted with the use of dialectical-descriptive methodology, based on the literature about the above issues, involving books, articles, dissertations and theses published in the last ten years. The theoretical framework sits in the design of risks and ambivalences, outlined by Ulrich Beck, Franz Josef Brüseke, Anthony Giddens, Zygmunt Bauman. The study aims to understand the necessary effect bioethics of the precautionary principle as a guiding ethical beacon of scientific and technical progress and the necessary reconciliation between trials and legitimacy of choices for the maintenance and evolution of the human species.

  1. Progress in classical and quantum variational principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, C G; Karl, G; Novikov, V A

    2004-01-01

    We review the development and practical uses of a generalized Maupertuis least action principle in classical mechanics in which the action is varied under the constraint of fixed mean energy for the trial trajectory. The original Maupertuis (Euler-Lagrange) principle constrains the energy at every point along the trajectory. The generalized Maupertuis principle is equivalent to Hamilton's principle. Reciprocal principles are also derived for both the generalized Maupertuis and the Hamilton principles. The reciprocal Maupertuis principle is the classical limit of Schroedinger's variational principle of wave mechanics and is also very useful to solve practical problems in both classical and semiclassical mechanics, in complete analogy with the quantum Rayleigh-Ritz method. Classical, semiclassical and quantum variational calculations are carried out for a number of systems, and the results are compared. Pedagogical as well as research problems are used as examples, which include nonconservative as well as relativistic systems. '... the most beautiful and important discovery of Mechanics.' Lagrange to Maupertuis (November 1756)

  2. World Data System (WDS) Data Sharing Principles

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia Emerson; Elaine M. Faustman; Mustapha Mokrane; Sandy Harrison

    2015-01-01

    The International Council for Science – World Data System (ICSU-WDS) Data Sharing Principles were developed by its Scientific Committee in consultation with its member organizations. The Principles express core ethical commitments that are operationalized in WDS Certification and embody the spirit of ‘open science’ meant to unite diverse communities of data producers and data users, and thus could be adopted by anyone pursuing science for the public good.

  3. The precautionary principle as a provisional instrument in environmental policy: The Montreal Protocol case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, J. Roger

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • I examine whether a policy invoked under the Precautionary Principle can move beyond provisional status. • I review the certainty of conclusions based upon the Global Ozone Research and Monitoring Project. • There is high certainty that anthropogenic ozone depletion has health consequences in polar regions. • Current research focuses on long term projections of risk that perpetuates high uncertainty. • Establishment of a community to generate Assessments acts to perpetuate the period of uncertainty. - Abstract: Environmental studies identify possible threats to the health of the public or the environment when the scientific certainty of risk is low, but the potential cost is high. Governments may respond by invoking the Precautionary Principle, holding that scientific certainty is not required to take actions that reduce possible risk. EU guidelines suggest that precautionary measures remain provisional until sufficient scientific certainty is generated. Here I study the Scientific Assessments produced for the Montreal Protocol, and the scientific community that generates them, and ask whether a long-standing program of scientific investigation and monitoring can generate sufficient scientific certainty to move beyond dependence on the Precautionary Principle. When the Montreal Protocol was ratified, many scientists strongly suspected that anthropogenic substances like chlorofluorocarbons were depleting stratospheric ozone. Although the risk was uncertain, the perceived cost to public health of ozone depletion was high. A quarter century after formulating the Montreal Protocol, science can define the conditions for ozone depletion with great certainty, but uncertainty remains in determining the scale and distribution of the attributable increase in damaging ultra-violet (UV) radiation. Organisations, such as NASA, and scientists that contribute to the Scientific Assessments comprise the community in which the scientific consensus of risk is

  4. A scientific approach to writing for engineers and scientists

    CERN Document Server

    Berger, Robert E

    2014-01-01

    This book is a guide to technical writing, presented in a systematic framework that mirrors the logic associated with the scientific process itself. Other English books merely define concepts and provide rules; this one explains the reasoning behind the rules. Other writing books for scientists and engineers focus primarily on how to gather and organize materials; this one focuses primarily on how to compose a readable sentence. The approach should be satisfying not only to scientists and engineers, but also to anyone that once took a grammar course but can't remember the rules - because there was no exposure to underlying principles.

  5. Implicit normativity in scientific advice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folker, Anna Paldam; Andersen, Hanne; Sandøe, Peter

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on implicit normative considerations underlying scientific advice-those normative questions, decisions, or issues that scientific advisers and the general public are not fully aware of but that nevertheless have implications for the character of the advice given. Using...... nutritional science as an example, we identify three such implicit normative issues. The first concerns the aim of scientific advice: whether it is about avoiding harm or promoting good. The second concerns the intended beneficiaries of the advice: whether advice should be framed to benefit the society...... as a whole or with special concern for the most vulnerable members of the population. The third consideration involves scientific advisers' attempts to balance the strengths of the scientific evidence with the expected consequences of scientific advice. We hope to promote more explicit discussion...

  6. Hooke's Law: Applications of a Recurring Principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliodori, Mauricio J.; Lujan, Heidi L.; Briggs, Whitney S.; Palani, Gurunanthan; DiCarlo, Stephen E.

    2009-01-01

    Students generally approach topics in physiology as a series of unrelated phenomena that share few underlying principles. However, if students recognized that the same underlying principles can be used to explain many physiological phenomena, they may gain a more unified understanding of physiological systems. To address this concern, we…

  7. Scientific case studies in land-use driven soil erosion in the central United States: Why soil potential and risk concepts should be included in the principles of soil health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin L. Turner

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite recent improvements in overall soil health gained through conservation agriculture, which has become a global priority in agricultural systems, soil and water-related externalities (e.g., wind and water erosion continue to persist or worsen. Using an inductive, systems approach, we tested the hypothesis that such externalities persist due to expansion of cultivation onto areas unsuitable for sustained production. To test this hypothesis, a variety of data sources and analyses were used to uncover the land and water resource dynamics underlying noteworthy cases of soil erosion (either wind or water and hydrological effects (e.g., flooding, shifting hydrographs throughout the central United States. Given the evidence, we failed to reject the hypothesis that cultivation expansion is contributing to increased soil and water externalities, since significant increases in cultivation on soils with severe erosion limitations were observed everywhere the externalities were documented. We discuss the case study results in terms of land use incentives (e.g., policy, economic, and biophysical, developing concepts of soil security, and ways to utilize case studies such as those presented to better communicate the value of soil and water resource conservation. Incorporating the tenets of soil potential and soil risk into soil health evaluations and cultivation decision-making is needed to better match the soil resource with land use and help avoid more extreme soil and water-related externalities.

  8. First principle study on the electronic properties and Schottky contact of graphene adsorbed on MoS2 monolayer under applied out-plane strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuc, Huynh V.; Hieu, Nguyen N.; Hoi, Bui D.; Phuong, Le T. T.; Nguyen, Chuong V.

    2018-02-01

    In the present work, electronic properties and Schottky contact of graphene adsorbed on the MoS2 monolayer under applied out-plane strain are studied using density functional theory calculations. Our calculations show that weak van derpp Waals interactions between graphene and monolayer MoS2 are dominated at the interlayer distance of 3.34 Å and the binding energy per C atom of - 25.1 meV. A narrow band gap of 3.6 meV has opened in G/MoS2 heterointerface, and it can be modulated by the out-plane strain. Furthermore, the Schottky barrier and Schottky contact types in the G/MoS2 heterointerface can be controlled by the out-plane strain. At the equilibrium state (d = 3.34 Å), the intrinsic electronic structure of G/MoS2 heterointerface is well preserved and forms an n-type Schottky barrier of 0.49 eV. When the interlayer distance decreases, the transition from n-type to p-type Schottky contact occurs at d = 2.74 Å. Our studies promote the application of ultrathin G/MoS2 heterointerface in the next-generation nanoelectronic and photonic devices such as van-der-Waals-based field effect transistors.

  9. Band gap modulation of mono and bi-layer hexagonal ZnS under transverse electric field and bi-axial strain: A first principles study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, D. P.; Kaur, Sumandeep; Srivastava, Sunita

    2018-02-01

    Density functional theory has been employed to study the electronic and mechanical properties of the monolayer and bilayer ZnS. AB stacked ZnS bilayer is found to be energetically more favorable over the AA stacked ZnS bilayer. The electronic bandgap decreases on moving from monolayer to bilayer. Application of positive transverse electric field in AA/AB stacked bilayers leads to a semiconductor to metal transition at 1.10 V/Å. Reversed polarity of electric field, on the other hand, leads to an asymmetric behavior of the bandgap for AB stacking while the behavior of the bandgap in AA stacking is polarity independent. The strong dependency of bandgap on polarity of electric field in AB stacked ZnS bilayer is due to the balancing of external field with the induced internal field which arises due the electronegativity and heterogeneity in the arrangements of atoms. The electronic structure varies with the variation of applied biaxial strain (compression/tensile). We report an increase in band gap in both single and double layers under compression up to -8.0%, which can be attributed to greater superposition of atomic orbitals (Zn-d and S-p hybridization). We expect that our results may stimulate more theoretical and experimental work on hexagonal multi-layers of ZnS employing external field (temperature, pressure, field etc.) for future applications of our present work.

  10. BNNTs under the influence of external electric field as potential new drug delivery vehicle of Glu, Lys, Gly and Ser amino acids: A first-principles study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmanzadeh, Davood, E-mail: d.farmanzad@umz.ac.ir; Ghazanfary, Samereh

    2014-11-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Solvation energies show that the BNNTs/amino acids complex stabilizes in presence of solvent. • The adsorption process is sensitive to the external electric field. • The electric field is a suitable method for adsorption and storage of amino acids on BNNTs. - Abstract: The interaction of Glu (Glutamic acid), Lys (Lysine), Gly (Glycine) and Ser (Serine) amino acids with different polarities and (9, 0) zigzag single-wall boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) with various lengths in the presence and absence of external electric field (EF) in gas and solvent phases, are studied using density functional theory. It is found that interaction of Glu, Lys, Gly and Ser amino acids with BNNTs in both phases is energetically favorable. From solvation energy calculations, it can be seen that the BNNTs/amino acid complex dissolution in water is spontaneous. The adsorption energies and quantum molecular descriptors changed in the presence of external EF. Therefore, the study of BNNTs/amino acid complex under influence of external electric field is very important in proposing or designing new drug delivery systems in the presence of external EF. Results indicate that Glu, Lys, Gly and Ser amino acids can be adsorbed considerably on the BNNTs in the existence of external electric field. Our results showed that the BNNTs can act as a suitable drug delivery vehicle of Glu, Lys, Gly and Ser amino acids within biological systems and strength of adsorption and rate of drug release can be controlled by the external EF.

  11. BNNTs under the influence of external electric field as potential new drug delivery vehicle of Glu, Lys, Gly and Ser amino acids: A first-principles study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farmanzadeh, Davood; Ghazanfary, Samereh

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Solvation energies show that the BNNTs/amino acids complex stabilizes in presence of solvent. • The adsorption process is sensitive to the external electric field. • The electric field is a suitable method for adsorption and storage of amino acids on BNNTs. - Abstract: The interaction of Glu (Glutamic acid), Lys (Lysine), Gly (Glycine) and Ser (Serine) amino acids with different polarities and (9, 0) zigzag single-wall boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) with various lengths in the presence and absence of external electric field (EF) in gas and solvent phases, are studied using density functional theory. It is found that interaction of Glu, Lys, Gly and Ser amino acids with BNNTs in both phases is energetically favorable. From solvation energy calculations, it can be seen that the BNNTs/amino acid complex dissolution in water is spontaneous. The adsorption energies and quantum molecular descriptors changed in the presence of external EF. Therefore, the study of BNNTs/amino acid complex under influence of external electric field is very important in proposing or designing new drug delivery systems in the presence of external EF. Results indicate that Glu, Lys, Gly and Ser amino acids can be adsorbed considerably on the BNNTs in the existence of external electric field. Our results showed that the BNNTs can act as a suitable drug delivery vehicle of Glu, Lys, Gly and Ser amino acids within biological systems and strength of adsorption and rate of drug release can be controlled by the external EF

  12. Statistical principles for prospective study protocols:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Robin; Langberg, Henning

    2012-01-01

    In the design of scientific studies it is essential to decide on which scientific questions one aims to answer, just as it is important to decide on the correct statistical methods to use to answer these questions. The correct use of statistical methods is crucial in all aspects of research to qu...... the statistical principles for trial protocols in terms of design, analysis, and reporting of findings....

  13. Scientific methodology applied.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lussier, A

    1975-04-01

    The subject of this symposium is naproxen, a new drug that resulted from an investigation to find a superior anti-inflammatory agent. It was synthesized by Harrison et al. in 1970 at the Syntex Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biological Sciences. How can we chart the evolution of this or any other drug? Three steps are necessary: first, chemical studies (synthesis, analysis); second, animal pharmacology; third, human pharmacology. The last step can additionally be divided into four phases: metabolism and toxicology of the drug in normal volunteers; dose titration and initial clinical trials with sick subjects (pharmacometry); confirmatory clinical trials when the drug is accepted on the market and revaluation (familiarization trials). To discover the truth about naproxen, we must all participate actively with a critical mind, following the principles of scientific methodology. We shall find that the papers to be presented today all deal with the third step in the evaluation process--clinical pharmacology. It is quite evident that the final and most decisive test must be aimed at the most valuable target: the human being. The end product of this day's work for each of us should be the formation of an opinion based on solid scientific proofs. And let us hope that we will all enjoy fulfilling the symposium in its entire etymological meaning this evening. In vino veritas.

  14. Scientific Research: Commodities or Commons?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeir, Koen

    2013-10-01

    Truth is for sale today, some critics claim. The increased commodification of science corrupts it, scientific fraud is rampant and the age-old trust in science is shattered. This cynical view, although gaining in prominence, does not explain very well the surprising motivation and integrity that is still central to the scientific life. Although scientific knowledge becomes more and more treated as a commodity or as a product that is for sale, a central part of academic scientific practice is still organized according to different principles. In this paper, I critically analyze alternative models for understanding the organization of knowledge, such as the idea of the scientific commons and the gift economy of science. After weighing the diverse positive and negative aspects of free market economies of science and gift economies of science, a commons structured as a gift economy seems best suited to preserve and take advantage of the specific character of scientific knowledge. Furthermore, commons and gift economies promote the rich social texture that is important for supporting central norms of science. Some of these basic norms might break down if the gift character of science is lost. To conclude, I consider the possibility and desirability of hybrid economies of academic science, which combine aspects of gift economies and free market economies. The aim of this paper is to gain a better understanding of these deeper structural challenges faced by science policy. Such theoretical reflections should eventually assist us in formulating new policy guidelines.

  15. SCIENTIFIC EDUCATIONAL ELECTRONIC LIBRARIES IN EDUCATING INFORMATIONAL SYSTEMS AND TECHNOLOGIES OF FUTURE MANAGERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliia S. Prilutska

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the main principles of electronic libraries. It analyzes primary types of digital scientific and educational resources, presented in electronic libraries and defines the techniques of effective structuring of the learning content by means of informational technologies in the conditions of the informational processes intensification. The scientific fundamentals of choice of educational material are determined and the structure of the educational subject ''Informational Systems and Technologies'' under the credit and module system are designated. The declared structure of educational subject is taught for the students of the social-pedagogical department, referral courses ''Management''.

  16. Developmental Principles: Fact or Fiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Durston

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available While still at school, most of us are deeply impressed by the underlying principles that so beautifully explain why the chemical elements are ordered as they are in the periodic table, and may wonder, with the theoretician Brian Goodwin, “whether there might be equally powerful principles that account for the awe-inspiring diversity of body forms in the living realm”. We have considered the arguments for developmental principles, conclude that they do exist and have specifically identified features that may generate principles associated with Hox patterning of the main body axis in bilaterian metazoa in general and in the vertebrates in particular. We wonder whether this exercise serves any purpose. The features we discuss were already known to us as parts of developmental mechanisms and defining developmental principles (how, and at which level? adds no insight. We also see little profit in the proposal by Goodwin that there are principles outside the emerging genetic mechanisms that need to be taken into account. The emerging developmental genetic hierarchies already reveal a wealth of interesting phenomena, whatever we choose to call them.

  17. The common European flexicurity principles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mailand, Mikkel

    2010-01-01

    This article analyses the decision-making process underlying the adoption of common EU flexicurity principles. Supporters of the initiative succeeded in convincing the sceptics one by one; the change of government in France and the last-minute support of the European social partner organizations...

  18. Scientific Programming in Fortran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Van Snyder

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The Fortran programming language was designed by John Backus and his colleagues at IBM to reduce the cost of programming scientific applications. IBM delivered the first compiler for its model 704 in 1957. IBM's competitors soon offered incompatible versions. ANSI (ASA at the time developed a standard, largely based on IBM's Fortran IV in 1966. Revisions of the standard were produced in 1977, 1990, 1995 and 2003. Development of a revision, scheduled for 2008, is under way. Unlike most other programming languages, Fortran is periodically revised to keep pace with developments in language and processor design, while revisions largely preserve compatibility with previous versions. Throughout, the focus on scientific programming, and especially on efficient generated programs, has been maintained.

  19. Basic Principles of Animal Science. Reprinted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee.

    The reference book is designed to fulfill the need for organized subject matter dealing with basic principles of animal science to be incorporated into the high school agriculture curriculum. The material presented is scientific knowledge basic to livestock production. Five units contain specific information on the following topics: anatomy and…

  20. Scientific and theoretical principles of personnel costs’ budgeting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.P. Gutsal

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The object of this article is to determine the main purpose of company’s budgeting, to study its functions in terms of personnel management, to identify the main advantages and disadvantages of budgeting and to determine the stages of realization budgeting in the company. There have been considered the purpose and aim of budgeting. The main functions of budgeting, which include such ones as: planning, forecasting, information and analysis function, motivational, coordinative, control and involvement function have been identified (determined. In terms of defined functions of budgeting their essence in budgeting personnel costs has been outlined. The main advantages and disadvantages of budgeting have been found. There has been determined the implementing and realization company’s budgeting. The process of budgeting is realized according to the following consecutive stages: preparatory and analytical stage; definition of budget constraints; drafting up the budget; discussion and adjustment of budget indicators; adoption of budget; analysis and control of the budget. There also has been considered budget organization structure which includes budget committee, budget planning and analysis department, financial responsibility center.

  1. Principles of scientific research team formation and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milojević, Staša

    2014-03-18

    Research teams are the fundamental social unit of science, and yet there is currently no model that describes their basic property: size. In most fields, teams have grown significantly in recent decades. We show that this is partly due to the change in the character of team size distribution. We explain these changes with a comprehensive yet straightforward model of how teams of different sizes emerge and grow. This model accurately reproduces the evolution of empirical team size distribution over the period of 50 y. The modeling reveals that there are two modes of knowledge production. The first and more fundamental mode employs relatively small, "core" teams. Core teams form by a Poisson process and produce a Poisson distribution of team sizes in which larger teams are exceedingly rare. The second mode employs "extended" teams, which started as core teams, but subsequently accumulated new members proportional to the past productivity of their members. Given time, this mode gives rise to a power-law tail of large teams (10-1,000 members), which features in many fields today. Based on this model, we construct an analytical functional form that allows the contribution of different modes of authorship to be determined directly from the data and is applicable to any field. The model also offers a solid foundation for studying other social aspects of science, such as productivity and collaboration.

  2. Integrating Principles Underlying Ancestral Spirits Belief in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , associated with ancestral spirits and its use as powerful therapeutic agent for influencing behavior or lifestyle changes. Explanatory models of attachment to ancestral spirits by living descendants are first discussed, followed by a discussion ...

  3. The quantum gauge principle

    CERN Document Server

    Graudenz, Dirk

    1996-01-01

    We consider the evolution of quantum fields on a classical background space-time, formulated in the language of differential geometry. Time evolution along the worldlines of observers is described by parallel transport operators in an infinite-dimensional vector bundle over the space-time manifold. The time evolution equation and the dynamical equations for the matter fields are invariant under an arbitrary local change of frames along the restriction of the bundle to the worldline of an observer, thus implementing a ``quantum gauge principle''. We derive dynamical equations for the connection and a complex scalar quantum field based on a gauge field action. In the limit of vanishing curvature of the vector bundle, we recover the standard equation of motion of a scalar field in a curved background space-time.

  4. Using Gambling to Teach Insurance Principles

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Pingle

    2010-01-01

    A basic understanding of insurance principles is useful for making personal finance decisions and for considering public policy issues. Yet, insurance concepts tend to be less intuitive, more difficult for students to grasp, than other concepts. This paper shows how fundamental insurance principles can be taught by relating them to the principles underlying gambling, the game of roulette in particular. This approach has been used successfully with college freshmen taking macroeconomics at the...

  5. Three principles of competitive nonlinear pricing

    OpenAIRE

    Frank H. Page; Paulo Klinger Monteiro

    2002-01-01

    We make three contributions to the theory of contracting under asymmetric information. First , we establish a competitive analog to the revelation principle which we call the implementation principle. This principle provides a complete characterization of all incentive compatible, indirect contracting mechanisms in terms of contract catalogs (or menus), and allows us to conclude that in competitive contracting situations, firms in choosing their contracting strategies can restrict attention, ...

  6. Principles of project management

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    The basic principles of project management as practiced by NASA management personnel are presented. These principles are given as ground rules and guidelines to be used in the performance of research, development, construction or operational assignments.

  7. Fiber optics principles and practices

    CERN Document Server

    Al-Azzawi, Abdul

    2007-01-01

    Since the invention of the laser, our fascination with the photon has led to one of the most dynamic and rapidly growing fields of technology. New advances in fiber optic devices, components, and materials make it more important than ever to stay current. Comprising chapters drawn from the author's highly anticipated book Photonics: Principles and Practices, Fiber Optics: Principles and Practices offers a detailed and focused treatment for anyone in need of authoritative information on this critical area underlying photonics.Using a consistent approach, the author leads you step-by-step throug

  8. Principles and applications of tribology

    CERN Document Server

    Moore, Desmond F

    1975-01-01

    Principles and Applications of Tribology provides a mechanical engineering perspective of the fundamental understanding and applications of tribology. This book is organized into two parts encompassing 16 chapters that cover the principles of friction and different types of lubrication. Chapter 1 deals with the immense scope of tribology and the range of applications in the existing technology, and Chapter 2 is devoted entirely to the evaluation and measurement of surface texture. Chapters 3 to 5 present the fundamental concepts underlying the friction of metals, elastomers, and other material

  9. Projects and potentialities for Scientific and Technological Cooperation between Mexico and Thailand under the European Union's Seventh Framework Program (FP7: 2007-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Haberleithner

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The European Union and Mexico have been cooperating in the field of R&D since the partnership treaty between the Eu and Mexico took effect in 2000. With the Lisbon Strategy put into operation that same year, Europe acknowledged the central role which will be played by knowledge in the economy and society of the future. Accordingly, innovation was emphasized in order to advance mutual efforts to establish innovative research and development projects with Third Countries such as Mexico and Thailand through diverse multilateral framework programs such as the Seventh Framework Program (Fp7. A brief evaluation of the existing projects in Fp7 reveal disposition for intraregional cooperation in spite of the disparities regarding the quantity and extension of projects. Moreover, studied participants share a similar lack of know-how for coordinating projects which is at times crucial for benefiting completely from the program. Potential exists for establishing the necessary links and coordinating points amongst Mexico and Thailand under the given cooperation regional and bilateral mechanisms and the extensive research areas that the program covers. It is these specific potentialities enabled by the Fp7 in both regions that intend to be further researched for their development into multiple and successful projects.

  10. Principles of Virus Structural Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, B.V. Venkataram; Schmid, Michael F

    2013-01-01

    Viruses, the molecular nanomachines infecting hosts ranging from prokaryotes to eukaryotes, come in different sizes, shapes and symmetries. Questions such as what principles govern their structural organization, what factors guide their assembly, how these viruses integrate multifarious functions into one unique structure have enamored researchers for years. In the last five decades, following Caspar and Klug's elegant conceptualization of how viruses are constructed, high resolution structural studies using X-ray crystallography and more recently cryo-EM techniques have provided a wealth of information on structures of variety of viruses. These studies have significantly furthered our understanding of the principles that underlie structural organization in viruses. Such an understanding has practical impact in providing a rational basis for the design and development of antiviral strategies. In this chapter, we review principles underlying capsid formation in a variety of viruses, emphasizing the recent developments along with some historical perspective. PMID:22297509

  11. General principles regarding the use of adult stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paula, I Carrasco

    2008-02-01

    With only a few, almost inevitable exceptions, biomedical research has developed within the last 50 years under the tutelage of ethical standards of notable precision. In the vast world of scientific investigation, few disciplines can boast of having realized documents of such ethical rigour, and respect for the integrity and intrinsic value of the human person has been one of the cardinal principles of the researcher. Research is intrinsic to the medical profession; the reward of research is knowledge and its techniques are ordered towards maintenance of human health. Since this end concerns human beings, it demands an extremely rigorous ethical approach. Ethical aspects are present from the first moments of the experimental project and occur on three levels: choice of the objectives, selection and use of the appropriate means for the study, and application of resultant new discoveries. Today, our moral attention cannot be reduced to a cost-benefit analysis. Biomedical sciences and medicine have overlapping areas of interest that can be sources of tension: the good of the subject versus scientific utility; profit versus complexity of research; liberty versus ethical and juridical bonds; the public versus the private; and the individual versus the community. Here, I attempt to formulate some essential principles that should guarantee humane measures for research on humans.

  12. Principles of Empiricism and the Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaroszkiewicz, George

    The interpretation of quantum mechanics (QM) is discussed in terms of the principles and logic of empiricism. First, we list a set of issues that should be settled before any consistent interpretation is attempted. This includes questions such as whether we can use an exophysical perspective or an endophysical perspective, and whether a completely reductionist approach makes sense or are we forced to incorporate emergent laws of physics. We then list the scientific pr nciples that should be strictly adhered to in any debate on QM. We follow this with a list of cautions and warnings about misleading concepts that should be avoided, such as ignoring contextuality and the meaning of scientific truth values. These principles and warning are then used to decide on the issues we first identified, giving us a basis for an interpretation of QM from the perspective of observers and quantum signal states of apparatus, rather than in terms of qu ntum states of systems under observation. Finally, we review a proposed mathematical formalism that encodes this interpretation in terms of quantum registers.

  13. The next scientific revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hey, Tony

    2010-11-01

    For decades, computer scientists have tried to teach computers to think like human experts. Until recently, most of those efforts have failed to come close to generating the creative insights and solutions that seem to come naturally to the best researchers, doctors, and engineers. But now, Tony Hey, a VP of Microsoft Research, says we're witnessing the dawn of a new generation of powerful computer tools that can "mash up" vast quantities of data from many sources, analyze them, and help produce revolutionary scientific discoveries. Hey and his colleagues call this new method of scientific exploration "machine learning." At Microsoft, a team has already used it to innovate a method of predicting with impressive accuracy whether a patient with congestive heart failure who is released from the hospital will be readmitted within 30 days. It was developed by directing a computer program to pore through hundreds of thousands of data points on 300,000 patients and "learn" the profiles of patients most likely to be rehospitalized. The economic impact of this prediction tool could be huge: If a hospital understands the likelihood that a patient will "bounce back," it can design programs to keep him stable and save thousands of dollars in health care costs. Similar efforts to uncover important correlations that could lead to scientific breakthroughs are under way in oceanography, conservation, and AIDS research. And in business, deep data exploration has the potential to unearth critical insights about customers, supply chains, advertising effectiveness, and more.

  14. 5 CFR 551.401 - Basic principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Basic principles. 551.401 Section 551.401 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Hours of Work General Provisions § 551.401 Basic principles. (a) All time...

  15. 38 CFR 70.30 - Payment principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Payment principles. 70.30 Section 70.30 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VHA BENEFICIARY TRAVEL UNDER 38 U.S.C. 111 § 70.30 Payment principles. (a) Subject to the other provisions of this...

  16. Nonsymmetric entropy and maximum nonsymmetric entropy principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chengshi

    2009-01-01

    Under the frame of a statistical model, the concept of nonsymmetric entropy which generalizes the concepts of Boltzmann's entropy and Shannon's entropy, is defined. Maximum nonsymmetric entropy principle is proved. Some important distribution laws such as power law, can be derived from this principle naturally. Especially, nonsymmetric entropy is more convenient than other entropy such as Tsallis's entropy in deriving power laws.

  17. 31 CFR 29.331 - General principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General principle. 29.331 Section 29.331 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury FEDERAL BENEFIT PAYMENTS UNDER... Satisfied by June 30, 1997 § 29.331 General principle. To determine whether service is creditable for the...

  18. 31 CFR 29.321 - General principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General principle. 29.321 Section 29.321 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury FEDERAL BENEFIT PAYMENTS UNDER....321 General principle. Any service performed after June 30, 1997, may never be credited toward Federal...

  19. 31 CFR 29.341 - General principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General principle. 29.341 Section 29.341 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury FEDERAL BENEFIT PAYMENTS UNDER... Benefit Payments § 29.341 General principle. Except for disability retirements after June 30, 1997, and...

  20. Dimensional cosmological principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chi, L.K.

    1985-01-01

    The dimensional cosmological principles proposed by Wesson require that the density, pressure, and mass of cosmological models be functions of the dimensionless variables which are themselves combinations of the gravitational constant, the speed of light, and the spacetime coordinates. The space coordinate is not the comoving coordinate. In this paper, the dimensional cosmological principle and the dimensional perfect cosmological principle are reformulated by using the comoving coordinate. The dimensional perfect cosmological principle is further modified to allow the possibility that mass creation may occur. Self-similar spacetimes are found to be models obeying the new dimensional cosmological principle

  1. Principles of animal extrapolation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calabrese, E.J.

    1991-01-01

    Animal Extrapolation presents a comprehensive examination of the scientific issues involved in extrapolating results of animal experiments to human response. This text attempts to present a comprehensive synthesis and analysis of the host of biomedical and toxicological studies of interspecies extrapolation. Calabrese's work presents not only the conceptual basis of interspecies extrapolation, but also illustrates how these principles may be better used in selection of animal experimentation models and in the interpretation of animal experimental results. The book's theme centers around four types of extrapolation: (1) from average animal model to the average human; (2) from small animals to large ones; (3) from high-risk animal to the high risk human; and (4) from high doses of exposure to lower, more realistic, doses. Calabrese attacks the issues of interspecies extrapolation by dealing individually with the factors which contribute to interspecies variability: differences in absorption, intestinal flora, tissue distribution, metabolism, repair mechanisms, and excretion. From this foundation, Calabrese then discusses the heterogeneticity of these same factors in the human population in an attempt to evaluate the representativeness of various animal models in light of interindividual variations. In addition to discussing the question of suitable animal models for specific high-risk groups and specific toxicological endpoints, the author also examines extrapolation questions related to the use of short-term tests to predict long-term human carcinogenicity and birth defects. The book is comprehensive in scope and specific in detail; for those environmental health professions seeking to understand the toxicological models which underlay health risk assessments, Animal Extrapolation is a valuable information source.

  2. Business rules management principles in the Dutch governmental context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dr. Martijn Zoet; Koen Smit

    2016-01-01

    From the article: Abstract Since more and more business rules management solutions are utilized, organizations search for guidance to design such solutions. Principles are often applied to guide the design of information systems in general. Scientific research on principles for business rules

  3. Publication and citation of scientific software with persistent identifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammitzsch, Martin; Klump, Jens

    2014-05-01

    Scientific progress depends increasingly on the use and development of software and the combination of diverse software components. Scientific software, as well as the underlying hardware platforms, also evolve quickly. But when using different versions of software and operating systems the processing of complex data can lead to significantly different results, and thus is in conflict with the principle of reproducibility in natural sciences. Incomplete documentation and ambiguous quality of the software hamper the understanding, reuse and the reproducibility of generated results. In addition, available software code repositories are developed for industrial and open source community needs and do not meet the demands of the scientific community for the sustainable use of software in sciences. Furthermore, software development in general is not perceived as a scientific achievement, similar to the situation of research data years ago. However, the development of software accounts for an increasingly prominent space in research, especially in natural sciences software has become an indispensable commodity. In its complexity the software developed within research ranges from scripts for data processing, programs of increasing complexity to extensive program packages and system images, e.g. for use in cloud infrastructures. This software, its quality and its handling highly influence the quality of research results obtained and their traceability. As a consequence of this, the scientific community is in active discussion on how to overcome the related problems, to find and implement solutions serving researchers' needs regarding software used in a scientific context. As for research data, answers to a variety of related questions and a common understanding of handling scientific software with defined processes have to be developed jointly. Amongst others, these processes have to cover issues regarding quality assurance, versioning and documentation, traceability

  4. THE EQUALITY PRINCIPLE REQUIREMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLAUDIA ANDRIŢOI

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The problem premises and the objectives followed: the idea of inserting the equality principle between the freedom and the justice principles is manifested in positive law in two stages, as a general idea of all judicial norms and as requirement of the owner of a subjective right of the applicants of an objective law. Equality in face of the law and of public authorities can not involve the idea of standardization, of uniformity, of enlisting of all citizens under the mark of the same judicial regime, regardless of their natural or socio-professional situation. Through the Beijing Platform and the position documents of the European Commission we have defined the integrative approach of equality as representing an active and visible integration of the gender perspective in all sectors and at all levels. The research methods used are: the conceptualist method, the logical method and the intuitive method necessary as means of reasoning in order to argue our demonstration. We have to underline the fact that the system analysis of the research methods of the judicial phenomenon doesn’t agree with “value ranking”, because one value cannot be generalized in rapport to another. At the same time, we must fight against a methodological extremism. The final purpose of this study is represented by the reaching of the perfecting/excellence stage by all individuals through the promotion of equality and freedom. This supposes the fact that the existence of a non-discrimination favourable frame (fairness represents a means and a condition of self-determination, and the state of perfection/excellency is a result of this self-determination, the condition necessary for the obtaining of this nondiscrimination frame for all of us and in conditions of freedom for all individuals, represents the same condition that promotes the state of perfection/excellency. In conclusion we may state the fact that the equality principle represents a true catalyst of the

  5. Phase Transition in Octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) under Static Compression: An Application of the First-Principles Method Specialized for CHNO Solid Explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Jiang, Sheng-Li; Yu, Yi; Long, Yao; Zhao, Han-Yue; Peng, Li-Juan; Chen, Jun

    2016-11-10

    The first-principles method is challenged by accurate prediction of van der Waals interactions, which are ubiquitous in nature and crucial for determining the structure of molecules and condensed matter. We have contributed to this by constructing a set of pseudopotentials and pseudoatomic orbital basis specialized for molecular systems consisting of C/H/N/O elements. The reliability of the present method is verified from the interaction energies of 45 kinds of complexes (comparing with CCSD(T)) and the crystalline structures of 23 kinds of typical explosive solids (comparing with experiments). Using this method, we have studied the phase transition of octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) under static compression up to 50 GPa. Kinetically, intramolecular deformation has priority in the competition with intermolecular packing deformation by ∼87%. A possible γ → β phase transition is found at around 2.10 GPa, and the migration of H 2 O has an effect of kinetically pushing this process. We make it clear that no β → δ/ε → δ phase transition occurs at 27 GPa, which has long been a hot debate in experiments. In addition, the P-V relation, bulk modulus, and acoustic velocity are also predicted for α-, δ-, and γ-HMX, which are experimentally unavailable.

  6. The four variational principles of mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, C.G.; Karl, G.; Novikov, V.A.

    1996-01-01

    We argue that there are four basic forms of the variational principles of mechanics: Hamilton close-quote s least action principle (HP), the generalized Maupertuis principle (MP), and their two reciprocal principles, RHP and RMP. This set is invariant under reciprocity and Legendre transformations. One of these forms (HP) is in the literature: only special cases of the other three are known. The generalized MP has a weaker constraint compared to the traditional formulation, only the mean energy bar E is kept fixed between virtual paths. This reformulation of MP alleviates several weaknesses of the old version. The reciprocal Maupertuis principle (RMP) is the classical limit of Schroedinger close-quote s variational principle of quantum mechanics, and this connection emphasizes the importance of the reciprocity transformation for variational principles. Two unconstrained formulations (UHP and UMP) of these four principles are also proposed, with completely specified Lagrange multipliers Percival close-quote s variational principle for invariant tori and variational principles for scattering orbits are derived from the RMP. The RMP is very convenient for approximate variational solutions to problems in mechanics using Ritz type methods Examples are provided. Copyright copyright 1996 Academic Press, Inc

  7. Risk measurement with equivalent utility principles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Denuit, M.; Dhaene, J.; Goovaerts, M.; Kaas, R.; Laeven, R.

    2006-01-01

    Risk measures have been studied for several decades in the actuarial literature, where they appeared under the guise of premium calculation principles. Risk measures and properties that risk measures should satisfy have recently received considerable attention in the financial mathematics

  8. Towards a General Scientific Reasoning Engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonell, Jaime G.; And Others

    Expert reasoning in the natural sciences appears to make extensive use of a relatively small number of general principles and reasoning strategies, each associated with a larger number of more specific inference patterns. Using a dual declarative hierarchy to represent strategic and factual knowledge, a framework for a robust scientific reasoning…

  9. Intelligent Tutoring Systems for Scientific Inquiry Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shute, Valerie; Bonar, Jeffrey

    Described are the initial prototypes of several intelligent tutoring systems designed to build students' scientific inquiry skills. These inquiry skills are taught in the context of acquiring knowledge of principles from a microworld that models a specific domain. This paper discusses microworlds that have been implemented for microeconomics,…

  10. Philosophical and Pedagogical Principles of Transnational Higher Education Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leshchenko, Maria; Avshenyuk, Nataliya

    2015-01-01

    The philosophical and pedagogical principles of transnational higher education development in the second half of the XX--at the beginning of the XXI century are revealed based on the authentic scientific research sources and reflections of prominent scientists. Review of scientific works, devoted to the problems of education transnationalization,…

  11. Dictionary of scientific units including dimensionless numbers and scales

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jerrard, H.G; McNeill, D.B

    1992-01-01

    .... The text includes the most recently accepted values of all units. Several disciplines, which have in the past employed few scientific principles and the dictionary has been extended to include examples of these.

  12. Scientific instruments, scientific progress and the cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baird, David; Faust, Thomas

    1990-01-01

    Philosophers speak of science in terms of theory and experiment, yet when they speak of the progress of scientific knowledge they speak in terms of theory alone. In this article it is claimed that scientific knowledge consists of, among other things, scientific instruments and instrumental techniques and not simply of some kind of justified beliefs. It is argued that one aspect of scientific progress can be characterized relatively straightforwardly - the accumulation of new scientific instruments. The development of the cyclotron is taken to illustrate this point. Eight different activities which promoted the successful completion of the cyclotron are recognised. The importance is in the machine rather than the experiments which could be run on it and the focus is on how the cyclotron came into being, not how it was subsequently used. The completed instrument is seen as a useful unit of scientific progress in its own right. (UK)

  13. 29 CFR 1625.11 - Exemption for employees serving under a contract of unlimited tenure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... academic deans, scientific researchers, professional librarians and counseling staff, who frequently have... accepted definition of academic “tenure” is an arrangement under which certain appointments in an... standards set forth in the 1940 Statement of Principles on Academic Freedom and Tenure, jointly developed by...

  14. Statistical principles for prospective study protocols:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Robin; Langberg, Henning

    2012-01-01

    In the design of scientific studies it is essential to decide on which scientific questions one aims to answer, just as it is important to decide on the correct statistical methods to use to answer these questions. The correct use of statistical methods is crucial in all aspects of research to qu...... the statistical principles for trial protocols in terms of design, analysis, and reporting of findings.......In the design of scientific studies it is essential to decide on which scientific questions one aims to answer, just as it is important to decide on the correct statistical methods to use to answer these questions. The correct use of statistical methods is crucial in all aspects of research...

  15. Biomechanics principles and practices

    CERN Document Server

    Peterson, Donald R

    2014-01-01

    Presents Current Principles and ApplicationsBiomedical engineering is considered to be the most expansive of all the engineering sciences. Its function involves the direct combination of core engineering sciences as well as knowledge of nonengineering disciplines such as biology and medicine. Drawing on material from the biomechanics section of The Biomedical Engineering Handbook, Fourth Edition and utilizing the expert knowledge of respected published scientists in the application and research of biomechanics, Biomechanics: Principles and Practices discusses the latest principles and applicat

  16. Fusion research principles

    CERN Document Server

    Dolan, Thomas James

    2013-01-01

    Fusion Research, Volume I: Principles provides a general description of the methods and problems of fusion research. The book contains three main parts: Principles, Experiments, and Technology. The Principles part describes the conditions necessary for a fusion reaction, as well as the fundamentals of plasma confinement, heating, and diagnostics. The Experiments part details about forty plasma confinement schemes and experiments. The last part explores various engineering problems associated with reactor design, vacuum and magnet systems, materials, plasma purity, fueling, blankets, neutronics

  17. Database principles programming performance

    CERN Document Server

    O'Neil, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Database: Principles Programming Performance provides an introduction to the fundamental principles of database systems. This book focuses on database programming and the relationships between principles, programming, and performance.Organized into 10 chapters, this book begins with an overview of database design principles and presents a comprehensive introduction to the concepts used by a DBA. This text then provides grounding in many abstract concepts of the relational model. Other chapters introduce SQL, describing its capabilities and covering the statements and functions of the programmi

  18. Principles of ecotoxicology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Walker, C. H

    2012-01-01

    "Now in its fourth edition, this exceptionally accessible text provides students with a multidisciplinary perspective and a grounding in the fundamental principles required for research in toxicology today...

  19. Falling Short of the Rights to Health and Scientific Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Ian; Lessem, Erica

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The incorporation of human rights-based approaches into TB programs is gaining traction, but little work has explored the application of human rights norms and principles to TB research (a domain traditionally left to bioethics). TB research is gravely underfunded, and the scarcity of resources for TB drug development has contributed to the stubborn persistence of the TB epidemic and helped to create the conditions under which drug-resistant TB has developed and spread. This article shows how human rights—particularly human rights standards, norms, and principles related to the rights to health and benefits of scientific progress—can provide insight into understanding how underfunding TB drug research undermines efforts to secure access to safe, effective, and optimized treatment for all people with TB. By analyzing TB research in relation to the rights to health and scientific progress, we aim to clarify the legal obligations of governments to improve the TB drug research system, fund TB research, and make medical advances that result from research available to all people with TB. PMID:27780996

  20. Assessment principles and tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golnik, Karl C

    2014-01-01

    The goal of ophthalmology residency training is to produce competent ophthalmologists. Competence can only be determined by appropriately assessing resident performance. There are accepted guiding principles that should be applied to competence assessment methods. These principles are enumerated herein and ophthalmology-specific assessment tools that are available are described.

  1. The principle of equivalence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unnikrishnan, C.S.

    1994-01-01

    Principle of equivalence was the fundamental guiding principle in the formulation of the general theory of relativity. What are its key elements? What are the empirical observations which establish it? What is its relevance to some new experiments? These questions are discussed in this article. (author). 11 refs., 5 figs

  2. Principles of Critical Dialogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lankford, E. Louis

    1986-01-01

    Proposes four principles of critical dialog designed to suggest a consistent pattern of preparation for criticism. The principles concern the characteristics of the intended audience, establishing the goals of art criticism, making a commitment to a context of relevant dialogue, and clarifying one's concept of art in qualifying an object for…

  3. The anthropic principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, B.J.

    1982-01-01

    The anthropic principle (the conjecture that certain features of the world are determined by the existence of Man) is discussed with the listing of the objections, and is stated that nearly all the constants of nature may be determined by the anthropic principle which does not give exact values for the constants but only their orders of magnitude. (J.T.)

  4. Great Principles of Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Denning, Peter J.

    2008-01-01

    The Great Principles of Computing is a framework for understanding computing as a field of science. The website ...April 2008 (Rev. 8/31/08) The Great Principles of Computing is a framework for understanding computing as a field of science.

  5. Bioethical Principles of Biomedical Research Involving Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakir Mehić

    2011-08-01

    pain or distress should be performed with appropriate sedation, analgesia, or anesthesia in accordance with accepted veterinary practice. Surgical or other painful procedures should not be performed on unanesthetized animals paralyzed by chemical agents,Where waivers are required in relation to the provisions of article V, the decisions should not rest solely with the investigators directly concerned but should be made, with due regard to the provisions of articles IV, and V, by a suitably constituted review body. Such waivers should not be made solely for the purposes of teaching or demonstration,At the end of, or, when appropriate, during an experiment, animals that would otherwise suffer severe or chronic pain, distress, discomfort, or disablement that cannot be relieved should be painlessly killed,The best possible living conditions should be maintained for animals kept for biomedical purposes. Normally the care of animals should be under the supervision of veterinarians having experience in laboratory animal science. In any case, veterinary care should be available as required,It is the responsibility of the director of an institute or department using animals to ensure that investigators and personnel have appropriate qualifications or experience for conducting procedures on animals. Adequate opportunities shall be provided for in-service training, including the proper and humane concern for the animals under their care. Also see Draft CIOMS Guiding Principles 2011 to be used by the international scientific community to guide the responsible use of vertebrate animals in scientific and/or educational activities[4].Go to:Alternatives for animal in biomedical researchThere remain many areas in biomedical research which, at least for the foreseeable future, will require animal experimentation. An intact live animal is more than the sum of the responses of isolated cells, tissues or organs; there are complex interactions in the whole animal that cannot be

  6. Mach's holographic principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoury, Justin; Parikh, Maulik

    2009-01-01

    Mach's principle is the proposition that inertial frames are determined by matter. We put forth and implement a precise correspondence between matter and geometry that realizes Mach's principle. Einstein's equations are not modified and no selection principle is applied to their solutions; Mach's principle is realized wholly within Einstein's general theory of relativity. The key insight is the observation that, in addition to bulk matter, one can also add boundary matter. Given a space-time, and thus the inertial frames, we can read off both boundary and bulk stress tensors, thereby relating matter and geometry. We consider some global conditions that are necessary for the space-time to be reconstructible, in principle, from bulk and boundary matter. Our framework is similar to that of the black hole membrane paradigm and, in asymptotically anti-de Sitter space-times, is consistent with holographic duality.

  7. Compendium of Scientific Linacs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clendenin, James E

    2003-05-16

    The International Committee supported the proposal of the Chairman of the XVIII International Linac Conference to issue a new Compendium of linear accelerators. The last one was published in 1976. The Local Organizing Committee of Linac96 decided to set up a sub-committee for this purpose. Contrary to the catalogues of the High Energy Accelerators which compile accelerators with energies above 1 GeV, we have not defined a specific limit in energy. Microtrons and cyclotrons are not in this compendium. Also data from thousands of medical and industrial linacs has not been collected. Therefore, only scientific linacs are listed in the present compendium. Each linac found in this research and involved in a physics context was considered. It could be used, for example, either as an injector for high energy accelerators, or in nuclear physics, materials physics, free electron lasers or synchrotron light machines. Linear accelerators are developed in three continents only: America, Asia, and Europe. This geographical distribution is kept as a basis. The compendium contains the parameters and status of scientific linacs. Most of these linacs are operational. However, many facilities under construction or design studies are also included. A special mention has been made at the end for the studies of future linear colliders.

  8. PAUL FEYERABEND ON THE SCIENTIFIC WORLDVIEW: TOWARDS QUESTIONING THE SCIENTIFIC UNIFORMITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Petrunok

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the following article is to draw attention to main problems of scientific values as they were stated by Paul Feyerabend. Various philosophers and epistemologists have always tried to prove chosen principles and objectives, but only few dared to jeopardize their fundamentals. Stereotypes of searching for ultimate truth ceased to hold; however, scientific coordinates are still not qualified. Underlying ambiguities often remain unarticulated. Among those who ventured to shed light on them were the philosophers of post-positivistic branch. One of those who questioned science values in social, cultural, and philosophical approaches the most rigidly was Paul Feyerabend. By means of typical political concepts (such as ideology and propaganda he detected basic objectives of scientists. Our main methodological tools in this research are comparative analyses of the sources and immanent critique of Feyerabend’s arguments. The scientific novelty is based on our core objective to clarify substantial obstacles for homogeneity of science. Does such homogeneity or unity exist at any level? Feyerabend’s answer is a weak “yes”. He accepts such unity only as a useful assumption or a myth. In one of his latest books, Conquest of Abundance, he calls it a “flag” for the “people doing science.” As Feyerabend diagnosed faults of relativism, instrumentalism, and realism – all of them are threatened by the same menace of being invalid to response the world “at face value” – we have to deal somehow with topics denounced by him. In conclusion, we show important implications for the creation of a specific worldview at the intersection of philosophy and science. Considering a number of negatives, in the article we elicit fruitful ideas of Feyerabend, and contextually question them without resorting to a superficial reproach.

  9. Principles of radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, M.P.; Share, F.S.; Goodman, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    Radiation oncology now represents the integration of knowledge obtained over an 80-year period from the physics and biology laboratories and the medical clinic. Such integration is recent; until the supervoltage era following World War II, the chief developments in these three areas for the most part were realized independently. The physics and engineering laboratories have now developed a dependable family of sources of ionizing radiations that can be precisely directed at tumor volumes at various depths within the body. The biology laboratory has provided the basic scientific support underlying the intensive clinical experience and currently is suggesting ways of using ionizing radiations more effectively, such as modified fractionation schedules relating to cell cycle kinetics and the use of drugs and chemicals as modifiers of radiation response and normal tissue reaction. The radiation therapy clinic has provided the patient stratum on which the acute and chronic effects of irradiation have been assessed, and the patterns of treatment success and failure identified. The radiation therapist has shared with the surgeon and medical oncologist the responsibility for clarifying the natural history of a large number of human neoplasms, and through such clarifications, has developed more effective treatment strategies. Several examples of this include the improved results in the treatment of Hodgkin's disease, squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix, seminoma, and epithelial neoplasms of the upper aerodigestive tract

  10. Scientific writing and communication papers, proposals, and presentations

    CERN Document Server

    Hofmann, Angelika H

    2014-01-01

    Scientific Writing and Communication: Papers, Proposals, and Presentations, Second Edition, serves as a comprehensive " reference guide to scientific writing and communication. The second edition of Angelika Hofmann's successful text covers all the areas of scientific communication that a scientist needs to know and master in order to successfully promote his or her research and career. This unique "all-in-one" handbook begins with a discussion of the basic principles of scientific writing style and composition and then applies these principles to writing research papers, review articles, grant proposals, research statements, and resumes, as well as to preparing academic presentations and posters. Scientific Writing and Communication: Papers, Proposals, and Presentations has been used successfully for a number of years in courses on scientific writing at various universities and institutes worldwide. Readers of the second edition will find numerous new examples and exercises, many with an expanded interdiscip...

  11. A guide for writing in the scientific forum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotsis, Sandra V; Chung, Kevin C

    2010-11-01

    When considering the importance of scientific writing in disseminating new discoveries and ideas, it is quite remarkable that few physicians have received any formal instruction in this essential process. This article focuses on the fundamental principles of scientific writing that also include a "style and grace" component. The art of good scientific writing is to convey scientific materials in a clear and interesting way, while avoiding incomprehensible sentences that only serve to disguise marginal contents within the article. The goal of this article is to encourage authors and readers to critically examine the art of scientific writing to overcome the barrier to effective communication.

  12. Mythical thinking, scientific discourses and research dissemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hroar Klempe, Sven

    2011-06-01

    This article focuses on some principles for understanding. By taking Anna Mikulak's article "Mismatches between 'scientific' and 'non-scientific' ways of knowing and their contributions to public understanding of science" (IPBS 2011) as a point of departure, the idea of demarcation criteria for scientific and non-scientific discourses is addressed. Yet this is juxtaposed with mythical thinking, which is supposed to be the most salient trait of non-scientific discourses. The author demonstrates how the most widespread demarcation criterion, the criterion of verification, is self-contradictory, not only when it comes to logic, but also in the achievement of isolating natural sciences from other forms of knowledge. According to Aristotle induction is a rhetorical device and as far as scientific statements are based on inductive inferences, they are relying on humanities, which rhetoric is a part of. Yet induction also has an empirical component by being based on sense-impressions, which is not a part of the rhetoric, but the psychology. Also the myths are understood in a rhetorical (Lévi-Strauss) and a psychological (Cassirer) perspective. Thus it is argued that both scientific and non-scientific discourses can be mythical.

  13. 48 CFR 252.231-7000 - Supplemental cost principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... principles. 252.231-7000 Section 252.231-7000 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... of Provisions And Clauses 252.231-7000 Supplemental cost principles. As prescribed in 231.100-70, use the following clause: Supplemental Cost Principles (DEC 1991) When the allowability of costs under...

  14. Nonlinear optics principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Chunfei

    2017-01-01

    This book reflects the latest advances in nonlinear optics. Besides the simple, strict mathematical deduction, it also discusses the experimental verification and possible future applications, such as the all-optical switches. It consistently uses the practical unit system throughout. It employs simple physical images, such as "light waves" and "photons" to systematically explain the main principles of nonlinear optical effects. It uses the first-order nonlinear wave equation in frequency domain under the condition of “slowly varying amplitude approximation" and the classical model of the interaction between the light and electric dipole. At the same time, it also uses the rate equations based on the energy-level transition of particle systems excited by photons and the energy and momentum conservation principles to explain the nonlinear optical phenomenon. The book is intended for researchers, engineers and graduate students in the field of the optics, optoelectronics, fiber communication, information tech...

  15. Modern electronic maintenance principles

    CERN Document Server

    Garland, DJ

    2013-01-01

    Modern Electronic Maintenance Principles reviews the principles of maintaining modern, complex electronic equipment, with emphasis on preventive and corrective maintenance. Unfamiliar subjects such as the half-split method of fault location, functional diagrams, and fault finding guides are explained. This book consists of 12 chapters and begins by stressing the need for maintenance principles and discussing the problem of complexity as well as the requirements for a maintenance technician. The next chapter deals with the connection between reliability and maintenance and defines the terms fai

  16. [Bioethics of principles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Soba Díez del Corral, Juan José

    2008-01-01

    Bioethics emerges about the tecnological problems of acting in human life. Emerges also the problem of the moral limits determination, because they seem exterior of this practice. The Bioethics of Principles, take his rationality of the teleological thinking, and the autonomism. These divergence manifest the epistemological fragility and the great difficulty of hmoralñ thinking. This is evident in the determination of autonomy's principle, it has not the ethical content of Kant's propose. We need a new ethic rationality with a new refelxion of new Principles whose emerges of the basic ethic experiences.

  17. Hamilton's principle for beginners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brun, J L

    2007-01-01

    I find that students have difficulty with Hamilton's principle, at least the first time they come into contact with it, and therefore it is worth designing some examples to help students grasp its complex meaning. This paper supplies the simplest example to consolidate the learning of the quoted principle: that of a free particle moving along a line. Next, students are challenged to add gravity to reinforce the argument and, finally, a two-dimensional motion in a vertical plane is considered. Furthermore these examples force us to be very clear about such an abstract principle

  18. Limitations of Boltzmann's principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavenda, B.H.

    1995-01-01

    The usual form of Boltzmann's principle assures that maximum entropy, or entropy reduction, occurs with maximum probability, implying a unimodal distribution. Boltzmann's principle cannot be applied to nonunimodal distributions, like the arcsine law, because the entropy may be concave only over a limited portion of the interval. The method of subordination shows that the arcsine distribution corresponds to a process with a single degree of freedom, thereby confirming the invalidation of Boltzmann's principle. The fractalization of time leads to a new distribution in which arcsine and Cauchy distributions can coexist simultaneously for nonintegral degrees of freedom between √2 and 2

  19. Biomedical engineering principles

    CERN Document Server

    Ritter, Arthur B; Valdevit, Antonio; Ascione, Alfred N

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Modeling of Physiological ProcessesCell Physiology and TransportPrinciples and Biomedical Applications of HemodynamicsA Systems Approach to PhysiologyThe Cardiovascular SystemBiomedical Signal ProcessingSignal Acquisition and ProcessingTechniques for Physiological Signal ProcessingExamples of Physiological Signal ProcessingPrinciples of BiomechanicsPractical Applications of BiomechanicsBiomaterialsPrinciples of Biomedical Capstone DesignUnmet Clinical NeedsEntrepreneurship: Reasons why Most Good Designs Never Get to MarketAn Engineering Solution in Search of a Biomedical Problem

  20. Ethics of reviewing scientific publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napolitani, Federica; Petrini, Carlo; Garattini, Silvio

    2017-05-01

    The approval or rejection of scientific publications can have important consequences for scientific knowledge, so considerable responsibility lies on those who have to assess or review them. Today it seems that the peer review process, far from being considered an outdated system to be abandoned, is experiencing a new upturn. This article proposes criteria for the conduct of reviewers and of those who select them. While commenting on new emerging models, it provides practical recommendations for improving the peer-review system, like strengthening the role of guidelines and training and supporting reviewers. The process of peer review is changing, it is getting more open and collaborative, but those same ethical principles which guided it from its very origin should remain untouched and be firmly consolidated. The paper highlights how the ethics of reviewing scientific publications is needed now more than ever, in particular with regard to competence, conflict of interest, willingness to discuss decisions, complete transparency and integrity. Copyright © 2016 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Museology and Scientific Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunier, Diane

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the period of transition and self examination of the museology of science. Defines the main issues and limits of the museum as a means of transmitting a scientific culture and scientific ways. (Author/RT)

  2. Extensional scientific realism vs. intensional scientific realism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seungbae

    2016-10-01

    Extensional scientific realism is the view that each believable scientific theory is supported by the unique first-order evidence for it and that if we want to believe that it is true, we should rely on its unique first-order evidence. In contrast, intensional scientific realism is the view that all believable scientific theories have a common feature and that we should rely on it to determine whether a theory is believable or not. Fitzpatrick argues that extensional realism is immune, while intensional realism is not, to the pessimistic induction. I reply that if extensional realism overcomes the pessimistic induction at all, that is because it implicitly relies on the theoretical resource of intensional realism. I also argue that extensional realism, by nature, cannot embed a criterion for distinguishing between believable and unbelievable theories. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Brazilian Scientific Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voi, Dante Luiz; Borges, Jose Carlos

    1996-01-01

    This work aimed to make an analysis of the Brazilian Scientific Policy, considering its multi ways of approaching, and was settled on several author's points of view, working on different scientific areas. The world scientific development panorama and its influence on science made in Brazil, including problems, conditions and consequences, are presented in an historical sequence. Central and peripherical (dependent) capitalist nations are defined and identified, and influences on the scientific, economical, political and cultural developments of the peripherical are remarked. (author)

  4. A cyclic symmetry principle in physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, H.S.; Adelaide Univ., SA

    1994-01-01

    Many areas of modern physics are illuminated by the application of a symmetry principle, requiring the invariance of the relevant laws of physics under a group of transformations. This paper examines the implications and some of the applications of the principle of cyclic symmetry, especially in the areas of statistical mechanics and quantum mechanics, including quantized field theory. This principle requires invariance under the transformations of a finite group, which may be a Sylow π-group, a group of Lie type, or a symmetric group. The utility of the principle of cyclic invariance is demonstrated in finding solutions of the Yang-Baxter equation that include and generalize known solutions. It is shown that the Sylow π-groups have other uses, in providing a basis for a type of generalized quantum statistics, and in parametrising a new generalization of Lie groups, with associated algebras that include quantized algebras. 31 refs

  5. What is scientific misconduct?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    2006-01-01

    Selected examples from history are discussed to illustrate the many difficulties in judging scientific behavior. Scientific misconduct is not an a priori given concept but must first be defined. The definitions of scientific misconduct used in the USA and in Denmark are discussed as examples....

  6. WWW: The Scientific Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blystone, Robert V.; Blodgett, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    The scientific method is the principal methodology by which biological knowledge is gained and disseminated. As fundamental as the scientific method may be, its historical development is poorly understood, its definition is variable, and its deployment is uneven. Scientific progress may occur without the strictures imposed by the formal…

  7. Archimedes' Principle in Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kires, Marian

    2007-01-01

    The conceptual understanding of Archimedes' principle can be verified in experimental procedures which determine mass and density using a floating object. This is demonstrated by simple experiments using graduated beakers. (Contains 5 figures.)

  8. Design Principles for Security

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Benzel, Terry V; Irvine, Cynthia E; Levin, Timothy E; Bhaskara, Ganesha; Nguyen, Thuy D; Clark, Paul C

    2005-01-01

    As a prelude to the clean-slate design for the SecureCore project, the fundamental security principles from more than four decades of research and development in information security technology were reviewed...

  9. Minimum entropy production principle

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maes, C.; Netočný, Karel

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 7 (2013), s. 9664-9677 ISSN 1941-6016 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : MINEP Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics http://www.scholarpedia.org/article/Minimum_entropy_production_principle

  10. Vaccinology: principles and practice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morrow, John

    2012-01-01

    ... principles to implementation. This is an authoritative textbook that details a comprehensive and systematic approach to the science of vaccinology focusing on not only basic science, but the many stages required to commercialize...

  11. Eight principles for patient-centred and family-centred care for newborns in the neonatal intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roué, Jean-Michel; Kuhn, Pierre; Lopez Maestro, Maria; Maastrup, Ragnhild Agnethe; Mitanchez, Delphine; Westrup, Björn; Sizun, Jacques

    2017-07-01

    Despite the recent improvements in perinatal medical care leading to an increase in survival rates, adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes occur more frequently in preterm and/or high-risk infants. Medical risk factors for neurodevelopmental delays like male gender or intrauterine growth restriction and family sociocultural characteristics have been identified. Significant data have provided evidence of the detrimental impact of overhelming environmental sensory inputs, such as pain and stress, on the developing human brain and strategies aimed at preventing this impact. These strategies, such as free parental access or sleep protection, could be considered 'principles of care'. Implementation of these principles do not require additional research due to the body of evidence. We review the scientific evidence for these principles here. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  12. Electrical and electronic principles

    CERN Document Server

    Knight, S A

    1991-01-01

    Electrical and Electronic Principles, 2, Second Edition covers the syllabus requirements of BTEC Unit U86/329, including the principles of control systems and elements of data transmission. The book first tackles series and parallel circuits, electrical networks, and capacitors and capacitance. Discussions focus on flux density, electric force, permittivity, Kirchhoff's laws, superposition theorem, arrangement of resistors, internal resistance, and powers in a circuit. The text then takes a look at capacitors in circuit, magnetism and magnetization, electromagnetic induction, and alternating v

  13. Electrical and electronic principles

    CERN Document Server

    Knight, SA

    1988-01-01

    Electrical and Electronic Principles, 3 focuses on the principles involved in electrical and electronic circuits, including impedance, inductance, capacitance, and resistance.The book first deals with circuit elements and theorems, D.C. transients, and the series circuits of alternating current. Discussions focus on inductance and resistance in series, resistance and capacitance in series, power factor, impedance, circuit magnification, equation of charge, discharge of a capacitor, transfer of power, and decibels and attenuation. The manuscript then examines the parallel circuits of alternatin

  14. Remark on Heisenberg's principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noguez, G.

    1988-01-01

    Application of Heisenberg's principle to inertial frame transformations allows a distinction between three commutative groups of reciprocal transformations along one direction: Galilean transformations, dual transformations, and Lorentz transformations. These are three conjugate groups and for a given direction, the related commutators are all proportional to one single conjugation transformation which compensates for uniform and rectilinear motions. The three transformation groups correspond to three complementary ways of measuring space-time as a whole. Heisenberg's Principle then gets another explanation [fr

  15. Microprocessors principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Debenham, Michael J

    1979-01-01

    Microprocessors: Principles and Applications deals with the principles and applications of microprocessors and covers topics ranging from computer architecture and programmed machines to microprocessor programming, support systems and software, and system design. A number of microprocessor applications are considered, including data processing, process control, and telephone switching. This book is comprised of 10 chapters and begins with a historical overview of computers and computing, followed by a discussion on computer architecture and programmed machines, paying particular attention to t

  16. Microwave system engineering principles

    CERN Document Server

    Raff, Samuel J

    1977-01-01

    Microwave System Engineering Principles focuses on the calculus, differential equations, and transforms of microwave systems. This book discusses the basic nature and principles that can be derived from thermal noise; statistical concepts and binomial distribution; incoherent signal processing; basic properties of antennas; and beam widths and useful approximations. The fundamentals of propagation; LaPlace's Equation and Transmission Line (TEM) waves; interfaces between homogeneous media; modulation, bandwidth, and noise; and communications satellites are also deliberated in this text. This bo

  17. Principles of modern digital design

    CERN Document Server

    Lala, Parag K

    2007-01-01

    A major objective of this book is to fill the gap between traditional logic design principles and logic design/optimization techniques used in practice. Over the last two decades several techniques for computer-aided design and optimization of logic circuits have been developed. However, underlying theories of these techniques are inadequately covered or not covered at all in undergraduate text books. This book covers not only the ""classical"" material found in current text books but also selected materials that modern logic designers need to be familiar with.

  18. The precautionary principle and pharmaceutical risk management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callréus, Torbjörn

    2005-01-01

    Although it is often vigorously contested and has several different formulations, the precautionary principle has in recent decades guided environmental policy making in the face of scientific uncertainty. Originating from a criticism of traditional risk assessment, the key element of the precautionary principle is the justification for acting in the face of uncertain knowledge about risks. In the light of its growing invocation in various areas that are related to public health and recently in relation to drug safety issues, this article presents an introductory review of the main elements of the precautionary principle and some arguments conveyed by its advocates and opponents. A comparison of the characteristics of pharmaceutical risk management and environmental policy making (i.e. the setting within which the precautionary principle evolved), indicates that several important differences exist. If believed to be of relevance, in order to avoid arbitrary and unpredictable decision making, both the interpretation and possible application of the precautionary principle need to be adapted to the conditions of pharmaceutical risk management.

  19. THE PRINCIPLES OF LAW. PHILOSOPHICAL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIUS ANDREESCU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Any scientific intercession that has as objective, the understanding of the significances of the “principle of law” needs to have an interdisciplinary character, the basis for the approach being the philosophy of the law. In this study we fulfill such an analysis with the purpose to underline the multiple theoretical significances due to this concept, but also the relationship between the juridical principles and norms, respectively the normative value of the principle of the law. Thus are being materialized extensive references to the philosophical and juridical doctrine in the matter. This study is a pleading to refer to the principles, in the work for the law’s creation and applying. Starting with the difference between “given” and ‘constructed” we propose the distinction between the “metaphysical principles” outside the law, which by their contents have philosophical significances, and the “constructed principles” elaborated inside the law. We emphasize the obligation of the law maker, but also of the expert to refer to the principles in the work of legislation, interpretation and applying of the law. Arguments are brought for the updating, in certain limits, the justice – naturalistic concepts in the law.

  20. GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena ANGHEL

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available According to Professor Djuvara “law can be a science, and legal knowledge can also become science when, referring to a number as large as possible of acts of those covered by law, sorts and connects them by their essential characters upon legal concepts or principles which are universally valid, just like the laws of nature”. The general principles of law take a privileged place in the positive legal order and represent the foundation of any legal construction. The essence of the legal principles resides in their generality. In respect of the term “general”, Franck Moderne raised the question on the degree of generality used in order to define a principle as being general – at the level of an institution, of a branch of the law or at the level of the entire legal order. The purpose of this study is to find out the characteristics of law principles. In our opinion, four characteristics can be mentioned.

  1. Performance optimization of scientific applications on emerging architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dursun, Hikmet

    The shift to many-core architecture design paradigm in computer market has provided unprecedented computational capabilities. This also marks the end of the free-ride era---scientific software must now evolve with new chips. Hence, it is of great importance to develop large legacy-code optimization frameworks to achieve an optimal system architecture-algorithm mapping that maximizes processor utilization and thereby achieves higher application performance. To address this challenge, this thesis studies and develops scalable algorithms for leveraging many-core resources optimally to improve the performance of massively parallel scientific applications. This work presents a systematic approach to optimize scientific codes on emerging architectures, which consists of three major steps: (1) Develop a performance profiling framework to identify application performance bottlenecks on clusters of emerging architectures; (2) explore common algorithmic kernels in a suite of real world scientific applications and develop performance tuning strategies to provide insight into how to maximally utilize underlying hardware; and (3) unify experience in performance optimization to develop a top-down optimization framework for the optimization of scientific applications on emerging high-performance computing platforms. This thesis makes the following contributions. First, we have designed and implemented a performance analysis methodology for Cell-accelerated clusters. Two parallel scientific applications---lattice Boltzmann (LB) flow simulation and atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulation---are analyzed and valuable performance insights are gained on a Cell processor based PlayStation3 cluster as well as a hybrid Opteron+Cell based cluster similar to the design of Roadrunner---the first petaflop supercomputer of the world. Second, we have developed a novel parallelization framework for finite-difference time-domain applications. The approach is validated in a seismic

  2. Information Theory in Scientific Visualization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaoli Wang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there is an emerging direction that leverages information theory to solve many challenging problems in scientific data analysis and visualization. In this article, we review the key concepts in information theory, discuss how the principles of information theory can be useful for visualization, and provide specific examples to draw connections between data communication and data visualization in terms of how information can be measured quantitatively. As the amount of digital data available to us increases at an astounding speed, the goal of this article is to introduce the interested readers to this new direction of data analysis research, and to inspire them to identify new applications and seek solutions using information theory.

  3. Expert scientific evidence in the Israeli court.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahar, A

    2007-06-01

    Most judges, by the very nature of their educational background, are less than sufficiently prepared for the task to fully comprehend the problems in disputes concerning scientific subjects. Judicial cognizance in such matters gives no support. The judge has no recourse but to rely on Expert Evidence. However, such evidence, especially in the adversarial system, requires the ability to evaluate it. Back to square one? Almost. The Israeli court borrowed, and followed for many years, the American solution - the Frye Principle (Frye v. United States, 54 App.D.C. at 47, 293 F. 1013 (1923) 1014) - "the thing from which the deduction is made must be sufficiently established to have gained general acceptance in the particular field in which it belongs " - meaning that an Expert's view is held as true if proven that it had been held by "the scientific community." This solution presented an almost insurmountable problem for novel scientific ideas. The were also exceptions - several Israeli Courts made the rather difficult task of examining the Experts' "working papers", i.e. the "crude" data on which he based his deductions. The model of such effort seems to be the English decision, by Stuart-Smith LJ in Loveday v Renton and Wellcome Foundation Ltd. ( (QBD) 1 Med Law Review, 1990:117). Seventy years after Frye the U.S. Supreme Court reviewed the subject of evaluation of scientific evidence. The new requirements were "... (1) ... whether the theory or technique can be and has been tested; (2) ... whether the theory or technique has been subjected to peer review ... (3) ... the known or potential rate of error of[the] technique; (4) [no requirement of] a particular degree of acceptance of the theory or technique within that [scientific] community, ... and (5) the inquiry is a flexible one, and the focus must be solely on principles and methodology, not on the conclusions that such principles and methodology generate ". Namely - the Judge, guided by intelligence and logic, is

  4. Authorship in scientific publications: analysis and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Christian W; Brückner, Christian; Kaiser, Tony; Mauron, Alex; Wahli, Walter; Wenzel, Uwe Justus; Salathé, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    In 2008, a Swiss Academies of Arts and Sciences working group chaired by Professor Emilio Bossi issued a "Memorandum on scientific integrity and the handling of misconduct in the scientific context", together with a paper setting out principles and procedures concerning integrity in scientific research. In the Memorandum, unjustified claims of authorship in scientific publications are referred to as a form of scientific misconduct - a view widely shared in other countries. In the Principles and Procedures, the main criteria for legitimate authorship are specified, as well as the associated responsibilities. It is in fact not uncommon for disputes about authorship to arise with regard to publications in fields where research is generally conducted by teams rather than individuals. Such disputes may concern not only the question who is or is not to be listed as an author but also, frequently, the precise sequence of names, if the list is to reflect the various authors' roles and contributions. Subjective assessments of the contributions made by the individual members of a research group may differ substantially. As scientific collaboration - often across national boundaries - is now increasingly common, ensuring appropriate recognition of all parties is a complex matter and, where disagreements arise, it may not be easy to reach a consensus. In addition, customs have changed over the past few decades; for example, the practice of granting "honorary" authorship to an eminent researcher - formerly not unusual - is no longer considered acceptable. It should be borne in mind that the publications list has become by far the most important indicator of a researcher's scientific performance; for this reason, appropriate authorship credit has become a decisive factor in the careers of young researchers, and it needs to be managed and protected accordingly. At the international and national level, certain practices have therefore developed concerning the listing of authors

  5. Developing principles of growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Helle; Fleck, Emma

    of the principles of growth among women-owned firms. Using an in-depth case study methodology, data was collected from women-owned firms in Denmark and Ireland, as these countries are similar in contextual terms, e.g. population and business composition, dominated by micro, small and medium-sized enterprises......Although it has been widely recognized that the growth of women-owned businesses is central to wealth creation, innovation and economic development; limited attention has been devoted to understanding small business growth from a female perspective.This research seeks to develop an understanding....... Extending on principles put forward in effectuation theory, we propose that women grow their firms according to five principles which enable women’s enterprises to survive in the face of crises such as the current financial world crisis....

  6. Principles of musical acoustics

    CERN Document Server

    Hartmann, William M

    2013-01-01

    Principles of Musical Acoustics focuses on the basic principles in the science and technology of music. Musical examples and specific musical instruments demonstrate the principles. The book begins with a study of vibrations and waves, in that order. These topics constitute the basic physical properties of sound, one of two pillars supporting the science of musical acoustics. The second pillar is the human element, the physiological and psychological aspects of acoustical science. The perceptual topics include loudness, pitch, tone color, and localization of sound. With these two pillars in place, it is possible to go in a variety of directions. The book treats in turn, the topics of room acoustics, audio both analog and digital, broadcasting, and speech. It ends with chapters on the traditional musical instruments, organized by family. The mathematical level of this book assumes that the reader is familiar with elementary algebra. Trigonometric functions, logarithms and powers also appear in the book, but co...

  7. 26 CFR 1.671-2 - Applicable principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Applicable principles. 1.671-2 Section 1.671-2...) INCOME TAXES Grantors and Others Treated As Substantial Owners § 1.671-2 Applicable principles. (a) Under... included in a portion of the trust are set forth in § 1.671-3. (b) Since the principle underlying subpart E...

  8. Philosophical and Pedagogical Principles of Transnational Higher Education Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leshchenko Maria

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The philosophical and pedagogical principles of transnational higher education development in the second half of the XX - at the beginning of the XXI century are revealed based on the authentic scientific research sources and reflections of prominent scientists. Review of scientific works, devoted to the problems of education transnationalization, allowed concluding that in the late XX century the traditional relationship of pedagogy and philosophy changed under the influence of globalization and internationalization of education. On the basis of determinant analysis it has been found that postmodernism (J. Derrida, M. Foucault, J. Lyotard, R. Panvit and postnonclassical science (H. Haken, I. Prihozhyn, V. Stepin serve philosophical grounds for transnational higher education formation. The article proves that the “philosophy of global problems” as a set of ideas based on the objectivity of the total global relations, serves as the basis for building a modern educational paradigm that is reflected in the concept of global education. The fundamental idea of global education is to develop a holistic vision and human perception of the world, awareness of its place in the interconnected and rapidly changing environment, by filling content of educational process with human values. Practical implementation of these ideas is made by the introduction of multicultural education approach, critical pedagogy, global education and formation of intercultural educational content, which reflects the cultural and historical specificity of population.

  9. Basic safety principles for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    Nuclear power plant safety requires a continuing quest for excellence. All individuals concerned should constantly be alert to opportunities to reduce risks to the lowest practicable level. The quest, however, is most likely to be fruitful if it is based on an understanding of the underlying objectives and principles of nuclear safety, and the way in which its aspects are interrelated. This report is an attempt to provide a logical framework for such an understanding. The proposed objectives and principles of nuclear safety are interconnected and must be taken as a whole; they do not constitute a menu from which selection can be made. The report takes account of current issues and developments. It includes the concept of safety objectives and the use of probabilistic safety assessment. Reliability targets for safety systems are discussed. The concept of a 'safety culture' is crucial. Attention has been paid to the need for planning for accident management. The report contains objectives and principles. The objectives state what is to be achieved; the principles state how to achieve it. In each case, the basic principle is stated as briefly as possible. The accompanying discussion comments on the reasons for the principle and its importance, as well as exceptions, the extent of coverage and any necessary clarification. The discussion is as important as the principle it augments. 4 figs

  10. Electrical principles 3 checkbook

    CERN Document Server

    Bird, J O

    2013-01-01

    Electrical Principles 3 Checkbook aims to introduce students to the basic electrical principles needed by technicians in electrical engineering, electronics, and telecommunications.The book first tackles circuit theorems, single-phase series A.C. circuits, and single-phase parallel A.C. circuits. Discussions focus on worked problems on parallel A.C. circuits, worked problems on series A.C. circuits, main points concerned with D.C. circuit analysis, worked problems on circuit theorems, and further problems on circuit theorems. The manuscript then examines three-phase systems and D.C. transients

  11. Principles of statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Bulmer, M G

    1979-01-01

    There are many textbooks which describe current methods of statistical analysis, while neglecting related theory. There are equally many advanced textbooks which delve into the far reaches of statistical theory, while bypassing practical applications. But between these two approaches is an unfilled gap, in which theory and practice merge at an intermediate level. Professor M. G. Bulmer's Principles of Statistics, originally published in 1965, was created to fill that need. The new, corrected Dover edition of Principles of Statistics makes this invaluable mid-level text available once again fo

  12. Principles of quantum electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Marcuse, Dietrich

    1980-01-01

    Principles of Quantum Electronics focuses on the concept of quantum electronics as the application of quantum theory to engineering problems. It examines the principles that govern specific quantum electronics devices and presents their theoretical applications to typical problems. Comprised of 10 chapters, this book starts with an overview of the Dirac formulation of quantum mechanics. This text then considers the derivation of the formalism of field quantization and discusses the properties of photons and phonons. Other chapters examine the interaction between the electromagnetic field and c

  13. Mechanical engineering principles

    CERN Document Server

    Bird, John

    2014-01-01

    A student-friendly introduction to core engineering topicsThis book introduces mechanical principles and technology through examples and applications, enabling students to develop a sound understanding of both engineering principles and their use in practice. These theoretical concepts are supported by 400 fully worked problems, 700 further problems with answers, and 300 multiple-choice questions, all of which add up to give the reader a firm grounding on each topic.The new edition is up to date with the latest BTEC National specifications and can also be used on undergraduate courses in mecha

  14. Confidence in ASCI scientific simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ang, J.A.; Trucano, T.G. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Luginbuhl, D.R. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    1998-06-01

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI) program calls for the development of high end computing and advanced application simulations as one component of a program to eliminate reliance upon nuclear testing in the US nuclear weapons program. This paper presents results from the ASCI program`s examination of needs for focused validation and verification (V and V). These V and V activities will ensure that 100 TeraOP-scale ASCI simulation code development projects apply the appropriate means to achieve high confidence in the use of simulations for stockpile assessment and certification. The authors begin with an examination of the roles for model development and validation in the traditional scientific method. The traditional view is that the scientific method has two foundations, experimental and theoretical. While the traditional scientific method does not acknowledge the role for computing and simulation, this examination establishes a foundation for the extension of the traditional processes to include verification and scientific software development that results in the notional framework known as Sargent`s Framework. This framework elucidates the relationships between the processes of scientific model development, computational model verification and simulation validation. This paper presents a discussion of the methodologies and practices that the ASCI program will use to establish confidence in large-scale scientific simulations. While the effort for a focused program in V and V is just getting started, the ASCI program has been underway for a couple of years. The authors discuss some V and V activities and preliminary results from the ALEGRA simulation code that is under development for ASCI. The breadth of physical phenomena and the advanced computational algorithms that are employed by ALEGRA make it a subject for V and V that should typify what is required for many ASCI simulations.

  15. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2014. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to a combination of lutein and zeaxanthin and improved vision under bright light conditions pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    2014-01-01

    EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2014. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to a combination of lutein and zeaxanthin and improved vision under bright light conditions pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006....

  16. CAD/CAM and scientific data management at Dassault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohn, P.

    1984-01-01

    The history of CAD/CAM and scientific data management at Dassault are presented. Emphasis is put on the targets of the now commercially available software CATIA. The links with scientific computations such as aerodynamics and structural analysis are presented. Comments are made on the principles followed within the company. The consequences of the approximative nature of scientific data are examined. Consequence of the new history function is mainly its protection against copy or alteration. Future plans at Dassault for scientific data appear to be in opposite directions compared to some general tendencies.

  17. Fundamental Safety Principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelmalik, W.E.Y.

    2011-01-01

    This work presents a summary of the IAEA Safety Standards Series publication No. SF-1 entitled F UDAMENTAL Safety PRINCIPLES p ublished on 2006. This publication states the fundamental safety objective and ten associated safety principles, and briefly describes their intent and purposes. Safety measures and security measures have in common the aim of protecting human life and health and the environment. These safety principles are: 1) Responsibility for safety, 2) Role of the government, 3) Leadership and management for safety, 4) Justification of facilities and activities, 5) Optimization of protection, 6) Limitation of risks to individuals, 7) Protection of present and future generations, 8) Prevention of accidents, 9)Emergency preparedness and response and 10) Protective action to reduce existing or unregulated radiation risks. The safety principles concern the security of facilities and activities to the extent that they apply to measures that contribute to both safety and security. Safety measures and security measures must be designed and implemented in an integrated manner so that security measures do not compromise safety and safety measures do not compromise security.

  18. Principles of Protocol Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharp, Robin

    This is a new and updated edition of a book first published in 1994. The book introduces the reader to the principles used in the construction of a large range of modern data communication protocols, as used in distributed computer systems of all kinds. The approach taken is rather a formal one...

  19. Principles of Bridge Reliability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle; Nowak, Andrzej S.

    The paper gives a brief introduction to the basic principles of structural reliability theory and its application to bridge engineering. Fundamental concepts like failure probability and reliability index are introduced. Ultimate as well as serviceability limit states for bridges are formulated...

  20. Pattern recognition principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tou, J. T.; Gonzalez, R. C.

    1974-01-01

    The present work gives an account of basic principles and available techniques for the analysis and design of pattern processing and recognition systems. Areas covered include decision functions, pattern classification by distance functions, pattern classification by likelihood functions, the perceptron and the potential function approaches to trainable pattern classifiers, statistical approach to trainable classifiers, pattern preprocessing and feature selection, and syntactic pattern recognition.

  1. The Handicap Principle

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    The Handicap Principle is an idea proposed by the husband and wife scientist team of Amotz and Avishag Zahavi from. Israel in the 1970's. It is among the most innovative ideas of the 20th century in the field of behavioural biology and attempts to explain several long-standing puzzles that have baffled naturalists since the ...

  2. Schrodinger's Uncertainty Principle?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    correlation between x and p. The virtue of Schrodinger's version (5) is that it accounts for this correlation. In spe- cial cases like the free particle and the harmonic oscillator, the 'Schrodinger uncertainty product' even remains constant with time, whereas Heisenberg's does not. The glory of giving the uncertainty principle to ...

  3. The traveltime holographic principle

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Y.

    2014-11-06

    Fermat\\'s interferometric principle is used to compute interior transmission traveltimes τpq from exterior transmission traveltimes τsp and τsq. Here, the exterior traveltimes are computed for sources s on a boundary B that encloses a volume V of interior points p and q. Once the exterior traveltimes are computed, no further ray tracing is needed to calculate the interior times τpq. Therefore this interferometric approach can be more efficient than explicitly computing interior traveltimes τpq by ray tracing. Moreover, the memory requirement of the traveltimes is reduced by one dimension, because the boundary B is of one fewer dimension than the volume V. An application of this approach is demonstrated with interbed multiple (IM) elimination. Here, the IMs in the observed data are predicted from the migration image and are subsequently removed by adaptive subtraction. This prediction is enabled by the knowledge of interior transmission traveltimes τpq computed according to Fermat\\'s interferometric principle. We denote this principle as the ‘traveltime holographic principle’, by analogy with the holographic principle in cosmology where information in a volume is encoded on the region\\'s boundary.

  4. Cooperatives, Principles and Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaars, Marvin A.

    A teaching aid and information source on activities, principles, and practices of cooperatives is presented. The following topics are included: (1) Basic Interests of People, (2) Legal Organization of Business in the United States, (3) What Is a Cooperative? (4) Procedure for Organizing Cooperatives, (5) How Cooperatives Are Run and Managed, (6)…

  5. Principles of economics textbooks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Poul Thøis

    2012-01-01

    Has the financial crisis already changed US principles of economics textbooks? Rather little has changed in individual textbooks, but taken as a whole ten of the best-selling textbooks suggest rather encompassing changes of core curriculum. A critical analysis of these changes shows how individual...

  6. Principles of Proper Validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbensen, Kim; Geladi, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Validation in chemometrics is presented using the exemplar context of multivariate calibration/prediction. A phenomenological analysis of common validation practices in data analysis and chemometrics leads to formulation of a set of generic Principles of Proper Validation (PPV), which is based...

  7. Schrodinger's Uncertainty Principle?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 2. Schrödinger's Uncertainty Principle? - Lilies can be Painted. Rajaram Nityananda. General Article Volume 4 Issue 2 February 1999 pp 24-26. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  8. Euthanasia: Buddhist principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, M

    1996-04-01

    Religions provide various forms of motivation for moral action. This chapter takes Buddhism as an example from within the Indian "family' of religions and seeks to identify the doctrinal and cultural principles on which ethical decisions are taken. Although beginning from very different religious premises, it is argued that the conclusions to which Buddhism tends are broadly similar to those found within mainstream Christianity.

  9. Scientific rigor through videogames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treuille, Adrien; Das, Rhiju

    2014-11-01

    Hypothesis-driven experimentation - the scientific method - can be subverted by fraud, irreproducibility, and lack of rigorous predictive tests. A robust solution to these problems may be the 'massive open laboratory' model, recently embodied in the internet-scale videogame EteRNA. Deploying similar platforms throughout biology could enforce the scientific method more broadly. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Scientific Ability and Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Kurt A.

    2007-01-01

    Following an introductory definition of "scientific ability and creativity", product-oriented, personality and social psychological approaches to studying scientific ability are examined with reference to competence and performance. Studies in the psychometric versus cognitive psychological paradigms are dealt with in more detail. These two…

  11. The Scientific Enterprise

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 13; Issue 9. The Scientific Enterprise - Assumptions, Problems, and Goals in the Modern Scientific Framework. V V Raman ... V V Raman1. Emeritus Professor of Physics and Humanities at the Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, New York.

  12. The Scientific Enterprise

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 14; Issue 1. The Scientific Enterprise - Some Characteristics of Scientific Knowledge. V V Raman. Reflections Volume 14 Issue 1 January 2009 pp 90-98. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  13. Scientific Notation Watercolor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linford, Kyle; Oltman, Kathleen; Daisey, Peggy

    2016-01-01

    (Purpose) The purpose of this paper is to describe visual literacy, an adapted version of Visual Thinking Strategy (VTS), and an art-integrated middle school mathematics lesson about scientific notation. The intent of this lesson was to provide students with a real life use of scientific notation and exponents, and to motivate them to apply their…

  14. The ethical basis of the precautionary principle in health care decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meulen, Ruud H.J. ter

    2005-01-01

    This article explores the relation between the precautionary and health care decision making. Decision making in medical practice as well as health policy is characterized by uncertainty. On the level of clinical practice for example, one never knows in advance whether one has made the right diagnosis or has opted for the right treatment. Though medical decisions have a risk on serious harms and burdens, the precautionary principle is not applicable to health care. This principle holds that one should not act when there is no scientific proof that no harms will result from a medical act or a policy decision. However, in clinical practice there is a duty to act. Physicians have an obligation to do good to their patients and have to weigh the benefits against possible harms and burdens. The basis virtue of medical decision making is not avoidance of risks, as stated in the precautionary principle, but the prudent assessment of benefits, burdens, and harms, in relation to other ethical principles like respect for autonomy and justice. The precautionary principle does play a role in health care, but it should never rule medical decision making as an absolute principle. This is not only true for clinical decision making, but also for the area of health policy. Physicians and other health care decision makers need to have knowledge about the possible effects of treatments or the precision of diagnostic procedures in order to reduce harm and promote well-being. Evidence-based medicine may contribute to the wisdom of health care decision makers, but this evidence-based wisdom should always be applied under the guidance of prudence, which is the central virtue of health care decision making

  15. Extremum principles for irreversible processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillert, M.; Agren, J.

    2006-01-01

    Hamilton's extremum principle is a powerful mathematical tool in classical mechanics. Onsager's extremum principle may play a similar role in irreversible thermodynamics and may also become a valuable tool. His principle may formally be regarded as a principle of maximum rate of entropy production but does not have a clear physical interpretation. Prigogine's principle of minimum rate of entropy production has a physical interpretation when it applies, but is not strictly valid except for a very special case

  16. Roles of Illustrators in Visual Communication of Scientific Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kana Okawa

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Scientific knowledge is the knowledge accumulated by systematic studies and organized by general principles. Visual, verbal, numeric, and other types of representation are used to communicate scientific knowledge. Scientific illustration is the visual representation of objects and concepts in order to record and to convey scientific knowledge(Ford, 1993. There are some discussions on scientific illustrations in history, philosophy and the sociology of science(Burri & Dumit, 2008, but little has been done on the creation of scientific illustrations by illustrators. This study focuses on the creation of scientific illustrations by illustrators. The purpose is to show how illustrators create the visual messages in communications of scientific knowledge. Through analysis of semi-structured interviews with 6 professional illustrators, creators and art directors, it is showed that illustrators select and edit scientific information, add non-scientific information, and organize information into one visual representation of scientific knowledge. The implication of this research will provide a new perspective to multisensory communication of scientific knowledge.

  17. Formulae as Scientific Stories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsewell, Ian

    2017-01-01

    In science lessons many students struggle to apply the principles of rearranging formulae, even after coverage in maths. A structured approach is suggested that focuses on describing a narrative linking cause and effect before explicit mathematical terms are introduced.

  18. The Pauli exclusion principle origin, verifications and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kaplan, Ilya G

    2017-01-01

    This is the first scientific book devoted to the Pauli Exclusion Principle, which is a fundamental principle of quantum mechanics and is permanently applied in chemistry, physics, molecular biology and in physical astronomy. However, while the principle has been studied for more than 90 years, rigorous theoretical foundations still have not been established and many unsolved problems remain. Following an introduction and historical survey, this book discusses the still unresolved questions around this fundamental principle. For instance, why, according to the Pauli Exclusion Principle, are only symmetric and antisymmetric permutation symmetries for identical particles realized, while the Schrödinger equation is satisfied by functions with any permutation symmetry? Chapter 3 covers possible answers to this, while chapter 4 presents effective and elegant methods for finding the Pauli-allowed states in atomic, molecular and nuclear spectroscopy. Chapter 5 discusses parastatistics and fractional statistics, dem...

  19. Design principles for riboswitch function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chase L Beisel

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Scientific and technological advances that enable the tuning of integrated regulatory components to match network and system requirements are critical to reliably control the function of biological systems. RNA provides a promising building block for the construction of tunable regulatory components based on its rich regulatory capacity and our current understanding of the sequence-function relationship. One prominent example of RNA-based regulatory components is riboswitches, genetic elements that mediate ligand control of gene expression through diverse regulatory mechanisms. While characterization of natural and synthetic riboswitches has revealed that riboswitch function can be modulated through sequence alteration, no quantitative frameworks exist to investigate or guide riboswitch tuning. Here, we combined mathematical modeling and experimental approaches to investigate the relationship between riboswitch function and performance. Model results demonstrated that the competition between reversible and irreversible rate constants dictates performance for different regulatory mechanisms. We also found that practical system restrictions, such as an upper limit on ligand concentration, can significantly alter the requirements for riboswitch performance, necessitating alternative tuning strategies. Previous experimental data for natural and synthetic riboswitches as well as experiments conducted in this work support model predictions. From our results, we developed a set of general design principles for synthetic riboswitches. Our results also provide a foundation from which to investigate how natural riboswitches are tuned to meet systems-level regulatory demands.

  20. Principles of radiological protection: new paradigms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ximenes, Edmir; Guimaraes, Maria Ines Calil Cury

    2009-01-01

    Full text: The relationships of workers, patients and physicians to the basic principles of radiological protection were given in this work an historical introduction that emphasizes their development from their beginnings to the current period. The evolution of scientific knowledge as regards the benefits and injuries resulting from the use of the ionizing radiation in human activities is the main focus of the work. These principles (justification, optimization and limitation) are presented in order to offer a broader view of their application fields. The principle of the optimization receives the contribution of techniques aimed to help the decision used in radiological protection. The principle of the limitation of doses is helped by the concept of limit specifically linked to a given segment of the population or a given human activity. Regarding the current relationship between physicians and patients a change of philosophy is discussed in what concerns the radiation dose supplied that should be the minimum one in relation to the diagnosis or cure objectives. The administration of radiation must follow the recommendations of ICRP - International Commission on Radiological Protection. The radiation can bring benefits if used with rationality, efficacy and care. The radiation should not be feared, but respected. (author)

  1. After Fukushima: The precautionary principle revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Huber

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Etienne de Villiers, more than other theologians, elaborates on basic elements of a Christian ethics of responsibility. He distinguishes between retrospective and prospective responsibility. The prospective aspect attracted awareness after the nuclear accident in the Fukushima reactors on 11 March 2011. The question on how to respond in an ethically responsible manner to catastrophic risks was put back on the agenda. The article takes up this question and discusses the answer given in the international debate by the introduction of the �precautionary principle�. The principle is described with its background in the �heuristics of fear�, proposed by the philosopher Hans Jonas. Four criticisms are discussed in detail relating to the problems of scientific uncertainty, the burden of proof, the weight of damages and the perils of precaution. That leads to a reformulation of the precautionary principle as a concrete element within an ethics of responsibility.

  2. Principles of geodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Scheidegger, Adrian E

    1982-01-01

    Geodynamics is commonly thought to be one of the subjects which provide the basis for understanding the origin of the visible surface features of the Earth: the latter are usually assumed as having been built up by geodynamic forces originating inside the Earth ("endogenetic" processes) and then as having been degrad­ ed by geomorphological agents originating in the atmosphere and ocean ("exogenetic" agents). The modem view holds that the sequence of events is not as neat as it was once thought to be, and that, in effect, both geodynamic and geomorphological processes act simultaneously ("Principle of Antagonism"); however, the division of theoretical geology into the principles of geodynamics and those of theoretical geomorphology seems to be useful for didactic purposes. It has therefore been maintained in the present writer's works. This present treatise on geodynamics is the first part of the author's treatment of theoretical geology, the treatise on Theoretical Geomorphology (also published by the Sprin...

  3. [Ethical principles in electronvulsivotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richa, S; De Carvalho, W

    2016-12-01

    ECT or electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a therapeutic technique invented in 1935 but which was really developed after World War II and then spreading widely until the mid 1960s. The source of this technique, and some forms of stigma including films, have participated widely to make it suspect from a moral point of view. The ethical principles that support the establishment of a treatment by ECT are those relating to any action in psychiatry and are based on the one hand on the founding principles of bioethics: autonomy, beneficence, non-malfeasance, and justice, and on the other hand on the information on the technical and consent to this type of care. Copyright © 2016 L’Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Principles of Stellar Interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Glindemann, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Over the last decade, stellar interferometry has developed from a specialist tool to a mainstream observing technique, attracting scientists whose research benefits from milliarcsecond angular resolution. Stellar interferometry has become part of the astronomer’s toolbox, complementing single-telescope observations by providing unique capabilities that will advance astronomical research. This carefully written book is intended to provide a solid understanding of the principles of stellar interferometry to students starting an astronomical research project in this field or to develop instruments and to astronomers using interferometry but who are not interferometrists per se. Illustrated by excellent drawings and calculated graphs the imaging process in stellar interferometers is explained starting from first principles on light propagation and diffraction wave propagation through turbulence is described in detail using Kolmogorov statistics the impact of turbulence on the imaging process is discussed both f...

  5. Principles of mobile communication

    CERN Document Server

    Stüber, Gordon L

    2017-01-01

    This mathematically rigorous overview of physical layer wireless communications is now in a 4th, fully revised and updated edition. The new edition features new content on 4G cellular systems, 5G cellular outlook, bandpass signals and systems, and polarization, among many other topics, in addition to a new chapters on channel assignment techniques. Along with coverage of fundamentals and basic principles sufficient for novice students, the volume includes finer details that satisfy the requirements of graduate students aiming to conduct in-depth research. The book begins with a survey of the field, introducing issues relevant to wireless communications. The book moves on to cover relevant discrete subjects, from radio propagation, to error probability performance, and cellular radio resource management. An appendix provides a tutorial on probability and random processes. The content stresses core principles that are applicable to a broad range of wireless standards. New examples are provided throughout the bo...

  6. Principles of harmonic analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Deitmar, Anton

    2014-01-01

    This book offers a complete and streamlined treatment of the central principles of abelian harmonic analysis: Pontryagin duality, the Plancherel theorem and the Poisson summation formula, as well as their respective generalizations to non-abelian groups, including the Selberg trace formula. The principles are then applied to spectral analysis of Heisenberg manifolds and Riemann surfaces. This new edition contains a new chapter on p-adic and adelic groups, as well as a complementary section on direct and projective limits. Many of the supporting proofs have been revised and refined. The book is an excellent resource for graduate students who wish to learn and understand harmonic analysis and for researchers seeking to apply it.

  7. Principles of systems science

    CERN Document Server

    Mobus, George E

    2015-01-01

    This pioneering text provides a comprehensive introduction to systems structure, function, and modeling as applied in all fields of science and engineering. Systems understanding is increasingly recognized as a key to a more holistic education and greater problem solving skills, and is also reflected in the trend toward interdisciplinary approaches to research on complex phenomena. The subject of systems science, as a basis for understanding the components and drivers of phenomena at all scales, should be viewed with the same importance as a traditional liberal arts education. Principles of Systems Science contains many graphs, illustrations, side bars, examples, and problems to enhance understanding. From basic principles of organization, complexity, abstract representations, and behavior (dynamics) to deeper aspects such as the relations between information, knowledge, computation, and system control, to higher order aspects such as auto-organization, emergence and evolution, the book provides an integrated...

  8. Principles of magnetodynamic chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babincová, M; Leszczynska, D; Sourivong, P; Babinec, P; Leszczynski, J

    2004-01-01

    Basic principles of a novel method of cancer treatment are explained. Method is based on the thermal activation of an inactive prodrug encapsulated in magnetoliposomes via Neél and Brown effects of inductive heating of subdomain superparamagnetic particles to sufficiently high temperatures. This principle may be combined with targeted drug delivery (using constant magnetic field) and controlled release (using high-frequency magnetic field) of an activated drug entrapped in magnetoliposomes. Using this method drug may be applied very selectively in the particular site of organism and this procedure may be repeated several times using e.g. stealth magnetoliposomes which are circulating in a blood-stream for several days. Moreover the magnetoliposomes concentrated by external constant magnetic field in tumor vasculature may lead to embolic lesions and necrosis of a tumor body and further the heat produced for thermal activation of a drug enhances the effect of chemotherapy by local hyperthermic treatment of neoplastic cells.

  9. Principles of photonics

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jia-Ming

    2016-01-01

    With this self-contained and comprehensive text, students will gain a detailed understanding of the fundamental concepts and major principles of photonics. Assuming only a basic background in optics, readers are guided through key topics such as the nature of optical fields, the properties of optical materials, and the principles of major photonic functions regarding the generation, propagation, coupling, interference, amplification, modulation, and detection of optical waves or signals. Numerous examples and problems are provided throughout to enhance understanding, and a solutions manual containing detailed solutions and explanations is available online for instructors. This is the ideal resource for electrical engineering and physics undergraduates taking introductory, single-semester or single-quarter courses in photonics, providing them with the knowledge and skills needed to progress to more advanced courses on photonic devices, systems and applications.

  10. Principles of Fourier analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Howell, Kenneth B

    2001-01-01

    Fourier analysis is one of the most useful and widely employed sets of tools for the engineer, the scientist, and the applied mathematician. As such, students and practitioners in these disciplines need a practical and mathematically solid introduction to its principles. They need straightforward verifications of its results and formulas, and they need clear indications of the limitations of those results and formulas.Principles of Fourier Analysis furnishes all this and more. It provides a comprehensive overview of the mathematical theory of Fourier analysis, including the development of Fourier series, "classical" Fourier transforms, generalized Fourier transforms and analysis, and the discrete theory. Much of the author''s development is strikingly different from typical presentations. His approach to defining the classical Fourier transform results in a much cleaner, more coherent theory that leads naturally to a starting point for the generalized theory. He also introduces a new generalized theory based ...

  11. Principles of Mobile Communication

    CERN Document Server

    Stüber, Gordon L

    2012-01-01

    This mathematically rigorous overview of physical layer wireless communications is now in a third, fully revised and updated edition. Along with coverage of basic principles sufficient for novice students, the volume includes plenty of finer details that will satisfy the requirements of graduate students aiming to research the topic in depth. It also has a role as a handy reference for wireless engineers. The content stresses core principles that are applicable to a broad range of wireless standards. Beginning with a survey of the field that introduces an array of issues relevant to wireless communications and which traces the historical development of today’s accepted wireless standards, the book moves on to cover all the relevant discrete subjects, from radio propagation to error probability performance and cellular radio resource management. A valuable appendix provides a succinct and focused tutorial on probability and random processes, concepts widely used throughout the book. This new edition, revised...

  12. Principles of fluid mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreider, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    This book is an introduction on fluid mechanics incorporating computer applications. Topics covered are as follows: brief history; what is a fluid; two classes of fluids: liquids and gases; the continuum model of a fluid; methods of analyzing fluid flows; important characteristics of fluids; fundamentals and equations of motion; fluid statics; dimensional analysis and the similarity principle; laminar internal flows; ideal flow; external laminar and channel flows; turbulent flow; compressible flow; fluid flow measurements

  13. Principles of artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Nilsson, Nils J

    1980-01-01

    A classic introduction to artificial intelligence intended to bridge the gap between theory and practice, Principles of Artificial Intelligence describes fundamental AI ideas that underlie applications such as natural language processing, automatic programming, robotics, machine vision, automatic theorem proving, and intelligent data retrieval. Rather than focusing on the subject matter of the applications, the book is organized around general computational concepts involving the kinds of data structures used, the types of operations performed on the data structures, and the properties of th

  14. Principles of Protocol Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharp, Robin

    This is a new and updated edition of a book first published in 1994. The book introduces the reader to the principles used in the construction of a large range of modern data communication protocols, as used in distributed computer systems of all kinds. The approach taken is rather a formal one......, primarily based on descriptions of the protocols in the notation of CSP (Communicating Sequential Processes)....

  15. Principles of electrical safety

    CERN Document Server

    Sutherland, Peter E

    2015-01-01

    Principles of Electrical Safety discusses current issues in electrical safety, which are accompanied by series' of practical applications that can be used by practicing professionals, graduate students, and researchers. .  Provides extensive introductions to important topics in electrical safety Comprehensive overview of inductance, resistance, and capacitance as applied to the human body Serves as a preparatory guide for today's practicing engineers

  16. General Principles Governing Liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyners, P.

    1998-01-01

    This paper contains a brief review of the basic principles which govern the special regime of liability and compensation for nuclear damage originating on nuclear installations, in particular the strict and exclusive liability of the nuclear operator, the provision of a financial security to cover this liability and the limits applicable both in amount and in time. The paper also reviews the most important international agreements currently in force which constitute the foundation of this special regime. (author)

  17. The Principle of Proportionality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Morten; Meisner Nielsen, Kasper

    2005-01-01

    Recent policy initiatives within the harmonization of European company laws have promoted a so-called "principle of proportionality" through proposals that regulate mechanisms opposing a proportional distribution of ownership and control. We scrutinize the foundation for these initiatives...... in relationship to the process of harmonization of the European capital markets.JEL classifications: G30, G32, G34 and G38Keywords: Ownership Structure, Dual Class Shares, Pyramids, EU companylaws....

  18. Principled Missing Data Treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Kyle M; Little, Todd D

    2018-04-01

    We review a number of issues regarding missing data treatments for intervention and prevention researchers. Many of the common missing data practices in prevention research are still, unfortunately, ill-advised (e.g., use of listwise and pairwise deletion, insufficient use of auxiliary variables). Our goal is to promote better practice in the handling of missing data. We review the current state of missing data methodology and recent missing data reporting in prevention research. We describe antiquated, ad hoc missing data treatments and discuss their limitations. We discuss two modern, principled missing data treatments: multiple imputation and full information maximum likelihood, and we offer practical tips on how to best employ these methods in prevention research. The principled missing data treatments that we discuss are couched in terms of how they improve causal and statistical inference in the prevention sciences. Our recommendations are firmly grounded in missing data theory and well-validated statistical principles for handling the missing data issues that are ubiquitous in biosocial and prevention research. We augment our broad survey of missing data analysis with references to more exhaustive resources.

  19. A Critical Analysis of Chromotherapy and Its Scientific Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samina T. Yousuf Azeemi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Chromotherapy is a method of treatment that uses the visible spectrum (colors of electromagnetic radiation to cure diseases. It is a centuries-old concept used successfully over the years to cure various diseases. We have undertaken a critical analysis of chromotherapy and documented its scientific evolution to date. A few researchers have tried to discover the underlying scientific principles, but without quantitative study. Sufficient published material can be found about the subject that provides a complete system of treatment focused on the treatment methodologies and healing characteristics of colors. A number of studies have elaborated the relationship between the human body and colors. We also show the possibility of carrying out diverse research into chromotherapy that is pertinent to deciphering the quantum mechanical dipole moment of water molecules. The quantum mechanical dipole moment as a result of the absorption of different colors, we conjecture, produces charge quantization phenomena. This review illustrates that the development of science in the field of electromagnetic radiation/energy can be very helpful in discovering new dimensions of this old theory.

  20. A critical analysis of chromotherapy and its scientific evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azeemi, Samina T Yousuf; Raza, S Mohsin

    2005-12-01

    Chromotherapy is a method of treatment that uses the visible spectrum (colors) of electromagnetic radiation to cure diseases. It is a centuries-old concept used successfully over the years to cure various diseases. We have undertaken a critical analysis of chromotherapy and documented its scientific evolution to date. A few researchers have tried to discover the underlying scientific principles, but without quantitative study. Sufficient published material can be found about the subject that provides a complete system of treatment focused on the treatment methodologies and healing characteristics of colors. A number of studies have elaborated the relationship between the human body and colors. We also show the possibility of carrying out diverse research into chromotherapy that is pertinent to deciphering the quantum mechanical dipole moment of water molecules. The quantum mechanical dipole moment as a result of the absorption of different colors, we conjecture, produces charge quantization phenomena. This review illustrates that the development of science in the field of electromagnetic radiation/energy can be very helpful in discovering new dimensions of this old theory.

  1. Selective dissemination of information of library in scientific research institution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Wenping

    2010-01-01

    Selective Dissemination of Information (SDI) Service, which is an important component of intelligence, is the intelligence researcher to select key subjects and major issues and key technology or innovation goals under the actual needs of scientific research personnel issues, using network communication technology and database technology and information retrieval technologies, sustained and in a timely manner to track all kinds of literature for the front-line services, until the completion of research topics or key problem-solving. Library of China Institute of Atomic Energy is struggling to meet the diverse needs of customers, targeted to provide a lot of useful information for scientific researchers to use less time as possible to obtain as much intelligence information, and to research workers and leading to the successful completion of research tasks, and various decisions. The implementation of SDI services to identify clients and scope, to format SDI service team, to determine the SDI service principles and service mode. SDI services Selective demand intelligence researchers have been asked to improve their quality, to improve their interpersonal communication skills. (author)

  2. The Scientific Cinema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlindo Machado

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the early 1940’s Brazilian photographer and moviemaker Benedito Junqueira Duarte introduced among us the idea of a scientific cinema, a cinema organically intimate to the scientific research. In despite of his important contribution in defining precisely what this subject could be, he made more than 500 movies, half a part of them being considered true scientific films, mainly in the field of medical-surgical investigations. The article aims to argue on the very possibilities Duarte’s work can contribute to an understanding of the past and the future of cinema.

  3. Uncertainty Principles for the Cherednik Transform

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We shall investigate two uncertainty principles for the Cherednik transform on the Euclidean space a a ; Miyachi's theorem and Beurling's theorem. We give an analogue of Miyachi's theorem for the Cherednik transform and under the assumption that a a has a hypergroup structure, an analogue of Beurling's theorem for the ...

  4. Urban environmental education: Principles in action | Clacherty ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While the value of environmental education in a natural environment is acknowledged, a case is made for urban environmental education. Principles underlying a programme derived largely from the British Urban Studies movement, in particular, the Art and the Built Environment project (Adams and Ward 1982), are ...

  5. Funding food science and nutrition research: financial conflicts and scientific integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Sylvia; Alexander, Nick; Clydesdale, Fergus; Applebaum, Rhona; Atkinson, Stephanie; Black, Richard; Dwyer, Johanna; Hentges, Eric; Higley, Nancy; Lefevre, Michael; Lupton, Joanne; Miller, Sanford; Tancredi, Doris; Weaver, Connie; Woteki, Catherine; Wedral, Elaine

    2009-05-01

    There has been significant public debate about the susceptibility of research to biases of various kinds. The dialogue has extended to the peer-reviewed literature, scientific conferences, the mass media, government advisory bodies, and beyond. While biases can come from myriad sources, the overwhelming focus of the discussion, to date, has been on industry-funded science. Given the critical role that industry has played and will continue to play in the research process, the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) North America Working Group on Guiding Principles has, in this paper, set out proposed conflict-of-interest guidelines, regarding industry funding, for protecting the integrity and credibility of the scientific record, particularly with respect to health, nutrition, and food-safety science. Eight principles are enumerated, specifying ground rules for industry-sponsored research. The paper, which issues a challenge to the broader scientific community to address all bias issues, is only a first step; the document is intended to be dynamic, prompting ongoing discussion and refinement. The Guiding Principles are as follows. In the conduct of public/private research relationships, all relevant parties shall: 1) conduct or sponsor research that is factual, transparent, and designed objectively; according to accepted principles of scientific inquiry, the research design will generate an appropriately phrased hypothesis and the research will answer the appropriate questions, rather than favor a particular outcome; 2) require control of both study design and research itself to remain with scientific investigators; 3) not offer or accept remuneration geared to the outcome of a research project; 4) prior to the commencement of studies, ensure that there is a written agreement that the investigative team has the freedom and obligation to attempt to publish the findings within some specified time-frame; 5) require, in publications and conference presentations

  6. How to write and publish a scientific paper

    CERN Document Server

    Day, Robert A

    2011-01-01

    Writing and publishing journal articles are crucial to scientific careers. Unfortunately, many young scientists find the process of communicating scientific information effectively a complete mystery. By providing practical, readable, and sometimes humorous guidance, this book helps researchers gain the knowledge, skills, and confidence to succeed in communicating about their work. This seventh edition of "How to Write and Publish a Scientific Paper" contains 41 chapters focused upon two separate tasks: how to write the respective sections of a scientific paper and how to publish the paper. Other related topics include approaching a writing project, following ethical principles in scientific publishing, preparing oral presentations and poster presentations, writing grant proposals, and working with the popular media. The authors provide considerable guidance on appropriate scientific writing style as well as an extensive list of words and expressions to avoid - and supply the language to substitute for them.

  7. Collaboration in scientific practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagenknecht, Susann

    2014-01-01

    This monograph investigates the collaborative creation of scientific knowledge in research groups. To do so, I combine philosophical analysis with a first-hand comparative case study of two research groups in experimental science. Qualitative data are gained through observation and interviews......, and I combine empirical insights with existing approaches to knowledge creation in philosophy of science and social epistemology. On the basis of my empirically-grounded analysis I make several conceptual contributions. I study scientific collaboration as the interaction of scientists within research...... groups. Thereby, I argue that research groups and their role in scientific practice deserve more philosophical attention than they have hitherto received. In contemporary natural science, research groups are key to the formulation and corroboration of scientific knowledge claims prior...

  8. Visualization in scientific computing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nielson, Gregory M; Shriver, Bruce D; Rosenblum, Lawrence J

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this text is to provide a reference source to scientists, engineers, and students who are new to scientific visualization or who are interested in expanding their knowledge in this subject...

  9. Stomatal design principles in synthetic and real leaves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zwieniecki, Maciej A.; Haaning, Katrine S; Boyce, C. Kevin

    2016-01-01

    stoma geometry and environmental factors has informed a wide range of scientific fields-from agriculture to climate science, where observed variations in stoma size and density are used to infer prehistoric atmospheric CO2 content. However, the physical mechanisms and design principles responsible...

  10. Faraday's Principle and Air Travel in the Introductory Labs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Razzaq, Wathiq; Thakur, Saikat Chakraborty

    2017-01-01

    We all know that we must improve the quality of teaching in science at all levels. Not only physicists but also many students from other areas of study take the introductory physics courses in college. Physics introductory laboratories (labs) can be one of the best tools to help these students understand applications of scientific principles that…

  11. Scientific Community in Algeria: Adopting Traditions and Developing Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana I. Tyukaeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The history of scientific development in Algeria, which has not been long, represents a series of continual rises and falls. The Algerian leadership and researchers have been making efforts to create Algeria's national science through protection from the western scientific tradition, which is reminiscent of the colonial period of the country, and at the same time adoption of scientific knowledge and scientific institutions functioning principles from abroad, with no organizational or scientific experience of their own. Since the time the independent Algerian state was established, its scientific development has been inevitably coupled with active support of European countries, especially France, and other western and non-western states. Today the Algerian leadership is highly devoted to the modernization of the national scientific and research potential in strong cooperation with its foreign partners. The article concentrates on examining the present period (the 2000s of the scientific development in Algeria. The main conclusion is that there still is a number of problems - for Algeria until now lacks an integral scientific community with the state preserving its dominating role in science and research activities. Despite these difficulties, the Algerian science has made an outstanding progress. The efficiently built organizational scientific structure, the growing science and technology cooperation with foreign countries as well as the increasing state expenses in science allow to hope for further success of the Algerian scientific development.

  12. 50 CFR 21.23 - Scientific collecting permits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... take, transport, or possess migratory birds, their parts, nests, or eggs for scientific research or... project involved; (4) Name and address of the public, scientific, or educational institution to which all... possessed under authority of a scientific collecting permit must be donated and transferred to the public...

  13. Principles of computational fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Wesseling, Pieter

    2001-01-01

    The book is aimed at graduate students, researchers, engineers and physicists involved in flow computations. An up-to-date account is given of the present state-of-the-art of numerical methods employed in computational fluid dynamics. The underlying numerical principles are treated with a fair amount of detail, using elementary mathematical analysis. Attention is given to difficulties arising from geometric complexity of the flow domain and of nonuniform structured boundary-fitted grids. Uniform accuracy and efficiency for singular perturbation problems is studied, pointing the way to accurate computation of flows at high Reynolds number. Much attention is given to stability analysis, and useful stability conditions are provided, some of them new, for many numerical schemes used in practice. Unified methods for compressible and incompressible flows are discussed. Numerical analysis of the shallow-water equations is included. The theory of hyperbolic conservation laws is treated. Godunov's order barrier and ho...

  14. Promoting Science Learning and Scientific Identification through Contemporary Scientific Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Horne, Katie

    This dissertation investigates the implementation issues and the educational opportunities associated with "taking the practice turn" in science education. This pedagogical shift focuses instructional experiences on engaging students in the epistemic practices of science both to learn the core ideas of the disciplines, as well as to gain an understanding of and personal connection to the scientific enterprise. In Chapter 2, I examine the teacher-researcher co-design collaboration that supported the classroom implementation of a year-long, project-based biology curriculum that was under development. This study explores the dilemmas that arose when teachers implemented a new intervention and how the dilemmas arose and were managed throughout the collaboration of researchers and teachers and between the teachers. In the design-based research of Chapter 3, I demonstrate how students' engagement in epistemic practices in contemporary science investigations supported their conceptual development about genetics. The analysis shows how this involved a complex interaction between the scientific, school and community practices in students' lives and how through varied participation in the practices students come to write about and recognize how contemporary investigations can give them leverage for science-based action outside of the school setting. Finally, Chapter 4 explores the characteristics of learning environments for supporting the development of scientific practice-linked identities. Specific features of the learning environment---access to the intellectual work of the domain, authentic roles and accountability, space to make meaningful contributions in relation to personal interests, and practice-linked identity resources that arose from interactions in the learning setting---supported learners in stabilizing practice-linked science identities through their engagement in contemporary scientific practices. This set of studies shows that providing students with the

  15. Efficiency principles of consulting entrepreneurship

    OpenAIRE

    Moroz Yustina S.; Drozdov Igor N.

    2015-01-01

    The article reviews the primary goals and problems of consulting entrepreneurship. The principles defining efficiency of entrepreneurship in the field of consulting are generalized. The special attention is given to the importance of ethical principles of conducting consulting entrepreneurship activity.

  16. The committee of scientific expertise coordination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Placed under the MIES control, the Committee of scientific expertise coordination defines the needs, the contain and the planing of expertises realized in function of Climate national and international decisions and negotiations calendars. The Committee verifies the different expertises and offers the administrations, scientific tools and techniques useful for the negotiations. It can also define long-dated research needs which require the scientific community mobilization. This paper provides some document of the Committee: objectives, operating and priorities of the Committee, scenarios ''Factor 4'' and ''crack technology'', perceptions and practices, developing countries (China, India...), Euromed. (A.L.B.)

  17. Book Review: Scientific Writing for Young Astronomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uyttenhove, Jos

    2011-12-01

    EDP Sciences, Les Ulis, France. Part 1 : 162 pp. € 35 ISBN 978-2-7598-0506-8 Part 2 : 298 pp. € 60 ISBN 978-2-7598-0639-3 The journal Astronomy & Astrophysics (A&A) and EDP Sciences decided in 2007 to organize a School on the various aspects of scientific writing and publishing. In 2008 and 2009 Scientific Writing for Young Astronomers (SWYA) Schools were held in Blankenberge (B) under the direction of Christiaan Sterken (FWO-VUB). These two books (EAS publication series, Vol. 49 and 50) reflect the outcome of these Schools. Part 1 contains a set of contributions that discuss various aspects of scientific publication; it includes A&A Editors' view of the peer review and publishing process. A very interesting short paper by S.R. Pottasch (Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, Groningen, and one of the two first Editors-in Chief of A&A) deals with the history of the creation of the journal Astronomy & Astrophysics. Two papers by J. Adams et al. (Observatoire de Paris) discuss language editing, including a detailed guide for any non-native user of the English language. In 2002 the Board of Directors decided that all articles in A&A must be written in clear and correct English. Part 2 consists of three very extensive and elaborated papers by Christiaan Sterken, supplying guidelines to PhD students and postdoctoral fellows to help them compose scientific papers for different forums (journals, proceedings, thesis, etc.). This part is of interest not only for young astronomers but it is very useful for scholars of all ages and disciplines. Paper I "The writing process" (60 pp.) copes with the preparation of manuscripts, with communicating with editors and referees and with avoiding common errors. Delicate problems on authorship, refereeing, revising multi-authored papers etc. are treated in 26 FAQ's. Paper II "Communication by graphics" (120 pp.) is entirely dedicated to the important topic of communication with images, graphs, diagrams, tables etc. Design types of graphs

  18. Principles of visual attention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundesen, Claus; Habekost, Thomas

    The nature of attention is one of the oldest and most central problems in psychology. A huge amount of research has been produced on this subject in the last half century, especially on attention in the visual modality, but a general explanation has remained elusive. Many still view attention res....... The book explains the TVA model and shows how it accounts for attentional effects observed across all the research areas described. Principles of Visual Attention offers a uniquely integrated view on a central topic in cognitive neuroscience....

  19. Principles of Uncertainty

    CERN Document Server

    Kadane, Joseph B

    2011-01-01

    An intuitive and mathematical introduction to subjective probability and Bayesian statistics. An accessible, comprehensive guide to the theory of Bayesian statistics, Principles of Uncertainty presents the subjective Bayesian approach, which has played a pivotal role in game theory, economics, and the recent boom in Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods. Both rigorous and friendly, the book contains: Introductory chapters examining each new concept or assumption Just-in-time mathematics -- the presentation of ideas just before they are applied Summary and exercises at the end of each chapter Discus

  20. Principles of smile design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuvaneswaran, Mohan

    2010-01-01

    An organized and systematic approach is required to evaluate, diagnose and resolve esthetic problems predictably. It is of prime importance that the final result is not dependent only on the looks alone. Our ultimate goal as clinicians is to achieve pleasing composition in the smile by creating an arrangement of various esthetic elements. This article reviews the various principles that govern the art of smile designing. The literature search was done using PubMed search and Medline. This article will provide a basic knowledge to the reader to bring out a functional stable smile. PMID:21217950

  1. Principles of quantum chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    George, David V

    2013-01-01

    Principles of Quantum Chemistry focuses on the application of quantum mechanics in physical models and experiments of chemical systems.This book describes chemical bonding and its two specific problems - bonding in complexes and in conjugated organic molecules. The very basic theory of spectroscopy is also considered. Other topics include the early development of quantum theory; particle-in-a-box; general formulation of the theory of quantum mechanics; and treatment of angular momentum in quantum mechanics. The examples of solutions of Schroedinger equations; approximation methods in quantum c

  2. Principles of chemical kinetics

    CERN Document Server

    House, James E

    2007-01-01

    James House's revised Principles of Chemical Kinetics provides a clear and logical description of chemical kinetics in a manner unlike any other book of its kind. Clearly written with detailed derivations, the text allows students to move rapidly from theoretical concepts of rates of reaction to concrete applications. Unlike other texts, House presents a balanced treatment of kinetic reactions in gas, solution, and solid states. The entire text has been revised and includes many new sections and an additional chapter on applications of kinetics. The topics covered include quantitative rela

  3. Principles of meteoritics

    CERN Document Server

    Krinov, E L

    1960-01-01

    Principles of Meteoritics examines the significance of meteorites in relation to cosmogony and to the origin of the planetary system. The book discusses the science of meteoritics and the sources of meteorites. Scientists study the morphology of meteorites to determine their motion in the atmosphere. The scope of such study includes all forms of meteorites, the circumstances of their fall to earth, their motion in the atmosphere, and their orbits in space. Meteoric bodies vary in sizes; in calculating their motion in interplanetary space, astronomers apply the laws of Kepler. In the region of

  4. RFID design principles

    CERN Document Server

    Lehpamer, Harvey

    2012-01-01

    This revised edition of the Artech House bestseller, RFID Design Principles, serves as an up-to-date and comprehensive introduction to the subject. The second edition features numerous updates and brand new and expanded material on emerging topics such as the medical applications of RFID and new ethical challenges in the field. This practical book offers you a detailed understanding of RFID design essentials, key applications, and important management issues. The book explores the role of RFID technology in supply chain management, intelligent building design, transportation systems, military

  5. Principles of speech coding

    CERN Document Server

    Ogunfunmi, Tokunbo

    2010-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly apparent that all forms of communication-including voice-will be transmitted through packet-switched networks based on the Internet Protocol (IP). Therefore, the design of modern devices that rely on speech interfaces, such as cell phones and PDAs, requires a complete and up-to-date understanding of the basics of speech coding. Outlines key signal processing algorithms used to mitigate impairments to speech quality in VoIP networksOffering a detailed yet easily accessible introduction to the field, Principles of Speech Coding provides an in-depth examination of the

  6. Principles of thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Kaufman, Myron

    2002-01-01

    Ideal for one- or two-semester courses that assume elementary knowledge of calculus, This text presents the fundamental concepts of thermodynamics and applies these to problems dealing with properties of materials, phase transformations, chemical reactions, solutions and surfaces. The author utilizes principles of statistical mechanics to illustrate key concepts from a microscopic perspective, as well as develop equations of kinetic theory. The book provides end-of-chapter question and problem sets, some using Mathcad™ and Mathematica™; a useful glossary containing important symbols, definitions, and units; and appendices covering multivariable calculus and valuable numerical methods.

  7. [Powdered infant formulae preparation guide for hospitals based on Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) principles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Leguás, H; Rodríguez Garrido, V; Lorite Cuenca, R; Pérez-Portabella, C; Redecillas Ferreiro, S; Campins Martí, M

    2009-06-01

    This guide for the preparation of powdered infant formulae in hospital environments is a collaborative work between several hospital services and is based on national and European regulations, international experts meetings and the recommendations of scientific societies. This guide also uses the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point principles proposed by Codex Alimentarius and emphasises effective verifying measures, microbiological controls of the process and the corrective actions when monitoring indicates that a critical control point is not under control. It is a dynamic guide and specifies the evaluation procedures that allow it to be constantly adapted.

  8. The Principles of Organization of Internal Control of Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panteleiev

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The question to give a convincing assessment of the Rules of the internal controls and present them in the form of principles of organization of internal control. Since the final decision in the form of an exhaustive list and universal principles of internal control is no scientific research continues these principles. It is necessary to examine the logic of the main provisions of the organization's internal control due consideration of the requirements of international practice controls and propose principles of internal control. For this purpose, conducted a critical analysis of the main provisions of internal controls contained in the publications and in the regulations on internal control proceedings. Synthesis of articles of authors of lead scientific and practical journal Ukraine "Accounting and Auditing" for the 1994-2015 biennium pointed out that despite the coverage of current journal articles provisions, principles, requirements, rules and other modern techniques. On internal control and comprehensive set of reasonable response to the organization and classification of internal control is absent. This leads to continue the search key components of the organization's internal control. The above basic concepts in publications on the organization of internal control were used in the formation of a set of principles of control. According to the requirements of the OECD field of internal control includes risk management, cost control, change in control, complete information to guarantee the effectiveness of internal control systems, providing the ability to make decisions and so on. COSO model contains an exhaustive list of five components. The results of the questionnaire trainees have provided compelling arguments for classifying and establishing relevant principles of organization and internal controls were rejected. A list of the basic principles of the organization of internal control, which consists of 25 elements that are shaped

  9. Archimedes' Principle in General Coordinates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgely, Charles T.

    2010-01-01

    Archimedes' principle is well known to state that a body submerged in a fluid is buoyed up by a force equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the body. Herein, Archimedes' principle is derived from first principles by using conservation of the stress-energy-momentum tensor in general coordinates. The resulting expression for the force is…

  10. Fermat and the Minimum Principle

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Arguably, least action and minimum principles were offered or applied much earlier. This (or these) principle(s) is/are among the fundamental, basic, unifying or organizing ones used to describe a variety of natural phenomena. It considers the amount of energy expended in performing a given action to be the least required ...

  11. Precautionary Principle and Mars Sample Return

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnould, Jacques

    Many space missions have today as an aim the exploration and the knowledge of the planet Mars; consequently, the return of Martian samples seems one of the next possible stages, at the horizon of about fifteen years. Devoted in the search of traces of life, passed or presents, such a mission presents a true stake not only from the scientific point of view but also from the ethical. Right now, the COSPAR specified the precautions to be taken to avoid or, at the very least, to limit the risk of contamination of the terrestrial biosphere by pathogenic the hitherto unknown ones. Are these recommendations sufficient? Do they concern only the scientific prudence or take truly counts of the good of humanity and the life on Earth? In the final analysis, is the incurred risk, even weak, to endanger this life worth the sorrow of it? Hitherto confined with the scientific circles of astronomy and astrobiology, this questioning could move the public opinion and this one would undoubtedly call some with the principle of precaution. In what this recourse would be relevant? The precaution aims indeed the hypothetical risks, not yet confirmed scientifically, but of which the possibility can be identified starting from empirical and scientific knowledge; such is well the case. But is it for as much possible to apply this principle to the case of the Martian samples, insofar as the objective of such a mission remains for the strictly scientific moment? Is it possible to manage the risks in the same manner when it is a question of appropriation and exploitation of the natural resources and energy (GMO, nuclear energy, etc.) and when it acts, in the case of Mars, that only search of the knowledge? How to manage the fundamental difference between the risks voluntarily taken and arbitrarily imposed, clarified and keep silent? The case of the return of the samples leads to the borders of the contemporary interrogations on the stakes and the benefits of science, on the share of risk

  12. Material for the Encyclopaedic Dictionary of Croatian Analytical Terminology. Part I. Principles and Starting Point

    OpenAIRE

    Grdinić, V

    2010-01-01

    Presented in this paper are the principles and the starting point for construction of an encyclopaedic dictionary of Croatian terminology in analytical chemistry, as well as in analytics, a recent scientific field. Consequently, the choice, construction and extent of lexical units for the encyclopaedic dictionary will be determined by adequate scientific and professional criteria. Principles and methods determined and presented in this paper can aid in writing Croatian analytical dictionary a...

  13. Principles of Mechanical Excavation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lislerud, A. [Tamrock Corp., Tampere (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    Mechanical excavation of rock today includes several methods such as tunnel boring, raiseboring, roadheading and various continuous mining systems. Of these raiseboring is one potential technique for excavating shafts in the repository for spent nuclear fuel and dry blind boring is promising technique for excavation of deposition holes, as demonstrated in the Research Tunnel at Olkiluoto. In addition, there is potential for use of other mechanical excavation techniques in different parts of the repository. One of the main objectives of this study was to analyze the factors which affect the feasibility of mechanical rock excavation in hard rock conditions and to enhance the understanding of factors which affect rock cutting so as to provide an improved basis for excavator performance prediction modeling. The study included the following four main topics: (a) phenomenological model based on similarity analysis for roller disk cutting, (b) rock mass properties which affect rock cuttability and tool life, (c) principles for linear and field cutting tests and performance prediction modeling and (d) cutter head lacing design procedures and principles. As a conclusion of this study, a test rig was constructed, field tests were planned and started up. The results of the study can be used to improve the performance prediction models used to assess the feasibility of different mechanical excavation techniques at various repository investigation sites. (orig.). 21 refs.

  14. Principle or constructive relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch, Mathias

    Appealing to Albert Einstein's distinction between principle and constructive theories, Harvey Brown has argued for an interpretation of the theory of relativity as a dynamic and constructive theory. Brown's view has been challenged by Michel Janssen and in this paper I investigate their dispute. I argue that their disagreement appears larger than it actually is due to the two frameworks used by Brown and Janssen to express their respective views: Brown's appeal to Einstein's principle-constructive distinction and Janssen's framing of the disagreement as one over the question whether relativity provides a kinematic or a dynamic constraint. I appeal to a distinction between types of theories drawn by H. A. Lorentz two decades before Einstein's distinction to argue that Einstein's distinction represents a false dichotomy. I argue further that the disagreement concerning the kinematics-dynamics distinction is a disagreement about labels but not about substance. There remains a genuine disagreement over the explanatory role of spacetime geometry and here I agree with Brown arguing that Janssen sees a pressing need for an explanation of Lorentz invariance where no further explanation is needed.

  15. Principles of Mechanical Excavation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lislerud, A.

    1997-12-01

    Mechanical excavation of rock today includes several methods such as tunnel boring, raiseboring, roadheading and various continuous mining systems. Of these raiseboring is one potential technique for excavating shafts in the repository for spent nuclear fuel and dry blind boring is promising technique for excavation of deposition holes, as demonstrated in the Research Tunnel at Olkiluoto. In addition, there is potential for use of other mechanical excavation techniques in different parts of the repository. One of the main objectives of this study was to analyze the factors which affect the feasibility of mechanical rock excavation in hard rock conditions and to enhance the understanding of factors which affect rock cutting so as to provide an improved basis for excavator performance prediction modeling. The study included the following four main topics: (a) phenomenological model based on similarity analysis for roller disk cutting, (b) rock mass properties which affect rock cuttability and tool life, (c) principles for linear and field cutting tests and performance prediction modeling and (d) cutter head lacing design procedures and principles. As a conclusion of this study, a test rig was constructed, field tests were planned and started up. The results of the study can be used to improve the performance prediction models used to assess the feasibility of different mechanical excavation techniques at various repository investigation sites. (orig.)

  16. Scientific computer simulation review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaizer, Joshua S.; Heller, A. Kevin; Oberkampf, William L.

    2015-01-01

    Before the results of a scientific computer simulation are used for any purpose, it should be determined if those results can be trusted. Answering that question of trust is the domain of scientific computer simulation review. There is limited literature that focuses on simulation review, and most is specific to the review of a particular type of simulation. This work is intended to provide a foundation for a common understanding of simulation review. This is accomplished through three contributions. First, scientific computer simulation review is formally defined. This definition identifies the scope of simulation review and provides the boundaries of the review process. Second, maturity assessment theory is developed. This development clarifies the concepts of maturity criteria, maturity assessment sets, and maturity assessment frameworks, which are essential for performing simulation review. Finally, simulation review is described as the application of a maturity assessment framework. This is illustrated through evaluating a simulation review performed by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. In making these contributions, this work provides a means for a more objective assessment of a simulation’s trustworthiness and takes the next step in establishing scientific computer simulation review as its own field. - Highlights: • We define scientific computer simulation review. • We develop maturity assessment theory. • We formally define a maturity assessment framework. • We describe simulation review as the application of a maturity framework. • We provide an example of a simulation review using a maturity framework

  17. Parallels and Differences in the Attitudes towards Single-Firm Conduct: What are the Reasons? The History, Interpretation and Underlying Principles of Sec. 2 Sherman Act and Art. 82 EC

    OpenAIRE

    SCHWEITZER, Heike

    2007-01-01

    In the US and in the EU, the antitrust rules on single-firm conduct are currently under review. Antitrust authorities on both sides of the Atlantic are reconsidering the tests to be applied in order to distinguish between lawful competition on the merits and exclusionary conduct. In the transatlantic comparison that accompanies the review, it has been observed that in the US, the tests for identifying anti-competitive single-firm conduct under Sec. 2 Sherman Act are frequently ...

  18. Building Scientific Data's list of recommended data repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hufton, A. L.; Khodiyar, V.; Hrynaszkiewicz, I.

    2016-12-01

    When Scientific Data launched in 2014 we provided our authors with a list of recommended data repositories to help them identify data hosting options that were likely to meet the journal's requirements. This list has grown in size and scope, and is now a central resource for authors across the Nature-titled journals. It has also been used in the development of data deposition policies and recommended repository lists across Springer Nature and at other publishers. Each new addition to the list is assessed according to a series of criteria that emphasize the stability of the resource, its commitment to principles of open science and its implementation of relevant community standards and reporting guidelines. A preference is expressed for repositories that issue digital object identifiers (DOIs) through the DataCite system and that share data under the Creative Commons CC0 waiver. Scientific Data currently lists fourteen repositories that focus on specific areas within the Earth and environmental sciences, as well as the broad scope repositories, Dryad and figshare. Readers can browse and filter datasets published at the journal by the host repository using ISA-explorer, a demo tool built by the ISA-tools team at Oxford University1. We believe that well-maintained lists like this one help publishers build a network of trust with community data repositories and provide an important complement to more comprehensive data repository indices and more formal certification efforts. In parallel, Scientific Data has also improved its policies to better support submissions from authors using institutional and project-specific repositories, without requiring each to apply for listing individually. Online resources Journal homepage: http://www.nature.com/scientificdata Data repository criteria: http://www.nature.com/sdata/policies/data-policies#repo-criteria Recommended data repositories: http://www.nature.com/sdata/policies/repositories Archived copies of the list: https

  19. THE PRINCIPLE OF THE PRESUMPTION OF INNOCENCE AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SimenehKA

    This is a constitutional principle under Ethiopian law and requires the public prosecutor to prove each element .... application of the principle of utility in the administration of the criminal justice aims at maximizing the correct results5 by ..... Texts, Cases and Problems 4th Ed.,. (New York: Aspen Law and Business), at 767.

  20. The principle of equality of arms in international criminal proceedings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fedorova, M.I.

    2012-01-01

    This book studies the interpretation and application of the principle of equality of arms in proceedings before several international criminal courts. The coming of age of these institutions merits an evaluation of the application of one of the fundamental principles underlying a criminal procedure.

  1. Can Evolutionary Principles Explain Patterns of Family Violence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, John

    2013-01-01

    The article's aim is to evaluate the application of the evolutionary principles of kin selection, reproductive value, and resource holding power to the understanding of family violence. The principles are described in relation to specific predictions and the mechanisms underlying these. Predictions are evaluated for physical violence perpetrated…

  2. Sustainable development and the nature of environmental legal principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Verschuuren

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article, “things” lawyers call “principles” of environmental law will be discussed from a theoretical perspective. Three fundamental questions are answered: 1. Where does the high moral value that is usually attributed principles come from? 2. What is the exact difference between a principle and a legal rule, and between a principle and a policy? 3. What is the relationship between a principle and more concrete legal rules and policies? It is argued that principles of environmental law receive their high moral value from the ideal of sustainable development. An ideal is a value that is explicit, implicit or latent in the law, or the public and moral culture of a society or group that usually cannot be fully realised, and that partly transcends contingent, historical formulations, and implementations in terms of rules and principles. Principles form a necessary link between directly applicable and enforceable environmental legal rules and the underlying ideal. They are a necessary medium for ideals to find their way into concrete rules and can be used to bridge the gap between the morality of duty and the morality of aspiration. Because of their basis in (written or unwritten law and their possible direct and intense influence on legal rules concerning activities that may harm the environment, they must be placed within the morality of duty: a bridgehead within the morality of duty reaching out for the morality of aspiration. From the general function of principles of forming a beachhead in the morality of duty, nine more concrete functions can be derived. These functions principles, both of a substantive and of a procedural nature, have, make it possible to distinguish them from legal rules. It must be acknowledged, however, that there is no very strict separation between principles on one side and rules on the other: environmental norms can be placed on a sliding scale with rules on one side and principles on the other side

  3. A survey of variational principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewins, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    In this article survey of variational principles has been given. Variational principles play a significant role in mathematical theory with emphasis on the physical aspects. There are two principals used i.e. to represent the equation of the system in a succinct way and to enable a particular computation in the system to be carried out with greater accuracy. The survey of variational principles has ranged widely from its starting point in the Lagrange multiplier to optimisation principles. In an age of digital computation, these classic methods can be adapted to improve such calculations. We emphasize particularly the advantage of basic finite element methods on variational principles. (A.B.)

  4. Mach's principle and rotating universes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, D.H.

    1990-01-01

    It is shown that the Bianchi 9 model universe satisfies the Mach principle. These closed rotating universes were previously thought to be counter-examples to the principle. The Mach principle is satisfied because the angular momentum of the rotating matter is compensated by the effective angular momentum of gravitational waves. A new formulation of the Mach principle is given that is based on the field theory interpretation of general relativity. Every closed universe with 3-sphere topology is shown to satisfy this formulation of the Mach principle. It is shown that the total angular momentum of the matter and gravitational waves in a closed 3-sphere topology universe is zero

  5. The Scientific Enterprise

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Srimath

    We all hold certain views and opinions about the world and about life. If we pause to trace the origins of these ... principles we are not always consciously aware of, we seldom recognize the psychological and emotional undercurrents in our .... stories were common about their predictive prowess. On the other hand, some ...

  6. Scientific collaboratories in higher education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnenwald, Diane H.; Li, Bin

    2003-01-01

    Scientific collaboratories hold the promise of providing students access to specialized scientific instruments, data and experts, enabling learning opportunities perhaps otherwise not available. However, evaluation of scientific collaboratories in higher education has lagged behind their developm......Scientific collaboratories hold the promise of providing students access to specialized scientific instruments, data and experts, enabling learning opportunities perhaps otherwise not available. However, evaluation of scientific collaboratories in higher education has lagged behind...

  7. XML in scientific computing

    CERN Document Server

    Pozrikidis, C

    2013-01-01

    While the extensible markup language (XML) has received a great deal of attention in web programming and software engineering, far less attention has been paid to XML in mainstream computational science and engineering. Correcting this imbalance, XML in Scientific Computing introduces XML to scientists and engineers in a way that illustrates the similarities and differences with traditional programming languages and suggests new ways of saving and sharing the results of scientific calculations. The author discusses XML in the context of scientific computing, demonstrates how the extensible stylesheet language (XSL) can be used to perform various calculations, and explains how to create and navigate through XML documents using traditional languages such as Fortran, C++, and MATLAB®. A suite of computer programs are available on the author’s website.

  8. NASA's Scientific Visualization Studio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Horace G.

    2003-01-01

    Since 1988, the Scientific Visualization Studio(SVS) at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center has produced scientific visualizations of NASA s scientific research and remote sensing data for public outreach. These visualizations take the form of images, animations, and end-to-end systems and have been used in many venues: from the network news to science programs such as NOVA, from museum exhibits at the Smithsonian to White House briefings. This presentation will give an overview of the major activities and accomplishments of the SVS, and some of the most interesting projects and systems developed at the SVS will be described. Particular emphasis will be given to the practices and procedures by which the SVS creates visualizations, from the hardware and software used to the structures and collaborations by which products are designed, developed, and delivered to customers. The web-based archival and delivery system for SVS visualizations at svs.gsfc.nasa.gov will also be described.

  9. The measure and significance of Bateman's principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collet, Julie M; Dean, Rebecca F; Worley, Kirsty; Richardson, David S; Pizzari, Tommaso

    2014-05-07

    Bateman's principles explain sex roles and sexual dimorphism through sex-specific variance in mating success, reproductive success and their relationships within sexes (Bateman gradients). Empirical tests of these principles, however, have come under intense scrutiny. Here, we experimentally show that in replicate groups of red junglefowl, Gallus gallus, mating and reproductive successes were more variable in males than in females, resulting in a steeper male Bateman gradient, consistent with Bateman's principles. However, we use novel quantitative techniques to reveal that current methods typically overestimate Bateman's principles because they (i) infer mating success indirectly from offspring parentage, and thus miss matings that fail to result in fertilization, and (ii) measure Bateman gradients through the univariate regression of reproductive over mating success, without considering the substantial influence of other components of male reproductive success, namely female fecundity and paternity share. We also find a significant female Bateman gradient but show that this likely emerges as spurious consequences of male preference for fecund females, emphasizing the need for experimental approaches to establish the causal relationship between reproductive and mating success. While providing qualitative support for Bateman's principles, our study demonstrates how current approaches can generate a misleading view of sex differences and roles.

  10. Prioritizing Zakat Core Principles Criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aam Slamet Rusydiana

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Prioriting Zakat Core Principles CriteriaZakat Institution (OPZ is the intermediary organizations based on social. The entire of operating expense is taken from the zakat and infaq funds collected. The Zakat Core Principles are a starting point for the frameworks and standards of zakat-based governance best practices. The Zakat Core Principles is mainly aimed to improve the quality of the zakat systems by identifying such weaknesses in the existing of supervision and regulation. This study try to prioritize the Principles of ZCP and also the essential criteria from each level using Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP.There are five core principles of charity principle, consisting of: regulation, supervision, collection and disbursement management, risk management, and audit and transparency. From these principles, the main priority is regulation following with audit and transparency.DOI: 10.15408/ess.v7i2.5275

  11. Normative foundations of technology transfer and transnational benefit principles in the UNESCO Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faunce, Thomas Alured; Nasu, Hitoshi

    2009-06-01

    The United Nations Scientific, Education, and Cultural Organization Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights (UDBHR) expresses in its title and substance a controversial linkage of two normative systems: international human rights law and bioethics. The UDBHR has the status of what is known as a "nonbinding" declaration under public international law. The UDBHR's foundation within bioethics (and association, e.g., with virtue-based or principlist bioethical theories) is more problematic. Nonetheless, the UDBHR contains socially important principles of technology transfer and transnational benefit (articles 14, 15, and 21). This paper is one of the first to explore how the disciplines of bioethics and international human rights law may interact in the UDBHR to advance the policy relevance and health impact of such principles. It investigates their normative ancestry in the UDBHR, as well as relevant conceptual differences between bioethics and public international law in this respect, and how these may be relevant to their conceptual evolution and application.

  12. Shaping a Scientific Self

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrade-Molina, Melissa; Valero, Paola

    In this paper we illustrate how a truth circulates within social discourse. We examine a particular truth reproduced within science, that is: through the understanding of Euclid’s axioms and postulates a person will gain the access to all human knowledge. We deploy a discourse analysis that helps...... us to understand how a truth is reproduced, circulating among diverse fields of human knowledge. Also it will show why we accept and reproduce a particular discourse. Finally, we state Euclidean geometry as a truth that circulates in scientific discourse and performs a scientific self. We unfold...

  13. Rediscovering the scientific ethos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Djørup, Stine

    The doctoral dissertation discusses some of the moral standards of good scientific practice that areunderexposed in the literature. In particular, attempts are made to correct the conceptual confusionsurrounding the norm of 'disinterestedness' in science (‘uhildethed’), and the norm of scientific...... integrity.This task involves not only a discussion of these norms is content, but also a discussion of the theoreticalconditions for their development. Thus, a number of normative assumptions of the modern debate onvalues in science (values in science debate) is being discussed.The thesis concludes...

  14. USGS Scientific Visualization Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Scientific Visualization Laboratory at the National Center in Reston, Va., provides a central facility where USGS employees can use state-of-the-art equipment for projects ranging from presentation graphics preparation to complex visual representations of scientific data. Equipment including color printers, black-and-white and color scanners, film recorders, video equipment, and DOS, Apple Macintosh, and UNIX platforms with software are available for both technical and nontechnical users. The laboratory staff provides assistance and demonstrations in the use of the hardware and software products.

  15. Recording Scientific Knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowker, Geof

    2006-01-01

    The way we record knowledge, and the web of technical, formal, and social practices that surrounds it, inevitably affects the knowledge that we record. The ways we hold knowledge about the past - in handwritten manuscripts, in printed books, in file folders, in databases - shape the kind of stories we tell about that past. In this talk, I look at how over the past two hundred years, information technology has affected the nature and production of scientific knowledge. Further, I explore ways in which the emergent new cyberinfrastructure is changing our relationship to scientific practice.

  16. Usability in Scientific Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Maria Suduc

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Usability, most often defined as the ease of use and acceptability of a system, affects the users' performance and their job satisfaction when working with a machine. Therefore, usability is a very important aspect which must be considered in the process of a system development. The paper presents several numerical data related to the history of the scientific research of the usability of information systems, as it is viewed in the information provided by three important scientific databases, Science Direct, ACM Digital Library and IEEE Xplore Digital Library, at different queries related to this field.

  17. The Adverse Effects of Le Chatelier's Principle on Teacher Understanding of Chemical Equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Derek

    2009-01-01

    Although the scientific inadequacy of Le Chatelier's principle has long been documented in the literature, the principle is still treated as a central concept of chemical equilibrium by textbook writers and teachers in many countries. In the past, researchers' interest has focused on student misconceptions about chemical equilibrium and has…

  18. Principle of space existence and De Sitter metric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mal'tsev, V.K.

    1990-01-01

    The selection principle for the solutions of the Einstein equations suggested in a series of papers implies the existence of space (g ik ≠ 0) only in the presence of matter (T ik ≠0). This selection principle (principle of space existence, in the Markov terminology) implies, in the general case, the absence of the cosmological solution with the De Sitter metric. On the other hand, the De Sitter metric is necessary for describing both inflation and deflation periods of the Universe. It is shown that the De Sitter metric is also allowed by the selection principle under discussion if the metric experiences the evolution into the Friedmann metric

  19. Principles of Bioenergetics

    CERN Document Server

    Skulachev, Vladimir P; Kasparinsky, Felix O

    2013-01-01

    Principles of Bioenergetics summarizes one of the quickly growing branches of modern biochemistry. Bioenergetics concerns energy transductions occurring in living systems and this book pays special attention to molecular mechanisms of these processes. The main subject of the book is the "energy coupling membrane" which refers to inner membranes of intracellular organelles, for example, mitochondria and chloroplasts. Cellular cytoplasmic membranes where respiratory and photosynthetic energy transducers, as well as ion-transporting ATP-synthases (ATPases) are also part of this membrane. Significant attention is paid to the alternative function of mitochondria as generators of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that mediate programmed death of cells (apoptosis and necrosis) and organisms (phenoptosis). The latter process is considered as a key mechanism of aging which may be suppressed by mitochondria-targeted antioxidants.

  20. Principles of Lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Svelto, Orazio

    2010-01-01

    This new Fifth Edition of Principles of Lasers incorporates corrections to the previous edition. The text’s essential mission remains the same: to provide a wide-ranging yet unified description of laser behavior, physics, technology, and current applications. Dr. Svelto emphasizes the physical rather than the mathematical aspects of lasers, and presents the subject in the simplest terms compatible with a correct physical understanding. Praise for earlier editions: "Professor Svelto is himself a longtime laser pioneer and his text shows the breadth of his broad acquaintance with all aspects of the field … Anyone mastering the contents of this book will be well prepared to understand advanced treatises and research papers in laser science and technology." (Arthur L. Schawlow, 1981 Nobel Laureate in Physics) "Already well established as a self-contained introduction to the physics and technology of lasers … Professor Svelto’s book, in this lucid translation by David Hanna, can be strongly recommended for...

  1. Principles of modern physics

    CERN Document Server

    Saxena, A K

    2014-01-01

    Principles of Modern Physics, divided into twenty one chapters, begins with quantum ideas followed by discussions on special relativity, atomic structure, basic quantum mechanics, hydrogen atom (and Schrodinger equation) and periodic table, the three statistical distributions, X-rays, physics of solids, imperfections in crystals, magnetic properties of materials, superconductivity, Zeeman-, Stark- and Paschen Back- effects, Lasers, Nuclear physics (Yukawa's meson theory and various nuclear models), radioactivity and nuclear reactions, nuclear fission, fusion and plasma, particle accelerators and detectors, the universe, Elementary particles (classification, eight fold way and quark model, standard model and fundamental interactions), cosmic rays, deuteron problem in nuclear physics, and cathode ray oscilloscope. NEW TO THE FOURTH EDITION: The CO2 Laser Theory of magnetic moments on the basis of shell model Geological dating Laser Induced fusion and laser fusion reactor. Hawking radiation The cosmological red ...

  2. [Principles of PET].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuthien-Baumann, B

    2018-04-19

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is a procedure in nuclear medicine, which is applied predominantly in oncological diagnostics. In the form of modern hybrid machines, such as PET computed tomography (PET/CT) and PET magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI) it has found wide acceptance and availability. The PET procedure is more than just another imaging technique, but a functional method with the capability for quantification in addition to the distribution pattern of the radiopharmaceutical, the results of which are used for therapeutic decisions. A profound knowledge of the principles of PET including the correct indications, patient preparation, and possible artifacts is mandatory for the correct interpretation of PET results.

  3. Emulsion Science Basic Principles

    CERN Document Server

    Leal-Calderon, Fernando; Schmitt, Véronique

    2007-01-01

    Emulsions are generally made out of two immiscible fluids like oil and water, one being dispersed in the second in the presence of surface-active compounds.They are used as intermediate or end products in a huge range of areas including the food, chemical, cosmetic, pharmaceutical, paint, and coating industries. Besides the broad domain of technological interest, emulsions are raising a variety of fundamental questions at the frontier between physics and chemistry. This book aims to give an overview of the most recent advances in emulsion science. The basic principles, covering aspects of emulsions from their preparation to their destruction, are presented in close relation to both the fundamental physics and the applications of these materials. The book is intended to help scientists and engineers in formulating new materials by giving them the basics of emulsion science.

  4. Principles & practice of physics

    CERN Document Server

    Mazur, Eric; Dourmashkin, Peter A; Pedigo, Daryl; Bieniek, Ronald J

    2015-01-01

    Putting physics first Based on his storied research and teaching, Eric Mazur's Principles & Practice of Physics builds an understanding of physics that is both thorough and accessible. Unique organization and pedagogy allow you to develop a true conceptual understanding of physics alongside the quantitative skills needed in the course. *New learning architecture: The book is structured to help you learn physics in an organized way that encourages comprehension and reduces distraction.*Physics on a contemporary foundation: Traditional texts delay the introduction of ideas that we now see as unifying and foundational. This text builds physics on those unifying foundations, helping you to develop an understanding that is stronger, deeper, and fundamentally simpler.*Research-based instruction: This text uses a range of research-based instructional techniques to teach physics in the most effective manner possible. The result is a groundbreaking book that puts physics first, thereby making it more accessible to...

  5. Kepler and Mach's Principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbour, Julian

    The definitive ideas that led to the creation of general relativity crystallized in Einstein's thinking during 1912 while he was in Prague. At the centenary meeting held there to mark the breakthrough, I was asked to talk about earlier great work of relevance to dynamics done at Prague, above all by Kepler and Mach. The main topics covered in this chapter are: some little known but basic facts about the planetary motions; the conceptual framework and most important discoveries of Ptolemy and Copernicus; the complete change of concepts that Kepler introduced and their role in his discoveries; the significance of them in Newton's work; Mach's realization that Kepler's conceptual revolution needed further development to free Newton's conceptual world of the last vestiges of the purely geometrical Ptolemaic world view; and the precise formulation of Mach's principle required to place GR correctly in the line of conceptual and technical evolution that began with the ancient Greek astronomers.

  6. THE JUDICIAL PRECEDENT IN THE LIGHT OF THE NEW BRAZILIAN CIVIL PROCEDURE CODE AND PROPOSED CONSTITUTIONAL READING: JURISDICTIONAL MECHANISM OF LAW EFFECTIVENESS OF JUSTICE AND OF THE CONCRETIZATION OF OTHER PRINCIPLES AND FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS OR MERELY SYMBOLIC LEGISLATION?

    OpenAIRE

    Bester, Gisela Maria; Silva, Maria da Vitória Costa e

    2017-01-01

    This scientific article aims to examine whether the judicial precedent by the new Brazilian Civil Procedure Code (Act nº 13.105/2015) and under adequate constitutional reading, represents, or not, in the context of the judicial function, a real effective mechanism of Justice and other fundamental principles and rights. Examines the subject and the object so marked by the deductive method, starting from the initial regulatory contributions, theorists and jurisprudence, to support a more critic...

  7. Fault Management Guiding Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newhouse, Marilyn E.; Friberg, Kenneth H.; Fesq, Lorraine; Barley, Bryan

    2011-01-01

    Regardless of the mission type: deep space or low Earth orbit, robotic or human spaceflight, Fault Management (FM) is a critical aspect of NASA space missions. As the complexity of space missions grows, the complexity of supporting FM systems increase in turn. Data on recent NASA missions show that development of FM capabilities is a common driver for significant cost overruns late in the project development cycle. Efforts to understand the drivers behind these cost overruns, spearheaded by NASA's Science Mission Directorate (SMD), indicate that they are primarily caused by the growing complexity of FM systems and the lack of maturity of FM as an engineering discipline. NASA can and does develop FM systems that effectively protect mission functionality and assets. The cost growth results from a lack of FM planning and emphasis by project management, as well the maturity of FM as an engineering discipline, which lags behind the maturity of other engineering disciplines. As a step towards controlling the cost growth associated with FM development, SMD has commissioned a multi-institution team to develop a practitioner's handbook representing best practices for the end-to-end processes involved in engineering FM systems. While currently concentrating primarily on FM for science missions, the expectation is that this handbook will grow into a NASA-wide handbook, serving as a companion to the NASA Systems Engineering Handbook. This paper presents a snapshot of the principles that have been identified to guide FM development from cradle to grave. The principles range from considerations for integrating FM into the project and SE organizational structure, the relationship between FM designs and mission risk, and the use of the various tools of FM (e.g., redundancy) to meet the FM goal of protecting mission functionality and assets.

  8. Dynamical principles in neuroscience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabinovich, Mikhail I.; Varona, Pablo; Selverston, Allen I.; Abarbanel, Henry D. I.

    2006-01-01

    Dynamical modeling of neural systems and brain functions has a history of success over the last half century. This includes, for example, the explanation and prediction of some features of neural rhythmic behaviors. Many interesting dynamical models of learning and memory based on physiological experiments have been suggested over the last two decades. Dynamical models even of consciousness now exist. Usually these models and results are based on traditional approaches and paradigms of nonlinear dynamics including dynamical chaos. Neural systems are, however, an unusual subject for nonlinear dynamics for several reasons: (i) Even the simplest neural network, with only a few neurons and synaptic connections, has an enormous number of variables and control parameters. These make neural systems adaptive and flexible, and are critical to their biological function. (ii) In contrast to traditional physical systems described by well-known basic principles, first principles governing the dynamics of neural systems are unknown. (iii) Many different neural systems exhibit similar dynamics despite having different architectures and different levels of complexity. (iv) The network architecture and connection strengths are usually not known in detail and therefore the dynamical analysis must, in some sense, be probabilistic. (v) Since nervous systems are able to organize behavior based on sensory inputs, the dynamical modeling of these systems has to explain the transformation of temporal information into combinatorial or combinatorial-temporal codes, and vice versa, for memory and recognition. In this review these problems are discussed in the context of addressing the stimulating questions: What can neuroscience learn from nonlinear dynamics, and what can nonlinear dynamics learn from neuroscience?

  9. Principles of rockbolting design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlie C. Li

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article introduces the principles of underground rockbolting design. The items discussed include underground loading conditions, natural pressure zone around an underground opening, design methodologies, selection of rockbolt types, determination of bolt length and spacing, factor of safety, and compatibility between support elements. Different types of rockbolting used in engineering practise are also presented. The traditional principle of selecting strong rockbolts is valid only in conditions of low in situ stresses in the rock mass. Energy-absorbing rockbolts are preferred in the case of high in situ stresses. A natural pressure arch is formed in the rock at a certain distance behind the tunnel wall. Rockbolts should be long enough to reach the natural pressure arch when the failure zone is small. The bolt length should be at least 1 m beyond the failure zone. In the case of a vast failure zone, tightly spaced short rockbolts are installed to establish an artificial pressure arch within the failure zone and long cables are anchored on the natural pressure arch. In this case, the rockbolts are usually less than 3 m long in mine drifts, but can be up to 7 m in large-scale rock caverns. Bolt spacing is more important than bolt length in the case of establishing an artificial pressure arch. In addition to the factor of safety, the maximum allowable displacement in the tunnel and the ultimate displacement capacity of rockbolts must be also taken into account in the design. Finally, rockbolts should be compatible with other support elements in the same support system in terms of displacement and energy absorption capacities.

  10. Philosophical, logical and scientific perspectives in engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Sen, Zekâi

    2013-01-01

    This book highlights and explains the significance of philosophical, logical, and scientific principles for engineering education/training and engineering works. In so doing, it aims to help to rectify the neglect of philosophy and logic in current education and training programs, which emphasize analytical and numerical methods at the expense of the innovative practical and creative abilities so important for engineering in the past. Individual chapters examine the relation of philosophy, logic, and science to engineering, drawing attention to, for example, the significance of ethics, the rel

  11. The principle of freedom of contract in civil law of the Republic of Belarus

    OpenAIRE

    BONDARENKO N.L.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: according to the author of the article, the principle of freedom of contract, secured among fundamental principles of civil legislation of the Republic of Belarus, is not fully implemented in the current legislation. Purpose: to identify legal rules incoherent with the requirements of the principle of freedom of contract and to work out proposals for their correction. Methods: the methodological framework of the research is based on a set of universal, general scientific and spe...

  12. Test of the Equivalence Principle in an Einstein Elevator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Irwin I.

    2002-05-01

    The scientific goal of the experiment is to test the equality of gravitational and inertial mass (i.e., to test the Principle of Equivalence) by measuring the independence of the rate of fall of bodies from the composition of the falling body. The measurement is accomplished by measuring the relative displacement (or equivalently acceleration) of two falling bodies of different materials which are the proof masses of a differential accelerometer. The goal of the experiment is to measure the Eotvos ratio delta-g/g (differential acceleration/common acceleration) with an accuracy goal of a few parts in 1015. The estimated accuracy is about two orders of magnitude better than the present state of the art. The experiment is a null experiment in which a result different from zero will indicate a violation of the Equivalence Principle. The main goal of the study to be carried out under this grant is the flight definition of the experiment and bread boarding of critical components of the experiment that will enable us to be ready for the following phases of the project. The project involves an international cooperation in which the responsibility of the US side is the flight definition of the experimental facility while the responsibility of the non-US partners is the flight definition and laboratory prototyping of the differential acceleration detector. In summary, the experiment to be designed is for taking differential acceleration measurements with a high-sensitivity detector (the sensor) during free fall conditions lasting up to 30 s in a disturbance-free acceleration environment. The experiment strategy consists in letting the sensor free fall inside a few meters long (in the vertical direction) evacuated capsule that is falling simultaneously in the rarefied atmosphere after release from a helium balloon flying at a stratospheric altitude.

  13. Modeling scientific research articles : shifting perspectives and persistent issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Waard, Anita; Kircz, Joost

    2008-01-01

    We review over 10 years of research at Elsevier and various Dutch academic institutions on establishing a new format for the scientific research article. Our work rests on two main theoretical principles: the concept of modular documents, consisting of content elements that can exist and be

  14. Improving Performances in the Public Sector: The Scientific ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The need for improve performances in organization has always been a source of concern for management in both the public and the private sector. This paper sought to discuss the principle of scientific management theory as propounded by F.W. Taylor with the aim of ensuring that public services organizations adopts the ...

  15. Scientific and Pragmatic Challenges for Bridging Education and Neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varma, Sashank; McCandliss, Bruce D.; Schwartz, Daniel L.

    2008-01-01

    Educational neuroscience is an emerging effort to integrate neuroscience methods, particularly functional neuroimaging, with behavioral methods to address issues of learning and instruction. This article consolidates common concerns about connecting education and neuroscience. One set of concerns is scientific: in-principle differences in methods,…

  16. Evolutionary principles and their practical application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendry, Andrew P; Kinnison, Michael T; Heino, Mikko; Day, Troy; Smith, Thomas B; Fitt, Gary; Bergstrom, Carl T; Oakeshott, John; Jørgensen, Peter S; Zalucki, Myron P; Gilchrist, George; Southerton, Simon; Sih, Andrew; Strauss, Sharon; Denison, Robert F; Carroll, Scott P

    2011-01-01

    Evolutionary principles are now routinely incorporated into medicine and agriculture. Examples include the design of treatments that slow the evolution of resistance by weeds, pests, and pathogens, and the design of breeding programs that maximize crop yield or quality. Evolutionary principles are also increasingly incorporated into conservation biology, natural resource management, and environmental science. Examples include the protection of small and isolated populations from inbreeding depression, the identification of key traits involved in adaptation to climate change, the design of harvesting regimes that minimize unwanted life-history evolution, and the setting of conservation priorities based on populations, species, or communities that harbor the greatest evolutionary diversity and potential. The adoption of evolutionary principles has proceeded somewhat independently in these different fields, even though the underlying fundamental concepts are the same. We explore these fundamental concepts under four main themes: variation, selection, connectivity, and eco-evolutionary dynamics. Within each theme, we present several key evolutionary principles and illustrate their use in addressing applied problems. We hope that the resulting primer of evolutionary concepts and their practical utility helps to advance a unified multidisciplinary field of applied evolutionary biology. PMID:25567966

  17. MODELING OF INNOVATION EDUCATIONAL ENVIRONMENT OF GENERAL EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTION: THE SCIENTIFIC APPROACHES

    OpenAIRE

    Anzhelika D. Tsymbalaru

    2010-01-01

    In the paper the scientific approaches to modeling of innovation educational environment of a general educational institution – system (analysis of object, process and result of modeling as system objects), activity (organizational and psychological structure) and synergetic (aspects and principles).

  18. Romanians Civil Servants between New Public Management and Neo Weberian Principles. Some perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Maria Bercu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at outlining the contents of the special issue on Romanian civil servants,making a comparative analyze of the principles applicable: can we discuss about New PublicManagement (NPM approaches or, taking into consideration the Romanian civil service reform, wehave a Neo Weberian model? The article provides reviews of the scientific literatures in this specialissue. The argument is that the work performance ofcivil servants are based on a set of goalsdetermined by the citizens-clients needs and the market movements, but, in the mean time, it is aboutthe quality of work in terms of citizens satisfaction and the innovative solutions for the administrativeproblems. The special issue, of which this articleprovides an overview, make an incursion in theliterature providing analyze on the Romanians civilservants based on the steps of actual reform andputting on the questions the managerial and bureaucratic principles. Research limitations include thewidth of the phenomenon under discussion. We statethat the work and performance means not onlyNPM principles, but have instead chosen to adopt the Neo Weberian approach.

  19. Report of scientific results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The findings of R+D activities of the HMI radiation chemistry department in the fields of pulsed radiolysis, reaction kinematics, insulators and plastics are presented as well as the scientific publications and lectures of HMI staff and visitors including theoretical contributions, theses and dissertations, and conference papers. (HK) [de

  20. Scientific Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scientific Medical Journal: an official journal of Egyptian Medical Education provides a forum for dissemination of knowledge, exchange of ideas, inform of exchange of ideas, information and experience among workers, investigators and clinicians in all disciplines of medicine with emphasis on its treatment and prevention.

  1. Scientific Report 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-09-01

    This annual scientific report gives an concise overview of research and development activities at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN in 2007. The report discusses progress and main achievements in the following areas: reactor safety, radioactive waste and clean-up, radiation protection, the BR2 reactor, nuclear research and society, managing nuclear knowledge and fusion research

  2. Scientific Report 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-04-01

    The annual scientific report gives an overview of the R and D activities at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN in 2001. The report discusses progress and main achievements in four principal areas: Radiation Protection, Radioactive Waste and Clean-up, Reactor Safety and the BR2 Reactor.

  3. Improving scientific knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    James M. Vose; David L. Peterson

    2012-01-01

    Scientific literature on the effects of climatic variability and change on forest ecosystems has increased significantly over the past decade, providing a foundation for establishing forest-climate relationships and projecting the effects of continued warming on a wide range of forest resources and ecosystem services. In addition, certainty about the nature of some of...

  4. Dorky Poll Scientific Fears

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    The questions posed in yesterday's posts about hopes for 2008 were half of what we were asked by the Powers That Be. The other half: What scientific development do you fear you'll be blogging or reading about in 2008?

  5. Scientific Report 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-04-01

    The annual scientific report gives a summary overview of the research and development activities at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN in 2004. The report discusses progress and main achievements in the following areas: reactor safety, radioactive waste and clean-up, radiation protection, the BR2 reactor, nuclear research and society, managing nuclear knowledge and fusion research

  6. A Scientific Autobiography

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 21; Issue 1. A Scientific Autobiography. Sushan Konar. Book Review Volume 21 Issue 1 January 2016 pp 89-92. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/021/01/0089-0092. Author Affiliations.

  7. Scientific annual report 1973

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A report is given on the scientific research at DESY in 1973, which included the first storage of electrons in the double storage ring DORIS. Also mentioned are the two large spectrometers PLUTO and DASP, and experiments relating to elementary particles, synchrotron radiation, and the improvement of the equipment are described. (WL/AK) [de

  8. 2003 Scientific Technological Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prado Cuba, A.; Gayoso Caballero, C.; Robles Nique, A.; Olivera Lescano, P.

    2004-08-01

    This annual scientific-technological report provides an overview of research and development activities at Peruvian Institute of Nuclear Energy (IPEN) during the period from 1 january to 31 december, 2003. This report includes 54 papers divided in 9 subject matters: physics and nuclear chemistry, nuclear engineering, materials science, radiochemistry, industrial applications, medical applications, environmental applications, protection and radiological safety, and management aspects

  9. Scientific Report 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The annual scientific report gives an overview of the R and D activities at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN in 2003. The report discusses progress and main achievements in the following areas: reactor safety, radioactive waste and clean-up, radiation protection, the BR2 reactor, nuclear research and society, managing nuclear knowledge, and fusion research

  10. Funding scientific open access

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canessa, E.; Fonda, C.; Zennaro, M.

    2006-11-01

    In order to reduce the knowledge divide, more Open Access Journals (OAJ) are needed in all languages and scholarly subject areas that exercise peer-review or editorial quality control. To finance needed costs, it is discussed why and how to sell target specific advertisement by associating ads to given scientific keywords. (author)

  11. The Scientific Enterprise

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Srimath

    ancient Greece was so confused by different claims of truth that he gave up trying to find out where the truth lay. ... The word skepticism comes from the Greek skeptesthai: to consider, to examine. In this etymological ... Need for refinements and modifications of long held notions become a matter of routine. Yet, the scientific ...

  12. The Scientific Enterprise

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 14; Issue 11. The Scientific Enterprise - Theories and Hypothesis in Science. V V Raman. Reflections Volume 14 Issue 11 November 2009 pp 1122-1131. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  13. Nursing's Scientific Quest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Jean

    1981-01-01

    Examines nursing's changing research practices. Discusses changes in the philosophy of science, dichotomies within nursing, and nursing's changing research tradition. Concludes that a new research tradition can provide nursing with the scientific and social freedom and openness to solve both conceptual and empirical problems. (CT)

  14. Scientific Report 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-04-01

    The annual scientific report gives an overview of the R and D activities at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN in 2001. The report discusses progress and main achievements in four principal areas: Radiation Protection, Radioactive Waste and Clean-up, Reactor Safety and the BR2 Reactor

  15. Scientific Report 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-09-01

    The annual scientific report gives a summary overview of the research and development activities at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN in 2006. The report discusses progress and main achievements in the following areas: reactor safety, radioactive waste and clean-up, radiation protection, the BR2 reactor, nuclear research and society, managing nuclear knowledge and fusion research

  16. Projecting the Scientific Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uthe, R. E.

    2000-01-01

    Describes how the gas laws are an excellent vehicle for introducing the steps of the scientific method. Students can use balloons and a simple apparatus to observe changes in various gas parameters, develop ideas about the changes they see, collect numerical data, test their ideas, derive simple equations for the relationships, and use the…

  17. Mario Bunge's Scientific Realism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordero, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents and comments on Mario Bunge's scientific realism. After a brief introduction in Sects. 1 and 2 outlines Bunge's conception of realism. Focusing on the case of quantum mechanics, Sect. 3 explores how his approach plays out for problematic theories. Section 4 comments on Bunge's project against the background of the current…

  18. Scientific Report 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-04-01

    The annual scientific report gives a summary overview of the research and development activities at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN in 2005. The report discusses progress and main achievements in the following areas: reactor safety, radioactive waste and clean-up, radiation protection, the BR2 reactor, nuclear research and society, managing nuclear knowledge and fusion research

  19. Federal Agency Scientific Integrity Policies and the Legal Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, L.

    2017-12-01

    Federal agencies have worked to develop scientific integrity policies to promote the use of scientific and technical information in policymaking, reduce special-interest influences, and increase transparency. Following recent allegations of agency misconduct, these policies are now more important than ever. In addition to setting standards, scientific integrity policies also provide avenues for whistleblowers to complain about perceived violations. While these policies have their shortcomings (which may differ by agency), they are also one of the better available options for upholding principles of scientific integrity within the federal government. A legal perspective will be offered on what sorts of issues might rise to the threshold to make an official complaint, and the process of actually making a complaint. Other legal avenues for complaining about scientific integrity violations will also be discussed, such as complaints filed with the U.S. Office of Special Counsel or an agency's Office of Inspector General, and bringing the matter to federal court.

  20. Core principles of evolutionary medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunspan, Daniel Z; Nesse, Randolph M; Barnes, M Elizabeth; Brownell, Sara E

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background and objectives Evolutionary medicine is a rapidly growing field that uses the principles of evolutionary biology to better understand, prevent and treat disease, and that uses studies of disease to advance basic knowledge in evolutionary biology. Over-arching principles of evolutionary medicine have been described in publications, but our study is the first to systematically elicit core principles from a diverse panel of experts in evolutionary medicine. These principles should be useful to advance recent recommendations made by The Association of American Medical Colleges and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute to make evolutionary thinking a core competency for pre-medical education. Methodology The Delphi method was used to elicit and validate a list of core principles for evolutionary medicine. The study included four surveys administered in sequence to 56 expert panelists. The initial open-ended survey created a list of possible core principles; the three subsequent surveys winnowed the list and assessed the accuracy and importance of each principle. Results Fourteen core principles elicited at least 80% of the panelists to agree or strongly agree that they were important core principles for evolutionary medicine. These principles over-lapped with concepts discussed in other articles discussing key concepts in evolutionary medicine. Conclusions and implications This set of core principles will be helpful for researchers and instructors in evolutionary medicine. We recommend that evolutionary medicine instructors use the list of core principles to construct learning goals. Evolutionary medicine is a young field, so this list of core principles will likely change as the field develops further. PMID:29493660

  1. Funding food science and nutrition research: financial conflicts and scientific integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Sylvia; Alexander, Nick; Clydesdale, Fergus M; Applebaum, Rhona S; Atkinson, Stephanie; Black, Richard M; Dwyer, Johanna T; Hentges, Eric; Higley, Nancy A; Lefevre, Michael; Lupton, Joanne R; Miller, Sanford A; Tancredi, Doris L; Weaver, Connie M; Woteki, Catherine E; Wedral, Elaine

    2009-05-01

    There has been significant public debate about the susceptibility of research to biases of various kinds. The dialogue has extended to the peer-reviewed literature, scientific conferences, the mass media, government advisory bodies, and beyond. Whereas biases can come from myriad sources, the overwhelming focus of the discussion to date has been on industry-funded science. Given the critical role that industry has played and will continue to play in the research process, the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) North America Working Group on Guiding Principles has, in this article, proposed conflict-of-interest guidelines regarding industry funding to protect the integrity and credibility of the scientific record, particularly with respect to health, nutrition, and food-safety science. Eight principles are enumerated, which specify the ground rules for industry-sponsored research. This article, which issues a challenge to the broader scientific community to address all bias issues, is only a first step; the document is intended to be dynamic, prompting ongoing discussion and refinement. In the conduct of public/private research relationships, all relevant parties shall 1) conduct or sponsor research that is factual, transparent, and designed objectively, and, according to accepted principles of scientific inquiry, the research design will generate an appropriately phrased hypothesis and the research will answer the appropriate questions, rather than favor a particular outcome; 2) require control of both study design and research itself to remain with scientific investigators; 3) not offer or accept remuneration geared to the outcome of a research project; 4) ensure, before the commencement of studies, that there is a written agreement that the investigative team has the freedom and obligation to attempt to publish the findings within some specified time frame; 5) require, in publications and conference presentations, full signed disclosure of all financial

  2. The precautionary principle in international environmental law and international jurisprudence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tubić Bojan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analysis international regulation of the precautionary principle as one of environmental principles. This principle envisages that when there are threats of serious and irreparable harm, as a consequence of certain economic activity, the lack of scientific evidence and full certainty cannot be used as a reason for postponing efficient measures for preventing environmental harm. From economic point of view, the application of precautionary principle is problematic, because it creates larger responsibility for those who create possible risks, comparing to the previous period. The precautionary principle can be found in numerous international treaties in this field, which regulate it in a very similar manner. There is no consensus in doctrine whether this principle has reached the level of international customary law, because it was interpreted differently and it was not accepted by large number of countries in their national legislations. It represents a developing concept which is consisted of changing positions on adequate roles of science, economy, politics and law in the field of environmental protection. This principle has been discussed in several cases before International Court of Justice and International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea.

  3. Scientific and Technological Information Activity in China (White Paper on Science and Technology : No.1, 1986.5)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Translated By Joho Kanri Editorial Committee

    This is a translation of Chapter 4 : Information Systems of Volume 5 : Environment and Resources in the first number of White Paper on Science and Technology edited in May 1986 by State Scientific and Technological Commission (SSTC). Scientific and technological information activity in China has progressed by keeping close cooperation among the Institute for Scientific and Technological Information in China (ISTIC) as a core organization, 33 information institutes under the control of each ministrial commission of The State Council and 35 information institutes of the local governments and cities. As a result of having promoted the information activities along with the guiding principle decided by the 5th National Conference on Scientific and Technological Information in July 1980, information business could be made a great contribution to political decision, national projects and economy stressing plan, technology introduction, etc. The Scientific and Technological Information Bureau of SSTC as a coordinating body proposed the following subjects as an important item for promoting future information business in China: standardization of abstract journals, bringing up of investigators and researchers, production of data bases and consolidation of international online retrieval services, step by step introduction of a charging system for information service, etc.

  4. Proposal to consistently apply the International Code of Nomenclature of Prokaryotes (ICNP) to names of the oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria (cyanobacteria), including those validly published under the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (ICBN)/International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants (ICN), and proposal to change Principle 2 of the ICNP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinevich, Alexander V

    2015-03-01

    This taxonomic note was motivated by the recent proposal [Oren & Garrity (2014) Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 64, 309-310] to exclude the oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria (cyanobacteria) from the wording of General Consideration 5 of the International Code of Nomenclature of Prokaryotes (ICNP), which entails unilateral coverage of these prokaryotes by the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN; formerly the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature, ICBN). On the basis of key viewpoints, approaches and rules in the systematics, taxonomy and nomenclature of prokaryotes it is reciprocally proposed to apply the ICNP to names of cyanobacteria including those validly published under the ICBN/ICN. For this purpose, a change to Principle 2 of the ICNP is proposed to enable validation of cyanobacterial names published under the ICBN/ICN rules. © 2015 IUMS.

  5. Archimedes' principle in general coordinates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridgely, Charles T

    2010-01-01

    Archimedes' principle is well known to state that a body submerged in a fluid is buoyed up by a force equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the body. Herein, Archimedes' principle is derived from first principles by using conservation of the stress-energy-momentum tensor in general coordinates. The resulting expression for the force is applied in Schwarzschild coordinates and in rotating coordinates. Using Schwarzschild coordinates for the case of a spherical mass suspended within a perfect fluid leads to the familiar expression of Archimedes' principle. Using rotating coordinates produces an expression for a centrifugal buoyancy force that agrees with accepted theory. It is then argued that Archimedes' principle ought to be applicable to non-gravitational phenomena, as well. Conservation of the energy-momentum tensor is then applied to electromagnetic phenomena. It is shown that a charged body submerged in a charged medium experiences a buoyancy force in accordance with an electromagnetic analogue of Archimedes' principle.

  6. Archimedes' principle in general coordinates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgely, Charles T.

    2010-05-01

    Archimedes' principle is well known to state that a body submerged in a fluid is buoyed up by a force equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the body. Herein, Archimedes' principle is derived from first principles by using conservation of the stress-energy-momentum tensor in general coordinates. The resulting expression for the force is applied in Schwarzschild coordinates and in rotating coordinates. Using Schwarzschild coordinates for the case of a spherical mass suspended within a perfect fluid leads to the familiar expression of Archimedes' principle. Using rotating coordinates produces an expression for a centrifugal buoyancy force that agrees with accepted theory. It is then argued that Archimedes' principle ought to be applicable to non-gravitational phenomena, as well. Conservation of the energy-momentum tensor is then applied to electromagnetic phenomena. It is shown that a charged body submerged in a charged medium experiences a buoyancy force in accordance with an electromagnetic analogue of Archimedes' principle.

  7. Values and the Scientific Culture of Behavior Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Maria R; Roche, Bryan

    2007-01-01

    As scientists and practitioners, behavior analysts must make frequent decisions that affect many lives. Scientific principles have been our guide as we work to promote effective action across a broad spectrum of cultural practices. Yet scientific principles alone may not be sufficient to guide our decision making in cases with potentially conflicting outcomes. In such cases, values function as guides to work through ethical conflicts. We will examine two ethical systems, radical behaviorism and functional contextualism, from which to consider the role of values in behavior analysis, and discuss potential concerns. Finally, we propose philosophical pragmatism, focusing on John Dewey's notions of community and dialogue, as a tradition that can help behavior analysts to integrate talk about values and scientific practices in ethical decision making. PMID:22478484

  8. Scientific Data Services -- A High-Performance I/O System with Array Semantics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Kesheng; Byna, Surendra; Rotem, Doron; Shoshani, Arie

    2011-09-21

    As high-performance computing approaches exascale, the existing I/O system design is having trouble keeping pace in both performance and scalability. We propose to address this challenge by adopting database principles and techniques in parallel I/O systems. First, we propose to adopt an array data model because many scientific applications represent their data in arrays. This strategy follows a cardinal principle from database research, which separates the logical view from the physical layout of data. This high-level data model gives the underlying implementation more freedom to optimize the physical layout and to choose the most effective way of accessing the data. For example, knowing that a set of write operations is working on a single multi-dimensional array makes it possible to keep the subarrays in a log structure during the write operations and reassemble them later into another physical layout as resources permit. While maintaining the high-level view, the storage system could compress the user data to reduce the physical storage requirement, collocate data records that are frequently used together, or replicate data to increase availability and fault-tolerance. Additionally, the system could generate secondary data structures such as database indexes and summary statistics. We expect the proposed Scientific Data Services approach to create a “live” storage system that dynamically adjusts to user demands and evolves with the massively parallel storage hardware.

  9. The 2009 Earth Science Literacy Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wysession, M. E.; Budd, D. A.; Campbell, K. M.; Conklin, M. H.; Kappel, E. S.; Ladue, N.; Lewis, G.; Raynolds, R.; Ridky, R. W.; Ross, R. M.; Taber, J.; Tewksbury, B. J.; Tuddenham, P.

    2009-12-01

    assist in areas such as the creation of educational products and standards and the setting of relevant government policy. In order to increase the reach of the ESLI Principles, the document has been translated into Spanish, and other languages are also being considered. The document will undergo annual updating in response to growth and change in the scientific understandings of Earth science.

  10. Pedagogical Principles in Online Teaching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beckmann, Suzanne C.; Uth Thomsen, Thyra; von Wallpach, Sylvia

    of the seven pedagogical principles that govern the teaching at our university. We also present a case study that illustrates how both opportunities and challenges were met in two “first-mover” fully online courses during Fall 2014. The experiences from this case study are discussed in terms of to what extent...... they met the pedagogical principles and observations unrelated to the pedagogical principle are shared....

  11. Principle extremum of full action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon I. Khmelnik

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A new variational principle extremum of full action is proposed, which extends the Lagrange formalism on dissipative systems. It is shown that this principle is applicable in electrical engineering, electrodynamics, mechanics and hydrodynamics, taking into account the friction forces. The proposed variational principle may be considered as a new formalism used as an universal method of physical equations derivation, and also as a method for solving these equations.

  12. CSP for Executable Scientific Workflows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friborg, Rune Møllegaard

    is demonstrated through examples. By providing a robust library for organising scientific workflows in a Python application I hope to inspire scientific users to adopt PyCSP. As a proof-of-concept this thesis demonstrates three scientific applications: kNN, stochastic minimum search and McStas to scale well......This thesis presents CSP as a means of orchestrating the execution of tasks in a scientific workflow. Scientific workflow systems are popular in a wide range of scientific areas, where tasks are organised in directed graphs. Execution of such graphs is handled by the scientific workflow systems...... and the readability of Python source code. Python is a popular programming language in the scientific community, with many scientific libraries (modules) and simple integration to external languages. This thesis presents a PyCSP extended with many new features and a more robust implementation to allow scientific...

  13. The iceberg principles

    CERN Document Server

    Spencer-Devlin, Marni

    2013-01-01

    The Iceberg Principles connect spirituality and science in a way that proves that the energy, which is the substance of the Universe, really is Love - not sweet, syrupy, candy-and-roses kind of love but the most powerful force in the Universe. Love without expression is meaningless. This is why the Big Bang was the only logical outcome. Love had to become reflected in dimensionality. With the Big Bang a 4:96 ratio was created between the dimensional and non-dimensional realms. This ratio between visibility and invisibility the ratio of an iceberg also applies to human beings. Only four percent of who we are is visible. Our physical DNA describes us but it does not define us. What defines us are our characteristics, our gifts, and talents - the spiritual DNA. This is invisible but makes up ninety-six percent of who we are. Our talents are not accidental; our life purpose is to express them. Just as the Universe emerges into dimensionality, constantly creating galaxies at millions of miles a minute, we are al...

  14. Principles of Bioremediation Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, E. L.

    2001-12-01

    Although microorganisms have successfully and spontaneously maintained the biosphere since its inception, industrialized societies now produce undesirable chemical compounds at rates that outpace naturally occurring microbial detoxification processes. This presentation provides an overview of both the complexities of contaminated sites and methodological limitations in environmental microbiology that impede the documentation of biodegradation processes in the field. An essential step toward attaining reliable bioremediation technologies is the development of criteria which prove that microorganisms in contaminated field sites are truly active in metabolizing contaminants of interest. These criteria, which rely upon genetic, biochemical, physiological, and ecological principles and apply to both in situ and ex situ bioremediation strategies include: (i) internal conservative tracers; (ii) added conservative tracers; (iii) added radioactive tracers; (iv) added isotopic tracers; (v) stable isotopic fractionation patterns; (vi) detection of intermediary metabolites; (vii) replicated field plots; (viii) microbial metabolic adaptation; (ix) molecular biological indicators; (x) gradients of coreactants and/or products; (xi) in situ rates of respiration; (xii) mass balances of contaminants, coreactants, and products; and (xiii) computer modeling that incorporates transport and reactive stoichiometries of electron donors and acceptors. The ideal goal is achieving a quantitative understanding of the geochemistry, hydrogeology, and physiology of complex real-world systems.

  15. Neutron diffraction principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granada, Jose R.

    1998-01-01

    Neutron as research element contributes at present to the understanding and development of almost all aspects related to basic and applied science, even with the relative inaccessibility of neutron sources and the fact that the most intense sources still provide relatively weak neutron beams. The initial discovery of these potentialities and the first works that allowed to convert the neutronic techniques into the actual powerful experimental tool, have been recognized by the adjudication of the Nobel Prize in Physics 1994 to Professors B. Brockhouse and C. Shull. Unfortunately, these tools have not been exploited neither in our country, nor in the Latin American area, with the exception of very limited applications in Materials Science. Although the theoretical principles of neutron scattering techniques have been treated in texts and review works, the aim of this work is to present a compact set of expressions, oriented to sustain and explain the basic forms or the most frequent use for the interpretation of experimental results. The formulation, mostly based on the initial chapters of the Ph.D. Thesis of G.J. Cuello (Instituto Balseiro, 1996), only considers nuclear scattering of neutrons for extension reasons, but it must be taken into account that the experiments designed for the study of the magnetic properties of materials currently play a rol of importance equal to those

  16. Great Lakes Literacy Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortner, Rosanne W.; Manzo, Lyndsey

    2011-03-01

    Lakes Superior, Huron, Michigan, Ontario, and Erie together form North America's Great Lakes, a region that contains 20% of the world's fresh surface water and is home to roughly one quarter of the U.S. population (Figure 1). Supporting a $4 billion sport fishing industry, plus $16 billion annually in boating, 1.5 million U.S. jobs, and $62 billion in annual wages directly, the Great Lakes form the backbone of a regional economy that is vital to the United States as a whole (see http://www.miseagrant.umich.edu/downloads/economy/11-708-Great-Lakes-Jobs.pdf). Yet the grandeur and importance of this freshwater resource are little understood, not only by people in the rest of the country but also by many in the region itself. To help address this lack of knowledge, the Centers for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence (COSEE) Great Lakes, supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, developed literacy principles for the Great Lakes to serve as a guide for education of students and the public. These “Great Lakes Literacy Principles” represent an understanding of the Great Lakes' influences on society and society's influences on the Great Lakes.

  17. [The principles of homeopathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjelvik, M; Mørenskog, E

    1997-06-30

    Homeopathy is a gentle but effective form of treatment which stimulates the natural ability of the organism to heal itself. The word homoeopathy comes from the greek words "homoios" which means similar, and "pathos" which means disease. This reflects the main principle of homoeopathy, the law of similars, which predicts that a disease can be cured by a medicine, which in healthy people is able to produce a condition that resembles the disease. The law of similars is probably a basic law of nature. Therefore it is not surprising that examples can also be found in orthodox medicine, where the mode of functioning for some medicines probably can be ascribed the law of similars. Homoeopathic medicines are likely to work through the body's own curative powers in a way that is best explained by comparison with vaccination. Both the homoeopathic medicine and the vaccine constitute a mild stimulous that causes mobilisation of the body's defence mechanisms and thus increased ability to oppose a pathogenic influence. The homoeopathic medicine does not work at molecular level, but probably through non-materialistic qualities (possibly electromagnetic in nature) in the organism, which are so sensitive that even a mild stimulus is enough to cause a reaction. This means that homoeopathic preparations can still have an effect even when diluted beyond avogadro's number.

  18. Quantum principles and particles

    CERN Document Server

    Wilcox, Walter

    2012-01-01

    QUANTUM PRINCIPLESPerspective and PrinciplesPrelude to Quantum MechanicsStern-Gerlach Experiment Idealized Stern-Gerlach ResultsClassical Model AttemptsWave Functions for Two Physical-Outcome CaseProcess Diagrams, Operators, and Completeness Further Properties of Operators/ModulationOperator ReformulationOperator RotationBra-Ket Notation/Basis StatesTransition AmplitudesThree-Magnet Setup Example-CoherenceHermitian ConjugationUnitary OperatorsA Very Special OperatorMatrix RepresentationsMatrix Wave Function RecoveryExpectation ValuesWrap Up ProblemsFree Particles in One DimensionPhotoelectric EffectCompton EffectUncertainty Relation for PhotonsStability of Ground StatesBohr ModelFourier Transform and Uncertainty RelationsSchrödinger EquationSchrödinger Equation ExampleDirac Delta FunctionsWave Functions and ProbabilityProbability CurrentTime Separable SolutionsCompleteness for Particle StatesParticle Operator PropertiesOperator RulesTime Evolution and Expectation ValuesWrap-UpProblemsSome One-Dimensional So...

  19. [Scientific ethics of human cloning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, Carlos Y

    2005-01-01

    True cloning is fission, budding or other types of asexual reproduction. In humans it occurs in monozygote twinning. This type of cloning is ethically and religiously good. Human cloning can be performed by twinning (TWClo) or nuclear transfer (NTClo). Both methods need a zygote or a nuclear transferred cell, obtained in vitro (IVTec). They are under the IVTec ethics. IVTecs use humans (zygotes, embryos) as drugs or things; increase the risk of malformations; increase development and size of abnormalities and may cause long-term changes. Cloning for preserving extinct (or almost extinct) animals or humans when sexual reproduction is not possible is ethically valid. The previous selection of a phenotype in human cloning violates some ethical principles. NTClo for reproductive or therapeutic purposes is dangerous since it increases the risk for nucleotide or chromosome mutations, de-programming or re-programming errors, aging or malignancy of the embryo cells thus obtained.

  20. Cross-hierarchy systems principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goentoro, Lea

    2017-02-01

    One driving motivation of systems biology is the search for general principles that govern the design of biological systems. But questions often arise as to what kind of general principles biology could have. Concepts from engineering such as robustness and modularity are indeed becoming a regular way of describing biological systems. Another source of potential general principles is the emerging similarities found in processes across biological hierarchies. In this piece, I describe several emerging cross-hierarchy similarities. Identification of more cross-hierarchy principles, and understanding the implications these convergence have on the construction of biological systems, I believe, present exciting challenges for systems biology in the decades to come.

  1. Fundamental principles of quantum theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bugajski, S.

    1980-01-01

    After introducing general versions of three fundamental quantum postulates - the superposition principle, the uncertainty principle and the complementarity principle - the question of whether the three principles are sufficiently strong to restrict the general Mackey description of quantum systems to the standard Hilbert-space quantum theory is discussed. An example which shows that the answer must be negative is constructed. An abstract version of the projection postulate is introduced and it is demonstrated that it could serve as the missing physical link between the general Mackey description and the standard quantum theory. (author)

  2. Aircraft Infrared Principles, Signatures, Threats, and Countermeasures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-26

    by Under authority of R. SMILEY , Head P. A. SOHL Avionics Department RDML, U.S. Navy 26 September 2012 Commander Released for publication by S...Aircraft Infrared Principles, Signatures, Threats, and Countermeasures (U) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER N/A 5b. GRANT NUMBER N/A 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER...Engine “hot parts,” which usually consist of the aft turbine face , engine center body, and interior nozzle sidewalls. 2. Engine exhaust plumes

  3. Stochastic principles governing alternative splicing of RNA.

    OpenAIRE

    Jianfei Hu; Eli Boritz; William Wylie; Daniel C Douek

    2017-01-01

    Author summary Alternative RNA splicing within eukaryotic cells enables each gene to generate multiple different mature transcripts which further encode proteins with distinct or even opposing functions. The relative frequencies of the transcript isoforms generated by a particular gene are essential to the maintenance of normal cellular physiology; however, the underlying mechanisms and principles that govern these frequencies are unknown. We analyzed the frequency distribution of all transcr...

  4. 1997 Scientific Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Govaerts, P.

    1998-01-01

    The 1997 Scientific Report of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN describes progress achieved in nuclear safety, radioactive waste management, radiation protection and safeguards. In the field of nuclear research, the main projects concern the behaviour of high-burnup and MOX fuel, the embrittlement of reactor pressure vessels, the irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking of reactor internals, and irradiation effects on materials of fusion reactors. In the field of radioactive waste management, progress in the following domains is reported: the disposal of high-level radioactive waste and spent fuel in a clay formation, the decommissioning of nuclear installations, the study of alternative waste-processing techniques. For radiation protection and safeguards, the main activities reported on are in the field of site and environmental restoration, emergency planning and response and scientific support to national and international programmes

  5. Scientific report 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this report is to outline the main developments of the ''Departement des Reacteurs Nucleaires'', (DRN) during the year 1998. DRN is one of the CEA Institution. This report is divided in three main parts: the DRN scientific programs, the scientific and technical publications (with abstracts in english) and economic data on staff, budget and communication. Main results of the Department, for the year 1998, are presented giving information on the reactors technology and safety, the neutronics, the transmutation and the hybrid systems, the dismantling and the sites improvement, the nuclear accidents, the nuclear matter transport, the thermonuclear fusion safety, the fuel cladding materials and radioactive waste control. (A.L.B.)

  6. Sherlock Holmes: scientific detective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Laura J

    2004-09-01

    Sherlock Holmes was intended by his creator, Arthur Conan Doyle, to be a 'scientific detective'. Conan Doyle criticized his predecessor Edgar Allan Poe for giving his creation - Inspector Dupin - only the 'illusion' of scientific method. Conan Doyle believed that he had succeeded where Poe had failed; thus, he has Watson remark that Holmes has 'brought detection as near an exact science as it will ever be brought into the world.' By examining Holmes' methods, it becomes clear that Conan Doyle modelled them on certain images of science that were popular in mid- to late-19th century Britain. Contrary to a common view, it is also evident that rather than being responsible for the invention of forensic science, the creation of Holmes was influenced by the early development of it.

  7. Scientific Social Responsibility?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glerup, Cecilie; Horst, Maja

    for the development of competitive knowledge economies. In the present paper, these developments are all understood as moves to increase the social responsibility of science, i.e. efforts to hold science accountable to wider social, economic and ethical values. Despite the widespread political and theoretical plea...... formed organizations to make science responsible for its social effects. More recently, ideals of increasing the social acceptability of science through engagement, reflexivity and dialogue seems to have found their way into the heart of policy-making, not least as a way of making science a prime motor...... for scientific social responsibility (SSR), however, there is a striking lack of knowledge about how it should be (or indeed is) performed in practice. This paper makes a first step in this direction by mapping different interpretations of what scientific social responsibility might entail. It also charts...

  8. Scientific report 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this report is to outline the main developments of the 'Departement des Reacteurs Nucleaires' (DRN) during the year 1999. DRN is one of the CEA Institutions. This report is divided in three main parts: the DRN scientific programs, the scientific and technical publications (with abstracts in English) and economic data on staff, budget and communication. Main results of the Department for the year 1999 are presented giving information on the simulation of low mach number compressible flow, experimental irradiation of multi-materials, progress in the dry route conversion process of UF 6 to UO 2 , the neutronics, the CASCADE installation, the corium, the BWR type reactor cores technology, the reactor safety, the transmutation of americium and fuel cell flow studies, the crack propagation, the hybrid systems and the CEA sites improvement. (A.L.B.)

  9. [Scientific periodicals: quality criteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Maria Cecilia Gonzaga; Krzyzanowski, Rosaly Favero

    2003-05-01

    This paper presents a historical literature review on the evaluation of periodicals and the methodology employed for their evaluation. It emphasizes the attention that should be given to the contents of the periodicals and their format based on technical standards in order to reach a global quality of the publications. This paper includes a summary of the most important aspects of the technical standards for periodicals and scientific articles.

  10. Scientific thinking in ophthalmology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Chandran

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Science, medicine and ophthalmology have all evolved and progressed through varied but powerful influences over the centuries. While the tremendous technological advances in ophthalmology in the past 20 years are readily appreciated, many clinicians fail to grasp the impact of the several clinical trials that have contributed to better patient care. This article briefly traces the history of science, medicine and ophthalmology, and explains how scientific thinking could be applied to the clinical and academic aspects of ophthalmology.

  11. Professional scientific blog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamás Beke

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The professional blog is a weblog that on the whole meets the requirements of scientific publication. In my opinion it bear a resemblance to digital notice board, where the competent specialists of the given branch of science can place their ideas, questions, possible solutions and can raise problems. Its most important function can be collectivization of the knowledge. In this article I am going to examine the characteristics of the scientific blog as a genre. Conventional learning counts as a rather solitary activity. If the students have access to the materials of each other and of the teacher, their sense of solitude diminishes and this model is also closer to the constructivist approach that features the way most people think and learn. Learning does not mean passively collecting tiny pieces of knowledge; it much more esembles ‘spinning a conceptual net’ which is made up by the experiences and observations of the individual. With the spreading of the Internet more universities and colleges worldwide gave a try to on-line educational methods, but the most efficient one has not been found yet. The publication of the curriculum (the material of the lectures and the handling of the electronic mails are not sufficient; much more is needed for collaborative learning. Our scholastic scientific blog can be a sufficient field for the start of a knowledge-building process based on cooperation. In the Rocard-report can be read that for the future of Europe it is crucial to develop the education of the natural sciences, and for this it isnecessary to act on local, regional, national and EU-level. To the educational processes should be involved beyond the traditional actors (child, parent, teacher also others (scientists, professionals, universities, local institutions, the actors of the economic sphere, etc.. The scholastic scientific blog answer the purposes, as a collaborative knowledge-sharing forum.

  12. Scientific Technological Report 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gayoso C, C.; Cuya G, T.; Robles N, A.; Prado C, A.

    2003-07-01

    This annual scientific-technological report provides an overview of research and development activities at Peruvian Institute of Nuclear Energy (IPEN) during the period from 1 january to 31 december, 2002. This report includes 58 papers divided in 10 subject matters: physics and nuclear chemistry, nuclear engineering, materials, industrial applications, biological applications, medical applications, environmental applications, protection and radiological safety, nuclear safety, and management aspects

  13. Scientific uses of animals: harm-benefit analysis and complementary approaches to implementing the three Rs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griffin, G.; Clark, J.M.; Zurlo, J.; Ritskes-Hoitinga, M.

    2014-01-01

    The principles of humane experimental technique, first described by Russell and Burch in 1959, focus on minimising suffering to animals used for scientific purposes. Internationally, as these principles became embedded in the various systems of oversight for the use of animals in science, attention

  14. PROSCENIUM OF SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Berlingher

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available During the last three decades of the nineteenth century, organizations developed rapidly, their managers began to realize that they had too frequent managerial problems; this awareness lead to a new phase of development of scientific management. Examining the titles published in that period, it can be concluded that management issues that pose interest related to payroll and payroll systems, problems exacerbated by the industrial revolution and related work efficiency. Noting that large organizations losing power, direct supervision, the managers were looking for incentives to replace this power . One of the first practitioners of this new management system was Henry R. Towne, the president of the well-known enterprise "Yale and Towne Manufacturing Company", which applied the management methods in his company workshops. Publishers of magazines "Industrial Management" and "The Engineering Magazine" stated that HR Towne is, undisputedly, the pioneer of scientific management. He initiated the systematic application of effective management methods and his famous article "The Engineer as Economist" provided to the company. "American Society of Mechanical Engineers" in 1886 was the one that probably inspired Frederick W. Taylor to devote his entire life and work in scientific management.

  15. Physical principles in chemoreception

    CERN Document Server

    Wiegel, Frederik W

    1991-01-01

    Is it not sheer foolishness to try to apply the methods of theoretical physics to biological structures? Physics flowered because it limited itself to the study of very simple systems; on the other hand, the essence of "living things" seems to have to do with the extreme intricacy of their structure. Is it a hopeless endeavour to attempt to bring the two together, or should one try nevertheless? Most of my colleagues in theoretical physics feel one should not waste one's time and stick to "the good old hydrogen atom", but some of them feel one should try anyhow. This minority point of view was shared by Bohr in the thirties, Schrödinger in the fourties, Delbrück in the fifties and sixties, PurceIl in the seventies, etc. The theory of chemoreception represents only a very small part of this immense scientific question. Its study was started by Delbriick and others in the fifties. I was introduced to these problems by Charles DeLisi, during a visit to the National Institutes of Health in the summer of 1980. D...

  16. Final Scientific Report: DE-SC0008580

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidler, Gerald T. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2017-03-16

    We report scientific, technical, and organizational accomplishments under DE-SC0008580. This includes 10 publications, 5 patent or provisional patent applications, beamtime with important results at both LCLS and APS, and new progress in understanding target design for x-ray heating experiments at x-ray heating facilities.

  17. Principles of computational fluid dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wesseling, P.

    2001-01-01

    The book is aimed at graduate students, researchers, engineers and physicists involved in flow computations. An up-to-date account is given of the present state- of-the-art of numerical methods employed in computational fluid dynamics. The underlying numerical principles are treated with a fair amount of detail, using elementary mathematical analysis. Attention is given to difficulties arising from geometric complexity of the flow domain and of nonuniform structured boundary-fitted grids. Uniform accuracy and efficiency for singular perturbation problems is studied, pointing the way to accurate computation of flows at high Reynolds number. Much attention is given to stability analysis, and useful stability conditions are provided, some of them new, for many numerical schemes used in practice. Unified methods for compressible and incompressible flows are discussed. Numerical analysis of the shallow-water equations is included. The theory of hyperbolic conservation laws is treated. Godunov's order barrier and how to overcome it by means of slope-limited schemes is discussed. An introduction is given to efficient iterative solution methods, using Krylov subspace and multigrid acceleration. Many pointers are given to recent literature, to help the reader to quickly reach the current research frontier. (orig.)

  18. The Principle of Social Scaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo L. dos Santos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper identifies a general class of economic processes capable of generating the first-moment constraints implicit in the observed cross-sectional distributions of a number of economic variables: processes of social scaling. Across a variety of settings, the outcomes of economic competition reflect the normalization of individual values of certain economic quantities by average or social measures of themselves. The resulting socioreferential processes establish systematic interdependences among individual values of important economic variables, which under certain conditions take the form of emergent first-moment constraints on their distributions. The paper postulates a principle describing this systemic regulation of socially scaled variables and illustrates its empirical purchase by showing how capital- and labor-market competition can give rise to patterns of social scaling that help account for the observed distributions of Tobin’s q and wage income. The paper’s discussion embodies a distinctive approach to understanding and investigating empirically the relationship between individual agency and structural determinations in complex economic systems and motivates the development of observational foundations for aggregative, macrolevel economic analysis.

  19. Design principles for precision mechanisms

    CERN Document Server

    Soemers, Herman

    2011-01-01

    The successful design of mechanisms for products, tools and equipment relies on excellent concepts and properly designed details. Both are covered in this book. Many of the examples presented have been realised in practice and properly evaluated, giving the reader/designer a high level of confidence. Every example comes with the considerations underlying the application and the limitations of the particular idea. This book is based on the work started in the 1960s by W. van der Hoek at Philips in Eindhoven, the Netherlands, and subsequently continued by M.P. Koster, culminating in the Dutch-language book “Constructieprincipes” [Design principles for accurate movement and positioning]. The core of their design approach has been preserved, while theory and examples were updated and the English language was adopted to reach a broad audience within the Netherlands as well as abroad. Herman (H.M.J.R.) Soemers is associated with the University of Twente, Enschede, the Netherlands. He also works as a technolog...

  20. Artificial vision: principles and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilhooley, Michael J; Acheson, James

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this article is to give an overview of the strategies and technologies currently under development to return vision to blind patients and will answer the question: What options exist for artificial vision in patients blind from retinal disease; how close are these to clinical practice? Retinal approaches will be the focus of this review as they are most advanced in terms not only of development, but entry into the imagination of the general public; they are technologies patients ask about, but may be less familiar to practicing neurologists.The prerequisites for retinal survivor cell stimulation are discussed, followed by consideration of the state of the art of four promising methods making use of this principle: electronic prostheses, stem cells, gene therapy and the developing field of ophthalmic optogenetics. Human applications of artificial vision by survivor cell stimulation are certainly with us in the research clinic and very close to commercialization and general use. This, together with their place in the public consciousness, makes the overview provided by this review particularly helpful to practicing neurologists.