WorldWideScience

Sample records for underlying rhetorical abilities

  1. A Motive of Rhetorics: Invention and Speech Acts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Michael J.

    While rhetorical theory has long been concerned with the epistemological foundations of rhetorical abilities, the full potential of the structuralist perspective is far from realized. The study of speech acts and inventive processes discloses the underlying logic of linguistic performance. A speech act is conceptualized in terms of the…

  2. Defining Rhetorical Argumentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kock, Christian Erik J

    2013-01-01

    rhetoric as practical reasoning, i.e., reasoning on proposals for action or choice, not on propositions that may be either true or false. Citing several contemporary philosophers, the article argues that such a definition acquits rhetorical argumentation of any culpable unconcern with truth and explains...... certain peculiar properties of it that tend to be under-theorized in argumentation theory....

  3. The Canadian Legal System, the Robert Latimer Case, and the Rhetorical Construction of (Dis)ability: "Bodies that Matter?"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, Sally

    2009-01-01

    This paper considers Judge Ted Noble's 1997 ruling of the Latimer case in terms of how it rhetorically constructs and privileges the normal, able-bodied status quo, while, at the same time, deconstructs and positions as inferior the "abnormal," dis-abled minority. In this case, Noble not only took the unprecedented step of granting…

  4. Linking Rhetorical Sensitivity with the Ability of an Athletic Training Student to Successfully Perform a Patient Medical Interview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoncino, Thomas K.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the extent to which the self-reported rhetorical sensitivity of a sample of athletic training students is positively related to successfully performing a patient medical interview. Particularly, the study focused on if athletic training students' reported communication behaviors is related to their…

  5. Rhetorical Citizenship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kock, Christian Erik J; Villadsen, Lisa Storm

    2017-01-01

    This article argues for the relevance of a rhetorical approach to the study of citizenship. We show how this view aligns with current views of the multidimensionality of citizenship, explain our use of the term rhetoric, and illustrate the usefulness of a rhetorical approach in two examples....... In close textual readings both examples – one vernacular, one elite – are shown to discursively craft and enact different notions of citizenship via-a-vis the European refugee crisis. We conclude that a rhetorical perspective on public civic discourse is useful in virtue of its close attention...

  6. The Metonym: Rhetoric and Oral Tradition at the Crossroads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Quick

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the intersection between scholarship of rhetoric and oral tradition through the trope of the metonym. Metonymic referentiality has a persuasive function in contemporary discourse through its ability to immerse speaker and audience within a shared context. While a given rhetorical situation might not be strictly traditional in performance, the invoking of traditional associations through metonyms can be a powerful rhetorical act that, if used effectively, creates a deep sense of commonality between rhetor and audience.

  7. Revisiting the Rhetorical Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutten, Kris; Soetaert, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the special strand on "Revisiting the rhetorical curriculum" is to explore the educational potential of a new rhetorical perspective, specifically in relation to different traditions within educational and rhetorical studies. This implies that we do not only look at education "in" rhetoric, but that we position education also "as" a…

  8. Rhetoric in Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gabrielsen, Jonas

    The bond between law and rhetoric is as old as the subjects themselves. Especially the ancient works on legal rhetoric afford, however, a too narrow depiction of the interaction between law and rhetoric as a purely instrumental discipline of communication in court. In this paper I challenge...... this narrow understanding of legal rhetoric and outline three distinct frames of understanding the relation between law and rhetoric...

  9. Underlying reading-related skills and abilities among adult learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellard, Daryl F; Woods, Kari L; Md Desa, Z Deana; Vuyk, M Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory study identified underlying skill and ability differences among subgroups of adolescent and young adult struggling readers (N = 290) overall and in relation to a fluency-based instructional grouping method. We used principal axis factoring of participants' scores on 18 measures of reading-related skills and abilities identified in the research literature to identify a smaller set of generally uncorrelated constructs. The four underlying factors of the 18 measures explained 62.7% of the variance. We labeled these factors Encode/Decode (44.5%), Vocabulary (9.5%), Processing Speed (5.2%), and Working Memory (3.5%). Regression analysis demonstrated Working Memory, Encode/Decode, and Vocabulary collectively predicted 45.9% functional reading as measured by the Comprehensive Adult Student Assessment System. Alternatively, when measured by the Test of Adult Basic Education, Vocabulary and Encode/Decode predicted 47.1% of variance in reading. Differences in predictive utility of the factors by fluency group suggest approaches to tailoring instruction for each group. Future research might examine the optimal mix of instructional approaches that support the identified factors. © Hammill Institute on Disabilities 2013.

  10. Rhetoric of Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, R. Allen

    1991-01-01

    Places rhetoric of science in context with sociology, psychology, history, and philosophy of science. Generates a typology of concerns for rhetoric of science. Characterizes the central issues of the field. (RS)

  11. Early Medieval stylistic rhetoric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G.P. van der Walt

    1981-05-01

    Full Text Available According to the well-known expert on medieval rhetoric, James J. Murphy, the three typical medieval forms of rhetoric are the art of letter writing, the art of preaching and the art of poetry (Murphy, 1971, p. xv. In this paper we are concerned only with the second of these arts, namely, the rhetoric of preaching. Though the perceptive treatises on the rhetoric of preaching, the so-called artes praedicandi, did not originate before the thirteenth century, pulpit rhetoric was very much alive in the earlier part of the Middle Ages and fine examples of this kind of eloquence can be quoted.

  12. Intellectual Capital Statements -When Rhetoric meets Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, Lotte

    This article discusses the transversal lines between science and rhetoric and how it is possible to create reliable accounting statements by using rhetoric and not only traditional logic arguments. The underlying assumption in accounting - namely that it is possible to describe a firm completely ...... rhetoric and thus should be analyzed accordingly instead of being compared with traditional accounting. Finally, the case of Byggeplandata is used as an illustration of how rhetoric is applied in an intellectual capital statement.......This article discusses the transversal lines between science and rhetoric and how it is possible to create reliable accounting statements by using rhetoric and not only traditional logic arguments. The underlying assumption in accounting - namely that it is possible to describe a firm completely...... through numbers - is not sufficient. To give a nuanced description of a firm it is necessary to supplement the traditional accounting statement with descriptions based on other means than just numbers. The article describes the differences in ways of seeing the world through the rhetorical concepts...

  13. Applying Synectics Strategy in teaching Arabic Rhetoric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atta Abu Jabeen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available   This research aimed at knowing the ability of applying Synectics strategy in teaching rhetoric in Arabic language at secondary schools and universities   Synectics is identifying as a process of joining elements that has no obvious relationship using the rhetoric arts, especially “metaphor” in addition to logical arts especially “analogy,” within a methodology aims to reach creative solutions to problems. This definition is completely similar to Arabic rhetoric such as analogy and metaphor.   When metaphor in language contains aesthetic and rhetorical values in expression, it carries explanatory connotations in philosophy and science which is the using of a specific experience to shed the light on another one. It also helps us to comprehend, insight and clarifying and explaining the concepts. And what we mean with analogy in Arabic language is nearer to simile which is one of the rhetoric arts.   This research will review the Synectics strategy, how the western scientists applied it to develop creativity, and to what extent it is suitable to teach Arabic rhetoric subject in the university and secondary stage. In addition, It will provide application forms about applying Synectics strategy which will at the same time increase creativity of the students in all fields.

  14. Broiler walking ability and toe asymmetry under harsh rearing conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MS Baracho

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Morphological asymmetry has been described as a potential broiler welfare indicator, for interpreting the birds' ability to cope with the challenges that may affect its growth. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of morphological asymmetry data to estimate broiler walking ability and welfare.dBroilers werefed diets supplemented or not with vitamin D. Toes were measured when birds were 42 and 49 days old using digital caliper.the left and right sides of the following four bilateral traits (tarsometatarsus length, outer toe length, mid toe length, and back toe length were measured twice on intact alive birds by two different researcherh. Data from right and left sides were compared in the two treatments using the Student t-test, and Pearson's correlation was used to analyze the total asymmetry found as a result of the total sum of the differences in the measurements. Asymmetry data were comparedwith the total numberof leg lesions. Mid toe and tarsometatarsus asymmetry resultswere considered as actual fluctuating asymmetry, and presented normal distribution (Test of Kolmogorov-Smirnov, p >0.05. However, back toe and outer toe measurements were not normally distributed, as determined by the test of Kolmogorov-Smirnov (p <0.05, indicating anti-asymmetry; when comparing right with left limb,results were significantly different fron zero (t-Student, p <0.05 indicating directional fluctuating asymmetry.The welfare of broilers withwalking difficulty due to the presence of severe asymmetry in limbs is poor.

  15. Zhuang Zi's Rhetorical Thoughts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haixia

    The memory of the student uprising at Tiananmen Square in 1989 invites one professor to examine more closely what she does: rhetoric and composition, especially rhetorical invention. To examine the kind of power exercised by official Chinese public discourse and whether language could help to avoid reoccurrences such as the loss of innocent…

  16. Where's the Rhetoric?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rives, Ashley; Olsen, Allison Wynhoff

    2015-01-01

    At the university level, rhetoric dominates conversations surrounding writing pedagogy, yet preservice English language arts teachers are not typically instructed to teach rhetorically. Although the stated exigence of the Common Core State Standards is to prepare students to be college and career ready, this analysis suggests misalignment. This…

  17. English 3135: Visual Rhetoric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatta, Oriana

    2013-01-01

    As an advanced rhetoric and composition doctoral student, I taught Engl 3135: Visual Rhetoric, a three-credit upper-level course offered by the Department of English at Georgia State University. Mary E. Hocks originally designed this course in 2000 to, in her words, "introduce visual information design theories and practices for writers [and]…

  18. Advertising and Student Rhetoric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, William B.

    Rhetoric, the persuasive use of language to influence public thought and action, is experienced in advertising, and advertising can be used as a medium for teaching rhetoric. Advertising demonstrates both admirable and creative use of English and despicable corruption of both language and thought. Both aspects can be employed in teaching…

  19. Critiques of Contemporary Rhetoric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Karlyn Kohrs

    The purpose of this book is to define characteristics of rhetorical discourse, explain man's capacity to influence and be influenced, and describe the purposes and processes of rhetorical criticism. Representative speech texts, with critiques, are included on the following contemporary topics: withdrawal from Vietnam (Richard M. Nixon);…

  20. Rhetoric and Rationality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Mackey

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The dominance of a purist, ‘scientistic’ form of reason since the Enlightenment has eclipsed and produced multiple misunderstandings of the nature, role of and importance of the millennia-old art of rhetoric. For centuries the multiple perspectives conveyed by rhetoric were always the counterbalance to hubristic claims of certainty. As such rhetoric was taught as one of the three essential components of the ‘trivium’ – rhetoric, dialectic and grammar; i.e. persuasive communication, logical reasoning and the codification of discourse. These three disciplines were the legs of the three legged stool on which western civilisation still rests despite the perversion and muddling of the first of these three. This essay explains how the evisceration of rhetoric both as practice and as critical theory and the consequent over-reliance on a virtual cult of rationality has impoverished philosophy and has dangerously dimmed understandings of the human condition.

  1. [On rhetorics and medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohry, Avi; Gitay, Yehoshua

    2008-04-01

    The beginning of Rhetorics can be found in ancient Greece (Corax, Gorgias, Aristo). The science of the proper use of language in order to explain or convince, was very popular until the 17th century. Rhetorics had influenced all levels of intellectual European life, including medical teaching. and practice (Cabanis). Currently, rhetorics have become popular again in: the media, politics, academic and social life and medicine. Medical and allied health professions students, should learn how to speak correctly, how to implement ethical and behavioral essentials (Osler, Asher).

  2. Ability Drain: Size, Impact, and Comparison with Brain Drain under Alternative Immigration Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Schiff, Maurice

    2017-01-01

    Immigrants or their children founded over 40% of the Fortune 500 US companies. This suggests that 'ability drain' is economically significant. While brain drain associated with migration also induces a brain gain, this cannot occur with ability drain. This paper examines migration's impact on ability, education, and productive human capital or 'skill' (which includes both ability and education) for source country residents and migrants, under three different regimes: (i) a points system that ...

  3. Rhetoric as Knowledge

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rambow, Owen

    1993-01-01

    ... (or desire, or intention). Rhetoric, if defined as a body of knowledge about how discourse structure affects the strength with which a discourse participant entertains beliefs, desires, and intentions, can be seen to play...

  4. Effect of rainfall and under-canopy vegetation on the ability to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The combined effects of seasonal variation in rainfall and the presence or absence of under-canopy vegetation on soil moisture content may have a negative or positive impact on the ability to debark eucalypts. A study was initiated to investigate these interactions on the ability to debark Eucalyptus grandis x E.

  5. Realistic rhetoric and legal decision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Maurício Adeodato

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The text aims to lay the foundations of a realistic rhetoric, from the descriptive perspective of how the legal decision actually takes place, without normative considerations. Aristotle's rhetorical idealism and its later prestige reduced rhetoric to the art of persuasion, eliminating important elements of sophistry, especially with regard to legal decision. It concludes with a rhetorical perspective of judicial activism in complex societies.

  6. The Rhetoric of Campus Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Cynthia Duquette

    2016-01-01

    The group activity described in this article was originally designed for an upper-division undergraduate course on Rhetoric and Architecture, but would also be well suited for courses in Persuasion, Rhetorical Criticism, or Visual Rhetoric. Any undergraduate course related to communication and design (including Advertising) could make excellent…

  7. Supersession on Rhetorical Citizenship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Lisa Storm

    Danisch, Associate Professor, Drama and Speech Communication, University of Waterloo, Canada Rosa Eberly, Associate Professor, Communication Arts and Sciences, and English, Penn State University, USA David Kerr, Consultant Director of Education at the NGO Citizenship Foundation in London, Senior Teaching......Rhetoric is at the heart of citizenship. Rhetoric is key when citizenship is debated and performed. Rhetoric is key to changes in notions of citizenship. This panel features theorists, critics and educators from the fields of English, Communication Studies, Political Theory, and Education who......, and Culture, Communication Arts, University of Wisconsin-Madison, USA Jeffrey A. Bennett, Associate Professor, Communication Studies, College of Liberal Arts & Sciences, University of Iowa, USA Simone Chambers, Professor, Political Science, Director of Centre for Ethics, University of Toronto, Canada Robert...

  8. A Ricoeurian Approach to Rhetorical Criticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnick, Barbara

    1987-01-01

    Proposes an approach to rhetorical criticism that features the relationship between a message and a culturally distanced interpreter or critic. Applies Paul Ricoeur's critical approach to an interpretation of the Gettysburg Address to illustrate how hermeneutics reveals the underlying meaning and cultural significance of enduring texts. (NKA)

  9. Perceived mathematical ability under challenge: a longitudinal perspective on sex segregation among STEM degree fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nix, Samantha; Perez-Felkner, Lara; Thomas, Kirby

    2015-01-01

    Students' perceptions of their mathematics ability vary by gender and seem to influence science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) degree choice. Related, students' perceptions during academic difficulty are increasingly studied in educational psychology, suggesting a link between such perceptions and task persistence. Despite interest in examining the gender disparities in STEM, these concepts have not been considered in tandem. In this manuscript, we investigate how perceived ability under challenge-in particular in mathematics domains-influences entry into the most sex-segregated and mathematics-intensive undergraduate degrees: physics, engineering, mathematics, and computer science (PEMC). Using nationally representative Education Longitudinal Study of 2002 (ELS) data, we estimate the influence of perceived ability under challenging conditions on advanced high school science course taking, selection of an intended STEM major, and specific major type 2 years after high school. Demonstrating the importance of specificity when discussing how gender influences STEM career pathways, the intersecting effects of gender and perceived ability under mathematics challenge were distinct for each scientific major category. Perceived ability under challenge in secondary school varied by gender, and was highly predictive of selecting PEMC and health sciences majors. Notably, women's 12th grade perceptions of their ability under mathematics challenge increased their probability of selecting PEMC majors over and above biology. In addition, gender moderated the effect of growth mindset on students' selection of health science majors. Perceptions of ability under challenge in general and verbal domains also influenced retention in and declaration of certain STEM majors. The implications of these results are discussed, with particular attention to access to advanced scientific coursework in high school and interventions aimed at enhancing young women's perceptions of

  10. Rhetorical relations for information retrieval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lioma, Christina; Larsen, Birger; Lu, Wei

    2012-01-01

    -called discourse structure has been applied successfully to several natural language processing tasks. This work studies the use of rhetorical relations for Information Retrieval (IR): Is there a correlation between certain rhetorical relations and retrieval performance? Can knowledge about a document’s rhetorical...... relations be useful to IR? We present a language model modification that considers rhetorical relations when estimating the relevance of a document to a query. Empirical evaluation of different versions of our model on TREC settings shows that certain rhetorical relations can benefit retrieval effectiveness...

  11. Moffett and Rhetoric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Richard

    2010-01-01

    This examination of Moffett's contribution to a theory of school English concentrates on his understanding of rhetoric. It is suggested that the impetus for "Teaching the Universe of Discourse" is dialectical: he was running against currents in English teaching at the time that were literary and technical, as well as the specific…

  12. Autism and Rhetoric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilker, Paul; Yergeau, Melanie

    2011-01-01

    Autism is a profoundly rhetorical phenomenon. And all--parents, educators, caregivers, policymakers, the public, and autistic people themselves--would be significantly empowered to understand and respond to it as such. In the continuing absence of stable scientific or medical knowledge about autism, one needs to shine a bright and insistent light…

  13. Course Design: World Rhetorics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ghanashyam

    2016-01-01

    In light of increasing international immigration and student mobility, unprecedented redistribution of geopolitical power, and the pervasive effects of the internet on institutions and communities locally and globally, rhetoric and composition has, albeit more in theory than in practice, started responding to the multilateral flow of ideas across…

  14. Rhetoric in Logotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Cosio, Maria Gonzalez

    1998-01-01

    Presents examples of logotypes of the word "Mexico" by second-semester typography students from the Universidad de las Americas in Puebla, Mexico. Analyzes each according to its unity, coherence, and emphasis. Discusses the context, syntactic and semantic rhetorical figures, metaphor, and the denotation and connotation of each. (CR)

  15. Semiotic, Rhetoric and Democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Mackey

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper unites Deely’s call for a better understanding of semiotics with Jaeger’s insight into the sophists and the cultural history of the Ancient Greeks. The two bodies of knowledge are brought together to try to better understand the importance of rhetorical processes to political forms such as democracy. Jaeger explains how cultural expression, particularly poetry, changed through the archaic and classical eras to deliver, or at least to be commensurate with contemporary politics and ideologies. He explains how Plato (429-347 BCE struggled against certain poetry and prose manifestations in his ambition to create a ‘perfect man’ – a humanity which would think in a way which would enable the ideal Republic to flourish. Deely’s approach based on Poinsot and Peirce presents a theoretical framework by means of which we can think of the struggle to influence individual and communal conceptualisation as a struggle within semiotics. This is a struggle over the ways reality is signified by signs. Signs are physical and mental indications which, in the semiotic tradition, are taken to produce human subjectivity – human ‘being’. Deely’s extensive body of work is about how these signs are the building blocks of realist constructions of understanding. This paper is concerned with the deliberate use of oral and written signs in rhetorical activity which have been deliberately crafted to change subjectivity. We discuss: (1 what thought and culture is in terms of semiotics and (2 Jaeger’s depiction of Ancient Greece as an illustration of the conjunction between culture and subjectivity. These two fields are brought together in order to make the argument that rhetoric can be theorised as the deliberate harnessing of semiotic effects. The implication is that the same semiotic, subjectivity-changing potency holds for 21st century rhetoric. However fourth century BCE Athens is the best setting for a preliminary discussion of rhetoric as

  16. Perceived Mathematical Ability under Challenge: A Longitudinal Perspective on Sex Segregation among STEM Degree Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha eNix

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Students’ perceptions of their mathematics ability vary by gender and seem to influence science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM degree choice. Related, students’ perceptions during academic difficulty are increasingly studied in educational psychology, suggesting a link between such perceptions and task persistence. Despite interest in examining the gender disparities in STEM, these concepts have not been considered in tandem. We investigate how perceived ability under challenge – in particular in mathematics domains – influences entry into the most sex-segregated and mathematics-intensive undergraduate degrees: physics, engineering, mathematics, and computer science (PEMC. Using nationally representative Education Longitudinal Study of 2002 (ELS data, we estimate the influence of perceived ability under challenging conditions on advanced high school science course taking, selection of an intended STEM major, and specific major type two years after high school. Demonstrating the importance of specificity when discussing how gender influences STEM career pathways, the intersecting effects of gender and perceived ability under mathematics challenge were distinct for each scientific major category. Perceived ability under challenge in secondary school varied by gender, and was highly predictive of selecting PEMC and health sciences majors. Notably, women’s 12th grade perceptions of their ability under mathematics challenge increased the probability that they would select PEMC majors, increasing women's probability of selecting PEMC over and above biology. In addition, gender moderated the effect of growth mindset on students’ selection of health science majors. The implications of these results are discussed, with particular attention to access to advanced scientific coursework in high school and interventions aimed at enhancing young women’s perceptions of their ability to facilitate their pathways to scientific degrees.

  17. Deliberative Democracy, Active Citizenship and Critical Culture: From Aristotle’s Rhetoric to Contemporary Political Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Arenas Dolz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to defend an adequate reading of Aristotle’s deliberative rhetoric that allows us to understand practical rationalization as a process of interpretation of human actions. After the consideration of rhetoric as a general human ability that is indispensable for political coexistence, the impact of the Aristotelian rhetorical proposal is pressed, not just as a defense of the importance of rhetoric in a democratic society, but also as a novel attempt to understand what it means to speak of practical rationality.

  18. Presidential Leaks: Rhetoric and Mediated Political Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Keith V.

    1989-01-01

    Argues that presidential leaks constitute rhetorical acts, enabling administrations to exercise a variety of rhetorically potent options not afforded by the public forum. Proposes a typology of presidential leaks and analyzes their rhetorical functions, benefits, and liabilities. (MM)

  19. Persuasion Methods in Political Rhetoric

    OpenAIRE

    Diržanauskaitė, Rūta

    2006-01-01

    Rhetoric – the tool of politicians seeking to gain public support appeared and was developed in times of ancient Greece. In our days political rhetoric still is considered to be powerful tool in political arena and even survives kind of renascence. Politician as any other professional is obliged to be skilled user of methods of political rhetoric. Municipality elections are coming soon in Lithuania. Public discourse is going to be filled of different political speeches, examples of political ...

  20. Nusic and rhetoric in Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Avramović Sima D.

    2017-01-01

    The author analyzes characteristics, importance and impact of the celebrated book Rhetoric from 1933, written by a famous Serbian lawyer and comedy writer Branislav Nusic. The a. points to shortage of literature about rhetoric among the Serbs in Hungary, and afterwards in Serbia, pointing that the most important book about rhetoric in XIX century was written not before 1844, also by a comedy writer, lawyer and one of the first law professors Jovan Sterija Popovic (but it was saved as a manusc...

  1. Understanding the rhetorical engineer

    OpenAIRE

    Koppelmann, Zachery W

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation is to describe the development of the Purdue School of Mechanical Engineering Writing Enhancement Program and its definition of good engineering writing. Based on the work with the Mechanical Engineering Faculty and the Writing Enhancement Program, it was determined that good engineering writing is aware of its need to address specific rhetorical contexts and expectations. The Writing Enhancement Program was created to provide additional writing instruction to...

  2. Purifying Rhetoric: Empedocles and the Myth of Rhetorical Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gencarella, Stephen Olbrys

    2010-01-01

    The polymath Empedocles has not been considered a prominent figure in the history of rhetorical studies nor contemporary appropriations of antiquity, despite the reported attribution of his invention of rhetoric by Aristotle. This neglect is understandable, as the surviving fragments of Empedocles' work provide no significant reference to rhetoric…

  3. The impact of development o f the special coordination abilities on the general skill ability for table tennis juniors under 12 years old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawkat Gaber Radwan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Indicates each of Muhama d Allawi (2002, Essam Abdul Khaliq (2003, and Walf Droge (2002 that the coordination abilities are closely related to the development of technical motor skills, and that pra ctitioner athletic activity which determines the quality of this abilities should be developed, where the player can not master the technical skills in the special activity in case lack of special coordination abilities for this activity. Both Manf red Must er (1986, Jürgen Schmicker (2000, Wolfgang and others (2000 and Wohlgefahrt, Karlheinz (2004 refers that the special coordination abilities for table tennis include each of: 1 - The motor adaptation and adjustment ability, 2 - The ability to differentiat e , 3 - reaction speed ability, 4 - orientation ability, 5 - balance ability, 6 - coupling ability, 7 - The ability to sense the rhythm. The aim of this study is design training program to development the special coordination abilities of table tennis and identi fies the impact of this program on the general skill ability for table tennis juniors under 12 years old. The researcher used the experimental method into two groups one experimental and the other control group the strength of each of them is 8 of table te nnis juniors in Ismailia city in Egypt. The duration of the program is three months, three training units a week the duration of each training unit is 90 minutes. The most important results of this study was the training program led to improvement the spec ial coordination abilities of table tennis for the experimental group, which led to high level of the general skill ability in table tennis for the experimental group more than the control group .

  4. Leadership, Rhetoric, and the "Polis."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gellis, Mark

    2002-01-01

    Discusses some of the relationships between rhetoric and the concepts of leadership and the "polis" (the active assembly of citizens empowered to discuss and make public policy). Argues that the study of leadership belongs in composition, rhetoric, and communication and that scholars and teachers are more than justified in studying…

  5. The Rhetorical Arts of Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahnestock, Jeanne

    2013-01-01

    Human social evolution depends in part on using language persuasively to secure cooperation. Rhetoric emerged in the West over two thousand years ago as a deliberate cultural construction. Though often misunderstood today, rhetoric is fundamental in general education programs that teach students how knowledge is forged in agreement and applied.…

  6. Protocological Rhetoric: Intervening in Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nathan R.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes protocological rhetoric as a conceptual tool for exploring and changing institutions. Protocological rhetoric is an extension of two lines of thought: Porter, Sullivan, Blythe, Grabill, and Miles's institutional critique and Science & Technology Studies's (STS) concept of information infrastructure. As a result,…

  7. Agnew's Plea Bargain: Between Rhetorics of Consensus and Confrontation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quimby, Rollin W.

    1977-01-01

    Proposes that negotiated pleas be classified as "compromise rhetoric" which is defined as a class of rhetorical transactions that provide continuity between consensus and confrontation rhetorics. (MH)

  8. The rhetoric of remix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Kuhn

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The affordances of digital technologies increase the available semiotic resources through which one may speak. In this context, video remix becomes a rich avenue for communication and expression in ways that have heretofore been the province of big media. Yet recent attempts to categorize remix are limiting, mainly as a result of their reliance on the visual arts and cinema theory as the gauge by which remix is measured. A more valuable view of remix is as a digital argument that works across the registers of sound, text, and image to make claims and provides evidence to support those claims. After exploring the roots of contemporary notions of orality, literacy, narrative and rhetoric, I turn to examples of marginalized, disparate artifacts that are already in danger of neglect in the burgeoning history of remix. In examining these pieces in terms of remix theory to date, a more expansive view is warranted. An approach based on digital argument is capable of accounting for the rhetorical strategies of the formal elements of remixes while still attending to the specificity of the discourse communities from which they arise. This effort intervenes in current conversations and sparks enhancement of its concepts to shape the mediascape.

  9. The Effects of Coping Interventions on Ability to Perform Under Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Sofie; Devonport, Tracey J; Lane, Andrew M; Nicholls, Wendy; Friesen, Andrew P

    2018-03-01

    The ability to perform under pressure is necessary to achieve goals in various domains of life. We conducted a systematic review to synthesise findings from applied studies that focus on interventions developed to enhance an individual's ability to cope under performance pressure. Following the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, a comprehensive search of five electronic databases was conducted. This yielded 66,618 records, of which 23 peer review papers met inclusion criteria of containing an intervention that targeted coping skills for performing under pressure. Using the Standard Quality Assessment for evaluation of primary research papers (Kmet et al., 2004) to assess quality, included studies performed well on reporting research objectives, research design, and statistical procedures. Sixteen studies showed poor quality in controlling for potentially confounding factors and small sample sizes. A narrative aggregate synthesis identified intervention studies that provided an educational focus ( n = 9), consultancy sessions ( n = 6), simulation training ( n = 5) and emotion regulation strategies ( n = 3). Findings highlight a need to; 1) establish a contextualized pressure task which will generate high levels of ecological validity for participants. Having established a suitable pressure task, 2) research should assess the effects of pressure by evaluating conscious and nonconscious effects and associated coping mechanisms, which should inform the subsequent development of interventions, and 3) assess interventions to enhance understanding of the ways in which they improve coping with pressure, or may fail, and the mechanisms which may explain these outcomes.

  10. The Effects of Coping Interventions on Ability to Perform Under Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofie Kent, Tracey J. Devonport, Andrew M. Lane, Wendy Nicholls, Andrew P. Friesen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The ability to perform under pressure is necessary to achieve goals in various domains of life. We conducted a systematic review to synthesise findings from applied studies that focus on interventions developed to enhance an individual’s ability to cope under performance pressure. Following the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA guidelines, a comprehensive search of five electronic databases was conducted. This yielded 66,618 records, of which 23 peer review papers met inclusion criteria of containing an intervention that targeted coping skills for performing under pressure. Using the Standard Quality Assessment for evaluation of primary research papers (Kmet et al., 2004 to assess quality, included studies performed well on reporting research objectives, research design, and statistical procedures. Sixteen studies showed poor quality in controlling for potentially confounding factors and small sample sizes. A narrative aggregate synthesis identified intervention studies that provided an educational focus (n = 9, consultancy sessions (n = 6, simulation training (n = 5 and emotion regulation strategies (n = 3. Findings highlight a need to; 1 establish a contextualized pressure task which will generate high levels of ecological validity for participants. Having established a suitable pressure task, 2 research should assess the effects of pressure by evaluating conscious and nonconscious effects and associated coping mechanisms, which should inform the subsequent development of interventions, and 3 assess interventions to enhance understanding of the ways in which they improve coping with pressure, or may fail, and the mechanisms which may explain these outcomes.

  11. Critical Race Theory, Policy Rhetoric and Outcomes: The Case of Muslim Schools in Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, Damian

    2018-01-01

    The expansion of state-funded Muslim schools in Britain since 1998 has developed against a backdrop of sustained public political rhetoric around the wider position of British Muslims in both political and educational contexts. This article explores the public policy rhetoric around Muslim schools under New Labour and the subsequent Coalition and…

  12. Exploring the link between cognitive abilities and speech recognition in the elderly under different listening conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nuesse, Theresa; Steenken, Rike; Neher, Tobias

    2018-01-01

    , and it has been suggested that differences in cognitive abilities may also be important. The objective of this study was to investigate associations between performance in cognitive tasks and speech recognition under different listening conditions in older adults with either age appropriate hearing...... or hearing-impairment. To that end, speech recognition threshold (SRT) measurements were performed under several masking conditions that varied along the perceptual dimensions of dip listening, spatial separation, and informational masking. In addition, a neuropsychological test battery was administered....... In repeated linear regression analyses, composite scores of cognitive test outcomes (evaluated using PCA) were included to predict SRTs. These associations were different for the two groups. When hearing thresholds were controlled for, composed cognitive factors were significantly associated with the SRTs...

  13. The Rhetoric of the Troubadours

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    Mary C. Abraham

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The medieval troubadours were no wandering musicians, casually improvising their songs as they strolled from town to town, but trained artists who lovingly crafted their songs to please and woo their listeners. The art of rhetoric deeply affected the art of the troubadour. First, the art of rhetoric divided composition of a speech into five well-defined parts. The troubadours consciously molded their songs according to these parts. Second, the medieval troubadour theorists then developed a system of genres, adding their own layer to the ancient art of rhetoric. Each genre demanded a specific topic, such as love, and a peculiar approach to that topic. Finally, the art of rhetoric also inspired a close union of the poems and their melodies. The troubadours were no wandering musicians, casually improvising their songs as they strolled from town to town, but trained artists who lovingly crafted their songs to please and woo their listeners.

  14. Rhetoric and the digital humanities

    CERN Document Server

    Ridolfo, Jim

    2015-01-01

    The digital humanities is a rapidly growing field that is transforming humanities research through digital tools and resources. Researchers can now quickly trace every one of Issac Newton's annotations, use social media to engage academic and public audiences in the interpretation of cultural texts, and visualize travel via ox cart in third-century Rome or camel caravan in ancient Egypt. Rhetorical scholars are leading the revolution by fully utilizing the digital toolbox, finding themselves at the nexus of digital innovation. Rhetoric and the Digital Humanities is a timely, multidisciplinary collection that is the first to bridge scholarship in rhetorical studies and the digital humanities. It offers much-needed guidance on how the theories and methodologies of rhetorical studies can enhance all work in digital humanities, and vice versa. Twenty-three essays over three sections delve into connections, research methodology, and future directions in this field. Jim Ridolfo and William Hart-Davidson have assemb...

  15. The power of rhetoric and the rhetoric of power: Exploring a tension within the Obama presidency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob Kroes

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available When Barack Obama acceded to the Presidency of the United States he held out the promise of a new beginning. As a master of political rhetoric he had spoken of a new start following the dismal years of the Bush administration. He would take America back to its inspirational creed of freedom and democracy. He augured a break with policies infringing on civil liberties and government under the law. Once in office, though, the power of rhetoric that had carried him into the White House ran into the hard reality of political rule under conditions of ongoing wars in far-away countries and the threat of terrorism, lurking at home and abroad. This chapter will explore how well President Obama managed to preserve democratic freedoms at home while fighting terrorism.

  16. Durum Wheat (Triticum Durum Desf. Lines Show Different Abilities to Form Masked Mycotoxins under Greenhouse Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Cirlini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Deoxynivalenol (DON is the most prevalent trichothecene in Europe and its occurrence is associated with infections of Fusarium graminearum and F. culmorum, causal agents of Fusarium head blight (FHB on wheat. Resistance to FHB is a complex character and high variability occurs in the relationship between DON content and FHB incidence. DON conjugation to glucose (DON-3-glucoside, D3G is the primary plant mechanism for resistance towards DON accumulation. Although this mechanism has been already described in bread wheat and barley, no data are reported so far about durum wheat, a key cereal in the pasta production chain. To address this issue, the ability of durum wheat to detoxify and convert deoxynivalenol into D3G was studied under greenhouse controlled conditions. Four durum wheat varieties (Svevo, Claudio, Kofa and Neodur were assessed for DON-D3G conversion; Sumai 3, a bread wheat variety carrying a major QTL for FHB resistance (QFhs.ndsu-3B, was used as a positive control. Data reported hereby clearly demonstrate the ability of durum wheat to convert deoxynivalenol into its conjugated form, D3G.

  17. Horizontal gene transfer promoted evolution of the ability to propagate under anaerobic conditions in yeasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gojkovic, Zoran; Knecht, Wolfgang; Warneboldt, J.

    2004-01-01

    The ability to propagate under anaerobic conditions is an essential and unique trait of brewer's or baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cervisiae). To understand the evolution of facultative anaerobiosis we studied the dependence of de novo pyrimidine biosynthesis, more precisely the fourth enzymic...... activity catalysed by dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODase), on the enzymes of the respiratory chain in several yeast species. While the majority of yeasts possess a mitochondrial DHODase, Saccharomyces cerevisiae has a cytoplasmatic enzyme, whose activity is independent of the presence of oxygen. From....... We show that these two S. kluyveri enzymes, and their coding genes, differ in their dependence on the presence of oxygen. Only the cytoplasmic DHODase promotes growth in the absence of oxygen. Apparently a Saccharomyces yeast progenitor which had a eukaryotic-like mitochondrial DHODase acquired...

  18. Nietzsche and the Aesthetics of Rhetoric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitson, Steve; Poulakos, John

    1993-01-01

    Addresses the debate over rhetoric's epistemic status in terms of Nietzsche's critique of epistemology. Suggests that Nietzsche's aestheticism provides an alternative to the debate. Focuses on differences between the rhetorics of the epistemic and the aesthetic. (SR)

  19. Francis Bacon On Understanding, Reason and Rhetoric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Karl R.

    1971-01-01

    Bacon's views of the faculties of understanding and reason are presented and explained in reference to Baconian rhetoric. Understanding, Rhetoric, Insinuative and Imaginative Reason are defined. (Author/MS)

  20. Doxa, Dissent, and Challenges of Rhetorical Citizenship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Lisa Storm

    2017-01-01

    participation and rhetorical invention realized by means of rhetorical troping, the essay also invokes Phillips’ work on spaces of dissension. The article concludes with a discussion of the difficulties in realizing ideals of deliberative democracy as conceived within the conceptual frame of rhetorical...... citizenship and potential avenues for theory development followed by a discussion of the potential of rhetorical troping to establish consubstantiality in a gridlocked debate....

  1. Muddling through the Moment with “Rowdy” Rhetoric

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Lisa Storm

    for a greater range of viewpoints to be heard. Whereas modern rhetoric has often been concerned with issues of responsible argumentation practices – whether under the aegis of pragma-dialectics or informal logic – Ivie wants to rejuvenate rhetoric’s ancient tradition of controversia as a way of dealing...... and cooperation as natural, would hold the potential to render public deliberation more meaningful. Ivie’s point strikes a chord in US rhetoric scholarship that goes back to the 1960s and 70s and scholars’ attempts then at coming to terms with public discourse that in various ways broke with traditional norms...

  2. Adam Smith and the Rhetoric of Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Michael G.

    Historians of rhetoric have generally accepted the view that Adam Smith rejected the principles of classical rhetoric. However, while there can be no doubt that Smith greatly truncated the five classical arts of rhetoric (invention, arrangement, style, memory, and delivery) by reducing his concerns largely to style and arrangement, he did not…

  3. The Outmoded Psychology of Aristotle's Rhetoric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinton, Alan

    1990-01-01

    Argues that rhetoric belongs to a class of theories that tend not to become outmoded, and presents examples of effective rhetoric from ancient Greece. Suggests that rhetorical theories should be judged on their own terms rather than on the standards of an allied discipline. (KEH)

  4. Integrating Ideology and Archetype in Rhetorical Criticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushing, Janice Hocker; Frentz, Thomas S.

    1991-01-01

    Develops an approach to rhetorical criticism by integrating the work of Marxist literary critic Frederic Jameson with that of the depth psychologist C. G. Jung. Reconceptualizes the cultural psyche as composed of historical and universal elements, redefines the rhetorical and moral functions of narrative texts, and casts the rhetorical critic as…

  5. Constructing Ethics through Rhetoric: Isocrates and Piety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Kenneth R.

    2009-01-01

    Critical, postmodern, and constitutive rhetorics are typically guided by an ethical stance opposing domination and marginalization. However, this stance often functions as an unreflective morality operating outside the constitutive practices of rhetoric itself. To locate an ethical stance within rhetorical practice, we can turn to Isocrates, who…

  6. Rooting Ability of Melia volkensii Cuttings Under Different Auxin Concentration Levels and Provenances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oeba, V.O; Muok, B.; Odee, D

    2007-01-01

    Melia volkensii is one of the most popular fast growing agro-forestry tree species in East Africa's arid and semi arid lands. It is valued for for production of termite resistant timber. Kenya Forestry Research Institute is carrying out studies on management, improvement and domestication of species with a major focus on improving low germination mortality and other propagation methods. Vegetative propagation was investigated in order to supplement more seedlings for increased demand of the species. The objective of this study was to determine and predict the effect of varying levels of auxin concentrations on rooting of melia volkensii shoot cuttings under different provenances. The experiment was set in a split plot design and conducted in a non-mist propagator. The number of roots was recorded for every cutting in the experiment. Mean cumulative cutting percentage were analysed using ANOVA procedures by first checking homogeneity of variance; Pearson correlation were carried out to check the interrelation of the factors with rooting and Logistic ability of the cuttings. The results showed that cuttings inoculated with 0.3 mgl-1 s ignificantly (p n ot showing any rooting from three provenances. In conclusion 0.03 mgl-1 s hould be used for further vegetative propagation of M. vokensii. Cutting from Taveta inoculated with 0.3 mgl-1 w ould significantly increase the number of seedlings for planting

  7. Morphosyntax and Logical Abilities in Italian Poor Readers: The Problem of SLI Under-Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arosio, Fabrizio; Pagliarini, Elena; Perugini, Maria; Barbieri, Lina; Guasti, Maria Teresa

    2016-01-01

    The study investigated morphosyntactic abilities and semantic-pragmatic competence in 24 children with developmental dyslexia aged 7-12 years. Morphosyntactic abilities were investgated in a direct object clitic production task, semantic-pragmatic competence in a quantifier comprehension task. Children with dyslexia produced fewer clitics than…

  8. The Malleability of Spatial Ability under Treatment of a FIRST LEGO League-Based Robotics Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coxon, Steven Vincent

    2012-01-01

    Spatial ability is important to science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) success, but spatial talents are rarely developed in schools. Likewise, the gifted may become STEM innovators, but they are rarely provided with pedagogy appropriate to develop their abilities in schools. A stratified random sample of volunteer participants (n = 75)…

  9. The ability to generate senescent progeny as a mechanism underlying breast cancer cell heterogeneity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mine Mumcuoglu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is a remarkably heterogeneous disease. Luminal, basal-like, "normal-like", and ERBB2+ subgroups were identified and were shown to have different prognoses. The mechanisms underlying this heterogeneity are poorly understood. In our study, we explored the role of cellular differentiation and senescence as a potential cause of heterogeneity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A panel of breast cancer cell lines, isogenic clones, and breast tumors were used. Based on their ability to generate senescent progeny under low-density clonogenic conditions, we classified breast cancer cell lines as senescent cell progenitor (SCP and immortal cell progenitor (ICP subtypes. All SCP cell lines expressed estrogen receptor (ER. Loss of ER expression combined with the accumulation of p21(Cip1 correlated with senescence in these cell lines. p21(Cip1 knockdown, estrogen-mediated ER activation or ectopic ER overexpression protected cells against senescence. In contrast, tamoxifen triggered a robust senescence response. As ER expression has been linked to luminal differentiation, we compared the differentiation status of SCP and ICP cell lines using stem/progenitor, luminal, and myoepithelial markers. The SCP cells produced CD24+ or ER+ luminal-like and ASMA+ myoepithelial-like progeny, in addition to CD44+ stem/progenitor-like cells. In contrast, ICP cell lines acted as differentiation-defective stem/progenitor cells. Some ICP cell lines generated only CD44+/CD24-/ER-/ASMA- progenitor/stem-like cells, and others also produced CD24+/ER- luminal-like, but not ASMA+ myoepithelial-like cells. Furthermore, gene expression profiles clustered SCP cell lines with luminal A and "normal-like" tumors, and ICP cell lines with luminal B and basal-like tumors. The ICP cells displayed higher tumorigenicity in immunodeficient mice. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Luminal A and "normal-like" breast cancer cell lines were able to generate luminal-like and

  10. Sophistic Rhetoric: Oasis or Mirage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiappa, Edward

    1991-01-01

    Makes the case that sophistic rhetoric is a mirage which vaporizes once carefully scrutinized. Believes that the practice of reproducing incoherent historical concepts is pedagogically unsound, and alternatives should be considered. Suggests specific alternative appropriations that allow educators to retain the best contributions of sophistic…

  11. Rhetoric and Anti-Semitism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lengbeyer, Lawrence A.

    2004-01-01

    Judith Butler is a renowned and prolific scholar who is both the Maxine Elliot Professor in Rhetoric and Comparative Literature at the University of California, Berkeley and the Hannah Arendt Professor of Philosophy at the European Graduate School. In a substantial lead essay in the "London Review of Books," she examines whether charges…

  12. Consummatory Versus Justificatory Crisis Rhetoric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherwitz, Richard A.; Zagacki, Kenneth S.

    1986-01-01

    Focusing on rhetorical strategies employed by U. S. presidents in response to states of emergency, investigates differences between discourse (1) initially constituting the government's sole response and (2) accompanying, justifying, and rationalizing specific military moves undertaken. Analyzes five presidential messages, categorizing each as…

  13. A Rhetorical Analysis of Village

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Pynt

    2011-01-01

    The award-winning TV spot Village is a creative example of NGO advertising using condensed visual stprytelling. The spot is analysed using rhetorical concepts and communication theory, and potential effects are discused in relation to contexts, strategy and communication ethics....

  14. Dimensions of a Substantive Rhetoric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, William Louis

    The author contends that man as a receiver of information is largely manipulated by the information sources. He proposes a system of substantive rhetoric, whereby we could perceive how past assumptive reasoning processes have allowed us to be manipulated and how these processes have originated outside rather than within ourselves. The author…

  15. Rhetoric in visual arabic poetry: from the Mamluk period to the digital age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman Younis

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1807-9288.2015v11n1p118 Rhetoric has been of great importance in philosophy, criticism and literature since Aristotle, through the Golden Age of Arabic studies and down to modern literary trends. Rhetoric is tightly bound with literary texts in all their manifestations and artistic, literary and analytic gradations. There are three aspects of rhetoric in every literary text of whatever type. One of these has to do with content, that is, with the author's ability to convince the receiver by alternately addressing his mind through logic and proofs and his heart by arousing in him feelings of desire and dread. This aspect of rhetoric is know in Arabic as ʿilm al-bayān (rhetoric in the strict sense. Another aspect concerns style, that is, a writer's ability to manipulate words and create novel linguistic modes through the use of metaphors, similes and other devices, which in Arabic is called ʿilm al-badīʿ ("the science of metaphors and good style". The third aspect concerns form, that is, the text's structure, its forms and icons. This is known as al-balāgha al-baṣriyya ("visual eloquence". Although there are various distinct types of balāgha ("eloquence, good style, rhetoric in the general sense", they all have one purpose, namely to affect the receiver in some way.

  16. The Rhetoric of PowerPoint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens E. Kjeldsen

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The presentation program PowerPoint is probably the most used tool in the schools, high schools and universities of today. The use of this program, however, comes at a cost, because it is not just a different and neutral way of teaching. Like the use of any technology, PowerPoint affects not only the way we present and teach, but also the way we think, learn and understand. The program carries an inherent tendency to crate fragmentation of thought and cognitive overload. In order to avoid this we should stop thinking in terms of technology and begin to think rhetorically. What we need is media rhetoracy: the ability to communicate persuasively and appropriately.

  17. On the Relationships between Jeffreys Modal and Weighted Likelihood Estimation of Ability under Logistic IRT Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magis, David; Raiche, Gilles

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on two estimators of ability with logistic item response theory models: the Bayesian modal (BM) estimator and the weighted likelihood (WL) estimator. For the BM estimator, Jeffreys' prior distribution is considered, and the corresponding estimator is referred to as the Jeffreys modal (JM) estimator. It is established that under…

  18. Perceived Mathematical Ability under Challenge: A Longitudinal Perspective on Sex Segregation among STEM Degree Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nix, Samantha; Perez-Felkner, Lara; Thomas, Kirby

    2015-01-01

    Students' perceptions of their mathematics ability vary by gender and seem to influence science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) degree choice. Related, students' perceptions during academic difficulty are increasingly studied in educational psychology, suggesting a link between such perceptions and task persistence. Despite…

  19. CD8 memory T cells have a bioenergetic advantage that underlies their rapid recall ability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Windt, Gerritje J. W.; O'Sullivan, David; Everts, Bart; Huang, Stanley Ching-Cheng; Buck, Michael D.; Curtis, Jonathan D.; Chang, Chih-Hao; Smith, Amber M.; Ai, Teresa; Faubert, Brandon; Jones, Russell G.; Pearce, Edward J.; Pearce, Erika L.

    2013-01-01

    A characteristic of memory T (T-M) cells is their ability to mount faster and stronger responses to reinfection than naive T (T-N) cells do in response to an initial infection. However, the mechanisms that allow this rapid recall are not completely understood. We found that CD8 T-M cells have more

  20. Rhetorical Studies: A Reassessment of Adam Smith's Lectures on Rhetoric and Belles Lettres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, William M.

    1986-01-01

    Offers a dissenting interpretation of Adam Smith's Lectures on Rhetoric and Belles Lettres and a more conservative perspective on Smith's significance to the history of rhetorical theory. Views the lectures as an historical commentary on literature and rhetoric from the perspective of an eighteenth-century lecturer. (JD)

  1. The Rhetoric in Mathematics: Newton, Leibniz, the Calculus, and the Rhetorical Force of the Infinitesimal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, G. Mitchell

    2004-01-01

    This essay investigates the rhetoric surrounding the appearance of the concept of the infinitesimal in the seventeenth-century Calculus of Sir Isaac Newton and Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz. Although historians often have positioned rhetoric as a supplemental discipline, this essay shows that rhetoric is the "material" out of which a new and powerful…

  2. The Examining Mathematical Word Problems Solving Ability under Efficient Representation Aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Sajadi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Word problem solving is complex process for students. Efficient instruction of word problem solving needed to efficient strategies. One of these strategies is using representation. Some students apply key words or numbers only but when they face complex word problems then they cannot apply the keywords. Therefore teachers have to teach efficient strategy such as representation. In this research is tried whether using efficient representation can lead to efficient solution. Through cluster sampling method, forty one students are selected at girly elementary school. Through math exam, their solutions are studied. Through Spearman test, results indicate that there is significant relation between efficient representation and efficient word problem solving ability. At second grade, students have used of representation, have gotten to high means and inverse, students have not used of representation, have not gotten to high means. Therefore there is significant and direct relation between efficient representation and efficient word problem solving ability.

  3. Reduced ability to detect surface-related biofilm bacteria after antibiotic exposure under in vitro conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Christen; Furustrand Tafin, Ulrika; Bétrisey, Bertrand

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose - Antibiotic treatment of patients before specimen collection reduces the ability to detect organisms by culture. We investigated the suppressive effect of antibiotics on the growth of non-adherent, planktonic, and surface-related biofilm bacteria in vitro by using sonication......-dependent drugs (i.e. daptomycin and ciprofloxacin) had a strong suppressive effect on bacterial growth and reduced the ability to detect planktonic and biofilm bacteria. Exposure to rifampin rapidly caused emergence of resistance. Our findings indicate that preoperative administration of antibiotics may have......, daptomycin, rifampin, flucloxacillin, or ciprofloxacin. The beads were then sonicated to dislodge biofilm, followed by culture and measurement of growth-related heat flow by microcalorimetry of the resulting sonication fluid. Results - Vancomycin did not inhibit the heat flow of staphylococci and P. acnes...

  4. Mental abilities and performance efficacy under a simulated 480 meters helium-oxygen saturation diving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    gonglin ehou

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Stress in extreme environment severely disrupts human physiology and mental abilities. The present study investigated the cognition and performance efficacy of four divers during a simulated 480 meters helium-oxygen saturation diving. We analyzed the spatial memory, 2D/3D mental rotation functioning, grip strength, and hand-eye coordination ability in four divers during the 0 – 480 meters compression and decompression processes of the simulated diving. The results showed that except for its mild decrease on grip strength, the high atmosphere pressure condition significantly impaired the hand-eye coordination (especially at 300 meters, the reaction time and correct rate of mental rotation, as well as the spatial memory (especially as 410 meters, showing high individual variability. We conclude that the human cognition and performance efficacy are significantly affected during deep water saturation diving.

  5. Reduced ability to detect surface-related biofilm bacteria after antibiotic exposure under in vitro conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravn, Christen; Furustrand Tafin, Ulrika; Bétrisey, Bertrand; Overgaard, Søren; Trampuz, Andrej

    2016-12-01

    Background and purpose - Antibiotic treatment of patients before specimen collection reduces the ability to detect organisms by culture. We investigated the suppressive effect of antibiotics on the growth of non-adherent, planktonic, and surface-related biofilm bacteria in vitro by using sonication and microcalorimetry methods. Patients and methods - Biofilms of Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Escherichia coli, and Propionibacterium acnes were formed on porous glass beads and exposed for 24 h to antibiotic concentrations from 1 to 1,024 times the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of vancomycin, daptomycin, rifampin, flucloxacillin, or ciprofloxacin. The beads were then sonicated to dislodge biofilm, followed by culture and measurement of growth-related heat flow by microcalorimetry of the resulting sonication fluid. Results - Vancomycin did not inhibit the heat flow of staphylococci and P. acnes at concentrations ≤1,024 μg/mL, whereas flucloxacillin at >128 μg/mL inhibited S. aureus. Daptomycin inhibited heat flow of S. aureus, S. epidermidis, and P. acnes at lower concentrations (32-128 times MIC, p antibiotics (i.e. vancomycin and flucloxacillin) showed only weak growth suppression, concentration-dependent drugs (i.e. daptomycin and ciprofloxacin) had a strong suppressive effect on bacterial growth and reduced the ability to detect planktonic and biofilm bacteria. Exposure to rifampin rapidly caused emergence of resistance. Our findings indicate that preoperative administration of antibiotics may have heterogeneous effects on the ability to detect biofilm bacteria.

  6. Neural oscillatory mechanisms during novel grammar learning underlying language analytical abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepinska, Olga; Pereda, Ernesto; Caspers, Johanneke; Schiller, Niels O

    2017-12-01

    The goal of the present study was to investigate the initial phases of novel grammar learning on a neural level, concentrating on mechanisms responsible for individual variability between learners. Two groups of participants, one with high and one with average language analytical abilities, performed an Artificial Grammar Learning (AGL) task consisting of learning and test phases. During the task, EEG signals from 32 cap-mounted electrodes were recorded and epochs corresponding to the learning phases were analysed. We investigated spectral power modulations over time, and functional connectivity patterns by means of a bivariate, frequency-specific index of phase synchronization termed Phase Locking Value (PLV). Behavioural data showed learning effects in both groups, with a steeper learning curve and higher ultimate attainment for the highly skilled learners. Moreover, we established that cortical connectivity patterns and profiles of spectral power modulations over time differentiated L2 learners with various levels of language analytical abilities. Over the course of the task, the learning process seemed to be driven by whole-brain functional connectivity between neuronal assemblies achieved by means of communication in the beta band frequency. On a shorter time-scale, increasing proficiency on the AGL task appeared to be supported by stronger local synchronisation within the right hemisphere regions. Finally, we observed that the highly skilled learners might have exerted less mental effort, or reduced attention for the task at hand once the learning was achieved, as evidenced by the higher alpha band power. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Diagnostic value underlies asymmetric updating of impressions in the morality and ability domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mende-Siedlecki, Peter; Baron, Sean G; Todorov, Alexander

    2013-12-11

    While positive behavioral information is diagnostic when evaluating a person's abilities, negative information is diagnostic when evaluating morality. Although social psychology has considered these two domains as orthogonal and distinct from one another, we demonstrate that this asymmetry in diagnosticity can be explained by a single parsimonious principle--the perceived frequency of behaviors in these domains. Less frequent behaviors (e.g., high ability and low morality) are weighed more heavily in evaluations. We show that this statistical principle of frequency-derived diagnosticity is evident in human participants at both behavioral and neural levels of analysis. Specifically, activity in right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex increased preferentially when participants updated impressions based on diagnostic behaviors, and further, activity in this region covaried parametrically with the perceived frequency of behaviors. Activity in left ventrolateral PFC, left inferior frontal gyrus, and left superior temporal sulcus showed similar patterns of diagnosticity and sensitivity, though additional analyses confirmed that these regions responded primarily to updates based on immoral behaviors.

  8. Rhetorical Devices in Literature for Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toothaker, Roy Eugene

    The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence, extent, order, and character of 18 rhetorical devices occurring in 100 trade books for children in the primary grades. The most frequent rhetorical devices and the total number of uses recorded for each device were alliteration, 1,079; onomatopoeia, 500; antithesis, 335; simile, 261;…

  9. Sappho and Socrates: The Nature of Rhetoric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parish, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    This short graphic novel details two very different rhetoricians co-existing simultaneously in Ancient Greece, Sappho and Socrates, and their definitions and performances of rhetoric. While both share certain styles and techniques, a noticeable difference in the ways they create rhetorical prose and oration can be clearly seen, showing that Sappho…

  10. Using Contrastive Rhetoric in the ESL Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Janet M.

    2012-01-01

    Contrastive rhetoric studies the writing of second language learners to understand how it is affected by their first language and culture. The field of contrastive rhetoric is as multidimensional as second language writing is complex. It draws on the work of contrastive analysis, anthropology, linguistics, pedagogy, culture studies, translation…

  11. Antimasonic Rhetoric: The Strategy of Excommunication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKerrow, Raymie E.

    1989-01-01

    Argues that excommunication was the principal strategy of antimasonic rhetoric during the late 1820s and early 1830s, seeking to remove Freemasonry from the community and to relieve Masons of their political power. Notes the transition of antimasonic rhetoric from that of moral crusade to mainstream political issues. (KEH)

  12. Rhetoric and Semiotic in C. S. Peirce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyne, John R.

    1980-01-01

    Outlines Peirce's philosophy of rhetoric by examining his philosophy of signs and sketching his specific program for rhetoric as a general art for "rendering signs effective." Suggests that Peirce's work is part of a fully elaborated system of inquiry and signification. (JMF)

  13. Rhetorical Analysis in Critical Policy Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winton, Sue

    2013-01-01

    Rhetorical analysis, an approach to critical discourse analysis, is presented as a useful method for critical policy analysis and its effort to understand the role policies play in perpetuating inequality. A rhetorical analysis of Character "Matters!", the character education policy of a school board in Ontario, Canada, provides an…

  14. Jimmy Carter and the Rhetoric of Charisma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, J. Louis, III

    1979-01-01

    Analyzes Jimmy Carter's success in the 1976 presidential primaries in terms of his rhetorical style based on Max Weber's concept of charisma and Ernest Bormann's theory of fantasy and rhetorical vision. The combination of Carter's charismatic message and the country's social fantasies produced his election. (JMF)

  15. Neural circuits underlying mother's voice perception predict social communication abilities in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Daniel A; Chen, Tianwen; Odriozola, Paola; Cheng, Katherine M; Baker, Amanda E; Padmanabhan, Aarthi; Ryali, Srikanth; Kochalka, John; Feinstein, Carl; Menon, Vinod

    2016-05-31

    The human voice is a critical social cue, and listeners are extremely sensitive to the voices in their environment. One of the most salient voices in a child's life is mother's voice: Infants discriminate their mother's voice from the first days of life, and this stimulus is associated with guiding emotional and social function during development. Little is known regarding the functional circuits that are selectively engaged in children by biologically salient voices such as mother's voice or whether this brain activity is related to children's social communication abilities. We used functional MRI to measure brain activity in 24 healthy children (mean age, 10.2 y) while they attended to brief (auditory regions in the midbrain and cortex; voice-selective superior temporal sulcus (STS); the amygdala, which is crucial for processing of affect; nucleus accumbens and orbitofrontal cortex of the reward circuit; anterior insula and cingulate of the salience network; and a subregion of fusiform gyrus associated with face perception. The strength of brain connectivity between voice-selective STS and reward, affective, salience, memory, and face-processing regions during mother's voice perception predicted social communication skills. Our findings provide a novel neurobiological template for investigation of typical social development as well as clinical disorders, such as autism, in which perception of biologically and socially salient voices may be impaired.

  16. Yield and combining ability of maize cultivars under different ecogeographic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilson Deitos

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the yield and combining ability of maize cultivars (AG4051, AL30,AL25, D270, D170, and AG1051 in contrasting environments. The trials were conducted in the growing season 2002/2003,in Viçosa, Capinópolis and Florestal, state of Minas Gerais. The effects of hybrids were significant by the F test, as well astreatments x environments, hybrid combinations x environments, and controls x environments. This indicates the possibilityof increasing the yield in these regions by capitalizing on the genotype x environment interaction, by selecting and recombiningcultivars for each site. Among the cultivars and their hybrid combinations, AG1051 and AG4051 x AL30, respectively,performed best in the mean of the three locations. The most indicated combinations for each site were: AG4051 X AL30 andAL30 X D270 in Viçosa, AG4051 X AL25 and AL30 X D170 in Florestal and, D170 x AG4051 and AL25 x D270 inCapinópolis.

  17. "Accomodating science" : a new way of thinking about rhetorical dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Herman, T.; Salas, C.

    2012-01-01

    By analyzing three case studies (neutrinos, victimization survey and quality of mass media), our present issue is to figure out if underlying successive accommodations to new rhetorical situations will have an impact on the respective importance of logos, ethos and pathos. We would like to pinpoint the stakes of science's public dimensions considering the scientists' image, their expertise, and also the given results' implication. We will especially take into account scientific papers that ma...

  18. "Topoi" and Rhetorical Competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Ruth Anne; Delia, Jesse G.

    1979-01-01

    Argues that the speech communication scholar can contribute to the general study of communicative development, particularly to the investigation of strategic communication. Argues for attention to message strategies, but within the framework of the underlying cognitive and cultural structures through which they are created. (JMF)

  19. Combining Ability in Wheat for Seedling Traits by Line X Tester Analysis Under Saline Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Osaf

    Full Text Available A line × tester analysis involving five varieties SQ-26, SQ-77, GH-10, 8670, PARC-N2 (lines and three varieties 8721, SARC-5 and DN-4 (testers were crossed to study some hydroponics growing characters. In controlled conditions SQ-26 exhibited the highest positive GCA effects on Shoot length, Shoot fresh weight, Na+ and K+ concentrations, while SQ-77 showed maximum GCA effects on Root length, Root fresh weight and Shoot dry weight in females and in males and both DN-4 and SARC-5 showed the highest GCA effects. Under high saline concentration female SQ-77 showed the maximum positive effects on all characters but on shoot length and Na concentration while male SARC-5 exhibited the highest positive GCA effects on all characters. Under high saline level, the cross combination SQ-26 × 8721 showed SCA effects for shoot length, whereas 8670 x 8721 showed the same effects for shoot fresh weight, root fresh weight and root dry weight. For Na+ and K+ concentrations, the cross combination GH-10 × DN-4 showed then highest SCA effects, whereas for shoot dry weight and root length, the cross combinations GH-10 × SARC-5 and PARC-N2 × 8721 showed the highest SCA effects, respectively.

  20. Rhetoric by Avistotel: a Legal View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Kh. Rekosh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of any phenomenon, which is far from the researcher for thousands years, in the light of this or that department of knowledge, highlights one and obscures another, prefers one over another. It happened to the rhetoric which was snatched by philology and neglected by lawyers. Although nowadays it is natural that the same phenomena are studied by different Sciences, the ancient rhetoric is looked at by most researchers as the art of philology. But the approach by Aristotle, in his Rhetoric, was legal rather than linguistic. Among the Aristotle's 4 requirements concerning good style (correctness, clarity, relevance and eloquence eloquence is only % and the % are closer to the law. Rhetoric has incorporated all the features of linguistic mechanisms and gave them to the law. The law perceived moral and ethical ideas: the good justice, virtue, ritual, law and techniques of philology and persuasion, among which the main one is syllogism already used in the dialectic, the main logic principle of legal reasoning. Towards the past, rhetoric is parallel to dialectic, but dialectic is focused on one person or on the speaker, and rhetoric aims at the audience, the first one tries to convince himself and the second tries to convince the audience and in this role rhetoric is linked with the law. As far as the evolution of law is concerned, instead of legal technique there was rhetoric (especially in its methodological form, defined by Aristotle, which can be considered as a step towards creating the law as a design in ancient Greece. It is proved by a comparison of the ancient institution of judicial process and judicial speeches with modern legal technicalities, which shows that the legal machinery embraced the principles of "rhetorical" technique. The methodological nature of the rhetoric by Aristotle is usually overlooked by linguists and lawyers.

  1. [Working ability between air and trimix breathing gas under 8 ATA air condition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibayama, M; Kosugi, S; Mohri, M; Yamamura, I; Oda, S; Kimura, A; Takeuchi, J; Mano, Y

    1990-04-01

    Pneumatic caisson work in Japan has come into operation since 1924. Afterward, this technique of compressed air work has been widely utilized in the construction of foundation basements, shafts of the bottom tunnel shields for subway and so forth. While using this technique of compressed air work means that workers have to be exposed to hyperbaric environment, this technique has risks of not only decompression sickness (DCS) but also toxicity of poisonous gas and/or oxygen deficiency. However, this technique is independent of city construction work and the operation of compressed air work higher than 5ATA (4.0 kg/cm2G) is actually been planning recently. Accordingly unmanned caisson work is considered as a better technique for such higher pressurized work, even though workers must enter into hyperbaric working fields for maintenance or repair of unmanned operated machinery and materials. This research is to establish the safe work under hyperbaric air environment at 8ATA.

  2. The Rhetoric of the Manifesto

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, James

    2015-01-01

    The Communist Manifesto, by definition, is a polemical treatise. The word polemic stems from the Greek polemikos, meaning “war,” and the Manifesto presents itself, accordingly, as the exposé of a “more or less hidden civil war” between social classes, and exhorts its readers to take sides with the participant whose interests it promotes (CM 245). These features of the text are sufficient to remind us that Marx and Engels are engaged in a distinctively rhetorical exercise. Their task in the Ma...

  3. Encoding of Shath on the basis of Rhetoric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Goli

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract "Shath" because of having extended relationship with spiritual experiences, unconsciousness, language and literature, religion and religious experiences, society and cultural circumstances often regarded as complex and sometimes meaningless matters confronting of interpretation. This complexity often is the result of aesthetic and literary language of shathiyat, the influence of unconsciousness mind of Arif (mystic in the quality of shathiyat or the influence of the necessity of reader’s conditions in explanation of shathiyat. While, to extract meanings from sentences including "Shath" naturally one should know Rhetoric and detect implicit meanings because the surface structure of shath may be in contrast with religious and traditional beliefs and ideals. Another reason is that, according to the reason of collection of Balâghat (Rhetoric for better discovery of holy meaning of Quran, the holy and high-level meanings never transfer into the addressee by the words which are restricted to the primary meanings but always a set of literary tools such as Code, Symbol, Kenning, Metaphor, Simile and Trope hides a holy and sublime concept under the layers of words to keep far its superiority and reality from the damage of routine and primary meanings. Also, because of constraints and disagreements with mystic education in the many historical periods, mystics had to implicit their education so that their companions understand and outsiders do not. In fact, the interpretation of types of shathiyat weren’t unrelated to the status and spiritual capacity of addressees (the necessity of addressee. It seems to be impossible expectation that we exactly can understand main meaning and real aim of a Shatah (speaker or writer of "Shath",(of course, there isn’t absolute meaning in realm of literature, but halo of meanings exist that give artistic aspect to literary text as in hermeneutics doesn’t exist one unchangeable meaning. But

  4. Ability of sat-1 to transport sulfate, bicarbonate, or oxalate under physiological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krick, Wolfgang; Schnedler, Nina; Burckhardt, Gerhard; Burckhardt, Birgitta C

    2009-07-01

    Tubular reabsorption of sulfate is achieved by the sodium-dependent sulfate transporter, NaSi-1, located at the apical membrane, and the sulfate-anion exchanger, sat-1, located at the basolateral membrane. To delineate the physiological role of rat sat-1, [(35)S]sulfate and [(14)C]oxalate uptake into sat-1-expressing oocytes was determined under various experimental conditions. Influx of [(35)S]sulfate was inhibited by bicarbonate, thiosulfate, sulfite, and oxalate, but not by sulfamate and sulfide, in a competitive manner with K(i) values of 2.7 +/- 1.3 mM, 101.7 +/- 9.7 microM, 53.8 +/- 10.9 microM, and 63.5 +/- 38.7 microM, respectively. Vice versa, [(14)C]oxalate uptake was inhibited by sulfate with a K(i) of 85.9 +/- 9.5 microM. The competitive type of inhibition indicates that these compounds are most likely substrates of sat-1. Physiological plasma bicarbonate concentrations (25 mM) reduced sulfate and oxalate uptake by more than 75%. Simultaneous application of sulfate, bicarbonate, and oxalate abolished sulfate as well as oxalate uptake. These data and electrophysiological studies using a two-electrode voltage-clamp device provide evidence that sat-1 preferentially works as an electroneutral sulfate-bicarbonate or oxalate-bicarbonate exchanger. In kidney proximal tubule cells, sat-1 likely completes sulfate reabsorption from the ultrafiltrate across the basolateral membrane in exchange for bicarbonate. In hepatocytes, oxalate extrusion is most probably mediated either by an exchange for sulfate or bicarbonate.

  5. RHETORICAL STRUCTURE OF ARGUMENTATIVE ANSWER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Desiderato ANTONIO

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to describe the rhetorical structure of the argumentative answer genre in a corpus formed by 15 compositions of the winter vestibular of Universidade Estadual de Maringá. The instrument of analysis used in the investigation was RST (Rhetorical Structure Theory. The initial statement was considered the central unit of the argumentative answer. Most of the writers held evidence relation between the central unit (nucleus and the expansion (satellite. Evidence relation is interpersonal and the aim of the writers is to convince their addressees (in this case the compositions evaluation committee that their point is correct. Within the initial statement, the relation with higher frequency was contrast. Our hypothesis is that the selection of texts of the test influenced the applicants to present positive and negative aspects of the internet. In the higher level of the expansion text span, list is the most frequent relation because the applicants present various arguments with the same status. Contrast was the second relation with highest frequency in this same level. Our hypothesis is that the selection of texts of the test influenced the applicants to present positive and negative aspects of the internet as it happened in the initial statement. Within the 15 compositions, 12 had a conclusion. This part was considered a satellite of the span formed by the initial statement and its expansion. The relation held was homonymous.

  6. Is it Culture or is it Rhetoric?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampf, Constance

    2006-01-01

    Diego county area in California.  The rhetorical dimension of attitude is defined as comprising both the central ideas present in websites and the ideologies or systems of ideas in which the websites are situated.  Attitude is linked to identification through the notion of rhetorical distance rather...... question the idea that behavior is governed by cultural values and offering the rhetorical dimension of attitude as an alternative frame for understanding minority web presences.  [1] Here, I will define a web presence as the core sites to which the majority of websites refer...

  7. Improvement of fermentation ability under baking-associated stress conditions by altering the POG1 gene expression in baker's yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasano, Yu; Haitani, Yutaka; Hashida, Keisuke; Oshiro, Satoshi; Shima, Jun; Takagi, Hiroshi

    2013-08-01

    During the bread-making process, yeast cells are exposed to many types of baking-associated stress. There is thus a demand within the baking industry for yeast strains with high fermentation abilities under these stress conditions. The POG1 gene, encoding a putative transcription factor involved in cell cycle regulation, is a multicopy suppressor of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae E3 ubiquitin ligase Rsp5 mutant. The pog1 mutant is sensitive to various stresses. Our results suggested that the POG1 gene is involved in stress tolerance in yeast cells. In this study, we showed that overexpression of the POG1 gene in baker's yeast conferred increased fermentation ability in high-sucrose-containing dough, which is used for sweet dough baking. Furthermore, deletion of the POG1 gene drastically increased the fermentation ability in bread dough after freeze-thaw stress, which would be a useful characteristic for frozen dough baking. Thus, the engineering of yeast strains to control the POG1 gene expression level would be a novel method for molecular breeding of baker's yeast. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Among three different executive functions, general executive control ability is a key predictor of decision making under objective risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiebener, Johannes; Wegmann, Elisa; Gathmann, Bettina; Laier, Christian; Pawlikowski, Mirko; Brand, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Executive functioning is supposed to have an important role in decision making under risk. Several studies reported that more advantageous decision-making behavior was accompanied by better performance in tests of executive functioning and that the decision-making process was accompanied by activations in prefrontal and subcortical brain regions associated with executive functioning. However, to what extent different components of executive functions contribute to decision making is still unclear. We tested direct and indirect effects of three executive functions on decision-making performance in a laboratory gambling task, the Game of Dice Task (GDT). Using Brand's model of decisions under risk (2006) we tested seven structural equation models with three latent variables that represent executive functions supposed to be involved in decision making. The latent variables were general control (represented by the general ability to exert attentional and behavioral self-control that is in accordance with task goals despite interfering information), concept formation (represented by categorization, rule detection, and set maintenance), and monitoring (represented by supervision of cognition and behavior). The seven models indicated that only the latent dimension general control had a direct effect on decision making under risk. Concept formation and monitoring only contributed in terms of indirect effects, when mediated by general control. Thus, several components of executive functioning seem to be involved in decision making under risk. However, general control functions seem to have a key role. They may be important for implementing the calculative and cognitively controlled processes involved in advantageous decision making under risk.

  9. Caveat Emptor! The Rhetoric of Choice in Food Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Calabrese

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This project is about a form of corporate predation that entails both policy influence and cultural legitimation. Neoliberal explanations of the inability of citizens to thrive in the current socio- economic condition typically rest on a combination of victim-blaming and appeals to the individualistic rhetoric that assumes we all enjoy equality of opportunity and freedom of choice. It is common for corporate lobbyists, and politicians under their influence, to argue against consumer protection on the grounds that such efforts are paternalistic, and that they therefore undermine consumer sovereignty. By this logic, illnesses that are highly correlated to diet are problems that consumers can avoid, and it is not the duty of food companies or government to prevent consumers from making “bad choices.” Implicit in this moralistic narrative is that consumers have sufficient knowledge about the alternatives to enable them to make “good choices.” Major food lobbies use their political influence to oppose government regulations of food, based on the reasoning that consumers deserve the right to choose. Food industry groups also will sometimes invest heavily to prevent legal requirements to disclose information that might enable consumers to make informed choices, creating a predatory double-bind. In this essay, I discuss how the rhetoric of choice is employed by the food industry, how it is formulated within the political context of the United States, and how that rhetoric poses threats to food systems globally.

  10. Rhetoric and Educational Policies on the Use of History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessie Y. Y. Wong

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available This article attempts to review the rhetoric and the educational policies on the use of history for citizenship education from 1880-1990 in England. In many instances, the rhetoric served as powerful tools to gain the support of educational authorities, namely, the Board of Education, Ministry of Education and Examination Boards. Their support was reflected in the change of educational policies and school syllabi that followed. This study shows that there was strong and consistent widespread rhetoric on history's contribution to citizenship education throughout the century, neither stopped by the two great wars nor impeded by the challenge of social studies as a citizenship subject after the Second World War. Instead it was challenged by the discipline itself in the early 1980s when some historians began to doubt the "new" history on the ground that the "real" history was being devalued. Consequently, there was evidence that the "new" history did not take off widely. In many schools, history was taught for its own sake. Its value for the education of modern citizenship was not being emphasised. This article ends with the argument that under the environment of the National Curriculum, first implemented in the country in 1989, history still claims its relevance for citizenship education.

  11. Classification of manual abilities in children with cerebral palsy under 5 years of age : how reliable is the Manual Ability Classification System?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plasschaert, V. F. P.; Ketelaar, M.; Nijnuis, M. G.; Enkelaar, L.; Gorter, J. W.

    Objective: To assess the interobserver reliability of the Manual Ability Classification System (MACS) in young children (age 1-5 years) with cerebral palsy. Design: Interobserver reliability study. Setting: A cross-sectional study of a hospital-based population of children with cerebral palsy.

  12. The Purification of Literature and Rhetoric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterowd, W. Ross

    1987-01-01

    Argues that the study of literature has been stripped of its usefulness and purely theoretical while the study of rhetoric has been stripped of theory and reduced to practical, applied stylistics. (SRT)

  13. Assessment of Shelf-Life Ability of Apples cv. ‘Auksis’ after Long-term Storage Under Different Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juhņeviča-Radenkova Karina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the current research was to ascertain the shelf-life ability of apple ‘Auksis’ after 6 months of cold storage under different conditions. The effect of storage conditions such as: cold storage under normal atmosphere (NA, 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP + cold storage, and ultra-low oxygen (ULO-controlled atmosphere (CA [2.0% CO2 and 1.0% O2 (ULO1 and 2.5% CO2 and 1.5% O2 (ULO2] on the quality of apples during shelf-life was evaluated. Apple fruits immediately after cold storage and after 25 days of maintaining at market condition had been evaluated. The physical (firmness, weight losses, chemical (total soluble solids and acid contents, and sensory (aroma, taste, acidity, sweetness, juiciness, and color characteristics of apples had been evaluated after 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 days to ascertain maximal shelf-life. Results from sensory evaluation indicated that apples treated with 1-MCP and stored at NA were characterized with distinctive aroma, whereas apples stored under CA were poor in sweetness and had remarkable acidity and juiciness. Apples that were stored in cold had pronounced aroma and color but without taste. Based on the evaluation by panelist, maximum shelf-life of apples that were kept under cold storage and ULO1 was 15 days, whereas that of apples that had been treated with 1-MCP and stored at NA and those stored in ULO2 was 25 days.

  14. Speech and scientific paper. A rhetorical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Carmona Sandoval

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This essay attempts to show that the ancient rhetorical theory has explanatory capabilities to understand and learn to write modern texts and to analyze them in order to understand their communication skills, as in the scientific article, one of the most prestigious forms on scientific communication. It starts with the notion of discourse in the field of scientific communication and then address the rhetorical dimension of the paper.

  15. Visualization rhetoric: framing effects in narrative visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hullman, Jessica; Diakopoulos, Nicholas

    2011-12-01

    Narrative visualizations combine conventions of communicative and exploratory information visualization to convey an intended story. We demonstrate visualization rhetoric as an analytical framework for understanding how design techniques that prioritize particular interpretations in visualizations that "tell a story" can significantly affect end-user interpretation. We draw a parallel between narrative visualization interpretation and evidence from framing studies in political messaging, decision-making, and literary studies. Devices for understanding the rhetorical nature of narrative information visualizations are presented, informed by the rigorous application of concepts from critical theory, semiotics, journalism, and political theory. We draw attention to how design tactics represent additions or omissions of information at various levels-the data, visual representation, textual annotations, and interactivity-and how visualizations denote and connote phenomena with reference to unstated viewing conventions and codes. Classes of rhetorical techniques identified via a systematic analysis of recent narrative visualizations are presented, and characterized according to their rhetorical contribution to the visualization. We describe how designers and researchers can benefit from the potentially positive aspects of visualization rhetoric in designing engaging, layered narrative visualizations and how our framework can shed light on how a visualization design prioritizes specific interpretations. We identify areas where future inquiry into visualization rhetoric can improve understanding of visualization interpretation. © 2011 IEEE

  16. Putting Rhetoric on Trial: Using a Simulated Courtroom in the Rhetoric Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Aaron

    2013-01-01

    This article describes an activity in which students will be able to apply rhetorical theory effectively and critically from specific theorists throughout history to modern-day issues. Through a simulated trial of a current figure, this activity makes connections between rhetorical theories to current affairs, thereby inviting students to consider…

  17. "Femicide" and Rhetorics of "Coadyuvante" in Ciudad Juarez: Valuing Rhetorical Traditions in the Americas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serviss, Tricia C.

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzes the writings of activist women in modern-day Juarez, Mexico. I present their explanations about their own composition and delivery of two particular activist campaigns, highlighting the rhetorical strategies and practices they developed. Looking closely at these two campaigns, the article describes the rhetorical concept of…

  18. Arabitol provided by lichenous fungi enhances ability to dissipate excess light energy in a symbiotic green alga under desiccation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosugi, Makiko; Miyake, Hirohisa; Yamakawa, Hisanori; Shibata, Yutaka; Miyazawa, Atsuo; Sugimura, Takashi; Satoh, Kazuhiko; Itoh, Shigeru; Kashino, Yasuhiro

    2013-08-01

    Lichens are drought-resistant symbiotic organisms of mycobiont fungi and photobiont green algae or cyanobacteria, and have an efficient mechanism to dissipate excess captured light energy into heat in a picosecond time range to avoid photoinhibition. This mechanism can be assessed as drought-induced non-photochemical quenching (d-NPQ) using time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. A green alga Trebouxia sp., which lives within a lichen Ramalina yasudae, is one of the most common green algal photobionts. This alga showed very efficient d-NPQ under desiccation within the lichen thallus, whereas it lost d-NPQ ability when isolated from R. yasudae, indicating the importance of the interaction with the mycobiont for d-NPQ ability. We analyzed the water extracts from lichen thalli that enhanced d-NPQ in Trebouxia. Of several sugar compounds identified in the water extracts by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), mass spectrometry (MS) and gas chromatography (GC) analyses, only d-arabitol recovered d-NPQ in isolated Trebouxia to a level similar to that detected for R. yasudae thallus. Other sugar compounds did not help the expression of d-NPQ at the same concentrations. Thus, arabitol is essential for the expression of d-NPQ to dissipate excess captured light energy into heat, protecting the photobiont from photoinhibition. The relationship between mycobionts and photobionts is, therefore, not commensalism, but mutualism with each other, as shown by d-NPQ expression.

  19. FORMATION OF ANTIQUE RHETORIC: CHRONOLOGY OF RHETORICAL METHODS AND STYLES (PLATO, ARISTOTLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina A. Pantelyeyeva

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the article: to analyze the basic points of philosophical concepts of rhetoric of Plato and Aristotle, to prove that from Plato the rhetoric in the true sense starts being approved, and Aristotle is an ancestor of real theory of speech of the new genre, the new form, the new purposes and tasks of the description of verbal art. Problem statement: development of the ancient principles of rhetorical style’s creating is reached by efforts of outstanding speakers, each of them were differed not only by the ideological sympathies or antipathies, but also by nature of works, the concepts put in their basis. Two Ancient Greek philosophers: Plato and Aristotle are considered as founders of ancient rhetorical science. Methodology. Author has used system method, methods of content and comparative analysis. Scientific novelty is displayed in the received results from the comparative analysis of two concepts of public speech of Plato and Aristotle from a position of philosophical justification of rhetoric’s rules with orientation on ancient "popular" declamation practices. Practical value of article consists in development of insufficiently studied object "Antique declamation discourse" where Plato and Aristotle's two central rhetorical concepts appear as the intermediate stage in development of a declamation discourse of Ancient Greece and, subsequently, and Ancient Rome. Conclusions. The conclusions can be given by the following facts: from Plato the rhetoric in the true sense is approved: true rhetorical art isn’t based only on argument technique, the true rhethor appears as the philosopher. Plato raises the problem of an ambiguity of two opposite rhetorics presented in "Gorgias" and "Phaedrus ". Rhetoric as scientific discipline, as the present theory of speech is first considered by Aristotle. The rhetoric is presented as the science "about speech and about thoughts", about the relation of thinking to the word.

  20. Presidential Spectacles: Political Illusionism and the Rhetoric of Travel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Keith V.

    1998-01-01

    Contributes to rhetorical scholarship by exploring the rhetorical implications of presidential travel spectacles. Finds that travel spectacles enable administrations to marginalize verbal eloquence, visually simplify complex political issues, narratively interpret presidential agendas, synoptically reify presidential personae, and construct or…

  1. Antioxidative enzyme profiling and biosorption ability of Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34 and Pseudomonas putida mt2 under cadmium stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamim, Saba; Rehman, Abdul

    2015-03-01

    Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34 and Pseudomonas putida mt2 were used as cadmium (Cd)-resistant and -sensitive bacteria, respectively, to study their biosorption ability and their antioxidative enzymes. The minimal inhibitory concentration of C. metallidurans CH34 for Cd was found to be 30 mM, and for P. putida mt2 it was 1.25 mM. The tube dilution method revealed the heavy-metal resistance pattern of C. metallidurans CH34 as Ni(2+) (10 mM)>Zn(2+) (4 mM)>Cu(2+) (2 mM)>Hg(2+) (1 mM)>Cr(2+) (1 mM)>Pb(2+) (0 mM), whereas P. putida mt2 was only resistant to Zn(2+) (1 mM). Under Cd stress, the induction of GSH was higher in C. metallidurans CH34 (0.359 ± 0.010 mM g(-1)  FW) than in P. putida mt2 (0.286 ± 0.005 mM g(-1)  FW). Glutathione reductase was more highly expressed in the mt2 strain, in contrast to non-protein thiols and peroxidase. Unlike dead bacterial cells, live cells of both bacteria showed significant Cd biosorption, i.e. more than 80% at 48 h. C. metallidurans CH34 used only catalase, whereas P. putida mt2 used superoxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase to combat Cd stress. This study investigated the Cd biosorption ability and enzymes involved in the Cd detoxification mechanisms of C. metallidurans CH34 and P. putida mt2. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Kanye West versus Kris Allen: Teaching Rhetorical Structure via Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaylor, Brian T.

    2012-01-01

    One important aspect of analyzing a rhetorical text is through consideration of the text or artifact's structure, which is why rhetorical criticism textbooks often devote a chapter to issues of structure, form, or genre. Such an emphasis should not be surprising since understanding rhetorical structure remains a foundational concept for rhetorical…

  3. Places in Time: The Inns and Outhouses of Rhetoric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mailloux, Steven

    2006-01-01

    Rhetoric is often about "good guys" and "bad guys." Even more basically, it concerns who is in and who is out, what is included and what is excluded, who is placed inside and who outside a cultural community, a political movement, a professional organization. These ins and outs concern both the commonplaces of rhetoric and the rhetoric of …

  4. Education Policy Rhetoric and Reality Gap: A Reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tee, Ng Pak

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to discuss why there is often a gulf of difference between policy rhetoric and reality. In particular, the paper seeks to explore issues with the policy rhetoric, implementation process and the lens through which reality is perceived, explaining why these issues can open up a policy rhetoric-reality gap. This article also…

  5. The Failure of Memory: Reflections on Rhetoric and Public Remembrance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Kendall R.

    2010-01-01

    The rapid growth of public memory studies in the field of rhetoric suggests the need to reflect upon the ways in which the practices of rhetoric and the notion of memory intersect. In this essay, I trace the intersection between memory and rhetoric back to the works of Plato and Aristotle. These early works suggest that one reason for attending to…

  6. From Logic to Rhetoric: A Contextualized Pedagogy for Fallacies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Womack, Anne-Marie

    2015-01-01

    This article reenvisions fallacies for composition classrooms by situating them within rhetorical practices. Fallacies are not formal errors in logic but rather persuasive failures in rhetoric. I argue fallacies are directly linked to successful rhetorical strategies and pose the visual organizer of the Venn diagram to demonstrate that claims can…

  7. Alternative Rhetoric and Morality: Writing from the Margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, David L.

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the need for alternative rhetorics that address systemic marginalization in American society and in the practice of rhetoric and composition. Specifically, three concepts from queer theory--"intersectionality," "copresence," and "disidentification"--are used as a basis for defining an alternative rhetoric. Then, in the bulk…

  8. The Present State of Scholarship in Historical and Contemporary Rhetoric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Winifred Bryan, Ed.

    Designed for the student of historical rhetoric who does not have a reading knowledge of Greek and Latin, this book is divided into 6 sections, each written by a specialist in the rhetoric of the different historical periods. Each section (1) provides an overview of the primary works, their authors, and the rhetorical issues of the period; (2)…

  9. Writing Pedagogies of Empathy: As Rhetoric and Disposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leake, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Empathy is attracting increased attention within and beyond the academy. In this essay I review relevant theories of empathy and their place within rhetoric and composition. I propose two approaches to teaching empathy: as rhetoric and as disposition. A rhetorical approach incorporates a necessary critical awareness of empathy's enticements and…

  10. The Origins of Rhetoric: Corax and Tisias Reconsidered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, L. Keith

    In examining the role of Corax and Tisias in the development of rhetoric should be considered: (1) the recently-discovered transition from orality to literacy in the ancient Greek world, suggesting that rhetoric became a formal discipline at their hands through the medium of writing and that rhetoric existed in some form in the earlier oral…

  11. Notions of "Rhetoric as Epistemic" in Ancient Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, William L.

    The notion that rhetoric (and to a lesser extent, argument) is epistemic is an increasingly popular one today, although it can be traced to ancient Greece. The notion holds that rhetoric, or the art of persuasion, creates and shapes knowledge. Two ancient authors--Aristophanes and Plato--provide evidence that others had notions of rhetoric as…

  12. Teaching Ethos from the Dumpster: "Dive" and Food Waste Rhetoric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubisar, Abby M.; Hunt, Kathleen P.

    2018-01-01

    Courses: Rhetorical Criticism, Composition, Environmental Communication. Objectives: This unit activity, for which students view a documentary to identify and evaluate persuasive ethos and then create their own rhetorical messages for reducing food waste, serves as a platform for teaching both the critique and practice of rhetoric, as well as…

  13. "Stasis" and "Kairos": Principles of Social Construction in Classical Rhetoric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Michael

    1988-01-01

    Argues that the principles of stasis and kairos belie the reputation of classical rhetoric as obsessively individualistic and that they point toward a social constructionist foundation for classical rhetoric. These principles are strikingly similar; both act as controlling principles of rhetoric and determine both the generation and aim of…

  14. Trametes meyenii possesses elevated dye degradation abilities under normal nutritional conditions compared to other white rot fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Several species of white-rot fungi were investigated for their utility in prolonged decolouration of the recalcitrant sulfonated azo dye, amaranth. Trametes pubescens, T. multicolor, T. meyenii and T. versicolor decoloured amaranth azo-dye best on low-nitrogen agar-solidified media whereas Bjerkandera adusta and Phlebia radiata were most effective in low nitrogen medium supplemented with manganese. Trametes cotonea did not decolour effectively under any condition. The decolouring Trametes species were also effective in liquid culture whereas B. adusta and P. radiata were not. Trametes meyenii, T. pubescens and T. multicolor were equal to or better than commonly employed T. versicolor at decolouring amaranth. This is the first study to show the dye decolouration potential of T. meyenii, T. pubescens, and T. multicolor. Supplementing with Mn(II) increased assayable manganese peroxidase activity, but not long-term decolouration, indicating that laccase is the main decolourizing enzyme in these Trametes species. This appears to be because of inadequate Mn3+ chelation required by manganese peroxidase because adding relatively low amounts of malonate enhanced decolouration rates. The ability of Trametes meyenii to simultaneously decolour dye over prolonged periods of time while growing in relatively nutrient-rich medium appears to be unique amongst white-rot fungi, indicating its potential in wastewater bioremediation. PMID:25401075

  15. The power of rhetoric: two healing movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justman, Stewart

    2011-03-01

    Though we might suppose that our sensations are unaffected by the talk around us, the rhetoric surrounding a treatment can in fact color the experience of those having the treatment. So it is with both Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) and the 18th-century therapy that has been cited as its predecessor: mesmerism. In both cases, rhetoric itself is conscripted into the service of therapeutic ends. Reports of cures are advertised and celebrated in a way that builds the expectation and feeds the experience of more of the same. Precisely because they are rooted in and speak to their time and place, however, the efficacy of these therapies may be limited. An investigation of the kinship between the two healing movements - and the driving force of a movement is nothing other than rhetoric - throws light on possibly social sources of therapeutic efficacy.

  16. The Power of Rhetoric: Two Healing Movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justman, Stewart

    2011-01-01

    Though we might suppose that our sensations are unaffected by the talk around us, the rhetoric surrounding a treatment can in fact color the experience of those having the treatment. So it is with both Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) and the 18th-century therapy that has been cited as its predecessor: mesmerism. In both cases, rhetoric itself is conscripted into the service of therapeutic ends. Reports of cures are advertised and celebrated in a way that builds the expectation and feeds the experience of more of the same. Precisely because they are rooted in and speak to their time and place, however, the efficacy of these therapies may be limited. An investigation of the kinship between the two healing movements — and the driving force of a movement is nothing other than rhetoric — throws light on possibly social sources of therapeutic efficacy. PMID:21451780

  17. Benjamin Franklin's Commemorative Medal "Libertas Americana": A Study in Rhetorical Iconology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Lester C.

    1990-01-01

    Investigates the underlying rhetorical functions of how Benjamin Franklin used the medal to praise the national characters of France and the United States in those two countries, while he also used it to influence government policy in Malta and to vindicate himself from criticism in England. (KEH)

  18. The Frontier Myth in Presidential Rhetoric: Theodore Roosevelt's Campaign for Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsey, Leroy G.

    1995-01-01

    States that the Frontier Myth has been used by rhetorical presidents to inspire audiences and energize policies. Investigates how Theodore Roosevelt linked the Frontier Myth to conservation policy. Demonstrates how he altered the myth, replacing the conqueror hero with a farmer hero. Concludes that conservation under Roosevelt's administration was…

  19. Rhetorical Aspects of Discourses in Present-day Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    being important for communication in modern society. Like speakers in public life, e.g. politicians, who had always acknowledged the role of rhetoric, all sorts of communicators, mediators and scholars became interested in rhetoric as a practical tool for building up texts meant for the public sphere...... as well as an analytical tool for the critique of public argumentation. This led to the development of new theories from New Rhetoric over Rhetorical Criticism to theories of genre and discourse, reflecting the view that rhetoric must be understood and used against the social and cultural framework...

  20. Cocoa butter-like lipid production ability of non-oleaginous and oleaginous yeasts under nitrogen-limited culture conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yongjun; Siewers, Verena; Nielsen, Jens

    2017-05-01

    Cocoa butter (CB) extracted from cocoa beans is the main raw material for chocolate production. However, growing chocolate demands and limited CB production has resulted in a shortage of CB supply. CB is mainly composed of three different kinds of triacylglycerols (TAGs), POP (C16:0-C18:1-C16:0), POS (C16:0-C18:1-C18:0), and SOS (C18:0-C18:1-C18:0). The storage lipids of yeasts, mainly TAGs, also contain relative high-level of C16 and C18 fatty acids and might be used as CB-like lipids (CBL). In this study, we cultivated six different yeasts, including one non-oleaginous yeast strain, Saccharomyces cerevisiae CEN.PK113-7D, and five oleaginous yeast strains, Trichosporon oleaginosus DSM11815, Rhodotorula graminis DSM 27356, Lipomyces starkeyi DSM 70296, Rhodosporidium toruloides DSM 70398, and Yarrowia lipolytica CBS 6124, in nitrogen-limited medium and compared their CBL production ability. Under the same growth conditions, we found that TAGs were the main lipids in all six yeasts and that T. oleaginosus can produce more TAGs than the other five yeasts. Less than 3% of the total TAGs were identified as potential SOS in the six yeasts. However, T. oleaginosus produced 27.8% potential POP and POS at levels of 378 mg TAGs/g dry cell weight, hinting that this yeast may have potential as a CBL production host after further metabolic engineering in future.

  1. Biomass allocation, relative competitive ability and water use efficiency of two dominant species in semiarid Loess Plateau under water stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bing-Cheng; Xu, Wei-Zhou; Huang, Jin; Shan, Lun; Li, Feng-Min

    2011-12-01

    A better understanding of the growth and interspecific competition of native dominant species under water stress should aid in prediction of succession in plant communities. In addition, such research would guide the selection of appropriate conservation and agricultural utilization of plants in semiarid environments that have not been very well characterized. Biomass production and allocation, relative competitive ability and water use efficiency of one C(4) herbaceous grass (Bothriochloa ischaemum) and one C(3) leguminous subshrub (Lespedeza davurica), both important species from the semiarid Loess Plateau of China, were investigated in a pot-cultivation experiment. The experiment was conducted using a replacement series design in which B. ischaemum and L. davurica were grown with twelve plants per pot, in seven combinations of the two species (12:0, 10:2, 8:4, 6:6, 4:8, 2:10, and 0:12). Three levels of water treatments included sufficient water supply (HW), moderate water stress (MW) and severe water stress (LW). These treatments were applied after seedling establishment and remained until the end of the experiment. Biomass production and its partitioning, and transpiration water use efficiency (TWUE) were determined at the end of the experiment. Interspecific competitive indices (competitive ratio (CR), aggressiveness (A) and relative yield total (RYT)) were calculated from the dry weight for shoots, roots and total biomass. Water stress decreased biomass production of both species in monoculture and mixture. The growth of L. davurica was restrained in their mixtures for each water treatment. L. davurica had significantly (Pwater treatment and proportion within the replacement series. Aggressiveness (A) values for B. ischaemum with respect to L. davurica were negative only at the proportions of B. ischaemum to L. davurica being 8:4 and 10:2 in LW treatment. B. ischaemum had a significantly (Pwater treatment, and water stress considerably reduced its relative CR

  2. Literature Review of Japanese Contrastive Rhetoric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumming, Brett

    2012-01-01

    This literature review serves to inform the reader on current literature on Contrastive Rhetoric (CR), with specific reference to teaching writing to Japanese students of English. It will examine the historical developments of CR and its present significance before then looking at possible reasons for unique characteristics of Japanese L2 writers…

  3. "Hiroshima, Mon Amour": From Iconography to Rhetoric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medhurst, Martin J.

    1982-01-01

    This iconographic study of Resnais' classic film reconstructs the narrative structure of the film; identifies the various icons, images, sounds, and acts that constitute "marks" in time; and examines these marks to show how they function rhetorically to help interpret the central message or intrinsic meaning of the film. (PD)

  4. Rhetorical Legitimacy, and the Presidential Debates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucaites, John Louis

    1989-01-01

    Explores the negative popular reaction to the 1988 Presidential Debates. Examines how these events function as ritualistic enactments of the , thus providing a rhetorical legitimacy for the electoral process in a system dedicated to . Suggests how the 1988 debates failed to satisfy that function. (MM)

  5. Managerialism Rhetorics in Portuguese Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Rui; Carvalho, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    In Portugal, as elsewhere, the rhetoric of managerialism in higher education is becoming firmly entrenched in the governmental policymakers' discourse and has been widely disseminated across the institutional landscape. Managerialism is an important ideological support of New Public Management policies and can be classified as a narrative of…

  6. English 304 & Communications 250: Professional Rhetorics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Justin

    2009-01-01

    This article provides a course overview of English 304 & Communications 250: Professional Rhetorics. This course was a pilot project instituted at Clemson University in spring of 2008. The project integrally linked English 304 (Business Writing) and Communications 250 (Public Speaking), requiring the same students to be enrolled in both 3…

  7. Writing and Rhetoric Majors, Disciplinarity, and "Techne"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, J. Blake; Meloncon, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    How we argue for, create, and mobilize around writing and rhetoric majors will continue to shape our field's disciplinarity in crucial ways, including our recognition, resources, and relationships. The range of such majors and their institutional contexts, and the disparate field-level efforts to track and build consensus around them, generate…

  8. Posthuman Rhetorics: "It's the Future, Pikul."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muckelbauer, John; Hawhee, Debra

    2000-01-01

    Uses the metafictional virtual reality game and film, eXistenZ, to engage in a series of problems addressed through the figure of the "posthuman." Considers how posthumanism poses intriguing questions to many longstanding, "self-evident" assumptions about rhetoric and communication, broadly conceived. Discusses other articles…

  9. Cooperative rhetoric question in contemporary Persian literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Dashti ahangar

    2016-09-01

    Finally some samples of cooperative rhetoric question in current literature will be presented. It should be noted that the goal of these samples is to be more familiar with the subject matter and not the analysis of current literal texts; because it needs more time and study.

  10. Excellence and Education: Rhetoric and Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, Donald

    2007-01-01

    "Excellence" has been a prevalent term in New Labour rhetoric on education, most notably in the stated goal of "excellence for all" in education. Despite that, the meaning of the term has remained imprecise, and the implications of universal excellence unclear. In this paper, three distinct definitions of excellence are…

  11. ASPIRING VICE-CHANCELLORS' RHETORIC AND THE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of the discourse. Key Words: Manifesto, Nigeria, Political campaign, Rhetoric, University,. Vice-Chancellor. Introduction ... problems militating against the effective management of the university system in Nigeria which include poor ...... An appeal to newspaper authority in television ads: A case study, 1-20. Retrieved on April ...

  12. A Preliminary Rhetoric of Technical Copywriting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henson, Leigh

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the rhetorical elements of technical copywriting, including its shared communicative aims with technical writing; authorship considerations such as ethics, education, and professionalism; and the concerns of promotional strategy, audience analysis, choice of media and materials, writing strategy, and style. (SR)

  13. Assigning Blame: The Rhetoric of Education Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlavacik, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Despite a plethora of opinions on how to improve US education, a remarkable consensus has emerged that someone or something is to blame for the failures of the public school system, argues rhetoric scholar Mark Hlavacik in this new and insightful book examining the role of language and persuasion in the rise of the accountability movement.…

  14. Rhetorical Structure Theory and Text Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-11-01

    NO. NO. ACCESSION NO. 11. TITLE (include Security Clasification ) Rhetorical Structure Theory and Text Analysis (Unclassified) 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S...34Antithesis: A Study in Clause Combining and Discourse Structure ," in Ross Steele and Terry Threadgold (eds.), Language Topics: Essays in Honour of M

  15. Political Rhetoric and the English Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabiano, Theodore F.; Goodson, F. Todd

    1993-01-01

    Describes a method of teaching students to identify and analyze misleading or manipulative rhetoric used in political campaigns. Provides excerpts from student-written journals based on the 1992 presidential debates. Argues that such activities are beneficial in English classes. (HB)

  16. Kairotic Rhetoric in Freire's Liberatory Pedagogy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petruzzi, Anthony P.

    2001-01-01

    Explores Paulo Freire's work from a rhetorical point of view suggesting that kairos is an important component of critical consciousness. Discusses three basic modes of disclosure: moods; understanding; and dialogic discourse. Notes that "being" is made known through these basic modes. Argues that kairos is a qualitative moment of…

  17. Gorgias' Rhetoric: Epistemology, Doxa, and Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Gregory T.

    Gorgias' rhetoric can be explained in three parts: his sensory-based but non-empirical epistemology; his definitions of language as inherently deceptive and of "doxa" as the only "knowledge" communicable; and his antithetical style, which reproduces the necessary negotiation of understanding in the world. Gorgias' epistemology…

  18. Rhetoric and Ideology in the Writing Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, James

    1988-01-01

    Focuses on attitudes toward ideology in the three rhetorics that have emerged as most conspicuous in classroom practices today: (1) cognitive psychology, represented by Linda Flower; (2) expressionism, represented by Peter Elbow and Donald Murray; and (3) social-epistemic, represented by Ira Shor in CRITICAL TEACHING AND EVERYDAY LIFE. (JAD)

  19. Cognitive abilities underlying second-language vocabulary acquisition in an early second-language immersion education context: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolay, Anne-Catherine; Poncelet, Martine

    2013-08-01

    First-language (L1) and second-language (L2) lexical development has been found to be strongly associated with phonological processing abilities such as phonological short-term memory (STM), phonological awareness, and speech perception. Lexical development also seems to be linked to attentional and executive skills such as auditory attention, flexibility, and response inhibition. The aim of this four-wave longitudinal study was to determine to what extent L2 vocabulary acquired through the particular school context of early L2 immersion education is linked to the same cognitive abilities. A total of 61 French-speaking 5-year-old kindergartners who had just been enrolled in English immersion classes were administered a battery of tasks assessing these three phonological processing abilities and three attentional/executive skills. Their English vocabulary knowledge was measured 1, 2, and 3 school years later. Multiple regression analyses showed that, among the assessed phonological processing abilities, phonological STM and speech perception, but not phonological awareness, appeared to underlie L2 vocabulary acquisition in this context of an early L2 immersion school program, at least during the first steps of acquisition. Similarly, among the assessed attentional/executive skills, auditory attention and flexibility, but not response inhibition, appeared to be involved during the first steps of L2 vocabulary acquisition in such an immersion school context. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The Joint Role of Spatial Ability and Imagery Strategy in Sustaining the Learning of Spatial Descriptions under Spatial Interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneghetti, Chiara; De Beni, Rossana; Gyselinck, Valerie; Pazzaglia, Francesca

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigates the joint role of spatial ability, imagery strategy and visuospatial working memory (VSWM) in spatial text processing. A set of 180 participants, half of them trained on the use of imagery strategy (training vs no-training groups), was further divided according to participants' high or low mental rotation ability…

  1. Efficiencies of metal separation and recovery in ash-melting of municipal solid waste under non-oxidative atmospheres with different reducing abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Takashi; Tomikawa, Hiroki

    2016-01-15

    Ash-melting of municipal solid waste produces molten metal that contains Fe and Cu, and melting furnace fly ash (MFA) that contains Pb and Zn. To recover the metal from the fly ash, Pb and Zn are extracted from the ash by water or enriched in the ash by washing out salts; this separation depends on their leachability. In this study, we investigated the effects of the reducing ability of the atmosphere on the efficiencies of metal separation during melting and metal recovery in water treatment. Different feedstocks (incineration residues) were melted under N2 or CO + N2 atmospheres. In some of the feedstock materials, volatilization of metallic Cu into MFA was promoted under the atmosphere with greater reducing ability (CO + N2). This increased volatilization inhibited the metal separation in the ash-melting process. Moreover, the higher reducing ability inhibited the formation of water-soluble lead chlorides and decreased the efficiency of metal recovery from the MFA because of the water leaching of the lead compounds. The reducing ability of the atmosphere is difficult to control uniformly in actual ash-melting plants, and we investigated appropriate melting conditions under which the effect of the reducing ability was minimized to promote metal separation and recovery. This minimization was achieved by melting incineration fly ash without additives with Cl gas treatment at 1400 °C. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Deceptively simple… The deception-general ability and the need to put the liar under the spotlight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon R.T. Wright

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This Focused Review expands upon our original paper (You can’t kid a kidder": Interaction between production and detection of deception in an interactive deception task. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 6:87. In that paper we introduced a new socially interactive, laboratory-based task, the Deceptive Interaction Task (DeceIT, and used it to measure individuals’ ability to lie, their ability to detect the lies of others, and potential individual difference measures contributing to these abilities. We showed that the two skills were correlated; better liars made better lie detectors (a deception general ability and this ability seemed to be independent of cognitive (IQ and emotional (EQ intelligence. Here, following the Focused Review format, we outline the method and results of the original paper and comment more on the value of lab-based experimental studies of deception, which have attracted criticism in recent years. While acknowledging that experimental paradigms may fail to recreate the full complexity and potential seriousness of real-world deceptive behavior, we suggest that lab-based deception paradigms can offer valuable insight into ecologically-valid deceptive behavior. The use of the DeceIT procedure enabled deception to be studied in an interactive setting, with motivated participants, and importantly allowed the study of both the liar and the lie detector within the same deceptive interaction. It is our thesis that by addressing deception more holistically - by bringing the liar into the ‘spotlight’ which is typically trained exclusively on the lie detector – we may further enhance our understanding of deception.

  3. Under which conditions can introverts achieve happiness? Mediation and moderation effects of the quality of social relationships and emotion regulation ability on happiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabello, Rosario

    2015-01-01

    Personality traits have been directly associated with happiness. One consistent finding is a strong link between extraversion and happiness: extraverts are happier than introverts. Although happy introverts exist, it is currently unclear under what conditions they can achieve happiness. The present study analyzes, generally, how the quality of social relationships and emotion regulation ability influence happiness and, specifically, how these factors can lead introverts to be happy. In the present study, 1,006 participants aged 18–80 (42% males) completed measures of extraversion, neuroticism, quality of social relationships, emotion regulation ability, and happiness. We found that extraverts had significantly higher happiness, quality of social relationships and emotion regulation ability scores than introverts. In addition, people with high quality social relationships or high emotion regulation ability were happier. Serial mediation analyses indicated that greater levels of extraversion were associated with greater happiness, with small effect size, via two indirect mechanisms: (a) higher quality of social relationships, and (b) higher quality of social relationships followed serially by higher emotion regulation ability. We also found a moderating effect due to the three-way interaction of extraversion, quality of social relationships, and emotion regulation ability: introverts were happier when they had high scores for these two variables, though the effect size was small. These results suggest that the quality of social relationships and emotion regulation ability are relevant to our understanding of complex associations between extraversion and happiness. PMID:26500814

  4. DISCOURSE ANALYSIS: SOME CONCEPTUAL REMARKS ON PRAGMATICS AND RHETORIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd. Ghofur

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on discourse analysis, particularly persuasive discourse, using pragmatics and rhetoric in a combined way, called by Pragma-Rhetoric. It can be said that this is a cognitive approach to both pragmatics and rhetoric. Pragmatics is essentially Gricean, Rhetoric comes from a reading of Aristotle’s Rhetoric, extending his notion of discourse to meso- and micro-discourses. Two kinds of intentions have to be considered: first, communicative intention, and, then, persuasive intention. The fulfilment of those intentions is achieved by a successful persuasive-communicative action. The psychological, philosophical and logical aspects derived from the pragma-rhetorical perspective are crucial in view of its applications in several practical domains.

  5. John Quincy Adams's rhetorical crusade for astronomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portolano, M

    2000-09-01

    Astronomy thrived in Europe during the early nineteenth century, but in the United States a utilitarian mind-set opposed it. John Quincy Adams's oratory in support of American astronomical discovery reached its peak during congressional debate over the Smithsonian Institution (1838-1846). During this debate Adams countered proposals to found a university with plans for an observatory. His addresses to congressional and public audiences about observatories and astronomy were intended to foster interest in the science and encourage the growing astronomical community in America. Although the U.S. Naval Observatory in Washington, D.C., was established before the Smithsonian debate ended, many considered Adams its political father. Adams composed his speeches on astronomy in a systematic manner, following neoclassical principles of rhetoric that he had taught at Harvard University. His speeches both in and outside of Congress show evidence of the rhetorical principles he conscientiously used in the service of astronomy.

  6. Hierarchical Rhetorical Sentence Categorization for Scientific Papers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachman, G. H.; Khodra, M. L.; Widyantoro, D. H.

    2018-03-01

    Important information in scientific papers can be composed of rhetorical sentences that is structured from certain categories. To get this information, text categorization should be conducted. Actually, some works in this task have been completed by employing word frequency, semantic similarity words, hierarchical classification, and the others. Therefore, this paper aims to present the rhetorical sentence categorization from scientific paper by employing TF-IDF and Word2Vec to capture word frequency and semantic similarity words and employing hierarchical classification. Every experiment is tested in two classifiers, namely Naïve Bayes and SVM Linear. This paper shows that hierarchical classifier is better than flat classifier employing either TF-IDF or Word2Vec, although it increases only almost 2% from 27.82% when using flat classifier until 29.61% when using hierarchical classifier. It shows also different learning model for child-category can be built by hierarchical classifier.

  7. Rhetorical facets of imagination in contemporary poetry

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan Delbari; Fariba Mehri

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The present article deals with the trend of literary imaginative descriptions in the purview of poetical imaginations which have been regarded greatly in the discourse of rhetoricâs. The different facets of imagination of these imageries are also introduced in this article. Throughout this study poetical demonstrations are dealt with on the basis of their indications, functions and profundity. Meanwhile overcoming superficial and intermediate layers of imagination towards inner and ...

  8. Populism, Prejudice and the Rhetoric of Privilege

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Giordano

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to show, by means of a close look at the most recent samples of political discourse in Europe and America, how much and how frequently populists set up their narratives around a relatively small number of patterns, such as the worship of the people, a (more or less overt appeal to prejudice and the rhetoric of privilege. In so doing, it offers some useful insights into the nature of contemporary populism.

  9. Narrative Transparency: Adopting a Rhetorical Stance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnould, Eric; Press, Melea

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we look at how alternative marketing organisations communicate transparency in a climate of generalised risk and scepticism. We contrast the traditional numeric approach to transparency, which involves auditing and third-party certifications; with an alternative approach that we call...... transparency to their stakeholders. These rhetorical tactics include persona, allegory, consumer sovereignty and enlightenment. Community supported agriculture programmes from across the United States are the context for this study. Findings enrich discussions about best practices for transparency...

  10. Pater as Psychagogue: Psychology, Aesthetics, Rhetoric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Beaumont

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This article explores Pater’s use of the term ‘psychology’ in order to explore the relationship in his work between psychology and aesthetics, proposing that his allusion in Plato and Platonism to ‘psychagogia’, an ancient rhetorical practice, can productively be used to rethink this relationship, especially in relation to 'Studies in the History of the Renaissance'.

  11. Rhetoric of science in the regulation of medicines in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møllebæk, Mathias

    The paper argues that scholars in rhetoric of science have an important role to play in the emerging interdisciplinary field of regulatory science. Focused on protecting public health through regulation of medicines, scholars in regulatory science work to bridge the high epistemic demands...... to address public health concerns about long term risks with scientifically sound knowledge that allows for a continuous re-evaluation of the risk-benefit balance of a drug. However, the real-world circumstances of regulating medicine challenge the relevance and impact of “academic” scientific knowledge...... of academic science and the practical policy aims in “real-world” regulation of drugs. The field aims to develop frameworks and values that support decision-makers in managing drug-related uncertainties and risks under strict legal, time and budgetary constraints (Todt et.al, 2010). This requires a thorough...

  12. Research on training model of the optoelectronic major university student's innovative ability under the guidance of TRIZ theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing; Xiao, Wenbo; Yan, Chao; Wan, Shengpeng; He, Xingdao; Jones, S. Gregory; Schmidt, Titania A. R.; Suzuki, Kenneth M.

    2017-08-01

    With the rapid development of optoelectronic technology, it is more and more difficult for the students to grasp the related knowledge, and to have innovative thinking and innovative ability. The reason is that the students can't understand that knowledge easily; In addition, the students find it is hard to find innovative projects to enhance themselves. This paper summarizes a teaching approach to impart innovative knowledge. The following is: help students to establish the following thinking, "according to the difficulties encountered in photovoltaic technology, identify and find the key problem, -> converted into the standard TRIZ problem →find their own solutions. The results show that this approach plays an important role in cultivating students' creative thinking.

  13. The 'Recalcitrant Other': The Rhetorical Identity and Struggle of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article explores the complexity of Mandela's rhetorical identity as the Recalcitrant Other and his rhetorical struggle as informed by contesting influences such as his ancestral birthright, cultural upbringing, British mission education, and exposure to a racially constructed hegemonic order. By subversively drawing on his ...

  14. The Rhetorical Question of Human Rights--A Preface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doxtader, Erik

    2010-01-01

    Does rhetoric have a place in the discourse of human rights? Without certain reply, as the dilemmas of defining, claiming, and promoting human rights appear both to include and exclude the rhetorical gesture, this question invites inquiry into the preface of the contemporary human rights regime, the moment of the aftermath that provokes a struggle…

  15. Attitudes toward Education: Kenneth Burke and New Rhetoric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutten, Kris; Soetaert, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    In this article we introduce the special issue "Attitudes Toward Education: Kenneth Burke and New Rhetoric," which brings together a number of contributions that were first presented at the conference "Rhetoric as Equipment for Living. Kenneth Burke, Culture and Education" (Ghent University, May 2013). Kenneth Burke [1897-1993]…

  16. Paul and sophistic rhetoric: a perspective on his argumentation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this article Paul's argumentation is analysed from the perspective of sophistic rhetoric. In the first section the question is discussed what it means to label Paul's rhetoric in his Letter to the Galatians 'sophistic.' To that end, an attempt is made to reconstruct the view of a contemporary critical reader who did not share Paul's ...

  17. Reconstructing rhetorical strategies from the text of galatians ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper focuses on areas of overlap between linguistic and rhetorical analyses of Paul's Letter to the Galatians. The question is raised whether and to what extent conclusions drawn from a text immanent linguistic approach, on the one hand, and those drawn from rhetorical analyses, on the other, are compatible and ...

  18. Rhetoric and action : What are central banks doing before elections?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maier, P

    Central bank rhetoric need not always be followed by corresponding measures. In a number of regressions covering Germany, Japan and the U.S. we examine differences in rhetoric and actual behavior before elections, using a standard PBC model. Our results indicate that these three central banks have

  19. Intercultural Rhetoric and Reading Comprehension in a Second Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Alastair

    2010-01-01

    Intercultural rhetoric has been studied in the context of second language writing for many decades. This article looks at the topic from a new perspective and offers an experimental study of the effects of intercultural rhetoric on reading comprehension. The experiment was set in Hong Kong, China, and assessed the reading comprehension (using a…

  20. A Rhetoric of Turns: Signs and Symbols in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutten, Kris; Soetaert, Ronald

    2014-01-01

    In our research and teaching we explore the value and the place of rhetoric in education. From a theoretical perspective we situate our work in different disciplines, inspired by major "turns": linguistic, cultural, anthropological/ethnographic, interpretive, semiotic, narrative, literary, rhetorical etc. In this article we engage in the…

  1. "The Second Sex" as a Classic: A Rhetorical Criticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waln, Virginia

    The rhetorical technique of Simone de Beauvoir's "The Second Sex" is discussed and analyzed as one source of its impact on the women's movement. De Beauvoir's existentialist philosophy is seen as the most significant factor both in her perception of the world and in the rhetorical style adopted in the book. This includes both a…

  2. Site-Specific: Virtual Refinishing in Contemporary Rhetorical Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janangelo, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    Visual rhetoric fuels composition as rhetors refinish filmed moments to show others what they "see" in them. My work examines projects that model strategic discourse in public spaces. It offers ideas for achieving full and guarded disclosure when clarity is but one of several communicative goals. (Contains 30 notes.)

  3. Global Perspectives on E-Learning: Rhetoric and Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr-Chellman, Alison A., Ed.

    2004-01-01

    "Global Perspectives on E-Learning: Rhetoric and Reality" presents several cases of international online education and the rhetoric that surrounds this form of teaching and learning. Written from a critical perspective, the book investigates some of the problems faced by international distance educators. It particularly focuses on who…

  4. English as Rhetoric?--Once More, with Feeling...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Bill

    2017-01-01

    The installation of the new Australian Curriculum offers rich possibilities for rethinking English in Australia, and beyond. This paper proposes that rhetoric is usefully drawn into this work of reconceptualisation, as strategically an organising principle for English curriculum theory and practice. It reviews existing work on rhetoric and…

  5. Rhetorical Structure of Research Articles in Agricultural Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Huimin; Wannaruk, Anchalee

    2014-01-01

    Although the rhetorical structure of research articles (RA) has been extensively examined from individual sections to complete IMRD sections regarding different disciplines, no research has been addressed to the overall rhetorical structure of RAs as a whole entity in the field of agricultural science. In this study, we analyzed 45 agricultural…

  6. Sensing the Sentence: An Embodied Simulation Approach to Rhetorical Grammar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rule, Hannah J.

    2017-01-01

    This article applies the neuroscientific concept of embodied simulation--the process of understanding language through visual, motor, and spatial modalities of the body--to rhetorical grammar and sentence-style pedagogies. Embodied simulation invigorates rhetorical grammar instruction by attuning writers to the felt effects of written language,…

  7. Linguistic Attention in Rhetorical Genre Studies and First Year Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aull, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Since Carolyn Miller's Genre as Social Action, North American Rhetorical Genre Studies (RGS) has facilitated analysis of how typified rhetorical actions constitute the contexts and communities in which writers write. In first-year writing (FYW) specifically, RGS approaches have focused on macro-level textual constructs, like the audience and…

  8. How Rhetorical Theories of Genre Address Common Core Writing Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collin, Ross

    2013-01-01

    This article begins with a review of the forms of writing promoted in the Common Core State Standards. Across content areas, Common Core encourages teachers to attune students' writing to rhetorical concerns of audience, purpose, task, and disciplinary thinking. To address these concerns, teachers might take a rhetorical approach to the study…

  9. "No Revolutions without Poets": The Rhetoric of Rodolfo "Corky" Gonzales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Richard J.; Hammerback, John C.

    1982-01-01

    Examines Gonzales' extensive rhetoric in his campaign to improve the life of Chicanos. Gonzales' rhetorical vision focused on the need for Chicanos to know and take pride in their heritage. Some of his harshest criticisms deal with the education of his people. (PD)

  10. The Feminine Turn of Rhetoric in Chinese Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wai-Yee, Li

    1991-01-01

    Discusses fu, a flowery form of rhetorical writing developed in China during the Han Dynasty. Provides historical background and criticisms of the genre. Emphasizes the feminine principle of fu rhetoric with its resort to pleasure, ornamentation, and flattery. Argues that what is considered love poetry was actually political allegory. (DK)

  11. Jeremy Rifkin challenges recombinant DNA research: A rhetoric of heresy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Futrell, W.M.

    1992-01-01

    One significant issue to come before the public in recent years is recombinant DNA research or genetic engineering and its applications. An important spokesman on this issue is Jeremy Rifkin. Rifkin is of rhetorical interest because of his strategies to sustain the dialogue and define the parameters in which it occurs. This dissertation analyzes a broad range of Rifkin's rhetorical artifacts and those of scientists engaged in recombinant DNA research. They are examined against criteria developed to identify and understand heresy. The five areas of analysis are: the nearness/remoteness phenomenon, the social construction of heresy, the social consequences of heresy, the doctrinal consequences of heresy, and the heresy-hunt ritual. The first two criteria focus on the rhetorical strategies of the heretic. The last three concentrate on the rhetorical strategies of the defenders of the institutional orthodoxy. This dissertation examines the rhetorical strategies of a heretical challenge to the scientific establishment and the consequences of that challenge. This dissertation also analyzes the rhetorical strategies employed by the defenders of the scientific orthodoxy. Although an understanding of the rhetorical strategies employed on both sides of this conflict is important, the implications for the role of rhetoric in highly controversial issues such as recombinant DNA are even more critical.

  12. Burke, Nietzsche, Lacan: Three Perspectives on the Rhetoric of Order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Douglas

    1993-01-01

    Examines the complex relationship between rhetoric and order in the works of Kenneth Burke, Friedrich Nietzsche, and Jacques Lacan. Argues for three differing, yet complementary, views of rhetoric and order, each having a corresponding epistemology and axiology. Concludes with an analysis of the construction of order in Thomas Hobbe's…

  13. Justificatory Rhetoric and Institutional Legitimation: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francesconi, Robert

    To widen the concept of justificatory rhetoric (which has previously been considered as a presidential rhetorical form delivered in a context of foreign policy emergency) and to show some of its inherent hazards, this paper analyzes a 1978 address by Governor James Hunt of North Carolina, in which he justified his decision not to pardon the…

  14. The Rhetoric of the Challenger: George Stanley McGovern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trent, Judith S.; Trent, Jimmie D.

    Reasons for George McGovern's presidential election failure are summarized in the context of McGovern's rhetoric as a challenger. Taking the point of view that McGovern abandoned the traditional rhetorical advantages of the challenger, the authors conclude that this abandonment along with the problems of financing, the impression of alignment with…

  15. PHILIPPIANS 4:10-23 FROM A RHETORICAL PERSPECTIVE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    that Paul's rhetorical strategy in this section can be constructed fairly accu- rately from the text itself, without forcing an external model on the letter. My ultimate aim is to contribute towards a better understanding of the persuasive strategies in the Letter to the Philippians and, ultimately, to the outline of a truly. Pauline rhetoric.

  16. Recursivity: A Working Paper on Rhetoric and "Mnesis"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stormer, Nathan

    2013-01-01

    This essay proposes the genealogical study of remembering and forgetting as recursive rhetorical capacities that enable discourse to place itself in an ever-changing present. "Mnesis" is a meta-concept for the arrangements of remembering and forgetting that enable rhetoric to function. Most of the essay defines the materiality of "mnesis", first…

  17. Post-Mao Chinese Literary Women's Rhetoric Revisited: A Case for an "Enlightened" Feminist Rhetorical Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hui

    2010-01-01

    Identifying the specific complexities and historical context of post-Mao Chinese literary women's rhetoric, along with ways they have been misread, the author argues in general that Western feminist critics need to be cautious about applying their concepts to non-Western women's literature. (Contains 7 notes.)

  18. The Rhetorical Opposition to Controversial Wars: Rhetorical Timing as a Generic Consideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, Jeff D.

    1979-01-01

    Claims that loosely structured, complex rhetorical situations possess a strong internal structure with regard to their development or maturation over a period of time. The implications of this position are developed via an analysis of the discourse surrounding the American Revolution and the Vietnam War. (JMF)

  19. Establishing the Rhetorical Presidency through Presidential Rhetoric: Theodore Roosevelt and the Brownsville Raid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuckey, Mary

    2006-01-01

    Theodore Roosevelt was an important figure in the development of the presidency as a primary and authoritative source for definitions of national identity. Through an analysis of three specific rhetorical moves Roosevelt made in arguments over the "proper" interpretation of the Brownsville Raid, this essay examines how Roosevelt both justified his…

  20. The Devolution of 20th Century Presidential Campaign Rhetoric: A Call for "Rhetorical Service."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinemann, Robert L.

    Over the course of the 20th century, American Presidential campaign rhetoric has undergone various metamorphoses. Most of these changes can be traced to developments in technology and media. Furthermore, many of these changes have had the unfortunate effect of undermining a rational choice of the electorate, and thus threaten our democracy. Like…

  1. A hierarchical nanostructured carbon nanofiber-In2S3 photocatalyst with high photodegradation and disinfection abilities under visible light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Peng; Li, An Ran; Tai, Ming Hang; Liu, Zhao Yang; Sun, Darren Delai

    2014-06-01

    Photocatalytic degradation of pollutants under visible light provides a new door to solve the water contamination problem by utilizing free and renewable sunlight. The search for highly efficient photocatalysts with hierarchical nanostructures remains crucial for accessing this new door. In this work, a new hierarchical nanostructured photocatalyst is designed and synthesized, for the first time, by anchoring In2S3 flower-like nanostructures on non-woven carbon nanofiber (CNF). The nanostructures of these CNF-In2S3 composites were fine-tuned, with the aim of achieving the highest photocatalytic activity under visible light. The formation mechanism of the hierarchical nanostructure is also investigated. The results indicate that the optimized hierarchical CNF-In2S3 photocatalyst is superior in photodegradation and disinfection efficiency to that of pure In2S3 under visible-light irradiation. The prominent photocatalytic activities of these hierarchical CNF-In2S3 photocatalysts can be attributed to the excellent properties of enhanced light absorption, large surface area, and efficient charge separation, which are all derived from the special three-dimensional hierarchical nanostructures. Therefore, this work presents the great potential of this hierarchical nanostructured CNF-In2S3 photocatalyst in practical environmental remediation fields. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Candida albicans: The Ability to Invade Epithelial Cells and Survive under Oxidative Stress Is Unlinked to Hyphal Length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paloma K. Maza

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In its hyphal form, Candida albicans invades epithelial and endothelial cells by two distinct mechanisms: active penetration and induced endocytosis. The latter is dependent on a reorganization of the host cytoskeleton (actin/cortactin recruitment, whilst active penetration does not rely on the host's cellular machinery. The first obstacle for the fungus to reach deep tissues is the epithelial barrier and this interaction is crucial for commensal growth, fungal pathogenicity and host defense. This study aimed to characterize in vitro epithelial HeLa cell invasion by four different isolates of C. albicans with distinct clinical backgrounds, including a C. albicans SC5314 reference strain. All isolates invaded HeLa cells, recruited actin and cortactin, and induced the phosphorylation of both Src-family kinases (SFK and cortactin. Curiously, L3881 isolated from blood culture of a patient exhibited the highest resistance to oxidative stress, although this isolate showed reduced hyphal length and displayed the lowest cell damage and invasion rates. Collectively, these data suggest that the ability of C. albicans to invade HeLa cells, and to reach and adapt to the host's blood, including resistance to oxidative stress, may be independent of hyphal length.

  3. Weaving Intersectional Rhetoric: The Digital Counternarratives of Indigenous Feminist Bloggers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Morris

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous feminist bloggers weave an intersectional, rhetorical story that lances the core of American popular culture and misinformed imaginations. The Native American women bloggers introduced in this essay are unknown to most non-Native Americans, most rhetoric scholars, and most feminists, but should be on our radar because of their refusal to be constrained by colonialist binaries, single rhetorical forms, or imposed boundedness to the margins. These Indigenous feminists practice in the digital space to reinforce and reclaim rhetorical sovereignty as an outcome for themselves and their communities. Once the weaving is complete, the resultant warmth of rhetorical sovereignty provides some protection from the cold colonial stories of erasure and absence.

  4. Predictive ability of underlying factors of motorcycle rider behavior: an application of logistic quantile regression for bounded outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Babajanpour

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The human factors are of great importance, especially Motorcycle Rider BehaviorQuestionnaire (MRBQ and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD in motorbike riders in road traffic injuries. This study aimed to predict MRBQ score by ADHD score and the underlying predictors by the logistic quantile regression (LQR, as a new strategy.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 311 motorbike riders were randomly sampled by a clustering method in Bukan, northwest of Iran. The data were collected by MRBQ and ADHDstandard surveys. To assess the relationship at all levels of MRBQ distribution, LQR in 5th, 25th,50th, 75th and 95th quantiles of MRBQ score was utilized to assess the predictability of ADHDscore and its subscales in addition to the underlying predictors of MRBQ score. To do this, an unadjusted and as well as adjusted 4-step hierarchical modeling was used.Results: Almost in all quantiles of MRBQ scores, direct and significant relationships were observed between MRBQ score and ADHD score and its subscales (coefficients: 0.02 to 0.10, all P < 0.05. Besides, the driving period (coefficients: -0.58 to -0.95, P < 0.05 and hour driving(coefficients: 0.42 to 0.52, P < 0.05 also came to be the significant predictors of MRBQ score.Conclusion: ADHD score and driving parameters can be taken into the consideration when planning actions on the motorcycle rider behaviors at all levels of the MRBQ.

  5. Rhetorical Sensitivity Style in Three Cultures: France, Japan, and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting-Toomey, Stella

    1988-01-01

    Explores cross-cultural attitudinal differences toward rhetorical sensitivity style. Finds that French subjects preferred a direct rhetorical sensitivity style; Japanese subjects expressed a moderate orientation towards the use of rhetorical sensitivity style; and United States subjects preferred an indirect rhetorical sensitivity style of…

  6. Street art, spaces and visual rhetoric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Mondino

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Street-art is a widespread urban phenomenon characterised by several different styles and concepts. This essay will introduce few artistic works, analysing the rhetoric strategies used. Artists create unpredictable narratives catching the audiences’ attention through various regimes of visibility and some figures of speech, such as hyperbole, apostrophe, and camouflage. Therefore, the relationship between street artworks and the audience can trigger a discourse of challenge, conflict or complicity showed by the practice of rewriting or deleting of urban art that we will study.

  7. Genetic rhetoric: Science, authority, and genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Elizabeth Parthenia

    This dissertation is an analysis of how the cultural authority of genetics works through language. An analysis of the rhetorical construction of knowledge and authority in cultural contexts, the study is intended to contribute to a larger discussion aimed at keeping the intersections of science and culture within the realm of rhetoric, that is within the realm of communication and dialogue. Of special concern is the influence of genetic rhetoric on the cultural momentum of biological determinism to explain away social organization, class inequalities, racial differences, gender differences, and stigmatized behaviors by rooting them in the construct of the biological individual. This study separates questions of legitimacy from questions of authority and focuses on the way that authority of genetics works through language. With authority defined as the function of resisting challenges to legitimacy and/or power, the study consists of three parts. First, a historical analysis of the terms science, genetics, and gene, shows how these words came to refer not only to areas and objects of study but also to sources of epistemological legitimacy outside culture and language. The relationships between these words and their referents are examined in socio-historical context to illustrate how the function of signaling authority was inscribed in the literal definition of these terms. Second, introductory chapters of contemporary Genetics textbooks are examined. In these texts the foundations of legitimacy associated with genetics and science are maintained as the authors articulate idealized views of science and genetics in relation to society. Finally, articles in the popular press reporting on and discussing recent research correlating genetics and homosexuality are examined. The popular press reports of "gay gene" research serve as textual examples of figurative representations of genetics concepts shaping discourse about social issues. I argue that the cultural authority

  8. Genetic control and combining ability of flag leaf area and relative water content traits of bread wheat cultivars under drought stress condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golparvar Ahmad Reza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to compare mode of inheritance, combining ability, heterosis and gene action in genetic control of traits flag leaf area, relative water content and grain filling rate of bread wheat under drought stress, a study was conducted on 8 cultivars using of Griffing’s method2 in fixed model. Mean square of general combining ability was significant also for all traits and mean square of specific combining ability was significant also for all traits except relative water content of leaf which show importance of both additive and dominant effects of genes in heredity of these traits under stress. GCA to SCA mean square ratio was significant for none of traits. Results of this study showed that non additive effects of genes were more important than additive effect for all traits. According to results we can understand that genetic improvement of mentioned traits will have low genetic efficiency by selection from the best crosses of early generations. Then it is better to delay selection until advanced generations and increase in heritability of these traits.

  9. Rhetoric and Reality: User Engagement and Health Care Reform in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, David P; Lynch-Wood, Gary

    2018-02-01

    Policy discourse and rhetoric that preceded the Health and Social Care Act (HSCA) 2012 suggests the Act was intended to further embed issues relating to accountability, transparency, and engagement with service-users. Close analysis suggests economic imperatives and independent expert authority are promoted to a greater extent than previous reforms, while stakeholder engagement and accountability appear weakened in crucial areas. To show this, the article considers two important and underexplored activities under the HSCA: reporting and other types of stakeholder engagement measures. These two activities are important because they support the way crucial NHS functions are carried out. The article contends that the policy discourse and rhetoric underpinning these activities does not reflect the statutory reality.

  10. Rhetoric and Reform in Waiver States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grogan, Colleen M; Singer, Phillip M; Jones, David K

    2017-04-01

    Seven states have used Section 1115 waivers to expand Medicaid as part of the Affordable Care Act (ACA). While each state pursued a unique plan, there are similarities in the types of changes each state desired to make. Equally important to how a state modified their Medicaid programs is how a state talked about Medicaid and reform. We investigate whether the rhetoric that emerged in waiver states is unique, analyze whether the rhetoric is associated with particular waiver reforms, and consider the implications of our findings for the future of Medicaid policy making. We find that proponents in waiver states have convinced a conservative legislature that their reform is sufficiently innovative that they are not doing a Medicaid expansion, and not building on the traditional Medicaid program. Particularly striking is that none of these reforms are entirely new to the Medicaid program. While not new, the way in which waiver states have been allowed to implement many of the reforms is new and has become stricter. We find an emerging consensus utilized by conservative policy makers in framing the Medicaid expansion. Expansion efforts by conservative policy makers in other states have subsequently pushed this framing far to the right. Copyright © 2017 by Duke University Press.

  11. The rhetoric of disenchantment through symbolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Théophile Munyangeyo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The symbolism of flowers has always been a significant part of cultures around the world due to their functional meaning in daily life. From their decorative to their aromatic role, flowers and their symbolic meaning trigger emotions, convey wishes and represent thoughts that can not be explicitly expressed. In this regard, an elaborate language based on flower symbolism was developed in many societies, to convey clear messages to the recipient. However, in some cultural contexts, although the flower symbolism has social connotations, it is mainly associated with economic references. As flowers are an essential precursor to fruits, they are inevitably a source of expectations and hence foster a set of hopes and dreams, which can ultimately lead to excitement or disappointment.Through a discourse analysis based on factional narratives, this article explores the parameters through which the symbolism of bifaceted meaning of flowers fictionalises a space that refers to the social reality. This association between the fictional world and social reference has highlighted that writing can profoundly be a means of representing social events through the rhetoric of symbolism. Through a sociological reading approach, this paper aims to analyse how the symbolism of flowers informs the rhetoric of disenchantment that can foster a content-based pedagogy in language learning where silencing practices engender imagery to exercise the freedom of expression.

  12. Growth and ethanol fermentation ability on hexose and pentose sugars and glucose effect under various conditions in thermotolerant yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrussamee, Nadchanok; Hirata, Katsushi; Suprayogi [Yamaguchi Univ., Ube (Japan). Graduate School of Medicine; Lertwattanasakul, Noppon; Kosaka, Tomoyuki [Yamaguchi Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Agriculture; Limtong, Savitree [Kasetsart Univ., Bangkok (Thailand). Faculty of Science; Yamada, Mamoru [Yamaguchi Univ., Ube (Japan). Graduate School of Medicine; Yamaguchi Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Agriculture

    2011-05-15

    Ethanol fermentation ability of the thermotolerant yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus, which is able to utilize various sugars including glucose, mannose, galactose, xylose, and arabinose, was examined under shaking and static conditions at high temperatures. The yeast was found to produce ethanol from all of these sugars except for arabinose under a shaking condition but only from hexose sugars under a static condition. Growth and sugar utilization rate under a static condition were slower than those under a shaking condition, but maximum ethanol yield was slightly higher. Even at 40 C, a level of ethanol production similar to that at 30 C was observed except for galactose under a static condition. Glucose repression on utilization of other sugars was observed, and it was more evident at elevated temperatures. Consistent results were obtained by the addition of 2-deoxyglucose. The glucose effect was further examined at a transcription level, and it was found that KmGAL1 for galactokinase and KmXYL1 for xylose reductase for galactose and xylose/arabinose utilization, respectively, were repressed by glucose at low and high temperatures, but KmHXK2 for hexokinase was not repressed. We discuss the possible mechanism of glucose repression and the potential for utilization of K. marxianus in high-temperature fermentation with mixed sugars containing glucose. (orig.)

  13. PRAGMATIC AND RHETORICAL STRATEGIES IN THE ENGLISH-WRITTEN JOKES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Rochmawati

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Understanding verbal jokes in English is problematic for English as Foreign Language (EFL readers since understanding the jokes requires understanding their linguistic, cultural and social elements. Since a joke constitutes a complex and paradoxical phenomenon, it needs multiple approaches of analyses—such as pragmatic and rhetorical analyses—in order to investigate the multiple layers of meanings it carries. Recently there has been a shift in humor studies, emphasizing linguistic humors and involving the field of rhetoric. These studies, however, have mostly addressed the connection between rhetoric and spoken jokes in persuasion. The present study therefore applied Austin’s Speech Act Theory (1975 and Grice’s Cooperative Principles (1957, and Berger’s rhetorical techniques (1993 to crack the funniness of the written jokes. Specifically, the study aims at describing: how the (1 rhetorical and (2 pragmatic strategies are used in the jokes, and (3 how the pragmatic and rhetorical strategies complement to create humor. The study employed a qualitative research method. Some jokes were purposively selected from the Reader’s Digest and two online sources: http://jokes.cc.com/, and http://www.ajokeaday.com/. Document studies were the means of data collection. The collected data were then analyzed using a qualitative content analysis. The results showed that that there was a relationship between the two pragmatic theories, i.e., Speech Act Theory and Cooperative Principles, and Berger’s rhetorical techniques. The results offered an alternative reading and richer understanding of how written jokes employed pragmatic and rhetorical strategies to advance their rhetorical objectives and humor functions.

  14. Enhancement of the proline and nitric oxide synthetic pathway improves fermentation ability under multiple baking-associated stress conditions in industrial baker's yeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background During the bread-making process, industrial baker's yeast, mostly Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is exposed to baking-associated stresses, such as air-drying and freeze-thaw stress. These baking-associated stresses exert severe injury to yeast cells, mainly due to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to cell death and reduced fermentation ability. Thus, there is a great need for a baker's yeast strain with higher tolerance to baking-associated stresses. Recently, we revealed a novel antioxidative mechanism in a laboratory yeast strain that is involved in stress-induced nitric oxide (NO) synthesis from proline via proline oxidase Put1 and N-acetyltransferase Mpr1. We also found that expression of the proline-feedback inhibition-less sensitive mutant γ-glutamyl kinase (Pro1-I150T) and the thermostable mutant Mpr1-F65L resulted in an enhanced fermentation ability of baker's yeast in bread dough after freeze-thaw stress and air-drying stress, respectively. However, baker's yeast strains with high fermentation ability under multiple baking-associated stresses have not yet been developed. Results We constructed a self-cloned diploid baker's yeast strain with enhanced proline and NO synthesis by expressing Pro1-I150T and Mpr1-F65L in the presence of functional Put1. The engineered strain increased the intracellular NO level in response to air-drying stress, and the strain was tolerant not only to oxidative stress but also to both air-drying and freeze-thaw stresses probably due to the reduced intracellular ROS level. We also showed that the resultant strain retained higher leavening activity in bread dough after air-drying and freeze-thaw stress than that of the wild-type strain. On the other hand, enhanced stress tolerance and fermentation ability did not occur in the put1-deficient strain. This result suggests that NO is synthesized in baker's yeast from proline in response to oxidative stresses that induce ROS generation and that increased NO

  15. Enhancement of the proline and nitric oxide synthetic pathway improves fermentation ability under multiple baking-associated stress conditions in industrial baker's yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasano Yu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During the bread-making process, industrial baker's yeast, mostly Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is exposed to baking-associated stresses, such as air-drying and freeze-thaw stress. These baking-associated stresses exert severe injury to yeast cells, mainly due to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS, leading to cell death and reduced fermentation ability. Thus, there is a great need for a baker's yeast strain with higher tolerance to baking-associated stresses. Recently, we revealed a novel antioxidative mechanism in a laboratory yeast strain that is involved in stress-induced nitric oxide (NO synthesis from proline via proline oxidase Put1 and N-acetyltransferase Mpr1. We also found that expression of the proline-feedback inhibition-less sensitive mutant γ-glutamyl kinase (Pro1-I150T and the thermostable mutant Mpr1-F65L resulted in an enhanced fermentation ability of baker's yeast in bread dough after freeze-thaw stress and air-drying stress, respectively. However, baker's yeast strains with high fermentation ability under multiple baking-associated stresses have not yet been developed. Results We constructed a self-cloned diploid baker's yeast strain with enhanced proline and NO synthesis by expressing Pro1-I150T and Mpr1-F65L in the presence of functional Put1. The engineered strain increased the intracellular NO level in response to air-drying stress, and the strain was tolerant not only to oxidative stress but also to both air-drying and freeze-thaw stresses probably due to the reduced intracellular ROS level. We also showed that the resultant strain retained higher leavening activity in bread dough after air-drying and freeze-thaw stress than that of the wild-type strain. On the other hand, enhanced stress tolerance and fermentation ability did not occur in the put1-deficient strain. This result suggests that NO is synthesized in baker's yeast from proline in response to oxidative stresses that induce ROS

  16. Enhancement of the proline and nitric oxide synthetic pathway improves fermentation ability under multiple baking-associated stress conditions in industrial baker's yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasano, Yu; Haitani, Yutaka; Hashida, Keisuke; Ohtsu, Iwao; Shima, Jun; Takagi, Hiroshi

    2012-04-01

    During the bread-making process, industrial baker's yeast, mostly Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is exposed to baking-associated stresses, such as air-drying and freeze-thaw stress. These baking-associated stresses exert severe injury to yeast cells, mainly due to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to cell death and reduced fermentation ability. Thus, there is a great need for a baker's yeast strain with higher tolerance to baking-associated stresses. Recently, we revealed a novel antioxidative mechanism in a laboratory yeast strain that is involved in stress-induced nitric oxide (NO) synthesis from proline via proline oxidase Put1 and N-acetyltransferase Mpr1. We also found that expression of the proline-feedback inhibition-less sensitive mutant γ-glutamyl kinase (Pro1-I150T) and the thermostable mutant Mpr1-F65L resulted in an enhanced fermentation ability of baker's yeast in bread dough after freeze-thaw stress and air-drying stress, respectively. However, baker's yeast strains with high fermentation ability under multiple baking-associated stresses have not yet been developed. We constructed a self-cloned diploid baker's yeast strain with enhanced proline and NO synthesis by expressing Pro1-I150T and Mpr1-F65L in the presence of functional Put1. The engineered strain increased the intracellular NO level in response to air-drying stress, and the strain was tolerant not only to oxidative stress but also to both air-drying and freeze-thaw stresses probably due to the reduced intracellular ROS level. We also showed that the resultant strain retained higher leavening activity in bread dough after air-drying and freeze-thaw stress than that of the wild-type strain. On the other hand, enhanced stress tolerance and fermentation ability did not occur in the put1-deficient strain. This result suggests that NO is synthesized in baker's yeast from proline in response to oxidative stresses that induce ROS generation and that increased NO plays an important

  17. Social Media Rhetoric of the Transnational Palestinian-led Boycott, Divestment, and Sanctions Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Hitchcock

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article uses rhetorical analysis to determine the effectiveness and characteristics of social media usage by the Boycott, Divestment, and Sanctions (BDS movement targeting Israel. Hundreds of local student, community, and religious groups in the United States use social media platforms such as Twitter and Facebook to promote BDS discourse and organize local BDS-related events. Even though social media platforms are important for an international movement composed of a very dispersed population, with millions of Palestinians also living under military occupation, the history of traditional media use during the First Intifada also suggests that social media are not necessary for mobilizing Palestinians at the local level. A preliminary rhetorical analysis of several BDS-related Facebook pages and Twitter accounts reveals that the BDS movement’s social media usage functions similarly in some ways to other contemporary mass movements by facilitating on-the-ground actions and delivering useful information to supporters. BDS movement social media discourse, however, does not establish the same level of emotional connection or interactivity with audiences as some other recent movements have, but these limitations can be partly explained by the unique political, material, and rhetorical constraints of the situation.

  18. Negative Religious Rhetoric in the Lives of Black Cisgender Queer Emerging Adult Men: A Qualitative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett-Walker, Ja'Nina J; Torres, Vanessa M

    2017-01-01

    Given the intersection of racial, religious, and sexual identities for Black queer populations, the current study examines sexuality-related religious rhetoric. Twenty Black cisgender queer men were recruited to participate in a qualitative interview. Using thematic analysis, the research team identified four themes: negative religious rhetoric, personal consequences of negative religious rhetoric, social consequences of negative religious rhetoric, and growth from negative religious rhetoric. Participants explained the pervasiveness of negative religious rhetoric within their churches and family structures. Men also conveyed how negative religious rhetoric frames societal ideologies around same-sex behavior, often condoning violence toward queer populations. Although men had negative experiences, participants articulated the importance of using oppression as a platform for growth. Black cisgender queer men are present within religious institutions; however, such negative religious rhetoric may negatively affect their mental and physical health. Researchers, clinicians, and clergy should consider the ways negative religious rhetoric marginalizes queer populations.

  19. Training showmanship rhetoric in Greek medical education of the fifth and fourth centuries BC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwalla, Pankaj K

    2010-01-01

    In the fifth and fourth centuries BC, ancient Greek medical practitioners began to use persuasive rhetoric in their practice of medicine. This paper will explore two areas related to rhetoric and medical instruction in ancient Greece--first, the nature of rhetorical instruction given to--or at least expected of--aspiring physicians and second, the effect of rhetoric on the public authority of the physician, as illuminated by the contrasting image of the physician in the Platonic corpus. The first section will examine the Hippocratic Corpus for basic elements of rhetoric with a view to the question: Did the increasing recognition of these techniques by the public actually harm the doctor's public image by creating 'the rhetoric of anti-rhetoric?' The second section focusing on Plato will serve as a contrast to the Hippocratic physician, since Plato purposefully avoids criticizing the medical use of rhetoric while strongly criticizing other uses of rhetoric.

  20. The Rhetoric of Satire: Analyzing in Freshman English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Betty Jane

    1982-01-01

    Presents a series of exercises designed to provide freshman composition students with a base for analyzing works rhetorically, to point out how language can be used persuasively, and to illustrate how satire functions. (FL)

  1. The Rhetoric of Defeat: Nazi Propaganda in 1945.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bytwerk, Randall L.

    1978-01-01

    The rhetoric of the final four months of Hitler's Reich is examined, including arguments that Germany could still win the war based on moral and logical grounds, and later appeals based on source credibility, historical analogy, and terror. (JF)

  2. Multimedia in the Writing Center: Visual Rhetoric and Tutor Training

    OpenAIRE

    Conard-Salvo, Tammy

    2006-01-01

    This presentation at the Conference on College Composition and Communication (CCCC) discusses the impact that multimedia projects have on writing centers and offers one model for integrating a visual rhetoric unit in an undergraduate tutor training course.

  3. Rhetoric and Reality in the English National Health Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Rudolf

    2015-01-01

    Despite fiscal stress, public confidence in the National Health Service (NHS) remains strong; privatisation has not hollowed out the service. But if long term challenges are to be overcome, pragmatism not rhetoric should be the guide PMID:26340494

  4. Three dimensions in rhetorical conflict analysis: A topological model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trygve Svensson

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Conflict is omnipresent in human relations. So is rhetoric in conflict situations. Hence, there is a danger of taking conflict and its different forms of resolution for granted when we do rhetorical analysis. “Rhetoric” is often used as a general and non-scientific term in the social sciences; the same is the case for “conflict” in rhetorical scholarship. Hence, there is a need for concrete analytical tools. This article suggests a topological model to analyze three dimensions of rhetoric in conflict resolution, management or handling. Using “I’ve Been to the Mountaintop,” the famous last speech of Martin Luther King Jr., as an example, I use the model to give an analytic overview.

  5. The Rhetoric of the NRA: Handgun Control Legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Raymond S.

    1983-01-01

    A speech communication professor applies his rhetorical training to an analysis of the NRA's opposition to gun control legislation. (Available from City News Publishing Co., Box 606, Southold, NY 11971; sc $1.25.) (PD)

  6. Conspiracy Rhetoric: From Pragmatism to Fantasy in Public Discourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodnight, G. Thomas; Poulakos, John

    1981-01-01

    Notes that conspiracy charges have come to characterize mainstream political drama. Analyzes dimensions of the Watergate scandal so that the manner in which conspiracy rhetoric unfolds in political drama may be better understood. (PD)

  7. Understanding Presidential Rhetoric: The Vietnam Statements of Lyndon Johnson

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigelman, Lee; Miller, Lawrence

    1978-01-01

    Focuses on Lyndon Johnson's public statements about Vietnam during the final eighteen months of his presidency in an attempt to gain a perspective on the factors which shape presidential rhetoric. (MH)

  8. Presidential Rhetoric: Definition of a Field of Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windt, Theodore Otto, Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Surveys literature published since 1960, dividing it into four categories of critical analyses. Evaluates current knowledge of presidential rhetoric and suggests directions for future research in this field of study. (PD)

  9. E-learning rhetoric, creativity and innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Seale

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available In this issue of ALT-J we have five papers that cover a range of policy, evaluation and development issues. The first paper, by Smith, sets the scene for the remaining papers with its focus on policy and how this may be influenced by rhetoric, and in turn may influence creativity and innovation. In ‘From flowers to palms: 40 years of policy for online learning', Smith presents a review of learning technology-related policy over the past 40 years. The purpose of the review is to make sense of the current position in which the field finds itself, and to highlight lessons that can be learned from the implementation of previous policies.

  10. The Semiotics and Rhetoric of Music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kock, Christian Erik J

    2017-01-01

    has. Given that music has the meanings it does, in the way it does, then what is the aesthetic function of that? In my view, asking what role meanings in music play for its aesthetic effect is to ask a rhetorician’s question. Rhetoricians will want to know what sorts of things artifacts do, and how...... they do them. That also goes for artifacts whose function is to provide aesthetic experience—and that, I believe, is what many of us listen to music for most of the time. So I wish to say something about what role the experience of musical meanings plays in this.......Does music have meanings? If so, what are they like? These questions concern the semiotics of music. I will address these questions, using evidence from what I call aesthetic protocol analysis. I will further ask about the rhetorical significance of music having the kind of semiotics it apparently...

  11. Julius Caesar and the Art of Rhetoric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naphtali Rivkin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Approaching politics through literary analysis, Julius Caesar and the Art of Rhetoric aims to answer the question, “what makes a successful politician?” Through a systematic line-by-line scru-tiny of Shakespeare’s quintessential political play, Julius Caesar, Rivkin isolates “the art of rheto-ric” as the single historic constant indispensible in the ever-changing equation of political success Beyond the play, Julius Caesar, Rivkin explores rhetoricians and political philosophers like Ar-istotle, Quintilian, and Ramus who may have contributed to Shakespeare’s Early Modern world-view. But Shakespeare seems to transcend his influences, and demonstrates his near prescience in a political story that is as historical as it is ahead of its time. Shakespeare touches on the timeless essence of politics, which, if understood, could inform successful political leaders and systems of tomorrow.

  12. Trade liberalisation in Mexico: rhetoric and reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pennelope Pacheco-Lopez

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Trade liberalisation in Mexico started in a significant way in 1985/86, and was consolidated by the NAFTA agreement 1994. Mexico was expected to benefit in terms of increased export growth, employment, real wages, and above all, a faster rate of economic growth. In practice, there has been a divorce between rhetoric and reality. The growth of GDP post-liberalisation has been only one-half that pre-liberalisation. This paper gives three explanations. Firstly, export growth has hardly changed. Secondly, there has been a sharp increase in the propensity to import (partly related to US direct foreign investment which has reduced the growth of GDP consistent with a sustainable balance of payments equilibrium on current account. Thirdly, liberalisation has been used as a substitute for a development strategy.

  13. 'Nurse entrepreneurs' a case of government rhetoric?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traynor, Michael; Drennan, Vari; Goodman, Claire; Mark, Annabelle; Davis, Kathy; Peacock, Richard; Banning, Maggi

    2008-01-01

    Nursing has come to play a prominent role in government health policy since 1997. Extending the scope of nursing practice into activities previously carried out by doctors can assist a managerialist and 'modernizing' project of increasing National Health Service (NHS) efficiency by removing demarcations between professional groups. Drawing on elements of poststructuralist linguistics, this paper presents an analysis of a key government speech in the context of a discussion of overall policy intentions. The speech can be seen as an example of how government has attempted to use rhetoric to make its goals attractive to nurses. Policy-makers have to make their policies acceptable to those whom they expect to implement them. In this case, organizational efficiency, chiefly in terms of broader access to NHS services, as well as role substitution, is aligned with government policy promoting social enterprise and 'sold' to the nursing profession as enhancing its status compared with medicine.

  14. Framing public governance in Malaysia : rhetorical appeals through accrual accounting.

    OpenAIRE

    Ferry, L.; Zakaria, Z.; Zakaria, Z.; Slack, R.

    2017-01-01

    In government, the challenges of governance and anti-corruption are exacerbated by accounting not being fit for purpose. In developing countries, many governments adopt accrual accounting as a panacea. Drawing on Goffman's frame analysis, and rhetorical appeals to logic, credibility and emotion, this paper examines the adoption of accrual accounting in Malaysia. It was found accrual accounting has potential for keying governance and anti-corruption. However, rhetorical appeals that attempt to...

  15. The rhetoric of communicating knowledge through the project website

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampf, Constance

    of rhetoric.  This paper looks at the I35 W bridge reconstruction project in Minneapolis through web-based communication by the Minnesota Department of Transportation (MnDOT) about the project. The MnDOT bridge reconstruction website will be examined using a combination of 1). Weick's notion of sensemaking...... of the rhetorical processes operating via the project website as an element in the socio-technical design of the bridge....

  16. Hugh Blairs Lectures on Rhetoric and Belles Lettres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schatz-Jakobsen, Claus

    1989-01-01

    Artiklen nærlæser dekonstruktivt dele af den skotske retorikprofessor Hugh Blairs Lecures on Rhetoric and Belles Lettres (1783) og påviser splittelsen mellem to vidt forskellige retorik- og liltteraturhistoriske interesser, neoklassicistiske vs. romantiske.......Artiklen nærlæser dekonstruktivt dele af den skotske retorikprofessor Hugh Blairs Lecures on Rhetoric and Belles Lettres (1783) og påviser splittelsen mellem to vidt forskellige retorik- og liltteraturhistoriske interesser, neoklassicistiske vs. romantiske....

  17. Assessing the Relationship between Presidential Rhetorical Simplicity and Unilateral Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Olds

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Research from Shogan (2007 and Lim (2008 on the executive branch proposes that the American presidency has adopted an anti-intellectual approach to leadership, such that there is a concerted rejection of thoughtful political discourse from the president. This has been reflected by what appears to be a relative decline in both the linguistic and substantive complexity of presidential rhetoric. Shogan’s (2007 work, while focused on examining whether Republicans are more apt to employ anti-intellectual leadership than Democrats, raises an additional topic worthy of empirical examination: the potential relationship between anti-intellectual leadership and unilateral action from the president. If anti-intellectual leadership is a defiant form of leadership that opts to publicly demonstrate the rejection of external expertise, the usage of anti-intellectual rhetoric from the president might be able to predict the usage of unilateral action. On the other hand, anti-intellectual rhetoric might be used as a straightforward and quick means to explain unilateral action, such that change in the level of unilateral action can predict the usage of simplistic rhetoric. Unfortunately, no one has yet to empirically test whether rhetorical simplicity predicts unilateral action, unilateral action predicts rhetorical simplicity, or there is a multi-directional relationship present. This project makes an initial attempt to remedy this gap in the literature. The project contrasts the monthly average simplicity level of the presidential weekly public address with the monthly number of executive orders emanating from the executive branch, using information spanning between February 1993 and May 2015. The initial findings from the vector autoregression and moving average representation analyses suggest that prior change in rhetorical simplicity predicts the usage of executive orders, and that an increase in rhetorical simplicity helps produce an increase in the number

  18. Hillary Clinton's presidential campaign rhetoric: Making America whole again

    OpenAIRE

    Samuel Gunawan

    2017-01-01

    This article sought to investigate Hillary Rodham Clinton's 2016 campaign rhetoric for the U.S. President as found in her South Carolina Primary Victory Speech and Super Tuesday Victory Speech. Qualitative content analysis was used through Leanne's analytical tool of rhetorical strategies to deconstruct the texts. It gave way to new analytical narratives to decipher the core meaning as expressed in the central ideas and the main ideas of the two speeches. By so doing, access was easily made f...

  19. CHINESE EFL UNDERGRADUATES’ ACADEMIC WRITING: RHETORICAL DIFFICULTIES AND SUGGESTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyun Bian

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Difficulties encountered by students in L2 academic writing has been a subject of research for several decades. However, to date, there still remains a lack of detailed and in-depth investigation into this area of interest. This qualitative study thoroughly investigated the rhetorical difficulties faced by Chinese EFL undergraduate academic writers, and collected suggestions on how to address these rhetorical issues. To be sufficiently detailed and thorough, this study divided students' difficulties into process- and product-related difficulties, and used triangulated data from supervisors' perspectives, students' perspectives, and supervisors' comments to address research questions. Although there were no strong generalizations derived from data from different perspectives and sources, the findings of this study showed supervisor perceptions of the rhetorical difficulties the students experienced were almost identical. In nature these rhetorical difficulties were culturallyembedded and genre-related issues; and the degree of difficulty experienced by each student varied. In this study, supervisors and students both suggested that, to solve rhetorical difficulties, teacher student communication should be improved. This study provided empirical evidence to contrastive rhetoric theory and socio-cultural theory. It also offered suggestions on how to strengthen future research in this area of inquiry, and how to improve academic writing teaching in L2 educational contexts.

  20. The Rhetoric of "Unconditional Surrender" and the Decision to Drop the Atomic Bomb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hikins, James W.

    1983-01-01

    Analyzes the decision to drop the atomic bomb from a rhetorical point of view, arguing that the bombs were launched because of an American commitment to a particular rhetoric that focused on the propaganda slogan "unconditional surrender." (PD)

  1. From Ambiguity to Dogma: The Rhetorical Symbols of Lyndon B. Johnson on Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logue, Cal M.; Patton, John H.

    1982-01-01

    Analyzes President Johnson's casting of political policy into evocative symbols, the invention and operation of those rhetorical forms, the resulting conflict over the symbolization of the Vietnam War, and the theoretical and ethical implications of those rhetorical choices. (PD)

  2. Rhetorical impression management in the letter to shareholders and institutional setting : A metadiscourse perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aerts, Walter; Yan, Beibei

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Using composite style measures of the letter to shareholders, we elaborate dominant rhetorical profiles and qualify them from an impression management perspective. In addition, we examine how institutional differences affect rhetorical profiles by comparing intensity and contingencies of

  3. Bhaktivedanta Swami’s rhetoric of violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Måns Broo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This article puts a part of Bhaktivedanta Swami’s rhetoric of violence into a larger context that has previously been neglected: that of early- to mid-twentieth century Bengali politics. The author also pinpoints some other factors behind them, such as his literal reading of the Gaudiya Vaishnava scriptures and his flair for drama. In this, the author has not tried to exonerate Bhaktivedanta Swami for his more radically politically incorrect opinions. There is no reason why in the 1970s even an Indian could believe, for example, that Hitler killed Jews because they financed his enemies. Rather, the author tries to begin broadening the picture of Bhaktivedanta Swami by looking at him as a product both of his spiritual predecessors and of his more worldly background. Seeing Bhaktivedanta Swami not only as the great ‘transcendental’ founder-acharya of ISKCON, but also as an elderly gentle­ man, at times erring on relative, human issues, is a viewpoint shared by many ISKCON intellectuals today. For some apologists within the movement, however, taking this path is seen as exceedingly risky, and they fight it vehemently, claiming that the entire future of the movement hinges on being faithful to all the words of its founder.

  4. The rhetoric of transformation in ritual healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csordas, T J

    1983-12-01

    The problem of reconciling accounts of religious healing from the points of view of comparative religion and medicine suggests the necessity of an interpretive or hermeneutic approach to the analysis of therapeutic process. This paper, in the context of examining psychotherapeutic ritual among Catholic Pentecostals, formulates an interpretive approach in which healing is conceived as a form of discourse that is both religious and psychiatric. This discourse embodies a cultural rhetoric capable of performing three essential persuasive tasks: to create a predisposition to be healed, to create the experience of spiritual empowerment, and to create the concrete perception of personal transformation. It is shown that this threefold process activates and controls healing processes endogenous to the supplicant in healing, and either redirects the supplicant's attention toward new aspects of his actions and experiences, or alters the manner in which he attends to accustomed aspects of those actions and experiences. The result is the creation of both a new phenomenological world, and new self-meaning for the supplicant as a whole and holy person.

  5. Lean healthcare: rhetoric, ritual and resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waring, Justin J; Bishop, Simon

    2010-10-01

    This paper presents an ethnographic account of the implementation of Lean service redesign methodologies in one UK NHS hospital operating department. It is suggested that this popular management 'technology', with its emphasis on creating value streams and reducing waste, has the potential to transform the social organisation of healthcare work. The paper locates Lean healthcare within wider debates related to the standardisation of clinical practice, the re-configuration of occupational boundaries and the stratification of clinical communities. Drawing on the 'technologies-in-practice' perspective the study is attentive to the interaction of both the intent to transform work and the response of clinicians to this intent as an ongoing and situated social practice. In developing this analysis this article explores three dimensions of social practice to consider the way Lean is interpreted and articulated (rhetoric), enacted in social practice (ritual), and experienced in the context of prevailing lines of power (resistance). Through these interlinked analytical lenses the paper suggests the interaction of Lean and clinical practice remains contingent and open to negotiation. In particular, Lean follows in a line of service improvements that bring to the fore tensions between clinicians and service leaders around the social organisation of healthcare work. The paper concludes that Lean might not be the easy remedy for making both efficiency and effectiveness improvements in healthcare.

  6. RHETORIC OF GUANXI IN CHINESE ADVERTISEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabalina Olga Ivanovna

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to modes of designing advertisements in China. The author proposes two hypotheses. According to the first one, instrumental values influence modes of advertisement design in a particular country. According to the second one, developing relationships (guanxi is a key instrumental value that determines rhetoric of advertising in China and spreads its impact on all its constituents: choice of referent, goals, modes of depicting target audience, patterns of reasoning, and typical set of expressive means. To test hypotheses we used content-analysis of outdoor advertisements in China, Russia, and Kazakhstan. The results of the content-analysis proved that developing relationships with consumers is a key goal of advertising in China. This goal determines the choice of the company as a referent. Social roles of advertising characters are a major descriptor of the target audience. The company’s status, its experience, and financial position are key motives that influence patterns of reasoning. Chinese advertising is also characterized by use of positive-colored vocabulary, traditional symbols and attributes of happiness, “holiday” syntax, appeals to harmony with nature and fellow men. The results of research are complex, have scientific novelty and can be used by foreign companies while developing advertisements, targeted at the Chinese consumer.

  7. RHETORIC OF GUANXI IN CHINESE ADVERTISEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ольга Ивановна Шабалина

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to modes of designing advertisements in China. The author proposes two hypotheses. According to the first one, instrumental values influence modes of advertisement design in a particular country.  According to the second one, developing relationships (guanxi is a key instrumental value that determines rhetoric of advertising in China and spreads its impact on all its constituents: choice of referent, goals, modes of depicting target audience, patterns of reasoning, and typical set of expressive means.To test hypotheses we used content-analysis of outdoor advertisements in China, Russia, and Kazakhstan.The results of the content-analysis proved that developing relationships with consumers is a key goal of advertising in China. This goal determines the choice of the company as a referent. Social roles of advertising characters are a major descriptor of the target audience. The company’s status, its experience, and financial position are key motives that influence patterns of reasoning. Chinese advertising is also characterized by use of positive-colored vocabulary, traditional symbols and attributes of happiness, “holiday” syntax, appeals to harmony with nature and fellow men.The results of research are complex, have scientific novelty and can be used by foreign companies while developing advertisements, targeted at the Chinese consumer.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-4-33

  8. The power of antiquity for modern purposes. A rhetorical analysis of a speech by Steve Jobs

    OpenAIRE

    Martín González, Ana Cristina

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the blend of classic rhetorical techniques with linguistic devices to create an effective speech. To observe this, Steve Jobs’ Commencement Speech, given at Stanford University in 2005, is going to be the text under study. The success of the speech is going to be studied focusing on the relationship between the speaker and his audience. Jobs’ speech is related with the new communication media, which has become a viral video on the web working in differe...

  9. Beyond prevention: containment rhetoric in the case of bug chasing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkowski, Jennifer

    2014-06-01

    Bug chasing, the practice of pursuing HIV positive sexual partners in order to acquire HIV, presents multiple dilemmas for health affiliates in terms of how to address discourses and practices that challenge widely held beliefs about health and medicine. In order to examine how researchers respond to controversial counterpublic rhetorics, this essay chronicles the construction of "bug chasing" in published social science literature. Guided by a theory of containment rhetoric, I analyze how bug chasers are configured in the language of social science used to describe and explain them. I find that social scientific coverage of bug chasing often addresses the behavior using a recipe of rhetorical containment: first, authors gaze upon bug chasers via distanced descriptions of the community; second, authors characterize the behavior as exhibiting an idealistic naiveté; and, third, authors stress the inconceivable, and therefore reproachable, sacrifice that bug chasing ultimately demands of its onlookers and participants. In closing, I evaluate the consequences of this containment rhetoric and offer three rhetorical maneuvers to aid future scholarship that examines the discourses and communities that counter dominant health ideologies.

  10. «Reader! Bruder!»: The Rhetoric of Narration and the Rhetoric of Reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Bertoni

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the relation of power established by narrative texts, exploring the many-sided field of articulation among the related subjects: the narrator as a subject of power, the text as a rhetorical device, and the reader as an ultimate guarantor of meaning. After a brief introduction on the “rebirth of rhetoric” in the second half of the Twentieth century, drawing attention to its links with Reader-response criticism, the paper  focuses on the “power of words” and analyzes three case-studies: Lolita by Vladimir Nabokov (1955, Money by Martin Amis (1984 and The Kindly Ones by Jonathan Littell (2006. These novels depend for their rhetorical effect on the invention of a special narrating voice and on the relationship that it establishes with the reader – an odd mixture of antagonism and complicity, seduction and persuasion. The reader is thus invoked as a brother, but an ambiguous and untrustworthy one, as archetypally described in last verse of the opening poem from Baudelaire’s Les Fleurs du mal: «hypocrite lecteur – mon semblable, mon frère».

  11. “Abba” revisited: merging the horizons of history and rhetoric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abba” revisited: merging the horizons of history and rhetoric through the new rhetoric structure for metaphors. ... illustrated that, by using the approach of the New Rhetoric in describing a metaphor, an interpreter can raise questions on both the understanding of the author and readers, as part of the communication process.

  12. Rhetorical Analysis of Fast-Growth Businesses' Job Advertisements: Implications for Job Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engstrom, Craig L.; Petre, James T.; Petre, Elizabeth A.

    2017-01-01

    This article presents findings from a rhetorical analysis of job advertisements posted by the fastest growing companies in the United States (Inc. 5000 rankings). The analysis suggests that companies rely on standard rhetorical figures and share similar rhetorical visions of novelty that likely effect their organizational culture, paradoxically…

  13. Aristotelian Causal Analysis and Creativity in Copywriting: Toward a Rapprochement between Rhetoric and Advertising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Charles

    2007-01-01

    Advertising may be the most pervasive form of modern rhetoric, yet the discipline is virtually absent in rhetorical studies. This article advocates a mutually beneficial rapprochement between the disciplines--both in academe and the workplace. Rhetoric, for example, could help address an enduring lacuna in advertising theory. Persuasive…

  14. Mythologizing Change: Examining Rhetorical Myth as a Strategic Change Management Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawlins, Jacob D.

    2014-01-01

    This article explores how rhetorical myth can be used as a tool for persuading employees to accept change and to maintain consensus during the process. It defines rhetorical myth using three concepts: "chronographia" (a rhetorical interpretation of history), epideictic prediction (defining a present action by assigning praise and blame…

  15. Arguing Artificially: A Rhetorical Analysis of the Debates That Have Shaped Cognitive Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Keith

    2003-01-01

    Attempts a rhetorical analysis of the history of artificial intelligence research. Responds to scholarly needs in three areas: the rhetorical nature of science, the social construction of science knowledge, and the rhetorical strategies used in artificial intelligence (AI). Suggests that this work can help rhetoricians more accurately describe the…

  16. Transfer of Mother Tongue Rhetoric among Undergraduate Students in Second Language Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffari, Narges; Noordin, Shahrina Md; Sivapalan, Subarna; Zahedpisheh, Nahid

    2017-01-01

    Mother tongue rhetoric transfer is unavoidable in ESL writings, especially for Iranian ESL learners, since Persian and English language is quite different. The paper discusses the negative transfer of mother tongue rhetoric in Iranian undergraduate ESL learners' writings from the perspectives of choosing rhetorical structure in English and Persian…

  17. The Function of Epideictic and Deliberative Strategies in Presidential Crisis Rhetoric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dow, Bonnie J.

    1989-01-01

    Argues for a revised perspective on presidential crisis rhetoric informed by an understanding of differing exigencies and functions. Uses speeches by Ronald Reagan to examine two types of crisis rhetoric. Concludes that crisis rhetoric can not be viewed as a homogeneous type of discourse. (MM)

  18. Rhetoric and Reality: The Inernationalisation of Education as Experienced in the Cross-cultural and Cross-disciplinary Studio

    OpenAIRE

    Catherin Bull

    2004-01-01

    The rhetoric of most universities now includes goals about internationalisation of the curriculum and the values that flow from that process. Such goals appear to support practice in the design professions, which are now international in flavour, with many students expecting to practice internationally during their professional lives. Can the academy educate graduates for international practice and, if so, how best should it do it? This paper describes a tripartite programme currently under w...

  19. The ability of microbial community of Lake Baikal bottom sediments associated with gas discharge to carry out the transformation of organic matter under thermobaric conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei Viktorovich Bukin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The ability to compare the composition and metabolic potential of microbial communities inhabiting the subsurface sediment in geographically distinct locations is one of the keys to understanding the evolution and function of the subsurface biosphere. Prospective areas for study of the subsurface biosphere are the sites of hydrocarbon discharges on the bottom of the Lake Baikal rift, where ascending fluxes of gas-saturated fluids and oil from deep layers of bottom sediments seep into near-surface sediment. The samples of surface sediments collected in the area of the Posolskaya Bank methane seep were cultured for 17 months under thermobaric conditions (80°С, 5 MPa with the addition of complementary organic substrate, and a different composition for the gas phase. After incubation, the presence of intact cells of microorganisms, organic matter transformation and the formation of oil biomarkers was confirmed in the samples, with the addition of Baikalian diatom alga Synedra acus detritus, and gas mixture СH4:H2:CO2. Taxonomic assignment of the 16S rRNA sequence data indicates that the predominant sequences in the enrichment were Sphingomonas (55.3%, Solirubrobacter (27.5% and Arthrobacter (16.6%. At the same time, in heat-killed sediment and in sediment without any additional substrates, which were cultivated in a CH4 atmosphere, no geochemical changes were detected, nor the presence of intact cells and 16S rRNA sequences of Bacteria and Archaea. This data may suggest that the decomposition of organic matter under culturing conditions could be performed by microorganisms from low-temperature sediment layers. One possible explanation of this phenomenon is migration of the representatives of the deep thermophilic community through fault zones in the near surface sediment layers, together with gas-bearing fluids.

  20. Results, rhetoric, and randomized trials: the case of donepezil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilstad, John R; Finucane, Thomas E

    2008-08-01

    Whether donepezil provides meaningful benefit to patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) is controversial, but drug sales annually total billions of dollars. A review of data from published randomized clinical trials (RCTs) found rhetorical patterns that may encourage use of this drug. To create a reproducible observation, the sentences occurring at five specific text sites in all 18 RCTs of donepezil for AD were tabulated, as were study design, sources of financial support, and outcomes that could be compared between trials. Rhetoric in the 13 vendor-supported trials (15 publications) was strongly positive. Three early trials used the motif "efficacious (or effective) ... treating ... symptoms" four times. "Well-tolerated and efficacious" or an equivalent motif appeared 11 times in five RCTs. Nine RCTs referred 15 times to previously proven effectiveness. Seven trials encourage off-label use, for "early" cognitive impairment, severe dementia in advance of the Food and Drug Administration labeling change, or behavioral symptoms. These rhetorical motifs and themes appeared only in the vendor-supported trials. Trials without vendor support described the drug's effects as "small" or absent; two emphasized the need for better treatments. RCT results were highly consistent in all trials; the small differences do not explain differences in rhetoric. At these text sites in the primary research literature on donepezil for AD, uniformly positive rhetoric is present in all vendor-supported RCTs. Reference to the limited benefit of donepezil is confined to RCTs without vendor support. Data in the trials are highly consistent. This observation generates the hypothesis that rhetoric in vendor-supported published RCTs may promote vendors' products.

  1. Rhetoric and History in Brian Friel’s Making History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfredi Bernardini

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an analysis of the rhetorical devices of representation and recording of history, investigated and deconstructed by the so-called "history play" Making History, written by Brian Friel and performed by the Field Day Theatre Company in 1988. The play tells of the heroic deeds of Hugh O’ Neill, a Sixteenth century Ulster gaelic Lord, intertwining his personal facts with the crucial events in Irish History. Friel rediscovers a paradigmatic figure in Irish history, using the theatrical performance in order to dissect and thoroughly scrutinize the basis for the nationalist rhetoric which is at the root of contemporary conflicts in Northern Ireland. Starting from the theoretical contributions of seminal authors such as Hayden White, Paul Ricoeur, Walter Benjamin, Michel De Certeau, the northern Irish playwright challenges the supposedly scientific nature of History, that would decidedly mark it as different from other forms of narrative, such as literature. Hence History’s metalinguistic nature, based on specific rhetorical strategies, is uncovered.  Therefore, on the one hand Friel questions the theoretical foundations of History, of its “grand narratives”,  giving ‘stories’ the chance to be part of official History’s discourse. On the other hand, he lifts the veil on the rhetorical (and in some ways ideological mechanisms involved in the process of History writing, through the character of archbishop Peter Lombard - O’ Neill’s biographer, storyteller and master in elocutio - and sheds light on how History is a form of rhetorical narrative, almost a patchwork of events collected (inventio and assembled (dispositio by the historian according to specific criteria of representation. By taking us inside the very nucleus of the rhetorical devices used by storiography, Friel unmasks the delicate processes of making and unmaking history, the ones that help give birth to identity as well as History.

  2. Consciousness-Raising as Collective Rhetoric: The Articulation of Experience in the Redstockings' Abortion Speak-Out of 1969

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubriwny, Tasha N.

    2005-01-01

    This essay offers a theory of collective rhetoric derived from a case study of a central rhetorical event of the second wave of feminism, the Redstockings' 1969 abortion speak-out. A central rhetorical function of consciousness-raising was the collective development of experiential knowledge, and I propose that collective rhetorics are…

  3. Muddling through the Moment with “Rowdy” Rhetoric

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Lisa Storm

    of sound public argument and proper debate behavior. From theoretical explanations such the “diatribe”, and the “ego-function” of protest rhetoric over Campbell’s finding the rhetoric of women’s movement “oxymoronic” to more recent studies of subcultural and marginalized individuals’ and groups’ strategies...... what’s often characterized as an increasingly harsh “tone” and general partisanship at the cost of reasoning and sound argumentation (even if they don’t quite know how to escape the “sports match” logic so characteristic of presidential debates, for example, with the medias’ talk of “winners...

  4. Classical Greek and Roman rhetoric and the modern audience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdie, David W

    2003-12-01

    The formal structuring of oral discourse or rhetoric was highly developed in antiquity. Both Greek and Roman authorities on the subject codified for orators an arrangement of material and a contextual format which have utility in the present day. The art of public lecturing should encompass relevance of material, structure of presentation and style of delivery in order to render the whole enjoyable and memorable. Teaching does not cause learning, but skilful rhetorical technique can imbue the student with a potent desire for further self-directed study. In this field, the ancient is auxiliary to the modern.

  5. At the Head of Theoretical Disciplines, Rhetoric Besieges Advertising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costin Popescu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Advertising is a field of human activity whose components are studied by numerous disciplines. There is a risk, then, to see the theoretical interest for this field crumble; in order to acquire a general view of it, we need – above researches conducted with the support of conceptual apparatuses of disciplines as sociology, mythology, psychology, ethology, visual communication, etc. – unifying points of view, offered by formal disciplines as rhetoric, semiotics, etc. The study of specific advertising messages will help us catch a glimpse of both proportions and stakes of the matter; leading the interdisciplinar approach, rhetoric can hope to “tame” the complexity of the advertising discourse.

  6. Narrator-in-Chief:The Narrative Rhetoric of Barack Obama

    OpenAIRE

    Herron, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    The dissertation Narrator-in-Chief: The Narrative Rhetoric of Barack Obama seeks to show how the concept of “narrative” can be used in rhetorical criticism of presidential speeches, particularly when considering the speeches and the biographical text, Dreams from My Father (1995), of Barack Obama.The use of narratives of and by presidents in the White House can be seen as an essential part of the ceremonial role of the presidency. This use of narratives in epideictic speech has increased with...

  7. Lingual rhetoric paradigm as integrative research prism in philological science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Аlexandra A. Vorozhbitova

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The article characterizes the lingual rhetoric paradigm as an integrative approach in philology based on three crossing categorical ranges: 1 the ideological aspects of a speech act (ethos, logos, pathos; 2 the phases of the universal ideospeech cycle «from a thought to a word» (invention, disposition (arrangement, elocution (style as the technology of discourse process; 3 the structural levels of a lingual identity (associative verbal network, thesaurus, pragmaticon as the producer of discourse, the carrier of ideology. Hence there are three groups of lingual rhetoric parameters: ethos motivational dispositive, logos thesaurus inventive, pathos verbal elocutive.

  8. Rhetoric of Seduction and Seduction of Rhetoric in Paul de Man's ‘Allegories of Reading’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Mirabile

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The essay analyzes the work of Paul de Man (1919-1983, in particular Allegories of Reading. Even though his posthumously revealed ties with Nazism reduced his academic influence, de Man is still considered the leader of  Deconstruction in America, and his favorite metaphor of 'seduction' summarizes his Nietzschean theory of rhetoric as illusionism, i.e. a strategy that provoke an affective reaction, independent from logic or facts. Yet, this metaphor seems to be in contrast with other tendencies of Deconstruction, namely the self-referential, non-voluntary, autonomous status of writing, the absence of critical meta-language, the reduction of psychology in criticism.

  9. Spurious Latent Class Problem in the Mixed Rasch Model: A Comparison of Three Maximum Likelihood Estimation Methods under Different Ability Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Sedat

    2018-01-01

    Recent research has shown that over-extraction of latent classes can be observed in the Bayesian estimation of the mixed Rasch model when the distribution of ability is non-normal. This study examined the effect of non-normal ability distributions on the number of latent classes in the mixed Rasch model when estimated with maximum likelihood…

  10. Suggestions for future study of rhetoric and Matthew’s Gospel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig S. Keener

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Because the Gospel writers addressed audiences in the Graeco-Roman world with various degrees of familiarity with standard rhetoric, rhetoric provides a helpful check on modern speculations about ancient speech and argument. Nevertheless, parallels with such rhetoric in Matthew, helpful as they are, tend to occur at a more general level and rarely on the level of specific wording. A more fruitful endeavour may be a comparison with rhetorical techniques in other ancient biographies. Beyond general urban Mediterranean rhetoric, however, a specific style of rhetoric emerges within Jesus’ teachings. Because Matthew contains so much material about Jesus the Galilean sage, examining Jewish sage rhetoric proves particularly helpful for understanding his work and that of the traditional material on which he draws.

  11. Cognitive Abilities Underlying Reading Accuracy, Fluency and Spelling Acquisition in Korean Hangul Learners from Grades 1 to 4: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyun-Rin; Uno, Akira

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to examine the cognitive abilities that predict reading and spelling performance in Korean children in Grades 1 to 4, depending on expertise and reading experience. As a result, visual cognition, phonological awareness, naming speed and receptive vocabulary significantly predicted reading accuracy in children in Grades 1 and 2, whereas visual cognition, phonological awareness and rapid naming speed did not predict reading accuracy in children in higher grades. For reading, fluency, phonological awareness, rapid naming speed and receptive vocabulary were crucial abilities in children in Grades 1 to 3, whereas phonological awareness was not a significant predictor in children in Grade 4. In spelling, reading ability and receptive vocabulary were the most important abilities for accurate Hangul spelling. The results suggested that the degree of cognitive abilities required for reading and spelling changed depending on expertise and reading experience. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Rogerian Rhetoric: Pedagogy and the Ethos of Seduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawk, Byron

    In "Rhetoric, Discovery and Change" (1970), R. Young, A. Becker, and K. Pike took Carl Rogers' empathetic approach out of the context of one-on-one therapy and put it into the writing classroom. They proposed the now standard formulaic structure of argumentation which emphasizes a strong thesis up front, a detailed account of the…

  13. Sojourner Truth as an Essential Part of Rhetorical Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romans, Bevin A.

    To affirm Sojourner Truth as a powerful rhetor who advanced the equality and empowerment of women, a study examined several of her speeches on women's suffrage. Although the value of using such role models as Sojourner Truth has been demonstrated in various grade levels, and in the study of history and English, the approach is too seldom employed…

  14. “Mine”. The Rhetoric of Abraham Kuyper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molendijk, Arie L.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Even the critics of Dutch Reformed theologian, politician, and publicist Abraham Kuyper (1837–1920) acknowledge his great power of oratory. This essay examines the nature of Kuyper’s rhetoric in a mythopoetic perspective that sees its inspiration in a romantic understanding of artistic

  15. Representing Bodies in Virtual Space: The Rhetoric of Avatar Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolko, Beth E.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the rhetorical aspects of avatars, or virtual selves, within multiuser graphical virtual realities (GVRs). Examines the development of GVRs and questions how representations of selves relate to online communication, focusing particularly on how bodies in GVRs are gendered. (Author/LRW)

  16. Presidential Rhetoric and the Purpose of American Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter II, Dick M.

    2005-01-01

    This study examines how U.S. presidents have defined the purpose of education. Presidential rhetoric about education in inaugural and State of the Union speeches was collected and examined. Throughout history, two purposes of education have gained the most attention?civic responsibility and economic efficiency?with emphasis shifting from civic…

  17. Hillary Clinton's presidential campaign rhetoric: Making America whole again

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Gunawan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article sought to investigate Hillary Rodham Clinton's 2016 campaign rhetoric for the U.S. President as found in her South Carolina Primary Victory Speech and Super Tuesday Victory Speech. Qualitative content analysis was used through Leanne's analytical tool of rhetorical strategies to deconstruct the texts. It gave way to new analytical narratives to decipher the core meaning as expressed in the central ideas and the main ideas of the two speeches. By so doing, access was easily made for studying the four components of Clinton's campaign rhetoric. The article showed that both speeches shared similar themes in the four components of the campaign rhetoric, illuminating consistently Clinton's lines of thought and political goals. She succinctly spelled out her agenda to make America whole again; thus, providing opportunity, dignity, and justice for every American. She framed her political stand to continue the preceding Democratic President's success to improve the American economy. She presented herself as a strong leader capable of advancing the American economy that worked for every American, breaking all barriers and restoring their common faith for a better America. She evoked hopes on the part of her prospective voters for their common better future and urged them to desire love and kindness in their lives, and use the emotion of anger against the barriers that divided them.

  18. Colonial Memory and the Crime of Rhetoric: Pedro Albizu Campos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, Victor

    2009-01-01

    Dr. Albizu Campos was a Harvard-educated Puerto Rican politician who was sentenced to eighty years of imprisonment for what he said--sedition. He was called "el Maestro," a powerful speaker, with thousands gathering to listen to his deliberative rhetoric for freedom. He urged the people to reclaim their cultural history and national…

  19. Rhetorical Analysis of the Persuasiveness of Advertising | Esuh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of the Persuasiveness of Advertisingrhetoric but much depends on how consumers actively “make sense” of the signs and symbols of advertising in the light of the ruling ideology of a culture. This study therefore examines how marketers, advertisers and public relations practitioners can structure advertising with rhetorical ...

  20. From Rhetoric to Reality: Designing Activities to Foster Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cropley, David H.

    2014-01-01

    As teachers strive to make sense of and implement knowledge of creativity that is available from the research community, school librarians are called upon to help turn rhetoric into reality. Developing the creativity habit is far more meaningful and effective if the classroom activity is representative of the real-world problem-solving process.…

  1. Satan's Temptation of Eve in "Paradise Lost": A Rhetorical Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Dee Ann Duke

    John Milton employs classical rhetorical techniques in "Paradise Lost" to accomplish Satan's temptation of Eve which begins on line 524 and ends with line 732 of Book 9; however, Satan's oration resembles pejorative sophistry and Milton uses Ciceronian arrangement for Satan's argument. Milton envisions Satan as a clever, cunning creature…

  2. Francis Bacon and the Historiography of Scientific Rhetoric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zappen, James P.

    1989-01-01

    Reviews three twentieth-century interpretations of Francis Bacon's science and rhetoric: positivistic science and the plain style; institutionalized science and its more highly figured style; and democratic science. Presents the author's own interpretation, and concludes that each interpretation reflects different perceptions of the good of the…

  3. Seeing Cells: Teaching the Visual/Verbal Rhetoric of Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinolfo, John; Heifferon, Barbara; Temesvari, Lesly A.

    2007-01-01

    This pilot study obtained baseline information on verbal and visual rhetorics to teach microscopy techniques to college biology majors. We presented cell images to students in cell biology and biology writing classes and then asked them to identify textual, verbal, and visual cues that support microscopy learning. Survey responses suggest that…

  4. Figures of Rhetoric in the Language of Nigerian Christian Sermons ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sermons are regarded as an art that integrates scientific analysis, literature and imaginative composition (Vaessen, 1998). The Christian sermonic discourse is highly persuasive and relies on rhetorical figures and devices to achieve its goals of calling people to decisions and modification of behaviours and warning them of ...

  5. Angels as arguments? The rhetorical function of references to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The issue investigated in this article is the rhetorical function fulfilled by the references to angels in the Main Letters of Paul. For this purpose all the references to angels in Galatians, 1 and 2 Corinthians and Romans are investigated systematically and thoroughly. This study shows that Paul never uses any of the references ...

  6. The Underdog Disciplines: Comics Studies and Composition and Rhetoric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirtley, Susan

    2015-01-01

    This report discusses the answer to the question: What might comic studies learn from the slightly older field of composition and rhetoric? The author asks the question as a member of both fields. It is clear that both disciplines struggle for legitimacy within the academy. While comics studies strives for respectability given the popular nature…

  7. Devolution rhetoric and practice of curriculum policymaking in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper sketches the rhetoric and practices of curricular devolution since the publication of education and training policy. By exploring curriculum, management guidelines and other relevant policy documents, this paper argues that within a decentralized federal system of governance primary curriculum provisions still ...

  8. Beyond the Rhetoric: A Theoretical Analysis of the Effects of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Organisation of African Unity marked its fiftieth anniversary in 2013 and, despite its transformation into the African Union and the continued rhetoric from African leaders about the need for further integration, attempts to progress towards the goal of economic and political integration have been ineffective. This paper ...

  9. A Geographical History of Online Rhetoric and Composition Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirrell, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    The "Mapping Digital Technology in Rhetoric and Composition History" project can accommodate the geographical aspects of many relevant potential data sets, such as the locations of conferences, grant and award winners, book publications, graduate programs, job openings, and blog posts. The maps created for this article focus specifically on online…

  10. Gloria Anzaldúa's Rhetoric of Ambiguity and Antiracist Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klotz, Sarah; Whithaus, Carl

    2015-01-01

    This article addresses approaches to antiracist pedagogy employed in a rhetoric course at a large public research university. Drawing upon our experience teaching a diverse group of students from a common text shared across disciplines, we show how and why students resisted binary constructions of race and racism and instead formulated an emergent…

  11. The Rhetoric of the Paneled Page: Comics and Composition Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sealey-Morris, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    While comics have received widespread acceptance as a literary genre, instructors and scholars in Rhetoric and Composition have been slower to adopt comics, largely because of a lingering difficulty understanding how the characteristics of the form relate to our work in the classroom. Using as guides the "WPA Outcomes Statement for First-Year…

  12. Creating Original Products and Infomercials to Study Rhetorical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrotta, Clarena

    2017-01-01

    Rhetorical analysis was a required unit of study for college students enrolled in intermediate English as a second language (ESL) composition. Twenty-six students participated in a project creating an original product and its infomercial. The project aimed at increasing student motivation to continue writing essays in English and providing a space…

  13. Inter-dimensional Hypermedia Communicative Devices for Rhetorical Structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Rutledge (Lloyd); J.R. Davis; J.R. van Ossenbruggen (Jacco); L. Hardman (Lynda)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractHypermedia communicative devices are patterns of hypermedia presentation structure with specific affects on the user. Some devices have been determined for affecting the user with abstract authoring constructs, such as rhetorical structure. However, these devices each typically focus on

  14. Politicians Appear more Competent when Using Numerical Rhetoric

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rasmus T.

    2017-01-01

    by politicians therefore has a positive impact on voters’ perceptions of these politicians. A survey experiment confirms that even when numbers do little to move voters’ policy positions, numbers do have the effect of making politicians appear more competent. As a consequence, numerical rhetoric can in some...

  15. Rhetorical shadows : The conceptual representation of incongruent shadows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schilperoord, J; van Weelden, L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/362752877

    2018-01-01

    This article addresses the topic of conceptual representation of shadows. We analyze several examples of contemporary imagery, taken from advertising and cartooning, to shed light on the way shadow depictions are used as rhetorical devices. Instead of being inserted as a natural phenomenon,

  16. The Rhetoric of Globalization and Communication Education in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper attempts an assessment of the various conceptual projections for the evaluation of the supposed derivations of globalization. The many scholastic discourses and some obviously identifiable fallacies are measured from rhetorical standpoint. The dictates of globalization suggest that every nation needs to ...

  17. Rhetorical Structure of Education Research Article Methods Sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Baoya; Wannaruk, Anchalee

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the rhetorical move structure of the education research article genre within the framework of Swales' (1981, 1990, 2004) move analysis. A corpus of 120 systematically sampled empirical education research articles served as data input for the analysis. The results indicate that the education research article methods section…

  18. The Machiavellian Princess: Rhetorical Dramas for Women Managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koester, Jolene

    1982-01-01

    Examined popular self-help books to determine how they portray organizational life and the female manager. Concluded that their rhetorical vision of the female manager is superficial and that for the woman who participates in this view of organizational life, the books present incomplete, contradictory, and debilitating advice. (PD)

  19. Roasting on Earth: A Rhetorical Analysis of Eco-Comedy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Alison Aurelia

    2009-01-01

    Environmentalists are accustomed to using the rhetorical appeals of guilt and sacrifice to advocate their agendas. I argue that the motivations of guilt and sacrifice do not mirror the goals of sustainability, and are easy for anthropocentric-resourcist ideology (ARI) agendas to counter. When it comes to actual environmental policy change,…

  20. Rhetorical Scarcity: Spatial and Economic Inflections on Genre Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applegarth, Risa

    2012-01-01

    This study examines how changes in a key scientific genre supported anthropology's early twentieth-century bid for scientific status. Combining spatial theories of genre with inflections from the register of economics, I develop the concept of "rhetorical scarcity" to characterize this genre change not as evolution but as manipulation that…

  1. Rhetoric, Risk, and Markets: The Dot-Com Bubble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodnight, G. Thomas; Green, Sandy Edward, Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Post-conventional economic theories are assembled to inquire into the contingent, mimetic, symbolic, and material spirals unfolding the dot-com bubble, 1992-2002. The new technologies bubble is reconstructed as a rhetorical movement across the practices of the hybrid market-industry risk culture of communications. The legacies of the bubble task…

  2. The Martial "Virtue" of Rhetoric in Machiavelli's "Art of War."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiethoff, William E.

    1978-01-01

    Argues that Machiavelli's inherent interest in pragmatic, "virtuous" applications of humanistic arts mandated both rhetorical form and matter in his composition of the "Art of War." Proposes that the work reveals Machiavelli's debt to the classically humane ideal of the warrior-orator. (JMF)

  3. The Rhetoric of Right to Life: Beyond the Court's Decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Martha

    The Supreme Court's 1973 decision striking down restrictive abortion laws in Texas and Georgia has significantly shaped the rhetoric of the Right to Life movement in both tone and substance. This paper explores how the Court's decision has influenced the movement's definition and development of issues. In addition, it examines the verbal and…

  4. Confronting Rhetorical Disability: A Critical Analysis of Women's Birth Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Kim Hensley

    2009-01-01

    Through its analysis of birth plans, documents some women create to guide their birth attendants' actions during hospital births, this article reveals the rhetorical complexity of childbirth and analyzes women's attempts to harness birth plans as tools of resistance and self-education. Asserting that technologies can both silence and give voice,…

  5. Good, Clean, Fair: The Rhetoric of the Slow Food Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    This article outlines the origins of the Slow Food movement before examining the ways in which Slow Food rhetoric seeks to redefine gastronomy and combat the more deleterious effects of globalization. In articulating a new gastronomy, Slow Food founder Carlo Petrini attempts to reconstruct the gastronomy of Jean Anthelme Brillat-Savarin, at once…

  6. Doctors in ancient Greek and Roman rhetorical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Craig A

    2013-10-01

    This article collects and examines all references to doctors in rhetorical exercises used in ancient Greek and Roman schools in the Roman Empire. While doctors are sometimes portrayed positively as philanthropic, expert practitioners of their divinely sanctioned art, they are more often depicted as facing charges for poisoning their patients.

  7. Start-Up Rhetoric in Eight Speeches of Barack Obama

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Daniel C.; Kowal, Sabine; Sabin, Edward J.; Lamia, John F.; Dannevik, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    Our purpose in the following was to investigate the start-up rhetoric employed by U.S. President Barack Obama in his speeches. The initial 5 min from eight of his speeches from May to September of 2009 were selected for their variety of setting, audience, theme, and purpose. It was generally hypothesized that Barack Obama, widely recognized for…

  8. Toward A Rhetoric of Visual Fragments: Analyzing Disjunctive Narratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilb, John

    2002-01-01

    Pursues a rhetoric of visual fragments by considering the disjunctive packaging of two particular fictional films: Alfred Hitchcock's 1958 classic "Vertigo" and Christopher Reeve's 1997 adaptation of Alice Elliott Dark's short story, "In the Gloaming." Considers how "Vertigo" offers conflicting stories about the…

  9. Ethical Implications of Thomas Reid's Philosophy of Rhetoric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skopec, Eric Wm.

    Eighteenth century Scottish philosopher Thomas Reid's emphasis on first principles of knowledge is fundamental to his ethics of rhetoric. Reid found the reduction of mental activities to material phenomena by Hobbes and others to be particularly odious and destructive of common sense. Turning to the analysis of human nature, he developed a radical…

  10. Implementers and Investigators: Conditions for Rhetoric of Inquiry To Emerge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartzman, Roy

    Noting that discussions about the interaction of science and politics are often heard, this paper addresses how these discursive arenas are defined and distinguished. It argues that political and scientific discourse may be distinguished by the roles they assume on the rhetorical stage, and the relevant roles which emerge are implementers and…

  11. Grammatical Metaphor in SFL: A Rhetorical Resource for Academic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The focus of this paper is on grammatical metaphor as a rhetorical systemic resource for achieving lexical economy and information density in academic writing. It explores the various forms of transferences which are made possible by the grammar: from logical to experiential, from sequences to figures, elements, things ...

  12. Lessons from Katrina: Crisis Communication and Rhetorical Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Donald C.

    2007-01-01

    Widely misunderstood and often maligned, rhetoric in the simplest sense is the effective use of language in speech or writing. Much as law and medicine have well considered standards of conduct, so too does the field of communication. Experts in this area look at--patterns--of discourse in relation to specific kinds of events--tornadoes,…

  13. Presidential Political Rhetoric: High School and College Students Respond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodson, F. Todd; Fabiano, Theodore F.

    Teachers can take advantage of current presidential elections by having students keep journals in which they analyze public discourse as they record their responses to the campaign rhetoric. An interesting phenomenon that emerges from this activity is a sense of the political identity of the students, a perspective that colors virtually all of…

  14. PAUL AND SOPHISTIC RHETORIC: A PERSPECTIVE ON HIS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    he avoids describing Paul's argumentation in terms of manipulation, dishonesty or disrespect for the facts. .... people knew very well that it was possible to evade the law by manipulating words and interpretations. ...... structure of his symbolic universe; declaring them all guilty is part of the rhetorical strategy that aims at their ...

  15. Rhetorical Dimensions of the Post-September Eleventh Grief Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartzman, Roy; Tibbles, David

    2005-01-01

    This essay examines Presidential rhetoric and popular culture practices in light of the stages of grief enumerated by Elisabeth Kubler-Ross. The authors find a consistent retrenchment of grief into the anger phase, where the pain of losing national invulnerability is transferred to externalized aggression. Reconciliation is suggested by means of…

  16. The Potentials of Visual Rhetoric in Communication | Rishante ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Six fundamental goals of the visual rhetorician which include attention gaining, sustenance of interest, recognition, effective storage, recall and persuasion and their potential application in communication are considered. The ways in which visual rhetoric can be expressed within the framework of the universal laws of ...

  17. Attributing Rhetorical Agency in a Crisis of Trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoff-Clausen, Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    listening. The essay discusses the potential of such a campaign and argues that in a crisis where rhetorical agency is impaired due to declining trust, corporations that engage in public listening may communicate acknowledgment and openness to change. However, in order to realize this potential, the public...

  18. Plato the Pederast: Rhetoric and Cultural Procreation in the Dialogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ervin, Elizabeth

    1993-01-01

    Examines Plato's Dialogues by reading them through two cultural lenses: the role of eros in classical Greece and its analogous relationship to language and rhetoric; and the educational function of eros within the ancient institution of pederasty. Shows how the cultural values of ancient Greece manifested themselves in Plato's erotic educational…

  19. "A City of Brick": Visual Rhetoric in the Roman Principate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamp, Kathleen S.

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the impact of non-traditional rhetorical media such as art, architecture, coins, and city planning in order to examine how these media promoted dynastic rule and influenced practices of citizenship during Augustus' reign, the period between the Roman Republic and Empire (31 BCE-14CE). My findings challenge the long-standing…

  20. Go Tell Alcibiades: Tragedy, Comedy, and Rhetoric in Plato's "Symposium"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crick, Nathan; Poulakos, John

    2008-01-01

    Plato's "Symposium" is a significant but neglected part of his elaborate and complex attitude toward rhetoric. Unlike the intellectual discussion of the "Gorgias" or the unscripted conversation of the "Phaedrus," the "Symposium" stages a feast celebrating and driven by the forces of "Eros." A luxuriously stylish performance rather than a rational…

  1. Gorgias on Madison Avenue: Sophistry and the Rhetoric of Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matcuk, Matt

    Using sophistic theory and focusing on intersections in the practice and reception of sophistry and advertising, a study analyzed a contemporary advertising campaign. A number of extrinsic similarities between sophistic and advertising rhetoric exist: their commercial basis, their popular reception as dishonest speech, and the reception of both as…

  2. Rhetorics of Regulation in Education after the Global Economic Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, David

    2010-01-01

    Economic crises such as those of 1929, 1973 and 2008 appear to associate with shifts in the rhetorics of management. These dates mark the end of expansionary phases within an economic cycle, and they portend what James O'Connor has called a "fiscal crisis of the state". It is argued, speculatively, that immediately before and after an…

  3. The (poetic rhetoric of wisdom in Proverbs 3:1-12

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.H. Potgieter

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Proverbs 3:1-12 is a masterful example of Hebrew poetry. Failure to consider its poetic structure, is likely to result in incomplete and even incorrect interpretation. Many recent commentaries on Proverbs recognize the poetic character of the book, and even include a section on the poetic techniques present in the book, but ignore the relevance of these techniques as far as the interpretation of the individual poems and the book in general are concerned. This article argues that a comprehensive analysis of poetic features enhances the exegete’s ability to appreciate the rhetoric of wisdom. An intratextual approach towards Proverbs 3:1-12 provides a framework for the complete interpretation of the text.

  4. Sensitivity to grid resolution in the ability of a chemical transport model to simulate observed oxidant chemistry under high-isoprene conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Yu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Formation of ozone and organic aerosol in continental atmospheres depends on whether isoprene emitted by vegetation is oxidized by the high-NOx pathway (where peroxy radicals react with NO or by low-NOx pathways (where peroxy radicals react by alternate channels, mostly with HO2. We used mixed layer observations from the SEAC4RS aircraft campaign over the Southeast US to test the ability of the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model at different grid resolutions (0.25°  ×  0.3125°, 2°  ×  2.5°, 4°  ×  5° to simulate this chemistry under high-isoprene, variable-NOx conditions. Observations of isoprene and NOx over the Southeast US show a negative correlation, reflecting the spatial segregation of emissions; this negative correlation is captured in the model at 0.25°  ×  0.3125° resolution but not at coarser resolutions. As a result, less isoprene oxidation takes place by the high-NOx pathway in the model at 0.25°  ×  0.3125° resolution (54 % than at coarser resolution (59 %. The cumulative probability distribution functions (CDFs of NOx, isoprene, and ozone concentrations show little difference across model resolutions and good agreement with observations, while formaldehyde is overestimated at coarse resolution because excessive isoprene oxidation takes place by the high-NOx pathway with high formaldehyde yield. The good agreement of simulated and observed concentration variances implies that smaller-scale non-linearities (urban and power plant plumes are not important on the regional scale. Correlations of simulated vs. observed concentrations do not improve with grid resolution because finer modes of variability are intrinsically more difficult to capture. Higher model resolution leads to decreased conversion of NOx to organic nitrates and increased conversion to nitric acid, with total reactive nitrogen oxides (NOy changing little across model resolutions. Model concentrations in the

  5. Philosophical rhetoric and sophistical dialectic: some implications of Plato’s critique of rhetoric in the Phaedrus and the Sophist

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagemans, J.H.M.; Blair, J.A.; Farr, D.; Hansen, H.V.; Johnson, R.H.; Tindale, C.W.

    2003-01-01

    My PhD research concentrates on the philosophical backgrounds of the relationship between dialectic and rhetoric. In order to pinpoint the discord between both disciplines, I studied their genesis and early history. In this paper, some characteristics of both disciplines will be outlined by

  6. In Appreciation of the Kind of Rhetoric We Learn in School: An Institutional Perspective on the Rhetorical Situation and on Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Kathleen F.

    2010-01-01

    Theoretical discussion of the rhetorical situation has been dedicated largely to questions of its ontology and of how it is constituted. Where this ontological orientation has inclined theorists to treat the concept as a theoretical premise, an institutional orientation would instead frame constructivist accounts of the rhetorical situation as a…

  7. Historical Process and Semantic Study of Rhetorical Apostrophe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdollah Radmard

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available  Abstract Apostrophe means paying attention to someone or something. It is a literary technique which has not been studied deeply despite its widespread role in fo regrounding the literary language , norm-breaking and creating a sense of defamiliarization in the audience. Its meaning is limited to the " transferring the speaker from the absence to the audience and vice versa ". In rhetorical texts apostrophe is attributed to the three areas of semantics , eloquence and rhetoric. Such triple attribution is due to two factors : the mixing of rhetoric areas in previous periods and the extension of apostrophe 's meaning in rhetorical books. But it seems that a variety of notions which are raised in traditional rhetorical books should be examined in the field of semantics. The only type of apostrophe which can be analyzed in rhetoric is the one proposed in some contemporary books as the result of semantic extension and is used in the vertical axis of poem. Therefore , regarding semantic extension, we consider apostrophe as any change in semantic structure , narrative , texture , etc which occurs without any background and surprises the reader. The presence of different types of apostrophe in various branches of rhetoric and literature lead to the creation of many names for this literary technique. This technique was not called apostrophe in the first period of the Arab rhetoric which coincided with the rise of Islam in Ibn Motaz period. It was always called “metonymy”. Then Asmaee used apostrophe in its technical sense in the second century (A.H and Ibn Motaz presented it in Albadi. Gradually and in later periods rhetoricians such as Qodame Ibn Jafar, Ibn Rashigh Ghiravani, Abu Halal Asgari etc. gave other names to this technique such as inflection and dissuasion, completion, objection, Estetrad, Talvin, Shojaol Arabiyat and so on. Apostrophe has the same meaning in Persian rhetorical books. The first rhetorical book is Tarjomanol

  8. Historical Process and Semantic Study of Rhetorical Apostrophe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdollah Radmard

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Apostrophe means paying attention to someone or something. It is a literary technique which has not been studied deeply despite its widespread role in fo regrounding the literary language , norm-breaking and creating a sense of defamiliarization in the audience. Its meaning is limited to the " transferring the speaker from the absence to the audience and vice versa ". In rhetorical texts apostrophe is attributed to the three areas of semantics , eloquence and rhetoric. Such triple attribution is due to two factors : the mixing of rhetoric areas in previous periods and the extension of apostrophe 's meaning in rhetorical books. But it seems that a variety of notions which are raised in traditional rhetorical books should be examined in the field of semantics. The only type of apostrophe which can be analyzed in rhetoric is the one proposed in some contemporary books as the result of semantic extension and is used in the vertical axis of poem. Therefore , regarding semantic extension, we consider apostrophe as any change in semantic structure , narrative , texture , etc which occurs without any background and surprises the reader. The presence of different types of apostrophe in various branches of rhetoric and literature lead to the creation of many names for this literary technique. This technique was not called apostrophe in the first period of the Arab rhetoric which coincided with the rise of Islam in Ibn Motaz period. It was always called “metonymy”. Then Asmaee used apostrophe in its technical sense in the second century (A.H and Ibn Motaz presented it in Albadi. Gradually and in later periods rhetoricians such as Qodame Ibn Jafar, Ibn Rashigh Ghiravani, Abu Halal Asgari etc. gave other names to this technique such as inflection and dissuasion, completion, objection, Estetrad, Talvin, Shojaol Arabiyat and so on. Apostrophe has the same meaning in Persian rhetorical books. The first rhetorical book is Tarjomanol Balaghat written

  9. A Teaching Strategy with a Focus on Argumentation to Improve Undergraduate Students' Ability to Read Research Articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Lacum, Edwin B; Ossevoort, Miriam A; Goedhart, Martin J

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate a teaching strategy designed to teach first-year undergraduate life sciences students at a research university how to learn to read authentic research articles. Our approach-based on the work done in the field of genre analysis and argumentation theory-means that we teach students to read research articles by teaching them which rhetorical moves occur in research articles and how they can identify these. Because research articles are persuasive by their very nature, we focused on the rhetorical moves that play an important role in authors' arguments. We designed a teaching strategy using cognitive apprenticeship as the pedagogical approach. It was implemented in a first-year compulsory course in the life sciences undergraduate program. Comparison of the results of a pretest with those of the posttest showed that students' ability to identify these moves had improved. Moreover, students themselves had also perceived that their ability to read and understand a research article had increased. The students' evaluations demonstrated that they appreciated the pedagogical approach used and experienced the assignments as useful. On the basis of our results, we concluded that students had taken a first step toward becoming expert readers. © 2014 E. B. Van Lacum et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2014 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  10. Exploring Rhetorical-Discursive Practices of Rouhani’s Presidential Campaign and Victory of his Prudence-and-Hope Key: a Discourse of Persuasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Азизулла Мирзаи

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Trying to acquire and maintain power, politicians make use of certain rhetorical and linguistic devices to persuade voters in favor of their particular views constructed in the political discourse. The current study was an attempt to investigate Iranian president Hassan Rouhani’s use of persuasive rhetorical-discursive devices during his campaign for presidency in 2013. Specific attention was paid to the levels of language that constituted his political discourse through: 1 scrutinizing the level of sound, 2 investigating his selection of lexical elements, and 3 looking into syntactic structures employed to convey political nuances. Additionally, a critical discourse analysis (CDA approach, drawing upon Fairclough’s three-dimensional analytical framework (2010, was adopted to probe the discourse-power relationship in his discourse, on the one hand, and the socio-cultural, religious, and political values underlying the rhetorical devices, on the other. The results revealed that Rouhani’s political discourse was embroidered with different rhetorical-discursive devices such as tripartite constructions, repetition in parallel lines, alliteration, and metaphor to influence the public opinion. Moreover, perhaps, using a concise and succinct message, visual symbols, and dynamic metaphors helped him reach out to the audience with an air of emotion and mobilize significant numbers of the electorate for himself.

  11. The Rhetoric of Popular Science Texts. "Scientific American" Magazine as Typical Example

    OpenAIRE

    Lichański, Jakub Z.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study is to describe the relationship between rhetoric and popular science texts. Scientific American magazine is taken as an example. In conclusion, the author suggests that the rhetoric of popular science texts rests on the presentation of the problem, avoiding controversy in the presentation of research issues, avoiding modal forms, the use of multiple elements of visual rhetoric. This article contains brief historical information about the development of...

  12. Socio-rhetorical interpretation: Theoretical points of departure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest van Eck

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available In the past two decades, narrative criticism (narratology and social-scientific criticism have come to the fore as the two most prominent new methodologies to be associated with gospel research. When these two methodologies are integrated in the reading of biblical texts, this is now referred to as "socio-rhetorical interpretation". This article departs from a specific understanding of what is meant by a narratological reading of a text on the one hand and, on the other hand, by a social-scientific interpretation of biblical texts, in order to propose a working definition of a socio-rhetorical analysis of texts.

  13. Rhetoric in the Estoria de Espanna of Alfonso el Sabio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fraker, Charles F.

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The redactors of the two Alfonsine histories are perhaps moregrammatical than rhetorical; the free Castilian versions of their Latin originals aremore notable for their clarity than for their eloquence. The editors do, however,apply two figures of rhetoric routinely throughout their text, transitio and aetiologia.A few passages on the Estoria de Espanna go much further. Two narratives therefeature dramatic application of two Quintilianesque figures of amplification,comparatio and ratiocinatio. Other sections display a sort of quasi-classical prose,notable for its artful isocola and antitheses, and marked by a fine concern for proserhythm. This last feature might suggest that the compilers had some knowledgeof the ars dictaminis.

  14. Rhetoric in the Estoria de Espanna of Alfonso el Sabio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles F. Fraker

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The redactors of the two Alfonsine histories are perhaps more grammatical than rhetorical; the free Castilian versions of their Latin originals are more notable for their clarity than for their eloquence. The editors do, however, apply two figures of rhetoric routinely throughout their text, transition and aetiologia. A few passages on the Estoria de Espanna go much further. Two narratives there feature dramatic application of two Quintilianesque figures of amplification, comparatio and ratiocinatio. Other sections display a sort of quasi-classical prose, notable for its artful isocola and antitheses, and marked by a fine concern for prose rhythm. This last feature might suggest that the compilers had some knowledge of the ars dictaminis.

  15. Ideologija i retorika dizajna / Ideology and Rhetoric of Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovana Ćika

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available There isn’t one or the best definition of design, because design can be defined from various perspectives. Design has long been considered as a closed and individualistic discipline, which is astonishing compared to its interdisciplinary and domains that it covers. The paper does not answer the question about the design, rather it try to position design in the current theoretical practices. By asking a series of questions about areas that integrate the design itself (visual culture, visual grammar, visual communication, visual rhetoric and the rhetoric of images, design and cultural representation, design ideology, the ideology of designers, historical setting and the effects of artistic movements, creative industries, the social dimension, innovations and practices, communication I will try to prove that design is creative principle of visual culture.

  16. Goffman BITCHES. Rhetorical Attribution and the Perversion of Meaning

    OpenAIRE

    Alstam, Kristina

    2012-01-01

    This study explores a sequence of rhetorically aggressive behavior on a Swedish parental forum as a way of attributing categories of petty value upon the opponent; while at the same time perform face saving textual activities. The analysis suggests that it is not attributing a metaphor of low social value that manages to unstable the self presentation of the antagonist but rather an advanced know-how of conceptual metaphors to the extent were the aggressor is able to pervert the meaning...

  17. The Case of 'Mafiaboy' and the Rhetorical Limits of Hacktivism

    OpenAIRE

    Gary Genosko

    2006-01-01

    This article analyses the "Mafiaboy" case of 2000, in which a teenage hacker from Montréal brought down several blue chip American Web sites. What makes the subsequent court case compelling is that the categories and distinctions developed in the academic literature on hacker culture were shown to fit the Mafiaboy case too perfectly. They circulated with ease across defense and prosecution lines, yet upon closer inspection reveal themselves to be empty containers and rhetorically hollow. Via ...

  18. Metallica and Morality: The Rhetorical Battleground of the Napster Wars

    OpenAIRE

    Marshall, Lee

    2002-01-01

    This article discusses the rhetoric of the highly publicised Napster legal cases, arguing that it is firmly based in the aesthetic and moral implications of copyright infringement. To contextualise current trends historically, the paper summarises insights from recent work analysing the importance of Romanticism to an understanding of contemporary copyright practice. Utilising this theoretical background, the article highlights the importance of the Romantic separation of art and commerce for...

  19. 1 corinthians 1:1831 from a rhetorical perspective

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    letter and a systematic analysis of 1 Corinthians 1:1831. It is argued that these fourteen ... A description of the rhetorical status or context of the letter, that is, what Paul wants to achieve in the letter as a whole. .... sofw`n) and I will set aside (ajqethvs w) the intelligence of the intelligent” (1:19). It is evident that this wisdom is a ...

  20. Rhetorical facets of imagination in contemporary poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Delbari

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The present article deals with the trend of literary imaginative descriptions in the purview of poetical imaginations which have been regarded greatly in the discourse of rhetoric’s. The different facets of imagination of these imageries are also introduced in this article. Throughout this study poetical demonstrations are dealt with on the basis of their indications, functions and profundity. Meanwhile overcoming superficial and intermediate layers of imagination towards inner and profound thoughts would represent the domination of the poets in depiction of imagery. For this purpose, an introduction of numerous imagery layers with their deep and superficial, positive and subsidiary nature is presented through some examples. The result suggests that the extent of imagery complexity among many poets has a direct relation to their subjectivity in such a way that different levels of imageries are internalized as a unique stylistic feature of any individual poet. He endeavors to ornament his poem through imagery devices. Yousefi says: “any poem in which there is not imagery cannot be regarded as a poem. “The attractiveness of such imagination and the success or failure of the poet in conveying this imagery is a matter of poet’s tendency in using imagery devices. Through this article the contemporary poems are analyzed from the view point of objectivity and subjectivity. Furthermore, the poems are studied on their functions. The analysis has been carried out from two perspectives idiosyncratic features of the poet and the characteristics of the era in which he has lived. The examples presented in this article are selected from among the poets with different linguistic backgrounds and unique ideologies. The reason behind this specific consideration is an indication of a generalizability rather than a representativeness of few poets with their idiosyncratic styles. Therefore, the results indicate the style characteristics

  1. Mess management in microbial ecology: Rhetorical processes of disciplinary integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCracken, Christopher W.

    As interdisciplinary work becomes more common in the sciences, research into the rhetorical processes mediating disciplinary integration becomes more vital. This dissertation, which takes as its subject the integration of microbiology and ecology, combines a postplural approach to rhetoric of science research with Victor Turner's "social drama" analysis and a third-generation activity theory methodological framework to identify conceptual and practical conflicts in interdisciplinary work and describe how, through visual and verbal communication, scientists negotiate these conflicts. First, to understand the conflicting disciplinary principles that might impede integration, the author conducts a Turnerian analysis of a disciplinary conflict that took place in the 1960s and 70s, during which American ecologists and biologists debated whether they should participate in the International Biological Program (IBP). Participation in the IBP ultimately contributed to the emergence of ecology as a discipline distinct from biology, and Turnerian social drama analysis of the debate surrounding participation lays bare the conflicting principles separating biology and ecology. Second, to answer the question of how these conflicting principles are negotiated in practice, the author reports on a yearlong qualitative study of scientists working in a microbial ecology laboratory. Focusing specifically on two case studies from this fieldwork that illustrate the key concept of textually mediated disciplinary integration, the author's analysis demonstrates how scientific objects emerge in differently situated practices, and how these objects manage to cohere despite their multiplicity through textually mediated rhetorical processes of calibration and alignment.

  2. Improvement of stress tolerance and leavening ability under multiple baking-associated stress conditions by overexpression of the SNR84 gene in baker's yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xue; Zhang, Cui-Ying; Bai, Xiao-Wen; Feng, Bing; Xiao, Dong-Guang

    2015-03-16

    During the bread-making process, industrial baker's yeast cells are exposed to multiple baking-associated stresses, such as elevated high-temperature, high-sucrose and freeze-thaw stresses. There is a high demand for baker's yeast strains that could withstand these stresses with high leavening ability. The SNR84 gene encodes H/ACA snoRNA (small nucleolar RNA), which is known to be involved in pseudouridylation of the large subunit rRNA. However, the function of the SNR84 gene in baker's yeast coping with baking-associated stresses remains unclear. In this study, we explored the effect of SNR84 overexpression on baker's yeast which was exposed to high-temperature, high-sucrose and freeze-thaw stresses. These results suggest that overexpression of the SNR84 gene conferred tolerance of baker's yeast cells to high-temperature, high-sucrose and freeze-thaw stresses and enhanced their leavening ability in high-sucrose and freeze-thaw dough. These findings could provide a valuable insight for breeding of novel stress-resistant baker's yeast strains that are useful for baking. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Asymmetric Cationic Porphyrin as a New G-Quadruplex Probe with Wash-Free Cancer-Targeted Imaging Ability Under Acidic Microenvironments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ran; Cheng, Meng; Zhang, Li-Ming; Zhu, Li-Na; Kong, De-Ming

    2018-04-16

    Porphyrins are promising candidates for nucleic acid G-quadruplex-specific optical recognition. We previously demonstrated that G-quadruplex recognition specificity of porphyrins could be improved by introducing bulky side arm substituents, but the enhanced protonation tendency limits their applications in some cases, such as under acidic conditions. Here, we demonstrated that the protonation tendency of porphyrin derivatives could be efficiently overcome by increasing molecular asymmetry. To validate this, an asymmetric, water-soluble, cationic porphyrin FA-TMPipEOPP (5-{4-[2-[[(2 E)-3-[3-methoxy-4-[2-(1-methyl-1-piperidinyl)ethoxy]phenyl]-1-oxo-2-propenyl]oxy]ethoxy]phenyl},10,15,20-tri{4-[2-(1-methyl-1-piperidinyl)ethoxy]-phenyl}porphyrin) was synthesized by introducing a ferulic acid (FA) unit at one side arm, and its structure was well-characterized. Unlike its symmetric counterpart TMPipEOPP that has a tendency to protonate under acidic conditions, FA-TMPipEOPP remained in the unprotonated monomeric form under the pH range of 2.0-8.0. Correspondingly, FA-TMPipEOPP showed better G-quadruplex recognition specificity than TMPipEOPP and thus might be used as a specific optical probe for colorimetric and fluorescent recognition of G-quadruplexes under acidic conditions. The feasibility was demonstrated by two proof-of-concept studies: probing structural competition between G-quadruplexes and duplexes and label-free and wash-free cancer cell-targeted bioimaging under an acidic tumor microenvironment. As G-quadruplex optical probes, FA-TMPipEOPP works well under acidic conditions, whereas TMPipEOPP works well under neutral conditions. This finding provides useful information for G-quadruplex probe research. That is, porphyrin-based G-quadruplex probes suitable for different pH conditions might be obtained by adjusting the molecular symmetry.

  4. Engineered strains of Streptococcus macedonicus towards an osmotic stress resistant phenotype retain their ability to produce the bacteriocin macedocin under hyperosmotic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasiou, Rania; Driessche, Gonzalez Van; Boutou, Effrossyni; Kazou, Maria; Alexandraki, Voula; Vorgias, Constantinos E; Devreese, Bart; Tsakalidou, Effie; Papadimitriou, Konstantinos

    2015-10-20

    Streptococcus macedonicus ACA-DC 198 produces the bacteriocin macedocin in milk only under low NaCl concentrations (<1.0%w/v). The thermosensitive plasmid pGh9:ISS1 was employed to generate osmotic stress resistant (osmr) mutants of S. macedonicus. Three osmr mutants showing integration of the vector in unique chromosomal sites were identified and the disrupted loci were characterized. Interestingly, the mutants were able to grow and to produce macedocin at considerably higher concentrations of NaCl compared to the wild-type (up to 4.0%w/v). The production of macedocin under hyperosmotic conditions solely by the osmr mutants was validated by the well diffusion assay and by mass spectrometry analysis. RT-PCR experiments demonstrated that the macedocin biosynthetic regulon was transcribed at high salt concentrations only in the mutants. Mutant osmr3, the most robust mutant, was converted in its markerless derivative (osmr3f). Co-culture of S. macedonicus with spores of Clostridium tyrobutyricum in milk demonstrated that only the osmr3f mutant and not the wild-type inhibited the growth of the spores under hyperosmotic conditions (i.e., 2.5%w/v NaCl) due to the production of macedocin. Our study shows how genetic manipulation of a strain towards a stress resistant phenotype could improve bacteriocin production under conditions of the same stress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A Rhetorical Criticism-Women's Studies Course: Exploring Texts and Contexts in the American Woman's Suffrage Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmes-Crahall, Jane

    An undergraduate course in rhetorical criticism at Wilkes University incorporated a major component on the rhetoric of the American Woman's Suffrage Movement. Considerable time was devoted to critiquing "traditional" approaches to rhetorical criticism from a feminist perspective and to questioning the appropriateness of various…

  6. The Art of Rhetoric at the Amphiareion of Oropos: A Study of Epigraphical Evidence as Written Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enos, Richard Leo

    1986-01-01

    Examines epigraphical evidence (written communication inscribed on durable material) to determine how the Amphiareion of Oropos in Greece became a site for rhetorical display, how such rhetorical activities were sustained for centures, and lastly, the nature of rhetorical displays as revealed by the extant written communication. (HOD)

  7. The Knowledge Gap: Examining the Rhetoric and Implementation of Peer Education for HIV Prevention in Myanmar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Gillian

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, I report on an examination of the rhetoric and implementation of peer education in Myanmar. I demonstrate that while there was widespread consistency on interviewees' views of what peer education should involve, there was a significant gap between this rhetoric and the ways in which peer education was implemented, particularly in…

  8. Living with Wolves: Developmental Writing and the Rhetorical Ideal of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Paul

    Arguing that developmental writing programs should remain rhetorical rather than philosophical, this paper reviews some issues in the history of rhetoric that are relevant to those who teach writing in open-door colleges. The paper begins with an explanation of some of the basic arguments between the Greek philosophers and the…

  9. Shandyean Satire and the Rhetorical Arts in Eighteenth-Century England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Stephen H.

    1990-01-01

    Examines within Laurence Sterne's "Tristram Shandy" two representative orientations (reasons and experience) as indices of popular attitudes about the rhetorical arts during the eighteenth century. Argues that, as a satire on rhetorical pretensions and excess, this novel is an important document in the venerable battle between the…

  10. Mary Wollstonecraft, Margaret Fuller, and Angelina Grimke: Symbolic Convergence and a Nascent Rhetorical Vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huxman, Susan Schultz

    1996-01-01

    Invites rhetorical critics to reappraise the way they study discreet social movements and pay isolated tribute to woman's rights figures. Examines how Mary Wollstonecraft, Margaret Fuller, and Angelina Grimke each co-opted the ideational and stylistic rhetorical characteristics of pre-existing social movements (the enlightenment,…

  11. Identification and Consubstantiation in the 1988 California Primary Campaign Rhetoric of Jesse Jackson: A Burkeian Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Laurinda W.

    In 1988, Jesse Jackson was the second most successful candidate for the Democratic presidential nomination, finishing behind Michael Dukakis. While Jackson displayed extraordinary rhetorical talent and articulated a view of America unlike that of other candidates, little scholarly attention has been paid to his rhetoric. Examination of four of…

  12. Organizational Rhetoric in the Prospectuses of Elite Private Schools: Unpacking Strategies of Persuasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Paula; Pini, Barbara; Mayes, Robyn

    2012-01-01

    The way in which private schools use rhetoric in their communications offers important insights into how these organizational sites persuade audiences and leverage marketplace advantage in the context of contemporary educational platforms. Through systemic analysis of rhetorical strategies employed in 65 "elite" school prospectuses in…

  13. Complicating the Rhetoric: How Racial Construction Confounds Market-Based Reformers' Civil Rights Invocations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Laura E.

    2016-01-01

    Reformers today maintain the use of civil rights rhetoric when advocating for policies that address educational inequity. While continuing the legacy of earlier civil rights activists, the leaders invoking this rhetoric and the educational platforms they promote differ greatly from previous decades. Not only does this new crop of reformers differ…

  14. "Do You Understand What You Are Reading?"--Rhetoric, Ethics and Aesthetics in the Undergraduate Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Deborah C

    2016-01-01

    Universities have a perhaps unique opportunity to provide training in the art of deep reading through attention to the interrelation of rhetoric, ethics, and aesthetics. While rhetorically sensitive reading will help students to become more sophisticated readers of voice and worldview, and ethically charitable reading will help them to become more…

  15. Emerging Voices: Unpredictable Encounters--Religious Discourse, Sexuality, and the Free Exercise of Rhetoric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, T. J., II

    2013-01-01

    In this essay, I develop a pedagogical stance called the "free exercise of rhetoric" as a way to approach teaching and student writing at the intersection of LGBT and religious discourses. Through this stance, I work with students' personal commitments and build their rhetorical competence using a process that involves encountering uncommon…

  16. Ajax isn't Ajax anymore: on power, rhetoric and identity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stokvis, R.

    2008-01-01

    The rhetoric of identity refers to the arguments used when supporters perceive a discrepancy between what they consider the true nature (= identity) of their club and the policy measures of its board. Based on newspaper reports, this essay analyses three cases that sparked this rhetoric. These are:

  17. A rhetorical analysis of Philippians 1:1-11 | Snyman | Acta Theologica

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this article is to analyse Philippians 1:1-11 from a rhetorical perspective that differs from the typical approach of researchers, who tend to force ancient rhetorical categories on a letter. The analysis is done in terms of what is called a “grounded theoretical approach”. This approach is briefly summarised, followed ...

  18. Rekindling Longwood University's Rhetoric and Professional Writing Concentration and Minor, 2007-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Kristen Dayle

    2011-01-01

    The challenges of redesigning and reviving Longwood University's Rhetoric and Professional Writing program involved skills in collaboration, negotiation, and advertisement. While unexpected obstacles arose, taking an honest look at the existing program design and working to maintain the focus on rhetoric helped to circumvent failure. Finally,…

  19. The rhetorical analysis of the letter to the Galatians: 1995-2005 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1979) much research has been done on the rhetorical analysis of the Letter to the Galatians. This article presents an overview of the rhetorical analyses of Galatians from 1995 to 2005. It concludes by highlighting five characteristics of such ...

  20. 1 Corinthians 1:18-31 from a rhetorical perspective | Snyman | Acta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The approach followed in this article differs from that of researchers who force ancient rhetorical categories on a text or who regard only a few stylistic devices as rhetorical. The analysis is done in terms of what is called a “grounded theoretical approach.” This approach is briefly summarised, followed by a description of the ...

  1. The rhetorical forms of Henry Rider Haggard's Nada the Lily in Zulu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The rhetorical forms in Umbuso KaShaka (The Realm of Shaka), the Zulu translation of Nada the Lily, are analysed within the framework of Descriptive Translation Studies. The rhetorical forms investigated are individualisation, stereotyping, validation and structuring. A range of translation strategies is employed by the ...

  2. Materiality, Symbolicity, and the Rhetoric of Order: "Dialectical Biologism" as Motive in Burke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engnell, Richard A.

    1998-01-01

    Considers how the work of Kenneth Burke has recently been critiqued for its lack of attention to the role of non-symbolic motivation in rhetoric. Describes Burke's contributions as a "dialectical biologism" that sets forth a system of five symbolic/material dialectics that undergird all rhetorical appeal. Suggests that the most effective…

  3. Material Rhetoric: Spreading Stones and Showing Bones in the Study of Prehistory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Reybrouck, D.; de Bont, R.; Rock, J.

    2009-01-01

    Since the linguistic turn, the role of rhetoric in the circulation and the popular representation of knowledge has been widely accepted in science studies. This article aims to analyze not a textual form of scientific rhetoric, but the crucial role of materiality in scientific debates. It introduces

  4. Are we not experimenting then? : The rhetorical demarcation of psychology and common sense

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derksen, M.

    Scientific disciplines need both autonomy and alliances with other cultural groups. In order to achieve these twin goals, scientists have to engage in boundary rhetoric and popularize the demarcation of their discipline. In the case of psychology in particular such rhetoric involves a paradoxical

  5. The Present State of Scholarship in Historical and Contemporary Rhetoric. Revised Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Winifred Bryan, Ed.

    Designed for the student of historical rhetoric who does not have a reading knowledge of Greek and Latin, this book (a revised edition of a volume first published in 1983) is divided into six chronological sections, each written by a specialist in the rhetoric of a different historical period. Each section: (1) provides an overview of the primary…

  6. "Aggiornamento" and the American Catholic Bishops: A Rhetoric of Institutional Continuity and Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jablonski, Carol J.

    1989-01-01

    Analyzes 140 pastoral letters issued by the American Catholic bishops before, during, and after Vatican II (1947 through 1981). Suggests that doctrinal rhetoric has a tremendous capacity to endure accelerated social and institutional change, and that the rhetorical impact of Vatican II was quickly institutionalized in the public communications of…

  7. “2 Corinthians 11:22: Historical context, rhetoric, and ethnicity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rhetoric – the theatrical “Fool's Speech,” which contains irony, self-praise, and comparison – helps to understand Paul's boastful argumentation in his selfdefence; and ethnicity theory helps to interpret Paul's construction of his ethnic identity. Paul boasted of his ethnicity by taking up rhetorical comparison and self-praise.

  8. What We Say about Research: Rhetoric and Argument in Library and Information Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budd, John M.

    2006-01-01

    Criticisms of library and information science (LIS) research abound and most focus on method, in the broad sense. This article examines the discourse on LIS from the standpoint of rhetoric and argument. Rhetorical and argumentative strategies are used in almost all formal communication, and these strategies themselves communicate purpose and point…

  9. The Rhetoric of Bonds, Alliances, and Identities: Interrogating Social Networks in Early Modern English Drama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cady, Christina J.

    2010-01-01

    The household and family have received considerable interest in studies of early modern English drama, but less attention has been paid to how writers represent intimate affective bonds on the stage. Emotion is intangible; yet many writers convincingly convey the intensity of emotional bonds through rhetoric. Rhetoric is a mainstay in…

  10. Donning Sackcloth and Ashes: "Webster vs. Reproductive Health Services" and Moral Agony in Abortion Rights Rhetoric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonn, Mari Boor

    1996-01-01

    Argues that the topos of moral agony (resembling Kenneth Burke's purifying concept of mortification) adopted by some abortion rights rhetors to allay public discomfort with abortion is rhetorically and politically self-defeating. Shows how it couches moral anguish in atypical tales of tragic circumstances and unattainable motherhood. Argues that…

  11. A scientist's voice in American culture. Simon Newcomb and the rhetoric of scientific method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, A. E.

    Through close readings of Newcomb's (1835 - 1909) published and unpublished works, the author illuminates the ways this eminent astronomer used the "rhetoric of scientific method" to great effect. The book devides into three sections: an introduction to the rhetoric of scientific method, a core of ten central chapters on Newcomb's life and thought, and the concluding commentary on pragmatism and scientific method.

  12. President Bush's Pre-War Rhetoric on Iraq: Paranoid Style in Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaev, Alexander G.; Porpora, Douglas V.

    2006-01-01

    The focus of this article is on the war rhetoric of the Bush administration as reflected in the speeches of President Bush. What was explored is how presidential speeches drew on a variety of rhetorical techniques, from role-taking and punctuation to the adoption of the paranoid style. The purpose of these techniques is to nullify voices of…

  13. The Metaphoric Cluster in the Rhetoric of Pope Paul VI and Edmund G. Brown, Jr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, Kathleen Hall

    1980-01-01

    Examines the metaphoric networks created by a presidential hopeful and a pope. Argues that what is significant about the rhetoric of each is not the recurrence of a single metaphor but rather the appearance of clusters of related metaphors which reveal the rhetor's projected relationship with his audience. (JMF)

  14. Legitimating Leadership: The Rhetoric of Succession as a Genre of Presidential Discourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuckey, Mary

    1992-01-01

    Examines the "rhetoric of succession" as employed by four recent American presidents: Harry Truman, Lyndon Johnson, Gerald Ford, and George Bush. Breaks down their rhetorical strategies while in office into three phases: (1) the early transition (when continuity with previous president is important); (2) middle transition (when new…

  15. Narratives and Values: The Rhetoric of the Physician Assisted Suicide Debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dysart, Deborah

    2000-01-01

    Argues that the function of medicine as an art and as a social institution is impeded when the rhetorical nature of its practice is ignored. Offers a case study of two texts widely cited as landmarks in the physician-assisted suicide debate of the 1990s, examining their rhetorical organization and its impact on their reception. (SR)

  16. "A Hedge against the Future": The Post-Cold War Rhetoric of Nuclear Weapons Modernization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Bryan C.

    2010-01-01

    Rhetoric has traditionally played an important role in constituting the nuclear future, yet that role has changed significantly since the declared end of the Cold War. Viewed from the perspectives of nuclear criticism and postmodern theories of risk and security, current rhetoric of US nuclear modernization demonstrates how contingencies of voice…

  17. The Death of a Rhetorical Vision: Disciples of Christ and Social Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensley, Carl Wayne

    The Disciples of Christ, an indigenous American religious movement born on the frontier, grew rapidly until early in the twentieth century. Its growth was based on a rhetorical vision that offered a plausible interpretation of the data of the senses and accounted for developments in human activity and conditions. That rhetorical vision was linked…

  18. Truth in politics : rhetorical approaches to democratic deliberation in Africa and beyond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salazar, P.J.; Osha, S.; Binsbergen, van W.M.J.

    2004-01-01

    Democracy is about competing "truths". This is why "rhetoric"- the study of public deliberation and the training in public debate and argumentation - is part of democracy in development. This volume acclimatizes "rhetoric" to the philosophical scene in South Africa, and more in general in Africa as

  19. Televangelism and the Rhetoric of Exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Robert E.

    Included in the many problems of current televangelism which are cause for concern are the constant appeals for donations. Under current circumstances, with tremendous sums of money needed to use television for religious purposes, televangelists resort to sensationalism for mass appeal rather than to spreading the gospel. This ethical problem…

  20. Neuroplastic Correlates in the mPFC Underlying the Impairment of Stress-Coping Ability and Cognitive Flexibility in Adult Rats Exposed to Chronic Mild Stress during Adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Using a valid chronic mild stress (CMS model of depression, we found that adolescent (postnatal days [PND] 28–41 CMS induced transient alterations in anhedonia that did not persist into adulthood after a 3-week recovery period. Previously stressed adult rats exhibited more immobility/despair behaviors in the forced swimming test and a greater number of trials to reach criterion in the set-shifting task, suggesting the impaired ability to cope with stressors and the cognitive flexibility that allows adaptation to dynamic environments during adulthood. In addition, adult rat exposure to adolescent CMS had a relatively inhibited activation in ERK signaling and downstream protein expression of phosphorylated cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF in the medial prefrontal cortex. Further correlation analysis demonstrated that immobility and set-shifting performance were positively correlated with the inhibition of ERK signaling. These results indicated adolescent CMS can be used as an effective stressor to model an increased predisposition to adult depression.

  1. Cultural and Rhetorical Bases for communicating knowledge in web based communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampf, Constance; Kommers, Piet

    2008-01-01

    Cultural and Rhetorical Bases for communicating knowledge in web based communities How can we extend learner-centred theories for educational technology to include, for instance, the cultural and rhetorical backgrounds which influence participants in online communities as they engage in knowledge...... via web-based communities the intersection of culture and rhetoric in web-based communication rhetoric and discourse in the process of communicating knowledge via technology heuristics for knowledge communication from teaching in online forums connections between identity and knowledge communication...... This call for papers invites papers focused on theoretical frameworks or empirical research which highlights the cultural and/or rhetorical aspects of communicating knowledge in web based communities. We are looking for work that brings together methods and perspectives across disciplines...

  2. Ability to join the workforce and work productivity among drug users under methadone maintenance treatment in a mountainous area of Northern Vietnam: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nong, Vuong Minh; Boggiano, Victoria L; Nguyen, Lan Huong Thi; Nguyen, Cuong Tat; Nguyen, Long Hoang; Xuan Bach, Tran; Nguyen, Hung Van; Hoang, Canh Dinh; Latkin, Carl A; Vu, Minh Thuc Thi

    2017-07-26

    A major measure of treatment success for drug users undergoing rehabilitation is the ability to enter the workforce and generate income. This study examines the absenteeism and productivity among people who inject drugs (PWID) enrolled in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) in Northern Vietnam. We conducted a cross-sectional study in two clinics in Tuyen Quang province. A total of 241 patients enrolled in MMT. Patients' work productivity was measured using the WPAI-GH instrument (Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire: General Health V2.0). We also collected additional characteristics about participants' employment history, such as proficient jobs, whether they actively found a new job and be accepted by employers. Most of the participants (>90%) were employed at the time of the study. Rates of absenteeism (missed work), presenteeism (impairment while working) and overall loss of productivity were 15.8%, 5.6% and 11.2%, respectively, as measured by the WPAI-GH questionnaire. The most proficient job was 'freelancer' (17.5%), followed by 'blue-collar worker' (10.6%) and 'farmer' (10.2%). Only 26.8% of patients reported that they actively sought jobs in the past. About half of them had been refused by employers because of their drug use history and/or HIV status. We found no statistically significant difference between patients enrolled in MMT for 1 year. Factors associated with higher work productivity included not endorsing problems in mobility, self-care or pain; being HIV-negative and having greater MMT treatment adherence. Our study highlights the high employment rate and work productivity among PWID in MMT programmes in remote areas of Northern Vietnam. The results can help to improve the quality and structure of MMT programmes across Vietnam and in other countries. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise

  3. Political rhetoric from Canada can inform healthy public policy argumentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Patrick B; McIntyre, Lynn; Anderson, Laura C; Mah, Catherine L

    2017-10-01

    Household food insecurity (HFI), insufficient income to obtain adequate food, is a growing problem in Canada and other Organisation of economic cooperation and development (OECD) countries. Government political orientations impact health policies and outcomes. We critically examined Canadian political rhetoric around HFI from 1995 to 2012 as a means to support effective healthy public policy argumentation. We analysed a data set comprised of Hansard extracts on HFI from the legislative debates of the Canadian federal and three provincial governments, using thematic coding guided by interpretivist theories of policy. Extracts were examined for content, jurisdiction, the political affiliation of the legislator speaking and governing status. Members of non-governing, or 'opposition' parties, dominated the rhetoric. A central hunger-as-poverty theme was used by legislators across the political spectrum, both in government and in opposition. Legislators differed in terms of policy approach around how income should flow to citizens facing HFI: income intervention on the left, pragmatism in the centre, reliance on markets on the right. This analysis is a case-example from Canada and caution must be exercised in terms of the generalizability of findings across jurisdictions. Despite this limitation, our findings can help healthy public policy advocates in designing and communicating HFI policy interventions in OECD countries with a similar left-right spectrum. First, even with a divisive health policy issue such as actions to address HFI, core themes around poverty are widely understood. Secondly, the non-polarizing centrist, pragmatist, approach may be strategically valuable. Thirdly, it is important to treat the rhetoric of opposition members differently from that of government members. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. TECHNOLOGY AND TEACHING IN POST-MODERN ENVIRONMENTS- OR RHETORIC NEGOTIATIONS OF EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geir HAUGSBAKK

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the situation as we engage with emerging post-modern environments marked by a continued strong belief in technology as the key governing force in society, and by teaching being sacrificed on the altar of “progress”. “Teaching” has been turned into “learning”. Furthermore, new learning strategies are quite often, in some way or other, interweaved with the use of new technology. However, the instrumental perspectives of the industrial society have been to a large extent prolonged. Accordingly, the underlying assumption of this article is that developments concerning technology and education during recent decades can most adequately be understood as a rhetorically based negotiation between two basic, antagonistic positions. The first position is grounded in perspectives of “the industrial society”, the other one in notions of “the learning society”. When new technological devices, based on traditional perspectives, are combined with learning strategies of the future, we might regard this as an adoption of ideas of the learning society or as a construction of rhetoric structural couplings. Viewing recent changes in this manner provides new perspectives on important questions concerning the relationship between technology and education. It also constitutes a framework for the quite necessary process of reconsidering and clarifying the concepts of technology, teaching and learning. The tendencies described in the article are presented as overall trends within education, but the use of new technology to a large extent seems to be connected to new and more flexible educational methods and elements of distance education.

  5. Rhetoric, logic, and experiment in the quantum nonlocality debate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graft, Donald A.

    2017-09-01

    This paper argues that quantum nonlocality (QNL) has not been rigorously proven, despite the existence of recent Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Bohm (EPRB) experiments that are claimed to be `loophole-free'. First, readers are alerted to rhetorical arguments, which are unfortunately often appealed to in the QNL debate, to empower readers to identify and reject such arguments. Second, logical problems in QNL proofs are described and exemplified by a discussion of the projection postulate problem. Third, experimental issues are described and exemplified by a discussion of the postselection problem. The paper concludes that QNL has not been proven and that locality cannot be excluded.

  6. Transparency during public health emergencies: from rhetoric to reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Malley, P; Thompson, A

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Effective management of public health emergencies demands open and transparent public communication. The rationale for transparency has public health, strategic and ethical dimensions. Despite this, government authorities often fail to demonstrate transparency. A key step in bridging the gap between the rhetoric and reality is to define and codify transparency to put in place practical mechanisms to encourage open public health communication for emergencies. The authors demonstrate this approach using the example of the development and implementation process of a public health emergency information policy. PMID:19705012

  7. Apocalypse now, Vietnam and the rhetoric of influence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Childs

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Readings of Francis Ford Coppola's Apocalypse Now (1979 often confront the difficulty of having to privilege either its aesthetic context (considering, for instance, its relation to Conrad's Heart of Darkness [1899] or to the history of cinema or its value as a representation of the Vietnam War. In this paper, I will argue that viewing the film as a meditation on the nature and rhetoric of influence allows us to bridge this gap and provides us with valuable insights into both the film's aesthetic precursors and the circumstances of its historical setting.

  8. The rhetoric of media and literary forms: Antonio Delfini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Gervasi

    2014-06-01

    Antonio Delfini’s writings and composition strategies reveal the hybridization produced by the contact between the rhetoric and the conceptual organization of literary texts, and the formal organization of the media. In Delfini’s work, the process of hybridization is realized by reusing textual fragments produced by media. Such an hybridization also consists in a wider phenomenon of exchange between the cognitive schemas produced by media, and the very idea of literature practiced by the author. Delfini, indeed, conceives the structures of newspapers and journals as a conceptual model for making sense of reality.

  9. Searching for New Forms of Legitimacy Through Corporate Responsibility Rhetoric

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castello, Itziar; Lozano, Josep

    2011-01-01

    ) institutional (based on the fundamental constructs of Corporate Social Responsibility theories); and (3) dialectic (which aims at improving the discursive quality between the corporations and their stakeholders). Each one of these refers to a different form of legitimacy and is based on distinct theories......This article looks into the process of searching for new forms of legitimacy among firms through corporate discourse. Through the analysis of annual sustainability reports, we have determined the existence of three types of rhetoric: (1) strategic (embedded in the scientific-economic paradigm); (2...

  10. Improving Our Ability to Evaluate Underlying Mechanisms of Behavioral Onset and Other Event Occurrence Outcomes: A Discrete-Time Survival Mediation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairchild, Amanda J; Abara, Winston E; Gottschall, Amanda C; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Prinz, Ronald J

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this article is to introduce and describe a statistical model that researchers can use to evaluate underlying mechanisms of behavioral onset and other event occurrence outcomes. Specifically, the article develops a framework for estimating mediation effects with outcomes measured in discrete-time epochs by integrating the statistical mediation model with discrete-time survival analysis. The methodology has the potential to help strengthen health research by targeting prevention and intervention work more effectively as well as by improving our understanding of discretized periods of risk. The model is applied to an existing longitudinal data set to demonstrate its use, and programming code is provided to facilitate its implementation. © The Author(s) 2013.

  11. Study of the influence of the molecular structure of vinyl compounds on their ability to form polymer films by electro-polymerization under cathodic polarisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deniau, Guy

    1990-01-01

    This research thesis addresses the study of new vinyl compounds, and aims at improving knowledge on the interaction between metal and a vinyl molecule under an intense electric field (the field of the double electrochemical layer), and more particularly at studying the influence of the molecular structure of the vinyl compound as well as the occurring reactions. After a first part presenting physical-chemical principles and knowledge which govern the whole set of reactions which are occurring within an electrolysis reactor, and a brief historical overview, this research thesis proposes a presentation of molecules which have been chosen for this study (vinyl compounds) and a justification of this choice. The author also presents the experimental device and describes the process implementation. Then, he presents and analyses experimental results. It appears that only some studied molecules result in the formation of polymer film [fr

  12. A rhetorical approach to environmental information sharing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolf, Andrew

    2014-05-01

    `Faceted search' has recently been widely adopted as a powerful information discovery framework, enabling users to navigate a complex landscape of information by successive refinement along key dimensions. The compelling user experience that results has seen adoption of faceted search by online retailers, media outlets, and encyclopedic publishers. A key challenge with faceted browse is the choice of suitable search dimensions, or facets. Conventional facet analysis adopts principles of exclusivity and exhaustiveness; identifying facets on their relevance to the subject and discrimination ability (Spiteri, 1998). The rhetoricians of ancient Greece defined seven dimensions (`circumstances') of analytical enquiry: who, what, when, where, why, in what way, by what means. These provide a broadly applicable framework that may be seen in Ranganathan's classic (`PMEST') scheme for facet analysis. The utility of the `Five Ws' is also manifest through their adoption in daily discourse and pedagogical frameworks. If we apply the `Five Ws' to environmental information, we arrive at a model very close to the `O&M' (ISO 19156) conceptual model for standardised exchange of environmental observation and measurements data: * who: metadata * what: observed property * when: time of observation * where: feature of interest * why: metadata * how: procedure Thus, we adopt an approach for distributed environmental information sharing which factors the architecture into components aligned with the `Five Ws' (or O&M). We give an overview of this architecture and its information classes, components, interfaces and standards. We also describe how it extends the classic SDI architecture to provide additional specific benefit for environmental information. Finally, we offer a perspective on the architecture which may be seen as a `brokering' overlay to environmental information resources, enabling an O&M-conformant view. The approach to be presented is being adopted by the Australian Bureau

  13. Research and Rhetoric on Teacher Certification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Darling-Hammond

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available In October, 2001, the Baltimore-based Abell Foundation issued a report purporting to prove that there is "no credible research that supports the use of teacher certification as a regulatory barrier to teaching" and urging the discontinuation of certification in Maryland. The report argued that large inequities in access to certified teachers for poor and minority students are not a problem because research linking teacher education to student achievement is flawed. In July, 2002, the U.S. Secretary of Education cited the Abell Foundation paper in his Annual Report on Teacher Quality as the sole source for concluding that teacher education does not contribute to teacher effectiveness. The Secretary's report then recommended that requirements for education coursework be eliminated from certification standards, and attendance at schools of education and student teaching be made optional. This article documents the many inaccuracies in the Abell Foundation paper and describes the actual findings of many of the studies it purports to review, as well as the findings of other studies it ignores. It details misrepresentations of a number of studies, including inaccurate statements about their methods and findings, false claims about their authors' views, and distortions of their data and conclusions. The article addresses methodological issues regarding the validity and interpretation of research. Finally, the article presents data challenging the Abell Foundation's unfounded claims that uncertified teachers are as effective as certified teachers, that teacher education makes no difference to teacher effectiveness, that verbal ability is the most important determinant of teaching effectiveness, that private schools staffed by uncertified teachers are more effective than public schools, and that untrained teachers are more qualified than prepared teachers. It concludes with a discussion of the policy issues that need to be addressed if all students are

  14. Genre as diversity, and rhetorical mode as unity in language use Genre as diversity, and rhetorical mode as unity in language use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luiz Meurer

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Current theorizing on genre within Systemic Functional Linguiscs (SFL as well as other traditions of genre analysis have not paid much attention to the interrelationship between the notions of rhetorical mode and genre. In this paper I argue that rhetorical mode may be an important notion in genre studies and that it should thus be foregrounded. I elaborate on the different linguistic and functional status of genres and rhetorical modes attempting to show that it is essential for text/discourse analysis to draw a clear distinction between them. Within this perspective I propose that while genres stand for diversity and fit the notion of specific text type identifiable by specific format and used in specific social contexts to fulfil specific functions, rhetorical modes stand for unity as they constitute general patterns of language organisation strategically used by authors/ writers as linguistic resources in the creation of specific genres. I illustrate the discussion by analysing the strategic use of clause relations as rhetorical modes occurring in a specific genre, namely, a fable. The paper should be relevant for discourse analysis and genre studies within SFL and other genre traditions as well as for language teachers involved with reading and writing. Current theorizing on genre within Systemic Functional Linguiscs (SFL as well as other traditions of genre analysis have not paid much attention to the interrelationship between the notions of rhetorical mode and genre. In this paper I argue that rhetorical mode may be an important notion in genre studies and that it should thus be foregrounded. I elaborate on the different linguistic and functional status of genres and rhetorical modes attempting to show that it is essential for text/discourse analysis to draw a clear distinction between them. Within this perspective I propose that while genres stand for diversity and fit the notion of specific text type identifiable by specific

  15. Effect of ultrasonic irradiation on the number of acetylsalicylic acid crystals produced under the supersaturated condition and the ability of controlling the final crystal size via primary nucleation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyasaka, Etsuko; Kato, Yumi; Hagisawa, Minoru; Hirasawa, Izumi

    2006-03-01

    The purposes of this study were to investigate the effects of ultrasound irradiation on the number of crystals formed in an acetylsalicyclic acid crystallization process and to assess the controllability of the final product size via the number of primary nuclei. The number of crystals present after primary nucleation was counted and the relationship between the final product size and the number of crystals was examined. Additionally, the growing ASA crystals were observed, since ultrasound energy not only may control primary nucleation but may also the perfection of the crystal shape. At a high level of ultrasonic energy, ultrasound irradiation increased the average number of crystals, an effect that has been reported often; however, at a low level of ultrasonic energy it decreased the average number of crystals, and moreover, these opposing ultrasonic effects on the number of crystals interchanged at a specific energy threshold. These results reveal two novel phenomena—that there is an energy region where ultrasonic irradiation inhibits primary nucleation, and that a specific amount of ultrasonic energy is needed to activate primary nucleation. On the other hand, the final product size almost depended upon the number of primary nuclei, indicating that the final product size could be controlled via the number of crystals influenced by ultrasound irradiation. According to the photographs of crystals, they were not destroyed by the process. Therefore, it was proposed that ultrasound energy does not destroy the perfection of the crystal shape but only controls primary nucleation under the condition: both short irradiation time and low supersaturated condition.

  16. Exercising Empathy: Ancient Rhetorical Tools for Intercultural Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Ferry

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Can multiculturalism work? Can people from different religious and ethnic backgrounds live side by side peacefully and, even better, enrich each other? There are two ways social scientists can deal with this question. The first one, which I would label as “macro”, focuses on statistics and opinion surveys. A macro approach would, for instance, analyze the effects of an increase in religious and ethnic diversity on social indicators such as trust in neighbors, civic engagement or political participation. The second one, which I would label as “micro”, focuses on the skills citizens need for a better management of cultural diversity. This paper falls into the second category and will provide support for two claims: (1 training for intercultural communication should focus first and foremost on empathy; (2 ancient rhetorical exercises offer an effective way to develop empathy. To support the first claim, it will be argued that for a multicultural society to be peaceful, citizens need to be willing and able to use empathy when interacting with their fellow citizens of different religious, ethnic or ideological background (section I. A method to develop empathy using rhetorical exercises will then be described (section II. Finally, I present the results of an experiment to test its effectiveness with secondary school teachers (section III.

  17. A RHETORICAL ANALYSIS APPROACH TO ENGLISH FOR ACADEMIC PURPOSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jo Anne Neff Van Aertselaer

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Both English for Academic Purposes (EAP and English for Specific Purposes have advanced from the exploration of lexico-grammatical features during the 1980s and 1990s toward a thicker language description which includes not only lexico-grammatical features but also studies of genre-rhetorical features and of the social practices which shape academic texts in different disciplines (Berkenkotter, Huckin and Ackerman, 1991. These latter studies have tended to focus on the conventions particular to specific discourse communities. However, as Bhatia (2002 has pointed out, there is significant overlap in such genres as research abstracts and introduction sections and perhaps in textbook language as well. This paper addresses an area of overlap in the academic writing of Spanish university students in English: the construction of authorial voice by through the use of impersonalization strategies. The analysis presented here shows that Spanish students transfer rhetorical conventions from Spanish into English, particularly in the case of the we strategy and, in the writing of more advanced students, the se passive strategy.

  18. Energy Department radiation rhetoric, actions at odds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobsenz, G.

    1994-01-01

    Only months after Energy Secretary Hazel O'Leary pledged that DOE would open-quotes come cleanclose quotes about past radiation abuses, the department is refusing to release individual exposure records of former workers at its heavily contaminated Fernald uranium plant. At the same time O'Leary was flying around the country to tout a new era of openness at the department, top DOE officials in January told attorneys representing the Fernald workers that individual exposure records would not be forthcoming. While agreeing to provide general health data, DOE specifically refused to disclose the names of the workers involved or their specific exposure histories at the plant, citing privacy concerns. The workers' attorneys contend the privacy concerns are spurious since every former Fernald worker contacted about possible overexposure has waived the privacy privilege and authorized DOE to release his or her records. The attorneys also note that DOE under the Bush administration released worker exposure information related to its Hanford, Wash., plant after the government and outside attorneys agreed to a protective order that assured privacy rights were not violated. The Fernald workers' attorneys maintain DOE is refusing to disclose the names of the workers to ensure that no additional workers are contacted by the attorneys and told about their possible overexposure - and the pending litigation seeking compensation for the alleged injuries. And as DOE remains silent, the attorneys say, the former Fernald workers are going without medical treatment for any possible radiation-related ailments they may have suffered as a result of working at the plant

  19. The Greenhouse Effect and the Destruction of the Ozone Shield: Implications for Rhetoric and Criticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoller, Martin Reid

    Rhetoric, in the Aristotelian sense of "the available means of persuasion," is a crucial, often determining component of the process of making public policy generally, and environmental policy specifically. Environmental crises which have been addressed by the governmental, industrial, and social policy -making establishments have tended to be treated in a manner similar to that in which social, political, economic, military, and other problems have been commonly treated, utilizing a traditional rhetoric, including long-proven persuasive language and arguments. Such problems as air pollution and water pollution have been, to some degree, successfully addressed in this manner. A new and fundamentally different cluster of environmental problems has recently been recognized by elements of the policy making establishment as a legitimate candidate for consideration and policy formation. These environmental problems differ from the more familiar type in a variety of ways, each of which, to a greater or lesser degree, make problematic for those activists concerned with these crises the production of an effective crisis-oriented rhetoric. This study addresses two such closely related phenomena, the Greenhouse Effect and ozone depletion, and identifies those characteristics which contribute to their rhetorical complexity. Using traditional techniques of rhetorical examination, primarily neo-Aristotelian analysis, this study demonstrates the inadequacy of current crisis-oriented rhetoric, and identifies the causes of this rhetorical ineffectiveness. The study concludes that the mediation of such crises as the Greenhouse Effect and ozone depletion cannot be significantly facilitated by traditional environmental-oriented rhetoric, and may in fact be hindered by the use of rhetoric associated with fundamentally different (i.e., easier to solve) environmental problems.

  20. Richard M. Nixon's Rhetorical Strategies in His Public Statements on Watergate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, William L.

    1982-01-01

    Identifies nine rhetorical strategies in Nixon's public utterances on Watergate and traces their development through four phases. Examines polls which reveal that these strategies failed to stem the tide of negative opinion. (PD)

  1. Darwin and The Origin of Species: The Rhetorical Ancestry of an Idea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, John Angus

    1970-01-01

    Discussion of (1) the scientific and theological attitudes prevalent when "On the Origin of Species was published and (2) the rhetorical approaches and devices Darwin borrowed from the works of predecessors. (RD)

  2. John Stuart Mill's "On Liberty": Implications for the Epistemology of the New Rhetoric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherwitz, Richard A.; Hikins, James W.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses John Stuart Mill's nineteenth century treatise and reveals that it embodies the tenets of a sophisticated theory of argument. Makes clear the implications of that theory for contemporary rhetoric. (JMF)

  3. Looking for "The Vision Thing": The Rhetoric of Leadership in the 1992 Presidential Election.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, Ronald F.; Fairhurst, Gail T.

    1994-01-01

    Examines four interrelated organizational models of charisma and the debate that has accompanied them. Uses the models to analyze the rhetoric of leadership of George Bush, Bill Clinton, and Ross Perot in the 1992 presidential campaign. (SR)

  4. Theoretical Proposal for Pragmatic-Rhetorical Analysis of Argument in the Tourist Guide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Iliana Rosabal-Pérez

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to present a useful theoretical proposal for the analysis of argumentation within the guidebook genre. The study perspective is supported on the rhetorical-pragmatic perspective of argumentation provided by some authors as well as the theoretical models applied to the study of persuasion in guidebooks suggested by Adam/Bonhomme (1997, Hernández-Santaolalla and Cobo-Durán (2010. The analysis of argumentation in this kind of text must consider a tactical and strategic view of  the rhetorical actions; that is to say, not to abstain from the elocution traditional examination since argumentation is an essential devise obtainable in the whole test. Keywords: rhetorical, argumentation, guidebook, rhetorical operations, topical.

  5. The Figures of Speech, "Ethos," and Aristotle: Notes toward a Rhetoric of Business Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallendorf, Craig; Kallendorf, Carol

    1985-01-01

    Demonstrates that business writers rely far more heavily than expected on classical figures of speech. Uses Aristotle's "Rhetoric" to show that figures of speech offer a powerful tool for the persuasive function of modern business communication. (PD)

  6. Consumer Engagement in Health IT: Distinguishing Rhetoric from Reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Marsha; Hossain, Mynti; Mangum, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Policymakers want health information technology (health IT) to support consumer engagement to help achieve national health goals. In this paper, we review the evidence to compare the rhetoric with the reality of current practice. Our environmental scan shows that consumer demand exists for electronic access to personal health information, but that technical and system or political barriers still limit the value of the available information and its potential benefits. There is a gap between current reality and the goals for consumer engagement. Actions that may help bridge this gap include: (1) resolving technical barriers to health information exchange (HIE); (2) developing more consumer-centric design and functionality; (3) reinforcing incentives that attract provider support by showing that consumer engagement is in their interest; and (4) building a stronger empirical case to convince decision makers that consumer engagement will lead to better care, improved health outcomes, and lower costs.

  7. Action, Not Rhetoric, Needed to Reverse the Opioid Overdose Epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Corey; Green, Traci; Beletsky, Leo

    2017-03-01

    Despite shifts in rhetoric and some positive movement, Americans with the disease of addiction are still often stigmatized, criminalized, and denied access to evidencebased care. Dramatically reducing the number of lives unnecessarily lost to overdose requires an evidence-based, equity-focused, well-funded, and coordinated response. We present in this brief article evidence-based and promising practices for improving and refocusing the response to this simmering public health crisis. Topics covered include improving clinical decision-making, improving access to non-judgmental evidence-based treatment, investing in comprehensive public health approaches to problematic drug use, and changing the way law enforcement actors interact with people who use drugs.

  8. Genome rhetoric and the emergence of compositional bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetsigian, Kalin; Goldenfeld, Nigel

    2009-01-01

    Genomes exhibit diverse patterns of species-specific GC content, GC and AT skews, codon bias, and mutation bias. Despite intensive investigations and the rapid accumulation of sequence data, the causes of these a priori different genome biases have not been agreed on and seem multifactorial and idiosyncratic. We show that these biases can arise generically from an instability of the coevolutionary dynamics between genome composition and resource allocation for translation, transcription, and replication. Thus, we offer a unifying framework for understanding and analyzing different genome biases. We develop a test of multistability of nucleotide composition of completely sequenced genomes and reveal a bistability for Borrelia burgdorferi, a genome with pronounced replication-related biases. These results indicate that evolution generates rhetoric, it improves the efficiency of the genome's communication with the cell without modifying the message, and this leads to bias. PMID:19116280

  9. The Rhetoric of Disfigurement in First World War Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biernoff, Suzannah

    2011-01-01

    Summary During the First World War, the horror of facial mutilation was evoked in journalism, poems, memoirs and fiction; but in Britain it was almost never represented visually outside the professional contexts of clinical medicine and medical history. This article asks why, and offers an account of British visual culture in which visual anxiety and aversion are of central importance. By comparing the rhetoric of disfigurement to the parallel treatment of amputees, an asymmetrical picture emerges in which the ‘worst loss of all’—the loss of one's face—is perceived as a loss of humanity. The only hope was surgery or, if that failed, prosthetic repair: innovations that were often wildly exaggerated in the popular press. Francis Derwent Wood was one of several sculptors whose technical skill and artistic ‘wizardry’ played a part in the improvised reconstruction of identity and humanity.

  10. « Change » Rhetoric as innovation device in Tunisian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Ali ELHAOU

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Proponents of the “Tunisia change” toward structural unemployment of young graduates highlight the “change’s era” as a unique innovative solution. In this publicity process, the Democratic Constitutional Rally (RCD partystate plays a major communicative role. It acts indeed the same way as a huge communication agency. The party, internally, will have the responsibility to promote the presidential actions on the ground. Externally, in a gradually globalized world market where suitcaseconcepts such as “good” or “new governance”, “democratic transition”, “sustainable development” and “information society” are plentiful, the RCD’s role is therefore to be a catch-all rhetoric.

  11. Romanian letter-writing: a cultural-rhetorical perspective (II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela-Iuliana Morcov

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The article aims at revealing the features of Romanian letter-writing during its stages of formation and consolidation. The structural and the stylistic analysis of letters is carried out with regard to the composition of the documents written in Old Romanian according to the requirements imposed by the Slavonic template and with regard to the rhetorical division of the three styles: the simple style, the middle style and the grand style. The description of the Old Romanian epistolary style is based on a taxonomy inspired by Roman Jakobson’s functional communicative model (1964. Following the six factors identified by Jakobson, letters are classified according to the socio-cultural status and the communicative competence of the addresser and of the addressee and in line with the context, the channel and the linguistic code used to write them.

  12. Topic theory and Brazilian musicality: Considerations on rhetoricity in music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acácio T. C. Piedade

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an application of the topic theory to the analyses of Brazilian music. It starts with a reflection on the concepts of musicality, friction of musicalities in Brazilian jazz, and the fusion of musicalities that emerges from the invention of tradition. The discussion follows with the question of the adaptability of topic theory to national musics. Then, some musical examples are used in order to present some of the universes of topics of Brazilian music. In this article I argue that the concept of rhetoricity brings good results to the study of musical signification, and that the theory of topics is useful for other contexts than classical music, being an interesting route to the investigation of sociocultural connections in musicalities.

  13. Targeting, Rhetoric and the Failure of Grassroots Jihad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilbert Ramsay

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available 'In this paper I examine the apparent failure of Al Qaeda ideologues, not for want of trying, to incite a widespread campaign of ‘individual jihad’. Not only are instances of genuinely ‘leaderless’ jihadist violence rare, they also tend to be more discriminate and less lethal in their targeting than the operations which Al Qaeda expresses a discursive preference for, and which it attempts to carry out. I argue that an explanation for the rather constrained nature of grassroots jihadist violence can be found, rather paradoxically, in the logic of collective action, which seems to underlie the rhetorical attempts of jihadist ideologues to incite violence. I then briefly examine the possible implications of this for understanding what makes for a successful ‘leaderless’ terrorist campaign.'

  14. Consumer Engagement in Health IT: Distinguishing Rhetoric from Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Marsha; Hossain, Mynti; Mangum, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: Policymakers want health information technology (health IT) to support consumer engagement to help achieve national health goals. In this paper, we review the evidence to compare the rhetoric with the reality of current practice. Current Reality and Barriers: Our environmental scan shows that consumer demand exists for electronic access to personal health information, but that technical and system or political barriers still limit the value of the available information and its potential benefits. Conclusions and Policy Implications: There is a gap between current reality and the goals for consumer engagement. Actions that may help bridge this gap include: (1) resolving technical barriers to health information exchange (HIE); (2) developing more consumer-centric design and functionality; (3) reinforcing incentives that attract provider support by showing that consumer engagement is in their interest; and (4) building a stronger empirical case to convince decision makers that consumer engagement will lead to better care, improved health outcomes, and lower costs. PMID:26665120

  15. Washington Crossing the Media: American Presidential Rhetoric and Cultural Iconography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jutta Ernst

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The Revolutionary War has been of prime importance to American self-perceptions and to the formation of its national identity. As a foundational moment with a strong mythical dimension it has become a cherished point of reference for the nation’s leaders, who, in their speeches and written communications, rely on the most widely accepted cultural iconography to recall this event. A time-honored, traditional discourse might, however, go together with the use of contemporary media technology as a means of distribution, as in the case of Barack Obama. Framing Obama’s rhetorical strategies within 19th- and 20th-century artistic representations of one specific historical moment from the Revolutionary War, Washington’s crossing of the Delaware river, this paper seeks to contribute to an enlarged understanding of the intricate relations between politics, the arts, and media development and of the ways they appropriate the past

  16. The aerodynamics of running socks: Reality or rhetoric?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashford, Robert L; White, Peter; Indramohan, Vivek

    2011-12-01

    The primary objective of this study was to test the aerodynamic properties of a selection of running and general sports socks. Eleven pairs of socks were tested in a specially constructed rig which was inserted into a fully calibrated wind tunnel. Wind test speeds included 3, 4, 5, 6, 12 and 45m/s. There was no significant difference between any of the socks tested for their aerodynamic properties. The drag coefficients calculated for each sock varied proportionally with the Reynolds number. No particular sock was more aerodynamic than any of the socks tested. There is no evidence that a sock that is "aerodynamically designed" will help an athlete go faster. This may be more product rhetoric than reality, and further work is justified if such claims are being made. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The Case of 'Mafiaboy' and the Rhetorical Limits of Hacktivism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Genosko

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the "Mafiaboy" case of 2000, in which a teenage hacker from Montréal brought down several blue chip American Web sites. What makes the subsequent court case compelling is that the categories and distinctions developed in the academic literature on hacker culture were shown to fit the Mafiaboy case too perfectly. They circulated with ease across defense and prosecution lines, yet upon closer inspection reveal themselves to be empty containers and rhetorically hollow. Via content analysis of an extensive media dossier, it is demonstrated that the mundane reality behind the media hype surrounding the case challenges the popular and political perception of the "hacker". Mafiaboy himself may have also discovered the incommensurability of his imagined future as a hacker legend and corporate security expert employee, and his everyday reality as a computer loving teen whose curiosity passed over into mischief with data, and beyond.

  18. Persian Linguistic and Rhetorical Pathology in The Telegram Communication Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hedayat Mofidi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Today, the mobile phone, with its wide range of features, is an inexpensive, easy to use, and most modern communication tool. One of the special applications of smart phones is providing spaces and facilities such as SMS services, virtual networks, and interactive groups that link people and groups from different linguistic and cultural background. In this paper, we tried to study the messages of the Farsi-speaking users of the Telegram communication network from the linguistics perspective. In this regard, the linguistics and rhetorical correspondence of short messages in Persian language was studied by the content-analysis method. The statistical population consisted of 150 messages which contained 327 sentences. These messages were randomly selected from 5 different groups. Persian language used in cyberspace differs from standard Persian language. The first step in correcting communication language errors in cyberspace is to inform the users about the type of errors.

  19. Rhetorical Design Studies: The Art of Making Design Choices Explicit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halstrøm, Per L.

    2017-01-01

    . However, these are predominantly concerned with the phases to go through in a design process and the steps to take rather than informing design practitioners of how to explore their arguments of why. Concepts and theories from rhetoric are employed here to explain how designers can develop a process where......Design has the potential to affect the situations we are in, the choices we make and the beliefs we live by. Being such an affective field, one might expect that canonized design thinking models and methods would be much concerned with how designers can discover arguments for their design choices...... choices, which is concerned with not only the making of things but with affecting of situations, actions and systems. In area one, the designers reframe the problem by means of epideictic topoi—meaning that they look for values to celebrate. This leads to deliberation about values to praise...

  20. Ethical persuasion: the rhetoric of communication in critical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubov, Alex

    2015-06-01

    This article reviews the ethics of rhetoric in critical care. Rational appeals in critical care fail to move patients or surrogates to a better course of action. Appeals to their emotions are considered illegitimate because they may preclude autonomous choice. This article discusses whether it is always unethical to change someone's beliefs, whether persuasive communication is inherently harmful and whether it leaves no space for voluntariness. To answer these questions, the article engages with Aristotle's work, Rhetoric. In considering whether there is a place for emotionally charged messages in a patient-provider relationship, the article intends to delineate the nature of this relationship and describe the duties this relationship implies. The article presents examples of persuasive communication used in critical care and discusses whether providers may have a duty to persuade patients. This duty is supported by the fact that doctors often influence patients' and families' choices by framing presented options. Doctors should assume responsibility in recognizing these personal and contextual influences that may influence the medical choices of their patients. They should attempt to modify these contextual factors and biases in a way that would assist patients and families in reaching the desired outcomes. The opening sections surveyed a number of definitions found in relevant literature and outlined some of the concepts included in the proposed definition. This definition helps to distinguish instances of persuasion from cases of manipulation, coercion and deception. Considering the fact that patients and families often make irrational decisions and the fact that doctors inadvertently influence their choices, the article suggested that persuasion can be a positive tool in medical communication. When patients or families clearly do not understand the risks or make decisions that contradict their long-term goals, persuasion can be used as a positive influence.

  1. Philippians 4:10-23 from a rhetorical perspective | Snyman | Acta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article endeavours to analyse Phil. 4:10-23 from a different perspective to approaches which tend to force ancient rhetorical categories on the letter. On the basis of a text-centred approach, this part of the letter is divided into two sectons, namely 4:10-20 and 21-23. Paul's dominant rhetorical strategy in 4:10-20 could be

  2. Sneaking through the minefield of talent management: the notion of rhetorical obfuscation

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, J; Tansley, C

    2012-01-01

    In spite of the growing popularity of talent management in practice there has been a distinct lack of theoretical attention paid by scholars to such a strategically important innovation. To address this shortfall, we conducted an in-depth case study of a multinational enterprise (MNE) to examine and conceptualise the rhetorical underpinnings of its efforts in implementing a talent management programme. Based on our findings, we propose the notion of rhetorical obfuscation to conceptualise the...

  3. Stimulating Rhetorical Invention in English Composition through Computer-Assisted Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-08-01

    rates--the topoi method being the most 11 x likely to sustain an inquiry and the Burke pentad being the least likely. No significant difference...of invention in classical Greece and Rome, the topoi were ti.- most prominent. Since the purpose of classical rhetoric was to persuade, lists of topoi ...arguments for any persuasive situation. Consequently, the classical rhetorical 933 treatises or handbooks assembled substantial lists of topoi

  4. «Public Enemy»: from Lenin’s Rhetoric to Stalin’s Ideologeme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga U. Popova

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is focused on the problem of Soviet ideologeme of the enemy from within in the period of pre-war Stalinism. Stalin’s ideologeme is considered as consistent continuity with Lenin’s enemy rhetoric. The article discloses the development of Lenin’s enemy rhetoric, singles out stages of Stalin’s enemy ideologeme establishment as a part of official ideologic policy and analyses its features.

  5. The Cathedral of Ice: Terministic Screens, Tyrannizing Images, Visual Rhetoric, and Nazi Propaganda Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Barton, Matthew

    1999-01-01

    Many aspects of the Nazis’ methods of persuasion, especially the rhetoric and psychology of printed propaganda and the speeches of Adolf Hitler and Joseph Goebbels have been the subjects of intensive study. Oddly, the subject of technology applied as an instrument or supplement to propaganda, or the rhetorical contributions of technological devices, has very little representation in Nazi studies, despite the significance it played in their rise to power. This thesis attempts to fill that gap....

  6. Second Language Cyber Rhetoric: A Study of Chinese L2 Writers in an Online Usenet Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Bloch

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available It has been argued that the expectations of traditional L2 writing classroom can be problematic for Chinese students, particularly in the area of argumentation and critical thinking. On the other hand, writing on the Internet has been shown to be substantially different in ways that may liberate the students from the constraints of the classroom. This argument, however, has typically focused on American writers, ignoring how cyberspace is being appropriated by those outside of the Western tradition of rhetoric. In this study, I examine how Chinese writers use the Internet as an alternative writing space to produce a rhetoric that incorporates traditional Chinese rhetorical forms expressed in English. The study focuses on how a group of Chinese writers respond on the Internet to a television segment accusing the Chinese government of planting spies. I found that the Chinese writers use the Internet to build a collective response to the television show using a variety of rhetorical strategies, even to the point of forcing the television network to meet with them. By situating their arguments in the tradition of Chinese rhetoric, I found that these alternative forms of writing found in cyberspace are affected by the traditions of Chinese rhetoric.

  7. Rhetoric of civil conflict management: United Nations Security Council debates over the Syrian civil war

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juraj Medzihorsky

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a spatial model of civil conflict management rhetoric to explore how the emerging norm of responsibility to protect shapes major power rhetorical responses to civil war. Using framing theory, we argue that responsibility to protect functions like a prescriptive norm, such that representing a conflict as one of (1 human rights violations (problem definition, implies rhetorical support for (2 coercive outside intervention (solution identification. These dimensions reflect the problem-solution form of a prescriptive norm. Using dictionary scaling with a dynamic model, we analyze the positions of UN Security Council members in debates over the Syrian Civil War separately for each dimension. We find that the permanent members who emphasized human rights violations also used intervention rhetoric (UK, France, and the US, and those who did not used non-intervention rhetoric (Russia and China. We conclude that, while not a fully consolidated norm, responsibility to protect appears to have structured major power rhetorical responses to the Syrian Civil War.

  8. Invitational rhetoric: Alternative rhetorical strategy for transformation of perception and use of energy in the residential built environment from the Keweenaw to Kerala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindred, Merle Niemi

    This dissertation explores the viability of invitational rhetoric as a mode of advocacy for sustainable energy use in the residential built environment. The theoretical foundations for this study join ecofeminist concepts and commitments with the conditions and resources of invitational rhetoric, developing in particular the rhetorical potency of the concepts of re-sourcement and enfoldment. The methodological approach is autoethnography using narrative reflection and journaling, both adapted to and developed within the autoethnographic project. Through narrative reflection, the author explores her lived experiences in advocating for energy-responsible residential construction in the Keweenaw Peninsula of Michigan. The analysis reveals the opportunities for cooperative, collaborative advocacy and the struggle against traditional conventions of persuasive advocacy, particularly the centrality of the rhetor. The author also conducted two field trips to India, primarily the state of Kerala. Drawing on autoethnographic journaling, the analysis highlights the importance of sensory relations in lived advocacy and the resonance of everyday Indian culture to invitational principles. Based on field research, the dissertation proposes autoethnography as a critical development in encouraging invitational rhetoric as an alternative mode of effecting change. The invitational force of autoethnography is evidenced in portraying the material advocacy of the built environment itself, specifically the sensual experience of material arrangements and ambience, as well as revealing the corporeality of advocacy, that is, the body as the site of invitational engagement, emotional encounter, and sensory experience. This study concludes that vulnerability of self in autoethnographic work and the vulnerability of rhetoric as invitational constitute the basis for transformation. The dissertation confirms the potential of an ecofeminist invitational advocacy conveyed autoethnographically for

  9. From Jāhiliyyah to Badīciyyah: Orality, Literacy, and the Transformations of Rhetoric in Arabic Poetry

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    Suzanne Pinckney Stetkevych

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Starting with the mnemonic imperative governing the use of rhetoric in pre- and early Islamic Arabic oral poetry, this essay proposes that in the later literary periods, rhetorical devices, now free of their mnemonic obligation, took on further communicative or expressive functions. In the High CAbbāsid age, rhetorical devices are “retooled” to serve as the “linguistic correlative” of Islamic hegemony as witnessed in caliphal court panegyrics of the rhetorically complex _badīc_ style. Finally, the “rhetorical excess” of the post-classical _badīciyyah_ (a poem to the Prophet Muḥammad in which each line must exhibit a particular rhetorical device is interpreted as a memorial structure typical of the medieval manuscript (as opposed to modern print tradition.

  10. Ability Dispersion and Team Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoogendoorn, Sander; Parker, Simon C.; Van Praag, Mirjam

    increases and then decreases with ability dispersion. We seek to understand this finding by developing a model in which team members of different ability levels form sub- teams with other team members with similar ability levels to specialize in different productive tasks. Diversity spreads production over......What is the effect of dispersed levels of cognitive ability of members of a (business) team on their team's performance? This paper reports the results of a field experiment in which 573 students in 49 (student) teams start up and manage real companies under identical circumstances for one year. We...... ensured exogenous variation in otherwise random team composition by assigning students to teams based on their measured cognitive abilities. Each team performs a variety of tasks, often involving complex decision making. The key result of the experiment is that the performance of business teams first...

  11. Global Perspectives on E-learning: Rhetoric and Reality

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    Murat ATAIZI

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Global Perspectives on E-learning: Rhetoric and Reality Carr-Chellman, A. A. (Ed (2005. Global Perspectives on E-learning. Rhetoric and Reality. 1-4129-0489-7, 280p.Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Pub. Inc. Reviewed by Murat ATAIZIAnadolu University,Eskisehir, TURKEY This book is edited by Alison A. Carr-Chellman who is associate professor of education at Pennsylvania State University , and one of the leading figures in the field of e-learning. Total of sixteen authors contributed to the sections. Authors are varying from doctoral students to professors emeritus, but all of them are experienced in the field of e-learning and distance education. The book presents a collection of papers from international case studies and its divided into five main parts based on geographic location, and each of them brings case studies of online education on e-learning and discusses the rhetoric that surrounds this form of teaching and learning from Asia, Europe, North America, Oceania, and Africa. The first part of the book examines online education in Asia : Analysis of China , Taiwan , and India . The China chapter explains that the Dianda system there is one of the world's largest education systems, combining radio-television university system. The author examines the political rhetoric and discusses the impacts on the way China adopts the new online learning technologies. The Taiwan chapter examines the digital gap, internet usage, and the government and IT industries roles to development of e-learning in Taiwan . The India chapter begins with distance education through correspondence courses that has been with us since the 1960s. The author examines the state of traditional and distance education in India , and identifies the viability and importance of online education given the current social, economic, and infrastructural status que. The second part of the book is on online education in Europe : Analysis of Ireland , the United Kingdom , International Study

  12. Efectos de aptitud combinatoria para vigor de plántula bajo estrés hídrico en maíz Combining ability effects for seedling vigor under drought stress in maize

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    M.E. Teruel

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available El vigor temprano es un componente esencial del desarrollo de los cultivos en la mayoría de las condiciones ambientales. Sin embargo, no existen suficientes reportes sobre el control genético del vigor de plántula en maíz. El objetivo de este trabajo fue estimar los efectos de aptitud combinatoria para variables relacionadas con el vigor en maíz bajo estrés hídrico. Se emplearon seis líneas endocriadas de maíz: tres de ellas con alto porcentaje de germinación y las restantes con bajo porcentaje germinación bajo estrés hídrico. Semillas de las 15 cruzas posibles se evaluaron en condiciones de estrés hídrico en germinación en solución de polientilenglicol 8000 a 1,4 MPa. Se recolectaron datos sobre porcentaje de germinación, longitud de coleoptilo, número de raíces secundarias, longitud de raíz principal y radio radical. La variación debida a las cruzas simples se particionó en efectos de aptitud combinatoria general (ACG y específica (ACE de acuerdo al método 4, modelo 1, de Griffing. Las líneas 31B y P004 presentaron los valores más altos de ACG. Los caracteres relacionados al vigor fueron controlados principalmente por efectos aditivos; los efectos no aditivos fueron importantes también, sobretodo para longitud de coleóptilo.Early vigor is an essential component of crop plant development under most environmental conditions. Nevertheless, little is known about the genetic control of characters in relation to seedling vigor in maize. The objective of this work was to estimate combining ability effects for characters in relation to seedling vigor in maize under water stress. Six maize inbred lines under drought stress, three with high germination percentage, and three with low germination percentage, were crossed to obtain 15 single crosses. Crosses were evaluated under controlled laboratory conditions in polyethylene glycol 8000 solution (1.4 MPa. Data of the following characters were recorded: germination percentage

  13. Allegory, Poetrie, Rhetoric: On the Notion of Poetic Fiction in France at the End of the 15 th Century

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    Irina K. Staf

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The allegorical dimension of the text in the early French Renaissance culture became, under the influence of Boccaccio’s Genealogy of the Pagan Gods, the main argument in the defense of poetic fiction (fabula. However, the transfer of Boccaccio’s ideas to France was followed by significant reconsideration of his work’s fundamental principles. Whereas in Genealogy, the truth (hidden under the veil of the “fables” is a series of virtual mythological interpretations that represent a solid macrocosm, French followers of the Italian humanist, from the Augustinian Jacques Legrand, author of the treatise Eloquent Sofia-Wisdom (ca. 1400 to the anonymous author of The Poetic Stories of Olympus (1539, develop a different understanding. Bearing on the tradition of both medieval mythography and the medieval versions of Ovid’s Metamorphosis, they form extensive lists of ancient Gods and characters, interpreting the ancient myth as figurative instruction in the true faith. Interpretation becomes primary to the myth thus moving the myth into the realm of “moral philosophy” and turning it into an exemplum, an instructive example. Such exegesis functionally equates poetic “fables” of the Ancient Greeks and Romans with Biblical plots: from both, a “moral philosopher” or preacher can draw the material he needs. This is how Jacques Legrand understands the essence and the tasks of the science of fiction (poetrie. “Poetrie,” a catalogue of moralized fictional images and plots, separated into loci communes and classified according to the categories of moral philosophy, becomes part of the rhetoric as it penetrates into some treatises on the “second rhetoric,” related to the verse in the national language. By the beginning of the 16 th century, the doctrine of the fabula became wholly subordinated by the principle of “decorated speech” and added to a set of rhetorical figures for the usage of the speaker. Poetic fiction acquired a

  14. Invitational Rhetoric and the Case for Service Learning

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    Christina L. Hicks-Goldston

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This research argues for repositioning Service Learning as a necessary part of public education, with the transformative goal of empowered communities operating in a social-collaborative framework from communities dependent on overburdened state and local government programs and services. Such repositioning depends on recognition of Service Learning as a means of providing that preparation. To “mainstream” Service Learning, this research proposes two initiatives: (a Foster the idea of the Service Learning experience as citizenship/community building by associating the experience with embedded cultural values and (b apply Invitational Rhetoric in persuading students and parents to view Service Learning as something other than imposed servitude or social consciousness for a grade. Service Learning has proven to be successful in changing students’ attitudes about their place in society. If Service Learning were a part of the common educational core, the potential for repositioning its value to citizenry would be highly expanded. Because many communities lack access to education and training for the citizenry, Service Learning could supply that link to empowerment.

  15. Raising Africa?: Celebrity and the Rhetoric of the White Saviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine M. Bell

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The ‘White Savour’ is a timeworn vehicle for celebrities in Hollywood film, where actors perform as heroes who save the day against dark and ominous adversaries. Pop stars take on personas and ‘exotic’ characters as well. And with increasing visibility, the famous perform real-life hero roles as philanthropists for social causes around the so-called ‘developing’ world. This essay explores how the celebrity philanthropist is constructed as redeemer of distant Others and how this role mingles with a celebrity’s on-stage personas to create the White Saviour, a powerful brand of cultural authority. It examines the power of Bono, Jolie and Madonna as key figures in contemporary African celebrity aid and diplomacy work, and at Madonna and Jolie as famous mothers. I argue that their campaigns employ a universalizing rhetoric of individualism that reinscribes colonial narratives of Africa’s diverse peoples as passive and helpless, and that ultimately burnishes the celebrity brand.

  16. Fishful Thinking: Rhetoric, Reality, and the Sea Before Us

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony J. Pitcher

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Fisheries science and management have been shrouded in controversy and rhetoric for over 125 yrs. Human reliance on fish through history (and even prehistory has impacted the sea and its resources. Global impacts are manifest today in threatened food security and vulnerable marine ecosystems. Growing consumer demand and subsidized industrial fisheries exacerbate ecosystem degradation, climate change, global inequities, and local poverty. Ten commonly advocated fisheries management solutions, if implemented alone, cannot remedy a history of intense fishing and serial stock depletions. Fisheries policy strategies evaluated along five performance modalities (ecological, economic, social, ethical, and institutional suggest that composite management strategies, such as ecosystem-based management and historically based restoration, can do better. A scientifically motivated solution to the fisheries problem can be found in the restorable elements of past ecosystems, if some of our present ideology, practices, and tastes can be relinquished for this historical imperative. Food and social security can be enhanced using a composite strategy that targets traditional food sources and implements customary management practices. Without binding laws, however, instituting such an ethically motivated goal for fisheries policy can easily be compromised by global market pressures. In a restored and productive ecosystem, fishing is clearly the privilege of a few. The realities of imminent global food insecurity, however, may dictate a strategy to deliberately fish down the food web, if the basic human right to food is to be preserved for all.

  17. Architecture, values and perception: Between rhetoric and reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lino Bianco

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Throughout history, design values have always underlined a given architectural style. The manner architects and architectural critics distinguish between them varies from that of the public. In fact a style well perceived by civil society was read as pathological by architectural academia. This paper examines the values and perceptions of contemporary architecture by architects and civil society. Through qualitative methodology, a project by each of the following leading contemporary architects - Renzo Piano, Norman Foster and Rem Koolhaas - was analyzed. The selected designs, all commissioned not more than a decade ago, vary in locations from Malta to Lebanon to India. The study concludes that design values and perceptions of architecture as read by members of the architectural profession do not tally with those of the public. The emphasis by architects is on the aesthetic whilst non-architects focus on the utilitarian dimension. Furthermore, the rhetorical language which architects use is not read as such by the public. The assessment of the public is based on the existential reality which they experience. The perception of civil society matters; it is at the core of architectural design values.

  18. Rhetoric of representation: the disempowerment and empowerment of consumer leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Brett; Stewart, Stephanie J; Bocking, Julia; Happell, Brenda

    2017-09-28

    Policy mandates consumer involvement in decisions at all levels of the mental health system. One barrier to this involvement is the expectation that consumers involved in systemic work represent broader consumer experiences. To examine how the rhetoric of 'representation' was used in relation to consumer involvement in mental health, a qualitative exploratory design was employed using interviews for data collection. Participants were consumers (n = 6) working with public or private mental health organizations in Australia, and colleagues (n = 3) or managers (n = 5) of these consumers. Discursive psychological principles informed the analytic process, to explore contexts in which 'representativeness' was used to empower and disempower consumers. The findings suggest there is a lack of clarity about what is meant by representation in the mental health sector. Expecting individual consumer leaders to be representative of consumer views more broadly disempowered them in their roles. Some participants instead discussed ways that organizations should be responsible for seeking representation from more consumer leaders, thus empowering consumers working in the sector. Using the term 'representative' to refer to consumers working in mental health does not reflect the value of the consumer perspective and is not well understood within the sector. Comprehensive training should be provided so that mental health service providers are clear regarding the expectations of people in these roles. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. The spatial rhetoric of Gustav Zeiller's popular anatomical museum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakiner, Nike

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on the public experience of science by studying the exhibition practice of a small popular anatomy museum. The owner, Gustav Zeiller, a little-known German model maker and entrepreneur, opened his private collection in Dresden in 1888 with the aim of providing experts and laymen alike with a scientific education on bodily matters and health care. The spatial configuration of his museum environment turned the wax models into didactic instruments. Relying on the possible connexion between material culture studies and history of the emotions, this article highlights how Zeiller choreographed the encounter between the museum objects and its visitors. I argue that the spatial set up of his museum objects entailed rhetorical choices that did not simply address the social utility of his museum. Moreover, it fulfilled the aim of modifying the emotional disposition of his intended spectatorship. I hope to show that studying the emotional responses toward artefacts can offer a fruitful approach to examine the public experience of medicine.

  20. (EGL and Contrastive Rhetoric: Reflections from L2 Writing Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosney M. El-daly

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study argues that if we, really, accept English as a global language, and diversity of cultures, we have to better understand the different composing conventions of different cultures; otherwise, written communication among people of different cultures may break down. This argument is theoretically based on a number of premises drawn from Purves’s (1988 extensive research in contrastive rhetoric. With this in mind, the present study attempts to show how Arabic and Spanish speakers narrate in English and, to what extent their native cultures affect their narrative written productions.  In addition, some of the cognitive factors that may shape the subjects’ written productions were discussed. Using Laböv’ sociolinguistic model of narrative structure, this study shows that the narrative texts of both Arabic and Spanish speakers share almost all the structural properties of Laböv’s model.  This finding may lead us to claim that regardless of the subjects’ linguistic and cultural backgrounds, the narrative structural components seem to be somehow universal. This claim needs to be tested with low-level subjects of various languages and cultures.

  1. The Autobiographical Photo-textual Devices. Rhetorics and Truth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Coglitore

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The case of autobiographical photo-texts is to be analyzed, first of all, as an autobiographical writing that feels the need to express by other means; secondly, as a specific rhetoric practice that chooses the image, next to the word, as a further persuasive force; finally, as a very special case of icono-texts, which uses some variety of the connection between the verbal and the visual. It is not only a matter of analyzing how it works the cooperation between photographs and autobiographical writing, that is, through which connectors – frames, white space, overlays and captions –, but also of understanding what are the functions of the photographs in relation to literature. This is in order to understand what truth is affirmed in the examples chosen: Franca Valeri, Grégoire Bouillier, Roland Barthes, Winfried G. Sebald, Lalla Romano, Jovanotti, Edward Said, Azar Nafisi, Vladimir Nabokov, André Breton, Hannah Höch, Annie Ernaux. Do photographs expose, confirm, add or resist the truth expressed by the literary side? And if narrative expresses the truth and the resistance to the truth of the author himself, what does the photo resist to, while showing?

  2. The oral case presentation: toward a performance-based rhetorical model for teaching and learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Mei Yuit

    2015-01-01

    The oral case presentation is an important communicative activity in the teaching and assessment of students. Despite its importance, not much attention has been paid to providing support for teachers to teach this difficult task to medical students who are novices to this form of communication. As a formalized piece of talk that takes a regularized form and used for a specific communicative goal, the case presentation is regarded as a rhetorical activity and awareness of its rhetorical and linguistic characteristics should be given due consideration in teaching. This paper reviews practitioners' and the limited research literature that relates to expectations of medical educators about what makes a good case presentation, and explains the rhetorical aspect of the activity. It is found there is currently a lack of a comprehensive model of the case presentation that projects the rhetorical and linguistic skills needed to produce and deliver a good presentation. Attempts to describe the structure of the case presentation have used predominantly opinion-based methodologies. In this paper, I argue for a performance-based model that would not only allow a description of the rhetorical structure of the oral case presentation, but also enable a systematic examination of the tacit genre knowledge that differentiates the expert from the novice. Such a model will be a useful resource for medical educators to provide more structured feedback and teaching support to medical students in learning this important genre.

  3. Rhetorical Flaws in Brutus’ Forum Speech in Julius Caesar: A Carefully Controlled Weakness?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic Cheetham

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In Julius Caesar Shakespeare reproduces one of the pivotal moments in European history. Brutus and Mark Antony, through the medium of their forum speeches, compete for the support of the people of Rome. In the play, as in history, Mark Antony wins this contest of language. Critics are generally agreed that Antony has the better speech, but also that Brutus’ speech is still exceptionally good. Traditionally the question of how Antony’s speech is superior is argued by examining differences between the two speeches, however, this approach has not resulted in any critical consensus. This paper takes the opening lines of the speeches as the only point of direct convergence between the content and the rhetorical forms used by Brutus and Antony and argues that Brutus’ opening tricolon is structurally inferior to Marc Antony’s. Analysis of the following rhetorical schemes in Brutus’ speech reveals further structural weaknesses. Shakespeare gives Brutus a speech rich in perceptually salient rhetorical schemes but introduces small, less salient, structural weaknesses into those schemes. The tightly structured linguistic patterns which make up the majority of Brutus’ speech give an impression of great rhetorical skill. This skilful impression obscures the minor faults or weaknesses that quietly and subtly reduce the overall power of the speech. By identifying the weaknesses in Brutus’ forms we add an extra element to the discussion of these speeches and at the same time display how subtly and effectively Shakespeare uses rhetorical forms to control audience response and appreciation.

  4. The oral case presentation: toward a performance-based rhetorical model for teaching and learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Yuit Chan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The oral case presentation is an important communicative activity in the teaching and assessment of students. Despite its importance, not much attention has been paid to providing support for teachers to teach this difficult task to medical students who are novices to this form of communication. As a formalized piece of talk that takes a regularized form and used for a specific communicative goal, the case presentation is regarded as a rhetorical activity and awareness of its rhetorical and linguistic characteristics should be given due consideration in teaching. This paper reviews practitioners’ and the limited research literature that relates to expectations of medical educators about what makes a good case presentation, and explains the rhetorical aspect of the activity. It is found there is currently a lack of a comprehensive model of the case presentation that projects the rhetorical and linguistic skills needed to produce and deliver a good presentation. Attempts to describe the structure of the case presentation have used predominantly opinion-based methodologies. In this paper, I argue for a performance-based model that would not only allow a description of the rhetorical structure of the oral case presentation, but also enable a systematic examination of the tacit genre knowledge that differentiates the expert from the novice. Such a model will be a useful resource for medical educators to provide more structured feedback and teaching support to medical students in learning this important genre.

  5. The oral case presentation: toward a performance-based rhetorical model for teaching and learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Mei Yuit

    2015-01-01

    The oral case presentation is an important communicative activity in the teaching and assessment of students. Despite its importance, not much attention has been paid to providing support for teachers to teach this difficult task to medical students who are novices to this form of communication. As a formalized piece of talk that takes a regularized form and used for a specific communicative goal, the case presentation is regarded as a rhetorical activity and awareness of its rhetorical and linguistic characteristics should be given due consideration in teaching. This paper reviews practitioners’ and the limited research literature that relates to expectations of medical educators about what makes a good case presentation, and explains the rhetorical aspect of the activity. It is found there is currently a lack of a comprehensive model of the case presentation that projects the rhetorical and linguistic skills needed to produce and deliver a good presentation. Attempts to describe the structure of the case presentation have used predominantly opinion-based methodologies. In this paper, I argue for a performance-based model that would not only allow a description of the rhetorical structure of the oral case presentation, but also enable a systematic examination of the tacit genre knowledge that differentiates the expert from the novice. Such a model will be a useful resource for medical educators to provide more structured feedback and teaching support to medical students in learning this important genre. PMID:26194482

  6. "Who Knows Not But Speaks Is Not Wise; Who Knows But Speaks Not Is Not Loyal!": Rhetoric of Philosophical Wisdom in Ancient China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Guanjun

    The persistent cultural conservatism in Western scholarship has led to the exclusion of Chinese rhetoric from the canon of rhetorical studies. However, the assumption that Chinese culture does not have a rhetorical tradition is misleading and inappropriate. It stems from any number of notions: that the Chinese language is not as logical as those…

  7. Language, Rhetoric, and Politics in a Global Context: A Decolonial Critical Discourse Perspective on Nigeria's 2015 Presidential Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Yunana

    2017-01-01

    In this dissertation, I conceptualize a rhetorical and linguistic analysis of politics from a decolonial framework (Mignolo, 2011; Smith, 2012). My analysis draws on classical rhetoric (Aristotle, 2007), cultural rhetoric (Mao, 2014; Powell, et al., 2014; Yankah, 1995), and linguistics (Chilton, 2004) to reveal the different ways ideological and…

  8. Trashing the System: Social Movement, Intersectional Rhetoric, and Collective Agency in the Young Lords Organization's Garbage Offensive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enck-Wanzer, Darrel

    2006-01-01

    Examining the nascent rhetoric of the Young Lords Organization's (YLO) 1969 "garbage offensive," this essay argues that the long-standing constraints on agency to which they were responding demanded an inventive rhetoric that was decolonizing both in its aim and in its form. Blending diverse forms of discourse produced an intersectional rhetoric…

  9. Definitional Hegemony as a Public Relations Strategy: The Rhetoric of the Nuclear Power Industry after Three Mile Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionisopoulos, George N.; Crable, Richard E.

    1988-01-01

    Examines (1) definitional hegemony as one of several rhetorical options available to issue managers; (2) the post-accident rhetorical context of the Three Mile Island nuclear crisis; and (3) the specific strategies utilized to deal with this crisis. Assesses the nuclear industry's public relations efforts. (MS)

  10. The Historical Problem of Vertical Coherence: Writing, Research, and Legitimacy in Early 20th Century Rhetoric and Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendenhall, Annie

    2013-01-01

    This article explores historical debates over the relationship of composition to rhetoric, arguing that these debates resonate with contemporary arguments about first year writing and undergraduate and graduate programs in writing and rhetoric. Analyzing early scholars' articulations of the differing aims of undergraduate and graduate studies,…

  11. Linking Contextual Factors with Rhetorical Pattern Shift: Direct and Indirect Strategies Recommended in English Business Communication Textbooks in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junhua; Zhu, Pinfan

    2011-01-01

    Scholars have consistently claimed that rhetorical patterns are culturally bound, and indirectness is a defining characteristic of Chinese writing. Through examining how the rhetorical mechanism of directness and indirectness is presented in 29 English business communication textbooks published in China, we explore how English business…

  12. En retorisk forståelsesramme for Computer Supported Collaborative Learning (A Rhetorical Theory on Computer Supported Collaborative Learning)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harlung, Asger

    2003-01-01

    The dissertation explores the potential of rhetorical theories for understanding, analyzing, or planning communication and learning processes, and for integrating the digitized contexts and human interaction and communication proccesses in a single theoretical framework. Based on Cicero's rhetoric...... applied to two empirical case studies of Master programs, the dissertation develops and presents a new theory on Computer Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL)....

  13. A Comparison of Rhetorical Move Structure of Applied Linguistics Research Articles Published in International and National Thai Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wannaruk, Anchalee; Amnuai, Wirada

    2016-01-01

    The rhetorical organization of research articles has attracted extensive attention in genre study, and the focus of move-based analysis is on the textual function. The primary aim of the present study was the comparison of the rhetorical moves of English research articles in the field of Applied Linguistics written by Thai first authors and…

  14. ThEoLogy ANd RhEToRIC: REdEFININg ThE RELATIoNShIP ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    different.”(goethe 1984:662 [my translation]). Change the linguistic form, and the content will too. oscar wilde would have nodded in consent. For him, the artistic ... interweaving of rhetoric and theological argumentation – at least in some text portions. There, rhetoric and theology are intertwined, rubbing off on each other.

  15. From a Government of the People, to a People of the Government: Irony as Rhetorical Strategy in the Presidential Campaigns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Mark P.

    1996-01-01

    Considers irony as rhetorical strategy in presidential campaigns. Argues that it promotes identification on the basis of public cynicism toward government, through which people transcend problems of government. Views irony in campaign rhetoric as the candidates' response to increasing levels of cynicism toward government. Concludes that candidates…

  16. Are you cup of joking? The “latte salute”, American President Barack Obama’s Visual Rhetoric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Anne Gehrisch

    2015-07-01

    Backlash has ranged from social media outrage to creation of websites petitioning for public support to rise against the President’s actions in the photo. This research seeks to address the visual rhetoric of the latte salute photograph. The rhetorical implications of the presidency's visual spectacle deserve elucidation.

  17. The Rhetoric of Midwifery: Conflicts and Conversations in the Minnesota Home Birth Community in the 1990s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lay, Mary M.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Applies and tests Foucault's theories about local centers of power and knowledge by rhetorically analyzing a Minnesota Midwifery Study Advisory Group. Illustrates how knowledge may be produced/suppressed and how a rhetor may become empowered by projecting negative traits upon the "other." Demonstrates how some traditional midwives…

  18. Towards a Transactional View of Rhetorical and Feminist Theory: Rereading Helen Cixous's "The Laugh of the Medusa."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biesecker, Barbara A.

    1992-01-01

    Argues that by rereading Helene Cixous's "The Laugh of Medusa" as a rhetoric--that is, an essay which posits what can and must be done by women if they are to intervene effectively in the public sphere through written or oral discourse--both rhetorical and feminist theory and criticism are enriched. (SR)

  19. How the conceptions of Chinese rhetorical expressions are derived from the corresponding generic sentences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wenhui

    2018-04-01

    Generic sentences are simple and intuitive recognition and objective description to the external world in terms of "class". In the long evolutionary process of human being's language, the concepts represented by generic sentences has been internalized to be the defaulted knowledge in people's minds. In Chinese, some rhetorical expressions supported by corresponding generic sentences can be accepted by people. The derivation of these rhetorical expressions from the corresponding generic sentences is an important way for language to evolution, which reflects human's creative cognitive competence. From the perspective of conceptual blend theory and the theory of categorization of the cognitive linguistics, the goal of this paper is to analysis the process of the derivation of the rhetorical expressions from the corresponding generic sentences, which can facilitate the Chinese metaphorical information processing and the corpus construction of Chinese emotion metaphors.

  20. Defaming Rover: Error-Based Latent Rhetoric in the Medical Literature on Dog Bites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arluke, Arnold; Cleary, Donald; Patronek, Gary; Bradley, Janis

    2017-10-25

    This article examines the accuracy and rhetoric of reports by human health care professionals concerning dog bite injuries published in the peer-reviewed medical literature, with respect to nonclinical issues, such as dog behavior. A qualitative content analysis examined 156 publications between 1966 and 2015 identified by terms such as "dog bite" or "dangerous dogs." The analysis revealed misinformation about human-canine interactions, the significance of breed and breed characteristics, and the frequency of dog bite-related injuries. Misinformation included clear-cut factual errors, misinterpretations, omissions, emotionally loaded language, and exaggerations based on misunderstood or inaccurate statistics or reliance on the interpretation by third parties of other authors' meaning. These errors clustered within one or more rhetorical devices including generalization, catastrophization, demonization, and negative differentiation. By constructing the issue as a social problem, these distortions and errors, and the rhetorical devices supporting them, mischaracterize dogs and overstate the actual risk of dog bites.

  1. THE RHETORIC FEATURES OF ENGLISH AND INDONESIAN ESSAYS MADE BY EFL UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teguh Budiharso

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at analyzing the similarities and differences between English and Indonesian essays made by EFL undergraduate students. The problems rise from the transfer of first language (L1 cultural conventions to second language (L2 performance. Three rhetorical aspects: general patterns of thought (linear or non-linear, development of ideas, and coherence were compared and analyzed by using content analysis. The results of the analysis showed that EFL students devoted similar rhetoric features in writing English and Indonesian essays. The rhetoric similarity was shared in the use of linearity and non-linearity of ideas, the development of ideas in the whole essays as well as the coherence quality.

  2. ‘Ageing youthfully’ or the rhetoric of medical English in advertising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Díez Arroyo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study examines how cosmetics brands adopt characteristics of medical English in their web sites as a rhetorical strategy to persuade consumers. From the joint perspective of rhetoric, understood as persuasive stylistic choices, and a relevance-theoretic approach to pragmatics, the present paper explains how social assumptions about “ageing youthfully” are successfully strengthened in this type of advertising thanks to the alliance with medicine. This work explores various rhetorical devices, specified through both lexical and syntactic features. The analysis suggested here urges to reconsider research conclusions drawn on the use of science in advertising along truth-seeking premises, as well as previous classifications of this type of goods based on purely informative grounds.

  3. Reconsidering 'Set the People Free': Neoliberalism and Freedom Rhetoric in Churchill's Conservative Party.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, James

    2017-09-18

    It is often assumed that 'Hayekian' or 'neoliberal' influences lay behind Conservative attacks on socialism in 1945 and subsequent calls to 'set the people free' in 1950 and 1951. This assumption has had consequences for our understanding of late-1940s Conservatism and for wider interpretations of post-war politics. Heeding recent calls to reconnect the inter-war and post-war parties and to pay closer attention to how opponents and contexts generate arguments, this article revisits senior Conservatives' rhetoric between 1945 and 1951 to break the link between neoliberal influence and freedom rhetoric. First, it argues that the rhetoric of 1945 was derived from a distinctly Conservative lineage of interwar argument and reflected strategies developed before the publication of F. A. Hayek's 'The Road to Serfdom'. Second, it demonstrates that senior Conservatives' emancipatory rhetoric in opposition after 1945 was neither a simple continuation of these themes nor primarily a response to the public's growing antipathy towards rationing and controls. Rather, such rhetoric was a complex response to Britain's immediate economic difficulties and the political challenges presented by austerity. Finally, the article sheds new light on the strategy that governed the party's campaigns in 1950 and 1951. Churchill and others' calls to 'set the people free' stemmed from a belief that the rhetorical opportunity lay in reconciling liberty with security. In that sense, the leadership had moved beyond begrudging compromises with the 'Attleean settlement' and was instead attempting to define a new identity within the parameters of the welfare state. © The Author [2017]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Ability Dispersion and Team Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoogendoorn, Sander; Parker, Simon C.; Van Praag, Mirjam

    What is the effect of dispersed levels of cognitive ability of members of a (business) team on their team's performance? This paper reports the results of a field experiment in which 573 students in 49 (student) teams start up and manage real companies under identical circumstances for one year. We...... ensured exogenous variation in otherwise random team composition by assigning students to teams based on their measured cognitive abilities. Each team performs a variety of tasks, often involving complex decision making. The key result of the experiment is that the performance of business teams first...

  5. Ability Dispersion and Team Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoogendoorn, Sander; Parker, Simon C.; Van Praag, Mirjam

    What is the effect of dispersed levels of cognitive ability of members of a (business) team on their team's performance? This paper reports the results of a field experiment in which 573 students in 49 teams start up and manage real companies under identical circumstances. We ensured exogenous...... variation in - otherwise random - team composition by assigning students to teams based on their measured cognitive abilities (Raven test). Each team performs a variety of tasks, often involving complex decision making. The key result of the experiment is that the performance of business teams first...

  6. The origins of personal responsibility rhetoric in news coverage of the tobacco industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejia, Pamela; Dorfman, Lori; Cheyne, Andrew; Nixon, Laura; Friedman, Lissy; Gottlieb, Mark; Daynard, Richard

    2014-06-01

    The tobacco industry consistently frames smoking as a personal issue rather than the responsibility of cigarette companies. To identify when personal responsibility framing became a major element of the tobacco industry's discourse, we analyzed news coverage from 1966 to 1991. Industry representatives began to regularly use these arguments in 1977. By the mid 1980s, this frame dominated the industry's public arguments. This chronology illustrates that the tobacco industry's use of personal responsibility rhetoric in public preceded the ascension of personal responsibility rhetoric commonly associated with the Reagan Administration in the 1980s.

  7. CULTURAL TRANSFER IN EFL WRITING: A LOOK AT CONTRASTIVE RHETORIC ON ENGLISH AND INDONESIAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Kuntjara

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies in contrastive rhetoric since Kaplan's (1966 article have indicated the need of looking at L2 writing from different perspective by considering factors such as L2 learners' historical background in L1 writing, the development in their writing process, and the genres before we come to analyze the texts. By following such approaches, this study wants to see if there has been any cultural transfer in L2 writing of Indonesian writers. However, this has led to the probing of Indonesian L1 writing as well. This study again suggests the complexity of rhetoric in writing.

  8. Contrived Making Do As Rhetorical Practice in Outdoor Recreation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Senda-Cook

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Descriptors such as “hideous,” “the worst,” “terrible,” and “thrashed” are not the words that most people want to associated with their “usual.” For many outdoor recreators, though, these are things that they learn to live with. But why? Why do they continue to engage in practices that produce these results? I argue that such activities constitute what I call contrived making do and that they function as rhetorical practices that construct identities and parts of the outdoor recreation subculture in the following three ways: controlling the controllable, walking the edge, and reframing the experience. Contrived making do refers to creating or seeking out situations that necessitate getting by in a physical and/or cultural sense, implying both difficult circumstances and the creativity and wherewithal to figure out improvised solutions. Making do, in this context, depends on privilege, risk—the willingness to take normalized risks and framing risk in culturally expected ways—and voluntarily surrendering some control. This analysis adds nuance and richness to Michel de Certeau’s concept of making do. Whereas de Certeau conceptualized making do as a coping mechanism for marginalized groups, my project illuminates the role that risk plays in making do by showing how a comparatively privileged group of people seek out such experiences. In doing so, this study builds on environmental communication scholarship about risk by demonstrating that mere carelessness may not be the only source of injuries in national parks.

  9. Combining ability of maize grain yield under different levels of environmental stress Capacidade de combinação da produtividade de milho em ambientes com diferentes intensidades de estresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Vagno de Souza

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this work were to caracterize the tropical maize germplasm and to compare the combining abilities of maize grain yield under different levels of environmental stress. A diallel was performed among tropical maize cultivars with wide adaptability, whose hybrid combinations were evaluated in two sowing dates, in two years. The significance of the environmental effect emphasized the environmental contrasts. Based on grain yield, the environments were classified as favorable (8,331 kg ha-1, low stress (6,637 kg ha-1, high stress (5,495 kg ha-1, and intense stress (2,443 kg ha-1. None of the genetic effects were significant in favorable and intense stress environments, indicating that there was low germplasm variability under these conditions. In low and high stresses, the specific combining ability effects (SCA were significant, showing that the nonadditive genetic effects were the most important, and that it is possible to select parent pairs with breeding potential. SCA and grain yield showed significant correlations only between the closer environment pairs like favorable/low stress and high/intense stress. The genetic control of grain yield differed under contrasting stress environments for which maize cultivars with wide adaptability are not adequate.O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar o germoplasma de milho e comparar a capacidade de combinação da produtividade do milho em ambientes com diferentes graus de estresse. Um dialelo foi realizado entre cultivares de milho tropical com ampla adaptabilidade, cujas combinações híbridas foram avaliadas em duas épocas de plantio, em dois anos. A significância do efeito ambiental mostrou que os ambientes foram contrastantes. Com base na produtividade, os ambientes foram classificados como: favorável (8.331 kg ha-1; com baixo estresse (6.637 kg ha-1; com alto estresse (5.495 kg ha-1; e com intenso estresse (2.443 kg ha-1. Nenhum dos efeitos genéticos foi significativo nos

  10. Enhanced photocatalytic activity of Te-doped Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} under visible light irradiation: Effective separation of photogenerated carriers resulted from inhomogeneous lattice distortion and improved electron capturing ability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Shuguang, E-mail: csustcsg@yahoo.com; Li, Yuhan; Wu, Zixu; Wu, Baoxin; Li, Haibin; Li, Fujin

    2017-05-15

    Te-doped Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} photocatalyst was hydrothermally synthesized, and nonmetal atoms Te were homogeneously incorporated into Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} lattice with the substitution of Te{sup 4+} to Mo{sup 6+}. With increasing Te-doping concentration in Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6}, no detectable band-gap narrowing but more and more severe inhomogeneous lattice distortions were determined. The activity of Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} photocatalyst was evaluated through methylene blue degradation under visible light irradiation (λ>410 nm) and was greatly enhanced by Te-doping. When Te-doped Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} was synthesized at Te/Mo molar ratio of 7.5%, a maximum first-order rate constant of methylene blue degradation was obtained. The inhomogeneous lattice distortion generated an internal dipole moment, and the holes generated with the substitution of Te{sup 4+} to Mo{sup 6+} acted as the capturing centers of photogenerated electrons, thus the effective separation of photogenerated carriers was facilitated to result in a relatively high concentration of holes on the surface of Te-doped Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} to be favorable for the efficient methylene blue degradation. - Graphical abstract: With the substitution of Te{sup 4+} to Mo{sup 6+}, effective separation of photogenerated carriers resulted from inhomogeneous lattice distortion and improved electron capturing ability is achieved to be responsible for enhanced photocatalytic activity of Te-doped Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6}. - Highlights: • Nonmetal Te is incorporated into Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} with the substitution of Te{sup 4+} to Mo{sup 6+}. • Revealing inhomogeneous lattice distortion and improved electron capturing ability. • Effective separation of photogenerated carriers in Te-doped Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} is achieved. • The mechanism of methylene blue degradation over Te-doped Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} is proposed.

  11. RHETORICAL PATTERNS, VERB TENSE, AND VOICE IN CROSS DISCIPLINARY RESEARCH ARTICLE ABSTRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharifah Hanidar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates research article abstracts in terms of their rhetorical patterns and the use of verb tenses and voice. A total of 40 abstracts were selected from four international journals in the fields of Biology, Mechanical Engineering, Linguistics, and Medicine. A four move model was adopted from Hardjanto (1997 to analyze the structure of the abstracts. The results show that all the abstracts have Move 1, creating a research space; 70% have Move 2, describing research procedure; 85% have Move 3, summarizing principal results; and 85% have Move 4, evaluating results. All the abstracts in medicine have Moves 1, 2, 3 and 4, whereas the most common pattern in Biology is Moves 1, 3 and 4, in Mechanical Engineering Moves 1, 2 and 3, and in Linguistics Moves 1, 2 and 4. This seems to suggest that there is a disciplinary variation in the structuring of RA abstracts in the four disciplines under investigation. With regard to the use of verb tense and voice in each move, the present tense and past tense in the active voice and the past tense in the passive voice were the most frequently used tenses. The present tense in the active voice was frequently used in Moves 1 and 4, while the past tense in the active voice was commonly used in Move 3 and the past tense in the passive voice was frequently found in Move 2. Furthermore, it was found that the present tense in the active voice was frequently used in Biology, Mechanical Engineering and Linguistics, whereas the past tense in the active voice occurred more frequently in Medicine, and the past tense in the passive voice was more frequently found in Mechanical Engineering than in other disciplines.

  12. Scientific Ability and Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Kurt A.

    2007-01-01

    Following an introductory definition of "scientific ability and creativity", product-oriented, personality and social psychological approaches to studying scientific ability are examined with reference to competence and performance. Studies in the psychometric versus cognitive psychological paradigms are dealt with in more detail. These two…

  13. A Contrastive Study of the Rhetorical Organisation of English and Spanish PhD Thesis Introductions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler-Monreal, Carmen; Carbonell-Olivares, Maria; Gil-Salom, Luz

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the introductory sections of a corpus of 20 doctoral theses on computing written in Spanish and in English. Our aim was to ascertain whether the theses, produced within the same scientific-technological area but by authors from different cultural and linguistic backgrounds, employed the same rhetorical strategies…

  14. Life Writing Lite: Judy Garland and Reparative Rhetorics of Celebrity Life Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janangelo, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    This essay offers a rhetorical reading of entertainer Judy Garland's early life writing projects. The author focuses on two open letters Garland published in 1950, in which she talks to the public and press to let them know "the truth" ("Open") about her life and how much her audience means to her. As a troubled celebrity, Garland had for years…

  15. SOME ACHIEVE GREATNESS. RHETORIC CURRICULUM IV, REVISED TEACHER AND STUDENT VERSIONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KITZHABER, ALBERT R.

    STUDENTS ARE ASKED TO CONSIDER THE IDEA OF THE HERO IN THIS 10TH-GRADE RHETORIC UNIT. EMPHASIS IS ON (1) THE INDUCTIVE PROCESS OF ARRIVING AT A GENERALIZATION, (2) THE PROBLEMS OF DEFINITION, INCLUDING QUALIFICATION AND COMPARISON, AND (3) THE PROCESSES OF SELECTIVITY AND REVISION. LITERARY SELECTIONS USED ARE "BEOWULF,""THE DIARY…

  16. a rhetorical analysis of philippians 1:1-11 1. introduction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    is clear from the rhetorical situation of the letter. • Silva (1988:45) contributes the forceful expression in verse 5 “from the first day until now” to Paul's emotional state. The expression could also serve to exaggerate the time that the Philippians were involved in proclaiming the gospel, thereby accentuating their perseverance.

  17. Continuous Linguistic Rhetorical Education as a Means of Optimizing Language Policy in Russian Multinational Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorozhbitova, Alexandra A.; Konovalova, Galina M.; Ogneva, Tatiana N.; Chekulaeva, Natalia Y.

    2017-01-01

    Drawing on the function of Russian as a state language the paper proposes a concept of continuous linguistic rhetorical (LR) education perceived as a means of optimizing language policy in Russian multinational regions. LR education as an innovative pedagogical system shapes a learner's readiness for self-projection as a strong linguistic…

  18. Inventing Citizens, Imagining Gender Justice: The Suffrage Rhetoric of Virginia and Francis Minor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Angela G.; Richards, Cindy Koenig

    2007-01-01

    From the late 1860s through the mid-1870s, woman suffrage activists developed an ingenious legal argument, claiming that the U.S. Constitution already enfranchised women citizens. The argument, first articulated by St. Louis activists Virginia and Francis Minor, precipitated rhetorical performances by movement activists on public platforms and in…

  19. The Rhetoric of Industrial Espionage: The Case of "Starwood v. Hilton"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jameson, Daphne A.

    2011-01-01

    When Starwood Hotels charged Hilton Hotels with industrial espionage, the case hinged on an employment agreement that two executives had violated. The rhetoric of the employment agreement contrasted greatly with that of the corporation's own code of business conduct. Whereas the private agreement stressed narrow self-interest, the public code…

  20. The experimental psychology of attitude change and the tradition of classical rhetoric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portolano, Marlana; Evans, Rand B

    2005-01-01

    Social psychologists might be surprised to learn that their discipline has been cut off from a vast and ancient family tree. The study of attitude change in the context of experimental social psychology began around 1918. It developed into a defined discipline in the 1930s and 1940s, particularly through the work of Carl Hovland and his associates. Unlike earlier specialties in experimental psychology, social psychology emerged well after the 19th-century split between psychology and philosophy in college curricula. Before this period of growth in empirical teaching and practice, the study of persuasion in classical rhetoric was a bedrock of higher education for more than 2000 years. Because of social psychology's late development in empirical science, there is a historical disconnect between experimental social psychology and its ancient philosophical counterpart, classical rhetoric. This article demonstrates similarities and differences between Hovland's findings and the theoretical groundings of classical rhetoric. We suggest areas where modern social psychology might benefit from a look at the older, more holistic theories of the art of rhetoric.

  1. The Developmental Quality of Participation Experiences: Beyond the Rhetoric that "Participation Is Always Good!"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Pedro D.; Azevedo, Cristina N.; Menezes, Isabel

    2012-01-01

    A powerful rhetoric regarding the importance of adolescents' civic engagement and political participation is common in contemporary societies, whilst citizens, both adolescent and adults, seem to express a growing scepticism and alienation regarding politics. Even if this disengagement is debatable, as there are simultaneous signs of an increasing…

  2. Medicine, Rhetoric, and Euthanasia: A Case Study in the Workings of a Postmodern Discourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Michael J.

    1993-01-01

    Offers a critical reading of a controversial narrative on euthanasia that appeared in the "Journal of the American Medical Association," paying particular attention to what the narrative is doing rhetorically. Suggests the narrative is addressing topic and readers in a postmodern manner. (SR)

  3. Rhetorical Analysis of the Doctoral Abstracts on English Language Teaching in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özmen, Kemal Sinan

    2016-01-01

    Doctoral dissertation has an important role to embark on an academic career confidently. The case is much more challenging for the early career doctorate who strives to contribute to the wider academic community. Using Swale's IMRD model, this study analyzed the rhetorical organization of English abstracts of 147 doctoral dissertations written…

  4. The Recovery of Rhetoric as "Methodeutic": A Renaissance of Discourse in a Postmodern Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boswell, Grant

    1994-01-01

    Describes the crisis of the humanities at the present time as an effect of the demise of the traditional, modern concept of the subject or self. Provides an analysis of views of the postmodern subject, as described by theorists such as Gianni Vattimo and Charles Pierce, and how these views might help redefine rhetoric in a postmodern age. (HB)

  5. From Hitler to Hurricanes, Vietnam to Virginia Tech: Using Historical Nonfiction to Teach Rhetorical Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckelhimer, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    Historical nonfiction is effective in teaching rhetoric for two main reasons. First, historical texts communicate through a real-world lens that students can understand and find familiar. Students study history and are exposed to current events through the news, school, and each other. Second, since history affects people's lives so broadly, its…

  6. Using Digital Comics to Develop Digital Literacy: Fostering Functionally, Critically, and Rhetorically Literate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchoff, Jeff

    2017-01-01

    Literacy scholarship has established the importance of teaching, supporting, and facilitating digital literacy education for 21st century students. Stuart Selber goes a step further, arguing that students must be functionally (using digital technology), critically (questioning digital technology), and rhetorically (producing effective digital…

  7. FDR's 'Four Freedoms' Campaign: The Rhetorical Contribution of Norman Rockwell's Posters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Lester C.

    Rhetorical criticism focusing on Norman Rockwell's paintings of the "Four Freedoms" provides reasons for the paintings' effectiveness within the context of Franklin Roosevelt's campaign to educate Americans about participation in World War II. The epideictic icons in Rockwell's paintings promoted identifications that constitute the…

  8. Rhetorics of Play in Kindergarten Programs in an Era of Accountability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Shelley Stagg; Riehl, Dianne

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we conduct a deductive analysis, using Sutton-Smith's "rhetorics of play," of the published kindergarten programs that have guided Ontario kindergarten teaching since 1944. Our analysis is used to gain an understanding of how we in Ontario have arrived at a point where play-based learning has been taken up by developers of…

  9. The Dorothy Doctrine of Engaged Scholarship: The Rhetorical Discipline "Had It All along"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartelius, E. Johanna; Cherwitz, Richard A.

    2010-01-01

    For rhetoricians, the concept "engaged scholarship" necessarily entails mutual implication, each term ringing hollow without the other. From the classical theories of rhetoric's role in the polis to the twentieth century's formative debates in the "Quarterly Journal of Speech," the disciplinary preoccupation with engagement is omnipresent--and for…

  10. "The Confessions of Nat Turner": Styron's "Meditation on History" as Rhetorical Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strine, Mary S.

    1978-01-01

    Examines Syron's novel as a strategic rhetorical response to the problems of racism in America with far-ranging implications in American social and institutional history. Argues that the novel's shaping vision illuminates the ethical dilemma of the liberal humanist and explores the ramifications of violence for self-definition and social reform.…

  11. Ego Defense and Media Access: Conflicting Rhetorical Needs of a Contemporary Social Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Kathleen J.

    1980-01-01

    Describes the relationship among the social movements of the 1960s, particularly the feminist movement and the mass media. Analyzes the nature of the rhetoric of social activism in that period which is characterized by the ego-defensive responses to media-created reality and by ego-building responses to media's reality-creating potential. (JMF)

  12. Forging a Mestiza Rhetoric: Mexican Women Journalists' Role in the Construction of a National Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Cristina D.

    2009-01-01

    This author investigates Mexican women journalists' writing during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. These women were at the center of the Latin American transnational experience--as female pioneers in the creation of a new mestiza rhetoric that reflected writing from the standpoint of inclusion that was resistant to oppressive ideologies. A…

  13. Authority and Legitimacy: A Rhetorical Case Study of the Iranian Revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisey, D. Ray; Trebing, J. David

    1986-01-01

    Argues that the legitimacy crisis in Iran in 1978-79 arose from the contrasting views of authority espoused by the Shah and the Ayatollah over 25 years and describes how their rhetoric expresses the two impulses of the progressive and the traditionalist orientation of authority. Employs a critical perspective to analyze various rhetorical…

  14. The Culture of Science and the Rhetoric of Scientism: From Francis Bacon to the Darwin Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessl, Thomas M.

    2007-01-01

    The culture of modern science continues to establish its public identity by appealing to values and historical conceptions that reflect its appropriation of various religious ideals during its formative period, most especially in the rhetoric of Francis Bacon. These elements have persisted because they continue to achieve similar goals, but the…

  15. "Rhetorike": What's in a Name? Toward a Revised History of Early Greek Rhetorical Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiappa, Edward

    1992-01-01

    Discusses philological evidence supporting a fourth-century origin of the word "rhetorike." Demonstrates that, once named, rhetoric became increasingly disciplinized. Argues that the naming of the phenomena is as relevant to the naming of disciplines as to other social realities. Suggests ways traditional accounts of fifth-century…

  16. Academic Writing in Korea: Its Dynamic Landscape and Implications for Intercultural Rhetoric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun-Young Julia

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies on intercultural rhetoric have frequently drawn from examples from Asian writers, especially those of Chinese and Japanese origin, but relatively little information has surfaced in scholarly literature regarding L2 writers from Korea. To fill this gap, this article provides an overview of how academic writing is conceived and…

  17. Rhetorical Listening: When the Eye Defers to the Ear for Civic Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Joyce Irene

    2011-01-01

    A recent book that appeared a few years ago, "How Early America Sounded" by historian Richard Cullen Rath, connects well with much of the new, exciting, interdisciplinary and rhetorical research that the National Council of Teachers of English (NCTE) and the Conference on College Composition and Communication (CCCC) have supported, promoted, and…

  18. Teaching Other People's Children, Elsewhere, for a While: The Rhetoric of a Travelling Educational Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Viv; Maguire, Meg; Trippestad, Tom Are; Liu, Yunqiu; Yang, Xiaowei; Zeichner, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    Teach for All is a good example of a globally travelling educational reform policy. In this article, we examine the rhetoric of the reform through an analysis of its public discourse, specifically the websites for the umbrella organization, 3 of its 35 constituent projects (Teach for America, Teach First and Teach for China) and one associated…

  19. Intercultural rhetoric analysis of the daily graphic and the New York ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of the study is to discover the differences and the similarities that exist between the rhetorical strategies used to report the news in the two newspaper editorials. The study investigates the effect of culture on journalistic style and strategies used to present the news in the two newspaper editorials. The study ...

  20. Making up the "Ummah": The Rhetoric of ISIS as Public Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Remy

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the author submits that the push for moderation and social cohesion through deradicalization is an inadequate response to violence inspired by the Islamic State in Iraq and Syria (ISIS) because it elides the political disaffections to which the group speaks. In advancing this argument, the author suggests that the rhetoric of ISIS…