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Sample records for underlying psychiatric disorders

  1. Psychiatric disorders and pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "SH. Akhondzadeh

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Psychiatric disorders are common in women during their childbearing years. Special considerations are needed when psychotic disorders present during pregnancy. Early identification and treatment of psychiatric disorders in pregnancy can prevent morbidity in pregnancy and in postpartum with the concomitant risks to mother and baby. Nevertheless, diagnosis of psychiatric illnesses during pregnancy is made more difficult by the overlap between symptoms of the disorders and symptoms of pregnancy. In majority of cases both psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy should be considered. However, psychiatric disorders in pregnancy are often under treated because of concerns about potential harmful effects of medication. This paper reviews findings about the presentation and course of major psychiatric disorders during pregnancy.

  2. Oxytocin and Psychiatric Disorders

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    Gokce Nur Say

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Oxytocin is a neuropeptide that plays critical role in mother-infant bonding, pair bonding and prosocial behaviors. Several neuropsychiatric disorders such as autism, schizophrenia, affective disorders, anxiety disorders, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, alcohol/substance addiction, aggression, suicide, eating disorders and personality disorders show abnormalities of oxytocin system. These findings have given rise to the studies searching therapeutic use of oxytocin for psychi-atric disorders. The studies of oxytocin interventions in psychiatric disorders yielded potentially promising findings. This paper reviews the role of oxytocin in emotions, behavior and its effects in psychiatric disorders. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(2: 102-113

  3. Forensic Psychiatric Aspects of Impulse Control Disorders

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    Huseyin Soysal

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Impulse control disorders is an important psychiatric disorder group which draws attention in recent years. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and other classical disorders like pyromania, kleptomania, intermittent explosive disorder and compulsive buying could be evasuated under this topic. The aim of this article is to review forensic psychiatric aspects of impulse control disorders and evaluate the disorders in terms of their legal status. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2015; 7(1: 16-29

  4. The nature of psychiatric disorders.

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    Kendler, Kenneth S

    2016-02-01

    become more true when they fit better into what else we know about the world. In our ongoing project to study and justify the nature of psychiatric disorders, we ought to be broadly pragmatic but not lose sight of an underlying commitment, despite the associated difficulties, to the reality of psychiatric illness. © 2015 World Psychiatric Association.

  5. Surgery for psychiatric disorders.

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    Cosgrove, G R

    2000-10-01

    The modern therapeutic approach to most psychiatric diseases involves a combination of well-supervised psychotherapy, pharmacotherapy, and electroconvulsive therapy. Patients who fail to adequately respond to these modern treatment methods and remain severely disabled may be considered for surgical intervention. Cingulotomy, capsulotomy, subcaudate tractotomy, and limbic leucotomy are the most common psychosurgical procedures performed today, with response rates in the 35% to 65% range. Modern stereotactic techniques have reduced complication rates, but controversy remains regarding the optimal surgical procedure. The major psychiatric diagnostic categories that might respond to surgery include treatment-refractory major affective disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and chronic anxiety states. Surgery should be considered as one part of an entire treatment plan and must be followed by an appropriate psychiatric rehabilitation program. It should only be carried out by an expert multidisciplinary team consisting of a neurologist a neurosurgeon, and a psychiatrist with experience in these disorders. Surgical intervention remains a reasonable therapeutic option for select patients with a disabling psychiatric disease and may be underutilized.

  6. The cerebellum and psychiatric disorders

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    Joseph ePhillips

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The cerebellum has been considered for a long time to play a role solely in motor coordination. However, studies over the past two decades have shown that the cerebellum also plays a key role in many motor, cognitive, and emotional processes. In addition, studies have also shown that the cerebellum is implicated in many psychiatric disorders including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorders, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders. In this review, we discuss existing studies reporting cerebellar dysfunction in various psychiatric disorders. We will also discuss future directions for studies linking the cerebellum to psychiatric disorders.

  7. Psychiatric disorders in myasthenia gravis

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    Mariana Inés Ybarra

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in patients with myasthenia gravis (MG. METHOD: Forty-one patients with MG answered to a structured psychiatric interview (MINI-Plus. RESULTS: Eleven (26.1% patients were diagnosed with a depressive disorder and 19 (46.3% were diagnosed with an anxiety disorder. Patients with dysthymia were older (p=0.029 and had longer disease duration (p=0.006. Patients with social phobia also had longer disease duration (p=0.039. CONCLUSION: Psychiatric disorders in MG are common, especially depressive and anxiety disorders.

  8. [Insomnia associated with psychiatric disorders].

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    Suzuki, Masahiro; Konno, Chisato; Furihata, Ryuji; Osaki, Koichi; Uchiyama, Makoto

    2009-08-01

    Most psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, mood disorders, or neurotic disorders are associated with sleep disorders of various kinds, among which insomnia is most prevalent and important in psychiatric practice. Almost all patients suffering from major depression complain of insomnia. Pharmacological treatment of insomnia associated with major depression shortens the duration to achieve remission of depression. Insomnia has been recently reported to be a risk factor for depression. In patients with schizophrenia, insomnia is often an early indicator of the aggravation of psychotic symptoms. Electroencephalographic sleep studies have also revealed sleep abnormalities characteristic to mood disorders, schizophrenia and anxiety disorders. A shortened REM sleep latency has been regarded as a biological marker of depression. Reduced amount of deep non-REM sleep has been reported to be correlated with negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Recently, REM sleep abnormalities were found in teenagers having post-traumatic stress disorder after a boat accident. Although these facts indicate that insomnia plays an important role in the development of psychiatric disorders, there are few hypotheses explaining the cause and effect of insomnia in these disorders. Here, we reviewed recent articles on insomnia associated with psychiatric disorders together with their clinical managements.

  9. Biofeedback for psychiatric disorders: a systematic review

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    Schoenberg, P.L.; David, A.S.

    2014-01-01

    Biofeedback potentially provides non-invasive, effective psychophysiological interventions for psychiatric disorders. The encompassing purpose of this review was to establish how biofeedback interventions have been used to treat select psychiatric disorders [anxiety, autistic spectrum disorders,

  10. CANNABIS AND PSYCHIATRIC DISORDERS

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    Loga, Slobodan; Loga-Zec, Svjetlana; Spremo, Mira

    2010-01-01

    There are connection between use of cannabis and many psychiatric disturbances in adolescents, especially “cannabis psychosis", depression, panic attacks and suicide. Negative effects could occur either as a result of a specific pharmacological effect of cannabis, or as the result of stressful experiences during the intoxication of cannabis in young people. Potentially is very dangerous high frequency suicidal ideation among cannabis users.

  11. Cannabis and psychiatric disorders.

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    Loga, Slobodan; Loga-Zec, Svjetlana; Spremo, Mira

    2010-06-01

    There are connection between use of cannabis and many psychiatric disturbances in adolescents, especially "cannabis psychosis", depression, panic attacks and suicide. Negative effects could occur either as a result of a specific pharmacological effect of cannabis, or as the result of stressful experiences during the intoxication of cannabis in young people. Potentially is very dangerous high frequency suicidal ideation among cannabis users.

  12. Parental psychiatric disorders and autism spectrum disorders

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    Jokiranta, Elina; Brown, Alan S.; Heinimaa, Markus; Cheslack-Postava, Keely; Partanen, Auli; Sourander, Andre

    2013-01-01

    The present population-based, case-control study examines associations between specific parental psychiatric disorders and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) including childhood autism, Asperger’s syndrome and pervasive developmental disorder (PDD-NOS). The cohort includes 4713 children born between 1987 and 2005 with diagnoses of childhood autism, Asperger’s syndrome or PDD-NOS. Cases were ascertained from the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register, and each was matched to four controls by gender, date of birth, place of birth, and residence in Finland. Controls were selected from the Finnish Medical Birth Register. Parents were identified through the Finnish Medical Birth Register and Finnish Central Population Register. Parental psychiatric diagnoses from inpatient care were collected from the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register. Conditional logistic regression models were used to assess whether parents’ psychiatric disorders predicted ASD after controlling for parents’ age, smoking during pregnancy and weight for gestational age. In summary, parental schizophrenia spectrum disorders and affective disorders were associated with the risk of ASD regardless of the subgroup. PDD-NOS was associated with all parental psychiatric disorders investigated. Further studies are needed to replicate these findings. These results may facilitate the investigation of shared genetic and familial factors between ASD and other psychiatric disorders. PMID:23391634

  13. Modern neurosurgery for psychiatric disorders.

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    Binder, D K; Iskandar, B J

    2000-07-01

    The evolution, rationale, and results of modern functional neurosurgery to treat psychiatric disorders are documented. The potential benefits of neurosurgical treatment for selected, critically ill, psychiatric patients are considered. The history, anatomic features, and evolution of and contemporary indications for the four currently used procedures (cingulotomy, subcaudate tractotomy, limbic leukotomy, and capsulotomy) are reviewed. Available outcome, neuropsychological assessment, and functional imaging data are presented. Recently, there has been a renaissance of interest in the surgical treatment of psychiatric disease. Modern psychiatric neurosurgical procedures are quite safe, with extremely low surgical mortality rates and transient postoperative morbidity. In selected cases, patients with conditions that had previously been completely refractory to comprehensive medical and behavioral intervention demonstrated significant improvement. This improvement was usually observed in the absence of long-term adverse neuropsychological consequences. Recent outcome studies, together with advances in neurobiology, psychiatry, functional imaging, and stereotaxy, support the further investigation of modern functional neurosurgical procedures to treat psychiatric disorders and their application for a subset of psychiatric patients with conditions refractory to all other therapies.

  14. Treatment Adherence in Psychiatric Disorders

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    Mehmet Emin Demirkol

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite developments in treatment options there is no significant increase in treatment adherence ratios. Inadherence in psychiatric disorders is higher than the other diseases. Loss of insight, drugs' side effects, sociodemographic features, personality traits are major factors affecting the treatment adherence. Determining and overcoming these factors for each disorder will help to improve adherence and reduce the treatment costs and hospitalization. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(1: 85-93

  15. Tobacco and psychiatric dual disorders.

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    Graham, Noni A; Frost-Pineda, Kimberly; Gold, Mark S

    2007-01-01

    Smoking is a leading cause of morbidity and premature mortality in the United States. The relationship between tobacco smoking and several forms of cancer, heart disease, stroke, chronic lung disease, and other medical diseases is well recognized and accepted. Recent epidemiological studies are now focusing on the link between tobacco use and psychiatric diseases. Experts now suggest that in the differential diagnosis of "smoker," depression, alcohol dependence, and schizophrenia are highest on the list. Studies are also focusing on the role of secondhand tobacco exposure, either in utero or during childhood, in the risk of dual disorders. Prenatal exposure may alter gene expression and change the risk for a variety of life-long psychiatric diseases, e.g., ADD/ADHD, antisocial personality disorders, substance use disorders, and major depression. Considerable time and effort have been devoted to studying the link between smoking and depression and also schizophrenia. We will focus on less well-studied areas in tobacco use and psychiatric dual disorders (including eating disorders), prenatal and early childhood secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure, and the relationship to the genesis of these dual disorders.

  16. Psychiatric disorders after radiation exposure

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    Kokai, Masahiro [Hyogo Coll. of Medicine, Nishinomiya (Japan); Soejima, Toshinori; Wang, Shangdong; Shinfuku, Naotaka

    2001-04-01

    This review focuses on the mental and psychological effects of medical radiation exposure, the nuclear accident at Three Mile Island, the Chernobyl disaster, atomic bomb explosions at Nagasaki and Hiroshima, and accidents at nuclear power plants and nuclear waste plants. Studies have shown that anxiety about the adverse effects of radiation in medicine (such as infertility, carcinogenicity, and genotoxicity) and fear for exposure has caused psychiatric disorders. Several studies on the mental health effects of the nuclear accident at Three Mile Island were conducted, and the results indicated that psychiatric distress persisted for a certain period of time, particularly in pregnant women and women who have children, even when no evidence of substantial of radiation exposure is seen clinically. The psychological consequences of the Chernobyl disaster have been investigated continuously, and various problems, e.g., acute stress reaction, neurosis, and psychosis, have been identified, although no physical damage due to the radiation or PTSD have been reported. By contrast, PTSD has been seen in survivors of the Nagasaki and Hiroshima nuclear explosions. A study in Ohio, (United States), which has a nuclear waste plant, investigated PTSD in people living near the plant and found that the symptom level was mild. In general, the most common symptoms among people with mental and psychological disorders due to radiation exposure are depression and anxiety, with many people having associated somatoform disorders, and some people complain of PTSD. Vague anxiety and fear of sequelae, regardless of the exposure dose, appears to cause such psychiatric disorders. Although it is rare for psychiatrists to see such cases of psychiatric disorders due to radiation exposure, their number may increase as psychiatric services become more widely available. (K.H.)

  17. Psychiatric disorders after radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kokai, Masahiro; Soejima, Toshinori; Wang, Shangdong; Shinfuku, Naotaka

    2001-01-01

    This review focuses on the mental and psychological effects of medical radiation exposure, the nuclear accident at Three Mile Island, the Chernobyl disaster, atomic bomb explosions at Nagasaki and Hiroshima, and accidents at nuclear power plants and nuclear waste plants. Studies have shown that anxiety about the adverse effects of radiation in medicine (such as infertility, carcinogenicity, and genotoxicity) and fear for exposure has caused psychiatric disorders. Several studies on the mental health effects of the nuclear accident at Three Mile Island were conducted, and the results indicated that psychiatric distress persisted for a certain period of time, particularly in pregnant women and women who have children, even when no evidence of substantial of radiation exposure is seen clinically. The psychological consequences of the Chernobyl disaster have been investigated continuously, and various problems, e.g., acute stress reaction, neurosis, and psychosis, have been identified, although no physical damage due to the radiation or PTSD have been reported. By contrast, PTSD has been seen in survivors of the Nagasaki and Hiroshima nuclear explosions. A study in Ohio, (United States), which has a nuclear waste plant, investigated PTSD in people living near the plant and found that the symptom level was mild. In general, the most common symptoms among people with mental and psychological disorders due to radiation exposure are depression and anxiety, with many people having associated somatoform disorders, and some people complain of PTSD. Vague anxiety and fear of sequelae, regardless of the exposure dose, appears to cause such psychiatric disorders. Although it is rare for psychiatrists to see such cases of psychiatric disorders due to radiation exposure, their number may increase as psychiatric services become more widely available. (K.H.)

  18. Paternal age and psychiatric disorders: A review

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    de Kluiver, H.; Buizer-Voskamp, J.E.; Dolan, C.V.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2017-01-01

    We review the hypotheses concerning the association between the paternal age at childbearing and childhood psychiatric disorders (autism spectrum- and attention deficit/hyperactive disorder) and adult disorders (schizophrenia, bipolar-, obsessive-compulsive-, and major depressive disorder) based on

  19. Animal cruelty and psychiatric disorders.

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    Gleyzer, Roman; Felthous, Alan R; Holzer, Charles E

    2002-01-01

    Animal cruelty in childhood, although generally viewed as abnormal or deviant, for years was not considered symptomatic of any particular psychiatric disorder. Although animal cruelty is currently used as a diagnostic criterion for conduct disorder, research establishing the diagnostic significance of this behavior is essentially nonexistent. In the current study, investigators tested the hypothesis that a history of substantial animal cruelty is associated with a diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder (APD) and looked for associations with other disorders commonly diagnosed in a population of criminal defendants. Forty-eight subjects, criminal defendants who had histories of substantial animal cruelty, were matched with defendants without this history. Data were systematically obtained from the files by using four specifically designed data retrieval outlines. A history of animal cruelty during childhood was significantly associated with APD, antisocial personality traits, and polysubstance abuse. Mental retardation, psychotic disorders, and alcohol abuse showed no such association.

  20. Neuroimaging distinction between neurological and psychiatric disorders.

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    Crossley, Nicolas A; Scott, Jessica; Ellison-Wright, Ian; Mechelli, Andrea

    2015-11-01

    It is unclear to what extent the traditional distinction between neurological and psychiatric disorders reflects biological differences. To examine neuroimaging evidence for the distinction between neurological and psychiatric disorders. We performed an activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis on voxel-based morphometry studies reporting decreased grey matter in 14 neurological and 10 psychiatric disorders, and compared the regional and network-level alterations for these two classes of disease. In addition, we estimated neuroanatomical heterogeneity within and between the two classes. Basal ganglia, insula, sensorimotor and temporal cortex showed greater impairment in neurological disorders; whereas cingulate, medial frontal, superior frontal and occipital cortex showed greater impairment in psychiatric disorders. The two classes of disorders affected distinct functional networks. Similarity within classes was higher than between classes; furthermore, similarity within class was higher for neurological than psychiatric disorders. From a neuroimaging perspective, neurological and psychiatric disorders represent two distinct classes of disorders. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  1. Constipation in elderly patients with psychiatric disorders

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    Naresh Nebhinani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Constipation is a common complaint among the elderly patients with psychiatric disorders because of age.related physiologic and anatomical changes, lifestyle factors, comorbid physical and surgical disorders, medications, including psychotropics, and polypharmacy. Lack of timely reporting by patients as well as inadequate expertise of physician may contribute to significant delay in treatment and poor quality of life. Primary constipation is amenable to lifestyle modification. (dietary changes, exercise, and physical activity, fiber intake, and laxatives when necessary. Secondary constipation should be treated with managing underlying pathology or predisposing factors, including effective treatment of psychiatric disorders and rationalizing psychotropic prescription. This review article focuses on the definition, etiology, assessment, treatment, and prevention of constipation in elderly population with mental illness.

  2. Skin disorders in chronic psychiatric illness

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    Mookhoek, E. J.; van de Kerkhof, P. C. M.; Hovens, J. E. J. M.; Brouwers, J. R. B. J.; Loonen, A. J. M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Chronic psychiatric patients are prone to develop skin diseases. However, epidemiological data are scarce. Objective To describe the prevalence of skin complaints and dermatological disorders in residential psychiatric patients. Methods Ninety-one randomly chosen patients of the

  3. Time Perception and Psychiatric Disorders

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    Hatice Ceviz

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Time perception is an ability which we use in every moment of daily life, that guides the formation and continuation of our behaviors and from an evolutionary perspective ensures survival. Internal clock models help us to understand time perception. Time perception is known to vary between individuals and particular situations. This variability is explained with the mechanisms which is associated with the processes related to attention, the speed of the internal clock and the memory unit. It is suggested that time perception is mainly associated with the activities of dopamine and acetylcholine. Some dopaminergic psychoactive substances like cocaine and amphetamine have all been shown to change time perception by increasing the speed of internal clock while on the other hand some antipsychotic drugs make an opposite change in time perception by descreasing the speed of the clock. Similarly, time perception is affected in some psychiatric disorders and an ethiopathological relationship between time perception disturbances and psychiatric disorders is suggested. In this article time perception changes in schizophrenia, attention deficit/hyperactivity syndrome, depression, anxiety disorders and personality disorders are briefly reviewed.

  4. Psychiatric disorders and sexual dysfunction.

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    Waldinger, Marcel D

    2015-01-01

    Sexual problems are highly prevalent among patients with psychiatric disorders. They may be caused by the psychopathology of the psychiatric disorder but also by its pharmacotherapy. Both positive symptoms (e.g., psychosis, hallucinations) as well as negative symptoms (e.g., anhedonia) of schizophrenia may negatively interfere with interpersonal and sexual relationships. Atypical antipsychotics have fewer sexual side-effects than the classic antipsychotics. Mood disorders may affect libido, sexual arousal, orgasm, and erectile function. With the exception of bupropion, agomelatine, mirtazapine, vortioxetine, amineptine, and moclobemide, all antidepressants cause sexual side-effects. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) may particularly delay ejaculation and female orgasm, but also can cause decreased libido and erectile difficulties. SSRI-induced sexual side-effects are dose-dependent and reversible. Very rarely, their sexual side-effects persist after SSRI discontinuation. This is often preceded by genital anesthesia. Some personality characteristics are a risk factor for sexual dysfunction. Also patients with eating disorders may suffer from sexual difficulties. So far, research into psychotropic-induced sexual side-effects suffers from substantial methodologic limitations. Patients tend not to talk with their clinician about their sexual life. Psychiatrists and other doctors need to take the initiative to talk about the patient's sexual life in order to become informed about potential medication-induced sexual difficulties. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Psychiatric disorders of patients seeking obesity treatment

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    Lin Hung-Yen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obese and overweight people have a higher risk of both chronic physical illness and mental illness. Obesity is reported to be positively associated with psychiatric disorders, especially in people who seek obesity treatment. At the same time, obesity treatment may be influenced by psychological factors or personality characteristics. This study aimed to understand the prevalence of mental disorders among ethnic Chinese who sought obesity treatment. Methods Subjects were retrospectively recruited from an obesity treatment center in Taiwan. The obesity treatments included bariatric surgery and non-surgery treatment. All subjects underwent a standardized clinical evaluation with two questionnaires and a psychiatric referral when needed. The psychiatric diagnosis was made thorough psychiatric clinic interviews using the SCID. A total of 841 patients were recruited. We compared the difference in psychiatric disorder prevalence between patients with surgical and non-surgical treatment. Results Of the 841 patients, 42% had at least one psychiatric disorder. Mood disorders, anxiety disorders and eating disorders were the most prevalent categories of psychiatric disorders. Females had more mood disorders and eating disorders than males. The surgical group had more binge-eating disorder, adjustment disorder, and sleep disorders than the non-surgical group. Conclusion A high prevalence of psychiatric disorders was found among ethnic Chinese seeking obesity treatment. This is consistent with study results in the US and Europe.

  6. Psychiatric disorders of patients seeking obesity treatment.

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    Lin, Hung-Yen; Huang, Chih-Kun; Tai, Chi-Ming; Lin, Hung-Yu; Kao, Yu-Hsi; Tsai, Ching-Chung; Hsuan, Chin-Feng; Lee, Su-Long; Chi, Shu-Ching; Yen, Yung-Chieh

    2013-01-02

    Obese and overweight people have a higher risk of both chronic physical illness and mental illness. Obesity is reported to be positively associated with psychiatric disorders, especially in people who seek obesity treatment. At the same time, obesity treatment may be influenced by psychological factors or personality characteristics. This study aimed to understand the prevalence of mental disorders among ethnic Chinese who sought obesity treatment. Subjects were retrospectively recruited from an obesity treatment center in Taiwan. The obesity treatments included bariatric surgery and non-surgery treatment. All subjects underwent a standardized clinical evaluation with two questionnaires and a psychiatric referral when needed. The psychiatric diagnosis was made thorough psychiatric clinic interviews using the SCID. A total of 841 patients were recruited. We compared the difference in psychiatric disorder prevalence between patients with surgical and non-surgical treatment. Of the 841 patients, 42% had at least one psychiatric disorder. Mood disorders, anxiety disorders and eating disorders were the most prevalent categories of psychiatric disorders. Females had more mood disorders and eating disorders than males. The surgical group had more binge-eating disorder, adjustment disorder, and sleep disorders than the non-surgical group. A high prevalence of psychiatric disorders was found among ethnic Chinese seeking obesity treatment. This is consistent with study results in the US and Europe.

  7. Treatment of sleep dysfunction and psychiatric disorders.

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    Becker, Philip M; Sattar, Muhammad

    2009-09-01

    Patients with neurologic disorders commonly experience sleep dysfunction and psychiatric disorders. The most common sleep dysfunction is insomnia, which is a primary symptom in 30% to 90% of psychiatric disorders. Insomnia and fatigue are prominent symptoms of anxiety disorders and major depression that may occur in patients who are treated but have residual sleep dysfunction. Anxiety and depressive disorders account for 40% to 50% of all cases of chronic insomnia. It is also recognized that primary insomnia and other primary sleep disorders produce symptoms that are similar to those reported by patients with psychiatric disorders. A clinician must judge whether sleep deprivation causes mood disturbance or whether depressive or anxiety disorder represents the primary reason for sleep dysfunction. When insomnia is comorbid with mild to moderate depression, therapy should begin with bedtime dosing of sedating antidepressants such as mirtazapine, nefazodone, or tricyclic antidepressants, which are preferred because of their sedative effects. Often side effects limit their usefulness. Intervention for chronic insomnia is similar in nonpsychiatric and psychiatric patients. Behavioral therapies, particularly multicomponent cognitive-behavioral therapy, and lifestyle changes show significant long-term efficacy as treatments for chronic insomnia. The most studied pharmacologic agents to treat insomnia are sedative hypnotic agents, particularly those that are active through the benzodiazepine receptor-GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) complex, such as benzodiazepines, eszopiclone, zaleplon, and zolpidem. Melatonin and the melatonin-receptor agonist ramelteon have not had adequate study in psychiatric patients to define their use, but small studies suggest benefit. Prescription of adjunctive trazodone (50-150 mg) is a common clinical practice to treat comorbid insomnia during antidepressant therapy, but published data are surprisingly limited, considering its frequent use

  8. Psychiatric emergencies (part II): psychiatric disorders coexisting with organic diseases.

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    Testa, A; Giannuzzi, R; Sollazzo, F; Petrongolo, L; Bernardini, L; Dain, S

    2013-02-01

    In this Part II psychiatric disorders coexisting with organic diseases are discussed. "Comorbidity phenomenon" defines the not univocal interrelation between medical illnesses and psychiatric disorders, each other negatively influencing morbidity and mortality. Most severe psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and depression, show increased prevalence of cardiovascular disease, related to poverty, use of psychotropic medication, and higher rate of preventable risk factors such as smoking, addiction, poor diet and lack of exercise. Moreover, psychiatric and organic disorders can develop together in different conditions of toxic substance and prescription drug use or abuse, especially in the emergency setting population. Different combinations with mutual interaction of psychiatric disorders and substance use disorders are defined by the so called "dual diagnosis". The hypotheses that attempt to explain the psychiatric disorders and substance abuse relationship are examined: (1) common risk factors; (2) psychiatric disorders precipitated by substance use; (3) psychiatric disorders precipitating substance use (self-medication hypothesis); and (4) synergistic interaction. Diagnostic and therapeutic difficulty concerning the problem of dual diagnosis, and legal implications, are also discussed. Substance induced psychiatric and organic symptoms can occur both in the intoxication and withdrawal state. Since ancient history, humans selected indigene psychotropic plants for recreational, medicinal, doping or spiritual purpose. After the isolation of active principles or their chemical synthesis, higher blood concentrations reached predispose to substance use, abuse and dependence. Abuse substances have specific molecular targets and very different acute mechanisms of action, mainly involving dopaminergic and serotoninergic systems, but finally converging on the brain's reward pathways, increasing dopamine in nucleus accumbens. The most common

  9. Impulse control disorders in psychiatric inpatients.

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    Müller, Astrid; Rein, Katharina; Kollei, Ines; Jacobi, Andrea; Rotter, Andrea; Schütz, Patricia; Hillemacher, Thomas; de Zwaan, Martina

    2011-08-15

    The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of impulse control disorders (ICDs) in a European psychiatric inpatient sample. Two hundred thirty four consecutive psychiatric inpatients (62% female) were examined using a module of the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders fourth edition (DSM-IV) that has been developed for ICDs (SCID-ICD). In addition to intermittent explosive disorder, pyromania, kleptomania, pathological gambling, and trichotillomania, the proposed ICDs not otherwise specified were assessed, including compulsive buying, nonparaphilic compulsive sexual behavior, pathological internet use, and pathological skin picking. Based on the SCID-ICD, a lifetime ICD rate of 23.5% and a current ICD rate of 18.8% were found. The most frequent ICDs were pathological skin picking (lifetime 7.3%, current 6.8%), compulsive buying (lifetime 6.8%, current 6.0%), and intermittent explosive disorder (lifetime 5.6%, current 3.4%). In contrast, referring to admission diagnoses taken from patients' charts only 3.8% of the inpatients were diagnosed with any current ICD. Individuals with comorbid ICD were significantly younger and had more admission diagnoses other than ICD. The results suggest high rates of ICDs among psychiatric inpatients that remain to be under-diagnosed in clinical routine. 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Psychiatric Conditions in Parkinson Disease: A Comparison With Classical Psychiatric Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buoli, Massimiliano; Caldiroli, Alice; Altamura, Alfredo Carlo

    2016-03-01

    Psychiatric conditions often complicate the outcome of patients affected by Parkinson disease (PD), but they differ from classical psychiatric disorders in terms of underlying biological mechanisms, clinical presentation, and treatment response. The purpose of the present review is to illustrate the biological and clinical aspects of psychiatric conditions associated with PD, with particular reference to the differences with respect to classical psychiatric disorders. A careful search of articles on main databases was performed in order to obtain a comprehensive review about the main psychiatric conditions associated with PD. A manual selection of the articles was then performed in order to consider only those articles that concerned with the topic of the review. Psychiatric conditions in patients with PD present substantial differences with respect to classical psychiatric disorders. Their clinical presentation does not align with the symptom profiles represented by Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders and International Classification of Diseases. Furthermore, psychiatry treatment guidelines are of poor help in managing psychiatric symptoms of patients with PD. Specific diagnostic tools and treatment guidelines are needed to allow early diagnosis and adequate treatment of psychiatric conditions in comorbidity with PD. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Psychiatric disorders in women with fertility problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baldur-Felskov, Birgitte; Kjaer, S K; Albieri, V

    2013-01-01

    Do women who don't succeed in giving birth after an infertility evaluation have a higher risk of psychiatric disorders compared with women who do?......Do women who don't succeed in giving birth after an infertility evaluation have a higher risk of psychiatric disorders compared with women who do?...

  12. Molecular pathways towards psychiatric disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chela-Flores, J.

    1987-07-01

    The observed fibrillar-neuronal organization of the cerebral cortex suggests that in the aetiology of certain psychiatric disorders the genomic response of the neuron to the challenge presented by stress or insults at various stages of development, is to set off a programmed chain of molecular events (or ''pathways''), as demonstrated in previous genetic studies. The understanding of these pathways is important in order to enhance our ability to influence these illnesses, and are hypothesized to be initiated by a nucleolar mechanism for inducing abnormal synthesis of the nerve growth factor (NGF). The hypothesis is used to approach tentatively the still open question regarding the pathogenesis of mental retardation (MR) and senile dementia (SD). (author). 25 refs

  13. Myths and realities of psychiatric disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farjam, A.

    2001-01-01

    Prevalence of psychiatric disorders is on the rise and causing massive global health burden which myths and misconceptions about psychiatric disorders and their available treatment abound in our society. Stigma attached with these disorders is phenomenal. This leads to avoidance of the patients in seeking prompt and appropriate treatment. This demands an instant realization of the gravity of the problems related with mental health and adoption of appropriate measures to increase awareness, in both masses and the health professionals of psychiatric disorders and their scientific treatment. (author)

  14. Identification of risk loci with shared effects on five major psychiatric disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph E.; Strauss, John; Strohmaier, Jana

    2013-01-01

    Findings from family and twin studies suggest that genetic contributions to psychiatric disorders do not in all cases map to present diagnostic categories. We aimed to identify specific variants underlying genetic effects shared between the five disorders in the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium: a......: autism spectrum disorder, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, and schizophrenia....

  15. Psychiatric disorder in male veterans and nonveterans.

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    Norquist, G S; Hough, R L; Golding, J M; Escobar, J I

    1990-05-01

    Prevalences of Diagnostic Interview Schedule/DSM-III psychiatric disorders for male veterans and nonveterans from four war eras were estimated using data from over 7500 male community respondents interviewed by the Epidemiologic Catchment Area program at five geographic areas across the country. Veterans serving after Vietnam (Post-Vietnam era) had greater lifetime and 6-month prevalences of psychiatric disorder than their nonveteran counterparts, whereas the reverse tended to be the case for the Vietnam, Korean, and World War II war eras. Comparisons across war eras revealed a trend for more psychiatric disorder, especially substance abuse, in younger veterans and nonveterans than in older respondents.

  16. Subjectivity and severe psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, John

    2011-01-01

    To have a complete human science in the mental health field it is essential to give adequate attention to both the objective and the subjective data related to people with psychiatric disorders. The tendency in the past has been to ignore or discount one or the other of these data sources. Subjective data are particularly neglected, sometimes considered (only) part of the "art" of medicine since the usual methodologies of the physical sciences in themselves are not adequate to reflect the nature, elusiveness, and complexity of human subjective experience. The complete experience of hallucinated voices, for instance, often includes not only the voices themselves but also terrible anguish and terrifying inability to concentrate. But even such descriptors fall unnecessarily short of reflecting the data of the experience, thus leaving research, theory, and treatment with incomplete information. To represent adequately the subjective data it is essential to recognize that besides the usual discursive knowledge and methods of traditional physical science, a second kind of knowledge and method is required to reflect the depth of human experience. To accomplish this, we must employ approaches to narrative and the arts that are uniquely capable of capturing the nature of these experiences. Only by attending seriously in our research, training, theory, and practice to the unique nature of subjective data is it possible to have a true human science for our field.

  17. Impulse control disorders in adult psychiatric inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jon E; Levine, Laura; Kim, Daniel; Potenza, Marc N

    2005-11-01

    The authors' goal was to examine the prevalence of impulse control disorders in psychiatric inpatients. They used the Minnesota Impulsive Disorders Interview, a semistructured clinical interview assessing pathological gambling, trichotillomania, kleptomania, pyromania, intermittent explosive disorder, compulsive buying, and compulsive sexual behavior, to screen 204 consecutively admitted psychiatric inpatients. One hundred twelve of the inpatients were women (54.9%), and the mean age of the 204 inpatients was 40.5 years (SD=13.2, range=18-83). Patients whose screen was positive for an impulse control disorder were evaluated with structured clinical interviews. Sixty-three patients (30.9%) were diagnosed with at least one current impulse control disorder. The most common impulse control disorders were compulsive buying (N=19 [9.3%]), kleptomania (N=16 [7.8%]), and pathological gambling (N=14 [6.9%]). Patients with and without co-occurring impulse control disorders did not differ significantly from each other on demographic measures or number or type of psychiatric diagnoses other than impulse control disorders. Impulse control disorders appear common among psychiatric inpatients. Additional, larger studies are needed to examine the prevalence of impulse control disorders in the general population and specific psychiatric groups.

  18. Family patterns of psychopathology in psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdemir, Osman; Boysan, Murat; Özdemir, Pınar Güzel; Coşkun, Salih; Özcan, Halil; Yılmaz, Ekrem; Atilla, Ercan

    2015-01-01

    Familial loading and crucial outcomes of family history of psychopathology in psychiatric disorders have long been recognized. There has been ample literature providing convincing evidence for the importance of family psychopathology in development of emotional disturbances in children as well as worse outcomes in the course of psychiatric disorders. More often, maternal psychopathology seems to have been an issue of interest rather than paternal psychopathology while effects of second-degree familiality have received almost no attention. In this study, we addressed the relations between affected first- and second-degree relatives of probands and categories of psychiatric disorders. Subjects were 350 hospitalized psychiatric inpatients, consecutively admitted to psychiatry clinics in Van, Turkey. Mean age was 34.16 (SD±12) and 51.4% of the sample consisted of male patients. Assessment of psychopathology in psychiatric probands was conducted based on DSM-IV TR. Familial loading of psychiatric disorders amongst first- and second-degree relatives of patients were initially noted primarily relying on patients' retrospective reports, and confirmed by both phone call and following official health records via the Medical Knowledge System. We analyzed the data using latent class analysis approach. We found four patterns of familial psychopathology. Latent homogeneous subsets of patients due to familial characteristics were as paternal kinship psychopathology with schizophrenia, paternal kinship psychopathology with mood disorders, maternal kinship psychopathology and core family psychopathology. Family patterns were critical to exerting variation in psychiatric disorders of probands and affected relatives. Probands with a core family pattern of psychopathology exhibited the most colorful clinical presentations in terms of variation in psychopathology. We observed a specificity of intergenerational transmission of psychiatric disorders when family patterns of

  19. Psychiatric disorders in bone marrow transplant patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.G.; Irfan, M.; Shamsi, T.S.; Hussain, M.

    2007-01-01

    To identify the psychiatric illnesses in patients with hematological/oncological disorders encountered during blood and bone marrow transplantation. All consecutive patients, aged 15 years and above, who fulfilled inclusion and exclusion criteria and underwent blood and bone marrow transplantation, were enrolled in this study. Psychiatric assessment comprised of a semi-structured interview based on Present Status Examination (PSE). The psychiatric diagnosis was made on the basis of International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) system of classification devised by W.H.O. Eighty patients, who fulfilled the inclusion criteria, were inducted in this study. Thirty (37.5%) cases were found to have psychiatric disorders. Out of the total, 60 (75%) were males and 20 (25%) females. Adjustment disorder was the most frequent diagnosis (n=12), followed by major depression (n=7). Rest of the diagnoses made were generalized anxiety disorder, acute psychotic disorder, delirium and depressive psychosis. High psychiatric morbidity associated with blood and bone marrow transplantation was observed. It indicates the importance of psychiatric intervention during the isolation period of BMT as well as pre-transplant psychiatric assessment and counseling regarding procedure. (author)

  20. The serotonin transporter in psychiatric disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spies, Marie; Knudsen, Karen Birgitte Moos; Lanzenberger, Rupert

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, psychotropics affecting the serotonergic system have been used extensively in the treatment of psychiatric disorders. Molecular imaging, in particular PET, has allowed for elucidation of the essential contribution of the serotonin transporter to the pathophysiology...... of various psychiatric disorders and their treatment. We review studies that use PET to measure cerebral serotonin transporter activity in psychiatric disorders, focusing on major depressive disorder and antidepressant treatment. We also discuss opportunities and limitations in the application...... of this neuroimaging method in clinical practice. Although results from individual studies diverge, meta-analysis indicates a trend towards reduced serotonin transporter availability in patients with major depressive disorder. Inconsistencies in results might suggest symptom heterogeneity in major depressive disorder...

  1. Narcolepsy and Psychiatric Disorders: Comorbidities or Shared Pathophysiology?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Marie Morse

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Narcolepsy and psychiatric disorders have a significant but unrecognized relationship, which is an area of evolving interest, but unfortunately, the association is poorly understood. It is not uncommon for the two to occur co-morbidly. However, narcolepsy is frequently misdiagnosed initially as a psychiatric condition, contributing to the protracted time to accurate diagnosis and treatment. Narcolepsy is a disabling neurodegenerative condition that carries a high risk for development of social and occupational dysfunction. Deterioration in function may lead to the secondary development of psychiatric symptoms. Inversely, the development of psychiatric symptoms can lead to the deterioration in function and quality of life. The overlap in pharmaceutical intervention may further enhance the difficulty to distinguish between diagnoses. Comprehensive care for patients with narcolepsy should include surveillance for psychiatric illness and appropriate treatment when necessary. Further research is necessary to better understand the underlying pathophysiology between psychiatric disease and narcolepsy.

  2. Engram Formation in Psychiatric Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J. Gebicke-Haerter

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Environmental factors substantially influence beginning and progression of mental illness, reinforcing or reducing the consequences of genetic vulnerability. Often initiated by early traumatic events, engrams or memories are formed that may give rise to a slow and subtle progression of psychiatric disorders. The large delay between beginning and time of onset (diagnosis may be explained by efficient compensatory mechanisms observed in brain metabolism that use optional pathways in highly redundant molecular interactions.To this end, research has to deal with mechanisms of learning and long-term memory formation, which involves a epigenetic changes, b altered neuronal activities and c changes in neuron-glia communication. On the epigenetic level, apparently DNA-methylations are more stable than histone modifications, although both closely interact. Neuronal activities basically deliver digital information, which clearly can serve as basis for memory formation (LTP. However, research in this respect has long time neglected the importance of glia. They are more actively involved in the control of neuronal activities than thought before. They can both reinforce and inhibit neuronal activities by transducing neuronal information from frequency-encoded to amplitude and frequency-modulated calcium wave patterns spreading in the glial syncytium by use of gap junctions. In this way, they serve integrative functions. In conclusion, we are dealing with two concepts of encoding information that mutually control each other and synergize: a digital (neuronal and a wave-like (glial computing, forming neuron-glia functional units with inbuilt feedback loops to maintain balance of excitation and inhibition. To better understand mental illness, we have to gain more insight into the dynamics of adverse environmental impact on those cellular and molecular systems. This report summarizes existing knowledge and draws some outline about further research in molecular

  3. Psychopathology and comorbidity of psychiatric disorders in patients with kleptomania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baylé, Franck J; Caci, Hervé; Millet, Bruno; Richa, Sami; Olié, Jean-Pierre

    2003-08-01

    This study compared patients with kleptomania, patients with alcohol abuse or dependence, and psychiatric patients without impulse-control disorders or substance-related disorders on several key psychopathological dimensions. In addition, the comorbidity of kleptomania with other psychiatric disorders was examined. Eleven patients with kleptomania recruited over a cumulative 2-year period and 60 patients with alcohol abuse or dependence and 29 psychiatric comparison patients recruited over a consecutive 6-month period participated in structured clinical interviews to determine the presence of impulse-control and substance-related disorders and of other psychiatric disorders that were comorbid with kleptomania. Psychopathological dimensions were measured with the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, the Sensation Seeking Scale, the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale, and the anxiety and depression subscales of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Significant group effects were found for the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale total and cognitive impulsivity scores, with the patients with kleptomania having higher impulsivity scores than the other groups. Significant group differences were found on the Sensation Seeking Scale total and disinhibition scores. No significant group effects were found for the mood and anxiety measures. Patients with kleptomania had high rates of comorbid psychiatric disorders, particularly mood disorders, other impulse-control disorders, and substance abuse or dependence (mainly nicotine dependence). Kleptomania presented a specific psychopathological profile that distinguished patients with this disorder from patients with alcohol abuse or dependence and other psychiatric comparison patients. Impulsivity was the major psychopathological feature of kleptomania. A link between kleptomania and affective disorder was supported by the high rate of comorbid affective disorders in patients with kleptomania and a specific pattern of variation in

  4. Association of Oxidative Stress with Psychiatric Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Waseem; Noreen, Hamsa; Castro-Gomes, Vitor; Mohammadzai, Imdadullah; da Rocha, Joao Batista Teixeira; Landeira-Fernandez, J

    2016-01-01

    When concentrations of both reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species exceed the antioxidative capability of an organism, the cells undergo oxidative impairment. Impairments in membrane integrity and lipid and protein oxidation, protein mutilation, DNA damage, and neuronal dysfunction are some of the fundamental consequences of oxidative stress. The purpose of this work was to review the associations between oxidative stress and psychological disorders. The search terms were the following: "oxidative stress and affective disorders," "free radicals and neurodegenerative disorders," "oxidative stress and psychological disorders," "oxidative stress, free radicals, and psychiatric disorders," and "association of oxidative stress." These search terms were used in conjunction with each of the diagnostic categories of the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders and World Health Organization's International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. Genetic, pharmacological, biochemical, and preclinical therapeutic studies, case reports, and clinical trials were selected to explore the molecular aspects of psychological disorders that are associated with oxidative stress. We identified a broad spectrum of 83 degenerative syndromes and psychiatric disorders that were associated with oxidative stress. The multi-dimensional information identified herein supports the role of oxidative stress in various psychiatric disorders. We discuss the results from the perspective of developing novel therapeutic interventions.

  5. Obesity and psychiatric disorder: developmental trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustillo, Sarah; Worthman, Carol; Erkanli, Alaattin; Keeler, Gordon; Angold, Adrian; Costello, E Jane

    2003-04-01

    To identify age-related trajectories of obesity from childhood into adolescence, and to test the association of these trajectories with the development of psychiatric disorders (conduct disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, substance abuse, depression, and anxiety). White children (N = 991) 9 to 16 years old from the Great Smoky Mountains Study, a representative sample of rural youth, were evaluated annually over an 8-year period for height, weight, psychiatric disorder, and vulnerabilities for psychiatric disorder. Longitudinal analyses on the repeated measures data were conducted using developmental trajectory models and generalized estimating equation models. Obesity was 3 to 4 times more common than expected from national rates using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2000 criteria. Four developmental trajectories of obesity were found: no obesity (73%), chronic obesity (15%), childhood obesity (5%), and adolescent obesity (7%). Only chronic obesity was associated with psychiatric disorder: oppositional defiant disorder in boys and girls and depressive disorders in boys. In a general population sample studied longitudinally, chronic obesity was associated with psychopathology.

  6. Out and Down: Incarceration and Psychiatric Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnittker, Jason; Massoglia, Michael; Uggen, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders are unusually prevalent among current and former inmates, but it is not known what this relationship reflects. A putative causal relationship is contaminated by assorted influences, including childhood disadvantage, the early onset of most disorders, and the criminalization of substance use. Using the National Comorbidity…

  7. Prevalence of Psychiatric Disorders in Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichstrom, Lars; Berg-Nielsen, Turid Suzanne; Angold, Adrian; Egger, Helen Link; Solheim, Elisabet; Sveen, Trude Hamre

    2012-01-01

    Background: Many disorders in childhood and adolescence were already present in the preschool years. However, there is little empirical research on the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in young children. A true community study using structured diagnostic tools has yet to be published. Methods: All children born in 2003 or 2004 in the city of…

  8. Psychiatric disorders, comorbidity, and suicidality in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Guilherme; Nock, Matthew K; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Hwang, Irving; Kessler, Ronald C

    2010-07-01

    Prior studies have reported that psychiatric disorders are among the strongest predictors of suicidal behavior (i.e., suicide ideation, plans, and attempts). However, surprisingly little is known about the independent associations between each disorder and each suicidal behavior due to a failure to account for comorbidity. This study used data from a representative sample of 5782 respondents participating in the Mexican National Comorbidity Survey (2001-2002) to examine the unique associations between psychiatric disorders and suicidality. A prior psychiatric disorder was present in 48.8% of those with a suicide ideation and in 65.2% of those with an attempt. Discrete-time survival models adjusting for comorbidity revealed that conduct disorder and alcohol abuse/dependence were the strongest predictors of a subsequent suicide attempt. Most disorders predicted suicidal ideation but few predicted the transition from ideation to a suicide plan or attempt. M-NCS is a household survey that excluded homeless and institutionalized people, and the diagnostic instrument used did not include an assessment of all DSM-IV disorders which would increase the comorbidity discussed here. These results reveal a complex pattern of associations in which diverse psychiatric disorders impact different parts of the pathway to suicide attempts. These findings will help inform clinical and public health efforts aimed at suicide prevention in Mexico and other developing countries.

  9. Psychiatric disorders and general medical conditions: implications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Psychiatric disorders and general medical conditions: implications for the clinician. ... Patients with severe mental illness have higher than expected prevalence rates of co-morbid general medical conditions, particularly metabolic and cardiovascular disease. They are ... planning of treatment for either group of disorders.

  10. Age at fatherhood: heritability and associations with psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frans, E M; Lichtenstein, P; Hultman, C M; Kuja-Halkola, R

    2016-10-01

    Advancing paternal age has been linked to psychiatric disorders. These associations might be caused by the increased number of de novo mutations transmitted to offspring of older men. It has also been suggested that the associations are confounded by a genetic liability for psychiatric disorders in parents. The aim of this study was to indirectly test the confounding hypotheses by examining if there is a genetic component to advancing paternal age and if men with a genetic liability for psychiatric disorders have children at older ages. We examined the genetic component to advancing paternal age by utilizing the twin model in a cohort of male twins (N = 14 679). We also studied ages at childbirth in men with or without schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and/or autism spectrum disorder. Ages were examined in: (1) healthy men, (2) affected men, (3) healthy men with an affected sibling, (4) men with healthy spouses, (5) men with affected spouses, and (6) men with healthy spouses with an affected sibling. The twin analyses showed that late fatherhood is under genetic influence (heritability = 0.33). However, affected men or men with affected spouses did not have children at older ages. The same was found for healthy individuals with affected siblings. Instead, these men were generally having children at younger ages. Although there is a genetic component influencing late fatherhood, our data suggest that the associations are not explained by psychiatric disorders or a genetic liability for psychiatric disorders in the parent.

  11. Receptor study of psychiatric disorders using PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suhara, Tetsuya

    1992-01-01

    Recent receptor studies of psychiatric disorders using PET have been focused on the change in the number of D 2 dopamine receptors in the striatum of drug-naive schizophrenic patients. One study confirmed an increase in D 2 receptors, while another study denied it. Although there were some differences in the approaches of the two groups, the reason for the discrepancy is not clear yet. Looking to psychiatric disorders other than schizophrenia, our recent study revealed a possible role of dopamine D 1 receptors in bipolar mood disorders. However, some problems must be resolved for further receptor studies with PET. For example, our recent study shows that desipamine decreases the in vivo binding of dopramine D 1 and D 2 receptors whereas these is no effect on dopamine D 1 and D 2 receptors in vitro. Additionally significant methodological problems lie in the method of evaluation of the non-specific binding and the effect of endogenous neurotransmitters. Moreover, difficulties in the diagnosis of psychiatric disorders and ethical problems in psychiatric research are critical factors in receptor studies with PET in psychiatric disorders. (author)

  12. Co-occurring psychiatric disorders and alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen Rich, J; Martin, Peter R

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol use disorder (AUD), a term that comprises both alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence, is a highly prevalent psychiatric disorder. Over 50% of treated AUD patients also suffer from other psychiatric disorder(s). Detailed study has revealed disorders across multiple psychiatric domains with rates of co-occurrence far greater than chance, suggesting a synergistic relationship. The basis of this synergy is explored along with its multiple forms, including behavioral and neurobiologic. Specific topics include the predisposition to both AUD and co-occurring psychopathology, the vulnerability to environmental risk factors that exacerbate these predispositions, and the nature of reinforcement in acute intoxication. Co-occurrence can also modify and exacerbate the neuroadaptations underpinning chronic dependence and relapse, the manifestations of acute and protracted withdrawal, emergence of medical and psychiatric complications, and ultimately the potential for relapse. The outcomes of co-occurrence as well as the unique impact it has on proper treatment are also discussed. Throughout, the significance of recognizing co-occurrence is emphasized since, both neurobiologically and clinically, the synergies between co-occurring disorders yield a result far more complex than a mere sum of the component disorders. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Lipids in psychiatric disorders and preventive medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Miriam; Levant, Beth; Reichel, Martin; Gulbins, Erich; Kornhuber, Johannes; Müller, Christian P

    2017-05-01

    Psychiatric disorders like mood disorders, schizophrenia, or drug addiction affect a sizeable proportion of the human population and severely compromise quality of life. Therefore, measures to prevent the manifestation, and treatments to ameliorate the symptoms, of these disorders are in high demand. Brain lipids determine the localization and function of proteins in the cell membrane of neurons. Lipids may also act as neurotransmitters or other signalling molecules. The lipid composition of the brain can be influenced by nutrition, environmental factors, and by behavioural activity. Thus, lipids represent a target for preventive medicine of psychiatric disorders. Here we review how brain lipids contribute to normal behaviour and to major psychiatric disorders with the focus on phospholipids/fatty acids, sphingolipids, and endocannabinoids. Accumulating evidence suggests a crucial role for membrane forming and signalling lipids in the brain in the etiopathologies of depression, bipolar disorders, schizophrenia, and drug addiction. Lipids also represent potential preventive interventions for these psychiatric disorders by either targeted dietary supplementation or pharmacological manipulation of lipid regulating enzymes. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Incidence of childhood psychiatric disorders in India

    OpenAIRE

    Malhotra, Savita; Kohli, Adarsh; Kapoor, Mehak; Pradhan, Basant

    2009-01-01

    Background: Studies on incidence of childhood mental disorders are extremely rare globally and there are none from India. Incidence studies though more difficult and time consuming, provide invaluable information on the pattern and causes of occurrence of mental disorders allowing opportunity for early intervention and primary prevention. Aim: This study aimed at estimating the incidence of psychiatric disorders in school children. Materials and Methods: A representative sample of school chil...

  15. Birth order and postpartum psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munk-Olsen, Trine; Jones, Ian; Laursen, Thomas Munk

    2014-05-01

    Primiparity is a well-established and significant risk factor for postpartum psychosis and especially bipolar affective disorders. However, no studies have, to our knowledge, quantified the risk of psychiatric disorders after the first, second, or subsequent births. The overall aim of the present study was to study the risk of first-time psychiatric episodes requiring inpatient treatment after the birth of the first, second, or third child. A cohort comprising 750,127 women was defined using information from Danish population registries. Women were followed individually from the date of birth of their first, second, or third child through the following 12 months over the period 1970-2011. The outcome of interest was defined as first-time admissions to a psychiatric hospital with any type of psychiatric disorder. Women who had a first psychiatric episode which required inpatient treatment after their first (n = 1,327), second (n = 735), or third (n = 238) delivery were included. The highest risk was found in primiparous mothers 10-19 days postpartum [relative risk (RR) = 8.65; 95% confidence interval (CI): 6.89-10.85]. After the second birth, the highest risk was at 60-89 days postpartum (RR = 2.01; 95% CI: 1.52-2.65), and there was no increased risk after the third birth. The effect of primiparity was strongest for bipolar disorders. Primiparity is a significant risk factor for experiencing a first-time episode with a psychiatric disorder, especially bipolar disorders. A second birth was associated with a smaller risk, and there was no increased risk after the third birth. The risk of postpartum episodes after the second delivery increased with increasing inter-pregnancy intervals, a result which warrants further investigation. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Psychiatric Disorders Among People Living With HIV/AIDS Attending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of psychiatric disorders in the study population was found to be 38.3%. Mood disorders accounted for 78.3% of psychiatric disorders (Major Depressive Disorder 52.2%; Dysthymia 26.1%), Anxiety disorders 15.6% (Panic disorder 6.1%; Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder 5.2%; Social Phobia 4.3%), ...

  17. Prevalence and Correlates of Psychiatric Disorders among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aims to determine the pattern, prevalence and correlates of psychiatric disorders among the residents of a juvenile justice facility in Nigeria and to speculate appropriate policy responses. METHODS: Using a cross-sectional comparative study design, 60 consecutive residents of the Ibadan juvenile Remand home ...

  18. Glial Contributions to Childhood Psychiatric Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Hanna E.

    2009-01-01

    There are several researches that demonstrate the importance of glia for child psychiatric disorders. One study found that levels of two astrocyctic proteins are altered in the brains of adults with autism while another research found that changes in glia are induced by some early adverse experiences.

  19. Psychiatric disorders and traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Schwarzbold

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Marcelo Schwarzbold1, Alexandre Diaz1, Evandro Tostes Martins2, Armanda Rufino1, Lúcia Nazareth Amante1,3, Maria Emília Thais1, João Quevedo4, Alexandre Hohl1, Marcelo Neves Linhares1,5,6, Roger Walz1,61Núcleo de Pesquisas em Neurologia Clínica e Experimental (NUPNEC, Departamento de Clínica Médica, Hospital Universitário, UFSC, Florianópolis, SC, Brazil; 2Unidade de Terapia Intensiva, Hospital Governador Celso Ramos, Florianópolis, SC, Brazil; 3Departamento de Enfermagem, UFSC, Florianópolis, SC, Brazil; 4Laboratório de Neurociências, UNESC, Criciúma, SC, Brazil; 5Departamento de Cirurgia, Hospital Universitário, UFSC, Florianópolis, SC, Brazil; 6Centro de Cirurgia de Epilepsia de Santa Catarina (CEPESC, Hospital Governador Celso Ramos, Florianópolis, SC, BrazilAbstract: Psychiatric disorders after traumatic brain injury (TBI are frequent. Researches in this area are important for the patients’ care and they may provide hints for the comprehension of primary psychiatric disorders. Here we approach epidemiology, diagnosis, associated factors and treatment of the main psychiatric disorders after TBI. Finally, the present situation of the knowledge in this field is discussed.Keywords: psychiatric disorders, traumatic brain injury, neuropsychiatry, diagnostic, epidemiology, pathophysiology

  20. Psychiatric Disorders, Comorbidity, and Suicidality in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Borges, Guilherme; Nock, Matthew K.; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Hwang, Irving; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2009-01-01

    Background Prior studies have reported that psychiatric disorders are among the strongest predictors of suicidal behavior (i.e., suicide ideation, plans, and attempts). However, surprisingly little is known about the independent associations between each disorder and each suicidal behavior due to a failure to account for comorbidity. Methods This study used data from a representative sample of 5782 respondents participating in the Mexican National Comorbidity Survey (2001–2002) to ...

  1. Isoprenoid Pathway And Neurological And Psychiatric Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Ravikumar A; Jyothi J k; Leelamma S; Kurup P A

    1999-01-01

    The coexistence of neuronal degeneration, psychiatric manifestation, immune activation and malignant transformation has been documented in literature, suggesting a central dysfunction in the pathophysiology of these disorders. The isoprenoid pathway may be candidate in this respect, in view of the changes in the concentration of some products of this pathway in many of these disorders, however, no detailed study has been carried out in this respect. In view of this, a study was undertaken on ...

  2. Psychiatric disorders of patients seeking obesity treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Lin Hung-Yen; Huang Chih-Kun; Tai Chi-Ming; Lin Hung-Yu; Kao Yu-Hsi; Tsai Ching-Chung; Hsuan Chin-Feng; Lee Su-Long; Chi Shu-Ching; Yen Yung-Chieh

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Obese and overweight people have a higher risk of both chronic physical illness and mental illness. Obesity is reported to be positively associated with psychiatric disorders, especially in people who seek obesity treatment. At the same time, obesity treatment may be influenced by psychological factors or personality characteristics. This study aimed to understand the prevalence of mental disorders among ethnic Chinese who sought obesity treatment. Methods Subjects were re...

  3. Smoking and psychiatric disorders: a comorbidity survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopes F.L.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological and clinical studies have shown a positive correlation between smoking and psychiatric disorders. To investigate the prevalence of cigarette smoking, 277 psychiatric outpatients with anxiety or depressive disorders (DSM-IV answered a self-evaluation questionnaire about smoking behavior and were compared with a group of 68 control subjects. The diagnoses (N = 262 were: 30.2% (N = 79 major depressive disorder, 23.3% (N = 61 panic disorder, 15.6% (N = 41 social anxiety disorder, 7.3% (N = 19 other anxiety disorders, and 23.7% (N = 62 comorbidity disorders. Among them, 26.3% (N = 69 were smokers, 23.7% (N = 62 were former smokers and 50.0% (N = 131 were nonsmokers. The prevalence of nicotine dependence among the smokers was 59.0% (DSM-IV. The frequency of cigarette smoking did not show any significant difference among the five classes of diagnosis. The social anxiety disorder patients were the heaviest smokers (75.0%, with more unsuccessful attempts to stop smoking (89.0%. The frequency of former smokers was significantly higher among older subjects and nonsmokers were significantly younger (chi² = 9.13, d.f. = 2, P = 0.01. Our data present some clinical implications suggesting that in our psychiatric outpatient sample with anxiety disorder, major depression and comorbidity (anxiety disorder and major depression, the frequency of cigarette smoking did not differ from the frequency found in the control group or in general population studies. Some specific features of our population (outpatients, anxiety and depressive disorders might be responsible for these results.

  4. Prenatal genetic counselling for psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglis, Angela; Morris, Emily; Austin, Jehannine

    2017-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders like schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression, anxiety, and obsessive-compulsive disorder are common disorders with complex aetiology. They can exact a heavy toll on the individual with the condition and can have significant impact on family members too. Accordingly, psychiatric disorders can arise as a concern in the prenatal context - couples may be interested in learning about the chance for their child to develop the illness that manifests in the family and may be interested in discussing options for prenatal testing. However, the complex nature of these conditions can present challenges for clinicians who seek to help families with these issues. We established the world's first specialist genetic counselling service of its kind in Vancouver, Canada, in 2012, and to date, have provided counselling for ~500 families and have demonstrated increases in patients' empowerment and self efficacy after genetic counselling. We draw on our accumulated clinical experience to outline the process by which we approach prenatal genetic counselling for psychiatric disorders to assist other clinicians in providing thoughtful, comprehensive support to couples seeking out this service. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Neuroreceptor imaging in psychiatric disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frankle, W.G.; Laruelle, M.

    2002-01-01

    Molecular imaging, the study of receptors, transporters and enzymes, as well as other cellular processes, has grown in recent years to be one of the most active neuroimaging areas. The application of single photon emission tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) techniques to the study of psychiatric illness has lead to increased understanding of disease processes as well as validated, in vivo, theories of illness etiology. Within the field of psychiatry these techniques have been applied most widely to the study of schizophrenia. Studies within schizophrenia are largely limited to either the dopamine or serotonin system. This is due in large part to the availability of suitable radiotracers as well as the current theories on the etiology of the illness. Two basic study designs are used when studying schizophrenia using molecular imaging and make up the majority of studies reviewed in this manuscript. The first type, termed ''clinical studies'', compares the findings from PET and SPECT studies in those with schizophrenia to normal controls in an attempt to understand the pathophysiology of the illness. The second study design, termed ''occupancy studies'', uses these techniques to enhance the understanding of the mechanism of action of the medications used in treating this illness. This review will focus on the findings of molecular imaging studies in schizophrenia, focusing, for the most part, on the serotonin and dopamine systems. Emphasis will be placed on how these findings and techniques are currently being used to inform the development of novel treatments for schizophrenia. (author)

  6. Use of Modafinil in Psychiatric Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Hanifi Kokacya

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Modafinil, is a psychostimulant drug with neurochemical and behavourial effects, distinct from those of amphetamine. It is used to treat patients with narcolepsy and other excessive sleepiness. Modafinil has dopaminergic, noradrenergic, histaminergic, glutamergic, serotonergic and GABAergic interactions. It is also shown that modafinil has neuroprotective effects via antioxidative mechanisms. Besides modafinil shows initial promise for a variety of off-label indications in psychiatry, including bipolar disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and schizophrenia . The aim of this article is to review the literature on clinical use of modafinil in psychiatric disorders. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(1: 42-51

  7. Neuroreceptor imaging in psychiatric disorders

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    Frankle, W.G. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY, (United States). Coll. of Physicians and Surgeons; Laruelle, M. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States). New York State Psychiatric Inst.

    2002-11-01

    Molecular imaging, the study of receptors, transporters and enzymes, as well as other cellular processes, has grown in recent years to be one of the most active neuroimaging areas. The application of single photon emission tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) techniques to the study of psychiatric illness has lead to increased understanding of disease processes as well as validated, in vivo, theories of illness etiology. Within the field of psychiatry these techniques have been applied most widely to the study of schizophrenia. Studies within schizophrenia are largely limited to either the dopamine or serotonin system. This is due in large part to the availability of suitable radiotracers as well as the current theories on the etiology of the illness. Two basic study designs are used when studying schizophrenia using molecular imaging and make up the majority of studies reviewed in this manuscript. The first type, termed ''clinical studies'', compares the findings from PET and SPECT studies in those with schizophrenia to normal controls in an attempt to understand the pathophysiology of the illness. The second study design, termed ''occupancy studies'', uses these techniques to enhance the understanding of the mechanism of action of the medications used in treating this illness. This review will focus on the findings of molecular imaging studies in schizophrenia, focusing, for the most part, on the serotonin and dopamine systems. Emphasis will be placed on how these findings and techniques are currently being used to inform the development of novel treatments for schizophrenia. (author)

  8. Potential risk factors for psychiatric disorders in patients with headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimnuan, Chaichana; Asawavichienjinda, Thanin; Srikiatkhachorn, Anan

    2012-01-01

    Psychiatric comorbidities are common among patients with headache. These can compromise the quality of life of patients and may affect the result of treatment. No available systematic study concerning this problem has been conducted in Thailand. The study aimed to determine the prevalence and risk factors of psychiatric disorders in patients with headache in tertiary care facility. The study was conducted at the Headache Clinic, King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital in Bangkok, Thailand. One hundred and thirteen patients were enrolled. Diagnosis of headache was made based on International Classification of Headache Disorders II system. Mental disorders were assessed using Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders. Other possible risk factors were extracted using significant physical symptoms count and accumulated risk for mental disorder. Of the 113 samples analyzed, the prevalence of depression, anxiety, and somatoform disorder was found to be 29.2%, 9.7%, and 27.4%, respectively. No definite relationship between headache types and mental disorders was observed. High number of significant physical complaints and health concerns significantly increased the risk for depression (OR = 4.6, 95% CI = 1.6 to 13.5) while the level of possible risk for mental disorder was associated with an increased risk for somatoform disorder (OR = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.2 to 2.2). The study confirmed high prevalence of psychiatric comorbidities in patients with headache. The results of this study will raise the awareness of physicians to possible underlying mental disorders in patients with headache and facilitate appropriate treatment or psychiatric referral. © 2011 American Headache Society.

  9. Sex Differences in Stress-Related Psychiatric Disorders: Neurobiological Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangasser, Debra A.; Valentino, Rita J.

    2014-01-01

    Stress is associated with the onset and severity of several psychiatric disorders that occur more frequently in women than men, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. Patients with these disorders present with dysregulation of several stress response systems, including the neuroendocrine response to stress, corticolimbic responses to negatively valenced stimuli, and hyperarousal. Thus, sex differences within their underlying circuitry may explain sex biases in disease prevalence. This review describes clinical studies that identify sex differences within the activity of these circuits, as well as preclinical studies that demonstrate cellular and molecular sex differences in stress responses systems. These studies reveal sex differences from the molecular to the systems level that increase endocrine, emotional, and arousal responses to stress in females. Exploring these sex differences is critical because this research can reveal the neurobiological underpinnings of vulnerability to stress-related psychiatric disorders and guide the development of novel pharmacotherapies. PMID:24726661

  10. Caffeine, mental health, and psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Diogo R

    2010-01-01

    Caffeine intake is so common that its pharmacological effects on the mind are undervalued. Since it is so readily available, individuals can adjust their own dose, time of administration and dose intervals of caffeine, according to the perceived benefits and side effects of each dose. This review focuses on human studies of caffeine in subjects with and without psychiatric disorders. Besides the possibility of mild drug dependence, caffeine may bring benefits that contribute to its widespread use. These benefits seem to be related to adaptation of mental energy to the context by increasing alertness, attention, and cognitive function (more evident in longer or more difficult tasks or situations of low arousal) and by elevating mood. Accordingly, moderate caffeine intake (effects on depression and ADHD have been insufficiently studied. Conversely, in rare cases high doses of caffeine can induce psychotic and manic symptoms, and more commonly, anxiety. Patients with panic disorder and performance social anxiety disorder seem to be particularly sensitive to the anxiogenic effects of caffeine, whereas preliminary data suggests that it may be effective for some patients with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). The threshold for the anxiogenic effect of caffeine is influenced by a polymorphism of the A2A receptor. In summary, caffeine can be regarded as a pharmacological tool to increase energy and effortful behavior in daily activities. More populational (cross-sectional and prospective) and experimental studies are necessary to establish the role of caffeine intake in psychiatric disorders, especially its putative efficacy on depressive mood and cognitive/attentional disorders.

  11. [Psychiatric disorders in intensive care units].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ampélas, J F; Pochard, F; Consoli, S M

    2002-01-01

    The diagnosis and treatment of psychiatric disorders in intensive care patients have been for a long time neglected. They are nowadays better recognized and managed. These disorders are mainly: delirium; anxiety disorders, from simple anxiety to panic disorder with agitation; adaptation disorders with depressive mood; brief psychotic disorders with persecution ideas. The manifestations of psychiatric disorders occur not only during the stay in intensive care unit (ICU) but also after transfer from ICU and several months after discharge from hospital. Part of psychiatric disorders is caused by organic or toxic causes (metabolic disturbances, electrolyte imbalance, withdrawal syndromes, infection, vascular disorders and head trauma). Nevertheless some authors estimate that they are due to the particular environment of ICU. The particularities of these units are: a high sound level (noise level average between 50 and 60 dBA), the absence of normal day-night cycle, a sleep deprivation, a sensory deprivation, the inability for intubated patients to talk, the pain provoked by some medical procedures, the possibility to witness other patients' death. Although most patients feel secure in ICU, some of them perceive ICU's environment as threatening. Simple environmental modifications could prevent the apparition of some psychiatric manifestations: efforts should be made to decrease noise generated by equipment and staff conversations, to provide external windows, visible clocks and calendar, to ensure adequate sleep with normal day-night cycle and to encourage more human contact. Psychotropic drugs are useful but a warm and empathetic attitude can be very helpful. Some authors described specific psychotherapeutic interventions in ICU (hypnosis, coping strategies.). To face anxiety, many patients have defense attitudes as psychological regression and denial. Patient's family is suffering too. Relative's hospitalization causes a crisis in family. Unpredicted illnesses often

  12. Connectomic intermediate phenotypes for psychiatric disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex eFornito

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Psychiatric disorders are phenotypically heterogeneous entities with a complex genetic basis. To mitigate this complexity, many investigators study so-called intermediate phenotypes that putatively provide a more direct index of the physiological effects of candidate genetic risk variants than overt psychiatric syndromes. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI is a particularly popular technique for measuring such phenotypes because it allows interrogation of diverse aspects of brain structure and function in vivo. Much of this work however, has focused on relatively simple measures that quantify variations in the physiology or tissue integrity of specific brain regions in isolation, contradicting an emerging consensus that most major psychiatric disorders do not arise from isolated dysfunction in one or a few brain regions, but rather from disturbed interactions within and between distributed neural circuits; i.e., they are disorders of brain connectivity. The recent proliferation of new MRI techniques for comprehensively mapping the entire connectivity architecture of the brain, termed the human connectome, has provided a rich repertoire of tools for understanding how genetic variants implicated in mental disorder impact distinct neural circuits. In this article, we review research using these connectomic techniques to understand how genetic variation influences the connectivity and topology of human brain networks. We highlight recent evidence from twin and imaging genetics studies suggesting that the penetrance of candidate risk variants for mental illness, such as those in SLC6A4, MAOA, ZNF804A and APOE, may be higher for intermediate phenotypes characterised at the level of distributed neural systems than at the level of spatially localised brain regions. The findings indicate that imaging connectomics provides a powerful framework for understanding how genetic risk for psychiatric disease is expressed through altered structure and function of

  13. [Screening for psychiatric disorders among prison inmates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamman, T; Linaker, O M

    2000-08-10

    Prison inmates have high frequencies of psychiatric disorders. Most prisons have little health-personnel resources, and methods to help focus resources towards those with serious health-care needs would be useful. The Global Symptom Index (GSI) of the Symptom Check List-90 (SCL-90) has performed well in other populations. Prisoners at Kristiansand County Prison, Norway were asked to participate in the study, and 187 of 206 (91%) consented. All filled in the SCL-90 during the first four days of incarceration, and were examined clinically by a psychiatrist. Clinical examination revealed 40 persons with psychiatric disorder. Of these, 37 had a GSI score > or = 1. There were three false negatives and two false positives. Based on various cut-off levels for the GSI, we found a GSI cut-off value at 1.5 to perform best with sensitivity = 0.78, specificity = 0.87, and Number Needed to Diagnose = 1.55. SCL-90 performs well as a screening instrument for psychiatric disorders among prison inmates.

  14. Hair loss related to primary psychiatric disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Çığıl Fettahoğlu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Scalp hair has greater social and psychological importance than its' biological significance. In the hair disorder consultation services there are lots of patients who are often considered as "difficult" or "problematic", because of their biopsychosocial problems. When it’s considered that the hair loss patients refer to the dermatology clinics in the first step, we can understand the importance of the awareness of the clinicians about the causal and/or consequential relationship between hair diseases and the psychological problems. In this paper, hair loss diseases that are related to primary psychiatric disorders are reviewed.

  15. Caregiving for Relatives with Psychiatric Disorders vs. Co-Occurring Psychiatric and Substance Use Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrum, Travis

    2018-02-08

    Despite the high comorbidity of psychiatric and substance use disorders, extremely little research has examined the experience of caregiving for relatives with co-occurring psychiatric and substance use disorders (COD). The primary objective of the present article is to identify characteristics pertaining to care recipients, family caregivers, and the experience of providing caregiving associated with care recipients having COD vs. only having psychiatric disorders (PD). A U.S. community recruited sample of 1394 family caregivers of persons with COD or PD was employed. Chi-square and Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon tests were conducted. Compared to caregivers of persons with only PD, caregivers of persons with COD provided slightly less caregiving but experienced significantly greater negative effects from providing care. Caregivers of persons with COD were also more likely to fear care recipients would engage in multiple problematic behaviors. Most significant differences found in providing care to recipients with COD vs. only PD persisted when examining care recipients with severe psychiatric disorders or more moderate psychiatric disorders. Additional findings and treatment implications are described.

  16. Characteristics of schizophrenia suicides compared with suicides by other diagnosed psychiatric disorders and those without a psychiatric disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Juncheng; Zhang, Jie

    2014-05-01

    There has been much literature on schizophrenia, but very little is known about the characteristics of suicides with schizophrenia in comparison with the suicides with other diagnosed psychiatric disorders and without psychiatric disorders. Thirty-eight suicides with schizophrenia, 150 suicides with other psychiatric disorder, and 204 suicides without a psychiatric disorder were entered in current study. Psychological autopsy (PA) was applied to collect information of the suicides. Social demographic factors and clinical characteristics of the suicides were measured. The well validated standard scales were applied: Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS), Landerman's Social Support Scale (DSSI), Dickman's Impulsivity Inventory (DII), Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD). Suicide intents were appraised by the Beck Suicide Intent Scale (SIS). The SCID based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV (DSM-IV) was applied to assess the psychiatric status of individuals. Demographic characteristics, clinical characteristics, method of suicide and suicide intents of suicides were compared among the three groups (schizophrenia group, other psychiatric disorders group, and none psychiatric disorders group). There were 9.7% of suicides who suffered schizophrenia. The current study found that being female was the risk factor for suicides with schizophrenia in rural China, which was opposite to the previous studies. The suicides with psychiatric disorder scored higher on hopelessness, anxiety, and depression, but lower on social support and impulsivity than suicides without psychiatric disorder. The suicides with psychiatric disorder were less impulsive than none psychiatric disorders group, too. The schizophrenia group did not show more violence than other psychiatric disorders group. This research compared the demographic characteristics, clinical characteristics, method of suicide and suicide intents among the

  17. Psychiatric consultation and substance use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specker, Sheila; Meller, William H; Thurber, Steven

    2009-01-01

    A substantial number of patients in general hospitals will evince substance abuse problems but a majority is unlikely to be adequately identified in the referral-consultation process. This failure may preclude patients from receiving effective interventions for substance use disorders. 1. To evaluate all referred patients for possible substance use disorders. 2. To ascertain the degree of convergence between patients referred for chemical problems and the corresponding DSM diagnosis. 3. To compare demographic data for substance abusing patients and referrals not so classified. 4. To evaluate conditions concomitant with substance use disorders. Consecutive one-year referrals (524) to consultation-liaison psychiatric services were scrutinized for chemically-related problems by psychiatric consultants. Of the referrals, 176 met criteria for substance use disorders (SUD) (57% alcohol; 25% other drugs; 18% both alcohol and other drugs). Persons diagnosed with SUD tended to be younger, male, non-Caucasian, unmarried, and unemployed. They were more likely to be depressed, have liver and other gastrointestinal problems, and to have experienced traumatic events; they also tended to have current financial difficulties. Most were referred for SUD evaluation by personnel in general medicine and family practice. Following psychiatric consultation, SUD designated patients were referred mainly to substance abuse treatment programs. The only variable related to recommended inpatient versus outpatient services for individuals with SUD was the Global Assessment of Functioning Axis (GAF) with persons having lower estimated functioning more likely to be referred for inpatient interventions. These data are similar to the results of past studies in this area. Unlike previous investigations in the domain of consultative-liaison psychiatry, financial stressors and specific consultant recommendations were included in data gathering. Although the results are encouraging in that individuals

  18. Psychiatric Consultation and Substance Use Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Specker

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background A substantial number of patients in general hospitals will evince substance abuse problems but a majority is unlikely to be adequately identified in the referral-consultation process. This failure may preclude patients from receiving effective interventions for substance use disorders. Objectives 1. To evaluate all referred patients for possible substance use disorders. 2. To ascertain the degree of convergence between patients referred for chemical problems and the corresponding DSM diagnosis. 3. To compare demographic data for substance abusing patients and referrals not so classified. 4. To evaluate conditions concomitant with substance use disorders. Method Consecutive one-year referrals (524 to consultation-liaison psychiatric services were scrutinized for chemically-related problems by psychiatric consultants. Results Of the referrals, 176 met criteria for substance use disorders (SUD (57% alcohol; 25% other drugs; 18% both alcohol and other drugs. Persons diagnosed with SUD tended to be younger, male, non-Caucasian, unmarried, and unemployed. They were more likely to be depressed, have liver and other gastrointestinal problems, and to have experienced traumatic events; they also tended to have current financial difficulties. Most were referred for SUD evaluation by personnel in general medicine and family practice. Following psychiatric consultation, SUD designated patients were referred mainly to substance abuse treatment programs. The only variable related to recommended inpatient versus outpatient services for individuals with SUD was the Global Assessment of Functioning Axis (GAF with persons having lower estimated functioning more likely to be referred for inpatient interventions. Conclusions These data are similar to the results of past studies in this area. Unlike previous investigations in the domain of consultative-liaison psychiatry, financial stressors and specific consultant recommendations were included in data

  19. Psychiatric Consultation and Substance Use Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Specker

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: A substantial number of patients in general hospitals will evince substance abuse problems but a majority is unlikely to be adequately identified in the referral-consultation process. This failure may preclude patients from receiving effective interventions for substance use disorders. Objectives: 1. To evaluate all referred patients for possible substance use disorders. 2. To ascertain the degree of convergence between patients referred for chemical problems and the corresponding DSM diagnosis. 3. To compare demographic data for substance abusing patients and referrals not so classified. 4. To evaluate conditions concomitant with substance use disorders. Method: Consecutive one-year referrals (524 to consultation-liaison psychiatric services were scrutinized for chemically-related problems by psychiatric consultants. Results: Of the referrals, 176 met criteria for substance use disorders (SUD (57% alcohol; 25% other drugs; 18% both alcohol and other drugs. Persons diagnosed with SUD tended to be younger, male, non-Caucasian, unmarried, and unemployed. They were more likely to be depressed, have liver and other gastrointestinal problems, and to have experienced traumatic events; they also tended to have current financial difficulties. Most were referred for SUD evaluation by personnel in general medicine and family practice. Following psychiatric consultation, SUD designated patients were referred mainly to substance abuse treatment programs. The only variable related to recommended inpatient versus outpatient services for individuals with SUD was the Global Assessment of Functioning Axis (GAF with persons having lower estimated functioning more likely to be referred for inpatient interventions. Conclusions: These data are similar to the results of past studies in this area. Unlike previous investigations in the domain of consultative-liaison psychiatry, financial stressors and specific consultant recommendations were included in

  20. Psychiatric Disorders and Treatments: A Primer for Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forness, Steven R.; Walker, Hill M.; Kavale, Kenneth A.

    2003-01-01

    This article for teachers provides basic information on psychiatric disorders and treatments. It covers oppositional defiant and conduct disorders, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, depression or other mood disorders, anxiety disorders, schizophrenia or other psychotic disorders, and autistic spectrum disorders. Insets provide additional…

  1. Psychiatric disorders among the Mapuche in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, Benjamin; Kohn, Robert; Rioseco, Pedro; Saldivia, Sandra; Torres, Silverio

    2005-06-01

    The Mapuche are the largest indigenous group in Chile; yet almost all data on the mental health of indigenous populations are from North America. The study examines the differential DSM-III-R prevalence rates of psychiatric disorders and service utilization among indigenous and non-indigenous community residence. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) was administered to a stratified random sample of 75 Mapuche and 434 non-Mapuche residents of the province of Cautín. Lifetime prevalence and 12-month prevalence rates were estimated. Approximately 28.4% of the Mapuche population had a lifetime, and 15.7% a 12-month, prevalent psychiatric disorder compared to 38.0% and 25.7%, respectively, of the non-Mapuche. Few significant differences were noted between the two groups; however, generalized anxiety disorder, simple phobia, and drug dependence were less prevalent among the Mapuche. Service utilization among the Mapuche with mental illness was low. This is a preliminary study based on a small sample size. Further research on the mental health of indigenous populations of South America is needed.

  2. Isoprenoid Pathway And Neurological And Psychiatric Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravikumar A

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The coexistence of neuronal degeneration, psychiatric manifestation, immune activation and malignant transformation has been documented in literature, suggesting a central dysfunction in the pathophysiology of these disorders. The isoprenoid pathway may be candidate in this respect, in view of the changes in the concentration of some products of this pathway in many of these disorders, however, no detailed study has been carried out in this respect. In view of this, a study was undertaken on the isoprenoid pathway in some of these disorders - primary generalized epilepsy, Parkinson’s disease (PD, schizophrenia, manic depressive psychosis (MDP, CNS glioma, multiple sclerosis, subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPEand a familial group with familial coexistence of schizophrenia, PD, primary generalized epilepsy, malignant neoplasia, rheumatoid arthritis and syndrome-X over three generations. The following parameters were studied in the patients of these disorders as compared to age and sex matched control subjects - ubiquinone dolichol, digoxin, activity of HMG CoA reductase in the plasma and erthyorcyte membrane Na -K--ATpase. Increase in the activity of HMG CoA reductase and in the concentration of plasma digoxin and dolichol was observed in most of these cases. On the other hand, there was decrease in the concentration of plasma ubiquinone. Decrease in the activity of erythrocyte membrane Na-K- ATpase activity for which digoxin is an inhibitor was also observed in all the cases studied. These results indicate an upregulation of the isoprenoid pathway in the neurological and psychiatric disorders studied. The implications of this change is discussed in details.

  3. Mitochondrial mutations in subjects with psychiatric disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Sequeira

    Full Text Available A considerable body of evidence supports the role of mitochondrial dysfunction in psychiatric disorders and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA mutations are known to alter brain energy metabolism, neurotransmission, and cause neurodegenerative disorders. Genetic studies focusing on common nuclear genome variants associated with these disorders have produced genome wide significant results but those studies have not directly studied mtDNA variants. The purpose of this study is to investigate, using next generation sequencing, the involvement of mtDNA variation in bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, major depressive disorder, and methamphetamine use. MtDNA extracted from multiple brain regions and blood were sequenced (121 mtDNA samples with an average of 8,800x coverage and compared to an electronic database containing 26,850 mtDNA genomes. We confirmed novel and rare variants, and confirmed next generation sequencing error hotspots by traditional sequencing and genotyping methods. We observed a significant increase of non-synonymous mutations found in individuals with schizophrenia. Novel and rare non-synonymous mutations were found in psychiatric cases in mtDNA genes: ND6, ATP6, CYTB, and ND2. We also observed mtDNA heteroplasmy in brain at a locus previously associated with schizophrenia (T16519C. Large differences in heteroplasmy levels across brain regions within subjects suggest that somatic mutations accumulate differentially in brain regions. Finally, multiplasmy, a heteroplasmic measure of repeat length, was observed in brain from selective cases at a higher frequency than controls. These results offer support for increased rates of mtDNA substitutions in schizophrenia shown in our prior results. The variable levels of heteroplasmic/multiplasmic somatic mutations that occur in brain may be indicators of genetic instability in mtDNA.

  4. Co-occurrence of psychiatric disorders in child psychiatric patients and nonpatients: a circumplex model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeffer, C R; Plutchik, R

    1989-01-01

    This study of 106 preadolescent psychiatric inpatients, 101 preadolescent psychiatric outpatients, and 101 preadolescent nonpatients examined the prevalence of psychiatric disorders and co-occurrence of psychiatric diagnoses. The inpatients and outpatients had significantly more co-occurring diagnoses than the nonpatients. For a given diagnosis there are varying frequencies of co-occurring disorders. The similar structure and prevalence among co-occurring diagnoses in this sample of children fit a circumplex model in which variation among disorders appears to be continuous in the form of a closed circle.

  5. The influence of reduction mammaplasty on dermato-psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firat, Cemal; Erbatur, Serkan; Aytekin, Ahmet Hamdi

    2012-08-01

    Macromastia can cause psychiatric disorders, such as anxiety and depression, and decreases in self-esteem and self-confidence. These problems often externalize themselves on the skin, causing lesions characterized by various degrees of excoriations and lichenified plaques. Mammaplasty operations are very effective in the treatment of neurotic excoriations and similar skin lesions as well as any underlying psychiatric disorders. This study included 17 patients with macromastia and neurotic excoriation lesions who underwent psychiatric treatment for various reasons. Follow ups were performed using routine photographs used in breast surgeries. During the postoperative follow ups, the excoriations for nearly every patient healed within 2 weeks. Some lesions healed with atrophic scars and some with permanent hyperpigmentation. Patients' physical complaints, such as backache, shoulder ache and submammary pruritic dermatitis, were also observed to heal. In addition, the patients stated that they felt better psychologically, and most also reported stopping psychiatric treatment. The psychological problems caused by macromastia include neurotic excoriation and similar skin problems, and aesthetic reduction mammaplasty surgeries are very effective in the treatment of these lesions. Body image perception comprises an important part of self-respect and self-esteem, and psychological-status cosmetic surgery can be evaluated as an alternative to psychological treatment.

  6. Screening of alcohol use disorders in psychiatric outpatients: influence of gender, age, and psychiatric diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Autet, Mónica; Garriga, Marina; Zamora, Francisco Javier; González, Idilio; Usall, Judith; Tolosa, Leticia; Benítez, Concepción; Puertas, Raquel; Arranz, Belén

    2017-07-14

    Alcohol use disorders (AUD) are 2 times higher among psychiatric patients than in the general population. The under-recognition of this dual diagnosis can entail several negative outcomes. Early assessment with a screening tool like the CAGE questionnaire could be an opportunity to improve patients' prognoses. The objective of this study is to assess AUD risk in an outpatient psychiatric sample with a modified CAGE, considering the influence of age, gender and clinical psychiatric diagnosis. An observational, multicentric, descriptive study was carried out. The 4-item CAGE scale, camouflaged in a healthy lifestyle questionnaire, was implemented, using a cut-off point of one. 559 outpatients were assessed. 54% were female and the average age was 50.07 years. 182 patients presented a CAGE score ≥1 (45.1% of men and 21.9% of women). Gender was the strongest predictor of a positive result in CAGE, as men were 3.03 times more likely to score ≥1 on the CAGE questionnaire (p < .001, 95% CI: 0.22-0.49). Patients with bipolar and personality disorders had the highest rates of CAGE scores ≥1 (45.2 and 44.9%, respectively), with a significant association between diagnosis and a positive score (p = .002). Patients above 60 years were 2.5 times less likely to score ≥1 on the CAGE (p = .017, 95% CI: 0.19-0.85). Specific screening questionnaires, like the CAGE scale, can be an easy and useful tool in the assessment of AUD risk in psychiatric outpatients. Male patients with a bipolar or personality disorder present a higher risk of AUD.

  7. Psychiatric Disorders among Prisoners: A National Study in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gilany, A; Khater, M; Gomaa, Z; Hussein, E; Hamdy, I

    2016-03-01

    To estimate the overall prevalence of psychiatric disorders among prisoners and its associated factors, and to estimate the prevalence of different mental and personality disorders. This was a cross-sectional descriptive study carried out in 16 randomly selected prisons in Egypt. A stratified proportional random sample of 1350 adult prisoners was included in the study. Data were collected by a psychiatrist by direct interview with prisoners. The study questionnaire obtained information about socio-demographics, prisoner circumstances, medical history, psychological factors, legal history of the prisoner as well as the Arabic version of the Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM-IV Axis I and Axis II disorders. Bivariate and logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the significant factors associated with presence of psychiatric disorder. The overall point prevalence of psychiatric disorders was 22%, excluding substance abuse and alcohol intake. The independent predictors for psychiatric disorders were work in prison (adjusted odds ratio = 0.6), family visits (0.5), substance abuse outside prison (2.7), history of psychiatric disorders outside prison (2.0), and repeated admission to the prison (2.5). The prevalence of mood disorders and psychosis was 3.3% and 1.3%, respectively. The overall prevalence of personality disorders was 13.6%. Psychiatric disorders are prevalent among prisoners; the most common being personality and antisocial disorders. There is a need for psychiatric assessment of prisoners when first imprisoned and for subsequent regular monitoring and treatment.

  8. Physical disorders among Southeast Asian refugee outpatients with psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ta, K; Westermeyer, J; Neider, J

    1996-09-01

    The study assessed the prevalence and duration of axis III physical disorders and the resulting level of disability among Southeast Asian refugee outpatients with axis I psychiatric disorders. A total of 266 consecutive patients who were evaluated in a psychiatric outpatient clinic were assessed for the presence of axis III conditions through questions about physical symptoms, a medical history and review of records, physical examination, and laboratory screening. The sample included 158 Hmong, 58 Laotian, 43 Vietnamese, and seven Cambodian patients. Fifty-five percent of the patients had one or more axis III disorders, most of which were chronic and were not associated with extreme disability. Neurological conditions were most common, and the sequelae of war-related trauma were prominent. No associations were found between the presence of axis III conditions and age, gender, marital status, or ethnic group. In 48 cases, the axis III condition may have caused or exacerbated the axis I condition. Routine medical history and a physical examination, including a neurological examination, are recommended for all psychiatric patients, including outpatients.

  9. [Related, induced and associated psychiatric disorders to cannabis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laqueille, Xavier

    2005-01-15

    Cannabis disorders, according to the DSM-IV and the ICD-10 criteria, include cannabis intoxication, cannabis abuse, cannabis dependence, and cannabis-related disorders (anxiety disorders, psychotic disorders, cannabis intoxication delirium). Although cannabis withdrawal syndrome has clinical importance, it is not included in these classifications. The amotivational syndrome remains controversial. The psychiatric disorders related to cannabis use are anxiety disorders, depressive disorders and psychotic disorders. Cannabis use could be closely linked with the neurobiology of schizophrenia. As the other psychoactive substances, cannabis use worsens the psychiatric outcomes and is associated with poorer treatment compliance.

  10. The prognosis of psychiatric disorders and the imperative of eclectic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper states that generally psychiatric disorders contribute significantly to disease burden worldwide and that the prognosis of many of these disorders is poor. It emphasizes that there is no system of therapeutics that treats all conditions; the orthodox psychiatric system being no exception. That being the case the ...

  11. The Role of Sleep in Childhood Psychiatric Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfano, Candice A.; Gamble, Amanda L.

    2009-01-01

    Although sleep problems often comprise core features of psychiatric disorders, inadequate attention has been paid to the complex, reciprocal relationships involved in the early regulation of sleep, emotion, and behavior. In this paper, we review the pediatric literature examining sleep in children with primary psychiatric disorders as well as…

  12. Psychiatric interventions for AIDS-spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, S W; Markowitz, J

    1986-10-01

    Although the medical and psychosocial problems posed by acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) are unique, interventions to treat AIDS-related psychiatric disorders are currently available. The depression, delirium, and denial that occur in medically hospitalized patients with AIDS respond to standard psychotherapeutic and psychopharmacological approaches. Outpatients with AIDS or AIDS-related complex benefit from clarification, abreaction, and support if the therapist accepts the regression associated with the sick role, focuses initially on somatic rather than on psychological concerns, and overcomes unwarranted fears of contagion. Patients with AIDS-related dementia are helped considerably by early diagnosis and planning, and patients with antibodies to the AIDS virus require a psycho-educational approach that includes stress inoculation and problem-solving techniques. The authors describe the above interventions as well as common countertransference responses that impede their implementation.

  13. [Alcohol consumption in patients with psychiatric disorders: assessment and treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, J-P; Bonnewitz, M-L; Kusterer, M; Lalanne-Tongio, L

    2014-09-01

    consultation teams, specialised in addictology, together with the installation of a addictology care network in supplementary psychiatry of levels 1, 2 and 3 in addictology. This network of specific care would notably permit the integrated management of patients suffering from acute psychiatric disorders or requiring care under constraint. More specific care networks for particular problems (maternity issues, adolescence, HIV and hepatitis, cognitive disorders…) and programs of therapeutic education could reinforce this proposal within a protocol of care that should be legible, coherent and coordinated. The psychiatrist and the addictologist must therefore learn to work together over and above the dogmatic boundaries and positioning in a constructive and efficient partnership, beneficial for the patient. Copyright © 2014 L’Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Psychiatric literacy and the personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnham, Adrian; Winceslaus, Julian

    2012-01-01

    This study was concerned with investigating the mental health literacy of lay people in regard to the personality disorders. 223 participants responded to a questionnaire entitled 'eccentric people' which contained vignettes of 10 personality disorders which they rated as well as labelled. Lay people recognize people with personality disorders as being unhappy, unsuccessful at work and as having poor personal relationships, but do not associate these problems with psychological causes. Rates of correct labelling were under 7% for 7/10 personality disorders. Cluster A (apart from paranoid) was commonly labelled as depression or as an autism spectrum disorder. Clusters B and C (apart from obsessive-compulsive) were commonly labelled as 'low self-esteem'. History of psychological education and illness were positively correlated with correct recognition of 70 and 60% of the personality disorders, respectively. The mental health literacy of lay people in regard to the personality disorders is low. This raises concerns for health-seeking behaviour and diagnosis, as well as stigma and social neglect of people living with personality disorders. The question of cultural influences on the manifestation, diagnosis and recognition of mental illnesses, and the personality disorders in particular, is discussed. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Saccadic eye movement applications for psychiatric disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bittencourt J

    2013-09-01

    Med/Medline, ISI Web of Knowledge, Cochrane, and SciELO databases were reviewed. Results: Saccadic eye movement appears to be heavily involved in psychiatric diseases covered in this review via a direct mechanism. The changes seen in the execution of eye movement tasks in patients with psychopathologies of various studies confirm that eye movement is associated with the cognitive and motor system. Conclusion: Saccadic eye movement changes appear to be heavily involved in the psychiatric disorders covered in this review and may be considered a possible marker of some disorders. The few existing studies that approach the topic demonstrate a need to improve the experimental paradigms, as well as the methods of analysis. Most of them report behavioral variables (latency/reaction time, though electrophysiological measures are absent. Keywords: depression, bipolar disorder, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, schizophrenia, anxiety disorder

  16. Stigma experienced by persons under psychiatric care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struch, Naomi; Levav, Itzhak; Shereshevsky, Yechiel; Baidani-Auerbach, Alona; Lachman, Max; Daniel, Noga; Zehavi, Tali

    2008-01-01

    Mental health-related stigma causes suffering and interferes with care and social inclusion. This study explored stigma as experienced by mental health service users. Particular attention is given to their use of coping mechanisms. Interviews were held with 167 adults undergoing outpatient psychiatric treatment; two-thirds of them had previously been hospitalized. Examples of frequency of stigma-related situations included the following: Over half of service users expect people to refuse to have a person with a mental disorder as a co-worker or neighbor, or to engage in other types of social contact. A sizeable group acknowledged that they feared or had experienced rejection. A third of respondents reported they feared or had experienced inappropriate treatment by their doctor. Service users utilize several coping mechanisms to deal with stigma, among them: education, withdrawal, secrecy, and positive distinctiveness. Although we studied a convenience sample of service users, our findings provide sufficient basis to suggest different types of intervention, i.e., to address stigma in the course of treatment in the specialist settings, to promote the establishment of mutual support groups, and to raise family physicians' awareness with regard to the stigma that may be present when caring for persons with mental disorders.

  17. The effects of maternal eating disorders on offspring childhood and early adolescent psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micali, Nadia; De Stavola, Bianca; Ploubidis, George B; Simonoff, Emily; Treasure, Janet

    2014-05-01

    There is evidence that parental psychiatric disorders are associated with offspring psychiatric disorder. Very few small studies have investigated the effect of maternal eating disorders on offspring psychopathology throughout childhood and early adolescence. We aimed to investigate psychiatric disorders at age 7, 10, and 13 years in offspring of women with eating disorders prior to pregnancy and investigate the relative contribution of other psychiatric disorders. Women (N = 12,035) from a large population-based longitudinal cohort: the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). A brief prepregnancy psychiatric history was obtained at enrollment to determine exposure. Offspring psychiatric disorder was measured using the developmental and well-being assessment at ages 7, 10, and 13. Maternal eating disorders were associated with a psychiatric diagnosis in the offspring at age 7 and 10, particularly emotional disorders (Odds ratio = 1.9, 95%CI: 1.1-2.8). Maternal psychiatric disorders other than eating disorders predicted psychiatric diagnoses across ages, and acted in an additive fashion with maternal eating disorders. Maternal eating disorders together with comorbid psychopathology increase risk for psychiatric disorders in childhood and early adolescence, in particular for emotional disorders. This has important implications for prevention and future research. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. The frequency of personality disorders in psychiatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Mark; Chelminski, Iwona; Young, Diane

    2008-09-01

    Community-based epidemiological studies of psychiatric disorders provide important information about the public health burden of these problems; however, because seeking treatment is related to a number of clinical and demographic factors, studies of the frequency and correlates of psychiatric disorders in the general population should be replicated in clinical populations to provide the practicing clinician with information that might have more direct clinical utility. Diagnosing co-occuring personality disorders in psychiatric patients with an Axis I disorder is clinically important because of their association with the duration, recurrence, and outcome of Axis I disorders. This article reviews clinical epidemiological studies of personality disorders and finds that in studies using semi-structured diagnostic interviews, approximately half of the patients interviewed have a personality disorder. Thus, as a group, personality disorders are among the most frequent disorders treated by psychiatrists.

  19. Prevalence of psychiatric disorders in HIV patients in the Central ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The psychiatric conditions identi ed were mood disorders (depression and mania) and anxiety disorders (General anxiety, agoraphobia, social phobia, obsessive-compulsive disorder and post traumatic stress disorder). Conclusion: Findings suggest that there is need to consider mental and psychological care of clients ...

  20. Comorbid Psychiatric Diagnoses in Preschoolers with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashida, Kristen; Anderson, Bryan; Paparella, Tanya; Freeman, Stephanny F. N.; Forness, Steven R.

    2010-01-01

    Although comorbid or co-occurring psychiatric diagnoses such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, anxiety disorders, depression, and oppositional defiant or conduct disorders have been well studied in children or adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), very little research is available on preschool samples. The current study…

  1. Psychiatric disorders and violent reoffending: a national cohort study of convicted prisoners in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Zheng; Larsson, Henrik; Lichtenstein, Paul; Fazel, Seena

    2015-10-01

    that we investigated. Certain psychiatric disorders are associated with a substantially increased hazard of violent reoffending. Because these disorders are prevalent and mostly treatable, improvements to prison mental health services could counteract the cycle of reoffending and improve both public health and safety. National violence prevention strategies should consider the role of prison health. Wellcome Trust, Swedish Research Council, and Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare. Copyright © 2015 Fazel et al. Open Access article distributed under the terms of CC BY. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Relational Aggression in Children with Preschool-Onset Psychiatric Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belden, Andy C.; Gaffrey, Michael S.; Luby, Joan L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The role of preschool-onset (PO) psychiatric disorders as correlates and/or risk factors for relational aggression during kindergarten or first grade was tested in a sample of 146 preschool-age children (age 3 to 5.11 years). Method: Axis-I diagnoses and symptom scores were derived using the Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment.…

  3. Puerperal Psychiatric Disorders: A 6 - Year Retrospective Review at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Depression (50%) was the commonest type of post-partum psychiatric illness, followed by mania (21.3%), bipolar affective disorder (12.5%) and schizophrenia (10.3%). Most had onset of psychiatric symptoms less than 4 weeks, were mostly young, of low socio-economic class and married. Conclusion: Emphasis should be ...

  4. Prevalence of Psychiatric Disorders amongst Adolescents in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Shahrivar

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available "n Objective: "n The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of different psychiatric disorders among 12 to 17 years old adolescents in urban areas of Tehran. "nMethod: In this study, 1105 adolescents (12 -17 years old were selected from 250 clusters of the entire 22 municipality areas of Tehran using a multistage sampling method. After responding to the Farsi version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire self-report version, the Farsi version of the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia - Present and Lifetime version (K-SADS-PL was administered to 273 adolescents and their families. The prevalence of adolescent psychiatric disorders was determined using the results of K-SADS-PL. "nResults: There were not any statistically significant differences between the sexes in the frequency of psychiatric disorders except for ADHD which was observed more frequently in boys. The most prevalent psychiatric disorders were attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, oppositional defiant disorder, depressive disorders and separation anxiety disorder. "nConclusion: The frequency of psychiatric disorders among the adolescents in Tehran's urban areas was comparable to the reports from other countries. However, using methods to deal with missing data makes these prevalence rates somehow higher.

  5. Clock Genes and Altered Sleep–Wake Rhythms: Their Role in the Development of Psychiatric Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annaëlle Charrier

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In mammals, the circadian clocks network (central and peripheral oscillators controls circadian rhythms and orchestrates the expression of a range of downstream genes, allowing the organism to anticipate and adapt to environmental changes. Beyond their role in circadian rhythms, several studies have highlighted that circadian clock genes may have a more widespread physiological effect on cognition, mood, and reward-related behaviors. Furthermore, single nucleotide polymorphisms in core circadian clock genes have been associated with psychiatric disorders (such as autism spectrum disorder, schizophrenia, anxiety disorders, major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. However, the underlying mechanisms of these associations remain to be ascertained and the cause–effect relationships are not clearly established. The objective of this article is to clarify the role of clock genes and altered sleep–wake rhythms in the development of psychiatric disorders (sleep problems are often observed at early onset of psychiatric disorders. First, the molecular mechanisms of circadian rhythms are described. Then, the relationships between disrupted circadian rhythms, including sleep–wake rhythms, and psychiatric disorders are discussed. Further research may open interesting perspectives with promising avenues for early detection and therapeutic intervention in psychiatric disorders.

  6. Clock Genes and Altered Sleep-Wake Rhythms: Their Role in the Development of Psychiatric Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charrier, Annaëlle; Olliac, Bertrand; Roubertoux, Pierre; Tordjman, Sylvie

    2017-04-29

    In mammals, the circadian clocks network (central and peripheral oscillators) controls circadian rhythms and orchestrates the expression of a range of downstream genes, allowing the organism to anticipate and adapt to environmental changes. Beyond their role in circadian rhythms, several studies have highlighted that circadian clock genes may have a more widespread physiological effect on cognition, mood, and reward-related behaviors. Furthermore, single nucleotide polymorphisms in core circadian clock genes have been associated with psychiatric disorders (such as autism spectrum disorder, schizophrenia, anxiety disorders, major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder). However, the underlying mechanisms of these associations remain to be ascertained and the cause-effect relationships are not clearly established. The objective of this article is to clarify the role of clock genes and altered sleep-wake rhythms in the development of psychiatric disorders (sleep problems are often observed at early onset of psychiatric disorders). First, the molecular mechanisms of circadian rhythms are described. Then, the relationships between disrupted circadian rhythms, including sleep-wake rhythms, and psychiatric disorders are discussed. Further research may open interesting perspectives with promising avenues for early detection and therapeutic intervention in psychiatric disorders.

  7. Dissecting psychiatric spectrum disorders by generative embedding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kay H. Brodersen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This proof-of-concept study examines the feasibility of defining subgroups in psychiatric spectrum disorders by generative embedding, using dynamical system models which infer neuronal circuit mechanisms from neuroimaging data. To this end, we re-analysed an fMRI dataset of 41 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and 42 healthy controls performing a numerical n-back working-memory task. In our generative-embedding approach, we used parameter estimates from a dynamic causal model (DCM of a visual–parietal–prefrontal network to define a model-based feature space for the subsequent application of supervised and unsupervised learning techniques. First, using a linear support vector machine for classification, we were able to predict individual diagnostic labels significantly more accurately (78% from DCM-based effective connectivity estimates than from functional connectivity between (62% or local activity within the same regions (55%. Second, an unsupervised approach based on variational Bayesian Gaussian mixture modelling provided evidence for two clusters which mapped onto patients and controls with nearly the same accuracy (71% as the supervised approach. Finally, when restricting the analysis only to the patients, Gaussian mixture modelling suggested the existence of three patient subgroups, each of which was characterised by a different architecture of the visual–parietal–prefrontal working-memory network. Critically, even though this analysis did not have access to information about the patients' clinical symptoms, the three neurophysiologically defined subgroups mapped onto three clinically distinct subgroups, distinguished by significant differences in negative symptom severity, as assessed on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS. In summary, this study provides a concrete example of how psychiatric spectrum diseases may be split into subgroups that are defined in terms of neurophysiological mechanisms specified by a

  8. Prevalence of Psychiatric Disorders in Patients with Diabetes Type 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Alireza Sajjadi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Psychiatric disorders are important complications of chronic diseases such as diabetes mellitus.Materials and method: In this descriptive study, 80 patients with diabetes type 2 referred to diabetes clinic of Zahedan in 2009. They were selected by simple randomized method, screened by General Health Questionnaire and assessed by psychiatric interview, if it was necessary.Results: Totally, 67.5% required an interview and 43.75% were diagnosed with a psychiatric disorder. Major depression were more prevalent (13.5% than adjustment disorders (15%.Conclusion: High prevalence of depression and adjustment disorder in diabetic patients needs psychiatric assessment and treatment as the main part, in the diabetes clinics

  9. Associations between Polygenic Risk for Psychiatric Disorders and Substance Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Caitlin E.; Agrawal, Arpana; Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Hartz, Sarah M.; Lynskey, Michael T.; Nelson, Elliot C.; Bierut, Laura J.; Bogdan, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    Despite evidence of substantial comorbidity between psychiatric disorders and substance involvement, the extent to which common genetic factors contribute to their co-occurrence remains understudied. In the current study, we tested for associations between polygenic risk for psychiatric disorders and substance involvement (i.e., ranging from ever-use to severe dependence) among 2573 non-Hispanic European–American participants from the Study of Addiction: Genetics and Environment. Polygenic risk scores (PRS) for cross-disorder psychopathology (CROSS) were generated based on the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium’s Cross-Disorder meta-analysis and then tested for associations with a factor representing general liability to alcohol, cannabis, cocaine, nicotine, and opioid involvement (GENSUB). Follow-up analyses evaluated specific associations between each of the five psychiatric disorders which comprised CROSS—attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorder (AUT), bipolar disorder (BIP), major depressive disorder (MDD), and schizophrenia (SCZ)—and involvement with each component substance included in GENSUB. CROSS PRS explained 1.10% of variance in GENSUB in our sample (p cannabis use, (B) MDD PRS and severe cocaine dependence, (C) SCZ PRS and non-problem cannabis use and severe cannabis dependence, and (D) SCZ PRS and severe cocaine dependence. These results suggest that shared covariance from common genetic variation contributes to psychiatric and substance involvement comorbidity. PMID:27574527

  10. Prevalence of Alcohol and Substance Use Disorder among Psychiatric Inpatients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonca Karakus

    2012-03-01

    Conclusion: Professionals dealing with treatment of psychiatric disorders should always be aware of substance use disorder comorbidity, and start treatment immediately without causing any delay in treatment. Obviously we need future large prospective studies to get more insight into these dual-diagnose disorders. [Cukurova Med J 2012; 37(1: 37-48

  11. Maternal obesity and neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders in offspring

    OpenAIRE

    Edlow, Andrea G.

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing body of evidence from both human epidemiologic and animal studies that prenatal and lactational exposure to maternal obesity and high-fat diet are associated with neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders in offspring. These disorders include cognitive impairment, autism spectrum disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, cerebral palsy, anxiety and depression, schizophrenia, and eating disorders. This review synthesizes human and animal data linking maternal o...

  12. [Cerebral hydatic cyst and psychiatric disorders. Two cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asri, F; Tazi, I; Maaroufi, K; El Moudden, A; Ghannane, H; Ait Benali, S

    2007-01-01

    unconscious of his disorders. The patient has first been put under classical neuroleptic 9 mg/day of Haloperidol and 200 mg/day of chlorpromazine. The diagnosis of schizophrenia has been kept according to criteria of DSM IV. The PANSS (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale) was to 137 (score on a positive scale was to 34, score on a negative scale was to 35 and the general psychopathologie scale was to 58). One week after his hospitalization, he developed headache with subconfusion, a cerebral scanning has been made in emergency and showed a voluminous cyst in oval foramen compressing the mesencephalon strongly. The cyst was well limited, hypodense, not taking the contrast, and without intracerebral oedema, the diagnosis of cerebral hydatic cyst has been made. The complementary exploration didn't show any other localizations, and biologic exam results didn't show any particular anomalies. The patient has been operated in neurosurgery. The immediate evolution was favorable with disappearance of confusion and absence of complications. The patient was lost of view. Six months after, the patient has been readmitted to the psychiatric emergency. He dropped his neuroleptic treatment. He was aggressive, raving, hallucinated and depersonalized. The global score to the PANSS was 63. He has been put back under neuroleptics. Three weeks after improvement and passage of the PANSS to 30, the patient went out. We couldn't have a cerebral scanner of control because the patient had no medical assurance and no money for cerebral scanner. Case 2 - Patient aged of 53 years, father of four children, uneducated, native and resident of Marrakech, confectioner as profession. He is in contact with dogs since 12 years. He has been brought to the psychiatric emergencies by his family after an agitation. The history of his illness seemed to go back at eight months ago, by the progressive apparition of an instability, sleep disorders, hostility, associated with an emotional lability. To the interview he

  13. Identification of risk loci with shared effects on five major psychiatric disorders: a genome-wide analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smoller, J.W.; Craddock, N.; Kendler, K.; Lee, P.H.; Neale, B.M.; Nurnberger, J.I.; Ripke, S.; Santangelo, S.; Sullivan, P.F.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Franke, B.; et al.,

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Findings from family and twin studies suggest that genetic contributions to psychiatric disorders do not in all cases map to present diagnostic categories. We aimed to identify specific variants underlying genetic effects shared between the five disorders in the Psychiatric Genomics

  14. Relational Aggression in Children with Preschool Onset (PO) Psychiatric Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belden, Andy C.; Gaffrey, Michael S.; Luby, Joan L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The role of preschool onset (PO) psychiatric disorders as correlates and/or risk factors for relational aggression during kindergarten or 1st grade was tested in a sample of N = 146 preschool-age children (3 to 5.11). Method Axis-I diagnoses and symptom scores were derived using the Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment. Children’s roles in relational aggression as aggressor, victim, aggressive-victim, or non-aggressor/non-victim were determined at preschool and again 24 months later at elementary school entry. Results Preschoolers diagnosed with PO-psychiatric disorders were 3 times as likely as the healthy preschoolers to be classified aggressors, victims, or aggressive-victims. Children diagnosed with PO-disruptive, depressive, and/or anxiety disorders were at least 6 times as likely as children without PO-psychiatric disorders to become aggressive-victims during elementary school after covarying for other key risk factors. Conclusions Findings suggested that PO-psychiatric disorders differentiated preschool and school-age children’s roles in relational aggression based on teacher-report. Recommendations for future research and preventative intervention aimed at minimizing the development of relational aggression in early childhood by identifying and targeting PO-psychiatric disorders are made. PMID:22917202

  15. [Psychiatric disorders induced by drug dependence other than alcohol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejoyeux, M; Mourad, I; Ades, J

    2000-01-01

    Most of psychoactive substances abuse or dependence disorders are associated to another psychiatric disorders. Depression, anxiety and psychotic disorders are the more frequent comorbid disorders. Psychiatric comorbidity is induced by acute consumption of psychoactive agents, chronic consumption or withdrawal. Psychiatric disorders are more frequent when patient are assessed immediately after the withdrawal. Main biological factors implicated in the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders associated to dependence disorders are: increase in norepinephrine activity, during withdrawal, activation of locus coeruleus, kinding induced by repeated withdrawals. Psychotic disorders in opiate dependent patients can be induced by withdrawals. These psychotic disorders are more often described after methadone discontinuation. Consumption of cocaine can provocate paranoid delusions. Phenylcyclidine provocates sensorial distortion or delusive disorders resembling schizophrenia. Flash backs, following withdrawal realized brief and transient psychotic disorders. They can occur up to one year after the end of the intoxication. The occurrence of depression in dependent patients is frequent. Depressed patients are at risk for suicide. Retrospective studies showed that near of 40% of the subjects died from suicide have presented alcohol or drug abuse or dependence. Withdrawal from opiates provocates depression. Clinical picture included apathy, blunting of the affects, sadness and loss of interest. Cocaine consumption provocates manic-like disinhibition at the beginning of the intoxication. Long term consumption and withdrawal increase the risk of depression.

  16. [Adult attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, associated symptoms and comorbid psychiatric disorders: diagnosis and pharmacological treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paslakis, G; Schredl, M; Alm, B; Sobanski, E

    2013-08-01

    Adult attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterised by inattention and/or hyperactivity and impulsivity and is a frequent psychiatric disorder with childhood onset. In addition to core symptoms, patients often experience associated symptoms like emotional dysregulation or low self-esteem and suffer from comorbid disorders, particularly depressive episodes, substance abuse, anxiety or sleep disorders. It is recommended to include associated symptoms and comorbid psychiatric disorders in the diagnostic set-up and in the treatment plan. Comorbid psychiatric disorders should be addressed with disorder-specific therapies while associated symptoms also often improve with treatment of the ADHD core symptoms. The most impairing psychiatric disorder should be treated first. This review presents recommendations for differential diagnosis and treatment of adult ADHD with associated symptoms and comorbid psychiatric disorders with respect to internationally published guidelines, clinical trials and expert opinions. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Psychiatric disorders in long-term sickness absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Hans Jørgen; Bech, Per

    2009-01-01

    AIMS: The study estimates the incidence of psychiatric disorders in long-term sickness absence (LSA; more than eight weeks of continuous sickness absence) over one year. The study is the first accounting for everybody on LSA by linking a psychiatric assessment for all persons on LSA to public...... registers. METHODS: In a Danish population of 120,000 inhabitants all 2,414 incident persons on LSA within one year were posted a questionnaire, of whom 1,121 (46.4%) responded. In a two phase design the 1,121 sick-listed persons were screened for psychiatric disorders. Phase 2 consisted of 844 people...

  18. Psychiatric aspects of pediatric epilepsy: Focus on anxiety disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujita Kumar Kar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Psychiatric co-morbidities are commonly seen with pediatric epilepsy, which can be in the form of cognitive deficits like - inattention and intellectual disability, motor disturbances like - hyperactivity, emotional disturbances like - depression and anxiety disorders and behavioral problems like - impulsivity, aggression and even psychotic behavior. Anxiety disorders like - Obsessive compulsive disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, social phobia, separation anxiety disorder, agoraphobia and panic attacks are commonly seen with pediatric epilepsy. Presence of co-morbid anxiety disorder in pediatric epilepsy is responsible for scholastic decline, peer maladjustment and poor quality of life. Management of anxiety disorders in children with epilepsy is always a challenge. Until, there is no general consensus regarding management of anxiety disorders in pediatric epilepsy. Despite its enormous impact on an individual′s life, this area has not been addressed adequately through clinical research. This review focuses on psychiatric aspects of pediatric epilepsy with specific emphasis on anxiety disorders.

  19. Deep brain stimulation for psychiatric disorders: where we are now.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Daniel R; Ozpinar, Alp; Raslan, Ahmed M; Ko, Andrew L

    2015-06-01

    Fossil records showing trephination in the Stone Age provide evidence that humans have sought to influence the mind through physical means since before the historical record. Attempts to treat psychiatric disease via neurosurgical means in the 20th century provided some intriguing initial results. However, the indiscriminate application of these treatments, lack of rigorous evaluation of the results, and the side effects of ablative, irreversible procedures resulted in a backlash against brain surgery for psychiatric disorders that continues to this day. With the advent of psychotropic medications, interest in invasive procedures for organic brain disease waned. Diagnosis and classification of psychiatric diseases has improved, due to a better understanding of psychiatric patho-physiology and the development of disease and treatment biomarkers. Meanwhile, a significant percentage of patients remain refractory to multiple modes of treatment, and psychiatric disease remains the number one cause of disability in the world. These data, along with the safe and efficacious application of deep brain stimulation (DBS) for movement disorders, in principle a reversible process, is rekindling interest in the surgical treatment of psychiatric disorders with stimulation of deep brain sites involved in emotional and behavioral circuitry. This review presents a brief history of psychosurgery and summarizes the development of DBS for psychiatric disease, reviewing the available evidence for the current application of DBS for disorders of the mind.

  20. Towards Developmental Models of Psychiatric Disorders in Zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Howard James Norton

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Psychiatric disorders are a diverse set of diseases that affect all aspects of mental function including social interaction, thinking, feeling and mood. Although psychiatric disorders place a large economic burden on society, the drugs available to treat them are often palliative with variable efficacy and intolerable side-effects. The development of novel drugs has been hindered by a lack of knowledge about the etiology of these diseases. It is thus necessary to further investigate psychiatric disorders using a combination of human molecular genetics, gene-by-environment studies, in vitro pharmacological and biochemistry experiments, animal models and investigation of the non-biological basis of these diseases, such as environmental effects.Many psychiatric disorders, including autism spectrum disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, mental retardation and schizophrenia can be triggered by alterations to neural development. The zebrafish is a popular model for developmental biology that is increasingly used to study human disease. Recent work has extended this approach to examine psychiatric disorders as well. However, since psychiatric disorders affect complex mental functions that might be human specific, it is not possible to fully model them in fish. In this review, I will propose that the suitability of zebrafish for developmental studies, and the genetic tools available to manipulate them, provide a powerful model to study the roles of genes that are linked to psychiatric disorders during neural development. The relative speed and ease of conducting experiments in zebrafish can be used to address two areas of future research: the contribution of environmental factors to disease onset, and screening for novel therapeutic compounds.

  1. Estimating the number of children exposed to parental psychiatric disorders through a national health survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padoin Cintia V

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Children whose parents have psychiatric disorders experience an increased risk of developing psychiatric disorders, and have higher rates of developmental problems and mortality. Assessing the size of this population is important for planning of preventive strategies which target these children. Methods National survey data (CCHS 1.2 was used to estimate the number of children exposed to parental psychiatric disorders. Disorders were diagnosed using the World Psychiatric Health Composite International Diagnostic Interview (WMH-CIDI (12 month prevalence. Data on the number of children below 12 years of age in the home, and the relationship of the respondents with the children, was used to estimate exposure. Parent-child relations were identified, as was single parenthood. Using a design-based analysis, the number of children exposed to parental psychiatric disorders was calculated. Results Almost 570,000 children under 12 live in households where the survey respondent met criteria for one or more mood, anxiety or substance use disorders in the previous 12 months, corresponding to 12.1% of Canadian children under the age of 12. Almost 3/4 of these children have parents that report receiving no mental health care in the 12 months preceding the survey. For 17% of all Canadian children under age 12, the individual experiencing a psychiatric disorder is the only parent in the household. Conclusion The high number of children exposed causes major concern and has important implications. Although these children will not necessarily experience adversities, they possess an elevated risk of accidents, mortality, and of developing psychiatric disorders. We expect these estimates will promote further research and stimulate discussion at both health policy and planning tables.

  2. Substance use disorders, psychiatric disorders, and mortality after release from prison: a nationwide longitudinal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Zheng; Lichtenstein, Paul; Larsson, Henrik; Fazel, Seena

    2015-05-01

    High mortality rates have been reported in people released from prison compared with the general population. However, few studies have investigated potential risk factors associated with these high rates, especially psychiatric determinants. We aimed to investigate the association between psychiatric disorders and mortality in people released from prison in Sweden. We studied all people who were imprisoned since Jan 1, 2000, and released before Dec 31, 2009, in Sweden for risks of all-cause and external-cause (accidents, suicide, homicide) mortality after prison release. We obtained data for substance use disorders and other psychiatric disorders, and criminological and sociodemographic factors from population-based registers. We calculated hazard ratios (HRs) by Cox regression, and then used them to calculate population attributable fractions for post-release mortality. To control for potential familial confounding, we compared individuals in the study with siblings who were also released from prison, but without psychiatric disorders. We tested whether any independent risk factors improved the prediction of mortality beyond age, sex, and criminal history. We identified 47,326 individuals who were imprisoned. During a median follow-up time of 5·1 years (IQR 2·6-7·5), we recorded 2874 (6%) deaths after release from prison. The overall all-cause mortality rate was 1205 deaths per 100,000 person-years. Substance use disorders significantly increased the rate of all-cause mortality (alcohol use: adjusted HR 1·62, 95% CI 1·48-1·77; drug use: 1·67, 1·53-1·83), and the association was independent of sociodemographic, criminological, and familial factors. We identified no strong evidence that other psychiatric disorders increased mortality after we controlled for potential confounders. In people released from prison, 925 (34%) of all-cause deaths in men and 85 (50%) in women were potentially attributable to substance use disorders. Substance use disorders were

  3. [Management of insomnia and hypersomnia associated with psychiatric disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, Makoto; Suzuki, Masahiro; Konno, Chisato; Furihata, Ryuji; Osaki, Koichi; Konno, Michiko; Takahashi, Sakae

    2010-01-01

    Most psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, mood disorders, or neurotic disorders are associated with sleep disorders of various kinds, among which insomnia is most prevalent and important in psychiatric practice. Almost all patients suffering from major depression complain of insomnia. Pharmacological treatment of insomnia associated with major depression shortens the duration to achieve remission of depression. Insomnia has been recently reported to be a risk factor for depression. Hypersomnia is also a major sleep problem in patient suffering from depression. There have been no clinical guide to treat the symptoms of hypersomnia in depression, but some clinical trials treating them with NDRI or adjunctive administration of psychostimulants. In patients with schizophrenia, insomnia is often an early indicator of the aggravation of psychotic symptoms. Electroencephalographic sleep studies have also revealed sleep abnormalities characteristic to mood disorders, schizophrenia and anxiety disorders. A shortened REM sleep latency has been regarded as a biological marker of depression. Reduced amount of deep Non-REM sleep has been reported to be correlated with negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Recently, REM sleep abnormalities were found in teenagers having post-traumatic stress disorder after a boat accident. Although these facts indicate that insomnia plays an important role in the development of psychiatric disorders, there are few hypotheses explaining the cause and effect of insomnia in these disorders. Here, we reviewed recent articles on insomnia and hypersomnia associated with psychiatric disorders together with their clinical managements.

  4. Euthanasia for people with psychiatric disorders or dementia in Belgium: analysis of officially reported cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierickx, Sigrid; Deliens, Luc; Cohen, Joachim; Chambaere, Kenneth

    2017-06-23

    Euthanasia for people who are not terminally ill, such as those suffering from psychiatric disorders or dementia, is legal in Belgium under strict conditions but remains a controversial practice. As yet, the prevalence of euthanasia for people with psychiatric disorders or dementia has not been studied and little is known about the characteristics of the practice. This study aims to report on the trends in prevalence and number of euthanasia cases with a psychiatric disorder or dementia diagnosis in Belgium and demographic, clinical and decision-making characteristics of these cases. We analysed the anonymous databases of euthanasia cases reported to the Federal Control and Evaluation Committee Euthanasia from the implementation of the euthanasia law in Belgium in 2002 until the end of 2013. The databases we received provided the information on all euthanasia cases as registered by the Committee from the official registration forms. Only those with one or more psychiatric disorders or dementia and no physical disease were included in the analysis. We identified 179 reported euthanasia cases with a psychiatric disorder or dementia as the sole diagnosis. These consisted of mood disorders (N = 83), dementia (N = 62), other psychiatric disorders (N = 22) and mood disorders accompanied by another psychiatric disorder (N = 12). The proportion of euthanasia cases with a psychiatric disorder or dementia diagnosis was 0.5% of all cases reported in the period 2002-2007, increasing from 2008 onwards to 3.0% of all cases reported in 2013. The increase in the absolute number of cases is particularly evident in cases with a mood disorder diagnosis. The majority of cases concerned women (58.1% in dementia to 77.1% in mood disorders). All cases were judged to have met the legal requirements by the Committee. While euthanasia on the grounds of unbearable suffering caused by a psychiatric disorder or dementia remains a comparatively limited practice in Belgium, its

  5. A review of Indian research on co-occurring cannabis use disorders& psychiatric disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalini Singh

    2017-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusions: A review of Indian literature on cannabis use and its association with psychiatric disorders indicates a high co-prevalence of psychotic disorders, especially in vulnerable individuals as well as high rates of co-occurrence of other psychiatric comorbidities. However, there is limited focus on exploring the aetiological association between cannabis use and psychiatric disorders; understanding the neurobiology of this association and management-related issues.

  6. Genetic Counselling for Psychiatric Disorders: Accounts of Psychiatric Health Professionals in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Sian; Arribas-Ayllon, Michael

    2016-12-01

    Genetic counselling is not routinely offered for psychiatric disorders in the United Kingdom through NHS regional clinical genetics departments. However, recent genomic advances, confirming a genetic contribution to mental illness, are anticipated to increase demand for psychiatric genetic counselling. This is the first study of its kind to employ qualitative methods of research to explore accounts of psychiatric health professionals regarding the prospects for genetic counselling services within clinical psychiatry in the UK. Data were collected from 32 questionnaire participants, and 9 subsequent interviewees. Data analysis revealed that although participants had not encountered patients explicitly demanding psychiatric genetic counselling, psychiatric health professionals believe that such a service would be useful and desirable. Genomic advances may have significant implications for genetic counselling in clinical psychiatry even if these discoveries do not lead to genetic testing. Psychiatric health professionals describe clinical genetics as a skilled profession capable of combining complex risk communication with much needed psychosocial support. However, participants noted barriers to the implementation of psychiatric genetic counselling services including, but not limited to, the complexities of uncertainty in psychiatric diagnoses, patient engagement and ethical concerns regarding limited capacity.

  7. Psychiatric disorders and repeat incarcerations: the revolving prison door.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillargeon, Jacques; Binswanger, Ingrid A; Penn, Joseph V; Williams, Brie A; Murray, Owen J

    2009-01-01

    A number of legal, social, and political factors over the past 40 years have led to the current epidemic of psychiatric disorders in the U.S. prison system. Although numerous investigations have reported substantially elevated rates of psychiatric disorders among prison inmates compared with the general population, it is unclear whether mental illness is a risk factor for multiple episodes of incarceration. The authors examined this association in a retrospective cohort study of the nation's largest state prison system. The study population included 79,211 inmates who began serving a sentence between September 1, 2006, and August 31, 2007. Data on psychiatric disorders, demographic characteristics, and history of incarceration for the preceding 6-year period were obtained from statewide medical information systems and analyzed. Inmates with major psychiatric disorders (major depressive disorder, bipolar disorders, schizophrenia, and nonschizophrenic psychotic disorders) had substantially increased risks of multiple incarcerations over the 6-year study period. The greatest increase in risk was observed among inmates with bipolar disorders, who were 3.3 times more likely to have had four or more previous incarcerations compared with inmates who had no major psychiatric disorder. Prison inmates with major psychiatric disorders are more likely than those without to have had previous incarcerations. The authors recommend expanding interventions to reduce recidivism among mentally ill inmates. They discuss the potential benefits of continuity of care reentry programs to help mentally ill inmates connect with community-based mental health programs at the time of their release, as well as a greater role for mental health courts and other diversion strategies.

  8. Psychiatric disorders moderate the relationship between insomnia and cognitive problems in military soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownlow, Janeese A; Klingaman, Elizabeth A; Boland, Elaine M; Brewster, Glenna S; Gehrman, Philip R

    2017-10-15

    There has been a great deal of research on the comorbidity of insomnia and psychiatric disorders, but much of the existing data is based on small samples and does not assess the full diagnostic criteria for each disorder. Further, the exact nature of the relationship between these conditions and their impact on cognitive problems are under-researched in military samples. Data were collected from the All Army Study of the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Service members (unweighted N = 21, 449; weighted N = 674,335; 18-61 years; 13.5% female). Participants completed the Brief Insomnia Questionnaire to assess for insomnia disorder and a self-administered version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview Screening Scales to assess for psychiatric disorders and cognitive problems. Military soldiers with current major depressive episode (MDE) had the highest prevalence of insomnia disorder (INS; 85.0%), followed by current generalized anxiety disorder (GAD; 82.6%) and current posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD; 69.7%), respectively. Significant interactions were found between insomnia and psychiatric disorders; specifically, MDE, PTSD, and GAD status influenced the relationship between insomnia and memory/concentration problems. Cross-sectional nature of the assessment and the absence of a comprehensive neurocognitive battery. Psychiatric disorders moderated the relationship between insomnia and memory/concentration problems, suggesting that psychiatric disorders contribute unique variance to cognitive problems even though they are associated with insomnia disorder. Results highlight the importance of considering both insomnia and psychiatric disorders in the diagnosis and treatment of cognitive deficits in military soldiers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Psychiatric Disorders and Trends in Resource Use in Pediatric Hospitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodean, Jonathan; Hall, Matt; Bardach, Naomi S.; Coker, Tumaini R.; Berry, Jay G.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe recent, 10-year trends in pediatric hospital resource use with and without a psychiatric diagnosis and examine how these trends vary by type of psychiatric and medical diagnosis cooccurrence. METHODS: A retrospective, longitudinal cohort analysis using hospital discharge data from 33 tertiary care US children’s hospitals of patients ages 3 to 17 years from January 1, 2005 through December 31, 2014. The trends in hospital discharges, hospital days, and total aggregate costs for each psychiatric comorbid group were assessed by using multivariate generalized estimating equations. RESULTS: From 2005 to 2014, the cumulative percent growth in resource use was significantly (all P hospital days: +92.9% vs 5.9%; and costs: +142.7% vs + 18.9%). During this time period, the most substantial growth was observed in children admitted with a medical condition who also had a cooccurring psychiatric diagnosis (hospitalizations: +160.5%; hospital days: +112.4%; costs: +156.2%). In 2014, these children accounted for 77.8% of all hospitalizations for children with a psychiatric diagnosis; their most common psychiatric diagnoses were developmental disorders (22.3%), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (18.1%), and anxiety disorders (14.2%). CONCLUSIONS: The 10-year rise in pediatric hospitalizations in US children’s hospitals is 5 times greater for children with versus without a psychiatric diagnosis. Strategic planning to meet the rising demand for psychiatric care in tertiary care children’s hospitals should place high priority on the needs of children with a primary medical condition and cooccurring psychiatric disorders. PMID:27940773

  10. Psychiatric disorders and menopause symptoms in Brazilian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barazzetti, Lidiane; Pattussi, Marcos Pascoal; Garcez, Anderson da Silva; Mendes, Karina Giane; Theodoro, Heloísa; Paniz, Vera Maria Vieira; Olinto, Maria Teresa Anselmo

    2016-04-01

    This study investigated the association between minor psychiatric disorders and menopause symptoms and their associated factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 615 women aged 40 to 65 years treated in a public menopause and gynecological outpatient clinic in the South Region of Brazil. Minor psychiatric disorders were assessed using the Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20) and menopause symptoms using the Menopause Rating Scale. Score for menopause symptoms was categorized into three levels of symptoms: mild, moderate, and severe. Multivariate analyses used ordinal logistic regression. The prevalence of mild, moderate, and severe menopause symptoms was 34.1% (95% CI 30.3-37.9), 29.6% (95% CI 25.8-33.1), and 36.3% (95% CI 32.4-40.0), respectively. The overall prevalence of minor psychiatric disorders was 66.6% (95% CI 62.8-70.3). After adjustment, the odds ratio (OR) of the occurrence of menopause symptoms were approximately eight times higher in women relating minor psychiatric disorders compared with those without such disorders (OR = 7.76; 95% CI 5.27-11.44). The following factors were also associated with the menopause symptoms: women older than 50 years, living with a partner, lower educational level, smokers, larger number of pregnancies, obese, and those using psychotropic and/or postmenopause medication. The minor psychiatric disorders exhibited strong association with the presence of menopause symptoms independently of sociodemographic, behavioral, and reproductive factors, and of use of psychotropic medication.

  11. An Epidemiological Study of Psychiatric Disorders in Hamadan Province , 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Mohammadi

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The burden of psychiatric disorders in the developed countries has been identified by the screening questionnaires and standard clinical interviews at a high level, but the epidemiological studies of psychiatric disorders in our country are brief and their numbers are few. Planning for providing essential mental health services to the people requires us to be knowledgeable about the present status of psychiatric disorders in the society. The objective of this research was to carry out the epidemiological study of the psychiatric disorders in the individuals 18 years and above in urban and rural areas of Hamadan province. 664 individuals selected through randomized clustered and systematic sampling methods among the existing families of Hamadan province and the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (SADS questionnaires completed by the clinical psychologist. The diagnosis of the disorders was based on DSM-IV classification criteria.The results of the study showed that the overall prevalence of psychiatric disorders in the province was 11.28% (17.2% in women , 5.8% in men. The anxiety and mood disorders with 5.87 and 2.71% respectively had the highest prevalence in the province. The prevalence of psychotic disorders in this study was 0.60% , neuro- cognitive disorders 1.35% and dissociative disorders 0.75%. In the group of mood disorders, major depression with 2.56% and in the group of anxiety disorders, phobia with 2.56% had the higher prevalence. This study showed that 8.13% of studied individuals suffered from at least one of the psychiatric disorders. The prevalence of psychiatric disorders in the province among the individuals in the age group of 66 years and above was 13.33%, individuals whose spouses had passed away 18.75%, urban residents of province 9.81%, illiterate individuals 12.80% and housewife individuals 12.31% was more than other individuals in the sample. Being aware of this matter reveals the responsibility of the

  12. Shared molecular neuropathology across major psychiatric disorders parallels polygenic overlap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gandal, Michael J; Haney, Jillian R; Parikshak, Neelroop N

    2018-01-01

    -based phenotypes across five major psychiatric disorders-autism, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression, and alcoholism-compared with matched controls. We identified patterns of shared and distinct gene-expression perturbations across these conditions. The degree of sharing of transcriptional dysregulation...

  13. Prevalence And Detection Of Psychiatric Disorders Among Children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To investigate (1) the prevalence of psychiatric disorders among children and adolescents attending a PHC clinic (2) the ability of PHC doctors to identify disorders (3) the performance of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children, Version 2.3 (DISC-2.3) Design: A cross-sectional study of a clinical population

  14. Is the prevalence of psychiatric disorders associated with urbanization?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peen, J.; Dekker, J.J.M.; Schoevers, R.A.; Have, M. ten; Graaf, de R.; Beekman, A.T.F.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives In many countries, the total rate of psychiatric disorders tends to be higher in urban areas than in rural areas. The relevance of this phenomenon is that it may help in identifying environmental factors that are important in the pathogenesis of mental disorders. Moreover, urban

  15. Is the prevalence of psychiatric disorders associated with urbanization?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peen, J.; Dekker, J.J.M.; Schoevers, R.A.; ten Have, M.; de Graaf, R.; Beekman, A.T.F.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: In many countries, the total rate of psychiatric disorders tends to be higher in urban areas than in rural areas. The relevance of this phenomenon is that it may help in identifying environmental factors that are important in the pathogenesis of mental disorders. Moreover, urban

  16. Psychiatric disorders and criminal history in male prisoners in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alevizopoulos, Giorgos; Igoumenou, Artemis

    2016-01-01

    Τo explore the psychopathology of the Greek male prisoner population and the relationship between psychiatric disorders and the criminal history of the subjects. The Iowa Structured Psychiatric Interview and the Personality Disorders Questionnaire were administered. The prevalence of the most common mental disorders was analyzed separately and in relation to the criminal history. SPSS was used for the statistical analysis. A total of 495 male prisoners were interviewed. Overall, 223 (45.06%) were diagnosed with a psychiatric disorder. Non-violent crimes were the most prevalent reason for imprisonment (40.7%). One-third (30.3%) of the sample was convicted with drug-related crimes, and 28.0% with violent crimes. The prevalence of mental disorders in Greek prisoners was higher than in the general population. Personality disorder was the most common type of mental disorder and the only psychiatric diagnosis related to violent crime. This highlights the need for screening for mental disorders and the need for therapeutic provision within the prison setting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. [Violence, Burnout and Minor Psychiatric Disorders in Hospital Work].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Daiane Dal; Lautert, Liana; Souza, Sônia Beatriz Cocaro de; Marziale, Maria Helena Palucci; Tavares, Juliana Petri

    2015-06-01

    Identifying the violence suffered by the health team workers and their association with Burnout and minor psychiatric disorders. Cross-sectional study with 269 health team professionals of a public hospital in southern Brazil. Data were collected through the use of the Survey Questionnaire: Workplace Violence in the Health Sector, Maslach Inventory Burnout and Self-Report Questionnaire. Workplace violence struck 63.2% of workers, prevailing mostly in women (p = 0.001), among nursing auxiliaries/technicians (p=0.014) and was associated with minor psychiatric disorders (pviolence increased the chances of these disorders by 60% (CI 95%: 1.2-2.1). The three Burnout dimensions were also associated to violence at work (pviolence in the workplace and this exposure is associated with Burnout symptoms and minor psychiatric disorders.

  18. Violence, Burnout and Minor Psychiatric Disorders in Hospital Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiane Dal Pai

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE Identifying the violence suffered by the health team workers and their association with Burnout and minor psychiatric disorders. METHODS Cross-sectional study with 269 health team professionals of a public hospital in southern Brazil. Data were collected through the use of the Survey Questionnaire: Workplace Violence in the Health Sector, Maslach Inventory Burnout and Self-Report Questionnaire. RESULTS Workplace violence struck 63.2% of workers, prevailing mostly in women (p = 0.001, among nursing auxiliaries/technicians (p=0.014 and was associated with minor psychiatric disorders (p<0.05, as exposure to different forms of violence increased the chances of these disorders by 60% (CI 95%: 1.2-2.1. The three Burnout dimensions were also associated to violence at work (p<0.05. CONCLUSION Health workers experience violence in the workplace and this exposure is associated with Burnout symptoms and minor psychiatric disorders.

  19. Violence, Burnout and Minor Psychiatric Disorders in Hospital Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiane Dal Pai

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE Identifying the violence suffered by the health team workers and their association with Burnout and minor psychiatric disorders. METHODS Cross-sectional study with 269 health team professionals of a public hospital in southern Brazil. Data were collected through the use of the Survey Questionnaire: Workplace Violence in the Health Sector, Maslach Inventory Burnout and Self-Report Questionnaire. RESULTS Workplace violence struck 63.2% of workers, prevailing mostly in women (p = 0.001, among nursing auxiliaries/technicians (p=0.014 and was associated with minor psychiatric disorders (p<0.05, as exposure to different forms of violence increased the chances of these disorders by 60% (CI 95%: 1.2-2.1. The three Burnout dimensions were also associated to violence at work (p<0.05. CONCLUSION Health workers experience violence in the workplace and this exposure is associated with Burnout symptoms and minor psychiatric disorders.

  20. High psychiatric comorbidity in adolescents with dissociative disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozkurt, Hasan; Duzman Mutluer, Tuba; Kose, Cigdem; Zoroglu, Salih

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate psychiatric comorbidity rates and patterns in a sample of clinically referred adolescents diagnosed with dissociative disorders (DD) by using a structured interview. All participants completed a comprehensive test battery, which consisted of a questionnaire for sociodemographic data and clinical history, Child Posttraumatic Stress Reaction Index, Childhood Abuse and Neglect Questionnaire and the Adolescent Dissociative Experiences Scale. Diagnosis was made by the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders. Psychiatric comorbidity was assessed using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Age Children - Present and Lifetime Version. A total of 25 adolescent subjects aged 12-18 years participated in the study. Ten adolescents were diagnosed as having dissociative identity disorder and 15 of them were diagnosed as having dissociative disorder-not otherwise specified based on the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders findings. Adolescents with dissociative identity disorder were found to have higher scores on the Adolescent Dissociative Experiences Scale and Child Posttraumatic Stress Reaction Index than the dissociative disorder-not otherwise specified group. Sexual and physical abuses were also found to be among the main traumatic events. Incest was reported in six cases of the study sample. All subjects had at least one comorbid psychiatric disorder. The most common psychiatric diagnoses were major depressive disorder (n = 25; 100%) and post-traumatic stress disorder (n = 22; 88%). High psychiatric comorbidity rates were found in adolescents diagnosed with DD. A prevalent history of abuse and traumatic events was represented. Clinicians should be aware of the impacts of DD on adolescents' mental health. © 2014 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2014 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  1. Molecular Pathways Bridging Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration and Psychiatric Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta eZanardini

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The overlap of symptoms between neurodegenerative and psychiatric diseases has been reported. Neuropsychiatric alterations are commonly observed in dementia, especially in the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD, which is the most common clinical FTD subtype. At the same time, psychiatric disorders, like schizophrenia, can display symptoms of dementia, including features of frontal dysfunction with relative sparing of memory. In the present review we discuss common molecular features in these pathologies with a special focus on FTD. Molecules like Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF and progranulin are linked to the pathophysiology of both neurodegenerative and psychiatric diseases. In these brain-associated illnesses, the presence of disease-associated variants in BDNF and progranulin (GRN genes cause a reduction of circulating proteins levels, through alterations in proteins expression or secretion. For these reasons, we believe that prevention and therapy of psychiatric and neurological disorders could be achieved enhancing both BDNF and progranulin levels thanks to drug discovery efforts.

  2. ABO blood groups and psychiatric disorders: a Croatian study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisk, Sandra Vuk; Vuk, Tomislav; Ivezić, Ena; Jukić, Irena; Bingulac-Popović, Jasna; Filipčić, Igor

    2018-02-15

    The prevalence of ABO alleles is different in different populations, and many studies have shown a correlation between the occurrences of some diseases and different genotypes of ABO blood groups. The aim of this study was to determine whether there is a significant association between psychiatric syndromes and ABO blood groups. This case-control study involved 156 psychiatric patients and 303 healthy, unrelated, voluntary blood donors. Genomic DNA was isolated from blood on a QIAcube device using a QIAamp DNA Blood mini QIAcube kit. ABO genotyping on five basic ABO alleles was performed using allele-specific polymerase chain reaction analysis. Compared with healthy subjects, a significantly higher proportion of psychiatric patients had AB blood group (χ 2 =9.359, df=3, p=0.025) and, accordingly, a significantly higher incidence of A1B genotype (χ 2 =8.226, df=3, p=0.042). The odds ratio showed that psychiatric disorders occur almost three times more frequently in carriers of AB group compared to other blood groups. However, no statistically significant difference was found in the distribution of ABO blood groups among patients with different psychiatric diagnoses. Likewise, no correlations were found between ABO blood groups and other characteristics of the psychiatric patients (sex, psychiatric heredity, somatic comorbidity, suicidality). The results of this study support the hypothesis of an association between psychiatric disorders and ABO blood groups. The probability is that psychiatric disorders will occur almost three times more frequently in carriers of AB group compared to other ABO blood groups in the Croatian population.

  3. Psychiatric comorbidity in hospitalized adolescents with borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Carolyn; Balderas, Jessica C; Zanarini, Mary C; Oldham, John; Sharp, Carla

    2014-05-01

    The goal of this study was to carry out the first comprehensive assessment of psychiatric comorbidity in adolescents (aged 12-17 years) with DSM-IV criteria for borderline personality disorder (BPD) compared to a psychiatric comparison group without BPD. Complex comorbidity (a hallmark feature of adult BPD and defined as having any mood or anxiety disorder plus a disorder of impulsivity) was also examined as a distinguishing feature of adolescent BPD. Consecutively admitted patients (October 2008 to October 2012) to an inpatient psychiatric hospital received parental consent and gave assent for participation in the study (N = 418), with the final sample after exclusions consisting of 335 adolescent inpatients. A comprehensive, multimethod approach to determining psychiatric comorbidity was used, including both an interview-based (categorical) and a questionnaire-based (dimensional) assessment as well as both parent and adolescent self-report. Measures included the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (NIMH-DISC-IV), Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), Youth Self-Report (YSR), Car, Relax Alone, Forget, Friends, Trouble (CRAFFT), and the Childhood Interview for DSM-IV Borderline Personality Disorder (CI-BPD). Thirty-three percent of the final sample met criteria for BPD. Adolescent inpatients with BPD showed significantly higher rates of psychiatric comorbidity compared to non-BPD psychiatric subjects for both internalizing (χ²₁ = 27.40, P adolescent inpatients with BPD had significantly higher rates of psychiatric comorbidity compared to non-BPD subjects for internalizing (t₃₂₉ = -6.63, P adolescents with BPD (χ²₁ = 26.60, P borderline traits (B = .25; P adolescents with BPD demonstrate significantly more complex comorbidity compared to psychiatric subjects without BPD. © Copyright 2014 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  4. Psychiatric disorders and obesity: A review of association studies

    OpenAIRE

    Rajan, TM; Menon, V

    2017-01-01

    Background: Inconsistent evidence exists regarding the strength, direction, and moderators in the relationship between obesity and psychiatric disorders. Aim: This study aims to summarize the evidence on the association between psychiatric illness and obesity with particular attention to the strength and direction of association and also the possible moderators in each postulated link. Materials and Methods: Systematic electronic searches of MEDLINE through PubMed, ScienceDirect, PsycINFO, an...

  5. Psychiatric disorders and health service utilization in unemployed youth

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Aim Youth unemployment is associated with increased levels of anxiety, depression, alcohol abuse, reduced self-esteem and satisfaction with life. Up to date data based on standardized psychiatric diagnostic assessments in adolescent or young adult unemployment is very scarce. To our knowledge, this study has, for the first time, assessed both Axis-I (non-personality) and Axis-II (personality) psychiatric disorders and related constructs in a pres...

  6. Psychiatric disorders in preschoolers: continuity from ages 3 to 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bufferd, Sara J; Dougherty, Lea R; Carlson, Gabrielle A; Rose, Suzanne; Klein, Daniel N

    2012-11-01

    Recent studies indicate that many preschoolers meet diagnostic criteria for psychiatric disorders. However, data on the continuity of these diagnoses are limited, particularly from studies examining a broad range of disorders in community samples. Such studies are necessary to elucidate the validity and clinical significance of psychiatric diagnoses in young children. The authors examined the continuity of specific psychiatric disorders in a large community sample of preschoolers from the preschool period (age 3) to the beginning of the school-age period (age 6). Eligible families with a 3-year child were recruited from the community through commercial mailing lists. For 462 children, the child's primary caretaker was interviewed at baseline and again when the child was age 6, using the parent-report Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment, a comprehensive diagnostic interview. The authors examined the continuity of DSM-IV diagnoses from ages 3 to 6. Three-month rates of disorders were relatively stable from age 3 to age 6. Children who met criteria for any diagnosis at age 3 were nearly five times as likely as the others to meet criteria for a diagnosis at age 6. There was significant homotypic continuity from age 3 to age 6 for anxiety, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and oppositional defiant disorder, and heterotypic continuity between depression and anxiety, between anxiety and oppositional defiant disorder, and between ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder. These results indicate that preschool psychiatric disorders are moderately stable, with rates of disorders and patterns of homotypic and heterotypic continuity similar to those observed in samples of older children.

  7. Associations between Polygenic Risk for Psychiatric Disorders and Substance Involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitlin E Carey

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite evidence of substantial comorbidity between psychiatric disorders and substance involvement, the extent to which common genetic factors contribute to their co-occurrence remains understudied. In the current study, we tested for associations between polygenic risk for psychiatric disorders and substance involvement (i.e., ranging from ever-use to severe dependence among 2573 non-Hispanic European-American participants from the Study of Addiction: Genetics and Environment. Polygenic risk scores (PRS for cross-disorder psychopathology (CROSS were generated based on the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium’s Cross-Disorder meta-analysis and then tested for associations with a factor representing general liability to alcohol, cannabis, cocaine, nicotine, and opioid involvement (GENSUB. Follow-up analyses evaluated specific associations between each of the 5 psychiatric disorders which comprised CROSS—attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, autism spectrum disorder (AUT, bipolar disorder (BIP, major depressive disorder (MDD, and schizophrenia (SCZ—and involvement with each component substance included in GENSUB. CROSS PRS explained 1.10% of variance in GENSUB in our sample (p<0.001. After correction for multiple testing in our follow-up analyses of polygenic risk for each individual disorder predicting involvement with each component substance, associations remained between: A MDD PRS and non-problem cannabis use, B MDD PRS and severe cocaine dependence, C SCZ PRS and non-problem cannabis use and severe cannabis dependence, and D SCZ PRS and severe cocaine dependence. These results suggest that shared covariance from common genetic variation contributes to psychiatric and substance involvement comorbidity.

  8. Pre-schoolers suffering from psychiatric disorders show increased cortisol secretion and poor sleep compared to healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzinger, Martin; Brand, Serge; Perren, Sonja; von Wyl, Anges; Stadelmann, Stephanie; von Klitzing, Kai; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith

    2012-05-01

    Various studies of child cortisol secretion and sleep show a close association between poor sleep, deterioration of the HPA axis and unfavorable psychological functioning. However, there is little evidence as to whether these associations are clearly present in pre-school children suffering from psychiatric disorders. A total of 30 pre-schoolers suffering from psychiatric disorders (anxiety, adjustment disorders, emotional and attachment disorder; hyperactivity or oppositional disorder) and 35 healthy controls took part in the study. Saliva cortisol secretion was assessed both at baseline and under challenge conditions. Sleep was assessed via activity monitoring for seven consecutive days and nights, using a digital movement-measuring instrument. Parents and teachers completed questionnaires assessing children's cognitive, emotional and social functioning. The Berkeley Puppet Interview provided child-based reports of cognitive-emotional processes. Compared to healthy controls, children suffering from psychiatric disorders had much higher cortisol secretion both at baseline and under challenge conditions. Sleep was also more disturbed, and parents and teachers rated children suffering from psychiatric disorders as cognitively, emotionally and behaviorally more impaired, relative to healthy controls. Children with psychiatric disorders reported being more bullied and victimized. In five-year old children the presence of psychiatric disorders is reflected not only at psychological, social and behavioral, but also at neuroendocrine and sleep-related levels. It is likely that these children remain at increased risk for suffering from psychiatric difficulties later in life. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Factors associated with family violence by persons with psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrum, Travis; Solomon, Phyllis L

    2016-10-30

    Family violence by persons with psychiatric disorders (PD) is a highly under-researched area. The primary objective of the present analysis was to identify perpetrator, victim, and interaction/relationship factors associated with this phenomenon. The secondary objective was to examine the extent to which the relationship between caregiving and family violence was mediated by limit-setting practices used towards relatives with PD. 573 adults across the U.S. with an adult relative with PD completed an online survey. Multivariate logistic regression was performed examining the association of factors with the occurrence of family violence. Mediation was assessed with Sobel testing. Family violence was significantly associated with the following factors: perpetrator-income, illegal drug use, psychiatric hospitalization, treatment attendance, and use of medications; victim-age, employment status, income, and mental health status; interaction/relationship-parental relationship, co-residence, use of limit-setting practices, representative payeeship, and unofficial money management. Mediation was statistically significant. Increasing access to mental health and/or substance abuse treatment may decrease the risk of family violence. Interventions may benefit from attempting to decrease/modify the use of limit-setting practices. Where family representative payeeship or unofficial money management exists, it is advisable for practitioners to assess and address financial coercion and promote greater collaboration in financial decision-making. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  10. Psychiatric disorders in adults with Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, C.S.; Levitas, A.S. [Univ. of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Camden, NJ (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RTS) is a multiple anomaly/mental retardation syndrome currently mapped to 16p13.3 and characterized by microephaly, hypertelorism, downslanting palpebral fissures, curved nose, elongated nasal columelia and broad thumbs and great toes, often with medial or lateral angulation. Although there are reports of attentional problems and impulsivity among children with RTS there have been no studies to date of behavioral characteristics of the syndrome. Since 1988 we have identified 7 adults with classic RTS and psychiatric disorders among 1500 mentally retarded individuals ascertained primarily for behavioral and psychiatric problems; these patients all had microcephaly, characteristic facies and broad halluces, frequently with angulation. An additional 6 adults with psychiatric disorders had some features suggesting RTS but not classic for the disorder; these patients had microcephaly, characteristic nasal configuration and somewhat broad thumbs but lacked hypertelorism, downslant of palpebral fissures, angulation of halluces, and/or other dysmorphic features typical of classic RTS. Among the seven with classic RTS, three had tic disorder and/or Obsessive Compulsive Disorder, one had Bipolar Disorder with Psychotic Features and one had Major Depressive Disorder with obsessive-compulsive features. The six with some RTS features had similar psychiatric disorders. All patients were extremely sensitive to side effects of antidopaminergic medication, with the exception of clozapine. This clustering of psychiatric disorders and sensitivity suggests possible dysfunction of dopaminergic and serotonergic systems in at least some patients with RTS. The 16p13.3 region should be examined for possible genes affecting metabolism or receptors of these neurotransmitters.

  11. Comorbidity and temporal ordering of alcohol use disorders and other psychiatric disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flensborg-Madsen, Trine; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Knop, Joachim

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Understanding the comorbidity of alcohol use disorders (AUD) and other psychiatric disorders may have important implications for treatment and preventive interventions. However, information on the epidemiology of this comorbidity is lacking. The objective of this study was to present ...

  12. Dissociative disorders in acute psychiatric inpatients in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Chui-De; Meg Tseng, Mei-Chih; Chien, Yi-Ling; Liao, Shih-Cheng; Liu, Chih-Min; Yeh, Yei-Yu; Hwu, Hai-Gwo; Ross, Colin A

    2017-04-01

    Dissociative disorders have been documented to be common psychiatric disorders which can be detected reliably with standardized diagnostic instruments in North American and European psychiatric inpatients and outpatients (20.6% and 18.4%, respectively). However, there are concerns about their cross-cultural manifestations as an apparently low prevalence rate has been reported in East Asian inpatients and outpatients (1.7% and 4.9%, respectively). It is unknown whether the clinical profile of dissociative disorders in terms of their core symptomatic clusters, associated comorbid disorders, and environmental risk factors that has emerged in western clinical populations can also be found in non-western clinical populations. A standardized structured interview for DSM-IV dissociative disorders, post-traumatic stress disorder, and a history of interpersonal victimization was administered in a sample of Taiwanese acute psychiatric inpatients. Our results showed that 19.5% of our participants met criteria for a DSM-IV dissociative disorder, mostly dissociative disorder not otherwise specified. More importantly, the western clinical profile of dissociative disorders also characterized our patients, including a poly-symptomatic presentation and a history of interpersonal trauma in both childhood and adulthood. Our results lend support to the conclusion that cross-cultural manifestations of dissociative pathology in East Asia are similar to those in North America and Europe. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Maternal Psychiatric Disorder and the Risk of Autism Spectrum Disorder or Intellectual Disability in Subsequent Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairthorne, Jenny; Hammond, Geoff; Bourke, Jenny; de Klerk, Nick; Leonard, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders are more common in the mothers of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) or intellectual disability (ID) after the birth of their child. We aimed to assess the relationship between women's psychiatric contacts and subsequent offspring with ASD/ID. We linked three Western Australian registers to investigate pre-existing…

  14. Stigmatizing experiences of patients with psychiatric disorders and their caregivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit Garg

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There has been extensive research on the stigma experienced by patients with psychiatric disorders and their family members. However, very few studies have attempted to compare both the perspectives. Aim: To measure and compare the stigma experienced by patients with psychiatric disorders and their caregivers. Materials and Methods: A total of 143 patients suffering from various psychiatric disorders (including substance use disorders who visited at the psychiatry out-patient clinic were included, along with their family members. In addition to the sociodemographic and clinical variables, they were assessed using a stigma scale (Hindi version. Results: Patients with psychiatric disorders scored significantly higher than their caregivers on the total stigma scale score as well as on the subscales for discrimination, disclosure and positive aspects. Patients with substance dependence as well as their caregivers had highest total stigma score. The mean difference among the patients and caregivers was highest among the obsessive compulsive disorder subgroup (P = 0.012 and lowest among the schizophrenia subgroup (P = 0.045. Conclusion: Stigma and discrimination are deeply rooted among patients and their caregivers. Tackling stigma and discrimination should form an integral part of the therapeutic process.

  15. hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptomatology and psychiatric co ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), this study aimed to establish the prevalence of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV) ADHD in a cohort of South African adolescents who had been diagnosed with the disorder in ...

  16. Utility of CSF biomarkers in psychiatric disorders: a national multicentre prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquet, Claire; Magnin, Eloi; Wallon, David; Troussière, Anne-Cécile; Dumurgier, Julien; Jager, Alain; Bellivier, Frank; Bouaziz-Amar, Elodie; Blanc, Frédéric; Beaufils, Emilie; Miguet-Alfonsi, Carole; Quillard, Muriel; Schraen, Susanna; Pasquier, Florence; Hannequin, Didier; Robert, Philippe; Hugon, Jacques; Mouton-Liger, François

    2016-06-13

    Affective and psychotic disorders are mental or behavioural patterns resulting in an inability to cope with life's ordinary demands and routines. These conditions can be a prodromal event of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The prevalence of underlying AD lesions in psychiatric diseases is unknown, and it would be helpful to determine them in patients. AD cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers (amyloid β, tau and phosphorylated tau) have high diagnostic accuracy, both for AD with dementia and to predict incipient AD (mild cognitive impairment due to AD), and they are sometimes used to discriminate psychiatric diseases from AD. Our objective in the present study was to evaluate the clinical utility of CSF biomarkers in a group of patients with psychiatric disease as the main diagnosis. In a multicentre prospective study, clinicians filled out an anonymous questionnaire about all of their patients who had undergone CSF biomarker evaluation. Before and after CSF biomarker results were obtained, clinicians provided a diagnosis with their level of confidence and information about the treatment. We included patients with a psychiatric disorder as the initial diagnosis. In a second part of the study conducted retrospectively in a followed subgroup, clinicians detailed the psychiatric history and we classified patients into three categories: (1) psychiatric symptoms associated with AD, (2) dual diagnosis and (3) cognitive decline not linked to a neurodegenerative disorder. Of 957 patients, 69 had an initial diagnosis of a psychiatric disorder. Among these 69 patients, 14 (20.2 %) had a CSF AD profile, 5 (7.2 %) presented with an intermediate CSF profile and 50 (72.4 %) had a non-AD CSF profile. Ultimately, 13 (18.8 %) patients were diagnosed with AD. We show that in the AD group psychiatric symptoms occurred later and the delay between the first psychiatric symptoms and the cognitive decline was shorter. This study revealed that about 20 % of patients with a primary

  17. Celiac Disease Is Associated with Childhood Psychiatric Disorders: A Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butwicka, Agnieszka; Lichtenstein, Paul; Frisén, Louise; Almqvist, Catarina; Larsson, Henrik; Ludvigsson, Jonas F

    2017-05-01

    To determine the risk of future childhood psychiatric disorders in celiac disease, assess the association between previous psychiatric disorders and celiac disease in children, and investigate the risk of childhood psychiatric disorders in siblings of celiac disease probands. This was a nationwide registry-based matched cohort study in Sweden with 10 903 children (aged celiac disease and 12 710 of their siblings. We assessed the risk of childhood psychiatric disorders (any psychiatric disorder, psychotic disorder, mood disorder, anxiety disorder, eating disorder, psychoactive substance misuse, behavioral disorder, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder [ADHD], autism spectrum disorder [ASD], and intellectual disability). HRs of future psychiatric disorders in children with celiac disease and their siblings was estimated by Cox regression. The association between previous diagnosis of a psychiatric disorder and current celiac disease was assessed using logistic regression. Compared with the general population, children with celiac disease had a 1.4-fold greater risk of future psychiatric disorders. Childhood celiac disease was identified as a risk factor for mood disorders, anxiety disorders, eating disorders, behavioral disorders, ADHD, ASD, and intellectual disability. In addition, a previous diagnosis of a mood, eating, or behavioral disorder was more common before the diagnosis of celiac disease. In contrast, siblings of celiac disease probands were at no increased risk of any of the investigated psychiatric disorders. Children with celiac disease are at increased risk for most psychiatric disorders, apparently owing to the biological and/or psychological effects of celiac disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Maternal obesity and neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders in offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edlow, Andrea G

    2017-01-01

    There is a growing body of evidence from both human epidemiologic and animal studies that prenatal and lactational exposure to maternal obesity and high-fat diet are associated with neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders in offspring. These disorders include cognitive impairment, autism spectrum disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, cerebral palsy, anxiety and depression, schizophrenia, and eating disorders. This review synthesizes human and animal data linking maternal obesity and high-fat diet consumption to abnormal fetal brain development and neurodevelopmental and psychiatric morbidity in offspring. In addition, it highlights key mechanisms by which maternal obesity and maternal diet might impact fetal and offspring neurodevelopment, including neuroinflammation; increased oxidative stress, dysregulated insulin, glucose, and leptin signaling; dysregulated serotonergic and dopaminergic signaling; and perturbations in synaptic plasticity. Finally, the review summarizes available evidence regarding investigational therapeutic approaches to mitigate the harmful effects of maternal obesity on fetal and offspring neurodevelopment. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Herbal Medicines In The Treatment of Psychiatric and Neurological Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahin Akhondzadeh

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This review will indicate the quality of the evidence supporting the clinical effects of a number of commonly used types of herbal medicines for psychiatric and neurological disorders. Method: We conducted a review of literature to understand the biochemical and evidential bases for the use of herbs in psychiatric and neurological disorders as follow: 1 Alzheimer’s disease, 2 Depression, 3 Anxiety, 4 Insomnia, 5 Substance use disorders, 6 Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, 7 Migraine. Results: Evidences support use of Ginkgo biloba, Huperzine A, Galantamine, Melissa officinalis,and Salvia officinalis for Alzheimer’s disease; St. John’s wort, Lavender, and Saffron for depression; Passionflower, and Kava, for anxiety disorders; Valerian, and English Lavender for sleep disorders; Hypericum for substance related disorders; Ginkgo biloba, and Passionflower for ADHD; and feverfew, and Butterbur root for migraine. The highest level of confidence derives from well-designed, randomized, double blind controlled studies. Conclusion: Herbs may have beneficial effects in variety of psychiatric and neurological disorder; however we must consider their potential side effects and drug-drug interactions.

  20. Characteristics of the Schizophrenic Suicides in Comparison with the Suicides with Other Diagnosed Psychiatric Disorder and without a Psychiatric Disorder1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Juncheng; Zhang, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Background There has been much literature on schizophrenia, but very little is known about the characteristics of suicides with schizophrenia in comparison with the suicides with other diagnosed psychiatric disorder and without psychiatric disorders. Methods Thirty-eight suicides with schizophrenia, 150 suicides with other psychiatric disorder, and 204 suicides without a psychiatric disorder were entered in current study. Psychological Autopsy (PA) was applied to collect information of the suicides. Social demographic factors and clinical characteristics of the suicides were measured. The well validated standard scales were applied: Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS), Landerman’s Social Support Scale (DSSI), Dickman’s Impulsivity Inventory (DII), Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD). Suicide intents were appraised by the Beck Suicide Intent Scale (SIS). The SCID based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV (DSM-IV) was applied to assess the psychiatric status of individuals. Demographic characteristics, clinical characteristics, method of suicide and suicide intents of suicides were compared among the three groups (Schizophrenia group, Other psychiatric disorders group, and None psychiatric disorders group). Results There were 9.7% of suicides who suffered schizophrenia. The current study found being female was the risk factor for suicides with schizophrenia in rural China, which was opposite to the previous studies. The suicides with psychiatric disorder scored higher on hopelessness, anxiety, and depression, but lower on social support and impulsivity than suicides without psychiatric disorder. The suicides with psychiatric disorder were less impulsive than none psychiatric disorders group, too. The schizophrenia group did not show more violence than other psychiatric disorders group. Conclusions This research compared the demographic characteristics, clinical characteristics, method of

  1. Predictors of Psychiatric Disorders in Combat Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-07

    substance use and antisocial behavior [8,47]. We found that veterans who reported at least one symptom of mild TBI were at increased risk for psychiatric...specifically for this study. The items were adapted from other organizational commitment scales [30,39]. The items were: “I feel emotionally attached to the...screened for deployment-related traumatic brain injury. J Trauma Stress 2010, 23(1):17–24. 4. Castro CA, McGurk D: The intensity of combat and behavioral

  2. 'Mastication rage': a review of misophonia - an under-recognised symptom of psychiatric relevance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruxner, George

    2016-04-01

    To explore the condition of misophonia, its definition, possible neurological correlates, its associated morbidity, its possible psychiatric relevance and potential treatment. Provision of an illustrative case vignette and a review of the limited literature. Misophonia is a symptom associated with obsessive-compulsive disorder and anxiety disorders and may be a syndrome in itself associated with significant distress and avoidance. Treatments are not well validated. Misophonia may be an under-recognised condition of psychiatric relevance. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  3. Discrimination and psychiatric disorders among older African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouzon, Dawne M; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Keith, Verna M; Nicklett, Emily J; Chatters, Linda M

    2017-02-01

    This study examined the impact of everyday discrimination (both racial and non-racial) on the mental health of older African Americans. This analysis is based on the older African American subsample of the National Survey of American Life (NSAL) (n = 773). We examined the associations between everyday discrimination and both general distress and psychiatric disorders as measured by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV). Six dependent variables were examined: lifetime mood disorders, lifetime anxiety disorders, any lifetime disorder, number of lifetime disorders, depressive symptoms as measured by the 12-item Center for Epidemiological Scale of Depression (CES-D), and serious psychological distress as measured by the Kessler 6 (K6). Overall, racial and non-racial everyday discrimination were consistently associated with worse mental health for older African Americans. Older African Americans who experienced higher levels of overall everyday discrimination had higher odds of any psychiatric disorder, any lifetime mood disorder, any lifetime anxiety disorder, and more lifetime DSM-IV disorders, in addition to elevated levels of depressive symptoms and serious psychological distress. These findings were similar for both racial discrimination and non-racial discrimination. This study documents the harmful association of not only racial discrimination, but also non-racial (and overall) discrimination with the mental health of older African Americans. Specifically, discrimination is negatively associated with mood and anxiety disorders as well as depressive symptoms and psychological distress. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Recognizing Psychiatric Comorbidity With Reading Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert L. Hendren

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Reading disorder (RD, a specific learning disorder (SLD of reading that includes impairment in word reading, reading fluency, and/or reading comprehension, is common in the general population but often is not comprehensively understood or assessed in mental health settings. In education settings, comorbid mental and associated disorders may be inadequately integrated into intervention plans. Assessment and intervention for RD may be delayed or absent in children with frequently co-occurring mental disorders not fully responding to treatment in both school and mental health settings. To address this oversight, this review summarizes current knowledge regarding RDs and common comorbid or co-occurring disorders that are important for mental health and school settings. We chose to highlight RD because it is the most common SLD, and connections to other often comorbid disorders have been more thoroughly described in the literature. Much of the literature we describe is on decoding-based RD (or developmental dyslexia as it is the most common form of RD. In addition to risk for academic struggle and social, emotional, and behavioral problems, those with RD often show early evidence of combined or intertwined Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition childhood disorders. These include attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, anxiety and depression, disruptive, impulse-control, and conduct disorders, autism spectrum disorders, and other SLDs. The present review highlights issues and areas of controversy within these comorbidities, as well as directions for future research. An interdisciplinary, integrated approach between mental health professionals and educators can lead to comprehensive and targeted treatments encompassing both academic and mental health interventions. Such targeted treatments may contribute to improved educational and health-related outcomes in vulnerable youth. While there is a growing research literature

  5. Childhood maltreatment and psychiatric disorders among detained youths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Devon C; Abram, Karen M; Romero, Erin G; Washburn, Jason J; Welty, Leah J; Teplin, Linda A

    2011-12-01

    This study examined the prevalence of childhood maltreatment and its relationship with current psychiatric disorders among detained youths. Clinical research interviewers assessed history of childhood maltreatment with the Child Maltreatment Assessment Profile and psychiatric diagnosis with the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children, version 2.3, in a stratified, random sample of 1,829 youths detained at the Cook Country Juvenile Temporary Detention Center (final sample, N=1,735). History of maltreatment was also ascertained from Cook County Court Child Protection Division records. More than three-quarters of females and more than two-thirds of males had a history of physical abuse (moderate or severe). More than 40% of females and 10% of males had a history of sexual abuse. Females and non-Hispanic whites had the highest prevalence rates of childhood maltreatment. Among females, sexual abuse was associated with every type of psychiatric disorder. Females who experienced various types of abuse were 2.6 to 10.7 times as likely as females with no maltreatment to have any disorder. Among males, maltreatment was associated with every disorder except anxiety disorders (range of odds ratios, 1.9-7.9). Among youths who were sexually abused, abuse with force was associated with anxiety and affective disorders among females and attention-deficit hyperactivity or disruptive behavior disorders and substance use disorders among males. Childhood maltreatment is common among detained youths and is also highly associated with psychiatric disorders. The mental health, child welfare, and juvenile justice systems must collaborate to ensure that youths receive protection and care when they return to their communities.

  6. Fine motor ability and psychiatric disorders in youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Lorenna Sena Teixeira; Manfro, Gisele Gus; Gadelha, Ary; Pan, Pedro Mario; Bressan, Rodrigo Affonseca; Rohde, Luis Augusto; Salum, Giovanni Abrahão

    2017-12-05

    Impaired fine motor ability has been linked to several domains of psychopathology. However, studies validating the specificity of this association among several categorical psychiatric disorders are still needed. The aim of this study was to assess differences in fine motor ability performance among four non-overlapping groups of psychiatric disorders and a group of typical developing comparisons (TDC). Our sample consisted of 2035 subjects aged 6-14-year-old. Diagnoses of psychiatric disorders were performed with the Development and Well-Being Assessment (DAWBA). Five non-overlapping groups without comorbidity were formed: phobic disorders (n = 101), distress disorders (n = 82), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (n = 133), oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder (ODD/CD) (n = 52) and one group of typical developing comparisons (TDC) (n = 1667). Fine motor ability was evaluated by three tasks: sequential finger-thumb opposition, Oseretsky, and pronation/supination tests. Each task was assessed by total time to perform the movement and levels of accuracy, fluency, symmetry, precision, and coordination. We found that, when compared to TDC, the ADHD group performed more poorly in total fine motor ability (mean difference = - 0.28; p = 0.014), time to complete the task (mean difference = 0.36; p coordination (mean difference = - 0.25; p = 0.042). The ADHD group also took more time to complete the task than the ODD/CD group (mean difference = 0.45; p = 0.037). No other significant between-group differences were found. Additional analyses showed those differences were statistically significant for all ADHD dimensions. Our results suggest that children with ADHD present impairments in all aspects of fine motor abilities compared to TDC, a difference not found in other psychiatric disorders.

  7. 10-Year Research Update Review: The Epidemiology of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Disorders--I. Methods and Public Health Burden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, E. Jane; Egger, Helen; Angold, Adrian

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To review recent progress in child and adolescent psychiatric epidemiology in the area of prevalence and burden. Method: The literature published in the past decade was reviewed under two headings: methods and findings. Results: Methods for assessing the prevalence and community burden of child and adolescent psychiatric disorders have…

  8. Psychiatric disorders and clinical correlates of suicidal patients admitted to a psychiatric hospital in Tokyo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishimoto Kayo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients admitted to a psychiatric hospital with suicidal behavior (SB are considered to be especially at high risk of suicide. However, the number of studies that have addressed this patient population remains insufficient compared to that of studies on suicidal patients in emergency or medical settings. The purpose of this study is to seek features of a sample of newly admitted suicidal psychiatric patients in a metropolitan area of Japan. Method 155 suicidal patients consecutively admitted to a large psychiatric center during a 20-month period, admission styles of whom were mostly involuntary, were assessed using Structured Clinical Interviews for DSM-IV Axis I and II Disorders (SCID-I CV and SCID-II and SB-related psychiatric measures. Associations of the psychiatric diagnoses and SB-related characteristics with gender and age were examined. Results The common DSM-IV axis I diagnoses were affective disorders 62%, anxiety disorders 56% and substance-related disorders 38%. 56% of the subjects were diagnosed as having borderline PD, and 87% of them, at least one type of personality disorder (PD. SB methods used prior to admission were self-cutting 41%, overdosing 32%, self-strangulation 15%, jumping from a height 12% and attempting traffic death 10%, the first two of which were frequent among young females. The median (range of the total number of SBs in the lifetime history was 7 (1-141. Severity of depressive symptomatology, suicidal intent and other symptoms, proportions of the subjects who reported SB-preceding life events and life problems, and childhood and adolescent abuse were comparable to those of the previous studies conducted in medical or emergency service settings. Gender and age-relevant life-problems and life events were identified. Conclusions Features of the studied sample were the high prevalence of affective disorders, anxiety disorders and borderline PD, a variety of SB methods used prior to admission

  9. Psychiatric disorders among war-abducted and non-abducted ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective:We aimed to assess the nature and patterns of psychiatric disorders among adolescents who had been war-abducted in the war in northern Uganda, compared to non-abducted adolescents living in Gulu district, Uganda.Method: A cros sectional study that used an unmatched case-control design compared 82 ...

  10. Post traumatic stress disorder symptoms in a psychiatric population ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-05-12

    May 12, 2006 ... Post traumatic stress disorder symptoms in a psychiatric population not presenting with trauma: a preliminary study. DL Mkize. Department of Psychiatry, Nelson Mandela Faculty of Medicine, College of Health Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa. Abstract. Objective: Post Traumatic ...

  11. The personal social networks of personality disordered forensic psychiatric patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ter Haar-Pomp, Lydia; Spreen, Marinus; Bogaerts, Stefan; Volker, Beate

    2015-01-01

    Summary There has hardly been any examination of the personal social networks of personality disordered forensic psychiatric patients leading up to, and at the time of their offence. To shed light on this question, 36 male inpatients were interviewed by forensic social workers about their social

  12. Earning and learning among Australian community residents with psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waghorn, Geoff; Chant, David; Lloyd, Chris; Harris, Meredith

    2011-03-30

    At a population level the extent that psychiatric disorders and other health conditions disrupt participation in education and employment is rarely considered simultaneously and remains largely unknown. This is an important issue because policy makers are as concerned with educational attainment, school to work transitions, and workforce skills, as they are with overall labour force participation. We investigated earning or learning, and educational attainment, among Australian community residents by age group and by category of psychiatric disorder. Data files were provided by the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) from a population survey conducted in 2003 using a multi-stage probability sample (N=23,787). Adults with schizophrenia, depression, and anxiety disorders were compared to (1) working age adults with other non-psychiatric health conditions and disabilities; and (2) healthy adults of working age. Participation in formal education and employment was extensively disrupted by all health conditions and by psychiatric disorders in particular. The extent of career-related disruption provides benchmarks for policy makers and service providers attempting to increase participation in formal education and in the labour force. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. [Treatment of sleep disorders in children with a psychiatric diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godbout, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Health sciences suffer from insomnia: experts too often concentrate their efforts on the wake state. Fortunately enough, some of them have taken the road towards the "Dark Third of Life": sleep. This article gives an historical account of the development of the first Canadian sleep disorders laboratory and clinic specifically and selectively designed for children and adolescents with a psychiatric diagnosis. It then stresses the importance of sleep in children bearing a psychiatric diagnosis and summarizes therapeutic strategies. Data-on-file and selective review of literature. An innovative scheme matching sleep psychologists and psychiatrists with expertise in neurodevelopmental disorders led to the creation of a sleep research laboratory on mental health disorders. The initial research projects on the sleep and dreams of patients with schizophrenia and persons with autism are summarized. The Sleep Disorders Clinic for Children and Adolescents was then created at the Hôpital Rivière-des-Prairies, leading to much needed activities focused on youth. Indeed, sleep disorders show a high prevalence in children with a psychiatric diagnosis and the literature shows that these children have an increased sensitivity for diurnal effects of poor sleep. The main sleep-relevant issues at stake are reviewed, including the high frequency of sleep disorders in pedopsychiatric patients. Clinical challenges are described and the operating mode of the Sleep Disorders Clinic is illustrated. Sleep disorders and their effects on daytime functioning need to be assessed in children with a psychiatric diagnosis in order to generate a full clinical picture. Appropriate tools and know-how are readily available in order to achieve this goal.

  14. Psychiatric disorders and obesity: A review of association studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T M Rajan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Inconsistent evidence exists regarding the strength, direction, and moderators in the relationship between obesity and psychiatric disorders. Aim: This study aims to summarize the evidence on the association between psychiatric illness and obesity with particular attention to the strength and direction of association and also the possible moderators in each postulated link. Materials and Methods: Systematic electronic searches of MEDLINE through PubMed, ScienceDirect, PsycINFO, and Google Scholar were carried out from inception till October 2016. Generated abstracts were screened for eligibility to be included in the review. Study designs that evaluated the strength of relationship between obesity and psychiatric disorders were included in the study. Quality assessment of included studies was done using the Newcastle–Ottawa checklist tool. Results: From a total of 2424 search results, 21 eligible articles were identified and reviewed. These included studies on obesity and depression (n = 15, obesity and anxiety (four and one each on obesity and personality disorders, eating disorder (ED, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and alcohol use. Maximal evidence existed for the association between depression and obesity with longitudinal studies demonstrating a bidirectional link between the two conditions. The odds ratios (ORs were similar for developing depression in obesity (OR: 1.21–5.8 and vice versa (OR: 1.18–3.76 with a stronger association observed in women. For anxiety disorders, evidence was mostly cross-sectional, and associations were of modest magnitude (OR: 1.27–1.40. Among other disorders, obesity, and EDs appear to have a close link (OR: 4.5. Alcohol use appears to be a risk factor for obesity and not vice versa but only among women (OR: 3.84. Conclusion: Obesity and depression have a significant and bidirectional association. Evidence is modest for anxiety disorders and inadequate for other psychiatric

  15. Sex differences in animal models of psychiatric disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokras, N; Dalla, C

    2014-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders are characterized by sex differences in their prevalence, symptomatology and treatment response. Animal models have been widely employed for the investigation of the neurobiology of such disorders and the discovery of new treatments. However, mostly male animals have been used in preclinical pharmacological studies. In this review, we highlight the need for the inclusion of both male and female animals in experimental studies aiming at gender-oriented prevention, diagnosis and treatment of psychiatric disorders. We present behavioural findings on sex differences from animal models of depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, substance-related disorders, obsessive–compulsive disorder, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and autism. Moreover, when available, we include studies conducted across different stages of the oestrous cycle. By inspection of the relevant literature, it is obvious that robust sex differences exist in models of all psychiatric disorders. However, many times results are conflicting, and no clear conclusion regarding the direction of sex differences and the effect of the oestrous cycle is drawn. Moreover, there is a lack of considerable amount of studies using psychiatric drugs in both male and female animals, in order to evaluate the differential response between the two sexes. Notably, while in most cases animal models successfully mimic drug response in both sexes, test parameters and treatment-sensitive behavioural indices are not always the same for male and female rodents. Thus, there is an increasing need to validate animal models for both sexes and use standard procedures across different laboratories. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed section on Animal Models in Psychiatry Research. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2014.171.issue-20 PMID:24697577

  16. Psychiatric disorders and obesity: A review of association studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, T M; Menon, V

    2017-01-01

    Inconsistent evidence exists regarding the strength, direction, and moderators in the relationship between obesity and psychiatric disorders. This study aims to summarize the evidence on the association between psychiatric illness and obesity with particular attention to the strength and direction of association and also the possible moderators in each postulated link. Systematic electronic searches of MEDLINE through PubMed, ScienceDirect, PsycINFO, and Google Scholar were carried out from inception till October 2016. Generated abstracts were screened for eligibility to be included in the review. Study designs that evaluated the strength of relationship between obesity and psychiatric disorders were included in the study. Quality assessment of included studies was done using the Newcastle-Ottawa checklist tool. From a total of 2424 search results, 21 eligible articles were identified and reviewed. These included studies on obesity and depression (n = 15), obesity and anxiety (four) and one each on obesity and personality disorders, eating disorder (ED), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and alcohol use. Maximal evidence existed for the association between depression and obesity with longitudinal studies demonstrating a bidirectional link between the two conditions. The odds ratios (ORs) were similar for developing depression in obesity (OR: 1.21-5.8) and vice versa (OR: 1.18-3.76) with a stronger association observed in women. For anxiety disorders, evidence was mostly cross-sectional, and associations were of modest magnitude (OR: 1.27-1.40). Among other disorders, obesity, and EDs appear to have a close link (OR: 4.5). Alcohol use appears to be a risk factor for obesity and not vice versa but only among women (OR: 3.84). Obesity and depression have a significant and bidirectional association. Evidence is modest for anxiety disorders and inadequate for other psychiatric conditions. Gender appears to be an important mediator in these relationships.

  17. Mechanisms of the placebo effect in pain and psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, R D; Tiwari, A K; Kennedy, J L

    2016-11-01

    Placebo effect research over the past 15 years has improved our understanding of how placebo treatments reduce patient symptoms. The expectation of symptom improvement is the primary factor underlying the placebo effect. Such expectations are shaped by past experiences, contextual cues and biological traits, which ultimately modulate one's degree of response to a placebo. The body of evidence that describes the physiology of the placebo effect has been derived from mechanistic studies primarily restricted to the setting of pain. Imaging findings support the role of endogenous opioid and dopaminergic networks in placebo analgesia in both healthy patients as well as patients with painful medical conditions. In patients with psychiatric illnesses such as anxiety disorders or depression, a vast overlap in neurological changes is observed in drug responders and placebo responders supporting the role of serotonergic networks in placebo response. Molecular techniques have been relatively underutilized in understanding the placebo effect until recently. We present an overview of the placebo responder phenotypes and genetic markers that have been associated with the placebo effect in pain, schizophrenia, anxiety disorders and depression.

  18. Psychiatric disorders in the parents of individuals with infantile autism: a case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouridsen, Svend Erik; Rich, Bente; Isager, Torben

    2007-01-01

    The rates and types of psychiatric disorders were studied in the parents of individuals with infantile autism (IA).......The rates and types of psychiatric disorders were studied in the parents of individuals with infantile autism (IA)....

  19. Psychiatric co-morbidity in chronic pain disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaqoob, N.; Sharif, A.; Shoaib, A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the psychiatric co-morbidity in patients with chronic pain disorder in hospital setting. Design: Cross sectional descriptive study. Place and duration of study: This study was conducted at Combined Military Hospital (CMH) Okara from June 2011 to May 2012. Patients and Methods: A purposive sample of 400 patients (males=117; females=283) gathered from pain clinic and other outpatient departments of the hospital and were interviewed in detail and Present State Examination was carried out. Demographic variables were scored using descriptive statistics and results were analyzed using correlation methods. Results: It was revealed that psychiatric illness in overall sample prevailed among 266 participants (67%). Among which 164 participants (62%) were diagnosed with depression, 67 patients (25.2%) of chronic pain were diagnosed with anxiety disorders, 28 patients (11%) with adjustment disorder and 1.5% and 1.1% diagnosed with drug dependence and somatization disorder, respectively. Conclusion: Psychiatric co-morbidity especially the incidence of depression, anxiety and adjustment disorders were high amongst patients suffering from chronic pain disorder. (author)

  20. Psychiatric disorders in and service use by young homeless people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, J J; Herrman, H E; Clarke, D M; Neil, C C; McNamara, C L

    1994-10-03

    To examine psychiatric morbidity, including substance use disorders, and service use in young people with experience of homelessness. A cross-sectional study of 34 new residents in a supported accommodation program in Melbourne. Current and lifetime psychiatric diagnoses were made using the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, third edition, revised (DSM-III-R). Use of psychiatric and related services was also assessed. Of the 21 women and 13 men (mean age, 18.1 years; standard deviation, 2.2 years), 50% had a current major DSM-III-R diagnosis, and 82% had a lifetime DSM-III-R diagnosis. The most common diagnoses were alcohol dependence, depressive disorders and cannabis dependence. Co-morbidity was common. Few of the young people had sought or received any treatment for depressive or substance use disorders. Young people with experience of homelessness have a high prevalence of depressive disorders and substance use disorders, particularly alcohol and cannabis dependence. Despite this they have a low rate of service use. These findings suggest a need for closer interaction between mental health professionals and other agencies in the planning and provision of services to young homeless people.

  1. Psychiatric Severity and HIV-Risk Sexual Behaviors among Persons with Substance Use Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majer, John M.; Komer, Anne C.; Jason, and Leonard A.

    2014-01-01

    frequency of unprotected behavior), such that those higher in psychiatric severity and higher in substance use had a greater number of sexual partners. The model including this interaction term accounted for 63.4% of the variance in number of partners. Conclusions Findings suggest psychiatric severity is an underlying risk factor for HIV-risk sexual behavior among persons with substance use disorders who have various psychiatric comorbidities. PMID:25455334

  2. Psychiatric comorbidities in patients with major depressive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaipisuttikul P

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Papan Thaipisuttikul, Pichai Ittasakul, Punjaporn Waleeprakhon, Pattarabhorn Wisajun, Sudawan Jullagate Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand Background: Psychiatric comorbidities are common in major depressive disorder (MDD. They may worsen outcome and cause economic burden. The primary objective was to examine the prevalence of psychiatric comorbidities in MDD. The secondary objectives were to compare the presence of comorbidities between currently active and past MDD, and between patients with and without suicidal risk.Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. A total of 250 patients with lifetime MDD and age ≥18 years were enrolled. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI, Thai version, was used to confirm MDD diagnosis and classify comorbidities. MDD diagnosis was confirmed in 190, and 60 patients were excluded due to diagnosis of bipolar disorder.Results: Of the 190 MDD patients, 25.8% had current MDD and 74.2% had past MDD. Eighty percent were women. The mean age at enrollment was 50 years, and at MDD onset was 41 years. Most patients were married (53.2%, employed (54.8%, and had ≥12 years of education (66.9%. There were 67 patients (35.3% with one or more psychiatric comorbidities. Comorbidities included dysthymia (19.5%, any anxiety disorders (21.1% (panic disorder [6.8%], agoraphobia [5.8%], social phobia [3.7%], obsessive–compulsive disorder [OCD] [4.7%], generalized anxiety disorder [5.3%], and post-traumatic stress disorder [4.2%], alcohol dependence (0.5%, psychotic disorder (1.6%, antisocial personality (1.1%, and eating disorders (0%. Compared with past MDD, the current MDD group had significantly higher OCD (P<0.001, psychotic disorder (P=0.048, past panic disorder (P=0.017, and suicidal risk (P<0.001. Suicidal risk was found in 32.1% of patients. Patients with suicidal risk had more comorbid anxiety disorder of any type (P=0.019 and

  3. DISSOCIAL PERSONALITY DISORDER ANDPSEUDOLOGIA FANTASTICA: UNMASKING FACTITIOUS DISORDERS IN PSYCHIATRIC INPATIENTS

    OpenAIRE

    C. Lazzari; A. Shoka; K. Kulkarni1

    2017-01-01

    Patients withdissocial personality disorder (DPD)might welcome admission into psychiatric hospitals when in search of respite from or to escapefrom court cases. They likely aim to be provided with a “psychiatric diagnosis”to see their charges reduced or dropped. Therefore, when admitted into mental-healthwards, persons with DPD report complex stories which, in their mind, should suggestto psychiatrists that they are “insane” and that, hence, they should be treated as psychiatric patients rath...

  4. Psychiatric morbidity in spouses of patients with alcohol related disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aruna Dandu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Alcohol dependence is on rise world over, especially in developing countries such as India. According to the World Health Organization, about 30% of Indians consume alcohol, out of which 4%–13% are daily consumers and up to 50% of them, fall under the category of hazardous drinking. Another worrying trend from India is that the average age of initiation of alcohol use has reduced from 28 years during the 1980s to 17 years in 2007. In India, alcohol abuse also amounts to huge annual losses due to alcohol-related problems in workplaces. This was a cross-sectional, noninterventional study which was carried out at the Department of Psychiatry, Sri Venkateswara Ramnaraian Ruia Government General Hospital (SVRRGGH, Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and nature of psychiatric morbidity in spouses of patients with alcohol-related disorders (ARDs. Methods: Study design - Hospital-based cross-sectional study. Study setting - Psychiatry Department of SVRRGGH, Sri Venkateswara Medical College, Tirupati. Study period - October 1, 2014 to September 30, 2015. Study units - the spouses of adult patients attending the Department of Psychiatry, with a diagnosis of ARDs. After the ethical clearance from the Institutional Ethical Committee, the spouses of adult patients attending the Department of Psychiatry with a diagnosis of ARDs according to the International Classification of Diseases-10 classification of mental and behavioral disorders constitute the population for the investigation. After obtaining written informed consent from each of the concerned subjects, demographic details and history of psychiatric illness were noted as per the structured pro forma. Results: The age of the alcohol-dependent men and spouses of men with ADS ranged from 23 to 67 years (mean ± standard deviation [SD] 41.24 ± 10.101 and 21–60 years (mean ± SD 35.04 ± 8.98, respectively. Among the study population, 36.6% of

  5. Psychiatric Comorbidity in Patients from the Addictive Disorders Assistance Units of Galicia: The COPSIAD Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Pereiro

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to assess the prevalence of psychiatric comorbidity in patients under treatment within the addictive disorders assistance units of Galicia (Spain.A total of 64 healthcare professionals performed clinical diagnosis of mental disorders (on DSM IV-TR criteria in 2300 patients treated throughout March 2010 in 21 addictive disorders assistance units.56.3% of patients with substance abuse/dependency also showed some other mental disorder, 42.2% of patients suffering from at least an Axis I condition and 20.2% from some Axis II condition. Mood and anxiety disorders and borderline and antisocial personality disorders were the most frequent disorders in both axes.A high comorbidity was found between mental and substance use disorders (SUD in patients seen at the addictive disorders assistance units of Galicia.

  6. Psychiatric Comorbidity in Patients from the Addictive Disorders Assistance Units of Galicia: The COPSIAD Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereiro, César; Pino, Carlos; Flórez, Gerardo; Arrojo, Manuel; Becoña, Elisardo

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to assess the prevalence of psychiatric comorbidity in patients under treatment within the addictive disorders assistance units of Galicia (Spain). A total of 64 healthcare professionals performed clinical diagnosis of mental disorders (on DSM IV-TR criteria) in 2300 patients treated throughout March 2010 in 21 addictive disorders assistance units. 56.3% of patients with substance abuse/dependency also showed some other mental disorder, 42.2% of patients suffering from at least an Axis I condition and 20.2% from some Axis II condition. Mood and anxiety disorders and borderline and antisocial personality disorders were the most frequent disorders in both axes. A high comorbidity was found between mental and substance use disorders (SUD) in patients seen at the addictive disorders assistance units of Galicia.

  7. Psychiatric Comorbidity in Patients from the Addictive Disorders Assistance Units of Galicia: The COPSIAD Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereiro, César; Pino, Carlos; Flórez, Gerardo; Arrojo, Manuel; Becoña, Elisardo

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to assess the prevalence of psychiatric comorbidity in patients under treatment within the addictive disorders assistance units of Galicia (Spain). Material and Methods A total of 64 healthcare professionals performed clinical diagnosis of mental disorders (on DSM IV-TR criteria) in 2300 patients treated throughout March 2010 in 21 addictive disorders assistance units. Results 56.3% of patients with substance abuse/dependency also showed some other mental disorder, 42.2% of patients suffering from at least an Axis I condition and 20.2% from some Axis II condition. Mood and anxiety disorders and borderline and antisocial personality disorders were the most frequent disorders in both axes. Conclusions A high comorbidity was found between mental and substance use disorders (SUD) in patients seen at the addictive disorders assistance units of Galicia. PMID:23823135

  8. Neurofeedback Training for Psychiatric Disorders Associated with Criminal Offending: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Fielenbach; Sandra Fielenbach; Franc C. L. Donkers; Marinus Spreen; Harmke A. Visser; Stefan Bogaerts; Stefan Bogaerts

    2018-01-01

    BackgroundEffective treatment interventions for criminal offenders are necessary to reduce risk of criminal recidivism. Evidence about deviant electroencephalographic (EEG)-frequencies underlying disorders found in criminal offenders is accumulating. Yet, treatment modalities, such as neurofeedback, are rarely applied in the forensic psychiatric domain. Since offenders usually have multiple disorders, difficulties adhering to long-term treatment modalities, and are highly vulnerable for psych...

  9. The role of adult neurogenesis in psychiatric and cognitive disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apple, Deana M; Fonseca, Rene Solano; Kokovay, Erzsebet

    2017-01-15

    Neurogenesis in mammals occurs throughout life in two brain regions: the ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ) and the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampal dentate gyrus. Development and regulation of the V-SVZ and SGZ is unique to each brain region, but with several similar characteristics. Alterations to the production of new neurons in neurogenic regions have been linked to psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. Decline in neurogenesis in the SGZ correlates with affective and psychiatric disorders, and can be reversed by antidepressant and antipsychotic drugs. Likewise, neurogenesis in the V-SVZ can also be enhanced by antidepressant drugs. The regulation of neurogenesis by neurotransmitters, particularly monoamines, in both regions suggests that aberrant neurotransmitter signaling observed in psychiatric disease may play a role in the pathology of these mental health disorders. Similarly, the cognitive deficits that accompany neurodegenerative disease may also be exacerbated by decreased neurogenesis. This review explores the regulation and function of neural stem cells in rodents and humans, and the involvement of factors that contribute to psychiatric and cognitive deficits. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI:StemsCellsinPsychiatry. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Suicide Risk, Aggression and Violence in Major Psychiatric Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Mousavi

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aggression, violence and Suicide are important problems of mental health in our society. They almost always cause disability, death, or other social problems. Appropriate measures can be taken if the distribution of behaviors and suicide risk are well studied in various psychiatric disorders. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. We studied 801 psychiatric patients who were admitted in a psychiatric emergency unit in Isfahan, Iran, for aggression, violence and risk of suicide. Information was obtained from a 30-item questionnaire, filled by the same physician. Results: About one-third of patients had aggression and/or violence on admission or during hours before it. It was most prevalent in men of 12-26 years old and in bipolar mood disorder patients. "High suicide risk" was markedly found in patients with major depressive disorder. Differences of these phenomena were statistically Conclusion: Our findings show a higher rate of aggression and violence in emergency psychiatric patients than in studies done in other countries. It may be due to higher prevalence of bipolar patients in the study field. The finding of "High suicidal risk" in major depression patients warrent systematic preventive programs. Keywords: Suicide risk, Aggression, Violence

  11. Exposure to violence: associations with psychiatric disorders in Brazilian youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidalgo, Thiago M; Sanchez, Zila M; Caetano, Sheila C; Andreoni, Solange; Sanudo, Adriana; Chen, Qixuan; Martins, Sílvia S

    2018-02-15

    The effects of exposure to violent events in adolescence have not been sufficiently studied in middle-income countries such as Brazil. The aims of this study are to investigate the prevalence of psychiatric disorders among 12-year-olds in two neighborhoods with different socioeconomic status (SES) levels in São Paulo and to examine the influence of previous violent events and SES on the prevalence of psychiatric disorders. Students from nine public schools in two neighborhoods of São Paulo were recruited. Students and parents answered questions about demographic characteristics, SES, urbanicity and violent experiences. All participants completed the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (K-SADS) to obtain DSM-IV diagnoses. The data were analyzed using weighted logistic regression with neighborhood stratification after adjusting for neighborhood characteristics, gender, SES and previous traumatic events. The sample included 180 individuals, of whom 61.3% were from low SES and 39.3% had experienced a traumatic event. The weighted prevalence of psychiatric disorders was 21.7%. Having experienced a traumatic event and having low SES were associated with having an internalizing (adjusted OR = 5.46; 2.17-13.74) or externalizing disorder (adjusted OR = 4.33; 1.85-10.15). Investment in reducing SES inequalities and preventing violent events during childhood may improve the mental health of youths from low SES backgrounds.

  12. Psychiatric disorders revealing multiple sclerosis after 20 years of evolvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aicha Slassi Sennou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous research indicates that the onset of psychiatric disorders is sometimes associated with multiple sclerosis (MS evolving several years later. However, information on why this might occur, and on the outcomes of such patients, is still lacking. We aim to discuss these limitations with the current paper. We describe a 51-year-old female who demonstrated severe anxiety disorder and depression years before developing MS neurological symptoms. The patient was treated for these psychiatric disorders over 20 years. In the last 3 years of her treatment, the patient demonstrated a choreic-type of movement disorder in all her limbs. This disorder is consistent with relapsing-remitting MS. Clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI examinations demonstrated aspects of MS, without MS being diagnosed conclusively. The visual evoked potential indicated a diagnosis of conduction abnormalities. The established diagnosis was slow relapsing MS. The patient underwent methylprednisolone bolus (1 g/day. This case-study suggests that health professionals should conduct a full neurological assessment when they find atypical psychiatric symptoms in a patient. This would make sure that patients receive a better standard of care, and thus experience a better quality of life.

  13. Exposure to violence: associations with psychiatric disorders in Brazilian youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago M. Fidalgo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The effects of exposure to violent events in adolescence have not been sufficiently studied in middle-income countries such as Brazil. The aims of this study are to investigate the prevalence of psychiatric disorders among 12-year-olds in two neighborhoods with different socioeconomic status (SES levels in São Paulo and to examine the influence of previous violent events and SES on the prevalence of psychiatric disorders. Methods: Students from nine public schools in two neighborhoods of São Paulo were recruited. Students and parents answered questions about demographic characteristics, SES, urbanicity and violent experiences. All participants completed the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (K-SADS to obtain DSM-IV diagnoses. The data were analyzed using weighted logistic regression with neighborhood stratification after adjusting for neighborhood characteristics, gender, SES and previous traumatic events. Results: The sample included 180 individuals, of whom 61.3% were from low SES and 39.3% had experienced a traumatic event. The weighted prevalence of psychiatric disorders was 21.7%. Having experienced a traumatic event and having low SES were associated with having an internalizing (adjusted OR = 5.46; 2.17-13.74 or externalizing disorder (adjusted OR = 4.33; 1.85-10.15. Conclusions: Investment in reducing SES inequalities and preventing violent events during childhood may improve the mental health of youths from low SES backgrounds.

  14. Sleep and inflammatory markers in different psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krysta, Krzysztof; Krzystanek, Marek; Bratek, Agnieszka; Krupka-Matuszczyk, Irena

    2017-02-01

    Many psychiatric disorders, like schizophrenia, affective disorders, addictions and different forms of dementia are associated with sleep disturbances. In the etiology and course of those diseases inflammatory processes are regarded to be an increasingly important factor. They are also a frequently discussed element of the pathology of sleep. In this literature review reports on correlations between poor sleep and inflammatory responses in various psychiatric conditions are discussed. The link between schizophrenia, affective disorders and inflammatory cytokines is a complex phenomenon, which has been already confirmed in a number of studies. However, the presence of sleep deficits in those conditions, being a common symptom of depression and psychoses, can be an additional factor having a considerable impact on the immunological processes in mental illnesses. In the analyzed data, a number of studies are presented describing the role of inflammatory markers in sleep disturbances and psychopathological symptoms of affective, psychotic, neurogenerative and other disorders. Also attention is drawn to possible implications for their treatment. Efforts to use, e.g., anti-inflammatory agents in psychiatry in the context of their impact on sleep are reported. The aspect of inflammatory markers in the role of sleep deprivation as the treatment method in major depressive disorder is also discussed. A general conclusion is drawn that the improvement of sleep quality plays a crucial role in the care for psychiatric patients.

  15. Onset of Maternal Psychiatric Disorders after the Birth of a Child with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairthorne, Jenny; Jacoby, Peter; Bourke, Jenny; de Klerk, Nick; Leonard, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Background: Mothers of a child with autism spectrum disorder have more psychiatric disorders after the birth of their child. This might be because they have more psychiatric disorders before the birth, or the increase could be related to the burden of caring for their child. Aims: We aimed to calculate the incidence of a psychiatric diagnosis in…

  16. Psychiatric Literacy and the Conduct Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnham, Adrian; Leno, Virginia Carter

    2012-01-01

    Past research regarding mental health literacy has indicated that public knowledge is lamentably poor. This study aimed to examine the effect of demographics, experience and personality, as predictors for understanding conduct disorders. An opportunistic sample of 125 participants with a mean age of 24.29 years completed an online questionnaire in…

  17. Psychiatric disorders and general medical conditions: implications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Patients with severe mental illness have higher than expected prevalence rates of co-morbid general medical conditions, particularly metabolic ... We furthermore argue that the bidirectional relationship between mental and medical disorders should be considered in the planning of ..... Depress Anxiety 1996;4: 199-208.. 36.

  18. Resilience: A psychobiological construct for psychiatric disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivastava, Amresh; Desousa, Avinash

    2016-01-01

    Understanding of psychopathology of mental disorder is evolving, particularly with availability of newer insight from the field of genetics, epigenetics, social, and environmental pathology. It is now becoming clear how biological factors are contributing to development of an illness in the face of a number of psychosocial factors. Resilience is a psychobiological factor which determines individual's response to adverse life events. Resilience is a human capacity to adapt swiftly and successfully to stressful/traumatic events and manage to revert to a positive state. It is fundamental for growth of positive psychology which deals with satisfaction, adaptability, contentment, and optimism in people's life. Of late, there has been a paradigm shift in the understanding of resilience in context of stress risk vulnerability dimension. It is a neurobiological construct with significant neurobehavioral and emotional features which plays important role in deconstructing mechanism of biopsychosocial model of mental disorders. Resilience is a protective factor against development of mental disorder and a risk factor for a number of clinical conditions, e.g. suicide. Available information from scientific studies points out that resilience is modifiable factor which opens up avenues for a number of newer psychosocial as well as biological therapies. Early identification of vulnerable candidates and effectiveness of resilience-based intervention may offer more clarity in possibility of prevention. Future research may be crucial for preventive psychiatry. In this study, we aim to examine whether resilience is a psychopathological construct for mental disorder. PMID:26985103

  19. Dimensional psychiatry: reward dysfunction and depressive mood across psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hägele, Claudia; Schlagenhauf, Florian; Rapp, Michael; Sterzer, Philipp; Beck, Anne; Bermpohl, Felix; Stoy, Meline; Ströhle, Andreas; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Dolan, Raymond J; Heinz, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    A dimensional approach in psychiatry aims to identify core mechanisms of mental disorders across nosological boundaries. We compared anticipation of reward between major psychiatric disorders, and investigated whether reward anticipation is impaired in several mental disorders and whether there is a common psychopathological correlate (negative mood) of such an impairment. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and a monetary incentive delay (MID) task to study the functional correlates of reward anticipation across major psychiatric disorders in 184 subjects, with the diagnoses of alcohol dependence (n = 26), schizophrenia (n = 44), major depressive disorder (MDD, n = 24), bipolar disorder (acute manic episode, n = 13), attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, n = 23), and healthy controls (n = 54). Subjects' individual Beck Depression Inventory-and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-scores were correlated with clusters showing significant activation during reward anticipation. During reward anticipation, we observed significant group differences in ventral striatal (VS) activation: patients with schizophrenia, alcohol dependence, and major depression showed significantly less ventral striatal activation compared to healthy controls. Depressive symptoms correlated with dysfunction in reward anticipation regardless of diagnostic entity. There was no significant correlation between anxiety symptoms and VS functional activation. Our findings demonstrate a neurobiological dysfunction related to reward prediction that transcended disorder categories and was related to measures of depressed mood. The findings underline the potential of a dimensional approach in psychiatry and strengthen the hypothesis that neurobiological research in psychiatric disorders can be targeted at core mechanisms that are likely to be implicated in a range of clinical entities.

  20. Asthma and psychiatric disorders in male army recruits and soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lev-Tzion, Raffi; Friedman, Tal; Shochat, Tzippy; Gazala, Eliyahu; Wohl, Yonit

    2007-05-01

    Numerous studies have shown an association between asthma and mental disorders. While elevated rates of asthma have been noted among psychiatric patients with anxiety disorders and post-traumatic stress disorder, several studies have found elevated rates of mental disorders among asthma patients. Such studies, however, have generally relied upon questionnaires and assessment by non-specialist physicians to diagnose mental disorders and asthma. To examine a possible association between asthma and psychiatric diagnoses in Israeli military recruits and soldiers. In this cross-sectional study we compared the prevalence of mental diagnoses in asthmatic recruits and soldiers with that in non-asthmatic recruits and soldiers. A total of 195,903 recruits and soldiers were examined by Israel Defense Forces recruiting offices and fitness boards. Diagnoses of asthma were based on a pulmonologist's diagnosis, including spirometry at rest and exercise testing as indicated; diagnoses of mental disorders were based on examination by a psychiatrist. The prevalence of asthma was found to be 7.8% (current) and 9.8% (lifetime). The prevalence of mental disorders was 13.4%. Current asthma was associated with an increased likelihood of any mental disorder (OR = 1.20, 95% Cl = 1.15-1.26), and specifically with mood and anxiety disorders (1.31, 1.19-1.46), introvert personality disorders (1.20, 1.12-1.28) and adjustment disorder (1.43, 1.26-1.62). Lifetime asthma was associated with an increased likelihood of the same disorders, but the association was not as powerful. The results validate the previously documented association between asthma and mental disorders, using a sample of unprecedented size and improved methodology. A multidisciplinary approach to asthma that incorporates mental health professionals in the treatment of poorly controlled asthma and perhaps of asthma in general is recommended.

  1. Concomitant Psychiatric and Nonalcohol-Related Substance Use Disorders Among Hospitalized Patients with Alcoholic Liver Disease in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinjuvadia, Raxitkumar; Jinjuvadia, Chetna; Puangsricharoen, Pimpitcha; Chalasani, Naga; Crabb, David W; Liangpunsakul, Suthat

    2018-02-01

    Despite that the epidemiological studies on the comorbidity of alcohol misuse and psychiatric disorders have been studied, less is known about the magnitude of these disorders among patients with alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Our aim was to determine the prevalence of psychiatric and substance use disorders among hospitalized ALD patients in the United States. We utilized a single-level clinical classification software to identify patients with ALD and psychiatric/substance use disorders from the 2011 National Inpatient Sample data. The primary outcome was the prevalence of these disorders among hospitalized patients with ALD (n = 74,972) compared to those with chronic liver diseases not caused by alcohol (n = 350,140) and those without underlying liver diseases (n = 1,447,063). The prevalence of adjustment disorder, anxiety disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, and depression was significantly higher among hospitalized patients with ALD when compared to those with chronic liver diseases not caused by alcohol (all with p-values psychiatric/substance use disorders among hospitalized patients with ALD. Hospitalized patients with ALD have significantly high prevalence of concomitant psychiatric and substance abuse disorders when compared to those with chronic liver diseases not caused by alcohol and those without underlying liver diseases. Screening and appropriate intervention should be implemented as part of routine clinical care for these patients. Copyright © 2017 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  2. Neurological and psychiatric disorders as a neuroglial failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    VERKHRATSKY, ALEXEI; PARPURA, VLADIMIR

    2014-01-01

    Neuroglia are a diverse non-neuronal population of cells in the central and peripheral nervous system. These cells have a variety of functions that can all be summed up as the maintenance of homeostasis of the nervous system. It is the loss of homeostasis that represents the culprit of all disorders. Thus, neuroglia can be envisioned as the pivotal element in all neural disorders, be that neurological or psychiatric. In this review, we discuss the role of glia in homeostasis and defence of the nervous system as well as changes in the morpho-functional characteristics of these cells in various disorders. PMID:25544781

  3. Symptom severity and disability in psychiatric disorders: The U.S. Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Velázquez, R; Jokela, M; Rosenström, T H

    2017-11-01

    While most psychiatric diagnoses are based on simple counts of symptoms, some symptoms may be sign of a more severe mental syndrome than others. This calls for validated estimates of the relative severity specific symptoms imply within a disorder. We focused on four diagnostic disorders: Manic Episode (ME), Major Depressive Episode (MDE), Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD). Symptom-specific severity parameters were estimated, and validated by examining their association with levels of self-reported disability in daily activities over and above the number of symptoms. Data from the cohort study of the U.S. Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys (CPES) was used, which comprises the National Comorbidity Survey Replication, National Survey of American Life, and the National Latino and Asian American Study. The four analytic datasets included respondents who endorsed disorder-specific pre-screening symptoms according to the World Mental Health Survey Initiative's version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Disability was measured using the WHO Disability Assessment Schedule. Item Response Theory and Tobit models were implemented. For ME, PTSD, and GAD (not MDE) symptom severity based on psychometric Item Response Theory predicted disability outcomes after adjusting for symptom count. For PTSD, symptom count was not associated with disability. The analytic sample for each psychiatric disorder was based on a pre-selection stemming from index criteria (e.g. sadness or pleasure loss for MDE), which implies that our results are only generalizable to those individuals at risk rather than for the entire population. Additionally, we acknowledge that the use of unidimensional models is only one of the several options to model psychopathological constructs. The same number of symptoms may be related to different levels of disability, depending on the specific symptoms from which the person suffers. Diagnostic

  4. The Energy Metabolism Dysfunction in Psychiatric Disorders Postmortem Brains: Focus on Proteomic Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliana S. Zuccoli

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Psychiatric disorders represent a great medical and social challenge and people suffering from these conditions face many impairments regarding personal and professional life. In addition, a mental disorder will manifest itself in approximately one quarter of the world's population at some period of their life. Dysfunction in energy metabolism is one of the most consistent scientific findings associated with these disorders. With this is mind, this review compiled data on disturbances in energy metabolism found by proteomic analyses of postmortem brains collected from patients affected by the most prevalent psychiatric disorders: schizophrenia (SCZ, bipolar disorder (BPD, and major depressive disorder (MDD. We searched in the PubMed database to gather the studies and compiled all the differentially expressed proteins reported in each work. SCZ studies revealed 92 differentially expressed proteins related to energy metabolism, while 95 proteins were discovered in BPD, and 41 proteins in MDD. With the compiled data, it was possible to determine which proteins related to energy metabolism were found to be altered in all the disorders as well as which ones were altered exclusively in one of them. In conclusion, the information gathered in this work could contribute to a better understanding of the impaired metabolic mechanisms and hopefully bring insights into the underlying neuropathology of psychiatric disorders.

  5. Psychiatric Disorders Among Patients Seeking Treatment for Co-Occurring Chronic Pain and Opioid Use Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Declan T; Cutter, Christopher J; Beitel, Mark; Kerns, Robert D; Liong, Christopher; Schottenfeld, Richard S

    2016-10-01

    Psychiatric comorbidities complicate treatment of patients with chronic pain and opioid use disorder, but the prevalence of specific comorbid psychiatric disorders in this population has not been systematically investigated. 170 consecutive participants entering a treatment research program for co-occurring chronic pain and opioid use disorder between March 2009 and July 2013 were evaluated with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR Axis I Disorders (SCID-I/P) and the Diagnostic Interview for DSM-IV Personality Disorders (DIPD-IV). The prevalence of any lifetime (and current) comorbid Axis I disorder was 91% (75%); 52% met criteria for lifetime anxiety disorder (48% current), 57% for lifetime mood disorder (48% current), and 78% for lifetime nonopioid substance use disorder (34% current). Common current anxiety diagnoses were posttraumatic stress disorder (21%), generalized anxiety disorder (16%), and panic disorder without agoraphobia (16%). Common current mood diagnoses were major depressive disorder (40%) and dysthymia (11%). A majority of patients had a personality disorder (52%). High rates and persistence of co-occurring psychiatric disorders, including anxiety or mood disorders, may explain in part the difficulty providers have treating patients with co-occurring opioid use disorder and chronic pain and suggest possible targets for improving treatment. ClinicalTrials.gov identifiers: buprenorphine/naloxone treatment (NCT00634803), opioid treatment program-based methadone maintenance treatment (NCT00727675). © Copyright 2016 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  6. Prevalence of substance use disorders in psychiatric patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftdahl, Nanna Gilliam; Nordentoft, Merete; Hjorthøj, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    obtained from several Danish population-based registers. The study population was defined as all individuals with incidents of schizophrenia, schizotypal disorder, other psychoses, bipolar disorder, depression, anxiety, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD......PURPOSE: The present study established the national prevalence of substance use disorders (SUDs) among Danish psychiatric patients. Furthermore, patients with SUDs and those without SUDs were compared on a range of socio-demographic, clinical, and treatment characteristics. METHODS: Data were......), and personality disorders since 1969. The prevalence of SUDs was examined for the following psychoactive substances: alcohol, opioids, cannabis, sedatives, cocaine, psycho-stimulants and hallucinogens. RESULTS: A total of 463,003 patients were included in the analysis. The prevalence of any lifetime SUD was: 37...

  7. Transcranial direct current stimulation and neuroplasticity genes: implications for psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhabra, Harleen; Shivakumar, Venkataram; Agarwal, Sri Mahavir; Bose, Anushree; Venugopal, Deepthi; Rajasekaran, Ashwini; Subbanna, Manjula; Kalmady, Sunil V; Narayanaswamy, Janardhanan C; Debnath, Monojit; Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan

    2016-02-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive and well-tolerated brain stimulation technique with promising efficacy as an add-on treatment for schizophrenia and for several other psychiatric disorders. tDCS modulates neuroplasticity; psychiatric disorders are established to be associated with neuroplasticity abnormalities. This review presents the summary of research on potential genetic basis of neuroplasticity-modulation mechanism underlying tDCS and its implications for treating various psychiatric disorders. A systematic review highlighting the genes involved in neuroplasticity and their role in psychiatric disorders was carried out. The focus was on the established genetic findings of tDCS response relationship with BDNF and COMT gene polymorphisms. Synthesis of these preliminary observations suggests the potential influence of neuroplastic genes on tDCS treatment response. These include several animal models, pharmacological studies, mentally ill and healthy human subject trials. Taking into account the rapidly unfolding understanding of tDCS and the role of synaptic plasticity disturbances in neuropsychiatric disorders, in-depth evaluation of the mechanism of action pertinent to neuroplasticity modulation with tDCS needs further systematic research. Genes such as NRG1, DISC1, as well as those linked with the glutamatergic receptor in the context of their direct role in the modulation of neuronal signalling related to neuroplasticity aberrations, are leading candidates for future research in this area. Such research studies might potentially unravel observations that might have potential translational implications in psychiatry.

  8. Cannabis Use and Risk of Psychiatric Disorders: Prospective Evidence From a US National Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Carlos; Hasin, Deborah S; Wall, Melanie M; Flórez-Salamanca, Ludwing; Hoertel, Nicolas; Wang, Shuai; Kerridge, Bradley T; Olfson, Mark

    2016-04-01

    nicotine dependence: OR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.2-2.4), but not any mood disorder (OR, 1.1; 95% CI, 0.8-1.4) or anxiety disorder (OR, 0.9; 95% CI, 0.7-1.1). The same general pattern of results was observed in the multiple regression analyses of wave 2 prevalent psychiatric disorders and in the propensity score-matched analysis of incident and prevalent psychiatric disorders. Within the general population, cannabis use is associated with an increased risk for several substance use disorders. Physicians and policy makers should take these associations of cannabis use under careful consideration.

  9. The Correlation Between Psychiatric Disorders and Women's Lives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursalioglu, Fusun Sevimli; Aydin, Nazan; Yazici, Esra; Yazici, Ahmet Bulent

    2013-04-01

    Psychiatric disorders are important factors which affect the quality of life: employment rates, interpersonal and intrafamilial communications, marriage, child-bearing, parental skills and many other social - cognitive areas in different ways. Psychiatric disorders like schizophrenia, bipolar affective disorder and depressive disorder have a negative impact on women's lives. This study has compared the relationship between these mental illnesses and the liabilities of women's lives. For the purpose of this study, 61 schizophrenics, 35 bipolar and 40 unipolar female patients and 60 healthy controls from a university hospital of eastern Turkey were evaluated with SCID- I, a family environmental scale and a personal information questionnaire. The women with psychiatric disorders had higher rates of unemployment, shorter durations of marriage and lower numbers of parity, as compared to their healthy counterparts, especially after the onset of their illnesses. The schizophrenia and bipolar groups are at risk due to the psychotropic medications which they take during pregnancy. The onset or the exacerbations of illnesses during the postpartum period are also seen more in the schizophrenia and the bipolar groups. However, the patients did not use medicines more than the healthy controls during lactation. The schizophrenia and bipolar groups seem to be failing in using reliable methods of contraception. This data is important due to the traditional and the socio-economical structure of eastern Turkey, which may interrelate with the results. Women have to play various roles in life and they have various challenges which are related to these roles. The female psychiatric patients should be evaluated in the special perspective of 'being women', along with other clinical parameters. The evaluation of the social, cultural and the economic aspects and the collaborative teams of different clinical disciplines which are related to women's mental health would be beneficial.

  10. Consensus on guidelines for stereotactic neurosurgery for psychiatric disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuttin, Bart; Wu, Hemmings; Mayberg, Helen; Hariz, Marwan; Gabriëls, Loes; Galert, Thorsten; Merkel, Reinhard; Kubu, Cynthia; Vilela-Filho, Osvaldo; Matthews, Keith; Taira, Takaomi; Lozano, Andres M; Schechtmann, Gastón; Doshi, Paresh; Broggi, Giovanni; Régis, Jean; Alkhani, Ahmed; Sun, Bomin; Eljamel, Sam; Schulder, Michael; Kaplitt, Michael; Eskandar, Emad; Rezai, Ali; Krauss, Joachim K; Hilven, Paulien; Schuurman, Rick; Ruiz, Pedro; Chang, Jin Woo; Cosyns, Paul; Lipsman, Nir; Voges, Juergen; Cosgrove, Rees; Li, Yongjie; Schlaepfer, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Background For patients with psychiatric illnesses remaining refractory to ‘standard’ therapies, neurosurgical procedures may be considered. Guidelines for safe and ethical conduct of such procedures have previously and independently been proposed by various local and regional expert groups. Methods To expand on these earlier documents, representative members of continental and international psychiatric and neurosurgical societies, joined efforts to further elaborate and adopt a pragmatic worldwide set of guidelines. These are intended to address a broad range of neuropsychiatric disorders, brain targets and neurosurgical techniques, taking into account cultural and social heterogeneities of healthcare environments. Findings The proposed consensus document highlights that, while stereotactic ablative procedures such as cingulotomy and capsulotomy for depression and obsessive-compulsive disorder are considered ‘established’ in some countries, they still lack level I evidence. Further, it is noted that deep brain stimulation in any brain target hitherto tried, and for any psychiatric or behavioural disorder, still remains at an investigational stage. Researchers are encouraged to design randomised controlled trials, based on scientific and data-driven rationales for disease and brain target selection. Experienced multidisciplinary teams are a mandatory requirement for the safe and ethical conduct of any psychiatric neurosurgery, ensuring documented refractoriness of patients, proper consent procedures that respect patient's capacity and autonomy, multifaceted preoperative as well as postoperative long-term follow-up evaluation, and reporting of effects and side effects for all patients. Interpretation This consensus document on ethical and scientific conduct of psychiatric surgery worldwide is designed to enhance patient safety. PMID:24444853

  11. [Creativity and psychiatric disorders: exploring a marginal area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thys, E; Sabbe, B; De Hert, M

    2012-01-01

    Creativity is an important human quality on which many of man’s achievements are based. To give a historical and cultural context, to facilitate meaningful scientific research into the link between creativity and psychiatric disorders. Review of relevant literature. The possibility of a link between creativity and psychiatric vulnerability was first discussed in antiquity. Modern interest in the subject stems from the romantic era and acquired a scientific aura in the 19th century. In the 20th century creativity and psychopathology became still further entangled as a result of the influence that mentally disturbed artists exerted on art. The history of the Prinzhorn collection illustrates many aspects of this interaction. Psychometric, psychodiagnostic and genetic research supports a link between creativity and psychiatric illness within the bipolar-psychotic continuum, with schizotypy/thymotypy as prototypes of creativity-related disorders. Evolutionary hypotheses connect the schizophrenia paradox to a survival advantage obtained as a result of enhanced creative ability. Neuro-aesthetics explains the neurologic correlates of the aesthetic experience on the basis of the features of the visual system. A specific challenge for scientific research in this complex and heterogeneous area is appropriate operationalisation of creativity and psychiatric illness within an truly artistic context. There is a continuing need for meaningful definitions and measurement instruments and for a multidisciplinary collaboration.

  12. Ethical issues in forensic psychiatric research on mentally disordered offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munthe, Christian; Radovic, Susanna; Anckarsäter, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyses ethical issues in forensic psychiatric research on mentally disordered offenders, especially those detained in the psychiatric treatment system. The idea of a 'dual role' dilemma afflicting forensic psychiatry is more complicated than acknowledged. Our suggestion acknowledges the good of criminal law and crime prevention as a part that should be balanced against familiar research ethical considerations. Research aiming at improvements of criminal justice and treatment is a societal priority, and the total benefit of studies has to be balanced against the risks for research subjects inferred by almost all systematic studies. Direct substantial risks must be balanced by health benefits, and normal informed consent requirements apply. When direct risks are slight, as in register-based epidemiology, lack of consent may be counter-balanced by special measures to protect integrity and the general benefit of better understanding of susceptibility, treatment and prevention. Special requirements on consent procedures in the forensic psychiatric context are suggested, and the issue of the relation between decision competence and legal accountability is found to be in need of further study. The major ethical hazard in forensic psychiatric research connects to the role of researchers as assessors and consultants in a society entertaining strong prejudices against mentally disordered offenders.

  13. A review of Indian research on co-occurring cannabis use disorders& psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shalini; Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh

    2017-08-01

    Cannabis is a widely used illicit drug and its use is often associated with co-occurring psychiatric disorders. This systematic review was aimed to provide information on the published Indian studies on co-occurring cannabis use disorders and psychiatric disorders. An electronic search of available Indian literature using relevant search terms was carried out in May 2015 and 52 articles in English language published from India were included in the current review. Studies on cannabis and associated psychotic disorders (n=16) chiefly described acute episodes with predominant positive symptoms, following cannabis use. Some studies (n=6) observed an overall increased prevalence of all psychiatric disorders and symptoms owing to cannabis use, while others (n=14) elaborated on high rates of substance use in those with psychiatric disorders. The effect of cannabis use on cognitive function was the focus of some of the Indian studies (n=7). All these studies barring one had all male subjects, and a single study described the service delivery model for those with dual diagnosis disorders in India. Most of the research used cross-sectional observational design and focussed on treatment-seeking population. A review of Indian literature on cannabis use and its association with psychiatric disorders indicates a high co-prevalence of psychotic disorders, especially in vulnerable individuals as well as high rates of co-occurrence of other psychiatric comorbidities. However, there is limited focus on exploring the aetiological association between cannabis use and psychiatric disorders; understanding the neurobiology of this association and management-related issues.

  14. Psychiatric disorders in Danish children aged 5-7 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elberling, Hanne; Linneberg, Allan; Ulrikka Rask, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    and emotional disorder and behavioural disorder. Teenage mothers, single parents and low household income the first two years after the child's birth were associated with a three-to fourfold increased risk of psychiatric disorder in the child at age 5-7 years. CONCLUSION: The study results point to two "windows...... preschool to school. METHODS: A sample of 1585 children from the Copenhagen Child Cohort, CCC2000 aged 5-7 years was assessed using the Development and Well-Being Assessment (DAWBA) with diagnostic classification by experienced clinicians. Perinatal, sociodemographic and socio-economic data was obtained...... from Danish national registries. RESULTS: The prevalence of any ICD-10 psychiatric disorder was 5.7% (95%CI: 4.4-7.1). Pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) were found in 1.3% (95%CI: 0.8-1.8) and behavioural and hyperkinetic disorders were found in 1.5% (95%CI: 0.9-2.1) and 1.0% (95%CI: 0...

  15. Youth Gang Members: Psychiatric Disorders and Substance Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert John Sargent

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Approximately 260,000 of youth in the United States are gang-affiliated. There is a paucity of data available to identify the prevalence of mental health disorders in this population. Gang members share many of the features of “at risk” or juvenile justice involved youth who deny gang membership. The authors identified rates of psychiatric disorders within a juvenile justice population delineated in three categories: gang members, friends of gang members, and non-gang members. Methods: A retrospective review of records obtained by a juvenile probation department. A large detention center conducted mental health screenings on 7,615 youth aged 13–17. The mental health screenings were performed by either a master level or doctoral level mental health professional. Odds ratios were computed as an effect size for gender, race/ethnic differences, and gang-membership associations with self-reported psychiatric and substance use disorders. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the risk for psychiatric and substance use disorders among gang-members and friends of gang members. Diagnostic information was generated through a clinical interview and flexible battery. Results: Of the 7,615 youth in this study, ~50% had contact with gangs; 11% were self-identified gang-members, and 38% acknowledged having at least one friendship with a gang member. Similar to other studies, being male was a risk-factor for gang-membership (2.31 odds. In this multi-racial and ethnic study, Latinos had a greater affiliation with gang membership and association with gang members as friends (1.44 odds. Gang members were found to have increased rates of post-traumatic stress disorder (1.77 odds, current substance abuse (2.58 odds, oppositional defiant disorder, (1.24 odds and conduct disorder (4.05 odds; however, they were less likely to have an adjustment disorder than non-gang members (0.70 odds. Conclusions: Juveniles who received a mental health assessment

  16. Common Questions About Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Psychiatric Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, Scott F; Banducci, Anne N; Vinci, Christine

    2015-11-01

    Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is a time-limited, goal-oriented psychotherapy that has been extensively researched and has benefits in a number of psychiatric disorders, including anxiety, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism, obsessive-compulsive and tic disorders, personality disorders, eating disorders, and insomnia. CBT uses targeted strategies to help patients adopt more adaptive patterns of thinking and behaving, which leads to positive changes in emotions and decreased functional impairments. Strategies include identifying and challenging problematic thoughts and beliefs, scheduling pleasant activities to increase environmental reinforcement, and extended exposure to unpleasant thoughts, situations, or physiologic sensations to decrease avoidance and arousal associated with anxiety-eliciting stimuli. CBT can be helpful in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder by emphasizing safety, trust, control, esteem, and intimacy. Prolonged exposure therapy is a CBT technique that includes a variety of strategies, such as repeated recounting of the trauma and exposure to feared real-world situations. For attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, CBT focuses on establishing structures and routines, and clear rules and expectations within the home and classroom. Early intensive behavioral interventions should be initiated in children with autism before three years of age; therapy consists of 12 to 40 hours of intensive treatment per week, for at least one year. In many disorders, CBT can be used alone or in combination with medications. However, CBT requires a significant commitment from patients. Family physicians are well suited to provide collaborative care for patients with psychiatric disorders, in concert with cognitive behavior therapists.

  17. Fatty acids and oxidative stress in psychiatric disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Tonello Lucio; Cocchi Massimo; Tsaluchidu Sofia; Puri Basant K

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background The aim of this study was to determine whether there is published evidence for increased oxidative stress in neuropsychiatric disorders. Methods A PubMed search was carried out using the MeSH search term 'oxidative stress' in conjunction with each of the DSM-IV-TR diagnostic categories of the American Psychiatric Association in order to identify potential studies. Results There was published evidence of increased oxidative stress in the following DSM-IV-TR diagnostic categ...

  18. Huntington's disease: psychiatric issues of a paradigmatic neuropsychiatric disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, Raquel

    2006-01-01

    Huntington's Disease (HD) can be considered a paradigmatic neuropsychiatric disorder that has three components: motor, cognitive and behavioral symptoms. The author synthetizes research developed on epidemiology and etipathogeny of HD and makes reference to more usual symptoms, emphasizing psychiatric symptoms, often the first manifestation of HD. About a clinical case, the author points out rhe great phenotypic variability of this disease, reflects about ways to develop the knowledge of the ...

  19. Lab-on-a-Chip Proteomic Assays for Psychiatric Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Harald; Wienke, Julia; Guest, Paul C; Bistolas, Nikitas; Bier, Frank F

    2017-01-01

    Lab-on-a-chip assays allow rapid identification of multiple parameters on an automated user-friendly platform. Here we describe a fully automated multiplex immunoassay and readout in less than 15 min using the Fraunhofer in vitro diagnostics (ivD) platform to enable inexpensive point-of-care profiling of sera or a single drop of blood from patients with various diseases such as psychiatric disorders.

  20. The differential diagnosis of anxiety. Psychiatric and medical disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, O G

    1985-03-01

    This article has reviewed clinical and demographic features of the primary anxiety disorders and other psychiatric and medical disorders that often are associated with anxiety symptoms, highlighting differential diagnosis. In summary, phobic disorders (exogenous anxiety) are characterized by anxiety reliably elicited by specific environmental stimuli; the stimuli involved determine which type of phobia is diagnosed. In contrast, panic attacks and generalized anxiety (endogenous anxiety) involve symptoms of anxiety not associated only with specific eliciting stimuli. Panic disorder is differentiated from generalized anxiety disorder by the presence of discrete attacks; both disorders usually have some level of persistent anxiety. Obsessive-compulsive disorder is characterized by recurrent unwanted but irresistible thoughts and the ritualized repetitive acts resulting from these obsessions, in the absence of preexisting psychosis or depression. Finally, posttraumatic stress disorder involves various anxiety (and other) symptoms as a direct result of an obvious stressor. Depressive symptoms are frequently associated with anxiety. It is sometimes impossible to determine which is the primary disorder. Overlap of syndromes probably also occurs with other primary psychiatric disorders, especially somatoform disorders, adjustment disorder with anxious mood, and several personality disorders. Finally, primary anxiety can be confused with several medical syndromes, especially when the medical disorder has not been recognized. Nevertheless, research with patients with pheochromocytoma suggests that medical causes of anxiety may be qualitatively different from primary anxiety disorders, especially the psychic anxiety component. Attention to the clinical and demographic features listed in Table 4, as well as the use of newly-developed structured diagnostic interviews should usually lead to a correct diagnosis, as illustrated by the following examples. The onset of a fear of

  1. Sex steroid-related candidate genes in psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westberg, Lars; Eriksson, Elias

    2008-07-01

    Sex steroids readily pass the blood-brain barrier, and receptors for them are abundant in brain areas important for the regulation of emotions, cognition and behaviour. Animal experiments have revealed both important early effects of these hormones on brain development and their ongoing influence on brain morphology and neurotransmission in the adult organism. The important effects of sex steroids on human behaviour are illustrated by, for example, the effect of reduced levels of these hormones on sexual drive and conditions such as premenstrual dysphoric disorder, perimenopausal dysphoria, postpartum depression, postpartum psychosis, dysphoria induced by oral contraceptives or hormonal replacement therapy and anabolic steroid-induced aggression. The fact that men and women (as groups) differ with respect to the prevalence of several psychiatric disorders, certain aspects of cognitive function and certain personality traits may possibly also reflect an influence of sex steroids on human behaviour. The heritability of most behavioural traits, including personality, cognitive abilities and susceptibility to psychiatric illness, is considerable, but as yet, only few genes of definite importance in this context have been identified. Given the important role of sex steroids for brain function, it is unfortunate that relatively few studies so far have addressed the possible influence of sex steroid-related genes on interindividual differences with respect to personality, cognition and susceptibility to psychiatric disorders. To facilitate further research in this area, this review provides information on several such genes and summarizes what is currently known with respect to their possible influence on brain function.

  2. Zinc deficiency is common in several psychiatric disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ole Grønli

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mounting evidence suggests a link between low zinc levels and depression. There is, however, little knowledge about zinc levels in older persons with other psychiatric diagnoses. Therefore, we explore the zinc status of elderly patients suffering from a wide range of psychiatric disorders. METHODS: Clinical data and blood samples for zinc analyzes were collected from 100 psychogeriatric patients over 64 of age. Psychiatric and cognitive symptoms were assessed using the Montgomery and Aasberg Depression Rating Scale, the Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia, the Mini-Mental State Examination, the Clockdrawing Test, clinical interviews and a review of medical records. In addition, a diagnostic interview was conducted using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview instrument. The prevalence of zinc deficiency in patients with depression was compared with the prevalence in patients without depression, and the prevalence in a control group of 882 older persons sampled from a population study. RESULTS: There was a significant difference in zinc deficiency prevalence between the control group (14.4% and the patient group (41.0% (χ(2 = 44.81, df = 1, p<0.001. In a logistic model with relevant predictors, zinc deficiency was positively associated with gender and with serum albumin level. The prevalence of zinc deficiency in the patient group was significantly higher in patients without depression (i.e. with other diagnoses than in patients with depression as a main diagnosis or comorbid depression (χ(2 = 4.36, df = 1, p = 0.037. CONCLUSIONS: Zinc deficiency is quite common among psychogeriatric patients and appears to be even more prominent in patients suffering from other psychiatric disorders than depression. LIMITATIONS: This study does not provide a clear answer as to whether the observed differences represent a causal relationship between zinc deficiency and psychiatric symptoms. The blood sample collection time points

  3. Zinc deficiency is common in several psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grønli, Ole; Kvamme, Jan Magnus; Friborg, Oddgeir; Wynn, Rolf

    2013-01-01

    Mounting evidence suggests a link between low zinc levels and depression. There is, however, little knowledge about zinc levels in older persons with other psychiatric diagnoses. Therefore, we explore the zinc status of elderly patients suffering from a wide range of psychiatric disorders. Clinical data and blood samples for zinc analyzes were collected from 100 psychogeriatric patients over 64 of age. Psychiatric and cognitive symptoms were assessed using the Montgomery and Aasberg Depression Rating Scale, the Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia, the Mini-Mental State Examination, the Clockdrawing Test, clinical interviews and a review of medical records. In addition, a diagnostic interview was conducted using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview instrument. The prevalence of zinc deficiency in patients with depression was compared with the prevalence in patients without depression, and the prevalence in a control group of 882 older persons sampled from a population study. There was a significant difference in zinc deficiency prevalence between the control group (14.4%) and the patient group (41.0%) (χ(2) = 44.81, df = 1, pdeficiency was positively associated with gender and with serum albumin level. The prevalence of zinc deficiency in the patient group was significantly higher in patients without depression (i.e. with other diagnoses) than in patients with depression as a main diagnosis or comorbid depression (χ(2) = 4.36, df = 1, p = 0.037). Zinc deficiency is quite common among psychogeriatric patients and appears to be even more prominent in patients suffering from other psychiatric disorders than depression. This study does not provide a clear answer as to whether the observed differences represent a causal relationship between zinc deficiency and psychiatric symptoms. The blood sample collection time points varied in both the control group and the patient group. No data regarding zinc supplementation were collected.

  4. Panic disorder in primary care: Comorbid psychiatric disorders and their persistence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilli, Virpi; Suominen, Kirsi; Karlsson, Hasse

    2012-01-01

    Objective Although 70–80% of panic disorder patients use primary care to obtain mental health services, relatively few studies have examined panic patients in this setting. This study aimed to examine both the lifetime and current comorbid psychiatric disorders associated with panic disorder in primary care, the duration and severity of the disorder, and the sociodemographic factors associated with it. Design Patients were screened for panic disorder. Panic disorder and the comorbid disorders were determined using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I and II. Setting Eight different health care centers in primary care in the city of Espoo. Subjects Finnish-speaking, between 18 and 65 years of age. Main outcome measures Comorbid psychiatric disorders, the duration and severity of the disorder, and the sociodemographic factors. Results A sample of 49 panic disorder patients and 44 patients with no current psychiatric diagnosis were identified; 98% of panic disorder patients had at least one comorbid lifetime DSM-IV Axis I disorder. Major depressive disorder and other anxiety disorders were most common comorbid disorders. Lifetime alcohol use disorders also showed marked frequency. Interestingly, the remission rates of alcohol use disorders were notable. The panic symptoms appeared to persist for years. Panic disorder was associated with low education and relatively low probability of working full time. Conclusions Also in primary care panic disorder is comorbid, chronic, and disabling. It is important to recognize the comorbid disorders. High remission rates of comorbid alcohol use disorders encourage active treatment of patients also suffering from these disorders. PMID:23113695

  5. Epidemiological study of child and adolescent psychiatric disorders in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesinskiene, Sigita; Girdzijauskiene, Sigita; Gintiliene, Grazina; Butkiene, Dovile; Puras, Dainius; Goodman, Robert; Heiervang, Einar

    2018-04-24

    From the public health perspective, epidemiological data of child mental health and psychosocial correlates were necessary and very lacking in Lithuanian society that has been undergoing rapid socio-economic change since the past decades. Together with determining the prevalence rates of disorders and assessing the needs for the services, this study has also shifted attention from the highly selective samples of children attending children and adolescent mental health services towards less severe cases of psychopathology as well as different attitudes of parents and teachers. The aim of the first epidemiological study in Lithuania was to identify the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in the community sample of children. Child psychiatric disorders were investigated in a representative sample of 3309 children aged 7-16 years (1162 7-10-year-olds and 2147 11-16-year-olds), using a two-phase design with the Lithuanian version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) in the first screening phase, and the Development and Well-Being Assessment (DAWBA) in the second diagnostic phase. The estimated point prevalence of ICD-10 psychiatric disorders was 13.1% for the total sample (14.0% for the child sample and 12.1% for adolescent sample). The most common groups of disorders were Conduct disorders 6.6% (7.1% for child sample and 6.0% for adolescent sample), Anxiety disorders 5.0% (5.9% for child sample and 6.0% for adolescent sample), with Hyperkinesis being less common 2.0% (2.7% for child sample and 1.2% for adolescent sample). Potential risk factors were related to individual characteristics of the child (gender, poor general health, and stressful life experiences), and the family (single parenthood, foster care, unfavourable family climate, disciplining difficulties, worries related to TV or computer use). The overall prevalence of youth psychiatric disorders was relatively high in this representative Lithuanian sample compared to Western European

  6. Increased incidence of psychiatric disorders in immune-mediated inflammatory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrie, Ruth Ann; Walld, Randy; Bolton, James M; Sareen, Jitender; Walker, John R; Patten, Scott B; Singer, Alexander; Lix, Lisa M; Hitchon, Carol A; El-Gabalawy, Renée; Katz, Alan; Fisk, John D; Bernstein, Charles N

    2017-10-01

    Although psychiatric comorbidity is known to be more prevalent in immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMID) than in the general population, the incidence of psychiatric comorbidity in IMID is less understood, yet incidence is more relevant for understanding etiology. Using population-based administrative (health) data, we conducted a retrospective cohort study over the period 1989-2012 in Manitoba, Canada. We identified 19,572 incident cases of IMID including 6119 persons with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), 3514 persons with multiple sclerosis (MS), 10,206 persons with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and 97,727 age-, sex- and geographically-matched controls. After applying validated case definitions, we estimated the incidence of depression, anxiety disorder, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia in each of the study cohorts. Using negative binomial regression models, we tested whether the incidence rate of psychiatric comorbidity was elevated in the individual and combined IMID cohorts versus the matched cohorts, adjusting for sex, age, region of residence, socioeconomic status and year. The relative incidence of depression (incidence rate ratio [IRR] 1.71; 95%CI: 1.64-1.79), anxiety (IRR 1.34; 95%CI: 1.29-1.40), bipolar disorder (IRR 1.68; 95%CI: 1.52-1.85) and schizophrenia (IRR 1.32; 95%CI: 1.03-1.69) were elevated in the IMID cohort. Depression and anxiety affected the MS population more often than the IBD and RA populations. Individuals with IMID, including IBD, MS and RA are at increased risk of psychiatric comorbidity. This increased risk appears non-specific as it is seen for all three IMIDs and for all psychiatric disorders studied, implying a common underlying biology for psychiatric comorbidity in those with IMID. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Eating disorders and anabolic androgenic steroids in males--similarities and differences in self-image and psychiatric symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björk, Tabita; Skårberg, Kurt; Engström, Ingemar

    2013-08-19

    Body dissatisfaction is common among both females and males. Dissatisfaction with the body is a risk factor both for onset of eating disorders and for abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS). Few studies have however investigated if there are other similarities in respect to self-image or psychiatric symptoms between clinical samples of eating disordered males and males in treatment for negative effects of AAS use. The aim of this study was to compare two clinical samples, one of males with ED and one of males who used AAS, regarding self-image and psychiatric symptoms. This study compared males with eating disorders (n = 13) and males who recently stopped AAS use (n = 29) on self-image and psychiatric symptoms, using The Structural Analysis of Social Behavior self-questionnaire and a shortened version of The Symptom Check List. The eating disorder group reported significantly lower scores for Self-emancipation and Active self-love and higher scores for Self-blame and Self-hate. Both groups reported serious psychiatric symptoms. The common denominator between groups was serious psychiatric symptomatology rather than negative self-image. The negative self-image profile, especially self-hate, found among males with Eating Disorders may indicate that the studied groups differ in aetiology of the underlying problems. The serious psychiatric symptoms in both groups call staff to pay attention to any thoughts of suicide due to severe depressive symptoms where by specialized psychiatric treatment may be needed.

  8. Relationship of functional gastrointestinal disorders and psychiatric disorders: Implications for treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, Carol S; Hong, Barry A; Alpers, David H

    2007-01-01

    This article revisits the links between psychopathology and functional gastrointestinal disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), discusses the rational use of antidepressants as well as non-pharmacological approaches to the management of IBS, and suggests guidelines for the treatment of IBS based on an interdisciplinary perspective from the present state of knowledge. Relevant published literature on psychiatric disorders, especially somatization disorder, in the context of IBS, and literature providing direction for management is reviewed, and new directions are provided from findings in the literature. IBS is a heterogeneous syndrome with various potential mechanisms responsible for its clinical presentations. IBS is typically complicated with psychiatric issues, unexplained symptoms, and functional syndromes in other organ systems. Most IBS patients have multiple complaints without demonstrated cause, and that these symptoms can involve systems other than the intestine, e.g. bones and joints (fibromyalgia, temporomandibular joint syndrome), heart (non-cardiac chest pain), vascular (post-menopausal syndrome), and brain (anxiety, depression). Most IBS patients do not have psychiatric illness per se, but a range of psychoform (psychological complaints in the absence of psychiatric disorder) symptoms that accompany their somatoform (physical symptoms in the absence of medical disorder) complaints. It is not correct to label IBS patients as psychiatric patients (except those more difficult patients with true somatization disorder). One mode of treatment is unlikely to be universally effective or to resolve most symptoms. The techniques of psychotherapy or cognitive-behavioral therapy can allow IBS patients to cope more readily with their illness. Specific episodes of depressive or anxiety disorders can be managed as appropriate for those conditions. Medications designed to improve anxiety or depression are not uniformly useful for psychiatric complaints in

  9. Stability of Comorbid Psychiatric Diagnosis among Youths in Treatment and Aftercare for Alcohol Use Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawke, Josephine M.; Kaminer, Yifrah; Burke, Rebecca; Burleson, Joseph A.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the stability of comorbid psychiatric diagnoses among a sample of 50 adolescents in cognitive-behaviorally-based treatment for alcohol and other substance use disorders (AOSUD). Methods: A standardized psychiatric interview was administered at baseline and 12 month later to obtain current comorbid psychiatric disorders. Chi…

  10. Prevalence of Comorbid Psychiatric Disorders in Children and Adolescents With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riahi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is often associated with other psychological problems. Objectives The present study aimed to study the prevalence of comorbid psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents with ADHD who admitted to Golestan Hospital in Ahvaz. Patients and Methods This was a descriptive/analytic cross-sectional study carried out on 118 outpatient children and adolescents who were selected by convenient sampling. The data were collected using the questionnaire, designed by authors, and were analyzed through descriptive statistics and chi-square test. Results The prevalence of comorbid disorders were as follows: anxiety disorders (48.3%; depression (20.33%; bipolar disorder (17.79%; obsessive-compulsive (47.45%; tic and tourette (35.59%, oppositional defiant disorder (43.22%; conduct disorder (11.01%; urinary incontinence (58.47%; communication disorder (9.32%; and learning disorder (21.18%. There was no significant difference between females and males with respect to the prevalence of comorbid disorders. Conclusions Similar to previous studies, we found some comorbid psychiatric disorders with ADHD. The treatment of the disorder can be improved, by more attention to comorbid psychiatric disorders, early diagnosis of them, and using distinct and specific treatment for everyone.

  11. Psychogenic non-epileptic seizures: so-called psychiatric comorbidity and underlying defense mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beghi, Massimiliano; Negrini, Paola Beffa; Perin, Cecilia; Peroni, Federica; Magaudda, Adriana; Cerri, Cesare; Cornaggia, Cesare Maria

    2015-01-01

    In Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition, psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) do not have a unique classification as they can be found within different categories: conversion, dissociative, and somatization disorders. The ICD-10, instead, considers PNES within dissociative disorders, merging the dissociative disorders and conversion disorders, although the underlying defense mechanisms are different. The literature data show that PNES are associated with cluster B (mainly borderline) personality disorders and/or to people with depressive or anxiety disorders. Defense mechanisms in patients with PNES with a prevalence of anxious/depressive symptoms are of "neurotic" type; their goal is to lead to a "split", either vertical (dissociation) or horizontal (repression). The majority of patients with this type of PNES have alexithymia traits, meaning that they had difficulties in feeling or perceiving emotions. In subjects where PNES are associated with a borderline personality, in which the symbolic function is lost, the defense mechanisms are of a more archaic nature (denial). PNES with different underlying defense mechanisms have different prognoses (despite similar severity of PNES) and need usually a different treatment (pharmacological or psychological). Thus, it appears superfluous to talk about psychiatric comorbidity, since PNES are a different symptomatic expression of specific psychiatric disorders.

  12. The psychiatric profession: an expertise under siege?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Waal, Hugo; Malik, Amit; Bhugra, Dinesh

    2010-11-01

    Psychiatry along with other medical disciplines has been under siege in the UK and the USA for a number of years and for a number of reasons. These have varied from various medical scandals and funding changes to political imperatives and public expectations. Changes in the knowledge base have added yet another dimension to this debate. The subject is explored using historical figures and their writings and an overview of historic views on the psychiatry profession. The demise of the psychiatrist as an expert and the profession of psychiatry as an expertise can be related to both real and perceived factors. Unlike, for instance, the language used by cardio-thoracic surgeons, the language used in and for professional communications in psychiatry has become very similar to that used in lay discourses on psychological and relationship matters in the general population--partly as a result of the Freudian project successfully insinuating itself into 'common knowledge' and partly as the influence of media grows across the globe. This language has been misappropriated by a wide variety of non-experts, who then speak and interpret it as if they are specialists and any challenge from professionals is seen as self-protection and heresy. As psychiatrists, we do not use technology in a persuasive way as other branches of medicine tend to and this takes away a powerful symbolic conveying 'expertise'. Increased consumerism adds yet another dimension to this discourse. The patient is definitely the expert on how their illness affects their life, but it is the psychiatrist who is the expert on the illness rather than simply focusing on disease. It is time for the profession loudly to proclaim itself for what it is and what it can and cannot do.

  13. Short overview on metabolomic approach and redox changes in psychiatric disorders

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    Gordana Nedic Erjavec

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia, depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD are severe mental disorders and complicated diagnostic entities, due to their phenotypic, biological and genetic heterogeneity, unknown etiology, and poorly understood alterations in biological pathways and biological mechanisms. Disturbed homeostasis between overproduction of oxidant species, overcoming redox regulation and a lack of cellular antioxidant defenses, resulting in free radical-mediated pathology and subsequent neurotoxicity contributes to development of depression, schizophrenia and PTSD, their heterogeneous clinical presentation and resistance to treatment. Metabolomics is a discipline that combines different strategies with the aim to extract, detect, identify and quantify all metabolites that are present in a biological sample and might provide mechanistic insights into the etiology of various psychiatric disorders. Therefore, oxidative stress research combined with metabolomics might offer a novel approach in dissecting psychiatric disorders, since these data-driven but not necessarily hypothesis-driven methods might identify new targets, molecules and pathways responsible for development of schizophrenia, depression or PTSD. Findings from the oxidative research in psychiatry together with metabolomics data might facilitate development of specific and validated prognostic, therapeutic and clinical biomarkers. These methods might reveal bio-signatures of individual patients, leading to individualized treatment approach. In reviewing findings related to oxidative stress and metabolomics in selected psychiatric disorders, we have highlighted how these novel approaches might make a unique contribution to deeper understanding of psychopathological alterations underlying schizophrenia, depression and PTSD. Keywords: Schizophrenia, Depression, Posttraumatic stress disorder, Oxidative stress, Lipid peroxidation, Metabolomics, Biomarkers

  14. Psychiatric Disorders in Iranian Children and Adolescents

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    Mohammad Reza Mohammadi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the epidemiology of psychiatric disorders in ‎children and adolescents in five provinces of Iran: Tehran, Shiraz, Isfahan, Tabriz and Mashhad.‎Method: In the present study, we selected 9,636 children and adolescents aged 6-18 years through ‎multistage cluster random sampling method from Tehran, Shiraz, Isfahan, Tabriz and Mashhad. ‎We instructed the clinical psychologists to complete the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire ‎‎(SDQ for the participants, and those who received a high score on SDQ, completed the Persian ‎version of Kiddie-SADS-Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL. We used descriptive ‎analysis and 95% confidence interval to investigate the relationship between scores of the K-‎SADS questionnaire and demographic factors‏. ‏We used one-way ANOVA to test the significant ‎differences among the disorders according to sex, age and province of residence.‎‎Results: Based on the results, oppositional defiant disorder (ODD (4.45% had the highest prevalence of psychiatricdisorders in the five provinces and substance abuse and alcohol abuse (0% had the lowest ‎prevalence. In addition, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD had the most ‎prevalence in boys (5.03% and ODD had the most prevalence in ‎girls (4.05%. Among the three age groups, 6 to 9 year olds had the highest rates of ADHD ‎‎(5.69%; 10 to 14 and 15 to 18 year olds had the highest rates of ODD (4.32% and 4.37% ‎respectively. Among the five provinces, Tehran and Mashhad allocated the highest rates of ODD; Isfahan and Shiraz had the highest rates of ADHD; and Tabriz had the highest rates of social phobia.‎Conclusion: The current study revealed that the overall frequency of psychiatric disorders based on Kiddie-‎SADS-Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL was higher than a similar study. Moreover, in ‎this study, among the five provinces, Tehran and Mashhad

  15. Late Preterm Birth, Maternal Depression, and Risk of Preschool Psychiatric Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Cynthia E.; Lenze, Shannon N.; Luby, Joan L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Preterm children are at greater risk for psychiatric disorders, including anxiety disorders and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), than their term-born peers. Prior research has focused primarily on children born at early gestational ages. Less is known about the rate of psychiatric disorders among late preterm or early…

  16. Suicide in prisoners with bipolar disorder and other psychiatric disorders: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazel, Seena; Wolf, Achim; Geddes, John R

    2013-08-01

    To examine the risk of suicide and suicide attempts in prisoners with bipolar disorder and other psychiatric disorders compared with prisoners without psychiatric disorders. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies comparing suicide outcomes in prisoners with bipolar disorder and other psychiatric disorders to other prisoners. Five studies reported the risk of suicidal outcomes in prisoners with bipolar disorder compared with other prisoners, with a random effects pooled odds ratio of 2.4 (95% confidence interval: 1.6-3.7; I(2) = 0%). This appeared to be lower than the risk of suicidal outcomes for all psychiatric disorders and for depression, specifically, and, in meta-regression, significantly lower (p = 0.03) than for schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. Although bipolar disorder is associated with suicide and non-fatal suicidal behavior in prisoners, further research is necessary to confirm any associations and mediating mechanisms. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Psychiatric disorders and treatment among newly homeless young adults with histories of foster care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ronald G; Hasin, Deborah

    2012-09-01

    Although foster care placement is often preceded by stressful events such as child abuse, foster care itself often exposes children to additional severe stressors. A history of foster care, as well as the childhood abuse that often precedes it, is common among homeless young adults. This study examined whether a history of foster care was associated with psychiatric disorders, prior psychiatric counseling, prescription of psychiatric medications, and prior psychiatric hospitalization among newly homeless young adults. A consecutive sample of 423 adults aged 18 to 21 years who sought emergency shelter for the first time between October 1, 2007, and February 29, 2008, were assessed at intake. Logistic regression analyses determined the associations between foster care and any psychiatric disorder (affective, anxiety, personality, and psychotic) and psychiatric treatment. The analyses adjusted for demographic characteristics, childhood abuse, substance use, prior arrest, unemployment, lack of high school diploma, and histories of psychiatric disorders and drug abuse among biological relatives. Homeless young adults with histories of foster care were 70% more likely than those without such histories to report any psychiatric disorder. They were more than twice as likely to have received mental health counseling for a psychiatric disorder, to have been prescribed psychiatric medication, and to have been hospitalized for psychiatric problems. Histories of foster care among homeless young adults should trigger screening for psychiatric disorders to aid in the provision of treatment (counseling, medication, and hospitalization) tailored to the psychiatric needs of this highly vulnerable population.

  18. Microglia Gone Rogue: Impacts on Psychiatric Disorders across the Lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Tuan Leng; Béchade, Catherine; D'Andrea, Ivana; St-Pierre, Marie-Kim; Henry, Mathilde S; Roumier, Anne; Tremblay, Marie-Eve

    2017-01-01

    Microglia are the predominant immune response cells and professional phagocytes of the central nervous system (CNS) that have been shown to be important for brain development and homeostasis. These cells present a broad spectrum of phenotypes across stages of the lifespan and especially in CNS diseases. Their prevalence in all neurological pathologies makes it pertinent to reexamine their distinct roles during steady-state and disease conditions. A major question in the field is determining whether the clustering and phenotypical transformation of microglial cells are leading causes of pathogenesis, or potentially neuroprotective responses to the onset of disease. The recent explosive growth in our understanding of the origin and homeostasis of microglia, uncovering their roles in shaping of the neural circuitry and synaptic plasticity, allows us to discuss their emerging functions in the contexts of cognitive control and psychiatric disorders. The distinct mesodermal origin and genetic signature of microglia in contrast to other neuroglial cells also make them an interesting target for the development of therapeutics. Here, we review the physiological roles of microglia, their contribution to the effects of environmental risk factors (e.g., maternal infection, early-life stress, dietary imbalance), and their impact on psychiatric disorders initiated during development (e.g., Nasu-Hakola disease (NHD), hereditary diffuse leukoencephaly with spheroids, Rett syndrome, autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)) or adulthood (e.g., alcohol and drug abuse, major depressive disorder (MDD), bipolar disorder (BD), schizophrenia, eating disorders and sleep disorders). Furthermore, we discuss the changes in microglial functions in the context of cognitive aging, and review their implication in neurodegenerative diseases of the aged adult (e.g., Alzheimer's and Parkinson's). Taking into account the recent identification of microglia

  19. Microglia Gone Rogue: Impacts on Psychiatric Disorders across the Lifespan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuan Leng Tay

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Microglia are the predominant immune response cells and professional phagocytes of the central nervous system (CNS that have been shown to be important for brain development and homeostasis. These cells present a broad spectrum of phenotypes across stages of the lifespan and especially in CNS diseases. Their prevalence in all neurological pathologies makes it pertinent to reexamine their distinct roles during steady-state and disease conditions. A major question in the field is determining whether the clustering and phenotypical transformation of microglial cells are leading causes of pathogenesis, or potentially neuroprotective responses to the onset of disease. The recent explosive growth in our understanding of the origin and homeostasis of microglia, uncovering their roles in shaping of the neural circuitry and synaptic plasticity, allows us to discuss their emerging functions in the contexts of cognitive control and psychiatric disorders. The distinct mesodermal origin and genetic signature of microglia in contrast to other neuroglial cells also make them an interesting target for the development of therapeutics. Here, we review the physiological roles of microglia, their contribution to the effects of environmental risk factors (e.g., maternal infection, early-life stress, dietary imbalance, and their impact on psychiatric disorders initiated during development (e.g., Nasu-Hakola disease (NHD, hereditary diffuse leukoencephaly with spheroids, Rett syndrome, autism spectrum disorders (ASDs, and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD or adulthood (e.g., alcohol and drug abuse, major depressive disorder (MDD, bipolar disorder (BD, schizophrenia, eating disorders and sleep disorders. Furthermore, we discuss the changes in microglial functions in the context of cognitive aging, and review their implication in neurodegenerative diseases of the aged adult (e.g., Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s. Taking into account the recent identification of

  20. Psychiatric disorders and violent reoffending: a national cohort study of convicted prisoners in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Zheng; Larsson, Henrik; Lichtenstein, Paul; Fazel, Seena

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Reoffending and presence of psychiatric disorders are common in prisoners worldwide. However, whether psychiatric disorders are risk factors for reoffending is still unknown. We aimed to examine the association between psychiatric disorders, including substance use disorder, and violent reoffending. Methods We did a longitudinal cohort study of 47 326 prisoners who were imprisoned since Jan 1, 2000, and released before Dec 31, 2009, in Sweden. We obtained data for diagnosed...

  1. [Are psychiatric disorders identified and treated by in-prison health services?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langeveld, Hans; Melhus, Henning

    2004-08-26

    The prevalence in Norwegian prisons of psychiatric disorders in relation to the treatment potential in the prison health system has not been properly examined. The prevalence of psychiatric disorders, drug problems and personality disorders was examined in a prison population in the western health region in Norway. Additionally, treatments of these disorders were surveyed. The methods used were structured clinical interviews, self reports and reviews of medical case notes. Psychiatric disorders in need of treatment were found in 18 out of 40 interviewed inmates. Of these 18, 13 actually received treatment with psychoactive medication. Criteria for alcohol and drug addiction or misuse were fulfilled by over 90%. Personality disorders were found in 80% and antisocial personality disorder in more than 60%. The prevalence of psychiatric disorders including personality disorders and drug addiction is high among inmates. Compared to international studies, more of the inmates with psychiatric disorders that we interviewed receive psychoactive medication.

  2. [Homeless women with psychiatric disorders -- a field study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torchalla, Iris; Albrecht, Friederike; Buchkremer, Gerhard; Längle, Gerhard

    2004-07-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the psychosocial situation of all homeless women in a southern German university town. The scope, structure and whereabouts of the target group were initially unknown. 17 of 22 homeless women identified agreed to participate in an extensive study including the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SKID-I). The prevalence of diagnosed psychiatric disorders was 71 %; the leading disorder was substance abuse/dependence (43 %), followed by anxiety disorders (35 %) and schizophrenia (12 %). Multiple diagnoses were made in 35 % of the women. Striking features were the often early onset of homelessness and the reticence in seeking help. The flight from violence was a crucial precipitant of the loss of the home and should also be discussed in the context of the development of the psychiatric disorders. This study is the first involving women outside major cities. Precipitant situation, need for help and help-seeking pattern appear to deviate markedly from those of homeless men. The results should be verified in further gender-specific studies.

  3. The Mood Disorder Questionnaire improves recognition of bipolar disorder in psychiatric care

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    Leppämäki Sami

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We investigated our translation of The Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ as a screening instrument for bipolar disorder in a psychiatric setting in Finland. Methods In a pilot study for the Jorvi Bipolar Study (JoBS, 109 consecutive non-schizophrenic psychiatric out- and inpatients in Espoo, Finland, were screened for bipolar disorder using the Finnish translation of the MDQ, and 38 of them diagnostically interviewed with the SCID. Results Forty subjects (37% were positive in the MDQ screen. In the SCID interview, twenty patients were found to suffer from bipolar disorder, of whom seven (70% of ten patients with bipolar I but only two (20% of ten with bipolar II disorder had been previously clinically correctly diagnosed. The translated MDQ was found internally consistent (alpha 0.79 and a feasible screening tool. Conclusions Bipolar disorder, particularly type II, remains commonly unrecognized in psychiatric settings. The Mood Disorder Questionnaire is a feasible screen for bipolar disorder, which could well be integrated into psychiatric routine practice.

  4. Prevalence of Comorbid Psychiatric Disorders in Children and Adolescents With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Riahi; Izadi-Mazidi; Mohammadi Abdi

    2015-01-01

    Background Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is often associated with other psychological problems. Objectives The present study aimed to study the prevalence of comorbid psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents with ADHD who admitted to Golestan Hospital in Ahvaz. Patients and Methods This was a descriptive/analytic cross-sectional study carried out on 118 o...

  5. Predictive and associated factors of psychiatric disorders after traumatic brain injury: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Kate Rachel; Ponsford, Jennie Louise; Johnston, Lisa; Schönberger, Michael

    2011-07-01

    Psychiatric disorders are common and often debilitating following traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, there is little consensus within the literature regarding the risk factors for post-injury psychiatric disorders. A 1-year prospective study was conducted to examine which pre-injury, injury-related, and concurrent factors were associated with experiencing a psychiatric disorder, diagnosed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR Axis I Disorders, at 1 year post-injury. Participants were 122 adults with TBI and 88 proxy informants. Psychiatric disorders were common both pre-injury (54.1%) and at 12 months post-injury (45.9%). Results of regression analyses indicated individuals without a pre-injury psychiatric disorder or psychiatric symptomatology in the acute post-injury period were less likely to have a psychiatric disorder at 12 months post-injury. These findings confirm the importance of pre-injury history for the prediction of post-injury psychiatric disorders. Limb injury also emerged as a useful early indicator of later psychiatric disorder. Post-injury psychiatric disorders were associated with concurrent unemployment, pain, poor quality of life, and use of unproductive coping skills. The clinical implications of these findings are discussed.

  6. Role of Islam in the management of Psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabry, Walaa M; Vohra, Adarsh

    2013-01-01

    With the significant growth of the Muslim population all over the world, there exists a corresponding increase in the need for mental health services that suit this group of patients. Research demonstrates the effectiveness of the integration of spirituality and religiosity into psychotherapy and how religious beliefs could affect the management plans. This article discusses the impact of various beliefs in the Islamic faith on the bio-psychosocial model for the management of different psychiatric disorders including focusing on the modification of psychotherapeutic techniques as cognitive restructuring. It also shows other types of therapies such as music therapy, meditation therapy, and aromatherapy. The main emphasis remains to ensure that Muslim psychiatric patients get ethical, acceptable, and effective treatment.

  7. Phenomenology, psychiatric comorbidity and family history in referred preschool children with obsessive-compulsive disorder

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    Coskun Murat

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The study aimed to investigate phenomenology, psychiatric comorbidity, and family history of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD in a clinical sample of normally developing preschool children with OCD. Method Subjects in this study were recruited from a clinical sample of preschool children (under 72 months of age who were referred to a university clinic. Subjects with a normal developmental history and significant impairment related to OCD symptoms were included in the study. Children’s Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale was used to assess OCD symptoms. Each subject was assessed for comorbid DSM-IV psychiatric disorders using a semi-structured interview. Parents were evaluated for lifetime history of OCD in individual sessions. Results Fifteen boys and ten girls (age range: 28 to 69 months; 54.12±9.08 months were included. Mean age of onset of OCD was 35.64±13.42 months. All subjects received at least one comorbid diagnosis. The most frequent comorbid disorders were non-OCD anxiety disorders (n=17; 68.0%, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD (n=15; 60.0%, oppositional defiant disorder (ODD (n=12; 48.0%, and tic disorders (n=6; 24.0%. Mean number of comorbid disorders was 3.65 and 2.35 for boys and girls, respectively. At least one parent received lifetime OCD diagnosis in 68 percent of the subjects. Conclusions The results indicated that OCD in referred preschool children is more common in males, highly comorbid with other psychiatric disorders, and associated with high rates of family history of OCD. Given the high rates of comorbidity and family history, OCD should be considered in referred preschool children with disruptive behavior disorders and/or with family history of OCD.

  8. The long-term mental health impact of peacekeeping: prevalence and predictors of psychiatric disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, David; O'Donnell, Meaghan; Brand, Rachel M; Korn, Sam; Creamer, Mark; McFarlane, Alexander C; Sim, Malcolm R; Forbes, Andrew B; Hawthorne, Graeme

    2016-01-01

    The mental health outcomes of military personnel deployed on peacekeeping missions have been relatively neglected in the military mental health literature. To assess the mental health impacts of peacekeeping deployments. In total, 1025 Australian peacekeepers were assessed for current and lifetime psychiatric diagnoses, service history and exposure to potentially traumatic events (PTEs). A matched Australian community sample was used as a comparator. Univariate and regression analyses were conducted to explore predictors of psychiatric diagnosis. Peacekeepers had significantly higher 12-month prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (16.8%), major depressive episode (7%), generalised anxiety disorder (4.7%), alcohol misuse (12%), alcohol dependence (11.3%) and suicidal ideation (10.7%) when compared with the civilian comparator. The presence of these psychiatric disorders was most strongly and consistently associated with exposure to PTEs. Veteran peacekeepers had significant levels of psychiatric morbidity. Their needs, alongside those of combat veterans, should be recognised within military mental health initiatives. None. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) licence.

  9. The long-term mental health impact of peacekeeping: prevalence and predictors of psychiatric disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Donnell, Meaghan; Brand, Rachel M.; Korn, Sam; Creamer, Mark; McFarlane, Alexander C.; Sim, Malcolm R.; Forbes, Andrew B.; Hawthorne, Graeme

    2016-01-01

    Background The mental health outcomes of military personnel deployed on peacekeeping missions have been relatively neglected in the military mental health literature. Aims To assess the mental health impacts of peacekeeping deployments. Method In total, 1025 Australian peacekeepers were assessed for current and lifetime psychiatric diagnoses, service history and exposure to potentially traumatic events (PTEs). A matched Australian community sample was used as a comparator. Univariate and regression analyses were conducted to explore predictors of psychiatric diagnosis. Results Peacekeepers had significantly higher 12-month prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (16.8%), major depressive episode (7%), generalised anxiety disorder (4.7%), alcohol misuse (12%), alcohol dependence (11.3%) and suicidal ideation (10.7%) when compared with the civilian comparator. The presence of these psychiatric disorders was most strongly and consistently associated with exposure to PTEs. Conclusions Veteran peacekeepers had significant levels of psychiatric morbidity. Their needs, alongside those of combat veterans, should be recognised within military mental health initiatives. Declaration of interest None. Copyright and usage This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) licence. PMID:27703751

  10. Substance use disorders, psychiatric disorders, and mortality after release from prison: a nationwide longitudinal cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Zheng; Lichtenstein, Paul; Larsson, Henrik; Fazel, Seena

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background High mortality rates have been reported in people released from prison compared with the general population. However, few studies have investigated potential risk factors associated with these high rates, especially psychiatric determinants. We aimed to investigate the association between psychiatric disorders and mortality in people released from prison in Sweden. Methods We studied all people who were imprisoned since Jan 1, 2000, and released before Dec 31, 2009, in Swed...

  11. Eating disorders. Part I: Psychiatric diagnosis and dental implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranha, Ana Cecília Corrêa; Eduardo, Carlos de Paula; Cordás, Táki Athanassios

    2008-09-01

    The aim of this article is to present a review of the literature on eating disorders and related oral implications in order to provide oral healthcare professionals and psychiatrists with information that will enable them to recognize and diagnose these disorders and render appropriate treatment. A comprehensive review of the literature was conducted with special emphasis on the oral implications of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. Currently, available knowledge that correlates eating disorders with dental implications is supported by data derived from well-conducted psychiatric and psychological literature. However, little is known about the aspects of oral medicine concerned with the subject. Dental erosion, xerostomia, enlargement of the parotid gland, and other dental implications might be present in individuals with eating disorders. Eating disorders are a serious concern with regard to the oral health of patients. They represent a clinical challenge to dental professionals because of their unique psychological, medical, nutritional, and dental patterns as well as their unique characteristics. However, there is a general lack of awareness of the fundamental importance of the dentist's role in the multidisciplinary treatment of affected patients. The failure of oral healthcare professionals to recognize dental characteristics of eating disorders may lead to serious systemic problems in addition to progressive and irreversible damage to the hard tissues. Considering the increasing incidence and prevalence rates of eating disorders the participation of oral healthcare professionals in a multidisciplinary team to provide care for affected patients rises to greater importance.

  12. Significance of personality disorders in the face of drop-outs from psychiatric hospitalizations. The case of selected psychiatric units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biała, Maja; Kiejna, Andrzej

    2017-06-18

    The World Health Organization's estimations indicate that about 50% of patients in well-developed countries may not adhere to long-term therapies. In the field of psychiatry, drop-outs from psychiatric treatment are particularly important. Personality disorders are a significant part of this sphere. The aim of this research was to empirically verify the hypothesis regarding the relation between comorbid personality disorders and drop-outs from treatment among patients of psychiatric wards. This study was a prospective cohort study. 110 patients, hospitalized in 3 different psychiatric wards, were included. Personality disorders were assessed with the Structured Clinical Interview For DSM-IV Personality Disorders (SCID-II). The research was financed by the Polish National Science Center (DEC-2011/01/N/NZ5/05364). The response rate was 89.1%. 72.56% of patients suffered from personality disorders (SCID-II) (among them the most prevalent were: personality disorder - not otherwise specified - 40.7% and borderline personality disorder - 12.38%; 22.95% of patients dropped out from treatment). However, occurrence of personality disorders was not relevant for those drop-outs. On the other hand, relationships at the level of certain criteria of borderline personality disorders and passive-aggressive personality have been revealed. These relationships became stronger when considered from the perspective of differences in the organization of treatment at individual wards. Some personality disorders may play an important role in drop-outs from psychiatric treatment. Presented results require further research.

  13. Minor psychiatric disorders in mothers and asthma in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto do Carmo, Maria Beatriz; Neves Santos, Darci; Alves Ferreira Amorim, Leila Denise; Fiaccone, Rosemeire Leovigildo; Souza da Cunha, Sergio; Cunha Rodrigues, Laura; Barreto, Mauricio L

    2009-05-01

    Recent studies have shown that asthma represents a major health issue not only in children of developed countries but also in urban centers in some middle-income countries. Brazil has one of the highest prevalences of asthma worldwide. Recently, interest has grown in the relationship between psychosocial factors and asthma. This article examines the relationship between maternal mental disorders and the prevalence of asthma in low-income children from an inner city area of Salvador in the state of Bahia, Brazil, and is part of the SCAALA program (Social Change, Allergy and Asthma in Latin America). A total of 1,087 children between the ages of 5 and 12 were investigated, together with their mothers. The mothers' mental health was evaluated using the SRQ-20, an instrument for the psychiatric screening of minor psychiatric disorders (depression, anxiety and somatic complaints). The prevalence of asthma was investigated using the ISAAC survey, a standardized, validated questionnaire for asthma and other allergic diseases. Cases were defined as asthma if the patient reported having had wheezing in the previous 12 months in addition to at least one of the following: having asthma, wheezing while exercising, waking during the night because of wheezing, or having had at least four episodes of wheezing in the previous 12 months. Atopy was defined as a positive skin prick test to allergens. The presence of minor psychiatric disorders in the mothers was significantly associated with the presence of asthma in the children, and this association was consistent with all forms of asthma, irrespective of whether it was atopic or nonatopic. Future studies should be carried out to further investigate this association and the potential biological mechanisms involved. Programs for asthma control should include strategies for stress reduction and psychological support for the families of asthmatic children.

  14. Psychiatric, psychosocial, and physical health correlates of co-occurring cannabis use disorders and nicotine dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Erica N; Schwartz, Robert P; Wang, Shuai; O'Grady, Kevin E; Blanco, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Several gaps in the literature on individuals with co-occurring cannabis and tobacco use exist, including the extent of psychiatric, psychosocial, and physical health problems. We examine these gaps in an epidemiological study, the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC), of a large, nationally representative sample. The sample was drawn from Wave 2 NESARC respondents (N=34,653). Adults with current cannabis use disorders and nicotine dependence (CUD+ND) (n=74), CUD only (n=100), and ND only (n=3424) were compared on psychiatric disorders, psychosocial correlates (e.g., binge drinking; partner violence), and physical health correlates (e.g., medical conditions). Relative to those with CUD only, respondents with CUD+ND were significantly more likely to meet criteria for bipolar disorder, Clusters A and B personality disorders, and narcissistic personality disorder, and reported engaging in a significantly higher number of antisocial behaviors. Relative to those with ND only, respondents with CUD+ND were significantly more likely to meet criteria for bipolar disorder, anxiety disorders, and paranoid, schizotypal, narcissistic, and borderline personality disorders; were significantly more likely to report driving under the influence of alcohol and being involved in partner violence; and reported engaging in a significantly higher number of antisocial behaviors. CUD+ND was not associated with physical health correlates. Poor treatment outcomes for adults with co-occurring cannabis use disorders and nicotine dependence may be explained in part by differences in psychiatric and psychosocial problems. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Psychiatric disorders in long-term sickness absence -- a population-based cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Hans Jørgen; Bech, Per

    2009-01-01

    % for any somatoform disorder. Multivariable analyses showed that female sex and unemployment were predictors of a psychiatric disorder, whereas living with children below 18 years and being a skilled worker carried a reduced risk of a psychiatric disorder. CONCLUSIONS: The high frequency of psychiatric...... registers. METHODS: In a Danish population of 120,000 inhabitants all 2,414 incident persons on LSA within one year were posted a questionnaire, of whom 1,121 (46.4%) responded. In a two phase design the 1,121 sick-listed persons were screened for psychiatric disorders. Phase 2 consisted of 844 people...... examined persons in Phase 2 showed by binomial tests the following frequencies: any psychiatric disorder 57%, any depression 42%, and any anxiety 18%. In Phase 1, representative for everyone on LSA, the frequencies were 48% for any psychiatric disorder, 35% for any depression, 15% for any anxiety, and 7...

  16. Huntington's disease: psychiatric issues of a paradigmatic neuropsychiatric disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Ribeiro

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Huntington's Disease (HD can be considered a paradigmatic neuropsychiatric disorder that has three components: motor, cognitive and behavioral symptoms. The author synthetizes research developed on epidemiology and etipathogeny of HD and makes reference to more usual symptoms, emphasizing psychiatric symptoms, often the first manifestation of HD. About a clinical case, the author points out rhe great phenotypic variability of this disease, reflects about ways to develop the knowledge of the neuropsychiatric manifestations in order to achieve new treatment strategies in this area, finallt, ameliorate the comprehension of cerebral function.

  17. Day hospital versus out-patient care for psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, M; Crowther, R; Almaraz-Serrano, A M; Tyrer, P

    2001-01-01

    This review considers the use of day hospitals as an alternative to out-patient care. Three types of day hospital are covered by the review: 'day treatment programmes', 'day care centres' and 'transitional' day hospitals. Day treatment programmes offer more intense treatment for patients who have failed to respond to out-patient care (usually patients with affective or personality disorders). Day care centres offer structured support to patients with long-term severe mental disorders (mainly schizophrenia), who would otherwise be treated in the out-patient clinic. Transitional day hospitals offer time-limited care to patients who have just been discharged from in-patient care. The review had three objectives. First, to assess the effectiveness of day treatment programmes versus out-patient care for people with treatment-refractory disorders. Second, to assess the effectiveness of day care centres versus out-patient care for people with severe long term disorders. Third, to assess the effectiveness of transitional day hospital care for people who had just been discharged from hospital. We searched the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register (Cochrane Library, issue 4, 2000), MEDLINE (January 1966 to December 2000), EMBASE (1980 to December 2000), CINAHL (1982 to December 2000), Psyc LIT (1966 to December 2000), and the reference lists of articles. Researchers were approached to identify unpublished studies. Randomised controlled trials comparing day hospital care (including day treatment programme, day care centre, and transitional day hospital) against out-patient care. Studies were ineligible if a majority of participants were under 18 or over 65, or who had a primary diagnosis of substance abuse or organic brain disorder. Data were extracted independently by two reviewers and cross-checked. Relative risks and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for dichotomous data. Weighted or standardised means were calculated for continuous data. There was evidence from

  18. Treating psychiatric disorders among Mien refugees from highland Laos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, L J; Boehnlein, J K

    1991-01-01

    The Mien, a Southeast Asian hill people, have immigrated to various countries throughout the world since the mid-1970s. They have brought their ancient culture with them, including beliefs and practices related to health, illness, and healing. During the last several decades they have suffered much war-related trauma, including extensive human, material and symbolic losses. This report describes our clinical experience with Mien refugees in the Indochinese Psychiatric Program of the Oregon Health Sciences University. We discuss symptom presentation among this group of patients, diagnostic and treatment issues, and the impact of cultural health beliefs upon illness and treatment. Major depression and post-traumatic stress disorder have been the most commonly encountered psychiatric diagnoses, usually revealed through somatic symptoms. Not only must clinicians take careful medical and psychiatric histories, but they must also be alert to the high probability of an extensive history of trauma. Clinical improvement in response to psychotropic medications has been limited. As a result, psychosocial and psychotherapeutic approaches to treatment have been developed and expanded and now are commonly employed, effectively combining support and education in the creation of a holding environment that includes both individual and group formats. Two case histories are presented which describe symptom presentation, health belief systems and therapeutic issues involved in treating Mien patients. They also illustrate that traditional and Western healing approaches can co-exist in the optimal care of these patients.

  19. Oesophageal motility disorders in patients with psychiatric disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roland, J.; Dhaenen, H.; Ham, H.R.; Peters, O.; Piepsz, A.

    1996-01-01

    Clinical and experimental observations indicate that the motility of the oesophagus may be affected by emotional stimuli. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of oesophageal contractility impairment in patients suffering from a psychiatric disorder. Fifty-one patients admitted to the psychiatric department were submitted to an oesophageal transit study by means of krypton-81m. All patients with an abnormal oesophageal transit underwent manometry and endoscopy. The level of depression and anxiety was evaluated by the treating psychiatrist, using the Hamilton Depression and Anxiety Rating Scales. The oesophageal transit was abnormal in 13 patients. Two of these 13 patients refused manometric investigation. In ten of the 11 remaining patients, the manometry revealed functional motor abnormalities. Endoscopy, performed in all these ten patients, was normal. In conclusion, a high percentage of oesophageal contractility disturbances was found in psychiatric patients complaining of anxiety and/or depression. These abnormalities were detected by scintigraphy as well as by manometry. Owing to the normal endoscopic findings, these contraction abnormalities are likely to reflect a functional motor impairment. (orig.). With 3 figs., 2 tabs

  20. Genetic relationship between five psychiatric disorders estimated from genome-wide SNPs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, S. Hong; Ripke, Stephan; Neale, Benjamin M.; Faraone, Stephen V.; Purcell, Shaun M.; Perlis, Roy H.; Mowry, Bryan J.; Thapar, Anita; Goddard, Michael E.; Witte, John S.; Absher, Devin; Agartz, Ingrid; Akil, Huda; Amin, Farooq; Andreassen, Ole A.; Anjorin, Adebayo; Anney, Richard; Anttila, Verneri; Arking, Dan E.; Asherson, Philip; Azevedo, Maria H.; Backlund, Lena; Badner, Judith A.; Bailey, Anthony J.; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barchas, Jack D.; Barnes, Michael R.; Barrett, Thomas B.; Bass, Nicholas; Battaglia, Agatino; Bauer, Michael; Bayés, Mònica; Bellivier, Frank; Bergen, Sarah E.; Berrettini, Wade; Betancur, Catalina; Bettecken, Thomas; Biederman, Joseph; Binder, Elisabeth B.; Black, Donald W.; Blackwood, Douglas H. R.; Bloss, Cinnamon S.; Boehnke, Michael; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Breen, Gerome; Breuer, René; Bruggeman, Richard; Cormican, Paul; Buccola, Nancy G.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Bunney, William E.; Buxbaum, Joseph D.; Byerley, William F.; Byrne, Enda M.; Caesar, Sian; Cahn, Wiepke; Cantor, Rita M.; Casas, Miguel; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Chambert, Kimberly; Choudhury, Khalid; Cichon, Sven; Cloninger, C. Robert; Collier, David A.; Cook, Edwin H.; Coon, Hilary; Cormand, Bru; Corvin, Aiden; Coryell, William H.; Craig, David W.; Craig, Ian W.; Crosbie, Jennifer; Cuccaro, Michael L.; Curtis, David; Czamara, Darina; Datta, Susmita; Dawson, Geraldine; Day, Richard; de Geus, Eco J.; Degenhardt, Franziska; Djurovic, Srdjan; Donohoe, Gary J.; Doyle, Alysa E.; Duan, Jubao; Dudbridge, Frank; Duketis, Eftichia; Ebstein, Richard P.; Edenberg, Howard J.; Elia, Josephine; Ennis, Sean; Etain, Bruno; Fanous, Ayman; Farmer, Anne E.; Ferrier, I. Nicol; Flickinger, Matthew; Fombonne, Eric; Foroud, Tatiana; Frank, Josef; Franke, Barbara; Fraser, Christine; Freedman, Robert; Freimer, Nelson B.; Freitag, Christine M.; Friedl, Marion; Frisén, Louise; Gallagher, Louise; Gejman, Pablo V.; Georgieva, Lyudmila; Gershon, Elliot S.; Geschwind, Daniel H.; Giegling, Ina; Gill, Michael; Gordon, Scott D.; Gordon-Smith, Katherine; Green, Elaine K.; Greenwood, Tiffany A.; Grice, Dorothy E.; Gross, Magdalena; Grozeva, Detelina; Guan, Weihua; Gurling, Hugh; de Haan, Lieuwe; Haines, Jonathan L.; Hakonarson, Hakon; Hallmayer, Joachim; Hamilton, Steven P.; Hamshere, Marian L.; Hansen, Thomas F.; Hartmann, Annette M.; Hautzinger, Martin; Heath, Andrew C.; Henders, Anjali K.; Herms, Stefan; Hickie, Ian B.; Hipolito, Maria; Hoefels, Susanne; Holmans, Peter A.; Holsboer, Florian; Hoogendijk, Witte J.; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Hultman, Christina M.; Hus, Vanessa; Ingason, Andrés; Ising, Marcus; Jamain, Stéphane; Jones, Edward G.; Jones, Ian; Jones, Lisa; Tzeng, Jung-Ying; Kähler, Anna K.; Kahn, René S.; Kandaswamy, Radhika; Keller, Matthew C.; Kennedy, James L.; Kenny, Elaine; Kent, Lindsey; Kim, Yunjung; Kirov, George K.; Klauck, Sabine M.; Klei, Lambertus; Knowles, James A.; Kohli, Martin A.; Koller, Daniel L.; Konte, Bettina; Korszun, Ania; Krabbendam, Lydia; Krasucki, Robert; Kuntsi, Jonna; Kwan, Phoenix; Landén, Mikael; Långström, Niklas; Lathrop, Mark; Lawrence, Jacob; Lawson, William B.; Leboyer, Marion; Ledbetter, David H.; Lee, Phil H.; Lencz, Todd; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Levinson, Douglas F.; Lewis, Cathryn M.; Li, Jun; Lichtenstein, Paul; Lieberman, Jeffrey A.; Lin, Dan-Yu; Linszen, Don H.; Liu, Chunyu; Lohoff, Falk W.; Loo, Sandra K.; Lord, Catherine; Lowe, Jennifer K.; Lucae, Susanne; MacIntyre, Donald J.; Madden, Pamela A. F.; Maestrini, Elena; Magnusson, Patrik K. E.; Mahon, Pamela B.; Maier, Wolfgang; Malhotra, Anil K.; Mane, Shrikant M.; Martin, Christa L.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Mattheisen, Manuel; Matthews, Keith; Mattingsdal, Morten; McCarroll, Steven A.; McGhee, Kevin A.; McGough, James J.; McGrath, Patrick J.; McGuffin, Peter; McInnis, Melvin G.; McIntosh, Andrew; McKinney, Rebecca; McLean, Alan W.; McMahon, Francis J.; McMahon, William M.; McQuillin, Andrew; Medeiros, Helena; Medland, Sarah E.; Meier, Sandra; Melle, Ingrid; Meng, Fan; Meyer, Jobst; Middeldorp, Christel M.; Middleton, Lefkos; Milanova, Vihra; Miranda, Ana; Monaco, Anthony P.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Moran, Jennifer L.; Moreno-de-Luca, Daniel; Morken, Gunnar; Morris, Derek W.; Morrow, Eric M.; Moskvina, Valentina; Muglia, Pierandrea; Mühleisen, Thomas W.; Muir, Walter J.; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Murtha, Michael; Myers, Richard M.; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Neale, Michael C.; Nelson, Stan F.; Nievergelt, Caroline M.; Nikolov, Ivan; Nimgaonkar, Vishwajit; Nolen, Willem A.; Nöthen, Markus M.; Nurnberger, John I.; Nwulia, Evaristus A.; Nyholt, Dale R.; O'Dushlaine, Colm; Oades, Robert D.; Olincy, Ann; Oliveira, Guiomar; Olsen, Line; Ophoff, Roel A.; Osby, Urban; Owen, Michael J.; Palotie, Aarno; Parr, Jeremy R.; Paterson, Andrew D.; Pato, Carlos N.; Pato, Michele T.; Penninx, Brenda W.; Pergadia, Michele L.; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A.; Pickard, Benjamin S.; Pimm, Jonathan; Piven, Joseph; Posthuma, Danielle; Potash, James B.; Poustka, Fritz; Propping, Peter; Puri, Vinay; Quested, Digby J.; Quinn, Emma M.; Ramos-Quiroga, Josep Antoni; Rasmussen, Henrik B.; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Rehnström, Karola; Reif, Andreas; Ribasés, Marta; Rice, John P.; Rietschel, Marcella; Roeder, Kathryn; Roeyers, Herbert; Rossin, Lizzy; Rothenberger, Aribert; Rouleau, Guy; Ruderfer, Douglas; Rujescu, Dan; Sanders, Alan R.; Sanders, Stephan J.; Santangelo, Susan L.; Sergeant, Joseph A.; Schachar, Russell; Schalling, Martin; Schatzberg, Alan F.; Scheftner, William A.; Schellenberg, Gerard D.; Scherer, Stephen W.; Schork, Nicholas J.; Schulze, Thomas G.; Schumacher, Johannes; Schwarz, Markus; Scolnick, Edward; Scott, Laura J.; Shi, Jianxin; Shilling, Paul D.; Shyn, Stanley I.; Silverman, Jeremy M.; Slager, Susan L.; Smalley, Susan L.; Smit, Johannes H.; Smith, Erin N.; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J. S.; St Clair, David; State, Matthew; Steffens, Michael; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Strauss, John S.; Strohmaier, Jana; Stroup, T. Scott; Sutcliffe, James S.; Szatmari, Peter; Szelinger, Szabocls; Thirumalai, Srinivasa; Thompson, Robert C.; Todorov, Alexandre A.; Tozzi, Federica; Treutlein, Jens; Uhr, Manfred; van den Oord, Edwin J. C. G.; van Grootheest, Gerard; van Os, Jim; Vicente, Astrid M.; Vieland, Veronica J.; Vincent, John B.; Visscher, Peter M.; Walsh, Christopher A.; Wassink, Thomas H.; Watson, Stanley J.; Weissman, Myrna M.; Werge, Thomas; Wienker, Thomas F.; Wijsman, Ellen M.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Williams, Nigel; Willsey, A. Jeremy; Witt, Stephanie H.; Xu, Wei; Young, Allan H.; Yu, Timothy W.; Zammit, Stanley; Zandi, Peter P.; Zhang, Peng; Zitman, Frans G.; Zöllner, Sebastian; Devlin, Bernie; Kelsoe, John R.; Sklar, Pamela; Daly, Mark J.; O'Donovan, Michael C.; Craddock, Nicholas; Sullivan, Patrick F.; Smoller, Jordan W.; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Wray, Naomi R.

    2013-01-01

    Most psychiatric disorders are moderately to highly heritable. The degree to which genetic variation is unique to individual disorders or shared across disorders is unclear. To examine shared genetic etiology, we use genome-wide genotype data from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC) for cases

  1. Genetic relationship between five psychiatric disorders estimated from genome-wide SNPs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, S. Hong; Ripke, Stephan; Neale, Benjamin M.; Faraone, Stephen V.; Purcell, Shaun M.; Perlis, Roy H.; Mowry, Bryan J.; Thapar, Anita; Goddard, Michael E.; Witte, John S.; Absher, Devin; Agartz, Ingrid; Akil, Huda; Amin, Farooq; Andreassen, Ole A.; Anjorin, Adebayo; Anney, Richard; Anttila, Verneri; Arking, Dan E.; Asherson, Philip; Azevedo, Maria H.; Backlund, Lena; Badner, Judith A.; Bailey, Anthony J.; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barchas, Jack D.; Barnes, Michael R.; Barrett, Thomas B.; Bass, Nicholas; Battaglia, Agatino; Bauer, Michael; Bayes, Monica; Bellivier, Frank; Bergen, Sarah E.; Berrettini, Wade; Betancur, Catalina; Bettecken, Thomas; Biederman, Joseph; Binder, Elisabeth B.; Black, Donald W.; Blackwood, Douglas H. R.; Bloss, Cinnamon S.; Boehnke, Michael; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Breen, Gerome; Breuer, Rene; Bruggeman, Richard; Cormican, Paul; Buccola, Nancy G.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Bunney, William E.; Buxbaum, Joseph D.; Byerley, William F.; Byrne, Enda M.; Caesar, Sian; Cahn, Wiepke; Cantor, Rita M.; Casas, Miguel; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Chambert, Kimberly; Choudhury, Khalid; Cichon, Sven; Cloninger, C. Robert; Collier, David A.; Cook, Edwin H.; Coon, Hilary; Cormand, Bru; Corvin, Aiden; Coryell, William H.; Craig, David W.; Craig, Ian W.; Crosbie, Jennifer; Cuccaro, Michael L.; Curtis, David; Czamara, Darina; Datta, Susmita; Dawson, Geraldine; Day, Richard; De Geus, Eco J.; Degenhardt, Franziska; Djurovic, Srdjan; Donohoe, Gary J.; Doyle, Alysa E.; Duan, Jubao; Dudbridge, Frank; Duketis, Eftichia; Ebstein, Richard P.; Edenberg, Howard J.; Elia, Josephine; Ennis, Sean; Etain, Bruno; Fanous, Ayman; Farmer, Anne E.; Ferrier, I. Nicol; Flickinger, Matthew; Fombonne, Eric; Foroud, Tatiana; Frank, Josef; Franke, Barbara; Fraser, Christine; Freedman, Robert; Freimer, Nelson B.; Freitag, Christine M.; Friedl, Marion; Frisen, Louise; Gallagher, Louise; Gejman, Pablo V.; Georgieva, Lyudmila; Gershon, Elliot S.; Geschwind, Daniel H.; Giegling, Ina; Gill, Michael; Gordon, Scott D.; Gordon-Smith, Katherine; Green, Elaine K.; Greenwood, Tiffany A.; Grice, Dorothy E.; Gross, Magdalena; Grozeva, Detelina; Guan, Weihua; Gurling, Hugh; De Haan, Lieuwe; Haines, Jonathan L.; Hakonarson, Hakon; Hallmayer, Joachim; Hamilton, Steven P.; Hamshere, Marian L.; Hansen, Thomas F.; Hartmann, Annette M.; Hautzinger, Martin; Heath, Andrew C.; Henders, Anjali K.; Herms, Stefan; Hickie, Ian B.; Hipolito, Maria; Hoefels, Susanne; Holmans, Peter A.; Holsboer, Florian; Hoogendijk, Witte J.; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Hultman, Christina M.; Hus, Vanessa; Ingason, Andres; Ising, Marcus; Jamain, Stephane; Jones, Edward G.; Jones, Ian; Jones, Lisa; Tzeng, Jung-Ying; Kaehler, Anna K.; Kahn, Rene S.; Kandaswamy, Radhika; Keller, Matthew C.; Kennedy, James L.; Kenny, Elaine; Kent, Lindsey; Kim, Yunjung; Kirov, George K.; Klauck, Sabine M.; Klei, Lambertus; Knowles, James A.; Kohli, Martin A.; Koller, Daniel L.; Konte, Bettina; Korszun, Ania; Krabbendam, Lydia; Krasucki, Robert; Kuntsi, Jonna; Kwan, Phoenix; Landen, Mikael; Langstrom, Niklas; Lathrop, Mark; Lawrence, Jacob; Lawson, William B.; Leboyer, Marion; Ledbetter, David H.; Lee, Phil H.; Lencz, Todd; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Levinson, Douglas F.; Lewis, Cathryn M.; Li, Jun; Lichtenstein, Paul; Lieberman, Jeffrey A.; Lin, Dan-Yu; Linszen, Don H.; Liu, Chunyu; Lohoff, Falk W.; Loo, Sandra K.; Lord, Catherine; Lowe, Jennifer K.; Lucae, Susanne; MacIntyre, Donald J.; Madden, Pamela A. F.; Maestrini, Elena; Magnusson, Patrik K. E.; Mahon, Pamela B.; Maier, Wolfgang; Malhotra, Anil K.; Mane, Shrikant M.; Martin, Christa L.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Mattheisen, Manuel; Matthews, Keith; Mattingsdal, Morten; McCarroll, Steven A.; McGhee, Kevin A.; McGough, James J.; McGrath, Patrick J.; McGuffin, Peter; McInnis, Melvin G.; McIntosh, Andrew; McKinney, Rebecca; McLean, Alan W.; McMahon, Francis J.; McMahon, William M.; McQuillin, Andrew; Medeiros, Helena; Medland, Sarah E.; Meier, Sandra; Melle, Ingrid; Meng, Fan; Meyer, Jobst; Middeldorp, Christel M.; Middleton, Lefkos; Milanova, Vihra; Miranda, Ana; Monaco, Anthony P.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Moran, Jennifer L.; Moreno-De-Luca, Daniel; Morken, Gunnar; Morris, Derek W.; Morrow, Eric M.; Moskvina, Valentina; Muglia, Pierandrea; Muehleisen, Thomas W.; Muir, Walter J.; Mueller-Myhsok, Bertram; Murtha, Michael; Myers, Richard M.; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Neale, Michael C.; Nelson, Stan F.; Nievergelt, Caroline M.; Nikolov, Ivan; Nimgaonkar, Vishwajit; Nolen, Willem A.; Noethen, Markus M.; Nurnberger, John I.; Nwulia, Evaristus A.; Nyholt, Dale R.; O'Dushlaine, Colm; Oades, Robert D.; Olincy, Ann; Oliveira, Guiomar; Olsen, Line; Ophoff, Roel A.; Osby, Urban; Owen, Michael J.; Palotie, Aarno; Parr, Jeremy R.; Paterson, Andrew D.; Pato, Carlos N.; Pato, Michele T.; Penninx, Brenda W.; Pergadia, Michele L.; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A.; Pickard, Benjamin S.; Pimm, Jonathan; Piven, Joseph; Posthuma, Danielle; Potash, James B.; Poustka, Fritz; Propping, Peter; Puri, Vinay; Quested, Digby J.; Quinn, Emma M.; Antoni Ramos-Quiroga, Josep; Rasmussen, Henrik B.; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Rehnstroem, Karola; Reif, Andreas; Ribases, Marta; Rice, John P.; Rietschel, Marcella; Roeder, Kathryn; Roeyers, Herbert; Rossin, Lizzy; Rothenberger, Aribert; Rouleau, Guy; Ruderfer, Douglas; Rujescu, Dan; Sanders, Alan R.; Sanders, Stephan J.; Santangelo, Susan L.; Sergeant, Joseph A.; Schachar, Russell; Schalling, Martin; Schatzberg, Alan F.; Scheftner, William A.; Schellenberg, Gerard D.; Scherer, Stephen W.; Schork, Nicholas J.; Schulze, Thomas G.; Schumacher, Johannes; Schwarz, Markus; Scolnick, Edward; Scott, Laura J.; Shi, Jianxin; Shilling, Paul D.; Shyn, Stanley I.; Silverman, Jeremy M.; Slager, Susan L.; Smalley, Susan L.; Smit, Johannes H.; Smith, Erin N.; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J. S.; St Clair, David; State, Matthew; Steffens, Michael; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Strauss, John S.; Strohmaier, Jana; Stroup, T. Scott; Sutcliffe, James S.; Szatmari, Peter; Szelinger, Szabocls; Thirumalai, Srinivasa; Thompson, Robert C.; Todorov, Alexandre A.; Tozzi, Federica; Treutlein, Jens; Uhr, Manfred; van den Oord, Edwin J. C. G.; Van Grootheest, Gerard; Van Os, Jim; Vicente, Astrid M.; Vieland, Veronica J.; Vincent, John B.; Visscher, Peter M.; Walsh, Christopher A.; Wassink, Thomas H.; Watson, Stanley J.; Weissman, Myrna M.; Werge, Thomas; Wienker, Thomas F.; Wijsman, Ellen M.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Williams, Nigel; Willsey, A. Jeremy; Witt, Stephanie H.; Xu, Wei; Young, Allan H.; Yu, Timothy W.; Zammit, Stanley; Zandi, Peter P.; Zhang, Peng; Zitman, Frans G.; Zoellner, Sebastian; Devlin, Bernie; Kelsoe, John R.; Sklar, Pamela; Daly, Mark J.; O'Donovan, Michael C.; Craddock, Nicholas; Sullivan, Patrick F.; Smoller, Jordan W.; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Wray, Naomi R.

    Most psychiatric disorders are moderately to highly heritable. The degree to which genetic variation is unique to individual disorders or shared across disorders is unclear. To examine shared genetic etiology, we use genome-wide genotype data from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC) for cases

  2. Psychiatric disorders among patients admitted to a French medical emergency service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saliou, Veronique; Fichelle, Anika; McLoughlin, Mary; Thauvin, Isabelle; Lejoyeux, Michel

    2005-01-01

    The authors assessed the prevalence of psychiatric disorders among a population of patients examined in the emergency service of a French general hospital. They compared patients with and without psychiatric disorders. They also compared patients where the primary motive of emergency was psychiatric to those whose psychiatric disorders were secondarily diagnosed by a systematic assessment. Five hundred consecutive patients admitted to the emergency service of Bichat Claude Bernard Hospital (Paris, France) were interviewed with standardized questionnaires. Demographic details were collected along with information on current and past contacts with emergencies and psychiatric services. Psychiatric disorders were identified using a structured psychiatric interview, the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). Domestic violence was identified with a specific checklist validated for this purpose. Prevalence of psychiatric disorders was 38% (189 patients). Forty (8%) patients were primary psychiatric cases referred to the emergency department for psychiatric reasons, while 149 (30%) were secondary psychiatric cases, as revealed by a systematic assessment of their mental state. Psychiatric patients, primary or secondary, were more often homeless (13.6% vs.1.95%). They had been more often referred to the emergency department after an aggressive (7.4% vs.3.5%) or violent behavior (5.8% vs.0.9%) and less often after an accident (8.4% vs.14.3%). Psychiatric patients were more often examined after an episode of domestic violence (21.7% vs. 6.8%). Psychiatric diagnoses, according to the DSM-IV criteria, were depression (80 cases), generalized anxiety disorder (34 cases) acute alcohol intoxication (21 cases), alcohol dependence (20 cases), schizophrenia (16 cases), posttraumatic stress disorder (14 cases), drug abuse (4 cases), agoraphobia (4 cases), alcohol abuse (3 cases), anorexia nervosa (3 cases), mania (2 cases) and obsessive compulsive disorder (2 cases). The

  3. Ethical challenges in developing drugs for psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrier, Felix; Banayan, David; Boley, Randy; Karnik, Niranjan

    2017-05-01

    As the classification of mental disorders advances towards a disease model as promoted by the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) Research Domain Criteria (RDoC), there is hope that a more thorough neurobiological understanding of mental illness may allow clinicians and researchers to determine treatment efficacy with less diagnostic variability. This paradigm shift has presented a variety of ethical issues to be considered in the development of psychiatric drugs. These challenges are not limited to informed consent practices, industry funding, and placebo use. The consideration for alternative research models and quality of research design also present ethical challenges in the development of psychiatric drugs. The imperatives to create valid and sound research that justify the human time, cost, risk and use of limited resources must also be considered. Clinical innovation, and consideration for special populations are also important aspects to take into account. Based on the breadth of these ethical concerns, it is particularly important that scientific questions regarding the development of psychiatric drugs be answered collaboratively by a variety of stakeholders. As the field expands, new ethical considerations will be raised with increased focus on genetic markers, personalized medicine, patient-centered outcomes research, and tension over funding. We suggest that innovation in trial design is necessary to better reflect practices in clinical settings and that there must be an emphasized focus on expanding the transparency of consent processes, regard for suicidality, and care in working with special populations to support the goal of developing sound psychiatric drug therapies. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Intellectual Disability and Multiple Co Morbid Psychiatric Disorders in a Child: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Priyanka; Rathi, Anubhav

    2014-01-01

    Comorbid psychiatric Disorders are seen commonly in people with intellectual disability and in fact they are at greater risk for developing other health disorders. Most prevalent chronic health conditions in children with intellectual disability are epilepsy, cerebral palsy,anxiety disorders, sleep disorders and autism spectrum disorders. Co morbidities multiply the problem of people with intellectual impairment to a great extent and hence an accurate psychological assessment of multiple diagnoses is useful in detecting the specific underlying processes differentiating the co morbid syndrome and in planning an appropriate management and rehabilitation program. This case report is presented to emphasize the fact that though. It is common for intellectually disabled children to have other co-morbid psychiatric disorders, it is important to have accurate, suitable assessment and recording of every co-morbid disorder as it has its own implication in course and outcome of the disability in the child. A comprehensive management approach involving people from various spheres would be required to improve the quality of life and for reduction of burden of care giver.We describe a child of intellectual disability with multiple co morbidities. PMID:25584292

  5. Psychiatric disorders and the labor market: an analysis by disorder profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowell, Alexander J; Luo, Zhehui; Masuda, Yuta J

    2009-03-01

    A key societal cost of mental illness is its impact on the labor market. In examining the relationship between psychiatric disorders and the labor market, the literature to date either examines psychiatric disorders in broad classes or focuses on the impact of specific conditions. The aim is to examine the relationships among meaningful profiles of concurrent past year disorders and labor market outcomes by gender. Data are from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions for 2001/2002 (NESARC), a representative sample of the noninstitutionalized population aged 18 or older residing in the United States. The analysis sample contains 18,429 women and 16,426 men (unweighted). We examined the relationship between profiles of psychiatric disorders and three labor market outcomes: labor force participation; employment, conditional on labor force participation; and working full-time conditional on being employed. Because no attempt was made to control for potential endogeneity between the labor market outcomes and the psychiatric profiles, we are unable to establish the causal direction of the associations estimated. First, anxiety disorders among women appear to be associated with labor market outcomes (e.g., anxiety profile in employment outcome: OR=0.76, pprofiles had significant associations with working full-time rather than employment. Third, for women, of the three labor market outcomes, employment status is particularly sensitive to the profiles of disorders. For men, no such pattern was found for any single labor market outcome. Concurrent psychiatric disorder profiles affect men and women differently in the labor market. The greatest differences are in (i) the relationship between labor market outcomes and profiles exhibiting anxiety disorders, and (ii) which labor market outcomes are influenced. The main methodological limitation is that the approach does not attempt to assert a direction of causation between mental health conditions

  6. [Psychiatric disorders in adult form of Niemann-Pick disease type C].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maubert, A; Hanon, C; Sedel, F

    2016-06-01

    ; in 27%, they occurred before and they were concomitant in 9%. In 50% of cases, psychiatric symptoms existed before the early diagnosis of NPC; in 9%, they occurred after and in 5%, they occurred during the diagnostic process. Fifty-five percent of the patients were followed by a psychiatrist, 50% of patients had been hospitalized at least once in a psychiatric department. Fifty-five percent of the patients received neuroleptics or antipsychotics, 41% received antidepressants, 41% received mood stabilizers or anticonvulsants, 45% received anxiolytics and 23% hypnotics. Whilst a small cohort, the low incidence of NPC (1/120,000 to 1/150,000) and the scale of a single-center study make the findings important. In our cohort, we found psychiatric disorders in most of the patients. The symptoms were varied and non-specific, and mainly found in late-onset forms of the disease. This incidence of disorder is much higher than the literature suggests, generally describing psychiatric disorders in approximately one third of NPC adult form. On the other hand, our results on schizophrenia are consistent with the updated recommendations for the diagnosis and management of NPC. According to our results, a retrospective study to develop a suspicion index to aid diagnosis of NPC suggests that psychotic symptoms are underestimated in this disease. In our cohort, we also found a significant rate of psychiatric hospitalizations and psychotropic drugs prescription that had not been previously described in the international literature. We did not have sufficient data on the effectiveness of symptomatic treatment in NPC; the literature was contradictory. It should be noted that despite the high rate of psychiatric patients in our cohort, only half of patients consulted a psychiatrist and a few of them have regular follow-up. To conclude, our study is in line with the current literature that suggests an under-estimation of psychiatric disorders in NPC, but also a likely under-diagnosis of

  7. Childhood maltreatment in adult female psychiatric outpatients with eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosse, Gunilla Klensmeden; Holen, Are

    2006-11-01

    To explore possible relations between maltreatment in childhood and subsequent eating disorders in adult life, 107 consecutive adult psychiatric female outpatients were screened for eating disorders. They also completed questionnaires about harassment by adults and bullying by peers in childhood. The Childhood Trauma Questionnaire measured childhood abuse by parents or other adults, and the Parental Bonding Instrument captured parental coldness and overprotection. Bullying by peers was measured by an inventory used in schools. Outpatients who met the criteria for bulimia nervosa reported far more bullying by peers, more coldness and overprotection from fathers, and more childhood emotional, physical and sexual abuse. The findings suggest associations between childhood maltreatment, especially bullying by peers, and bulimia nervosa.

  8. Psychiatric hospitalization among children with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandell, David S

    2008-07-01

    This study examined predictors of psychiatric hospitalization among children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Data were collected from 760 caregivers of children with ASD. Cox regression was used to determine factors associated with hospitalization. Almost 11% were hospitalized. Youth in single parent homes were more likely to be hospitalized (OR = 2.54), as were youth diagnosed at a later age (OR = 1.10). Engaging in self-injurious behavior (OR = 2.14), aggressive behavior (OR = 4.83), and being diagnosed with depression (OR = 2.48) or obsessive compulsive disorder (OR = 2.35) increased the odds of hospitalization. Risk for hospitalization increased with age and over time. The results suggest early diagnosis and community-based interventions for aggressive and self-injurious behaviors may reduce hospitalizations.

  9. [Intensive psychiatric care of patients with psychogenic eating disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faltus, F; Janecková, E; Papezová, H

    1992-06-01

    The authors summarize their therapeutic results in anorexia nervosa achieved at the unit of specialized care for eating disorders at the Psychiatric Clinic of the First Medical Faculty, Charles University, Prague. They find that applications for hospitalization of these patients have a rising trend and that in recent years in the unit mainly patients with severe forms of these diseases are admitted. During the past 7 years in the unit a total of 147 patients were hospitalized. By comprehensive regime treatment 84% of the patients with bulimia nervosa. As to basic symptoms, in bulimia nervosa the results were achieved in vomiting and bulimic attacks and in anorexia nervosa as regards appetite, hunger and general attitude to food. Finally the authors summarize the advantages of the unit specialized care for psychogenic eating disorders.

  10. Psychiatric disorders in adults diagnosed as children with atypical autism. A case control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouridsen, S.E.; Rich, B.; Isager, T.

    2008-01-01

    is not seen to be associated with any specific mental disorder. Schizophrenia spectrum disorders were the most commonly associated psychiatric disorders, diagnosed at least one time in 34.8% of the AA cases. Our findings underscore that it is important for clinicians working in adult psychiatric services......The prevalence and types of psychiatric disorders were studied in a clinical sample of 89 individuals with atypical autism (AA) first seen as children, and 258 matched controls from the general population using data from the nationwide Danish Psychiatric Central Register. The average observation...... time was 36.9 years, and mean age at follow-up 45.3 years. A total of 61 persons with AA (68.5%) had been in contact with psychiatric hospitals during the follow-up period, compared with 10.9% in the comparison group. A whole range of significantly elevated psychiatric disorders was found, so AA...

  11. Association of nail biting and psychiatric disorders in children and their parents in a psychiatrically referred sample of children

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    Ghanizadeh Ahmad

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nail biting (NB is a very common unwanted behavior. The majority of children are motivated to stop NB and have already tried to stop it, but are generally unsuccessful in doing so. It is a difficult behavior to modify or treat. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of co-morbid psychiatric disorders in a clinical sample of children with NB who present at a child and adolescent mental healthcare outpatient clinic and the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in their parents. Method A consecutive sample of 450 referred children was examined for NB and 63 (14% were found to have NB. The children and adolescents with nail biting and their parents were interviewed according to DSM-IV diagnostic criteria. They were also asked about lip biting, head banging, skin biting, and hair pulling behaviors. Results Nail biting is common amongst children and adolescents referred to a child and adolescent mental health clinic. The most common co-morbid psychiatric disorders in these children were attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (74.6%, oppositional defiant disorder (36%, separation anxiety disorder (20.6%, enuresis (15.6%, tic disorder (12.7% and obsessive compulsive disorder (11.1%. The rates of major depressive disorder, mental retardation, and pervasive developmental disorder were 6.7%, 9.5%, 3.2%, respectively. There was no association between the age of onset of nail biting and the co-morbid psychiatric disorder. Severity and frequency of NB were not associated with any co-morbid psychiatric disorder. About 56.8% of the mothers and 45.9% of the fathers were suffering from at least one psychiatric disorder. The most common psychiatric disorder found in these parents was major depression. Conclusion Nail biting presents in a significant proportion of referrals to a mental healthcare clinic setting. Nail biting should be routinely looked for and asked for in the child and adolescent mental healthcare setting

  12. Psychiatric disorder associated with vacuum-assisted breast biopsy clip placement: a case report

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    Zografos George C

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Vacuum-assisted breast biopsy is a minimally invasive technique that has been used increasingly in the treatment of mammographically detected, non-palpable breast lesions. Clip placement at the biopsy site is standard practice after vacuum-assisted breast biopsy. Case presentation We present the case of a 62-year-old woman with suspicious microcalcifications in her left breast. The patient was informed about vacuum-assisted breast biopsy, including clip placement. During the course of taking the patient's history, she communicated excellently, her demeanor was normal, she disclosed no intake of psychiatric medication and had not been diagnosed with any psychiatric disorders. Subsequently, the patient underwent vacuum-assisted breast biopsy (11 G under local anesthesia. A clip was placed at the biopsy site. The pathological diagnosis was of sclerosing adenosis. At the 6-month mammographic follow-up, the radiologist mentioned the existence of the metallic clip in her breast. Subsequently, the woman presented complaining about "being spied [upon] by an implanted clip in [her] breast" and repeatedly requested the removal of the clip. The patient was referred to the specialized psychiatrist of our breast unit for evaluation. The Mental State Examination found that systematized paranoid ideas of persecutory type dominated her daily routines. At the time, she believed that the implanted clip was one of several pieces of equipment being used to keep her under surveillance, the other equipment being her telephone, cameras and television. Quite surprisingly, she had never had a consultation with a mental health professional. The patient appeared depressed and her insight into her condition was impaired. The prevalent diagnosis was schizotypal disorder, whereas the differential diagnosis comprised delusional disorder of persecutory type, affective disorder with psychotic features or comorbid delusional disorder with major depression

  13. Psychiatric disorders and treatment among newly homeless young adults with histories of foster care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ronald G.; Hasin, Deborah S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective While foster care placement is often preceded by stressful events such as childhood abuse, foster care itself often exposes children to additional severe stressors. A history of foster care, as well as the childhood abuse that often precedes it, is common among homeless young adults. However, whether a history of foster care elevates the likelihood of psychiatric disorders and treatment among homeless young adults, after adjustment for childhood abuse, is unknown. This study examined whether a history of foster care was associated with psychiatric disorders, prior psychiatric counseling, prescription of psychiatric medications, and prior psychiatric hospitalization among newly homeless young adults, controlling for childhood abuse and other covariates. Methods Among a consecutive sample of 424 newly homeless young adults (18 to 21 years) in a crisis shelter, logistic regression analyses determined the associations between foster care and any psychiatric disorder (affective, anxiety, personality, psychotic) and psychiatric treatment, adjusted for demographics, childhood abuse, substance abuse, prior arrest, unemployment, lack of high school diploma, and histories of psychiatric disorders and drug abuse among biological relatives. Results Homeless young adults with histories of foster care were 70% more likely to report any psychiatric disorder (AOR=1.70) and twice as likely to have received mental health counseling for a psychiatric disorder (AOR=2.17), been prescribed psychiatric medication (AOR=2.26), and been hospitalized for psychiatric problems (AOR=2.15) than those without such histories. Conclusions Histories of foster care should trigger screening for psychiatric disorders among homeless young adults to aid in the provision of treatment (counseling, medication, hospitalization) tailored to their psychiatric needs. PMID:22706986

  14. Do psychiatric disorders continue during pregnancy in women with hyperemesis gravidarum: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annagür, Bilge Burçak; Tazegül, Aybike; Gündüz, Sule

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to determine Axis I psychiatric disorders in women with hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) and to follow up the course of psychiatric disorder and its association with nausea and vomiting (NV) during pregnancy. The study sample was composed of 47 patients with HG. Psychiatric interviews were conducted using the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (SCID-I). Other psychiatric interviews were performed in the second and third trimesters. On each visit, the subjects completed the Beck Depression Inventory and the Beck Anxiety Inventory. The prevalence of any anxiety disorder was 25.5%, and the prevalence of any mood disorder was 14.9% in women with HG in the first trimester. Psychiatric disorders continued throughout the pregnancy in two thirds of the women who had HG and a psychiatric diagnosis. Any SCID diagnosis in the first trimester was higher in women whose NV had partially resolved than in women whose NV had fully resolved (P<.05). The present studies suggest that psychiatric disorders may play a significant role in the etiology of HG. Our findings presented a potential connection between HG and anxiety disorders and major depressive disorder. Additionally, the NV symptoms in women with HG and a psychiatric disorder may persist during pregnancy. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. ADHD, bruxism and psychiatric disorders: does bruxism increase the chance of a comorbid psychiatric disorder in children with ADHD and their parents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanizadeh, Ahmad

    2008-11-01

    There is an association between bruxism and ADHD. No published data on psychiatric comorbidities in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) children with bruxism were found. There is no satisfying treatment method for children with bruxism. If we understand its comorbidities well, a better treatment method could come out. This study was conducted to compare the frequency of comorbid psychiatric disorders in the parents and their ADHD children with and without teeth grinding. It was hypothesized that there is no association between bruxism and prevalence of comorbid psychiatric disorders in children with ADHD and their parental psychopathology. Eighty-nine ADHD children without teeth grinding were compared with 32 ADHD children with teeth grinding. Their parental psychiatric disorders were also compared. Structured interviews were used to diagnose comorbid psychiatric disorders. The demographic characteristics of the children and their parents were not different between the groups. The only psychiatric disorder in children, which was associated with the groups was oppositional defiant disorder. The rate of conduct disorder, tic disorder, major depressive disorder, separation anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, enuresis, and obsessive compulsive disorder were not different between the two groups of children. The rate of major depression was more in the mothers of children with teeth grinding than those without such children. These finding were not reported before. ADHD children with teeth grinding have a high prevalence of oppositional defiant disorder. Lack of association between anxiety disorder and presence of teeth grinding might not support the idea that anxiety is associated with teeth grinding. The association of ODD and teeth girding might be a clue about etiology of bruxism. Perhaps, this clue can probably lead to the development of a more satisfying treatment. With consideration of this clue, further studies should survey if there is any

  16. Psychiatric Disorders Differently Correlate with Physical Self-Rated Health across Ethnic Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin

    2017-11-13

    In this study, we compared 10 ethnic groups for associations between psychiatric disorders and physical self-rated health (SRH) in the United States. Data came from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys (CPES), 2001-2003. The study included 7587 non-Latino White, 4746 African American, 1442 Mexican, 1106 other Hispanic, 656 other Asian, 600 Chinese, 577 Cuban, 520 Vietnamese, 508 Filipino, and 495 Puerto Rican individuals. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) was used to measure psychiatric disorders, including major depressive disorder (MDD), general anxiety disorder (GAD), social phobia, panic disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), alcohol abuse, and binge eating disorders. A single-item measure was used to estimate physical SRH. Demographic (age and gender) and socioeconomic (education and income) factors were also measured. Unadjusted and adjusted correlations between psychiatric disorders and physical SRH were calculated. Major ethnic variations were found in the correlation between psychiatric disorders and physical SRH; as well as the role of demographic and socioeconomic status (SES) factors in explaining these associations. non-Hispanic Whites, Cubans, and African Americans showed more correlations between psychiatric disorders and physical SRH than other ethnic groups. In non-Hispanic Whites, the associations between psychiatric disorders and physical SRH were explained by demographic factors. In African Americans, the link between psychiatric disorders and poor physical SRH were explained by SES indicators. In conclusion , although single-item physical SRH measures are traditionally assumed to reflect the physical health needs of populations, they may also indicate psychiatric disorders in some ethnic groups, such as non-Hispanic Whites, Cubans, and African Americans. Demographic and socioeconomic factors also have differential roles in explaining the link between psychiatric disorders and physical SRH. Physical

  17. Psychiatric symptoms of patients with primary mitochondrial DNA disorders

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    Inczedy-Farkas Gabriella

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of our study was to assess psychiatric symptoms in patients with genetically proven primary mutation of the mitochondrial DNA. Methods 19 adults with known mitochondrial mutation (MT have been assessed with the Stanford Health Assessment Questionnaire 20-item Disability Index (HAQ-DI, the Symptom Check List-90-Revised (SCL-90-R, the Beck Depression Inventory-Short Form (BDI-SF, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS and the clinical version of the Structured Clinical Interview for the the DSM-IV (SCID-I and SCID-II As control, 10 patients with hereditary sensorimotor neuropathy (HN, harboring the peripheral myelin protein-22 (PMP22 mutation were examined with the same tools. Results The two groups did not differ significantly in gender, age or education. Mean HAQ-DI score was 0.82 in the MT (range: 0-1.625 and 0.71 in the HN group (range: 0-1.625. Level of disability between the two groups did not differ significantly (p = 0.6076. MT patients scored significantly higher on the BDI-SF and HDRS than HN patients (12.85 versus 4.40, p = 0.031, and 15.62 vs 7.30, p = 0.043, respectively. The Global Severity Index (GSI of SCL-90-R also showed significant difference (1.44 vs 0.46, p = 0.013 as well as the subscales except for somatization. SCID-I interview yielded a variety of mood disorders in both groups. Eight MT patient (42% had past, 6 (31% had current, 5 (26% had both past and current psychiatric diagnosis, yielding a lifetime prevalence of 9/19 (47% in the MT group. In the HN group, 3 patients had both past and current diagnosis showing a lifetime prevalence of 3/10 (30% in this group. SCID-II detected personality disorder in 8 MT cases (42%, yielding 3 avoidant, 2 obsessive-compulsive and 3 personality disorder not otherwise specified (NOS diagnosis. No personality disorder was identified in the HN group. Conclusions Clinicians should be aware of the high prevalence of psychiatric symptoms in patients with

  18. Relationship of bipolar disorder with psychiatric comorbidity in the postpartum period-a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Verinder

    2018-04-01

    Childbirth can trigger a variety of psychiatric disorders; however, no disorder is as profoundly affected by childbirth as bipolar disorder. Rates of psychiatric comorbidity especially anxiety disorders, obsessive compulsive disorder, and substance use disorders are quite high in individuals with bipolar disorder. The purpose of this scoping review is to ascertain the effect of childbirth on the relationship between the onset of bipolar disorder and comorbid psychiatric disorders. On June 27, 2017, a search of the Medline, PsycINFO, CINHAL, EMBASE, SCOPUS, COCHRANE, and ISI-Web of Science (WOS) databases was performed using the terms mental disorders, mental disease, major depressive disorder, major depression, depression, panic disorder, bipolar disorder, comorbidity, anxiety disorders, obsessive compulsive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, schizophrenia, eating disorders, reactive attachment disorder, childbirth, parturition, puerperium, postpartum, postpartum period and postnatal period. Reference lists of identified papers were manually searched, and all relevant papers published in English were included. A total of eight relevant articles were identified and included in the review. There is some evidence to suggest that occurrence of certain psychiatric disorders in the postpartum period may predict later onset of bipolar disorder. It is unknown whether childbirth raises the risk of postpartum recurrence of comorbid disorders. Whether patients who have past histories of psychiatric disorders are at increased risk for onset of bipolar disorder in the postpartum period also remains unclear. Additional research is needed to increase our understanding of the impact of childbirth on bipolar disorder and comorbid psychiatric disorders. A better understanding of this issue could lead to more accurate and timely detection, improved treatment planning, and optimal delivery of care for these disorders.

  19. [Forensic Psychiatric Assessment for Organic Personality Disorders after Craniocerebral Trauma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C H; Huang, L N; Zhang, M C; He, M

    2017-04-01

    To explore the occurrence and the differences of clinical manifestations of organic personality disorder with varying degrees of craniocerebral trauma. According to the International Classification of Diseases-10, 396 subjects with craniocerebral trauma caused by traffic accidents were diagnosed, and the degrees of craniocerebral trauma were graded. The personality characteristics of all patients were evaluated using the simplified Neuroticism Extraversion Openness Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI). The occurrence rate of organic personality disorder was 34.6% while it was 34.9% and 49.5% in the patients with moderate and severe craniocerebral trauma, respectively, which significantly higher than that in the patients (18.7%) of mild craniocerebral trauma ( P personality disorder, the neuroticism, extraversion and agreeableness scores all showed significantly differences ( P personality disorder; the neuroticism, extraversion, agreeableness and conscientiousness scores showed significantly differences ( P >0.05) in the patients of moderate and severe craniocerebral trauma with personality disorder. The agreeableness and conscientiousness scores in the patients of moderate and severe craniocerebral trauma with personality disorder were significantly lower than that of mild craniocerebral trauma, and the patients of severe craniocerebral trauma had a lower score in extraversion than in the patients of mild craniocerebral trauma. The severity of craniocerebral trauma is closely related to the incidence of organic personality disorder, and it also affects the clinical features of the latter, which provides a certain significance and help for forensic psychiatric assessment. Copyright© by the Editorial Department of Journal of Forensic Medicine

  20. DISC1 pathway in brain development: exploring therapeutic targets for major psychiatric disorders

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    Atsushi eKamiya

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Genetic risk factors for major psychiatric disorders play key roles in neurodevelopment. Thus, exploring the molecular pathways of risk genes is important not only for understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying brain development, but also to decipher how genetic disturbances affect brain maturation and functioning relevant to major mental illnesses. During the last decade, there has been significant progress in determining the mechanisms whereby risk genes impact brain development. Nonetheless, given that the majority of psychiatric disorders have etiological complexities encompassing multiple risk genes and environmental factors, the biological mechanisms of these diseases remain poorly understood. How can we move forward in our research for discovery of the biological markers and novel therapeutic targets for major mental disorders? Here we review recent progress in the neurobiology of Disrupted in schizophrenia 1 (DISC1, a major risk gene for major mental disorders, with a particular focus on its roles in cerebral cortex development. Convergent findings implicate DISC1 as part of a large, multi-step pathway implicated in various cellular processes and signal transduction. We discuss links between the DISC1 pathway and environmental factors, such as immune/inflammatory responses, which may suggest novel therapeutic targets. Existing treatments for major mental disorders are hampered by a limited number of pharmacological targets. Consequently, elucidation of the DISC1 pathway, and its association with neuropsychiatric disorders, may offer hope for novel treatment interventions.

  1. Neural correlates of apathy in patients with neurodegenerative disorders, acquired brain injury, and psychiatric disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kos, Claire; van Tol, Marie-Jose; Marsman, Jan-Bernard C.; Knegtering, Henderikus; Aleman, Andre

    2016-01-01

    Apathy can be described as a loss of goal-directed purposeful behavior and is common in a variety of neurological and psychiatric disorders. Although previous studies investigated associations between abnormal brain functioning and apathy, it is unclear whether the neural basis of apathy is similar

  2. Values as determinant of meaning among patients with psychiatric disorders in the perspective of recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huguelet, Philippe; Guillaume, Sébastien; Vidal, Sonia; Mohr, Sylvia; Courtet, Philippe; Villain, Lucile; Girod, Chloé; Hasler, Roland; Prada, Paco; Olié, Emilie; Perroud, Nader

    2016-06-08

    Recovery is a personal process of growth that involves hope, self-identity, meaning in life and responsibility. Determinants of meaning have not been explored among populations of patients with persistent psychiatric conditions. However, an evidence-based approach aiming at assessing such determinants should provide some insight into the psychotherapeutic aspects of recovery. We tested a model hypothesizing that some symptoms and social parameters of patients are related to values, and secondarily to meaning in life, and in turn that meaning is associated with various parameters, such as depressiveness and self-esteem. We assessed 176 patients with schizophrenia, anorexia, borderline personality disorder and bipolar disorder. Overall, our hypotheses proved correct: firstly, characteristics such as depression, hopelessness, self-esteem and the number of relationships influenced values; secondly, the presence and an enactment of values were associated with meaning, and thirdly, meaning was associated with some symptoms and social characteristics. This model was confirmed in the four psychiatric populations under study. These results support the relevance of addressing values and meaning in the recovery-oriented care of patients with persistent psychiatric disorders, in addition to other psychosocial interventions which are more systematically considered in this area.

  3. Neural correlates of apathy in patients with neurodegenerative disorders, acquired brain injury, and psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kos, Claire; van Tol, Marie-José; Marsman, Jan-Bernard C; Knegtering, Henderikus; Aleman, André

    2016-10-01

    Apathy can be described as a loss of goal-directed purposeful behavior and is common in a variety of neurological and psychiatric disorders. Although previous studies investigated associations between abnormal brain functioning and apathy, it is unclear whether the neural basis of apathy is similar across different pathological conditions. The purpose of this systematic review was to provide an extensive overview of the neuroimaging literature on apathy including studies of various patient populations, and evaluate whether the current state of affairs suggest disorder specific or shared neural correlates of apathy. Results suggest that abnormalities within fronto-striatal circuits are most consistently associated with apathy across the different pathological conditions. Of note, abnormalities within the inferior parietal cortex were also linked to apathy, a region previously not included in neuroanatomical models of apathy. The variance in brain regions implicated in apathy may suggest that different routes towards apathy are possible. Future research should investigate possible alterations in different processes underlying goal-directed behavior, ranging from intention and goal-selection to action planning and execution. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Association between autoimmune thyroiditis and depressive disorder in psychiatric outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degner, Detlef; Haust, Merle; Meller, Johannes; Rüther, Eckart; Reulbach, Udo

    2015-02-01

    Thyroid diseases are often associated with psychiatric disorders. The prevalence of autoimmune thyroiditis in the general population is estimated to be at about 5-14 %. A clinical study was conducted to evaluate the association between autoimmune thyroiditis and depression in psychiatric outpatients. Fifty-two patients with depression and nineteen patients with schizophrenia (serving as control group), attending a psychiatric outpatient unit, were included. In addition to the measurement of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free triiodothyronine, free thyroxine, antithyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO) antibodies, and anti-thyroglobulin antibodies, ultrasound examination of the thyroid gland was performed. The proportion of pathologically increased anti-TPO levels in patients with depression was high. Furthermore, the distribution of pathologically increased anti-TPO levels was significantly (χ (2) = 5.5; p = 0.019) different between patients with depression (32.7 %) and patients with schizophrenia (5.3 %). In a gender- and age-adjusted logistic regression, the odds ratio of uni- or bipolar patients with depression for an autoimmune thyroiditis was ten times higher (95 % CI = 1.2-85.3) when compared with schizophrenia patients. TSH basal level did not differ between patients with depression and patients with schizophrenia. Our study demonstrates a strong association between anti-TPO levels, which are considered to be of diagnostic value for autoimmune thyroiditis (in combination with a hypoechoic thyroid in ultrasonography) with uni- or bipolar depression. It should be noted that the routinely measured TSH level is not sufficient in itself to diagnose this relevant autoimmune comorbidity.

  5. Mitochondria and the central nervous system: searching for a pathophysiological basis of psychiatric disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio L. Streck

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Mitochondrial dysfunction has been postulated to participate in the development of many neuropsychiatric disorders, but there is no consensus as to its role. The aim of this paper is to review recent studies and to outline the current understanding of the association between mitochondrial dysfunction and psychiatric disorders. Methodology: We reviewed articles that evaluated mitochondrial dysfunction and psychiatric disorders, with a particular focus on depression, bipolar disorder, anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and autism spectrum disorder, and the association between mitochondrial dysfunction and development of these disorders. Results: Evidence suggests that alterations in mitochondrial morphology, brain energy metabolism, and mitochondrial enzyme activity may be involved in the pathophysiology of different neuropsychiatric disorders, given their key role in energy metabolism in the cell. Conclusions: Understanding the interactions between mitochondrial dysfunction and development of psychiatric disorders may help establish more effective therapeutic strategies for these disorders and thus lead to better outcomes for affected subjects.

  6. Mitochondria and the central nervous system: searching for a pathophysiological basis of psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streck, Emilio L; Gonçalves, Cinara L; Furlanetto, Camila B; Scaini, Giselli; Dal-Pizzol, Felipe; Quevedo, João

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction has been postulated to participate in the development of many neuropsychiatric disorders, but there is no consensus as to its role. The aim of this paper is to review recent studies and to outline the current understanding of the association between mitochondrial dysfunction and psychiatric disorders. We reviewed articles that evaluated mitochondrial dysfunction and psychiatric disorders, with a particular focus on depression, bipolar disorder, anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and autism spectrum disorder, and the association between mitochondrial dysfunction and development of these disorders. Evidence suggests that alterations in mitochondrial morphology, brain energy metabolism, and mitochondrial enzyme activity may be involved in the pathophysiology of different neuropsychiatric disorders, given their key role in energy metabolism in the cell. Understanding the interactions between mitochondrial dysfunction and development of psychiatric disorders may help establish more effective therapeutic strategies for these disorders and thus lead to better outcomes for affected subjects.

  7. Annual Research Review: Transgenic Mouse Models of Childhood-Onset Psychiatric Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Holly R.; Feng, Guoping

    2011-01-01

    Childhood-onset psychiatric disorders, such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), mood disorders, obsessive compulsive spectrum disorders (OCSD), and schizophrenia (SZ), affect many school-age children, leading to a lower quality of life, including difficulties in school and personal relationships that…

  8. Psychiatric disorders in individuals diagnosed with infantile autism as children: A case control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouridsen, S.E.; Rich, B.; Isager, T.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the prevalence and types of psychiatric disorders in a clinical sample of 118 individuals diagnosed as children with infantile autism (IA) with psychiatric disorders in 336 matched controls from the general population using data from the nationwide Danish...

  9. Longitudinal Predictors of Psychiatric Disorders in Very Low Birth Weight Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westrupp, E. M.; Northam, E.; Doyle, L. W.; Callanan, C.; Anderson, P. J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine risk and protective factors for adult psychiatric disorders in very low birth weight (VLBW, birth weight less than 1,501 g) survivors. 79 of 154 (51%) VLBW subjects recruited at birth were assessed in early adulthood (24-27 years). Participants were screened for a psychiatric disorder; those elevated were…

  10. Preschoolers' Observed Temperament and Psychiatric Disorders Assessed with a Parent Diagnostic Interview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Lea R.; Bufferd, Sara J.; Carlson, Gabrielle A.; Dyson, Margaret; Olino, Thomas M.; Durbin, C. Emily; Klein, Daniel N.

    2011-01-01

    Evidence supports the role of temperament in the origins of psychiatric disorders. However, there are few data on associations between temperament and psychiatric disorders in early childhood. A community sample of 541 three-year-old preschoolers participated in a laboratory temperament assessment, and caregivers were administered a structured…

  11. Cardiovascular disease and psychiatric disorders among Latinos in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabassa, Leopoldo J; Lewis-Fernández, Roberto; Wang, Shuai; Blanco, Carlos

    2017-07-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death among Latinos and disproportionately impacts people with psychiatric disorders. The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between CVD and psychiatric disorders among different Latino subgroups using a nationally representative sample. Latinos participants (N = 6359) were drawn from Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. A structured diagnostic interview was used to determine psychiatric diagnoses for any past-year mood, anxiety, and substance use disorders. A self-reported measure of physician-confirmed CVD was used. The relationships between CVD and psychiatric disorders among Latino subgroups were examined with logistic regression models adjusting for sociodemographics, CVD-risk factors, and acculturation. CVD were highest among Puerto Ricans (12%) and Cubans (11%), followed by Other Latinos (7%) and Mexicans (5%). The relationship between psychiatric disorders and CVD differed by Latino subgroups. Significantly increased odds of CVD were found among Mexicans with any past-year mood and anxiety disorders, Puerto Ricans with any past-year psychiatric disorders, Cubans with any past-year mood and substance abuse disorders, and Other Latinos with any past-year mood, anxiety, and lifetime schizophrenia/psychotic disorders. The associations between CVD and psychiatric disorders are not uniform among Latinos. Efforts to address the need for health and mental health services must carefully consider this heterogeneity.

  12. Clarifying boundaries of binge eating disorder and psychiatric comorbidity: A latent structure analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Hilbert, Anja; Pike, Kathleen M.; Wilfley, Denise E.; Fairburn, Christopher G.; Dohm, Faith-Anne; Striegel-Moore, Ruth H.

    2011-01-01

    Binge eating disorder (BED) presents with substantial psychiatric comorbidity. This latent structure analysis sought to delineate boundaries of BED given its comorbidity with affective and anxiety disorders. A population-based sample of 151 women with BED, 102 women with affective or anxiety disorders, and 259 women without psychiatric disorders was assessed with clinical interviews and self-report questionnaires. Taxometric analyses were conducted using DSM-IV criteria of BED and of affectiv...

  13. Comorbid psychiatric disorders in female adolescents with first-onset anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bühren, K; Schwarte, R; Fluck, F; Timmesfeld, N; Krei, M; Egberts, K; Pfeiffer, E; Fleischhaker, C; Wewetzer, C; Herpertz-Dahlmann, B

    2014-01-01

    Patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) exhibit high rates of psychiatric comorbidity. To disentangle the effects of duration of illness on comorbid psychiatric symptoms, we investigated the rates of comorbid psychiatric disorders, suicidality and self-harm behaviour in adolescent patients with a first onset of AN. In adolescent females (n = 148) with a first onset of AN, body mass index, psychiatric comorbidity (according to DSM-IV), depressive symptoms, suicidality and self-injurious behaviour were assessed. Seventy patients (47.3%) met the criteria for at least one comorbid psychiatric disorder. The binge-purging subtype was associated with increased rates of psychiatric comorbidity, suicidality and self-injurious behaviour. The severity of eating disorder-specific psychopathology influenced current psychiatric comorbidity and suicidal ideation. Prevalence rates of comorbid psychiatric disorders and suicidal ideation are considerably lower among adolescents with AN compared with adults. An early and careful assessment, along with adequate treatment of the eating disorder, might prevent the development of severe psychiatric comorbidities. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  14. Post-traumatic stress disorder in Australian World War II veterans attending a psychiatric outpatient clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidson, M A; Douglas, J C; Holwill, B J

    1993-04-19

    To ascertain the frequency of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in World War II veterans attending a psychiatric outpatient clinic in an Australian veterans' hospital and to compare veterans with and without PTSD according to certain psychological variables. Over a three-month period veterans were assessed at their next appointment by their treating doctors (psychiatrists or psychiatric registrars) for PTSD according to the criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of the American Psychiatric Association (DSM-III-R). At the same time they completed two questionnaires and provided information about their war experiences. The psychiatric outpatient department at Heidelberg Repatriation Hospital, Melbourne. One hundred and twenty World War II veterans attended during the three-month period and 108 (90%) agreed to participate and are included in this study. The treating doctors recorded the presence or absence and severity of veterans' symptoms of PTSD. The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-60) and the Impact of Events Scale (IES) were then completed by participants under supervision. Forty-nine veterans (45%) were found to have active PTSD 45 years after the war. The presence of PTSD was significantly associated with the taking of casualties (an indicator of severity of war stress as reported by the veterans themselves) and with combat stress as rated by their treating doctors. The veterans with PTSD obtained significantly higher scores on both the GHQ-60 and the IES, and reported no significant reduction in symptoms of PTSD over the preceding 10 years. The presence of both an anxiety and a depressive disorder was substantially and significantly more common in the veterans who had PTSD. Overall, the study revealed a high frequency of PTSD and a strong persistence of this condition in psychiatric outpatients who were veterans of World War II.

  15. Authenticity and psychiatric disorder: does autonomy of personal preferences matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjöstrand, Manne; Juth, Niklas

    2014-02-01

    In healthcare ethics there is a discussion regarding whether autonomy of personal preferences, what sometimes is referred to as authenticity, is necessary for autonomous decision-making. It has been argued that patients' decisions that lack sufficient authenticity could be deemed as non-autonomous and be justifiably overruled by healthcare staff. The present paper discusses this issue in relation certain psychiatric disorders. It takes its starting point in recent qualitative studies of the experiences and thoughts of patients' with anorexia nervosa where issues related to authenticity seem particularly relevant. The paper examines different interpretations of authenticity relevant for autonomy and concludes that the concept, as it has been elaborated in recent debate, is highly problematic to use as a criterion for autonomous decision-making in healthcare.

  16. A statistical perspective on association studies of psychiatric disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foldager, Leslie

    2014-01-01

    the probability of type II errors and thus lowering the power to detect association. Statistical procedures where the test statistics initially are grouped according to some criteria, e.g. by candidate regions or functional pathways, may be one way to decrease the number of tests instead of lowering the threshold......Gene-gene (GxG) and gene-environment (GxE) interactions likely play an important role in the aetiology of complex diseases like psychiatric disorders. Thus, we aim at investigating methodological aspects of and apply methods from statistical genetics taking interactions into account. In addition we...... these markers. However, the validity of the identified haplotypes is also checked by inferring phased haplotypes from genotypes. Haplotype analysis is also used in paper 5 which is otherwise an example of a focused approach to narrow down a previously found signal to search for more precise positions of disease...

  17. Functional neurosurgery for psychiatric disorders: a historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diering, S L; Bell, W O

    1991-01-01

    Functional neurosurgery for psychiatric disorders ('psychosurgery') has a colorful, and sometimes dubious, history. From the time of the first operations in 1935 to today, its usefulness has been overshadowed by doubts and ethical questions. Psychosurgery became popular in the 1940s and early 1950s, especially in the United States. Its main indications were for intractable mental illness, in particular, depression, anxiety, and obsessive-compulsive disorders. However, its side effects, especially the 'frontal lobe syndrome', led to the need for more refined surgical approaches; the most important of these was the use of stereotaxis. Cingulotomy, subcaudate tractotomy, limbic leucotomy, and anterior capsulotomy are generally the stereotactic treatments of choice today. Indications and postoperative sequelae vary slightly across treatments. The indications remain as affective, anxiety, and obsessive-compulsive disorders. Despite approval by the United States Department of Health, Education, and Welfare in 1978, psychosurgery is still not a common treatment. This low acceptance is perhaps due to continued concern over ethical problems and inadequate reporting of outcomes.

  18. Psychiatric Disorders in HTLV-1-Infected Individuals with Bladder Symptoms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glória O Orge

    Full Text Available Previous studies have reported high rates of depression and anxiety in HTLV-1 infected individuals with the neurological disease and in the asymptomatic phase. No study has investigated the rates in individuals that already show bladder symptoms without severe neurological changes; that is, during the oligosymptomatic phase. The present study investigated patients in this intermediate form on the spectrum of the infection.Participants answered a sociodemographic questionnaire, the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview Brazilian Version 5.0.0 (MINI PLUS and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS. Data analysis was performed in STATA statistical software (version 12.0. Depressive disorder was the most frequent comorbidity. Current depressive disorder was higher in the group of overactive bladder subjects (11.9%, and lifelong depression was more frequent in the HAM/TSP group (35%. The three groups had similar frequencies of anxiety disorders. Increased frequency and severity of anxiety and depression symptoms were observed in the overactive bladder group.The results suggest that individuals with overactive bladders need a more thorough assessment from the mental health perspective. These patients remain an understudied group regarding psychiatric comorbidities.

  19. Cycloid psychoses predominate in severe postpartum psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfuhlmann, B; Stöber, G; Franzek, E; Beckmann, H

    1998-09-01

    The nosological status of postpartum psychoses has remained controversial because of their often 'atypical' symptomatology. A polydiagnostic approach may further clarify this issue. In a retrospective study, we applied the ICD-10 and Leonhard's classification to 39 patients with severe postpartum psychiatric disorders. The patients were personally reexamined on average 12.5 years (6-26 years) after the onset of the illness. An acute onset and a polymorphous psychotic symptomatology with rapid changes characterized the majority of our cases. Unipolar depressive disorders (28%) and acute polymorphous psychotic disorders (21%) represented the largest proportions within the ICD-10-classification. Applying Leonhard's classification, over half the patients (54%) suffered from a cycloid psychosis. Among cycloid psychoses, motility psychoses clearly predominated. Schizophrenias occurred rarely (10%) according to both classifications. Due to the unknown prevalence of the various diagnoses among women of child-bearing age, it is impossible to statistically infer a specific association between childbirth and a distinct diagnosis from our data. Our findings suggest that cycloid psychoses, in particular motility psychoses, account for the majority of postpartum psychoses, and do not support the hypothesis of a nosological independence of postpartum psychoses.

  20. Psychiatric disorders in Ehlers-Danlos syndrome are frequent, diverse and strongly associated with pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershenfeld, Samantha Aliza; Wasim, Syed; McNiven, Vanda; Parikh, Manasi; Majewski, Paula; Faghfoury, Hanna; So, Joyce

    2016-03-01

    Ehlers-Danlos syndromes (EDS) are a heterogeneous group of hereditary connective tissue disorders characterized by joint hypermobility, widespread musculoskeletal pain and tissue fragility. Psychiatric disorders and psychosocial impairment are common, yet poorly characterized, findings in EDS patients. We investigated the frequency and types of psychiatric disorders and their relationship to systemic manifestations in a cohort of 106 classic and hypermobility type EDS patients. In this retrospective study, extensive medical chart review was performed for patients referred at two genetics clinics who were diagnosed with EDS. Statistical analysis was undertaken to determine the frequency of psychiatric disorders and association with systemic findings. Psychiatric disorders were found in 42.5% of the EDS cohort, with 22.7% of patients affected with 2 or more psychiatric diagnoses. Anxiety and depression were most commonly reported, with frequencies of 23.6 and 25.5%, respectively. A variety of other psychiatric diagnoses were also identified. Abdominal pain [odds ratio (OR) 7.38], neuropathic pain (OR 4.07), migraines (OR 5.21), joint pain (OR 2.85) and fatigue (OR 5.55) were significantly associated with the presence of a psychiatric disorder. The presence of any pain symptom was significantly associated with having a psychiatric disorder (OR 9.68). Muscle pain (OR 2.79), abdominal pain (OR 5.78), neuropathic pain (OR 3.91), migraines (OR 2.63) and fatigue (OR 3.78) were significantly associated with having an anxiety or mood disorder. Joint hypermobility and the classic dermatological features of EDS showed no significant association with having a psychiatric disorder. Our findings demonstrate a high frequency of psychiatric disorders and an association with pain symptoms in EDS.

  1. Eating disorders and anabolic androgenic steroids in males - similarities and differences in self-image and psychiatric symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Body dissatisfaction is common among both females and males. Dissatisfaction with the body is a risk factor both for onset of eating disorders and for abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS). Few studies have however investigated if there are other similarities in respect to self-image or psychiatric symptoms between clinical samples of eating disordered males and males in treatment for negative effects of AAS use. Aim The aim of this study was to compare two clinical samples, one of males with ED and one of males who used AAS, regarding self-image and psychiatric symptoms. Methods This study compared males with eating disorders (n = 13) and males who recently stopped AAS use (n = 29) on self-image and psychiatric symptoms, using The Structural Analysis of Social Behavior self-questionnaire and a shortened version of The Symptom Check List. Results The eating disorder group reported significantly lower scores for Self-emancipation and Active self-love and higher scores for Self-blame and Self-hate. Both groups reported serious psychiatric symptoms. The common denominator between groups was serious psychiatric symptomatology rather than negative self-image. Conclusions The negative self-image profile, especially self-hate, found among males with Eating Disorders may indicate that the studied groups differ in aetiology of the underlying problems. The serious psychiatric symptoms in both groups call staff to pay attention to any thoughts of suicide due to severe depressive symptoms where by specialized psychiatric treatment may be needed. PMID:23958408

  2. The application of tDCS in psychiatric disorders: a brain imaging view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Baeken

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS is a non-invasive, non-convulsive technique for modulating brain function. In contrast to other non-invasive brain stimulation techniques, where costs, clinical applicability, and availability limit their large-scale use in clinical practices, the low-cost, portable, and easy-to-use tDCS devices may overcome these restrictions. Objective: Despite numerous clinical applications in large numbers of patients suffering from psychiatric disorders, it is not quite clear how tDCS influences the mentally affected human brain. In order to decipher potential neural mechanisms of action of tDCS in patients with psychiatric conditions, we focused on the combination of tDCS with neuroimaging techniques. Design: We propose a contemporary overview on the currently available neurophysiological and neuroimaging data where tDCS has been used as a research or treatment tool in patients with psychiatric disorders. Results: Over a reasonably short period of time, tDCS has been broadly used as a research tool to examine neuronal processes in the healthy brain. tDCS has also commonly been applied as a treatment application in a variety of mental disorders, with to date no straightforward clinical outcome and not always accompanied by brain imaging techniques. Conclusion: tDCS, as do other neuromodulation devices, clearly affects the underlying neuronal processes. However, research on these mechanisms in psychiatric patients is rather limited. A better comprehension of how tDCS modulates brain function will help us to define optimal parameters of stimulation in each indication and may result in the detection of biomarkers in favor of clinical response.

  3. Current psychiatric disorders in patients with epilepsy are predicted by maltreatment experiences during childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labudda, Kirsten; Illies, Dominik; Herzig, Cornelia; Schröder, Katharina; Bien, Christian G; Neuner, Frank

    2017-09-01

    Childhood maltreatment has been shown to be a risk factor for the development of psychiatric disorders. Although the prevalence of psychiatric disorders is high in epilepsy patients, it is unknown if childhood maltreatment experiences are elevated compared to the normal population and if early maltreatment is a risk factor for current psychiatric comorbidities in epilepsy patients. This is the main purpose of this study. Structured interviews were used to assess current Axis I diagnoses in 120 epilepsy patients from a tertiary Epilepsy Center (34 TLE patients, 86 non-TLE patients). Childhood maltreatment in the family and peer victimization were assessed with validated questionnaires. Patients' maltreatment scores were compared with those of a representative matched control group. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to assess the potential impact of childhood maltreatment on current psychiatric comorbidity in epilepsy patients. Compared to a matched control group, epilepsy patients had higher emotional and sexual maltreatment scores. Patients with a current psychiatric diagnosis reported more family and peer maltreatment than patients without a psychiatric disorder. Family maltreatment scores predicted the likelihood of a current psychiatric disorder. TLE patients did not differ from non-TLE patients according to maltreatment experiences and rates of current psychiatric disorders. Our findings suggest that in epilepsy patients emotional and sexual childhood maltreatment is experienced more often than in the normal population and that early maltreatment is a general risk factor for psychiatric comorbidities in this group. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Traumatic Brain Injury, Sleep Disorders, and Psychiatric Disorders: An Underrecognized Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne M. Morse

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI is commonplace among pediatric patients and has a complex, but intimate relationship with psychiatric disease and disordered sleep. Understanding the factors that influence the risk for the development of TBI in pediatrics is a critical component of beginning to address the consequences of TBI. Features that may increase risk for experiencing TBI sometimes overlap with factors that influence the development of post-concussive syndrome (PCS and recovery course. Post-concussive syndrome includes physical, psychological, cognitive and sleep–wake dysfunction. The comorbid presence of sleep–wake dysfunction and psychiatric symptoms can lead to a more protracted recovery and deleterious outcomes. Therefore, a multidisciplinary evaluation following TBI is necessary. Treatment is generally symptom specific and mainly based on adult studies. Further research is necessary to enhance diagnostic and therapeutic approaches, as well as improve the understanding of contributing pathophysiology for the shared development of psychiatric disease and sleep–wake dysfunction following TBI.

  5. The association between Internet addiction and psychiatric disorder: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, C H; Yen, J Y; Yen, C F; Chen, C S; Chen, C C

    2012-01-01

    Internet addiction is a newly emergent disorder. It has been found to be associated with a variety of psychiatric disorders. Information about such coexisting psychiatric disorders is essential to understand the mechanism of Internet addiction. In this review, we have recruited articles mentioning coexisting psychiatric disorders of Internet addiction from the PubMed database as at November 3, 2009. We describe the updated results for such disorders of Internet addiction, which include substance use disorder, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, depression, hostility, and social anxiety disorder. We also provide discussion for possible mechanisms accounting for the coexistence of psychiatric disorders and Internet addiction. The review might suggest that combined psychiatric disorders mentioned above should be evaluated and treated to prevent their deteriorating effect on the prognosis of Internet addiction. On the other hand, Internet addiction should be paid more attention to when treating people with these coexisting psychiatric disorders of Internet addiction. Additionally, we also suggest future necessary research directions that could provide further important information for the understanding of this issue. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Polygenic risk for five psychiatric disorders and cross-disorder and disorder-specific neural connectivity in two independent populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianqi Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Major psychiatric disorders, including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, autism (AUT, bipolar disorder (BD, major depressive disorder (MDD, and schizophrenia (SZ, are highly heritable and polygenic. Evidence suggests that these five disorders have both shared and distinct genetic risks and neural connectivity abnormalities. To measure aggregate genetic risks, the polygenic risk score (PGRS was computed. Two independent general populations (N = 360 and N = 323 were separately examined to investigate whether the cross-disorder PGRS and PGRS for a specific disorder were associated with individual variability in functional connectivity. Consistent altered functional connectivity was found with the bilateral insula: for the left supplementary motor area and the left superior temporal gyrus with the cross-disorder PGRS, for the left insula and right middle and superior temporal lobe associated with the PGRS for autism, for the bilateral midbrain, posterior cingulate, cuneus, and precuneus associated with the PGRS for BD, and for the left angular gyrus and the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex associated with the PGRS for schizophrenia. No significant functional connectivity was found associated with the PGRS for ADHD and MDD. Our findings indicated that genetic effects on the cross-disorder and disorder-specific neural connectivity of common genetic risk loci are detectable in the general population. Our findings also indicated that polygenic risk contributes to the main neurobiological phenotypes of psychiatric disorders and that identifying cross-disorder and specific functional connectivity related to polygenic risks may elucidate the neural pathways for these disorders.

  7. Borderline personality disorder and Axis I psychiatric and substance use disorders among women experiencing homelessness in three US cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitbeck, Leslie B; Armenta, Brian E; Welch-Lazoritz, Melissa L

    2015-08-01

    In this study, we report prevalence rates of borderline personality disorder (BPD) and Axis I psychiatric and substance use disorders among randomly selected women who were experiencing episodes of homelessness in three US cities. The sample consists of 156 women, 79 from Omaha, NE, 39 from Pittsburgh, PA, and 38 from Portland, OR. It included 140 women from shelters and 16 women from meal locations. Latent class analysis was used to evaluate BPD symptoms. A large majority of the women (84.6 %) met criteria for at least one lifetime psychiatric disorder, about three-fourths (73.1 %) met criteria for a psychiatric disorder in the past year, and 39.7 % met past month criteria for a psychiatric disorder. Approximately three-fourths of the sample (73.7 %) met lifetime criteria for at least two disorders, about half (53.9 %) met criteria for at least three lifetime disorders, and approximately one-third (39.1 %) met criteria for four or more disorders. Latent class analyses indicated that 16.7 % of the women could be categorized as low self-harm BPD and 19.9 % high self-harm BPD. In shelters and in treatment settings, these women will present with complex histories of multiple serious psychiatric disorders. They are highly likely to manifest symptoms of BPD, post-traumatic stress disorder, and substance abuse disorders in addition to other psychiatric symptoms which will add to clinical complications.

  8. Pain and psychiatric disorders contribute independently to suicidal ideation in HIV-positive persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dafoe, Michele E; Stewart, Katharine E

    2004-01-01

    The relationships between HIV-related pain, psychiatric disorders, and suicidal ideation (SI) are not well understood. The presented research investigated the ability of pain, psychiatric diagnoses, coping styles, and locus of control (LOC) to predict SI in 75 HIV-positive persons, using a sequential logistic regression. Reported psychiatric diagnoses included depression, anxiety, and substance abuse disorders. Variance accounted for by these analyses was approximated at 33%, with pain severity independently predicting SI after accounting for psychiatric diagnoses. Coping and LOC did not add significantly to the models. Given the prevalence of pain in this population, these results underscore the importance of assessing and treating pain and SI in persons with HIV.

  9. Psychiatric Disorders and Polyphenols: Can They Be Helpful in Therapy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Trebatická

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of psychiatric disorders permanently increases. Polyphenolic compounds can be involved in modulation of mental health including brain plasticity, behaviour, mood, depression, and cognition. In addition to their antioxidant ability other biomodulating properties have been observed. In the pathogenesis of depression disturbance in neurotransmitters, increased inflammatory processes, defects in neurogenesis and synaptic plasticity, mitochondrial dysfunction, and redox imbalance are observed. Ginkgo biloba, green tea, and Quercus robur extracts and curcumin can affect neuronal system in depressive patients. ADHD patients treated with antipsychotic drugs, especially stimulants, report significant adverse effects; therefore, an alternative treatment is searched for. An extract from Ginkgo biloba and from Pinus pinaster bark, Pycnogenol, could become promising complementary supplements in ADHD treatment. Schizophrenia is a devastating mental disorder, with oxidative stress involved in its pathophysiology. The direct interference of polyphenols with schizophrenia pathophysiology has not been reported yet. However, increased oxidative stress caused by haloperidol was inhibited ex vivo by different polyphenols. Curcumin, extract from green tea and from Ginkgo biloba, may have benefits on serious side effects associated with administration of neuroleptics to patients suffering from schizophrenia. Polyphenols in the diet have the potential to become medicaments in the field of mental health after a thorough study of their mechanism of action.

  10. Patient Characterization Protocols for Psychophysiological Studies of Traumatic Brain Injury and Post-TBI Psychiatric Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul E. Rapp

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Psychophysiological investigations of traumatic brain injury (TBI are being conducted for several reasons, including the objective of learning more about the underlying physiological mechanisms of the pathological processes that can be initiated by a head injury. Additional goals include the development of objective physiologically based measures that can be used to monitor the response to treatment and to identify minimally symptomatic individuals who are at risk of delayed onset neuropsychiatric disorders following injury. Research programs studying TBI search for relationships between psychophysiological measures, particularly ERP component properties (e.g. timing, amplitude, scalp distribution, and a participant’s clinical condition. Moreover, the complex relationships between brain injury and psychiatric disorders are receiving increased research attention, and ERP technologies are making contributions to this effort. This review has two objectives supporting such research efforts. The first is to review evidence indicating that traumatic brain injury is a significant risk factor for post-injury neuropsychiatric disorders. The second objective is to introduce ERP researchers who are not familiar with neuropsychiatric assessment to the instruments that are available for characterizing traumatic brain injury, post-concussion syndrome, and psychiatric disorders. Specific recommendations within this very large literature are made. We have proceeded on the assumption that, as is typically the case in an ERP laboratory, the investigators are not clinically qualified and that they will not have access to participant medical records.

  11. What Are the Psychosocial Factors Associated With Migraine in the Child? Comorbid Psychiatric Disorders, Family Functioning, Parenting Style, or Mom's Psychiatric Symptoms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandemir, Gozde; Hesapcioglu, Selma Tural; Kurt, Aysegül N Citak

    2018-02-01

    Psychiatric diagnoses, parenting style, family functioning among children and adolescents with migraine, and psychiatric symptoms of their mothers were examined. The K-SADS and other measurements were used to assess psychiatric disorders in 50 children with migraine (aged 8-18) and matched 50 controls. At least one psychiatric disorder was diagnosed in 56% of the migraine group. The presence of any psychiatric disorder in children (odds ratio [OR] = 2.765, P = .027) and somatization symptoms in their mothers (OR = 2.061, P = .025) were increasing the risk of migraine diagnosis. The parenting style scale assessments revealed that parents in the migraine group grant their children less autonomy. Psychiatric comorbidity, especially depression and anxiety disorders, is more common in children with migraine. The frequency of eating disorder is also higher. Evaluating comorbidity, family functioning, and particularly affective responsiveness in migraine families may guide the clinician to a targeted treatment plan.

  12. Comparison of the Prevalence of Psychiatric Disorders in Performance-Enhancing Drug Users and Nonuser Bodybuilders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostovar, Afshin; Haerinejad, Mohammad Javad; Akbarzadeh, Samad; Keshavarz, Mojtaba

    2017-10-01

    Objective: The present study aimed at comparing the prevalence of major psychiatric disorders including major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and generalized anxiety disorder between performance-enhancing drug users and nonuser bodybuilders. Moreover, the prevalence of major psychiatric disorders in bodybuilders was also reported. Method: In this study, 453 athletes were recruited from Bushehr bodybuilding gyms from February to May 2015. A structured questionnaire was used to collect the participants' information, including demographic characteristics, sports' status and performance-enhancing drug use. According to the condition of performance-enhancing drug use, the participants were divided into current users, non-current users, and nonusers. The psychiatric status of the participants was evaluated using DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and schizophrenia. We also asked about the acute psychotic disturbances after using performance-enhancing drugs, alcohol use, and history of aggressive behavior in bodybuilders. Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and chi-square tests. Results: Prevalence of major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, generalized anxiety disorder, and the overall prevalence of psychiatric disorders in the bodybuilders was 19.7%, 3.8%, 1.5%, 16.6%, and 26.7%, respectively. After using performance-enhancing drugs, 33% of the bodybuilders had experienced acute psychological disturbances. There were no significant differences between current, non-current, and nonuser bodybuilding athletes in the measured psychiatric disorders. Conclusion: Prevalence of psychiatric disorders was not significantly different in performance-enhancing drug users and nonusers. Thus, it can be concluded that performance-enhancing drugs do not increase the risk of psychiatric disorders in bodybuilders.

  13. Comparison of the Prevalence of Psychiatric Disorders in Performance-Enhancing Drug Users and Nonuser Bodybuilders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin Ostovar

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study aimed at comparing the prevalence of major psychiatric disorders including major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and generalized anxiety disorder between performance-enhancing drug users and nonuser bodybuilders. Moreover, the prevalence of major psychiatric disorders in bodybuilders was also reported.Method: In this study, 453 athletes were recruited from Bushehr bodybuilding gyms from February to May 2015. A structured questionnaire was used to collect the participants’ information, including demographic characteristics, sports’ status and performance-enhancing drug use. According to the condition of performance-enhancing drug use, the participants were divided into current users, non-current users, and nonusers. The psychiatric status of the participants was evaluated using DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and schizophrenia. We also asked about the acute psychotic disturbances after using performance-enhancing drugs, alcohol use, and history of aggressive behavior in bodybuilders. Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and chi-square tests.Results: Prevalence of major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, generalized anxiety disorder, and the overall prevalence of psychiatric disorders in the bodybuilders was 19.7%, 3.8%, 1.5%, 16.6%, and 26.7%, respectively. After using performance-enhancing drugs, 33% of the bodybuilders had experienced acute psychological disturbances. There were no significant differences between current, non-current, and nonuser bodybuilding athletes in the measured psychiatric disorders.Conclusion: Prevalence of psychiatric disorders was not significantly different in performance-enhancing drug users and nonusers. Thus, it can be concluded that performance-enhancing drugs do not increase the risk of psychiatric disorders in bodybuilders.

  14. Following the genes: a framework for animal modeling of psychiatric disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawa Akira

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The number of individual cases of psychiatric disorders that can be ascribed to identified, rare, single mutations is increasing with great rapidity. Such mutations can be recapitulated in mice to generate animal models with direct etiological validity. Defining the underlying pathogenic mechanisms will require an experimental and theoretical framework to make the links from mutation to altered behavior in an animal or psychopathology in a human. Here, we discuss key elements of such a framework, including cell type-based phenotyping, developmental trajectories, linking circuit properties at micro and macro scales and definition of neurobiological phenotypes that are directly translatable to humans.

  15. Following the genes: a framework for animal modeling of psychiatric disorders

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mitchell, Kevin

    2011-11-11

    Abstract The number of individual cases of psychiatric disorders that can be ascribed to identified, rare, single mutations is increasing with great rapidity. Such mutations can be recapitulated in mice to generate animal models with direct etiological validity. Defining the underlying pathogenic mechanisms will require an experimental and theoretical framework to make the links from mutation to altered behavior in an animal or psychopathology in a human. Here, we discuss key elements of such a framework, including cell type-based phenotyping, developmental trajectories, linking circuit properties at micro and macro scales and definition of neurobiological phenotypes that are directly translatable to humans.

  16. An examination of the relationships between psychiatric disorders and traumatic brain injury: a prospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Gould, Kate Rachel

    2017-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders are commonly associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, pre- and post-injury frequencies of disorders are variable, and their course, associated risk factors and relationship with psychosocial outcome are poorly understood due to methodological inconsistencies. No studies have prospectively examined the full range of Axis I psychiatric disorders using semi-structured clinical interview. Accordingly, the main aims of the current study were to (a) investigate t...

  17. Psychiatric disorders and violent reoffending: a national cohort study of convicted prisoners in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Zheng; Larsson, Henrik; Lichtenstein, Paul; Fazel, Seena

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Reoffending and presence of psychiatric disorders are common in prisoners worldwide. However, whether psychiatric disorders are risk factors for reoffending is still unknown. We aimed to examine the association between psychiatric disorders, including substance use disorder, and violent reoffending. Methods We did a longitudinal cohort study of 47 326 prisoners who were imprisoned since Jan 1, 2000, and released before Dec 31, 2009, in Sweden. We obtained data for diagnosed psychiatric disorders from both inpatient and outpatient registers, and sociodemographic and criminological factors from other population-based registers. We calculated hazard ratios (HRs) for violent reoffending with Cox regression. To control for potential familial confounding, we compared sibling prisoners with and without psychiatric disorders. We calculated population attributable fraction to assess the population effect. Findings Diagnosed psychiatric disorders were associated with an increased hazard of violent reoffending in male (adjusted HR 1·63 [95% CI 1·57–1·70]) and female (2·02 [1·54–2·63]) prisoners, and these associations were independent of measured sociodemographic and criminological factors, and, in men, remained substantial after adjustment for unmeasured familial factors (2·01 [1·66–2·43]). However, findings differed between individual diagnoses and sex. We found some evidence of stronger effects on violent reoffending of alcohol and drug use disorders and bipolar disorder than of other psychiatric disorders. Alcohol use disorder seemed to have a greater effect in women than in men (women 2·08 [1·66–2·60]; men 1·63 [1·56–1·71]). The overall effects of psychiatric disorders did not differ with severity of crime. The hazard of violent reoffending increased in a stepwise way with the number of diagnosed psychiatric disorders. Assuming causality, up to 20% (95% CI 19–22) of violent reoffending in men and 40% (27–52) in women was

  18. Boys with Asperger Syndrome Grow Up: Psychiatric and Neurodevelopmental Disorders 20 Years After Initial Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillberg, I Carina; Helles, Adam; Billstedt, Eva; Gillberg, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    We examined comorbid psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders in fifty adult males (mean age 30 years) with Asperger syndrome (AS) diagnosed in childhood and followed up prospectively for almost two decades (13-26 years). Only three of the 50 men had never met criteria for an additional psychiatric/neurodevelopmental diagnosis and more than half had ongoing comorbidity (most commonly either ADHD or depression or both). Any psychiatric comorbidity increased the risk of poorer outcome. The minority of the AS group who no longer met criteria for a full diagnosis of an autism spectrum disorder were usually free of current psychiatric comorbidity. The high rate of psychiatric/neurodevelopmental comorbidities underscores the need for a full psychiatric/neurodevelopmental assessment at follow-up of males with AS.

  19. Language Disorders in a Child Psychiatric Center: Demographic Characteristics and Comorbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrborg, Jørgen; Goldschmidt, Vibeke V.

    1996-01-01

    in accordance with 8 main categories of ICD-10. Language disorders were most often found to be comorbid with conduct disorders, and the comorbidity was most frequent in the adolescent group. Boys had significantly more conduct disorders than girls, and girls had significantly more emotional disorders than boys......In this study demographic variables and comorbidity were registered in a group of children and adolescents with language disorders. Ss were drawn from 1,151 consecutively admitted psychiatric patients (0-17 yrs) in a 5-yr period. 116 patients had language disorders (10%), and 73% were boys. 27% had...... expressive language disorders, 47% receptive language disorders, and 26% mixed specific developmental disorders (inclusive language disorder). The prevalence of previously unsuspected language disorders was 27%. 75% of patients with language disorders could furthermore be psychiatrically diagnosed...

  20. Criteria of validity for animal models of psychiatric disorders: focus on anxiety disorders and depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Animal models of psychiatric disorders are usually discussed with regard to three criteria first elaborated by Willner; face, predictive and construct validity. Here, we draw the history of these concepts and then try to redraw and refine these criteria, using the framework of the diathesis model of depression that has been proposed by several authors. We thus propose a set of five major criteria (with sub-categories for some of them); homological validity (including species validity and strain validity), pathogenic validity (including ontopathogenic validity and triggering validity), mechanistic validity, face validity (including ethological and biomarker validity) and predictive validity (including induction and remission validity). Homological validity requires that an adequate species and strain be chosen: considering species validity, primates will be considered to have a higher score than drosophila, and considering strains, a high stress reactivity in a strain scores higher than a low stress reactivity in another strain. Pathological validity corresponds to the fact that, in order to shape pathological characteristics, the organism has been manipulated both during the developmental period (for example, maternal separation: ontopathogenic validity) and during adulthood (for example, stress: triggering validity). Mechanistic validity corresponds to the fact that the cognitive (for example, cognitive bias) or biological mechanisms (such as dysfunction of the hormonal stress axis regulation) underlying the disorder are identical in both humans and animals. Face validity corresponds to the observable behavioral (ethological validity) or biological (biomarker validity) outcomes: for example anhedonic behavior (ethological validity) or elevated corticosterone (biomarker validity). Finally, predictive validity corresponds to the identity of the relationship between the triggering factor and the outcome (induction validity) and between the effects of the treatments

  1. A Review of Impact of Tobacco Use on Patients with Co-occurring Psychiatric Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Arghya; Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh

    2016-01-01

    Consumption of tobacco has been a worldwide problem over the past few decades due to the highly prevalent tobacco-attributable complications. Tobacco use has also been found to be more prevalent in patients with psychiatric disorders. Therefore, we conducted this review about the impact of tobacco use on co-occurring psychiatric disorders. Various facets of this interaction between tobacco use among those with co-occurring psychiatric disorders have been explored. It has been found that people with psychiatric disorders have a higher chance of currently smoking tobacco and lesser chance of cessation. Tobacco use and mental disorders continue to share a complex relationship that has been further evolving after the change in the pattern of tobacco use and also the advent of newer modalities of treatment. However, at the same time, it is believed that cessation of smoking may lead to improvement in the symptoms of mental illness.

  2. Comorbid psychiatric disorders and stages of change in cannabis-dependent, treatment-seeking patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hercilio P. Oliveira

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To determine whether and to what extent cannabis dependence is associated with comorbid psychiatric disorders and specific stages of change in treatment-seeking patients. Methods: We evaluated 80 cannabis-dependent, treatment-seeking patients residing in an urban area. Data on cannabis dependence, psychiatric disorders, and motivation were obtained using the Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry and the University of Rhode Island Change Assessment (URICA. Results: A diagnosis of schizophrenia was found to correlate with lower motivation scores (p = 0.038, which could have a negative effect on adherence to treatment. Conclusion: The high prevalence of concurrent psychiatric disorders in cannabis-dependent patients should serve as a stimulus for early screening and treatment of such disorders. Health care professionals should be aware of the magnitude of this association to increase the level of motivation in cannabis-dependent patients with severe concurrent psychiatric disorders.

  3. Post traumatic stress disorder symptoms in a psychiatric population ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a diagnostic category used to describe symptoms arising from emotionally traumatic experience(s). Research suggests that PTSD may be under- diagnosed when trauma is not the presenting problem or when not the focus of clinical intervention. There is a dearth of South ...

  4. Incidence of psychiatric disorders among accompanied and unaccompanied asylum-seeking children in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norredam, Marie; Nellums, Laura; Nielsen, Runa Schmidt

    2018-01-01

    One in four asylum applicants in Europe are children, and 23% of whom are unaccompanied and may be at increased risk of mental illness. This study contributes to the limited evidence base by comparing the incidence of psychiatric disorders among unaccompanied and accompanied refugee children. We...... linked a cohort of refugee children who obtained right of residency in Denmark between 01 January 1993 and 31 December 2010 to the Danish Psychiatric Central Register, and calculated incidence rates per 100,000 person years and incidence rate ratios of overall psychiatric disorder, psychotic disorders...

  5. Joint Analysis of Psychiatric Disorders Increases Accuracy of Risk Prediction for Schizophrenia, Bipolar Disorder, and Major Depressive Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maier, Robert; Moser, Gerhard; Chen, Guo-Bo; Ripke, Stephan; Coryell, William; Potash, James B.; Scheftner, William A.; Shi, Jianxin; Weissman, Myrna M.; Hultman, Christina M.; Landén, Mikael; Levinson, Douglas F.; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Smoller, Jordan W.; Wray, Naomi R.; Lee, S. Hong; Absher, Devin; Agartz, Ingrid; Akil, Huda; Amin, Farooq; Andreassen, Ole A.; Anjorin, Adebayo; Anney, Richard; Arking, Dan E.; Asherson, Philip; Azevedo, Maria H.; Backlund, Lena; Badner, Judith A.; Bailey, Anthony J.; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barchas, Jack D.; Barnes, Michael R.; Barrett, Thomas B.; Bass, Nicholas; Battaglia, Agatino; Bauer, Michael; Bayés, Mònica; Bellivier, Frank; Bergen, Sarah E.; Berrettini, Wade; Betancur, Catalina; Bettecken, Thomas; Biederman, Joseph; Binder, Elisabeth B.; Black, Donald W.; Blackwood, Douglas H. R.; Bloss, Cinnamon S.; Boehnke, Michael; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Breen, Gerome; Breuer, René; Bruggeman, Richard; Buccola, Nancy G.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Bunney, William E.; Buxbaum, Joseph D.; Byerley, William F.; Caesar, Sian; Cahn, Wiepke; Cantor, Rita M.; Casas, Miguel; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Chambert, Kimberly; Choudhury, Khalid; Cichon, Sven; Cloninger, C. Robert; Collier, David A.; Cook, Edwin H.; Coon, Hilary; Cormand, Bru; Cormican, Paul; Corvin, Aiden; Coryell, William H.; Craddock, Nicholas; Craig, David W.; Craig, Ian W.; Crosbie, Jennifer; Cuccaro, Michael L.; Curtis, David; Czamara, Darina; Daly, Mark J.; Datta, Susmita; Dawson, Geraldine; Day, Richard; de Geus, Eco J.; Degenhardt, Franziska; Devlin, Bernie; Djurovic, Srdjan; Donohoe, Gary J.; Doyle, Alysa E.; Duan, Jubao; Dudbridge, Frank; Duketis, Eftichia; Ebstein, Richard P.; Edenberg, Howard J.; Elia, Josephine; Ennis, Sean; Etain, Bruno; Fanous, Ayman; Faraone, Stephen V.; Farmer, Anne E.; Ferrier, I. Nicol; Flickinger, Matthew; Fombonne, Eric; Foroud, Tatiana; Frank, Josef; Franke, Barbara; Fraser, Christine; Freedman, Robert; Freimer, Nelson B.; Freitag, Christine M.; Friedl, Marion; Frisén, Louise; Gallagher, Louise; Gejman, Pablo V.; Georgieva, Lyudmila; Gershon, Elliot S.; Geschwind, Daniel H.; Giegling, Ina; Gill, Michael; Gordon, Scott D.; Gordon-Smith, Katherine; Green, Elaine K.; Greenwood, Tiffany A.; Grice, Dorothy E.; Gross, Magdalena; Grozeva, Detelina; Guan, Weihua; Gurling, Hugh; de Haan, Lieuwe; Haines, Jonathan L.; Hakonarson, Hakon; Hallmayer, Joachim; Hamilton, Steven P.; Hamshere, Marian L.; Hansen, Thomas F.; Hartmann, Annette M.; Hautzinger, Martin; Heath, Andrew C.; Henders, Anjali K.; Herms, Stefan; Hickie, Ian B.; Hipolito, Maria; Hoefels, Susanne; Holmans, Peter A.; Holsboer, Florian; Hoogendijk, Witte J.; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Hus, Vanessa; Ingason, Andrés; Ising, Marcus; Jamain, Stéphane; Jones, Ian; Jones, Lisa; Kähler, Anna K.; Kahn, René S.; Kandaswamy, Radhika; Keller, Matthew C.; Kelsoe, John R.; Kennedy, James L.; Kenny, Elaine; Kent, Lindsey; Kim, Yunjung; Kirov, George K.; Klauck, Sabine M.; Klei, Lambertus; Knowles, James A.; Kohli, Martin A.; Koller, Daniel L.; Konte, Bettina; Korszun, Ania; Krabbendam, Lydia; Krasucki, Robert; Kuntsi, Jonna; Kwan, Phoenix; Långström, Niklas; Lathrop, Mark; Lawrence, Jacob; Lawson, William B.; Leboyer, Marion; Ledbetter, David H.; Lee, Phil H.; Lencz, Todd; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Lewis, Cathryn M.; Li, Jun; Lichtenstein, Paul; Lieberman, Jeffrey A.; Lin, Dan-Yu; Linszen, Don H.; Liu, Chunyu; Lohoff, Falk W.; Loo, Sandra K.; Lord, Catherine; Lowe, Jennifer K.; Lucae, Susanne; MacIntyre, Donald J.; Madden, Pamela A. F.; Maestrini, Elena; Magnusson, Patrik K. E.; Mahon, Pamela B.; Maier, Wolfgang; Malhotra, Anil K.; Mane, Shrikant M.; Martin, Christa L.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Mattheisen, Manuel; Matthews, Keith; Mattingsdal, Morten; McCarroll, Steven A.; McGhee, Kevin A.; McGough, James J.; McGrath, Patrick J.; McGuffin, Peter; McInnis, Melvin G.; McIntosh, Andrew; McKinney, Rebecca; McLean, Alan W.; McMahon, Francis J.; McMahon, William M.; McQuillin, Andrew; Medeiros, Helena; Medland, Sarah E.; Meier, Sandra; Melle, Ingrid; Meng, Fan; Meyer, Jobst; Middeldorp, Christel M.; Middleton, Lefkos; Milanova, Vihra; Miranda, Ana; Monaco, Anthony P.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Moran, Jennifer L.; Moreno-de-Luca, Daniel; Morken, Gunnar; Morris, Derek W.; Morrow, Eric M.; Moskvina, Valentina; Mowry, Bryan J.; Muglia, Pierandrea; Mühleisen, Thomas W.; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Murtha, Michael; Myers, Richard M.; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Neale, Benjamin M.; Nelson, Stan F.; Nievergelt, Caroline M.; Nikolov, Ivan; Nimgaonkar, Vishwajit; Nolen, Willem A.; Nöthen, Markus M.; Nurnberger, John I.; Nwulia, Evaristus A.; Nyholt, Dale R.; O'Donovan, Michael C.; O'Dushlaine, Colm; Oades, Robert D.; Olincy, Ann; Oliveira, Guiomar; Olsen, Line; Ophoff, Roel A.; Osby, Urban; Owen, Michael J.; Palotie, Aarno; Parr, Jeremy R.; Paterson, Andrew D.; Pato, Carlos N.; Pato, Michele T.; Penninx, Brenda W.; Pergadia, Michele L.; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A.; Perlis, Roy H.; Pickard, Benjamin S.; Pimm, Jonathan; Piven, Joseph; Posthuma, Danielle; Poustka, Fritz; Propping, Peter; Purcell, Shaun M.; Puri, Vinay; Quested, Digby J.; Quinn, Emma M.; Ramos-Quiroga, Josep Antoni; Rasmussen, Henrik B.; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Rehnström, Karola; Reif, Andreas; Ribasés, Marta; Rice, John P.; Rietschel, Marcella; Roeder, Kathryn; Roeyers, Herbert; Rossin, Lizzy; Rothenberger, Aribert; Rouleau, Guy; Ruderfer, Douglas; Rujescu, Dan; Sanders, Alan R.; Sanders, Stephan J.; Santangelo, Susan L.; Schachar, Russell; Schalling, Martin; Schatzberg, Alan F.; Schellenberg, Gerard D.; Scherer, Stephen W.; Schork, Nicholas J.; Schulze, Thomas G.; Schumacher, Johannes; Schwarz, Markus; Scolnick, Edward; Scott, Laura J.; Sergeant, Joseph A.; Shilling, Paul D.; Shyn, Stanley I.; Silverman, Jeremy M.; Sklar, Pamela; Slager, Susan L.; Smalley, Susan L.; Smit, Johannes H.; Smith, Erin N.; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J. S.; St Clair, David; State, Matthew; Steffens, Michael; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Strauss, John S.; Strohmaier, Jana; Stroup, T. Scott; Sullivan, Patrick F.; Sutcliffe, James; Szatmari, Peter; Szelinger, Szabocls; Thapar, Anita; Thirumalai, Srinivasa; Thompson, Robert C.; Todorov, Alexandre A.; Tozzi, Federica; Treutlein, Jens; Tzeng, Jung-Ying; Uhr, Manfred; van den Oord, Edwin J. C. G.; van Grootheest, Gerard; van Os, Jim; Vicente, Astrid M.; Vieland, Veronica J.; Vincent, John B.; Visscher, Peter M.; Walsh, Christopher A.; Wassink, Thomas H.; Watson, Stanley J.; Weiss, Lauren A.; Werge, Thomas; Wienker, Thomas F.; Wiersma, Durk; Wijsman, Ellen M.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Williams, Nigel; Willsey, A. Jeremy; Witt, Stephanie H.; Xu, Wei; Young, Allan H.; Yu, Timothy W.; Zammit, Stanley; Zandi, Peter P.; Zhang, Peng; Zitman, Frans G.; Zöllner, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Genetic risk prediction has several potential applications in medical research and clinical practice and could be used, for example, to stratify a heterogeneous population of patients by their predicted genetic risk. However, for polygenic traits, such as psychiatric disorders, the accuracy of risk

  6. Virtual Reality Objectifies the Diagnosis of Psychiatric Disorders: A Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bennekom, Martine J; de Koning, Pelle P; Denys, Damiaan

    2017-01-01

    To date, a diagnosis in psychiatry is largely based on a clinical interview and questionnaires. The retrospective and subjective nature of these methods leads to recall and interviewer biases. Therefore, there is a clear need for more objective and standardized assessment methods to support the diagnostic process. The introduction of virtual reality (VR) creates the possibility to simultaneously provoke and measure psychiatric symptoms. Therefore, VR could contribute to the objectivity and reliability in the assessment of psychiatric disorders. In this literature review, we will evaluate the assessment of psychiatric disorders by means of VR environments. First, we investigate if these VR environments are capable of simultaneously provoking and measuring psychiatric symptoms. Next, we compare these measures with traditional diagnostic measures. We performed a systematic search using PubMed, Embase, and Psycinfo; references of selected articles were checked for eligibility. We identified studies from 1990 to 2016 on VR used in the assessment of psychiatric disorders. Studies were excluded if VR was used for therapeutic purposes, if a different technique was used, or in case of limitation to a non-clinical sample. A total of 39 studies were included for further analysis. The disorders most frequently studied included schizophrenia ( n  = 15), developmental disorders ( n  = 12), eating disorders ( n  = 3), and anxiety disorders ( n  = 6). In attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, the most comprehensive measurement was used including several key symptoms of the disorder. Most of the studies, however, concerned the use of VR to assess a single aspect of a psychiatric disorder. In general, nearly all VR environments studied were able to simultaneously provoke and measure psychiatric symptoms. Furthermore, in 14 studies, significant correlations were found between VR measures and traditional diagnostic measures. Relatively small clinical sample sizes

  7. Psychiatric comorbidities in adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and their siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li-Kuang; Shang, Chi-Yung; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2011-05-01

    Despite high psychiatric comorbidities in adolescents with clinical diagnosis of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), little is known about psychiatric comorbidities in their siblings. We investigated the psychiatric comorbid conditions in adolescents with ADHD, their siblings, and healthy control subjects from their school. The sample included 136 adolescent probands with ADHD according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV), diagnostic criteria; 136 siblings (47 affected and 89 unaffected) and 136 age- and sex-matched healthy school control subjects. All participants and their parents received the structured psychiatric interviews for current and lifetime DSM-IV psychiatric disorders of the participants. The rate of ADHD (34.6%) in the siblings of probands with ADHD was about 7 times higher than in the general population. Probands with ADHD were significantly more likely than unaffected siblings (OR 6.38; 95% CI 3.43 to 11.88) and healthy school control subjects (OR 9.60; 95% CI 5.31 to 17.34) to have a DSM-IV psychiatric disorder, including oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), conduct disorder (CD), tic disorders, major depressive disorder, specific phobia (more than control subjects only), nicotine use disorder, and sleep disorders. The affected siblings were significantly more likely than healthy school control subjects to have ODD, CD, specific phobia, and to have consumed alcohol (ORs ranging from 2.30 to 20.16). Our findings suggest that siblings of probands with ADHD have increased risks for ADHD and that the affected siblings have more psychiatric comorbidities than healthy school control subjects. It warrants early identification of ADHD symptoms and other psychiatric comorbid conditions as well in siblings of adolescents with ADHD.

  8. Patient factors predicting early dropout from psychiatric outpatient care for borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Panfilis, Chiara; Marchesi, Carlo; Cabrino, Chiara; Monici, Alberto; Politi, Virginia; Rossi, Matteo; Maggini, Carlo

    2012-12-30

    Despite obvious clinical need, factors underlying early treatment discontinuation among 'real world' borderline personality disorder (BPD) patients are still unknown. This study investigates individual characteristics that can predict early (Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV) Personality. Sociodemographic, clinical and personality variables potentially relevant for dropout were assessed for all participants at baseline. Early dropouts (n=54) were compared to continuers (n=108) on all measures. Logistic regression was then used to identify independent predictors of early dropout. A history of suicide attempts predicted early discontinuation, whereas the presence of an eating disorder and of avoidant personality features protected from early dropout. If confirmed, these findings may help clinicians operating in general psychiatric settings with estimating the risk of premature treatment discontinuation, and stress the need to specifically address suicidal behaviours in order to improve treatment retention among borderline outpatients. In this regard, implementing general psychiatric care with specialised, evidence-based psychotherapeutic interventions may be deemed necessary. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Order of age at onset for substance use, substance use disorder, conduct disorder and psychiatric illness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guldager, Steen; Linneberg, Inger Holm; Hesse, Morten

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the number of patients who reported earlier age at onset for psychiatric illness versus those with an earlier age at onset for substance use. Subjects were 194 patients from substance use disorder (SUD) treatment services in the Municipality of Fredericia who accepted...... of Personality – Abbreviated Scale (SAPAS), completed the MCMI-III, the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), and were rated with the Montgomery Åsberg Depression Rating Scale. Age at onset was lowest for conduct disorder/antisocial behaviour, followed by tasting alcohol, trying drugs, post-traumatic stress disorder...... an offer of psychological assessment. Patients were administered the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), and when diagnoses were indicated, queried about the age at onset for each disorder. Additionally, subjects were administered the WAIS-III vocabulary scale, the Structured Assessment...

  10. Psychiatric comorbidities in autism spectrum disorders: findings from a Danish Historic Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, Morsi; Greaves-Lord, Kirstin; Grove, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    Several psychiatric comorbidities are common among patients with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), which may worsen the clinical outcome and add to the substantial costs of care. The aim of this report is to estimate the psychiatric comorbidity rates within ASD utilizing a Danish Historic Birth...

  11. Psychiatric Disorders in Smokers Seeking Treatment for Tobacco Dependence: Relations with Tobacco Dependence and Cessation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, Megan E.; Smith, Stevens S.; Schlam, Tanya R.; Fleming, Michael F.; Bittrich, Amy A.; Brown, Jennifer L.; Leitzke, Cathlyn J.; Zehner, Mark E.; Fiore, Michael C.; Baker, Timothy B.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The present research examined the relation of psychiatric disorders to tobacco dependence and cessation outcomes. Method: Data were collected from 1,504 smokers (58.2% women; 83.9% White; mean age = 44.67 years, SD = 11.08) making an aided smoking cessation attempt as part of a clinical trial. Psychiatric diagnoses were determined with…

  12. Clinical Overlap and Psychiatric Comorbidity in Autism Spectrum Disorder in Adulthood: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Picoito

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD is an early neurodevelopmental disorder that accompanies the individual throughout life. There is a significant clinical overlap of ASD with other psychiatric disorders including personality disorders, psychotic disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder and depression. Additionally, the presence of high rates of psychiatric comorbidity, often with atypical presentations, delays the ASD diagnosis and makes it more difficult to manage. Aims: To illustrate the complexity of ASD diagnosis and approach in adults. Methods: Report of a clinical case and review of the literature. Results and Conclusion: This paper presents the case of a 46-year-old patient, with ASD, with a long history of interpersonal difficulties and psychiatric symptomatology. Over the years, different diagnoses have been made, particularly schizoid and schizotypal personality disorders, psychosis not otherwise specified and paranoid schizophrenia, which led to poor adherence to treatment, and prevented a full understanding of the patient’s clinical presentation and lifelong struggles.

  13. Childhood sexual abuse and psychiatric disorders in middle-aged and older adults: evidence from the 2007 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Kee-Lee

    2012-11-01

    stress disorder (AOR = 8.88; 95% CI, 3.68-21.40), and suicidal ideation (AOR = 3.03; 95% CI, 1.08-8.51). Gender did not moderate the association of childhood sexual abuse or revictimization with psychiatric disorders. Finally, both childhood sexual abuse (AOR = 3.73; 95% CI, 2.03-6.86) and revictimization (AOR = 7.54; 95% CI, 3.09-17.42) were significantly associated with psychiatric hospitalization. The prevalence of childhood sexual abuse in this sample was comparable to the prevalence rates identified in previous studies. The associations of childhood sexual abuse and revictimization with a wide range of psychiatric disorders raises further questions about the underlying mechanisms in the elderly. This study also supports the notion that childhood sexual abuse and revictimization are associated with a higher rate of utilization of mental health services. © Copyright 2012 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  14. Social Class, Social Mobility and Risk of Psychiatric Disorder - A Population-Based Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiikkaja, Sanna; Sandin, Sven; Malki, Ninoa; Modin, Bitte; Sparén, Pär; Hultman, Christina M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study explored how adult social class and social mobility between parental and own adult social class is related to psychiatric disorder. Material and Methods In this prospective cohort study, over 1 million employed Swedes born in 1949-1959 were included. Information on parental class (1960) and own mid-life social class (1980 and 1990) was retrieved from the censuses and categorised as High Non-manual, Low Non-manual, High Manual, Low Manual and Self-employed. After identifying adult class, individuals were followed for psychiatric disorder by first admission of schizophrenia, alcoholism and drug dependency, affective psychosis and neurosis or personality disorder (N=24 659) from the Swedish Patient Register. We used Poisson regression analysis to estimate first admission rates of psychiatric disorder per 100 000 person-years and relative risks (RR) by adult social class (treated as a time-varying covariate). The RRs of psychiatric disorder among the Non-manual and Manual classes were also estimated by magnitude of social mobility. Results The rate of psychiatric disorder was significantly higher among individuals belonging to the Low manual class as compared with the High Non-manual class. Compared to High Non-manual class, the risk for psychiatric disorder ranged from 2.07 (Low Manual class) to 1.38 (Low Non-manual class). Parental class had a minor impact on these estimates. Among the Non-manual and Manual classes, downward mobility was associated with increased risk and upward mobility with decreased risk of psychiatric disorder. In addition, downward mobility was inversely associated with the magnitude of social mobility, independent of parental class. Conclusions Independently of parental social class, the risk of psychiatric disorder increases with increased downward social mobility and decreases with increased upward mobility. PMID:24260104

  15. Social class, social mobility and risk of psychiatric disorder--a population-based longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiikkaja, Sanna; Sandin, Sven; Malki, Ninoa; Modin, Bitte; Sparén, Pär; Hultman, Christina M

    2013-01-01

    This study explored how adult social class and social mobility between parental and own adult social class is related to psychiatric disorder. In this prospective cohort study, over 1 million employed Swedes born in 1949-1959 were included. Information on parental class (1960) and own mid-life social class (1980 and 1990) was retrieved from the censuses and categorised as High Non-manual, Low Non-manual, High Manual, Low Manual and Self-employed. After identifying adult class, individuals were followed for psychiatric disorder by first admission of schizophrenia, alcoholism and drug dependency, affective psychosis and neurosis or personality disorder (N=24,659) from the Swedish Patient Register. We used Poisson regression analysis to estimate first admission rates of psychiatric disorder per 100,000 person-years and relative risks (RR) by adult social class (treated as a time-varying covariate). The RRs of psychiatric disorder among the Non-manual and Manual classes were also estimated by magnitude of social mobility. The rate of psychiatric disorder was significantly higher among individuals belonging to the Low manual class as compared with the High Non-manual class. Compared to High Non-manual class, the risk for psychiatric disorder ranged from 2.07 (Low Manual class) to 1.38 (Low Non-manual class). Parental class had a minor impact on these estimates. Among the Non-manual and Manual classes, downward mobility was associated with increased risk and upward mobility with decreased risk of psychiatric disorder. In addition, downward mobility was inversely associated with the magnitude of social mobility, independent of parental class. Independently of parental social class, the risk of psychiatric disorder increases with increased downward social mobility and decreases with increased upward mobility.

  16. Psychiatric disorders and symptoms severity in pre-school children with cow's milk allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topal, E; Catal, F; Soylu, N; Ozcan, O O; Celiksoy, M H; Babayiğit, A; Erge, D; Karakoç, H T E; Sancak, R

    2016-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders are seen frequently in atopic diseases. The present study aims to evaluate the frequency of psychiatric disorders and the severity of psychiatric symptoms in pre-school children with cow's milk allergy. The parents of the pre-school children with cow's milk allergy were interviewed in person and asked to fill out the Early Childhood Inventory-4 form. The cow's milk allergy group included 40 children (27 male, 13 female) with mean age, 44.5±14.7 months, and the control group included 41 children (25 male, 16 female) with mean age, 47.6±15.2 months. It was established that 65% of the group with cow's milk allergy received at least one psychiatric diagnosis, while 36.6% of the control group received at least one psychiatric diagnosis, with a statistically significant difference (p=0.02). Within the psychiatric disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorders (odds ratio: 4.9, 95% CI: 1.472-16.856, p=0.006), oppositional defiant disorder (odds ratio: 5.6, 95% CI: 1.139-28.128, p=0.026), and attachment disorder (odds ratio: 4.8, 95% CI: 1.747-13.506, p=0.004) were found significantly higher compared with the healthy control group. When the groups were compared in terms of psychiatric symptom severity scores, calculated by using the Early Childhood Inventory-4 form, attention deficit hyperactivity disorders severity (p=0.006) and oppositional defiant disorder severity (p=0.037) were found to be higher in the cow's milk allergy group. Psychiatric disorders are frequent and severe in pre-school children with cow's milk allergy. Copyright © 2016 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Social class, social mobility and risk of psychiatric disorder--a population-based longitudinal study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanna Tiikkaja

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This study explored how adult social class and social mobility between parental and own adult social class is related to psychiatric disorder. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this prospective cohort study, over 1 million employed Swedes born in 1949-1959 were included. Information on parental class (1960 and own mid-life social class (1980 and 1990 was retrieved from the censuses and categorised as High Non-manual, Low Non-manual, High Manual, Low Manual and Self-employed. After identifying adult class, individuals were followed for psychiatric disorder by first admission of schizophrenia, alcoholism and drug dependency, affective psychosis and neurosis or personality disorder (N=24,659 from the Swedish Patient Register. We used Poisson regression analysis to estimate first admission rates of psychiatric disorder per 100,000 person-years and relative risks (RR by adult social class (treated as a time-varying covariate. The RRs of psychiatric disorder among the Non-manual and Manual classes were also estimated by magnitude of social mobility. RESULTS: The rate of psychiatric disorder was significantly higher among individuals belonging to the Low manual class as compared with the High Non-manual class. Compared to High Non-manual class, the risk for psychiatric disorder ranged from 2.07 (Low Manual class to 1.38 (Low Non-manual class. Parental class had a minor impact on these estimates. Among the Non-manual and Manual classes, downward mobility was associated with increased risk and upward mobility with decreased risk of psychiatric disorder. In addition, downward mobility was inversely associated with the magnitude of social mobility, independent of parental class. CONCLUSIONS: Independently of parental social class, the risk of psychiatric disorder increases with increased downward social mobility and decreases with increased upward mobility.

  18. Risk of Adverse Cognitive or Behavioral Conditions and Psychiatric Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slack, Kelley J.; Schneiderman, Jason S.; Leveton, Lauren B.; Whitmire, Alexandra M.; Picano, James J.

    2015-01-01

    The NASA commitment to human space flight includes continuing to fly astronauts on the ISS until it is decommissioned as well as possibly returning astronauts to the moon or having astronauts venture to an asteroid or Mars. As missions leave low Earth orbit and explore deeper space, BHP supports and conducts research to enable a risk posture that considers the risk of adverse cognitive or behavioral conditions and psychiatric disorders “acceptable given mitigations,” for pre-, in, and post-flight.The Human System Risk Board (HSRB) determines the risk of various mission scenarios using a likelihood (per person per year) by consequences matrix examining those risks across two categories—long term health and operational (within mission). Colors from a stoplight signal are used by HSRB and quickly provide a means of assessing overall perceived risk for a particular mission scenario. Risk associated with the current six month missions on the ISS are classified as “accepted with monitoring” while planetary missions, such as a mission to Mars, are recognized to be a “red” risk that requires mitigation to ensure mission success.Currently, the HSRB deems that the risk of adverse cognitive or behavioral conditions and psychiatric outcomes requires mitigation for planetary missions owing to long duration isolation and radiation exposure (see Table 1). While limited research evidence exists from spaceflight, it is well known anecdotally that the shift from the two week shuttle missions to the six month ISS missions renders the psychological stressors of space as more salient over longer duration missions. Shuttle astronauts were expected just to tolerate any stressors that arose during their mission and were successful at doing so (Whitmire et al, 2013). While it is possible to deal with stressors such as social isolation and to live with incompatible crewmembers for two weeks on shuttle, “ignoring it” is much less likely to be a successful coping mechanism

  19. Neurodevelopmental Plasticity in Pre- and Postnatal Environmental Interactions: Implications for Psychiatric Disorders from an Evolutionary Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-A Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Psychiatric disorders are disadvantageous behavioral phenotypes in humans. Accordingly, a recent epidemiological study has reported decreased fecundity in patients with psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorders. Moreover, the fecundity of the relatives of these patients is not exceedingly higher compared to the fecundity of the relatives of normal subjects. Collectively, the prevalence of psychiatric disorders among humans is expected to decrease over generations. Nevertheless, in reality, the prevalence rates of psychiatric disorders in humans either have been constant over a long period of time or have even increased more recently. Several attempts to explain this fact have been made using biological mechanisms, such as de novo gene mutations or variants, although none of these explanations is fully comprehensive. Here, we propose a hypothesis towards understanding the biological mechanisms of psychiatric disorders from evolutionary perspectives. This hypothesis considers that behavioral phenotypes associated with psychiatric disorders might have emerged in the evolution of organisms as a neurodevelopmental adaptation against adverse environmental conditions associated with stress.

  20. Alpha-CaMKII deficiency causes immature dentate gyrus, a novel candidate endophenotype of psychiatric disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamasaki Nobuyuki

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Elucidating the neural and genetic factors underlying psychiatric illness is hampered by current methods of clinical diagnosis. The identification and investigation of clinical endophenotypes may be one solution, but represents a considerable challenge in human subjects. Here we report that mice heterozygous for a null mutation of the alpha-isoform of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (alpha-CaMKII+/- have profoundly dysregulated behaviours and impaired neuronal development in the dentate gyrus (DG. The behavioral abnormalities include a severe working memory deficit and an exaggerated infradian rhythm, which are similar to symptoms seen in schizophrenia, bipolar mood disorder and other psychiatric disorders. Transcriptome analysis of the hippocampus of these mutants revealed that the expression levels of more than 2000 genes were significantly changed. Strikingly, among the 20 most downregulated genes, 5 had highly selective expression in the DG. Whereas BrdU incorporated cells in the mutant mouse DG was increased by more than 50 percent, the number of mature neurons in the DG was dramatically decreased. Morphological and physiological features of the DG neurons in the mutants were strikingly similar to those of immature DG neurons in normal rodents. Moreover, c-Fos expression in the DG after electric footshock was almost completely and selectively abolished in the mutants. Statistical clustering of human post-mortem brains using 10 genes differentially-expressed in the mutant mice were used to classify individuals into two clusters, one of which contained 16 of 18 schizophrenic patients. Nearly half of the differentially-expressed probes in the schizophrenia-enriched cluster encoded genes that are involved in neurogenesis or in neuronal migration/maturation, including calbindin, a marker for mature DG neurons. Based on these results, we propose that an "immature DG" in adulthood might induce alterations in behavior and

  1. Parental warmth and psychiatric disorders among Puerto Rican children in two different socio-cultural contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santesteban-Echarri, Olga; Ramos-Olazagasti, María A; Eisenberg, Ruth E; Wei, Chiaying; Bird, Héctor R; Canino, Glorisa; Duarte, Cristiane S

    2017-04-01

    Parental warmth (PW) has a strong influence on child development and may precede the onset of psychiatric disorders in children. PW is interconnected with other family processes (e.g., coercive discipline) that may also influence the development of psychiatric disorders in children. We prospectively examined the association between PW and child psychiatric disorders (anxiety, major depression disorder, ADHD, disruptive behavior disorders) over the course of three years among Puerto Rican youth, above and beyond the influence of other family factors. Boricua Youth Study participants, Puerto Rican children 5 to 13 years of age at Wave 1 living in the South Bronx (New York) (SB) and San Juan and Canguas (PR) (n = 2,491), were followed for three consecutive years. Youth psychiatric disorders were measured by the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children-IV (DISC-IV). Generalized Linear Mixed models tested the association between PW (Wave 1) and psychiatric disorders in the next two years adjusting for demographic characteristics and family processes. Higher levels of PW were related to lower odds of child anxiety and major depressive disorder over time (OR = 0.69[0.60; 0.79]; 0.49[0.41; 0.58], respectively). The strength of the association between PW and ADHD and disruptive behavior disorder declined over time, although it was still significant in the last assessment (OR = 0.44[0.37; 0.52]; 0.46[0.39; 0.54], respectively). PW had a unique influence on psychiatric disorders beyond the influence of other parenting and family processes. Stronger associations were observed among girls for depression and ADHD. Incorporating PW behaviors such as acceptance, support, and comforting into interventions focused on parenting skills may help prevent child psychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Risk of psychiatric disorders following polycystic ovary syndrome: a nationwide population-based cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeng-Hsiu Hung

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is one of the most common endocrine disorders among women of reproductive age. A higher prevalence of psychiatric comorbidities, including depressive disorder, anxiety disorder, and bipolar disorder has been proved in patients with PCOS. However, a clear temporal causal relationship between PCOS and psychiatric disorders has not been well established. OBJECTIVE: We explored the relationship between PCOS and the subsequent development of psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depressive disorder, anxiety disorder, and sleep disorder. METHODS: We identified patients who were diagnosed with PCOS by an obstetrician-gynecologist in the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. A comparison cohort was constructed of patients without PCOS who were matched according to age and sex. The occurrence of subsequent new-onset psychiatric disorders was evaluated in both cohorts based on diagnoses made by psychiatrists. RESULTS: The PCOS cohort consisted of 5431 patients, and the comparison cohort consisted of 21,724 matched control patients without PCOS. The incidence of depressive disorder (hazard ratio [HR] 1.296, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.084-.550, anxiety disorder (HR 1.392, 95% CI 1.121-1.729, and sleep disorder (HR 1.495, 95% CI 1.176-1.899 were higher among the PCOS patients than among the patients in the comparison cohort. In addition, a higher incidence of newly diagnosed depressive disorder, anxiety disorder, and sleep disorder remained significantly increased in all of the stratified follow-up durations (0-1, 1-5, ≥5 y. CONCLUSIONS: PCOS might increase the risk of subsequent newly diagnosed depressive disorder, anxiety disorder, and sleep disorder. The risk of newly diagnosed bipolar disorder, which has often been reported in the literature to be comorbid with PCOS, was not significantly elevated.

  3. Beyond Lumping and Splitting: A Review of Computational Approaches for Stratifying Psychiatric Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marquand, A.F.; Wolfers, T.; Mennes, M.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Beckmann, C.F.

    2016-01-01

    Heterogeneity is a key feature of all psychiatric disorders that manifests on many levels, including symptoms, disease course, and biological underpinnings. These form a substantial barrier to understanding disease mechanisms and developing effective, personalized treatments. In response, many

  4. Alcohol consumption and later risk of hospitalization with psychiatric disorders: prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flensborg-Madsen, Trine; Becker, Ulrik; Grønbæk, Morten

    2011-01-01

    hospital with a psychiatric disorder. The prospective cohort study, the Copenhagen City Heart Study (n=18,146), was used, containing three updated sets of alcohol intake and lifestyle covariates and up to 26 years follow-up. Alcohol intake was measured by self-report while psychiatric disorders were......The potential effects of alcohol intake upon the risk of psychiatric disorders have not often been investigated. The purpose of this study was to investigate, in a population sample, the association between self-reported amount of alcohol intake and the later risk of being registered in a Danish.......31-3.04) compared to women drinking below the sensible drinking limits. For men, the risk functions were slightly U-shaped; thus, a weekly low or moderate alcohol intake seemed to have a protective effect towards developing psychiatric disorders. The findings suggest sex differences in the association between...

  5. Women with and without intellectual disability and psychiatric disorders: an examination of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taggart, L; McMillan, R; Lawson, A

    2008-09-01

    This article examines the literature on women with and without intellectual disability and psychiatric disorders, using a gender social model of health. Relevant empirical studies, international literature reviews and policies between 1980 and 2007 were identified from electronic databases, journals and secondary sources. Three areas were examined: psychiatric disorders, their contextual background, and their clinical presentation. There are minimal levels of research into women with intellectual disability and psychiatric disorders. However, this article hypothesizes that women with intellectual disability have higher rates of psychiatric disorders than women without. This may result from greater vulnerability related both to internal factors (;intra': cognitive deficits, poorer communication skills, limited social skills) and to the external world (;inter': lack of opportunities, stigma, poor social support networks). The article argues that such women require gender-sensitive mental health services. However, more empirical evidence is required to support this claim and to inform development and delivery of services.

  6. HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder: rate of referral for neurorehabilitation and psychiatric co-morbidity.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Herlihy, D

    2012-04-01

    Despite advances in antiretroviral therapy, HIV-infected patients continue to present with HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) which may be associated with significant psychiatric co-morbidity. We audited our patients with HAND referred for psychiatric assessment against the National Service Framework guidelines that they should receive neurorehabilitation. We found that despite these patients posing a risk to themselves and others due to poor insight and medication adherence, high rates of psychiatric co-morbidity and severely challenging behaviour, few were referred for neurorehabilitation. We recommend that clear referral pathways for psychiatric intervention and neurorehabilitation are established in HIV treatment centres.

  7. Disordered gambling and co-morbidity of psychiatric disorders among college students: an examination of problem drinking, anxiety and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Ryan J; Usdan, Stuart; Cremeens, Jennifer; Vail-Smith, Karen

    2014-06-01

    We assessed the occurrence of co-morbid psychiatric disorders (i.e., problem drinking, anxiety, and depression) among college students who met the threshold for disordered gambling. The participants included a large sample of undergraduate students (n = 1,430) who were enrolled in an introductory health course at a large, southeastern university in Spring 2011 and completed an online assessment that included scales to assess disordered gambling, problem drinking, anxiety, and depression. We calculated screening scores, computed prevalence rates for each disorder, and calculated Pearson correlations and Chi square tests to examine correlations and co-morbid relationships between the four disorders. Analyses indicated that all disorders were significantly associated (p college students who experience disordered gambling (and other psychiatric disorders) are at increased risk of experiencing co-occurring disorders, it might be useful for college health professionals to concurrently screen and intervene for co-occurring disorders.

  8. Functional outcomes of child and adolescent mental disorders. Current disorder most important but psychiatric history matters as well

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ormel, Johan; Oerlemans, Anoek; Raven, Dennis; Laceulle, O.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/364227885; Hartman, Catharina; Veenstra, Rene; Verhulst, F; Vollebergh, W.A.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/090632893; Rosmalen, J.G.M.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; Oldehinkel, Tineke

    2017-01-01

    Background. Various sources indicate that mental disorders are the leading contributor to the burden of disease among youth. An important determinant of functioning is current mental health status. This study investigated whether psychiatric history has additional predictive power when predicting

  9. Functional outcomes of child and adolescent mental disorders. Current disorder most important but psychiatric history matters as well

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ormel, J; Oerlemans, A M; Raven, D; Laceulle, O M; Hartman, C A; Veenstra, R.; Verhulst, F C; Vollebergh, W; Rosmalen, J G M; Reijneveld, S A; Oldehinkel, A J

    Background. Various sources indicate that mental disorders are the leading contributor to the burden of disease among youth. An important determinant of functioning is current mental health status. This study investigated whether psychiatric history has additional predictive power when predicting

  10. Adaptive functioning and psychiatric symptoms in adolescents with borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanen, Andrew M; Jovev, Martina; Jackson, Henry J

    2007-02-01

    To examine adaptive functioning and psychopathology in adolescents with DSM-IV borderline personality disorder. 177 psychiatric outpatients (derived from 2 samples collected between March 1998 and July 1999 and between November 2000 and September 2002) aged 15 to 18 years were assessed using a structured interview for personality disorder diagnoses. Three groups, namely (1) those with a borderline personality disorder, (2) those with a personality disorder other than borderline personality disorder ("other personality disorder"), and (3) those without any personality disorder ("no personality disorder"), were compared on measures of psychiatric symptoms and psychosocial functioning. Primary outcome measures were Axis I diagnoses, Youth Self-Report, Young Adult Self-Report, Health of the Nation Outcome Scales for Children and Adolescents, Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale, and sociodemographic variables. The borderline personality disorder group (N = 46) had the most severe psychiatric symptoms and functional impairment across a broad range of domains, followed by the other personality disorder (N = 88) and no personality disorder (N = 43) groups, respectively. Borderline personality disorder was a significant predictor over and above Axis I disorders and other personality disorder diagnoses for psychopathology, general functioning, peer relationships, self-care, and family and relationship functioning. The borderline personality disorder diagnosis should not be ignored or substituted by Axis I diagnoses in adolescent clinical practice, and early intervention strategies need to be developed for this disorder.

  11. [Cannabis abuse in patients with psychiatric disorders: an update to old evidence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Alessandra; Cordeiro, Daniel Cruz; Laranjeira, Ronaldo

    2010-05-01

    To perform an update on cannabis abuse by patients with psychiatric disorders. A search was performed in the electronic databases Medline, The Cochrane Library Database, Lilacs, PubMed, and SciELO, using the keywords 'marijuana abuse', 'cannabis abuse', 'psychiatric disorders', and 'mental disorders'. Articles published until December 2009, dealing with cannabis abuse and dependence in association with other psychiatric disorders were included. Cannabis abuse was found to be associated with increased risk for the onset of schizophrenia and chronic psychotic symptoms, although these findings require confirmation from additional research. Cannabis seems to be one of the drugs of choice of individuals with bipolar disorder, despite evidence that manic states can be induced by its use. Cannabis abuse also occurs frequently in individuals with anxiety disorders, but the relationship between the chronic nature of these conditions and the use of marijuana remains uncertain. In respect to depression, there is no clear evidence to date that depressive patients use cannabis as a form of self-medication. In individuals with psychiatric disorders, the use of cannabis has been associated with increased positive symptoms, additional negative symptoms in the course of illness, impaired treatment compliance, and more hospitalizations. The abuse of cannabis by patients with psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and mood and anxious disorders has a negative impact both in the acute and advanced stages of these conditions, although further investigation on this association is still necessary.

  12. Cognitive and Psychiatric Phenotypes of Movement Disorders in Children: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Pazi, Hilla; Jaworowski, Solomon; Shalev, Ruth S

    2011-01-01

    Aim: The cognitive and psychiatric aspects of adult movement disorders are well established, but specific behavioural profiles for paediatric movement disorders have not been delineated. Knowledge of non-motor phenotypes may guide treatment and determine which symptoms are suggestive of a specific movement disorder and which indicate medication…

  13. Prevalence of Co-morbid Psychiatric Disorders in a Clinic Sample of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Co-morbid psychiatric disorders may mask or be masked by Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), thereby confounding the clinical assessment ... awareness of these co-morbid disorders, which could become targets for interventions that may reduce the overall morbidity profile of children with ADHD.

  14. Comorbidity of autoimmune thyroid disorders and psychiatric disorders during the postpartum period : A Danish nationwide register based cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergink, V.; Pop, V.J.M.; Nielsen, P.R.; Agerbo, E.; Munk-Olsen, T.; Liu, X.

    2018-01-01

    The postpartum period is well-known risk period for the first onset of autoimmune thyroid disorders (AITDs) as well as first onset of psychiatric disorders. These two disorders are some of the most prevalent medical conditions postpartum, often misdiagnosed and disabling if left untreated. Our study

  15. Psychiatric disorders among infertile men and women attending three infertility clinics in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alosaimi, Fahad Dakheel; Altuwirqi, Maram Hani; Bukhari, Mujahid; Abotalib, Zeinab; BinSaleh, Saleh

    2015-01-01

    No study has assessed psychiatric disorders among infertile men and women seeking fertility treatment in Saudi Arabia. Therefore, we sought to measure the rate of psychiatric disorders in this population. This was a cross-sectional observational study among patients attending infertility clinics at three referral hospitals in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, between January 2013 and September 2014. 406 patients (206 women and 200 men) participated in the study. The approved Arabic version of the MINI tool was used to assess 18 common psychiatric illnesses. The response rate was 81%. Of the men surveyed, only 4.5% self-reported having a psychiatric disorder. Of the women surveyed, only 10.2% reported having a psychiatric disorder. However, using the MINI scale, psychiatric illness was documented in 30% of males and 36.9% of females. The most common diagnoses for both genders were depression (21.7%) and anxiety (21.2%). Significantly more females than males exhibited suicidality and depression. In contrast, significantly more males than females had bipolar disorders and substance-related disorders. A low monthly income among male and female participants and polygamy among female participants were significantly associated with psychiatric disorders. This study shows that a higher prevalence of psychiatric disorders, particularly depression and anxiety, among infertile men and women in Saudi Arabia is associated with lower income and polygamy. This study highlights the importance of integrated care for alleviating the psychological burden of this unfortunate population and improving outcomes and quality of life. This study also encourages follow-up studies that aim to further understand the complex relationship between fertility and psychological well-being.

  16. Language Disorders in a Child Psychiatric Center: Demographic Characteristics and Comorbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrborg, Jørgen; Goldschmidt, Vibeke V.

    1996-01-01

    In this study demographic variables and comorbidity were registered in a group of children and adolescents with language disorders. Ss were drawn from 1,151 consecutively admitted psychiatric patients (0-17 yrs) in a 5-yr period. 116 patients had language disorders (10%), and 73% were boys. 27% h....... Findings have clear implications for the psychiatric service to children, adolescents, and their families, since both assessment and treatment are predominantly language-based activities....

  17. Adolescents with personality disorders suffer from severe psychiatric stigma: evidence from a sample of 131 patients

    OpenAIRE

    Catthoor, Kirsten; Feenstra, Dine J; Hutsebaut, Joost; Schrijvers, Didier; Sabbe, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Kirsten Catthoor,1,3 Dine J Feenstra,2 Joost Hutsebaut,2 Didier Schrijvers,3 Bernard Sabbe3 1Department of Psychiatry, Psychiatrisch Ziekenhuis Stuivenberg, ZNA Antwerpen, Antwerp, Belgium; 2Viersprong Institute for Studies on Personality Disorders, Halsteren, the Netherlands; 3Collaborative Antwerp Psychiatric Research Institute, University of Antwerp, Wilrijk, Belgium Background: The aim of the study is to assess the severity of psychiatric stigma in a sample of personality disordered adol...

  18. Reliability and Validity of the "Children's Interview for Psychiatric Syndromes-Parent Version" in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witwer, Andrea N.; Lecavalier, Luc; Norris, Megan

    2012-01-01

    The "Children's Interview for Psychiatric Syndromes-Parent Version" (P-ChIPS) is a structured psychiatric interview designed to assess the presence of psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents. This study examined the reliability and validity of the P-ChIPS in 61 youngsters (6- to 17-years-old) with Autism Spectrum Disorders. Reliability…

  19. Psychiatric Co-Occurring Symptoms and Disorders in Young, Middle-Aged, and Older Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lever, Anne G.; Geurts, Hilde M.

    2016-01-01

    Although psychiatric problems are less prevalent in old age within the general population, it is largely unknown whether this extends to individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We examined psychiatric symptoms and disorders in young, middle-aged, and older adults with and without ASD (N[subscript max] = 344, age 19-79 years, IQ > 80).…

  20. Psychiatric disorders in male prisoners who made near-lethal suicide attempts: case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivlin, Adrienne; Hawton, Keith; Marzano, Lisa; Fazel, Seena

    2010-10-01

    Although male prisoners are five times more likely to die by suicide than men of a similar age in the general population, the contribution of psychiatric disorders is not known. To investigate the association of psychiatric disorders with near-lethal suicide attempts in male prisoners. A matched case-control study of 60 male prisoners who made near-lethal suicide attempts (cases) and 60 prisoners who had never carried out near-lethal suicide attempts in prison (controls) was conducted. Psychiatric disorders were identified with the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), and information on sociodemographic characteristics and criminal history was gathered using a semi-structured interview. Psychiatric disorders were present in all cases and 62% of controls. Most current psychiatric disorders were associated with near-lethal suicide attempts, including major depression (odds ratio (OR) = 42.0, 95% CI 5.8-305), psychosis (OR = 15.0, 95% CI 2.0-113), anxiety disorders (OR = 6.0, 95% CI 2.3-15.5) and drug misuse (OR = 2.9, 95% CI 1.3-6.4). Lifetime psychiatric disorders associated with near-lethal attempts included recurrent depression and psychoses. Although cases were more likely than controls to meet criteria for antisocial personality disorder, the difference was not statistically significant. Comorbidity was also significantly more common among cases than controls for both current and lifetime disorders. In male prisoners, psychiatric disorders, especially depression, psychosis, anxiety and drug misuse, are associated with near-lethal suicide attempts, and hence probably with suicide.

  1. Gender differences in the associations between past-year gambling problems and psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Rani A; Potenza, Marc N

    2008-03-01

    Psychiatric disorders frequently co-occur with pathological gambling. The extent to which co-occurence extends to subsyndromal levels of gambling or differs between women and men is incompletely understood. To examine whether the association between psychiatric disorders and past-year gambling problems is stronger in women than men. Data from the national epidemiological survey of alcoholism and related disorders (NESARC) (n = 43,093) were analyzed. Increasing severity of past-year gambling problems was associated with increasing odds of most past-year Axis I and lifetime Axis II disorders, regardless of gender. Associations between gambling problems and major depression, dysthymia, panic disorder, and nicotine dependence were statistically stronger in women than in men. A severity-related association exists between past-year gambling problems and psychiatric disorders. The stronger associations in women suggest that gambling research, prevention and treatment efforts consider gender differences.

  2. Psychiatric disorders among individuals who drive after the recent use of alcohol and drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faller, Sibele; Webster, J Matthew; Leukefeld, Carl G; Bumaguin, Daniela Benzano; Duarte, Paulina do Carmo Arruda Vieira; De Boni, Raquel; Pechansky, Flavio

    2012-10-01

    This cross-sectional study assessed the prevalence of psychiatric disorders among drivers , as well as the association between recent alcohol and drug use and psychiatric diagnoses using telephone interviews. Drivers (n = 1,134) included in a roadside survey from 25 Brazilian state capitals were given a breathalyzer test, and their saliva was tested for psychoactive drugs. A telephone interview was conducted to perform psychiatric disorder evaluations using the MINI. This association was analyzed with a Poisson regression model. The prevalence of any psychiatric disorder was 40.5% among drivers with recent alcohol or drug use, compared with 12.9% among the other drivers. Alcohol/drug-positive drivers reported a higher prevalence of depression (19.4%), mania (6.5%), hypomania (5.4%), post-traumatic stress disorder (8.6%), antisocial personality (7.8%), and substance/alcohol abuse or dependence (48.1%) compared with other drivers (3.5, 2.5, 2.1, 0.5, 1.3 and 18.3% [p < 0.001], respectively). Drivers with recent alcohol or drug use were 2.5 times more likely to have a psychiatric diagnosis (CI: 1.8-3.6, p < 0.001). This is the first study in a low-/middle-income country to evaluate psychiatric disorders in drivers with recent alcohol or drug using telephone interviews. Psychiatric disorders were found to be associated with drug and alcohol use. This type of epidemiological information for curtailing related driving problems, as these psychiatric conditions are diagnosable. The results of this study can aid in the design of interventions, treatment programs and focused psychiatric evaluations, both in Brazil and abroad.

  3. Role of Microglial M1/M2 Polarization in Relapse and Remission of Psychiatric Disorders and Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutaka Nakagawa

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and major depressive disorder were thought to be caused by neurotransmitter abnormalities. Patients with these disorders often experience relapse and remission; however the underlying molecular mechanisms of relapse and remission still remain unclear. Recent advanced immunological analyses have revealed that M1/M2 polarization of macrophages plays an important role in controlling the balance between promotion and suppression in inflammation. Microglial cells share certain characteristics with macrophages and contribute to immune-surveillance in the central nervous system (CNS. In this review, we summarize immunoregulatory functions of microglia and discuss a possible role of microglial M1/M2 polarization in relapse and remission of psychiatric disorders and diseases. M1 polarized microglia can produce pro-inflammatory cytokines, reactive oxygen species, and nitric oxide, suggesting that these molecules contribute to dysfunction of neural network in the CNS. Alternatively, M2 polarized microglia express cytokines and receptors that are implicated in inhibiting inflammation and restoring homeostasis. Based on these aspects, we propose a possibility that M1 and M2 microglia are related to relapse and remission, respectively in psychiatric disorders and diseases. Consequently, a target molecule skewing M2 polarization of microglia may provide beneficial therapies for these disorders and diseases in the CNS.

  4. Cohabitation patterns among patients with severe psychiatric disorders in the entire Danish population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, A F; Olsbjerg, M; Andersen, P K

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Assortative mating has been demonstrated in mental disorders but the extent of cohabitation between patients with clinically diagnosed psychiatric disease has been poorly explored. Method We conducted a register-based study of all Danes between 18 and 70 years of age in a 13-year...... observational period, linking data on individuals' contacts with psychiatric services with data on individuals' cohabitation status. Two different Poisson regression analyses were performed: the first comparing the rates of commencing cohabitation with a psychiatric patient between individuals, depending...... on whether the individuals themselves had, or did not have, a psychiatric diagnosis; the second comparing the incidence rates of psychiatric diagnoses for individuals cohabitating with psychiatric patients with the similar rates for individuals living with unaffected cohabitants. RESULTS: In total, 159 929...

  5. Gender Differences in Compulsive Buying Disorder: Assessment of Demographic and Psychiatric Co-Morbidities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyoun S.; Requião, Marinalva G.; Marasaldi, Renata F.; Filomensky, Tatiana Z.; Hodgins, David C.; Tavares, Hermano

    2016-01-01

    Compulsive buying is a common disorder found worldwide. Although recent research has shed light into the prevalence, etiology and clinical correlates of compulsive buying disorder, less is known about gender differences. To address this empirical gap, we assessed potential gender differences in demographic and psychiatric co-morbidities in a sample of 171 compulsive buyers (20 men and 151 women) voluntarily seeking treatment in São Paulo, Brazil. A structured clinical interview confirmed the diagnosis of compulsive buying. Of the 171 participants, 95.9% (n = 164) met criteria for at least one co-morbid psychiatric disorder. The results found that male and female compulsive buyers did not differ in problem severity as assessed by the Compulsive Buying Scale. However, several significant demographic and psychiatric differences were found in a multivariate binary logistic regression. Specifically, male compulsive buyers were more likely to report being non-heterosexual, and reported fewer years of formal education. In regards to psychiatric co-morbidities, male compulsive buyers were more likely to be diagnosed with sexual addiction, and intermittent explosive disorder. Conversely, men had lower scores on the shopping subscale of the Shorter PROMIS Questionnaire. The results suggest that male compulsive buyers are more likely to present with co-morbid psychiatric disorders. Treatment planning for compulsive buying disorder would do well to take gender into account to address for potential psychiatric co-morbidities. PMID:27907082

  6. Gender Differences in Compulsive Buying Disorder: Assessment of Demographic and Psychiatric Co-Morbidities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoli de Mattos, Cristiana; Kim, Hyoun S; Requião, Marinalva G; Marasaldi, Renata F; Filomensky, Tatiana Z; Hodgins, David C; Tavares, Hermano

    2016-01-01

    Compulsive buying is a common disorder found worldwide. Although recent research has shed light into the prevalence, etiology and clinical correlates of compulsive buying disorder, less is known about gender differences. To address this empirical gap, we assessed potential gender differences in demographic and psychiatric co-morbidities in a sample of 171 compulsive buyers (20 men and 151 women) voluntarily seeking treatment in São Paulo, Brazil. A structured clinical interview confirmed the diagnosis of compulsive buying. Of the 171 participants, 95.9% (n = 164) met criteria for at least one co-morbid psychiatric disorder. The results found that male and female compulsive buyers did not differ in problem severity as assessed by the Compulsive Buying Scale. However, several significant demographic and psychiatric differences were found in a multivariate binary logistic regression. Specifically, male compulsive buyers were more likely to report being non-heterosexual, and reported fewer years of formal education. In regards to psychiatric co-morbidities, male compulsive buyers were more likely to be diagnosed with sexual addiction, and intermittent explosive disorder. Conversely, men had lower scores on the shopping subscale of the Shorter PROMIS Questionnaire. The results suggest that male compulsive buyers are more likely to present with co-morbid psychiatric disorders. Treatment planning for compulsive buying disorder would do well to take gender into account to address for potential psychiatric co-morbidities.

  7. Sleep-related problems and minor psychiatric disorders among Brazilian shift workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olinto, Maria Teresa Anselmo; Garcez, Anderson; Henn, Ruth Liane; Macagnan, Jamile Block Araldi; Paniz, Vera Maria Vieira; Pattussi, Marcos Pascoal

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the association between sleep-related problems with the occurrence of minor psychiatric disorders in shift workers of southern Brazil. A cross-sectional study with 1202 workers (785 females) aged 18-50 years was carried out. Minor psychiatric disorders were assessed using the Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20), and four sleep problems were collected and analyzed: sleep deprivation (≤ 5h), difficulty falling asleep, waking up during sleep, and sleep medication use. Results show that the overall prevalence of minor psychiatric disorders was 26.8%, but it was more prevalent among females than males (30.2% vs. 20.4%). Nightshift work was significantly associated with the occurrence of sleep-related problems. After adjusting for confounding factors, the number of sleep-related problems showed a positive linear trend with psychiatric disorders in both sexes. Having two or more sleep-related problems was associated with increased probability of psychiatric disorders approximately three-fold among males and two-fold among females, when compared with those without sleep problems. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that sleep-related problems have a strong and independent association with psychiatric disorders among shift workers. Furthermore, the prevalence of both conditions was higher among females than males; however, the strength of these associations was higher in males. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Risk of psychiatric disorders following pelvic inflammatory disease: a nationwide population-based retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Cheng-Che; Yang, Albert C; Hung, Jeng-Hsiu; Hu, Li-Yu; Chiang, Yung-Yen; Tsai, Shih-Jen

    2016-01-01

    Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) a common infection in women that is associated with significant morbidity and is a major cause of infertility. A clear temporal causal relationship between PID and psychiatric disorders has not been well established. We used a nationwide population-based retrospective cohort study to explore the relationship between PID and the subsequent development of psychiatric disorders. We identified subjects who were newly diagnosed with PID between 1 January 2000 and 31 December 2002 in the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. A comparison cohort was constructed for patients without PID. A total of 21 930 PID and 21 930 matched control patients were observed until diagnosed with psychiatric disorders, or until death, withdrawal from the NHI system, or until 31 December 2009. Adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of bipolar disorder, depressive disorder, anxiety disorder and sleep disorder in subjects with PID were significantly higher (HR: 2.671, 2.173, 2.006 and 2.251, respectively) than that of the controls during the follow-up. PID may increase the risk of subsequent newly diagnosed bipolar disorder, depressive disorder, anxiety disorder and sleep disorder, which will impair life quality. Our findings highlight that clinicians should pay particular attention to psychiatric comorbidities in PID patients.

  9. Psychiatric disorders in long-term sickness absence -- a population-based cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Hans Jørgen; Bech, Per

    2009-01-01

    AIMS: The study estimates the incidence of psychiatric disorders in long-term sickness absence (LSA; more than eight weeks of continuous sickness absence) over one year. The study is the first accounting for everybody on LSA by linking a psychiatric assessment for all persons on LSA to public...... registers. METHODS: In a Danish population of 120,000 inhabitants all 2,414 incident persons on LSA within one year were posted a questionnaire, of whom 1,121 (46.4%) responded. In a two phase design the 1,121 sick-listed persons were screened for psychiatric disorders. Phase 2 consisted of 844 people...

  10. Cohabitation patterns among patients with severe psychiatric disorders in the entire Danish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, A F; Olsbjerg, M; Andersen, P K; Kessing, L V

    2013-05-01

    Assortative mating has been demonstrated in mental disorders but the extent of cohabitation between patients with clinically diagnosed psychiatric disease has been poorly explored. Method We conducted a register-based study of all Danes between 18 and 70 years of age in a 13-year observational period, linking data on individuals' contacts with psychiatric services with data on individuals' cohabitation status. Two different Poisson regression analyses were performed: the first comparing the rates of commencing cohabitation with a psychiatric patient between individuals, depending on whether the individuals themselves had, or did not have, a psychiatric diagnosis; the second comparing the incidence rates of psychiatric diagnoses for individuals cohabitating with psychiatric patients with the similar rates for individuals living with unaffected cohabitants. In total, 159 929 (5.0%) out of 3 204 633 individuals were given a psychiatric diagnosis during the study period. Diagnosed individuals had an overall rate ratio (RR) of commencing cohabitation with a psychiatric patient of 1.95 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.90-2.00] for women and 1.65 (95% CI 1.61-1.69) for men, when compared with unaffected individuals. The overall RR of receiving a psychiatric diagnosis while cohabitating with a psychiatric patient was 2.40 (95% CI 2.31-2.49) for women and 2.91 (95% CI 2.81-3.01) for men, when compared with those cohabitating with unaffected individuals. Individuals with schizophrenia and men with bipolar disorder had the highest RR of commencing cohabitation with a cohabitant with a similar diagnosis. Cohabitation among individuals with severe psychiatric disorders is increased. This has implications for research and for the clinical management of patients.

  11. Preschool psychiatric disorders: homotypic and heterotypic continuity through middle childhood and early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finsaas, Megan C; Bufferd, Sara J; Dougherty, Lea R; Carlson, Gabrielle A; Klein, Daniel N

    2018-01-16

    Many preschool-age children meet criteria for psychiatric disorders, and rates approach those observed in later childhood and adolescence. However, there is a paucity of longitudinal research examining the outcomes of preschool diagnoses. Families with a 3-year-old child (N = 559) were recruited from the community. Primary caregivers were interviewed using the Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment when children were 3 years old (n = 541), and, along with children, using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children Present and Lifetime Version when children were 9 and 12 years old. Rates of disruptive behavior disorders (DBD) decreased from preschool to middle childhood and early adolescence, whereas rates of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) increased. Rates of any psychiatric disorder and depression increased from preschool to early adolescence only. Preschoolers with a diagnosis were over twice as likely to have a diagnosis during later periods. Homotypic continuity was present for anxiety disorders from preschool to middle childhood, for ADHD from preschool to early adolescence, and for DBD through both later time points. There was heterotypic continuity between preschool anxiety and early adolescent depression, and between preschool ADHD and early adolescent DBD. Dimensional symptom scores showed homotypic continuity for all diagnostic categories and showed a number of heterotypic associations as well. Results provide moderate support for the predictive validity of psychiatric disorders in preschoolers. Psychopathology in preschool is a significant risk factor for future psychiatric disorders during middle childhood and early adolescence.

  12. Association of dry eye disease with psychiatric or neurological disorders in elderly patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sang Beom; Yang, Hee Kyung; Hyon, Joon Young; Wee, Won Ryang

    2017-01-01

    Dry eye disease (DED) is a common disease that can impair quality of life significantly. Its prevalence increases with advancing age, and the economic burden of the disease on both a patient and the society is increasing with elongation of life expectancy. The diagnosis and treatment of DED are often difficult due to the discordance between symptoms and signs of the disease. Recent studies have suggested the role of neurological or psychological factors in the development of dry eye symptoms and discrepancy of the symptoms and signs, particularly in elderly patients. In this review, the authors discuss the association of DED with various psychiatric and neurological disorders. In addition to psychiatric conditions, including depression, anxiety, stress, posttraumatic stress disorder and sleep disorders, medications for the psychiatric disorders have association with DED. Neurological disorders, such as neuropathic pain, chronic pain syndrome, peripheral neuropathy and several central nervous system disorders, are related to DED. Treatment of DED, combined with psychiatric or neurological disorders, is also discussed. Attention should be paid to the DED patients with discordant symptoms and signs, and unsatisfactory response to conventional treatment for associated psychiatric or neurological disorders, as well as an integrated treatment approach, could be helpful for these patients.

  13. Psychiatric disorders in adolescents with type 1 diabetes: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Mireille C; Claudino, Denise A; Grigolon, Ruth B; Fleitlich-Bilyk, Bacy; Claudino, Angélica M

    2018-02-01

    To study the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in adolescents with and without type 1 diabetes, the factors associated with its presence, and to test the reliability of a screening tool for use in clinical settings. Eighty-one adolescents were enrolled in this case-control study, including 36 diabetic participants and 45 controls. Clinical and sociodemographic data were collected and psychiatric symptoms and diagnoses were obtained from adolescents and their parents using a screening tool (Strengths & Difficulties Questionnaire) and a semi-structured interview (Development and Well-Being Assessment). Psychiatric disorders were identified in 22.2% of the sample (30.56% among diabetic adolescents vs. 15.56% of controls: OR = 2.39, 95%CI 0.82-6.99; p = 0.11). Overweight (body mass index percentile ≥ 85) was the only factor associated with psychiatric disorder (OR = 3.07; 95%CI 1.03-9.14; p = 0.04). Compared to the semi-structured interview, the screening instrument showed 80% sensitivity, 96% specificity, 88.9% positive predictive value and 92.3% negative predictive value for the presence of psychiatric diagnoses in adolescents. Psychiatric morbidity was high in this sample of adolescents, especially among those with diabetes. Routine use of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire can help with early detection of psychiatric disorders in this at-risk group.

  14. Curriculum development: Preparing trainees to care for children and adolescents with psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Kimberly P; Haggerty, Treah S; Harrison, Natasha

    2015-01-01

    Family physicians provide care for about one-third of the children and adolescents in the United States, many of whom present with psychological concerns. Family physicians often do not recognize these psychological disorders and therefore do not diagnose or treat them. This report describes the implementation of a curriculum designed to increase family medicine trainees' level of awareness that children/adolescents experience psychiatric conditions. This goal is achieved through the addition of a clinical child/adolescent psychologist faculty member, resident self-assessment of training needs and subsequent development of didactic presentations to address these needs. The curriculum relies on the acquisition of child/adolescent psychiatric screeners, development of child/adolescent-focused bibliotherapy materials, and the development of a longitudinal behavioral sciences curriculum. To facilitate the screening of child/adolescent psychiatric disorders, a comprehensive collection of age-appropriate psychiatric screeners were compiled and made readily available in all precepting areas. To assist with the identification of specific child/adolescent psychiatric deficit areas, family medicine resident physicians were presented with an inventory of child/adolescent psychiatric, psychosocial, and behavioral topics, based upon American Academy of Family Practice guidelines and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition psychiatric disorders, and self-selected training deficiencies. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. The effect of bariatric surgery on psychiatric course among patients with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Ameena T; Warton, E Margaret; Schaefer, Catherine A; Shen, Ling; McIntyre, Roger S

    2013-11-01

    Bariatric surgery is the most effective therapy for severe obesity. People with bipolar disorder have increased risk of obesity, yet are sometimes considered ineligible for bariatric surgery due to their bipolar disorder diagnosis. This study aimed to determine if bariatric surgery alters psychiatric course among stable patients with bipolar disorder. A matched cohort study (2006-2009) with mean follow-up of 2.17 years was conducted within Kaiser Permanente Northern California, a group practice integrated health services delivery organization that provides medical and psychiatric care to 3.3 million people. Participants were 144 severely obese patients with bipolar disorder who underwent bariatric surgery, and 1,440 control patients with bipolar disorder, matched for gender, medical center, and contemporaneous health plan membership. Controls met referral criteria for bariatric surgery. Hazard ratio for psychiatric hospitalization, and change in rate of outpatient psychiatric utilization from baseline to Years 1 and 2, were compared between groups. A total of 13 bariatric surgery patients (9.0%) and 153 unexposed to surgery (10.6%) had psychiatric hospitalization during follow-up. In multivariate Cox models adjusting for potential confounding factors, the hazard ratio of psychiatric hospitalization associated with bariatric surgery was 1.03 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.83-1.23]. In fully saturated multivariate general linear models, change in outpatient psychiatric utilization was not significantly different for surgery patients versus controls, from baseline to Year 1 (-0.4 visits/year, 95% CI: -0.5 to 0.4) or baseline to Year 2 (0.4 visits/year, 95% CI: -0.1 to 1.0). Bariatric surgery did not affect psychiatric course among stable patients with bipolar disorder. The results of this study suggest that patients with bipolar disorder who have been evaluated as stable can be considered for bariatric surgery. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John

  16. Ghrelin-derived peptides: a link between appetite/reward, GH axis and psychiatric disorders ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra eLabarthe

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Psychiatric disorders are often associated with metabolic and hormonal alterations, including obesity, diabetes, metabolic syndrome as well as modifications in several biological rhythms including appetite, stress, sleep-wake cycles and secretion of their corresponding endocrine regulators.Among the gastrointestinal hormones that regulate appetite and adapt the metabolism in response to nutritional, hedonic and emotional dysfunctions, at the interface between endocrine, metabolic and psychiatric disorders, ghrelin plays a unique role as the only one increasing appetite. The secretion of ghrelin is altered in several psychiatric disorders (anorexia, schizophrenia as well as in metabolic disorders (obesity and in animal models in response to emotional triggers (psychological stress, …. but the relationship between these modifications and the physiopathology of psychiatric disorders remains unclear. Recently, a large literature showed that this key metabolic/endocrine regulator is involved in stress and reward-oriented behaviors and regulates anxiety and mood. In addition, preproghrelin is a complex prohormone but the roles of the other ghrelin-derived peptides, thought to act as functional ghrelin antagonists, are largely unknown. Altered ghrelin secretion and/or signaling in psychiatric diseases are thought to participate in altered appetite, hedonic response and reward. Whether this can contribute to the mechanism responsible for the development of the disease or can help to minimize some symptoms associated with these psychiatric disorders is discussed in the present review. We will thus describe 1 the biological actions of ghrelin and ghrelin-derived peptides on food and drugs reward, anxiety and depression, and the physiological consequences of ghrelin invalidation on these parameters, 2 how ghrelin and ghrelin-derived peptides are regulated in animal models of psychiatric diseases and in human psychiatric disorders in relation with the GH

  17. Psychiatry and the Necker Cube. Neurological and Psychological Conceptions of Psychiatric Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Rogers

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurological and psychological conceptions of psychiatric disorder are in conflict at the present time. This conflict is considered in the context of the history of psychiatry and the philosophy of science. Its practical consequences are considered for the motor disorder of schizophrenia, the cognitive impairment in psychiatric illnesses, the use of the terms organic and functional and the association of neurological disorder with psychotic and neurotic disorders. The conflict is also examined in individual cases and the implications for treatment assessed.

  18. Animal Models of Speech and Vocal Communication Deficits Associated With Psychiatric Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konopka, Genevieve; Roberts, Todd F

    2016-01-01

    Disruptions in speech, language, and vocal communication are hallmarks of several neuropsychiatric disorders, most notably autism spectrum disorders. Historically, the use of animal models to dissect molecular pathways and connect them to behavioral endophenotypes in cognitive disorders has proven to be an effective approach for developing and testing disease-relevant therapeutics. The unique aspects of human language compared with vocal behaviors in other animals make such an approach potentially more challenging. However, the study of vocal learning in species with analogous brain circuits to humans may provide entry points for understanding this human-specific phenotype and diseases. We review animal models of vocal learning and vocal communication and specifically link phenotypes of psychiatric disorders to relevant model systems. Evolutionary constraints in the organization of neural circuits and synaptic plasticity result in similarities in the brain mechanisms for vocal learning and vocal communication. Comparative approaches and careful consideration of the behavioral limitations among different animal models can provide critical avenues for dissecting the molecular pathways underlying cognitive disorders that disrupt speech, language, and vocal communication. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Adolescent exposure to cannabis as a risk factor for psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubino, Tiziana; Zamberletti, Erica; Parolaro, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    Adolescence represents a critical period for brain development and the endocannabinoid system plays a crucial role in the regulation of neuronal refinement during this period. Cannabis is the most consumed drug among adolescent people and its heavy use may affect maturational refinement by disrupting the regulatory role of the endocannabinoid system. In animals, adolescent cannabinoid exposure has been reported to cause long-term impairment in specific components of learning and memory and to differentially affect emotional reactivity with milder effects on anxiety behaviour and more pronounced effects on depression-like behaviour. Moreover, adolescent exposure to cannabinoids might represent a risk factor for developing psychotic-like symptoms at adulthood. Also epidemiological studies suggest that heavy adolescent cannabis use may increase the risk of cognitive abnormalities, psychotic illness, mood disorders and other illicit substance use later in life. In conclusion, the available data point to the hypothesis that heavy cannabis use in adolescence could increase the risk of developing psychiatric disorders, especially in people who already have a vulnerability to develop a psychiatric syndrome. Only few papers have investigated the neurobiological substrates of this vulnerability, thus further studies are needed to clarify the molecular mechanisms underlying the effect of cannabis on the adolescent brain.

  20. Consensus on guidelines for stereotactic neurosurgery for psychiatric disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nuttin, Bart; Wu, Hemmings; Mayberg, Helen; Hariz, Marwan; Gabriëls, Loes; Galert, Thorsten; Merkel, Reinhard; Kubu, Cynthia; Vilela-Filho, Osvaldo; Matthews, Keith; Taira, Takaomi; Lozano, Andres M.; Schechtmann, Gastón; Doshi, Paresh; Broggi, Giovanni; Régis, Jean; Alkhani, Ahmed; Sun, Bomin; Eljamel, Sam; Schulder, Michael; Kaplitt, Michael; Eskandar, Emad; Rezai, Ali; Krauss, Joachim K.; Hilven, Paulien; Schuurman, Rick; Ruiz, Pedro; Chang, Jin Woo; Cosyns, Paul; Lipsman, Nir; Voges, Juergen; Cosgrove, Rees; Li, Yongjie; Schlaepfer, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Background For patients with psychiatric illnesses remaining refractory to 'tandard' therapies, neurosurgical procedures may be considered. Guidelines for safe and ethical conduct of such procedures have previously and independently been proposed by various local and regional expert groups. Methods

  1. Psychiatric disorders in cases of completed suicide in a hospital area in Spain between 2007 and 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Durán, Esperanza L; Forti-Buratti, M Azul; Gutiérrez-López, Beatriz; Belmonte-Ibáñez, Anna; Martin-Fumadó, Carles

    2016-01-01

    Suicide is an important Public Health problem. One of the most relevant known risk factors for suicide is suffering from a mental health disorder, identified in up to 90-95% of completed suicides, with this risk being increased if comorbidity is present. Findings from international research on the most common psychiatric disorders are dichotomous, divided into mood disorders and psychotic disorders. In Spain, data of this kind are scarce. This study describes the psychiatric and forensic characteristics of completed suicide cases (n=79) ocurred in a psychiatric hospital healthcare area (in Spain), between 2007 and 2010. The forensic data were obtained from the Institute of Legal Medicine of Catalonia and the clinical data by reviewing the clinical records. Most of the subjects in this sample were males (78.5%, 95% CI; 68.4%-87.3%). Almost half of the sample (45.4%, 95% CI; 33.8%-57.1%, 35/77) had records in the Mental Health Services Network (including substance misuse services). Two of the 79 were under 18, so we were not able to access the records. More than half (54.3%, 95% CI; 37.1%-71.4%) of those with psychiatric history suffered from a mood disorder; 37.1% (95% CI; 22.9%-51.4% from a depressive disorder; 14.3% (95% CI; 2.9%-25.7%) from a bipolar disorder, and 17.1% (95% CI; 5.7%-31.4%) suffered from a psychotic disorder. With regard to substance misuse, 42.9% (95% CI; 25.7%-60.0%) presented substance misuse, and 48.6% did not. Psychiatric and forensic characteristics of completed suicide in this Spanish sample confirm previous findings from international studies: there is a high rate of psychiatric disorders in those who complete suicide, and there is a specific pattern as regards the method used to complete it. Copyright © 2013 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  2. Treatment of anxiety disorders by psychiatrists from the American Psychiatric Practice Research Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Sorsdahl

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Anxiety disorders are highly prevalent in the United States, and if untreated, result in a number of negative outcomes. This study aimed to investigate psychiatrists' current treatment practices for patients with anxiety disorders in the United States. Methods: Psychiatrist-reported data from the 1997 and 1999 American Psychiatric Institute for Research and Education Practice Research Network (PRN Study of Psychiatric Patients and Treatments (SPPT were examined, focusing on patients diagnosed with anxiety disorders. Information related to diagnostic and clinical features and treatments provided were obtained. Results: Anxiety disorders remain underdiagnosed and undertreated, since only 11.4% of the sample received a principal diagnosis of an anxiety disorder in a real world setting. Posttraumatic stress disorder was associated with particularly high comorbidity and disability, and social anxiety disorder was relatively rarely diagnosed and treated. Although combined pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy was commonly used to treat anxiety disorders, anxiolytics were more commonly prescribed than selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs. Conclusions: These data provide a picture of diagnosis and practice patterns across a range of psychiatric settings and suggest that anxiety disorders, despite being among the most prevalent of psychiatric disorders remain underdiagnosed and undertreated particularly in respect of the use of psychotherapeutic interventions.

  3. Characteristics of psychiatric emergency department use among privately insured adolescents with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalb, Luther G; Stuart, Elizabeth A; Vasa, Roma A

    2018-01-01

    This study examined differences in the rates of psychiatric-related emergency department visits among adolescents with autism spectrum disorder, adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and adolescents without autism spectrum disorder or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Additional outcomes included emergency department recidivism, probability of psychiatric hospitalization after the emergency department visit, and receipt of outpatient mental health services before and after the emergency department visit. Data came from privately insured adolescents, aged 12-17 years, with autism spectrum disorder (N = 46,323), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (N = 408,066), and neither diagnosis (N = 2,330,332), enrolled in the 2010-2013 MarketScan Commercial Claims Database. Adolescents with autism spectrum disorder had an increased rate of psychiatric emergency department visits compared to adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (IRR = 2.0, 95% confidence interval: 1.9, 2.1) and adolescents with neither diagnosis (IRR = 9.9, 95% confidence interval: 9.4, 10.4). Compared to the other groups, adolescents with autism spectrum disorder also had an increased probability of emergency department recidivism, psychiatric hospitalization after the emergency department visit, and receipt of outpatient care before and after the visit (all p < 0.001). Further research is required to understand whether these findings extend to youth with other neurodevelopmental disorders, particularly those who are publicly insured.

  4. [The opinion of patients with mental disorder about tobacco and its prohibition in psychiatric hospitalization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques de Oliveira, Renata; Furegato, Antonia Regina Ferreira

    2014-06-01

    To identify the opinion of patients with mental disorder about tobacco and its prohibition during psychiatric hospitalization. An exploratory study with 96 patients smokers with mental disorders hospitalized in a psychiatric ward of a general hospital. The interviews were conducted individually, using an instrument designed for this study. The content from the interviews was recorded, transcribed and submitted to a thematic content analysis. The patients with mental disorder were identified as perceiving smoking during the psychiatric hospitalization as a help to support the difficulties in socialization and in the lack of activities. The permission for smoking is seen as a signal of respect to their needs. The subjects mentioned to not accept the total smoking prohibition. Tobacco helps to face difficulties and conflicts in the psychiatric hospitalization. There is resistance regarding the possibility to totally withdraw the smoking permission during hospitalization.

  5. The opinion of patients with mental disorder about tobacco and its prohibition in psychiatric hospitalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Marques de Oliveira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the opinion of patients with mental disorder about tobacco and its prohibition during psychiatric hospitalization. Method: An exploratory study with 96 patients smokers with mental disorders hospitalized in a psychiatric ward of a general hospital. The interviews were conducted individually, using an instrument designed for this study. The content from the interviews was recorded, transcribed and submitted to a thematic content analysis. Results: The patients with mental disorder were identified as perceiving smoking during the psychiatric hospitalization as a help to support the difficulties in socialization and in the lack of activities. The permission for smoking is seen as a signal of respect to their needs. The subjects mentioned to not accept the total smoking prohibition. Conclusion: Tobacco helps to face difficulties and conflicts in the psychiatric hospitalization. There is resistance regarding the possibility to totally withdraw the smoking permission during hospitalization.

  6. Internet use by patients with psychiatric disorders in search for general and medical informations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazaal, Yasser; Chatton, Anne; Cochand, Sophie; Hoch, Aliosca; Khankarli, Mona B; Khan, Riaz; Zullino, Daniele Fabio

    2008-12-01

    Internet is commonly used by the general population, notably for health information-seeking. There has been little research into its use by patients treated for a psychiatric disorder. To evaluate the use of internet by patients with psychiatric disorders in searching for general and medical information. In 2007, 319 patients followed in a university hospital psychiatric out-patient clinic, completed a 28-items self-administered questionnaire. Two hundred patients surveyed were internet users. Most of them (68.5%) used internet in order to find health-related information. Only a small part of the patients knew and used criteria reflecting the quality of contents of the websites consulted. Knowledge of English and private Internet access were the factors significantly associated with the search of information on health on Internet. Internet is currently used by patients treated for psychiatric disorders, especially for medical seeking information.

  7. Associations between Familial Rates of Psychiatric Disorders and De Novo Genetic Mutations in Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyleen Luhrs

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the confluence of genetic and familial risk factors in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD with distinct de novo genetic events. We hypothesized that gene-disrupting mutations would be associated with reduced rates of familial psychiatric disorders relative to structural mutations. Participants included families of children with ASD in four groups: de novo duplication copy number variations (DUP, n=62, de novo deletion copy number variations (DEL, n=74, de novo likely gene-disrupting mutations (LGDM, n=267, and children without a known genetic etiology (NON, n=2111. Familial rates of psychiatric disorders were calculated from semistructured interviews. Results indicated overall increased rates of psychiatric disorders in DUP families compared to DEL and LGDM families, specific to paternal psychiatric histories, and particularly evident for depressive disorders. Higher rates of depressive disorders in maternal psychiatric histories were observed overall compared to paternal histories and higher rates of anxiety disorders were observed in paternal histories for LGDM families compared to DUP families. These findings support the notion of an additive contribution of genetic etiology and familial factors are associated with ASD risk and highlight critical need for continued work targeting these relationships.

  8. Psychiatric comorbidity and medication use in adults with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Tara R; Viskochil, Joseph; Farley, Megan; Coon, Hilary; McMahon, William M; Morgan, Jubel; Bilder, Deborah A

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate comorbid psychiatric disorders and psychotropic medication use among adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) ascertained as children during a 1980's statewide Utah autism prevalence study (n = 129). Seventy-three individuals (56.6 %) met criteria for a current psychiatric disorder; 89 participants (69.0 %) met lifetime criteria for a psychiatric disorder. Caregivers reported a psychiatric diagnosis in 44 participants (34.1 %). Anxiety disorder had the highest current and lifetime prevalence (39.5 and 52.7 %, respectively). Participants with intellectual disability (n = 94, 72.8 %) were significantly less likely to have community-based diagnoses of anxiety (χ(2) = 5.37, p = 0.02) or depression (χ(2) = 13.18, p caregivers. Seventy-six participants (58.9 %) were taking ≥1 psychotropic medication. Comorbid psychiatric disorders occur frequently in adults with ASD, though identifying these disorders poses a challenge in community settings. A greater understanding of the presentation of these conditions within this population will increase assessment validity and the potential for efficacious intervention.

  9. Cognitive behavior therapy for chronic insomnia occurring within the context of medical and psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael T; Huang, Mary I; Manber, Rachel

    2005-07-01

    Insomnia is a pervasive problem for many patients suffering from medical and psychiatric conditions. Even when the comorbid disorders are successfully treated, insomnia often fails to remit. In addition to compromising quality of life, untreated insomnia may also aggravate and complicate recovery from the comorbid disease. Cognitive behavior therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) has an established efficacy for primary insomnia, but less is known about its efficacy for insomnia occurring in the context of medical and psychiatric conditions. The purpose of this article is to present a rationale for using CBT-I in medical and psychiatric disorders, review the extant outcome literature, highlight considerations for adapting CBT-I procedures in specific populations, and suggest directions for future research. Outcome studies were identified for CBT-I in mixed medical and psychiatric conditions, cancer, chronic pain, HIV, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and alcoholism. Other disorders discussed include: bipolar disorder, eating disorders, generalized anxiety, and obsessive compulsive disorder. The available data demonstrate moderate to large treatment effects (Cohen's d, range=0.35-2.2) and indicate that CBT-I is a promising treatment for individuals with medical and psychiatric comorbidity. Although the literature reviewed here is limited by a paucity of randomized, controlled studies, the available data suggest that by improving sleep, CBT-I might also indirectly improve medical and psychological endpoints. This review underscores the need for future research to test the efficacy of adaptations of CBT-I to disease specific conditions and symptoms.

  10. Obesity and psychiatric disorders: commonalities in dysregulated biological pathways and their implications for treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopresti, Adrian L; Drummond, Peter D

    2013-08-01

    Rates of obesity are higher than normal across a range of psychiatric disorders, including major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia and anxiety disorders. While the problem of obesity is generally acknowledged in mental health research and treatment, an understanding of their bi-directional relationship is still developing. In this review the association between obesity and psychiatric disorders is summarised, with a specific emphasis on similarities in their disturbed biological pathways; namely neurotransmitter imbalances, hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis disturbances, dysregulated inflammatory pathways, increased oxidative and nitrosative stress, mitochondrial disturbances, and neuroprogression. The applicability and effectiveness of weight-loss interventions in psychiatric populations are reviewed along with their potential efficacy in ameliorating disturbed biological pathways, particularly those mediating inflammation and oxidative stress. It is proposed that weight loss may not only be an effective intervention to enhance physical health but may also improve mental health outcomes and slow the rate of neuroprogressive disturbances in psychiatric disorders. Areas of future research to help expand our understanding of the relationship between obesity and psychiatric disorders are also outlined. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Self-Esteem of 8-14-Year-Old Children with Psychiatric Disorders: Disorder- and Gender-Specific Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadelmann, Stephanie; Grunewald, Madlen; Gibbels, Charlotte; Jaeger, Sonia; Matuschek, Tina; Weis, Steffi; Klein, Annette Maria; Hiemisch, Andreas; von Klitzing, Kai; Döhnert, Mirko

    2017-02-01

    In this study, we investigated the relation between global and domain-specific self-esteem and psychiatric disorders. A sample of 577 children aged 8-14 years was recruited via psychiatric hospitals and from the general population. Parents were given a diagnostic interview to assess children's psychiatric diagnoses (current/past). Parents and children completed questionnaires on child symptoms. Children completed a questionnaire on global and domain-specific self-esteem (scales: scholastic competence, social acceptance, athletic performance and physical appearance, global self-esteem). Self-esteem of children with current psychiatric disorders was lower than that of healthy controls (η p 2 between 0.01 and 0.08). Concerning scholastic competence, social acceptance and global self-esteem, children with past psychiatric disorders scored also lower than healthy controls. Different current psychiatric disorders showed specific but small effects on dimensions of self-esteem (β between -0.08 and 0.19). Moreover, we found a gender × group interaction, indicating that girls with depressive and adjustment disorders were specifically impaired in their global self-esteem and perception of their physical appearance. Findings might help clinicians to focus on particular domains of self-esteem during the diagnostic process and to define adequate treatment goals.

  12. Psychiatric disorders and symptoms severity in preschool children with atopic eczema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catal, F; Topal, E; Soylu, N; Ozel Ozcan, O; Celiksoy, M H; Babayiğit, A; Karakoç, H T E; Erge, D; Sancak, R

    2016-01-01

    To compare with a control group the frequency of psychiatric disorders and severity of psychiatric symptoms in preschool children with atopic eczema. The study included children between the ages of 3-5 who were diagnosed to have atopic eczema. The parents of the children with atopic eczema were interviewed in person and were asked to fill in "The Early Childhood Inventory-4" form. This form assesses the psychiatric disorders and symptoms severity in children between the ages of 3-5. The atopic eczema group included 80 patients (38 male, 42 female) with a mean age of 48.4 ± 15.7 months and the control group included 74 patients (41 male, 33 female) with a mean age of 49.9 ± 15.19 months. It was established that 68.8% of the group with atopic eczema received at least one psychiatric diagnosis. Between the psychiatric disorders, ADHD (Odds ratio: 2.57, 95% CI: 1.049-6.298, p=0.035), enuresis and encopresis (Odds ratio: 2.39, 95% CI: 1.121-5.097, p=0.022) and attachment disorder (Odds ratio: 2.03, 95% CI: 1.046-3.953, p=0.035) were found to be significantly higher when compared with the healthy control group. When the groups were compared in terms of psychiatric symptom severity scores calculated by using ECI-4, ADHD severity (p=0.043), conduct disorder severity (p=0.001), anxiety disorders severity (p<0.001), eating disorders severity (p=0.011) and tic disorder severity (p=0.01) were found to be higher in the atopic eczema group. Psychiatric illnesses are frequent in preschool children with atopic eczema. Copyright © 2015 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. Personality traits and suicide attempts with and without psychiatric disorders: analysis of impulsivity and neuroticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Bo; Liu, Wei; Zhou, Die; Fu, Xu; Qin, Xiaoxia; Wu, Jiali

    2017-08-15

    There is a critical need for empirical data concerning the association of personality traits and attempted suicide with and without psychiatric disorders in mainland China. The objective of the present study is to provide such data by determining the prevalence of psychiatric disorders and analyzing the levels of impulsivity and neuroticism among people who have attempted suicide, and to examine the association between these personality traits and suicide attempt in people with or without psychiatric disorders. We administered self-reported tests and clinical interviews to 196 people who have attempted suicide who were admitted to a hospital emergency room or our psychiatric settings after a suicide attempt. One hundred and fifty-six subjects (79.6%) met the criteria for Axis I disorders and eleven (6.6%) met the criteria Axis II personality disorders. Those who have attempted suicide who did not have psychiatric disorders exhibited a greater degree of background characteristics (e.g., high lethality, more interpersonal conflicts and more alcohol use), lower levels of suicidality (suicide risk, depressive symptoms) and differences of personality traits (e.g., more impulsive and less neuroticism) as compared to those who do have psychiatric disorders. Profile differences existed even after control for the stressful life event. Our findings suggest that some personality traits differ between people who have attempted suicide depending on whether or not they have psychiatric disorders. Based on these findings, investigating the impact of personality traits on suicidal behavior in therapeutic settings would provide critical data to improve patient treatment and outcomes.

  14. Ethnic Groups Differ in How Poor Self-Rated Mental Health Reflects Psychiatric Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin

    2017-09-14

    This study aimed to explore cross-ethnic variation in the pattern of the associations between psychiatric disorders and self-rated mental health (SRMH) in the USA. This cross-sectional study used data from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys (CPES), 2001-2003, a national household probability sample. The study enrolled 18,237 individuals who were either Non-Hispanic White (n = 7587), African American (n = 4746), Mexican (n = 1442), Cuban (n = 577), Puerto Rican (n = 495), Other Hispanic (n = 1106), Vietnamese (n = 520), Filipino (n = 508), Chinese (n = 600) or Other Asian (n = 656). SRMH was the outcome. Independent variables were psychiatric disorders including major depressive disorder [MDD], general anxiety disorder [GAD], social phobia, alcohol abuse, binge eating disorders, panic disorder, and post-traumatic stress disorder [PTSD], measured by the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Demographic (age and gender) and socioeconomic (education and income) factors were covariates. The only psychiatric disorder which was universally associated with SRMH across all ethnic groups was MDD. More psychiatric disorders were associated with poor SRMH in Non-Hispanic Whites than any other ethnic groups. Among African Americans, demographic and socioeconomic factors could fully explain the associations between psychiatric disorders and SRMH. Among Mexican and Other Hispanics, demographic and socioeconomic factors could only explain the association between some but not all psychiatric disorders and SRMH. In all other ethnic groups, demographic and socioeconomic factors did not explain the link between psychiatric disorders and SRMH. Although SRMH is a useful tool for estimation of mental health needs of populations, poor SRMH may not have universal meanings across ethnically diverse populations. Ethnic groups differ in how their poor SRMH reflects psychiatric conditions and the role of demographic and socioeconomic factors

  15. Pre-existing psychiatric disorder in the burn patient is associated with worse outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Alexandra; Al Youha, Sarah; Samargandi, Osama A; Paletz, Justin

    2017-08-01

    To compare patient and burn characteristics between patients who had a pre-existing psychiatric diagnosis and patients who did not in a Burn Unit at an academic hospital. Psychosocial issues are common in patients recovering from a burn; however, little is known regarding hospital course and discharge outcomes in patients with a pre-existing psychiatric diagnosis presenting with a burn. Baseline medical comorbidities of burn patients have been shown to be a significant risk for in-hospital mortality. A retrospective chart review of 479 consecutive patients admitted to the Burn Unit of an academic hospital in Halifax, Nova Scotia between March 2nd 1995 and June 1st 2013 was performed. Extensive data regarding patient and burn characteristics and outcomes was collected. Patients with and without pre-existing psychiatric diagnoses at the time of hospital admission were compared. Sixty-three (13%) patients had a psychiatric diagnosis, with the most common being depression (52%). Forty-percent (n=25/63) of these patients had multiple pre-existing psychiatric diagnoses. Patients with a psychiatric diagnosis had a greater total-body-surface-area (TBSA)% covered by a third-degree burn (p=0.001), and were more likely to have an inhalation injury (pBurn Unit (p=0.01). The risk of death in burn patients with pre-existing psychiatric disorders was about three times the risk of death in patients with no psychiatric disorders when adjusting for other potential confounders (95% CI, 1.13-9.10; p-value 0.03). Presence of a pre-existing psychiatric disorder in the burn patient was associated with worse outcomes and was a significant predictor of death. Psychiatric diagnoses should be identified early in burn treatment and efforts should be made to ensure a comprehensive approach to inpatient support and patient discharge to reduce unfavorable burn outcomes and placement issues. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  16. The involvement of the orbitofrontal cortex in psychiatric disorders: an update of neuroimaging findings

    OpenAIRE

    Jackowski,Andrea Parolin; Filho,Gerardo Maria de Araújo; Almeida,Amanda Galvão de; Araújo,Célia Maria de; Reis,Marília; Nery,Fabiana; Batista,Ilza Rosa; Silva,Ivaldo; Lacerda,Acioly L. T.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To report structural and functional neuroimaging studies exploring the potential role of the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) in the pathophysiology of the most prevalent psychiatric disorders (PD). METHOD: A non-systematic literature review was conducted by means of MEDLINE using the following terms as parameters: "orbitofrontal cortex", "schizophrenia", "bipolar disorder", "major depression", "anxiety disorders", "personality disorders" and "drug addiction". The electronic search was d...

  17. The role of CLOCK gene in psychiatric disorders: Evidence from human and animal research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuch, Jaqueline B; Genro, Julia P; Bastos, Clarissa R; Ghisleni, Gabriele; Tovo-Rodrigues, Luciana

    2018-03-01

    The circadian clock system drives daily rhythms in physiology, metabolism, and behavior in mammals. Molecular mechanisms of this system consist of multiple clock genes, with Circadian Locomotor Output Cycles Kaput (CLOCK) as a core member that plays an important role in a wide range of behaviors. Alterations in the CLOCK gene are associated with common psychiatric disorders as well as with circadian disturbances comorbidities. This review addresses animal, molecular, and genetic studies evaluating the role of the CLOCK gene on many psychiatric conditions, namely autism spectrum disorder, schizophrenia, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, anxiety disorder, and substance use disorder. Many animal experiments focusing on the effects of the Clock gene in behavior related to psychiatric conditions have shown consistent biological plausibility and promising findings. In humans, genetic and gene expression studies regarding disorder susceptibility, sleep disturbances related comorbidities, and response to pharmacological treatment, in general, are in agreement with animal studies. However, the number of controversial results is high. Literature suggests that the CLOCK gene exerts important influence on these conditions, and influences the susceptibility to phenotypes of psychiatric disorders. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Psychiatric Disorders in Young Adults Diagnosed with Juvenile Fibromyalgia in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Natoshia Raishevich; Tran, Susan T.; Lynch-Jordan, Anne; Ting, Tracy V.; Sil, Soumitri; Strotman, Daniel; Noll, Jennie; Powers, Scott; Arnold, Lesley M.; Kashikar-Zuck, Susmita

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Adolescents with juvenile fibromyalgia (JFM) have increased rates of psychiatric disorders, but no studies have examined psychiatric disorders in adolescents with JFM when they enter young adulthood. This study examined the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in young adults diagnosed with JFM during adolescence and the relationship between mental health diagnoses and physical functioning. Methods Ninety-one young adults (Mage = 21.60, SD=1.96) with a history of JFM being followed as part of a prospective longitudinal study, and 30 matched healthy controls (Mage = 21.57, SD = 1.55) completed a structured interview of psychiatric diagnoses and a self-report measure of physical impairment. Results Young adults with a history of JFM were more likely to have current and lifetime history of anxiety disorders (70.3% and 76.9%, respectively) compared with controls (33.3% for both; both p's disorders (29.7% and 76.9%, respectively) compared with controls (10% and 40%; p's disorder was significantly related to impairment in physical functioning (F (1, 89) = 8.30, p disorders are prevalent in young adulthood for individuals with a history of JFM, and a current major mood disorder is associated with greater physical impairment. Greater attention to early identification and treatment of mood disorders in patients with JFM is warranted. PMID:26373565

  19. Psychiatric and Substance Use Disorders as Risk Factors for Attempted Suicide among Adolescents: A Case Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Thomas M.; Cornelius, Jack R.; Lynch, Kevin G.

    2002-01-01

    Tests substance-related and non-substance-related psychiatric disorders as predictors of attempted suicide among adolescents. Bipolar disorder, cocaine use disorders, and conduct disorder were found to be predictive of attempted suicide in univariate testing. Higher rates of cocaine use disorder/conduct disorder, hallucinogen use disorder/conduct…

  20. Psychiatric symptoms and disorders in HIV infected mine workers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For example, the diagnosis of cannabis delusional disorder was renamed cannabis- induced psychotic disorder; organic mental disorder - delirium was renamed delirium; organic mental disorder - dementia was renamed dementia. Different personality disorders were not presented separately in the table, as there were too ...

  1. [Body dysmorphic disorder in cosmetic surgery - prevalence, psychiatric comorbidity and outcome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hundscheid, T; van der Hulst, R R W J; Rutten, B P F; Leue, C

    2014-01-01

    Patients suffering from body dysmorphic disorder (bdd) are preoccupied with a slight or imagined defect in appearance. First of all, to review the literature on the prevalence of bdd in cosmetic surgery and thereafter to review the literature on psychiatric comorbidity and the outcome of surgical interventions. We based our search strategy on Embase, Medline and PubMed, using the search terms 'body dysmorphic disorder', 'cosmetic surgery', 'prevalence', 'comorbidity' and 'outcome'. Our search covered English and Dutch literature published after the introduction of bdd in dsm-iii-r and before 1 November, 2013. A study of the relevant articles enabled us to access additional articles mentioned in these texts. Our initial search strategy turned out to be too narrow. It was therefore broadened to include 'body dysmorphic disorder', 'cosmetic surgery', and 'prevalence'. Eventually we included 23 original articles. In 11 of these the prevalence of bdd varied from 3.2 to 53.6%. Twelve articles on psychiatric comorbidity revealed predominantly mood and anxiety disorders on axis I and cluster C personality disorders on axis II. Only two studies reported on the outcome of cosmetic surgery performed on bdd patients; surgical interventions, however, seemed to result in new preoccupations with the prolongation of psychiatric comorbidity. bdd is a common psychiatric disorder that can sometimes lead to cosmetic surgery. However, pre-operative screening of bdd patients is vital so that efficient psychiatric treatment can be initiated and patients are not subjected to surgical interventions which may be ineffective or even harmful.

  2. Alcohol Habits and Health Care Use in Patients with Psychiatric Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehlin, Christina; Arinell, Hans; Dyster-Aas, Johan; Jess, Kari

    2017-01-01

    It is common for persons with psychiatric disorders to also have alcohol problems. Studies in the general population as well as in clinical samples have found hazardous or harmful alcohol habits to be particularly prevalent in the presence of psychiatric disorders. This study sought to explore the relationships between drinking habits and health care utilization (psychiatric as well as general medical) in persons seeking psychiatric treatment and to investigate the associations among age, sex, and type or number of diagnoses and health care use and costs. For the planning of targeted interventions, we also sought to identify subgroups with a high prevalence of hazardous drinking habits. From a psychiatric clinic for affective disorders at a university hospital in Sweden, patients who had been screened for hazardous drinking (N = 609) were selected. Patients with primary psychosis or substance use disorder receive treatment at other clinics and did not participate. Medical records data were grouped and compared. The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th Revision (ICD-10) was used for diagnoses and the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test for screening. Patients were grouped by drinking habits and sex, age, and diagnosis group, and their psychiatric as well as general medical health care use was compared. Abstainers used psychiatric care more than all other drinking groups (p habits). Inconclusive results from previous research are most likely due to different methods used to classify drinking problems. Abstainers and low-risk drinkers used psychiatric health care to a higher cost than the other drinking groups. Possible explanations are discussed from a clinical and scientific perspective. This study clarifies the need for uniform measures when classifying alcohol use in studies of relationships between alcohol use and health care use. There is also a need to separate former drinkers from abstainers in future

  3. The Use of Virtual Reality Technology in the Treatment of Anxiety and Other Psychiatric Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maples-Keller, Jessica L; Bunnell, Brian E; Kim, Sae-Jin; Rothbaum, Barbara O

    After participating in this activity, learners should be better able to:• Evaluate the literature regarding the effectiveness of incorporating virtual reality (VR) in the treatment of psychiatric disorders• Assess the use of exposure-based intervention for anxiety disorders ABSTRACT: Virtual reality (VR) allows users to experience a sense of presence in a computer-generated, three-dimensional environment. Sensory information is delivered through a head-mounted display and specialized interface devices. These devices track head movements so that the movements and images change in a natural way with head motion, allowing for a sense of immersion. VR, which allows for controlled delivery of sensory stimulation via the therapist, is a convenient and cost-effective treatment. This review focuses on the available literature regarding the effectiveness of incorporating VR within the treatment of various psychiatric disorders, with particular attention to exposure-based intervention for anxiety disorders. A systematic literature search was conducted in order to identify studies implementing VR-based treatment for anxiety or other psychiatric disorders. This article reviews the history of the development of VR-based technology and its use within psychiatric treatment, the empirical evidence for VR-based treatment, and the benefits for using VR for psychiatric research and treatment. It also presents recommendations for how to incorporate VR into psychiatric care and discusses future directions for VR-based treatment and clinical research.

  4. Prevalence and patterns of psychiatric disorders in referred adolescents with Internet addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozkurt, Hasan; Coskun, Murat; Ayaydin, Hamza; Adak, Ibrahim; Zoroglu, S Salih

    2013-07-01

    To investigate prevalence and patterns of psychiatric disorders in young subjects with Internet addiction (IA). Subjects were taken from a sample of patients, aged 10-18 years old, referred to Istanbul Medical Faculty, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Department due to a variety of behavioral and emotional problems alongside problematic Internet use. Inclusion criteria included IQ ≥70 and score ≥80 on Young's Internet Addiction Scale (YIAS). Psychiatric comorbidity was assessed using the Turkish version of the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Age Children-Present and Lifetime Version. Subjects were 45 boys (75%) and 15 girls (25%) with an age range of 10-18 years old (mean age, 13.38 ± 1.79 years). A total of 60% (n = 36) had been using Internet for ≥5 years. Mean hours/week spent on the Internet was 53.7 (range, 30-105 h) and the average YIAS score was 85. All subjects (100%) had at least one and 88.3% (n = 53) had at least two comorbid psychiatric disorders. The frequency of diagnostic groups were as follows: behavioral disorder, n = 52 (86.7%); anxiety disorder, n = 43 (71.7%); mood disorder, n = 23 (38.3%); elimination disorder, n = 16 (26.7%); tic disorder, n = 10 (16.7%); and substance use disorder, n = 4 (6.7%). The most common psychiatric disorders were attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (n = 53; 83.3%), social phobia (n = 21; 35.0%) and major depressive disorder (n = 18; 30.0%). High rates of psychiatric comorbidity, particularly behavioral, anxiety and mood disorders were found in young subjects with IA. Because the presence of psychiatric disorders may affect the management /prognosis of IA, assessment should include that for other psychiatric disorders. © 2013 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2013 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  5. Prevalence of psychiatric disorders among nurses of a Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SCID), 57% of the 100 study sample of female nurses of the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Nigeria met definitive diagnoses for Anxiety Disorder, Dysthymia, Major Depressive Disorder, and Major Depression with probable Panic Disorder.

  6. From peculiar psychiatric disorders through culture-bound syndromes to culture-related specific syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Wen-Shing

    2006-12-01

    This article reviews the historical evolution and progress of nosological concepts from exotic psychiatric disorders and culture-bound syndromes to culture-related specific syndromes. Approaches to classification and subgrouping these disorders are disccused and an argument offered for finding a place for culturally unique syndromes in the existing classification system. The characteristics of various syndromes are elaborated and suggestions are made for future research. Finally, emphasis is given to the need to be concerned with the impact of culture on every psychiatric disorder, not only culture-specific syndromes, to promote culturally competent care for every patient.

  7. Risk of psychiatric disorders in offspring of parents with a history of homelessness during childhood and adolescence in Denmark: a nationwide, register-based, cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Sandra Feodor; Laursen, Thomas Munk; Hjorthøj, Carsten; Thorup, Anne; Nordentoft, Merete

    2017-12-01

    ] for both parents homeless, after adjustment for year and offspring characteristics). This risk remained elevated after additional adjustment for factors including parental psychiatric disorders. IRRs in offspring were increased for most specific psychiatric disorders, with the highest risk for attachment disorder when both parents had a history of homelessness (IRR 32·5 [95% CI 24·6-42·9]) and substance use disorder when only the mother had a history of homelessness (6·9 [4·9-9·7]). In offspring whose mothers had a history of both homelessness and a psychiatric disorder, 35·9% (95% CI 27·1-44·8) had been diagnosed with a psychiatric disorder by the age of 15 years. Parental homelessness was associated with an increased risk of psychiatric disorders in offspring during childhood and adolescence. These findings have important implications for public health and policy because they suggest a need for improvement in the support of socially marginalised families to help prevent psychiatric illness in offspring. University of Copenhagen, The Lundbeck Foundation Initiative for Integrated Psychiatric Research (iPSYCH). Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an Open Access article under the CC BY 4.0 license. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Beyond alcoholism: Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome in patients with psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Laurie M; Buchanan, Judith R; Onwuameze, Obiora E; Pierson, Ronald K; Paradiso, Sergio

    2011-12-01

    Wernicke encephalopathy and Korsakoff syndrome (the combined disorder is named Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome [WKS]) are preventable, life-threatening neuropsychiatric syndromes resulting from thiamine deficiency. WKS has historically been associated with alcoholism; more recently, it has been recognized in patients who have anorexia nervosa or have undergone bariatric surgery for obesity. However, patients with nutritional deficiencies of any origin are at risk for WKS. We present clinical histories and neuroimaging data on 2 young adults with underlying psychiatric disorders who became malnourished and developed WKS. A young woman with bipolar disorder and somatization disorder was hospitalized for intractable vomiting. A young man with chronic paranoid schizophrenia developed delusions that food and water were harmful, and was hospitalized after subsisting for 4 months on soda pop. Acute, life-threatening Wernicke encephalopathy was confirmed in both patients by brain magnetic resonance imaging showing classic thalamic injury. The patients were left with persistent cognitive and physical disabilities that were consistent with Korsakoff syndrome. Failure to suspect a vitamin deficiency led to permanent cognitive and physical disabilities that may necessitate lifelong care for these patients. The neuropsychiatric consequences could have been prevented by prompt recognition of their thiamine deficiency.

  9. Alcohol use disorders increase the risk of completed suicide - Irrespective of other psychiatric disorders. A longitudinal cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flensborg-Madsen, Trine; Knop, Joachim; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge of the epidemiology of suicide is a necessary prerequisite for developing prevention programs. The aim of this study was to analyze the risk of completed suicide among individuals with alcohol use disorders (AUD), and to assess the role of other psychiatric disorders in this association....... A prospective cohort study was used, containing three updated sets of lifestyle covariates and 26 years follow-up of 18,146 individuals between 20 and 93 years of age from the Copenhagen City Heart Study in Denmark. The study population was linked to four different registers in order to detect: Completed...... suicide, AUD, Psychotic disorders, Anxiety disorders, Mood disorders, Personality disorders, Drug abuse, and Other psychiatric disorders. Individuals registered with AUD were at significantly increased risk of committing suicide, with a crude hazard ratio (HR) of 7.98 [Confidence interval (CI): 5...

  10. Decreased Brain pH as a Shared Endophenotype of Psychiatric Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagihara, Hideo; Catts, Vibeke S; Katayama, Yuta; Shoji, Hirotaka; Takagi, Tsuyoshi; Huang, Freesia L; Nakao, Akito; Mori, Yasuo; Huang, Kuo-Ping; Ishii, Shunsuke; Graef, Isabella A; Nakayama, Keiichi I; Shannon Weickert, Cynthia; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi

    2018-02-01

    Although the brains of patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder exhibit decreased brain pH relative to those of healthy controls upon postmortem examination, it remains controversial whether this finding reflects a primary feature of the diseases or is a result of confounding factors such as medication and agonal state. To date, systematic investigation of brain pH has not been undertaken using animal models that can be studied without confounds inherent in human studies. In the present study, we first reevaluated the pH of the postmortem brains of patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder by conducting a meta-analysis of existing data sets from 10 studies. We then measured pH, lactate levels, and related metabolite levels in brain homogenates from five neurodevelopmental mouse models of psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and autism spectrum disorder. All mice were drug naive with the same agonal state, postmortem interval, and age within each strain. Our meta-analysis revealed that brain pH was significantly lower in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder than in control participants, even when a few potential confounding factors (postmortem interval, age, and history of antipsychotic use) were considered. In animal experiments, we observed significantly lower pH and higher lactate levels in the brains of model mice relative to controls, as well as a significant negative correlation between pH and lactate levels. Our findings suggest that lower pH associated with increased lactate levels is not a mere artifact, but rather implicated in the underlying pathophysiology of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

  11. Psychiatric disorders and substance use in homeless youth: a preliminary comparison of san francisco and chicago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quimby, Ernika G; Edidin, Jennifer P; Ganim, Zoe; Gustafson, Erika; Hunter, Scott J; Karnik, Niranjan S

    2012-09-01

    Youth homelessness is a growing problem in the United States. The experience of homelessness appears to have numerous adverse consequences, including psychiatric and substance use disorders. This study compared the frequencies of psychiatric disorders, including substance use, between homeless youth (18-24 years-old) in San Francisco (N = 31) and Chicago (N = 56). Subjects were administered the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I.) to assess DSM-IV-TR diagnoses and substance use disorders. Eighty-seven percent of the San Francisco youth, and 81% of the Chicago youth met criteria for at least one M.I.N.I. psychiatric diagnosis. Nearly two-thirds of the youth in both samples met criteria for a mood disorder. Approximately one-third met criteria for an anxiety disorder. Thirty-two percent of the San Francisco sample and 18% of the Chicago met criteria for Antisocial Personality Disorder. Approximately 84% of the San Francisco youth and 48% of the Chicago youth met criteria for a substance-related disorder, and more substances were used by San Francisco youth. In conclusion, the high rate of psychiatric disorders in homeless youth provides clear evidence that the mental health needs of this population are significant. Implications are discussed.

  12. N-acetylcysteine in the treatment of psychiatric disorders: current status and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minarini, Alessandro; Ferrari, Silvia; Galletti, Martina; Giambalvo, Nina; Perrone, Daniela; Rioli, Giulia; Galeazzi, Gian Maria

    2017-03-01

    N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is widely known for its role as a mucolytic and as an antidote to paracetamol overdose. There is increasing interest in the use of NAC in the treatment of several psychiatric disorders. The rationale for the administration of NAC in psychiatric conditions is based on its role as a precursor to the antioxidant glutathione, and its action as a modulating agent of glutamatergic, dopaminergic, neurotropic and inflammatory pathways. Areas covered: This study reviews the available data regarding the use of NAC in different psychiatric disorders including substance use disorders, autism, obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders, schizophrenia, depression, bipolar disorder. Promising results were found in trials testing the use of NAC, mainly as an add-on treatment, in cannabis use disorder in young people, depression in bipolar disorder, negative symptoms in schizophrenia, and excoriation (skin-picking) disorder. Despite initial optimism, recent findings regarding NAC efficacy in autism have been disappointing. Expert opinion: These preliminary positive results require further confirmation in larger samples and with longer follow-ups. Given its high tolerability and wide availability, NAC represents an important target to investigate in the field of new adjunctive treatments for psychiatric conditions.

  13. Psychiatric disorders and symptom severity in referred versus non-referred overweight children and adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background This study aimed firstly to investigate whether youngsters referred for overweight treatment differ from non-referred overweight youngsters on the prevalence of psychiatric disorders and psychological symptoms. Secondly, the potentially moderating role of age, gender, socio-economic status and degree of overweight in the association of referral status and mental disorder in overweight youth was explored. ...

  14. Role of the endocannabinoid system in human brain functions relevant for psychiatric disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossong, M.G.

    2012-01-01

    Impaired cognitive function is a fundamental characteristic of many psychiatric and neurological disorders such as schizophrenia or Alzheimer’s disease. The endocannabinoid (eCB) system, consisting of cannabinoid receptors and accompanying ligands, has been implicated in these disorders. In

  15. Psychiatric Disorders and Substance Use in Homeless Youth: A Preliminary Comparison of San Francisco and Chicago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernika G. Quimby

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Youth homelessness is a growing problem in the United States. The experience of homelessness appears to have numerous adverse consequences, including psychiatric and substance use disorders. This study compared the frequencies of psychiatric disorders, including substance use, between homeless youth (18–24 years-old in San Francisco (N = 31 and Chicago (N = 56. Subjects were administered the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I. to assess DSM-IV-TR diagnoses and substance use disorders. Eighty-seven percent of the San Francisco youth, and 81% of the Chicago youth met criteria for at least one M.I.N.I. psychiatric diagnosis. Nearly two-thirds of the youth in both samples met criteria for a mood disorder. Approximately one-third met criteria for an anxiety disorder. Thirty-two percent of the San Francisco sample and 18% of the Chicago met criteria for Antisocial Personality Disorder. Approximately 84% of the San Francisco youth and 48% of the Chicago youth met criteria for a substance-related disorder, and more substances were used by San Francisco youth. In conclusion, the high rate of psychiatric disorders in homeless youth provides clear evidence that the mental health needs of this population are significant. Implications are discussed.

  16. Gross Motor Performance and Physical Fitness in Children with Psychiatric Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emck, Claudia; Bosscher, Ruud J.; van Wieringen, Piet C. W.; Doreleijers, Theo; Beek, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: Gross motor performance appears to be impaired in children with psychiatric disorders but little is known about which skill domains are affected in each disorder, nor about possible accompanying deficits in physical fitness. The present study has sought to provide information about these issues in children with emotional, behavioural, and…

  17. Obesity and co-morbid psychiatric disorders as contraindications for bariatric surgery?-A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterhänsel, C; Wagner, B; Dietrich, A; Kersting, A

    2014-01-01

    Many patients undergoing bariatric surgery report current or past psychiatric disorders and controversy exists regarding their outcome after bariatric surgery. We present a case of an obese patient with a borderline personality disorder, a recurrent depressive disorder, post-traumatic stress symptoms and binge eating episodes who underwent bariatric surgery. Although the psychiatric disorders remained, the procedure contributed to an improvement of the health status and well-being of the patient. Adequate psychological care after the surgical procedure is necessary to enable a long-term stabilization of patients with mental co-morbidities. Patients with psychiatric co-morbidities should not be excluded from the procedure if adequate post-operative support is provided. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Incidence of eating disorders in Danish psychiatric secondary healthcare 1970-2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelmark, Carina; Jensen, Signe Ow; Plessen, Kerstin J

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Is an increased focus on eating disorders during the past few decades reflected by increasing occurrence in the psychiatric health service system. METHOD: All first-time diagnoses of eating disorders identified in the Danish Central Psychiatric Research Register 1970-2008 constitute...... the present research database. Age-standardized rates per 100,000 inhabitants were calculated and autoregressive models were fitted for males and females separately as well as for in- and outpatients. RESULTS: The incidence of eating disorders diagnosed in Danish psychiatric secondary healthcare has increased...... considerably during a nearly 40-year period of observation both within the general category of eating disorders and also specifically for anorexia nervosa. The steepest increase is seen within females aged 15-19 years, where the highest incidences are also found. Anorexia nervosa constitutes the vast majority...

  19. [Prevalence of psychiatric disorders and outcome of social integration of homeless men].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reker, T; Eikelmann, B; Folkerts, H

    1997-02-01

    All 52 regular users of a shelter in a medium-sized German city underwent a baseline psychiatric examination in 1990. Mental disorders, especially alcohol addiction and schizophrenic disorders, were recorded among 40 (77%). After four years the residential situation and the number and duration of psychiatric hospitalisations was recorded for 42 of these men. 33 of them mentally ill and 9 with no mental disorders. The four-year follow-up revealed that half the mentally ill men were still living in a homeless environment or had died, whereas most users with no mental disorder had a home of their own again. Longer-term hospitalisation or guardianship was found to have a favourable impact on social integration of the homeless mentally ill. Although psychiatric help without the consent of those concerned cannot solve the social problem of homelessness, it can often improve the living situation of homeless mentally ill patients.

  20. Risk of Schizophrenia Increases After All Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maibing, Cecilie Frejstrup; Pedersen, Carsten Bøcker; Benros, Michael Eriksen

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Earlier smaller studies have shown associations between child and adolescent psychiatric disorders and schizophrenia. Particularly, attention-deficit/hyperactivity-disorder and autism have been linked with schizophrenia. However, large-scale prospective studies have been lacking. We......, therefore, conducted the first large-scale study on the association between a broad spectrum of child and adolescent psychiatric disorders and the risk of being diagnosed with schizophrenia. Methods: Danish nationwide registers were linked to establish a cohort consisting of all persons born during 1990......-2000 and the cohort was followed until December 31, 2012. Data were analyzed using survival analyses and adjusted for calendar year, age, and sex. Results: A total of 25138 individuals with child and adolescent psychiatric disorders were identified, out of which 1232 individuals were subsequently diagnosed...

  1. Metabolic syndrome in patients with bipolar disorder: Comparison with major depressive disorder and non-psychiatric controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silarova, B.; Giltay, E.J.; van Reedt Dortland, A.K.B.; van Rossum, E.F.; Hoencamp, E.; Penninx, B.W.; Spijker, A.T.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We aimed to investigate the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its individual components in subjects with bipolar disorder (BD) compared to those with major depressive disorder (MDD) and non-psychiatric controls. Methods: We examined 2431 participants (mean age 44.3. ±. 13.0,

  2. Metabolic syndrome in patients with bipolar disorder : Comparison with major depressive disorder and non-psychiatric controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silarova, Barbora; Giltay, Erik J.; Dortland, Arianne Van Reedt; Van Rossum, Elisabeth F. C.; Hoencamp, Erik; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Spijker, Annet T.

    Objective: We aimed to investigate the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its individual components in subjects with bipolar disorder (BD) compared to those with major depressive disorder (MDD) and non-psychiatric controls. Methods: We examined 2431 participants (mean age 443 +/-

  3. [Eating disorders: symptomatology, course and prognosis, epidemiology, and psychiatric comorbidity. Review article].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jónsdóttir, Sigurlaug María; Thorsteinsdóttir, Gudlaug

    2006-02-01

    Eating disorders are a group of serious psychiatric disorders that affect primarily young women and can have serious consequences on their lives and their families. Eating disorders are characterized by disordered eating behaviour with desire for thinness that can result in serious physical and psychological symptoms and death. Eating disorders tend to run a chronic course. Psychiatric comorbidity and physical complications are common among eating disordered patients and these issues need to be taken into consideration during treatment. Prevalence and incidence of eating disorders appears to be increasing in Western societies and follow increased prosperity and obesity problems. There is no reason to believe that the situation is different in Iceland but research is lacking. In this review article we address the main symptoms and diagnostic criteria of three types of eating disorders, that is anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and eating disorder not otherwise specified. The course and prognosis, epidemiology, and psychiatric comorbidity of eating disorders will also be presented. Finally, we discuss the services available to eating disordered patients here in Iceland and the need for further development of the services.

  4. Neurofeedback Training for Psychiatric Disorders Associated with Criminal Offending: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Fielenbach

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundEffective treatment interventions for criminal offenders are necessary to reduce risk of criminal recidivism. Evidence about deviant electroencephalographic (EEG-frequencies underlying disorders found in criminal offenders is accumulating. Yet, treatment modalities, such as neurofeedback, are rarely applied in the forensic psychiatric domain. Since offenders usually have multiple disorders, difficulties adhering to long-term treatment modalities, and are highly vulnerable for psychiatric decompensation, more information about neurofeedback training protocols, number of sessions, and expected symptom reduction is necessary before it can be successfully used in offender populations.MethodStudies were analyzed that used neurofeedback in adult criminal offenders, and in disorders these patients present with. Specifically aggression, violence, recidivism, offending, psychopathy, schizophrenia, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, substance-use disorder (SUD, and cluster B personality disorders were included. Only studies that reported changes in EEG-frequencies posttreatment (increase/decrease/no change in EEG amplitude/power were included.ResultsDatabases Psychinfo and Pubmed were searched in the period 1990–2017 according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses, resulting in a total of 10 studies. Studies in which neurofeedback was applied in ADHD (N = 3, SUD (N = 3, schizophrenia (N = 3, and psychopathy (N = 1 could be identified. No studies could be identified for neurofeedback applied in cluster B personality disorders, aggression, violence, or recidivism in criminal offenders. For all treatment populations and neurofeedback protocols, number of sessions varied greatly. Changes in behavioral levels ranged from no improvements to significant symptom reduction after neurofeedback training. The results are also mixed concerning posttreatment changes in targeted EEG

  5. Ischemic Stroke in Young Adults and Preexisting Psychiatric Disorders: A Nationwide Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Yu-Chuan; Bai, Ya-Mei; Su, Tung-Ping; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Chen, Mu-Hong

    2015-09-01

    Previous studies showed that psychiatric disorders such as major depression, bipolar disorders, and alcohol misuse are associated with an increased risk of ischemic stroke. However, the link between psychiatric disorders and stroke in the young population is rarely investigated. Using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database, 2063 young adults aged between 18 and 45 years with ischemic stroke and 8252 age- and sex-matched controls were enrolled in our study between 1998 and 2011. Participants who had preexisting psychiatric disorders were identified. After adjusting for preexisting physical disorders and demographic data, patients with ischemic stroke had an increased risk of having preexisting psychiatric disorders, including bipolar disorder (odds ratio [OR]: 2.23, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.06∼4.67), unipolar depression (OR: 2.15, 95% CI: 1.62∼2.86), anxiety disorders (OR: 2.63, 95% CI: 1.87∼3.69), and alcohol use disorders (OR: 2.86, 95% CI: 1.79∼4.57). Young ischemic stroke (age ≥30 years) was related to the risk of preexisting unipolar depression (OR: 1.49, 95% CI: 1.05∼2.11), anxiety disorders (OR: 1.99, 95% CI: 1.33∼2.97), and alcohol use disorders (OR: 2.54, 95% CI: 1.55∼4.14); very young stroke (age ischemic stroke at age younger than 45 years had a higher risk of having pre-existing bipolar disorder, unipolar depression, anxiety disorders, and alcohol use disorders than those who did not after adjusting for demographic data and stroke-related medical comorbidities.

  6. Psychiatric comorbidity in patients with conversion disorder and prevalence of dissociative symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yayla, Sinan; Bakım, Bahadır; Tankaya, Onur; Ozer, Omer Akil; Karamustafalioglu, Oguz; Ertekin, Hulya; Tekin, Atilla

    2015-01-01

    The 1st objective of the current study was to investigate the frequency and types of dissociative symptoms in patients with conversion disorder (CD). The 2nd objective of the current study was to determine psychiatric comorbidity in patients with and without dissociative symptoms. A total of 54 consecutive consenting patients primarily diagnosed with CD according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision, criteria who were admitted to the psychiatric emergency outpatient clinic of Sisli Etfal Research and Teaching Hospital (Istanbul, Turkey) were included in the study. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders, Structured Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders, and Dissociative Experiences Scale were administered. Study groups consisted of 20 patients with a dissociative disorder and 34 patients without a diagnosis of any dissociative disorder. A total of 37% of patients with CD had any dissociative diagnosis. The prevalence of dissociative disorders was as follows: 18.5% dissociative disorder not otherwise specified, 14.8% dissociative amnesia, and 3.7% depersonalization disorder. Significant differences were found between the study groups with respect to comorbidity of bipolar disorder, past hypomania, and current and past posttraumatic stress disorder (ps = .001, .028, .015, and .028, respectively). Overall comorbidity of bipolar disorder was 27.8%. Psychiatric comorbidity was higher and age at onset was earlier among dissociative patients compared to patients without dissociative symptoms. The increased psychiatric comorbidity and early onset of conversion disorder found in patients with dissociative symptoms suggest that these patients may have had a more severe form of conversion disorder.

  7. Exploring associations between psychiatric disorder, psychological distress, and health care utilization in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compen, F R; Adang, E M M; Bisseling, E M; Van der Lee, M L; Speckens, A E M

    2018-03-01

    The mental burden of cancer might elicit additional health care utilization. However, it is unclear how psychiatric disorder and psychological distress relate to health care utilization. Therefore, this study explores associations between psychiatric disorder, psychological distress, and health care utilization. It was hypothesized that presence of psychiatric disorder and psychological distress was associated with increased health care utilization and costs. The current study consisted of secondary analyses of baseline data of a larger randomized controlled trial. Two hundred forty-five mixed-cancer patients with at least mild symptoms of psychological distress (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-T ≥ 11) were mainly recruited via online media, participating centers and patient associations. Patients were assessed with Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR Axis I Disorders (SCID-I) for depressive, anxiety, and/or adjustment disorder. Psychological distress was measured by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Retrospective self-reported health care utilization in the past 3 months was collected. Associations between predictors and health care utilization in terms of incidence rate ratios (IRR) and costs per category (mental, primary, somatic, and complementary) were assessed by negative binomial, logistic, and gamma regression. Eighty-nine (36.3%) patients suffered from psychiatric disorder, which was associated with mental health care utilization (IRR = 1.63) and costs (OR = 3.11). We observed a nonsignificant trend of somatic health care utilization in patients with psychiatric disorder. Psychological distress was associated with mental health care utilization (IRR = 1.09) and costs (OR = 1.09). Psychological distress was also associated with complementary health care utilization (IRR = 1.03). Psychiatric disorder and psychological distress were associated with mental health care use and costs. Psychological distress was associated

  8. Interventions for comorbid problem gambling and psychiatric disorders: Advancing a developing field of research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, N A; Merkouris, S S; Lorains, F K

    2016-07-01

    Despite significant psychiatric comorbidity in problem gambling, there is little evidence on which to base treatment recommendations for subpopulations of problem gamblers with comorbid psychiatric disorders. This mini-review draws on two separate systematic searches to identify possible interventions for comorbid problem gambling and psychiatric disorders, highlight the gaps in the currently available evidence base, and stimulate further research in this area. In this mini-review, only 21 studies that have conducted post-hoc analyses to explore the influence of psychiatric disorders or problem gambling subtypes on gambling outcomes from different types of treatment were identified. The findings of these studies suggest that most gambling treatments are not contraindicated by psychiatric disorders. Moreover, only 6 randomized studies comparing the efficacy of interventions targeted towards specific comorbidity subgroups with a control/comparison group were identified. The results of these studies provide preliminary evidence for modified dialectical behavior therapy for comorbid substance use, the addition of naltrexone to cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for comorbid alcohol use problems, and the addition of N-acetylcysteine to tobacco support programs and imaginal desensitisation/motivational interviewing for comorbid nicotine dependence. They also suggest that lithium for comorbid bipolar disorder, escitalopram for comorbid anxiety disorders, and the addition of CBT to standard drug treatment for comorbid schizophrenia may be effective. Future research evaluating interventions sequenced according to disorder severity or the functional relationship between the gambling behavior and comorbid symptomatology, identifying psychiatric disorders as moderators of the efficacy of problem gambling interventions, and evaluating interventions matched to client comorbidity could advance this immature field of study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Prevalence of Sexual Dysfunction and Associations with Psychiatric Disorders Among Women Aged 50 and Older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jee Eun; Sohn, Ji Hoon; Seong, Su Jeong; Cho, Maeng Je

    2015-06-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of sexual problems and associated factors, focusing particularly on comorbid psychiatric disorders, among older Korean women. A nationally representative sample of women aged 50-74 years (n=3828) responded to in-person interviews using the Korean version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview to assess psychiatric disorders and four symptoms of sexual dysfunction: (1) lack of sexual interest/sexual aversion, (2) dyspareunia, (3) loss of pleasure, and (4) other organic dysfunction (e.g., inability of sexual arousal). We examined the likelihood of sexual dysfunction by sociodemographic and clinical variables, including specific psychiatric disorders, and compared the characteristics of sexual dysfunction among women with and without a comorbid psychiatric disorder. A total of 334 (8.7%) women reported one or more symptoms of sexual dysfunction during the year preceding the interview: lack of sexual interest/sexual aversion was most prevalent (7.7%), followed by loss of pleasure (4.2%), dyspareunia (2.4%), and other organic dysfunction (0.4%). Having a psychiatric disorder was associated with a 2.7-fold increase in the probability of sexual dysfunction. Among women with sexual dysfunction, having comorbid mental disorder was associated with being unmarried status, a symptom of loss of pleasure, and a history of sexual dysfunction before 50 years of age. The present study suggests a relatively lower prevalence of sexual dysfunction than previously reported, but supports its strong association with psychiatric disorders among postmenopausal women. We should evaluate comorbid mental disorder with sexual dysfunction, especially among those having some characteristics.

  10. Effects of neurofeedback on adult patients with psychiatric disorders in a naturalistic setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheon, Eun-Jin; Koo, Bon-Hoon; Seo, Wan-Seok; Lee, Jun-Yeob; Choi, Joong-Hyeon; Song, Shin-Ho

    2015-03-01

    Few well-controlled studies have considered neurofeedback treatment in adult psychiatric patients. In this regard, the present study investigates the characteristics and effects of neurofeedback on adult psychiatric patients in a naturalistic setting. A total of 77 adult patients with psychiatric disorders participated in this study. Demographic data and neurofeedback states were retrospectively analyzed, and the effects of neurofeedback were evaluated using clinical global impression (CGI) and subjective self-rating scales. Depressive disorders were the most common psychiatric disorders (19; 24.7 %), followed by anxiety disorders (18; 23.4 %). A total of 69 patients (89.6 %) took medicine, and the average frequency of neurofeedback was 17.39 ± 16.64. Neurofeedback was applied to a total of 39 patients (50.6 %) more than 10 times, and 48 patients (62.3 %) received both β/SMR and α/θ training. The discontinuation rate was 33.8 % (26 patients). There was significant difference between pretreatment and posttreatment CGI scores (neurofeedback as an effective complimentary treatment for adult patients with psychiatric disorders.

  11. Gender differences in psychiatric disorders and clusters of self-esteem among detained adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Damme, Lore; Colins, Olivier F; Vanderplasschen, Wouter

    2014-12-30

    Detained minors display substantial mental health needs. This study focused on two features (psychopathology and self-esteem) that have received considerable attention in the literature and clinical work, but have rarely been studied simultaneously in detained youths. The aims of this study were to examine gender differences in psychiatric disorders and clusters of self-esteem, and to test the hypothesis that the cluster of adolescents with lower (versus higher) levels of self-esteem have higher rates of psychiatric disorders. The prevalence of psychiatric disorders was assessed in 440 Belgian, detained adolescents using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children-IV. Self-esteem was assessed using the Self-perception Profile for Adolescents. Model-based cluster analyses were performed to identify youths with lower and/or higher levels of self-esteem across several domains. Girls have higher rates for most psychiatric disorders and lower levels of self-esteem than boys. A higher number of clusters was identified in boys (four) than girls (three). Generally, the cluster of adolescents with lower (versus higher) levels of self-esteem had a higher prevalence of psychiatric disorders. These results suggest that the detection of low levels of self-esteem in adolescents, especially girls, might help clinicians to identify a subgroup of detained adolescents with the highest prevalence of psychopathology.

  12. Peripartum depression in parents with multiple sclerosis and psychiatric disorders in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razaz, Neda; Tremlett, Helen; Marrie, Ruth Ann; Joseph, K S

    2016-12-01

    Although many individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS) experience depression, there are no studies on the frequency and effect of peripartum depression among parents with MS. To examine the frequency of peripartum depression in individuals with MS and its potential association with children's psychiatric disorders. We conducted a cohort study in British Columbia, Canada, using linked health databases, of parents with MS and their children, and age-matched unaffected parent-child dyads. The diagnosis of peripartum depression, MS and psychiatric disorders in children was based on information from hospital admission, physician visit and drug prescription claims. Peripartum depression was significantly more common among MS parents (n = 360) versus unaffected (n = 1207) parents (25.8% vs 18.5%, p value 0.02), especially among MS affected fathers versus unaffected fathers (25.7% vs 10.2%, p value psychiatric disorders in children was 3.3 and 2.7 per 100 child-years among children with and without an MS parent, respectively. The rate of psychiatric disorders was significantly higher in children with an MS parent (vs without, hazard ratio (HR): 1.34; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03-1.74) and among children with parents who had peripartum depression (HR: 1.87; 95% CI: 1.36-2.55). Parental MS is associated with a higher risk of peripartum depression and increases the risk of psychiatric disorders in children. © The Author(s), 2016.

  13. Prevalence of psychological distress and psychiatric disorders among homeless youth in Australia: a comparative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamieniecki, G W

    2001-06-01

    To review the prevalence literature on psychological distress and psychiatric disorders among homeless youth in Australia, and to compare these rates with Australian youth as a whole. Computerized databases were utilized to access all published Australian studies on psychological distress (as measured by standardized symptom scales and suicidal behaviour) and psychiatric disorders among homeless youth; in addition, unpublished Australian studies were utilized whenever accessible. A total of 14 separate studies were located, only three of which have included non-homeless control groups. In the current review, prevalence data from uncontrolled youth homelessness studies are compared with data from Australian community and student surveys. Homeless youth have usually scored significantly higher on standardized measures of psychological distress than all domiciled control groups. Youth homelessness studies have also reported very high rates of suicidal behaviour, but methodological limitations in these studies make comparisons with community surveys difficult. Furthermore, rates of various psychiatric disorders are usually at least twice as high among homeless youth than among youth from community surveys. Homeless youth in Australia have extremely high rates of psychological distress and psychiatric disorders. As homeless youth are at risk of developing psychiatric disorders and possibly self-injurious behaviour the longer they are homeless, early intervention in relevant health facilities is required.

  14. Innovative biomarkers in psychiatric disorders: a major clinical challenge in psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozupone, Madia; Seripa, Davide; Stella, Eleonora; La Montagna, Maddalena; Solfrizzi, Vincenzo; Quaranta, Nicola; Veneziani, Federica; Cester, Alberto; Sardone, Rodolfo; Bonfiglio, Caterina; Giannelli, Gianluigi; Bisceglia, Paola; Bringiotti, Roberto; Daniele, Antonio; Greco, Antonio; Bellomo, Antonello; Logroscino, Giancarlo; Panza, Francesco

    2017-09-01

    Currently, the diagnosis of psychiatric illnesses is based upon DSM-5 criteria. Although endophenotype-specificity for a particular disorder is discussed, the identification of objective biomarkers is ongoing for aiding diagnosis, prognosis, or clinical response to treatment. We need to improve the understanding of the biological abnormalities in psychiatric illnesses across conventional diagnostic boundaries. The present review investigates the innovative post-genomic knowledge used for psychiatric illness diagnostics and treatment response, with a particular focus on proteomics. Areas covered: This review underlines the contribution that psychiatric innovative biomarkers have reached in relation to diagnosis and theragnosis of psychiatric illnesses. Furthermore, it encompasses a reliable representation of their involvement in disease through proteomics, metabolomics/pharmacometabolomics and lipidomics techniques, including the possible role that gut microbiota and CYP2D6 polimorphisms may play in psychiatric illnesses. Expert opinion: Etiologic heterogeneity, variable expressivity, and epigenetics may impact clinical manifestations, making it difficult for a single measurement to be pathognomonic for multifaceted psychiatric disorders. Academic, industry, or government's partnerships may successfully identify and validate new biomarkers so that unfailing clinical tests can be developed. Proteomics, metabolomics, and lipidomics techniques are considered to be helpful tools beyond neuroimaging and neuropsychology for the phenotypic characterization of brain diseases.

  15. Psychiatric disorders among a sample of internally displaced persons in South Darfur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhabiby, Mahmoud M; Radwan, Doaa N; Okasha, Tarek A; El-Desouky, Eman D

    2015-06-01

    The violent armed conflict in Darfur has been ongoing for years getting the attention of human rights activists and mental health professionals. The aim of this study was to assess psychiatric disorders in a sample of internally displaced persons (IDPs) in South Darfur. A cross-sectional observational study, as a part of the 'Darfur Campaign' organized by Arab Federation of Psychiatrists, assessing psychiatric disorders in a sample of internally displaced women using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID-I) (clinical version). Up to 25.7% of participants had lost a close family member or more in the violent clashes. Psychiatric diagnoses were found in 62.2% of the participants. The most frequently reported was post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) reaching 14.9%, followed by depression 13.5% (among which 2.7% with psychotic features), while comorbid PTSD and depression reached 8.1% of participants. Patients with psychiatric diagnoses had an older age (36.6 years) (p = .024). Suffering from a psychiatric disorder was found to be associated with losing a family member in the conflict (p = .015), being 35.6% in patients with psychiatric diagnoses compared to 10.3% in those without losing a family member in the conflict (odds ratio (OR) =  .7, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.25-18.28). This study used a standardized tool for diagnosing psychiatric morbidity among refugees in Darfur to give as much as possible an actual description of the problems and psychiatric morbidity caused by human-made disasters. This study can help to lead to a more detailed and specific mental health service program much needed by this population. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. Psychiatric disorders in chronic daily headache: detection by means of the SCID interview

    OpenAIRE

    Puca, Francomichele; Guazzelli, Mario; Sciruicchio, Vittorio; Libro, Giuseppe; Sarchielli, Paola; Russo, Susanna; Alberti, Andrea; Zanchin, Giorgio; Schianchi, Cinzia; Verri, Anna Pia; Nappi, Giuseppe; Cerbo, Rosanna; Catarci, Teresa; Nider, Giorgio; Relja, Giuliano

    2000-01-01

    The identification of possible individual or/and environmental factors responsible for the chronic evolution of headache has represented a critical issue in recent years. The goal of this research was to enroll adult chronic daily headache (CDH) sufferers and to seek for psychiatric disorders, as possible transformation factor, by means of a complex neuropsychological investigation. The psychiatric evaluation was performed using the Structured Clinical Interview (SCID), according to the DSM-I...

  17. Schizoaffective Disorder in an acute psychiatric unit: Profile of users ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Schizoaffective Disorder is a controversial and poorly understood diagnosis. Experts disagree on whether it is a discrete disorder; whether it is on a spectrum between Bipolar Disorder and Schizophrenia or whether it even exists. Lack of individual research attention given to this disorder, changing diagnostic ...

  18. Risk of psychiatric disorders following gastroesophageal reflux disease: a nationwide population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Zi-Hong; Perng, Chin-Lin; Hu, Li-Yu; Lu, Ti; Chen, Pan-Ming; Yang, Albert C; Tsai, Shih-Jen; Huang, Yi-Shin; Chen, Hon-Jhe

    2015-09-01

    Recent studies have shown that the peripheral inflammation may cause the up-regulation of central nervous system inflammation and therefore possibly plays a vital role in the pathophysiology of subsequent psychiatric disorders. We explored the relationship between gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and the subsequent development of psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia as well as bipolar, depressive, anxiety, and sleep disorders. We investigated patients who were diagnosed with GERD according to the data in the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. A comparison cohort comprised patients without GERD who were matched according to age and sex. The incidence rate and the hazard ratios (HRs) of subsequent new-onset psychiatric disorders were calculated for both cohorts, based on the diagnoses of psychiatrists. The GERD cohort consisted of 3813 patients, and the comparison cohort comprised 15,252 matched control patients without GERD. The risks of depressive disorder (HR=3.37, 95% confidence interval [CI]=2.49-4.57), anxiety disorder (HR=2.99, 95% CI=2.12-4.22), and sleep disorder (HR=2.69, 95% CI=1.83-3.94), were higher in the GERD cohort than in the comparison cohort. In addition, the incidence of newly diagnosed depressive, anxiety, and sleep disorders remained significantly increased in all of the stratified follow-up durations (0-1, ≥1year). GERD may increase the risks of subsequent depressive, anxiety, and sleep disorders. These psychiatric disorders have a negative effect on people's quality of life. Clinicians should pay a particular attention to psychiatric comorbidities in GERD patients. Copyright © 2015 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Determinants of quality of life in children with psychiatric disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastiaansen, D.; Koot, H.M.; Ferdinand, R.F.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To assess factors that, in addition to childhood psychopathology, are associated with Quality of Life (QoL) in children with psychiatric problems. Methods: In a referred sample of 252 8 to 18-year-olds, information concerning QoL, psychopathology and a broad range of child, parent, and

  20. Common psychiatric disorders in glaucoma patients as seen at the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    month period and screened for general psychiatric morbidity, anxiety and depression using the SRQ-20 and HAD scales respectively. The male:female ratio of the group was 2.1:1 with a mean age of 57.3 years. The elderly population constituted ...

  1. Psychiatric Disorders and Personality Styles in Mothers of Female Adolescent Patients with Eating Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rost, Silke; Kappel, Viola; Salbach, Harriet; Schneider, Nora; Pfeiffer, Ernst; Lehmkuhl, Ulrike; Winter, Sibylle; Sarrar, Lea

    2017-09-01

    To provide further insight into the presently poorly understood role of familial psychopathology in the development of eating disorders (ED). The present study assesses psychiatric and personality disorders listed on Axis I and II of the DSM-IV in 27 mothers of adolescent patients with anorexia (AN mothers) and 14 bulimia nervosa (BN mothers) as well as 22 mentally healthy girls (CG mothers) on a categorical level. Furthermore, we conducted a dimensional diagnostic regarding personality styles and personality traits. AN and BN mothers showed increased rates of Axis I disorders, especially affective, substance use, and anxiety disorders. Differences on Axis II did not reach statistical significance. However, BN mothers showed higher occurrences of paranoid, negativistic, and schizotypal personality styles compared to the other groups. BN mothers further showed higher occurrences than CG mothers of the personality traits excitability, aggressiveness, physical complaints, openness, and emotionality. AN mothers differed significantly from CG mothers on the scale demands. Increased occurrence of psychopathology on both categorical and dimensional levels in mothers of patients with AN and BN supports the assumption of a familial accumulation of psychopathology in ED. Longitudinal studies and genetic analyses should clarify a possible cause-effect relationship and interactions between familial dynamics and adolescent ED.

  2. The Effectiveness of Internet-Based Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in Treatment of Psychiatric Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vikram; Sattar, Yasar; Bseiso, Anan; Khan, Sara; Rutkofsky, Ian H

    2017-08-29

    This review article is an overview of the effectiveness of internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy (ICBT) in the treatment of psychiatric disorders. ICBT's effectiveness has been investigated in treating and managing conditions like depression, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), panic disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), adjustment disorder, bipolar disorder, chronic pain, and phobias. ICBT's role in the treatment of medical conditions such as diabetes mellitus with comorbid psychiatric illnesses was also explored. Furthermore, this study elaborates on its cost-effectiveness and its impact in rural areas. We conducted a thorough literature search using PubMed and Google Scholar with no restrictions on the date. ICBT's role in treating and controlling psychiatric illnesses has been established in the literature. From the data compiled, we conclude that ICBT is useful in treating mental health and medical illnesses with psychiatric comorbidities. It has also been found to be cost-effective for patients and society. ICBT is a potential tool emerging with modern day technological advancements and is useful in rural and urban settings, across various languages and cultures, and on a global scale. Larger randomized control trials on its use in clinical practice and in reaching rural populations are bound to shed more light on the effectiveness of this tool along with spreading awareness among physician and patient communities.

  3. Disturbed sleep in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is not a question of psychiatric comorbidity or ADHD presentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Virring, Anne; Lambek, Rikke; Thomsen, Per H.

    2016-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a heterogeneous psychiatric disorder with three different presentations and high levels of psychiatric comorbidity. Serious sleep complaints are also common, but the role of the presentations and comorbidity in sleep is under-investigated in ADHD....... Consequently, the goal of the study was to investigate sleep problems in medicine-naive school-aged children (mean age = 9.6 years) with ADHD compared to controls using objective methods and to examine the role of comorbidity and presentations. Ambulatory polysomnography results suggested that children...... with ADHD (n = 76) had significantly more sleep disturbances than controls (n = 25), including a larger percentage of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and more sleep cycles, as well as lower mean sleep efficiency, mean non-REM (NREM) sleep stage 1 and mean NREM sleep stage 3. No significant between...

  4. An Epidemiological Study of Psychiatric Disorders in Lorestan Province (Year 2001

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    mohammad reza Mohammadi

    2004-01-01

    Findings: The results of the study showed that the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in the province was 19.05 percent, which was 23.81 percent in the women, and 14.29 percent in the men. The anxiety and mood disorders with 12.46 and 3.48 percent had the higher prevalence in the province respectively. The prevalence of psychotic disorders in this study was 1.48 percent, neuro-cognitive disorders were 1.47 percent and dissociative disorders 0.18 percent. In the group of mood disorders, major depression with 2.20 percent and in the group of anxiety disorders, generalized anxiety disorder with 5.68 percent had the higher prevalence. Conclusion: This study showed that 11.36 percent of individuals that studied suffered from minimum one of the psychiatric disorders. The prevalence of psychiatric disorders in the province among the individuals in the age group of 26-40 with 14.57 percent, divorced or separated individuals with 25 percent, residents of Khorramabad city 14.85 percent, higher educated individuals 19.51 percent and retired individuals 18.75 percent was more than other individuals in the sample. Being aware of this matter reveals the responsibility of the health policy makers and programmers, prevention, treatment and medical education more than before in relation to preparing application and executive plans in Lorestan province for mental health.

  5. [Contributions of cortisol suppression tests to understanding of psychiatric disorders: a narrative review of literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajima-Pozo, Kazuhiro; Montes-Montero, Ana; Güemes, Itziar; González-Vives, Sara; Díaz-Marsá, Marina; Carrasco, José Luis

    2013-01-01

    Activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis had been studied for the past half century, when some researchers noted that some patients with Cushing's syndrome and severe mood disorders had high baseline cortisol levels, which resulted in an inhibited response in the 1mg dexamethasone suppression test. Altered dexamethasone suppression test results were subsequently found in many psychiatric diseases, including anorexia nervosa, obsessive-compulsive disorder, degenerative dementia, bipolar disorders, and schizophrenia. The relationship between high baseline cortisol levels and stress has also been studied. Some researches on the genesis of borderline personality disorder focused on traumatic childhood backgrounds. Other investigations aimed at elucidating the relationship between traumatic backgrounds and some psychiatric disorders noted that patients with post-traumatic stress disorder and borderline personality disorder showed an enhanced cortisol suppression with low cortisol doses (0.5 mg). Recent studies showed that use of an ultra-low dose of cortisol during the dexamethasone suppression test may be helpful for detecting disorders with hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Recent advances in neuroimaging support the existence of hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in patients with borderline personality disorder, relating a decreased pituitary gland volume to major traumatic backgrounds and suicidal attempts. The purpose of this paper is to make a narrative review of research using dexamethasone suppression test in psychiatric disorders, in order to ascertain its value as a supplemental diagnostic test or as a prognostic marker. Copyright © 2012 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. Psychiatric disorders and their correlates among young adult MDMA users in Ohio.

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    Falck, Russel S; Carlson, Robert G; Wang, Jichuan; Siegal, Harvey A

    2006-03-01

    This study describes the lifetime prevalence, correlates, and age of onset of selected psychiatric disorders among a community sample of MDMA users (n = 402), aged 18 to 30, in Ohio. Participants responded to interviewer-administered questionnaires, including sections of the computerized Diagnostic Interview Schedule for DSM-IV. Fifty-five percent of the sample had at least one lifetime disorder, with major depression (35.3%) and antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) (25.4%) the most common. Proportionately more women were diagnosed with depression, generalized anxiety disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), while proportionately more men were diagnosed with ASPD. Proportionately more non-White participants had attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD). Higher levels of education were associated with proportionately less PTSD, ASPD, and AD/HD. Higher frequencies of MDMA use were associated with proportionately more ASPD and AD/HD. Comparing the age of first MDMA use with the age of onset for selected psychiatric disorders revealed that for most participants disorders preceded use. Multivariate analysis revealed participants with more than a high school education were less likely to have experienced a lifetime disorder, while those who had used MDMA more than 50 times were more likely. Variations in the prevalence of psychiatric disorders have practical implications for drug abuse prevention and treatment programs.

  7. [Prevalence of psychiatric disorders in patients with severe obesity waiting for bariatric surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Román, Sofía; López-Alvarenga, Juan Carlos; Vargas-Martínez, Angeles; Téllez-Zenteno, José Francisco; Vázquez-Velázquez, Verónica; Arcila-Martínez, Denise; González-Barranco, Jorge; Herrera-Hernández, Miguel F; Salín-Pascual, Rafael J

    2003-01-01

    Obesity is a chronic condition, in which different systems of the body are affected. There are some previous studies in which the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in extreme obese patients has been reported, but there are some methodological problems. As far as we know this is the first report of the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in obese patients that need to have a surgical treatment for this disorder in Mexico. The main goal of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors of psychiatric disorders in extreme obese patients candidates to bariatric surgery. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID) axis I disorders, were performed in 70 obese patients that will undergo for bariatric surgery. Also the medical files were reviewed in order to obtain the main medical conditions related to obesity. There were 25 men and 35 women in this study (average age +/- s.d = 39.0 +/- 10.4). The Body Mass Index (BMI) was 53.8 +/- 11.9. Sixty percent of the patients had some psychiatric disorder in the axis I of DSM-IV. The most frequent psychiatric problem that was observed was anxiety disorders. The main medical problems observed were: arterial hypertension (59%), diabetes mellitus type 2 (29%) and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (29%). The BMI and diabetes mellitus were associated with a lower risk for presenting a psychiatric disorder (for a BMI of 65.5 +/- 10.3 kg/m2: OR 0.26, CI 0.05-1.15, p = 0.04; for diabetes mellitus: OR 0.20, CI 0.03-1.05, p = 0.02). More than half of the patients had at least one psychiatric disorder in axis 1 of DSM-IV, related mostly to anxiety and mood disorders. Our findings point out the importance of psychiatric and psychological intervention in this group of patients, in which a follow up and adherence of medical, nutritional and psychological problems could be the difference, between a good or bad prognosis. Follow-up studies with obese patients after bariatric surgery, will be important to support our findings.

  8. Virtual Reality Objectifies the Diagnosis of Psychiatric Disorders: A Literature Review

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    Martine J. van Bennekom

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundTo date, a diagnosis in psychiatry is largely based on a clinical interview and questionnaires. The retrospective and subjective nature of these methods leads to recall and interviewer biases. Therefore, there is a clear need for more objective and standardized assessment methods to support the diagnostic process. The introduction of virtual reality (VR creates the possibility to simultaneously provoke and measure psychiatric symptoms. Therefore, VR could contribute to the objectivity and reliability in the assessment of psychiatric disorders.ObjectiveIn this literature review, we will evaluate the assessment of psychiatric disorders by means of VR environments. First, we investigate if these VR environments are capable of simultaneously provoking and measuring psychiatric symptoms. Next, we compare these measures with traditional diagnostic measures.MethodsWe performed a systematic search using PubMed, Embase, and Psycinfo; references of selected articles were checked for eligibility. We identified studies from 1990 to 2016 on VR used in the assessment of psychiatric disorders. Studies were excluded if VR was used for therapeutic purposes, if a different technique was used, or in case of limitation to a non-clinical sample.ResultsA total of 39 studies were included for further analysis. The disorders most frequently studied included schizophrenia (n = 15, developmental disorders (n = 12, eating disorders (n = 3, and anxiety disorders (n = 6. In attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, the most comprehensive measurement was used including several key symptoms of the disorder. Most of the studies, however, concerned the use of VR to assess a single aspect of a psychiatric disorder.DiscussionIn general, nearly all VR environments studied were able to simultaneously provoke and measure psychiatric symptoms. Furthermore, in 14 studies, significant correlations were found between VR measures and traditional diagnostic

  9. Reward circuitry dysfunction in psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders and genetic syndromes: animal models and clinical findings

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    Dichter Gabriel S

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This review summarizes evidence of dysregulated reward circuitry function in a range of neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders and genetic syndromes. First, the contribution of identifying a core mechanistic process across disparate disorders to disease classification is discussed, followed by a review of the neurobiology of reward circuitry. We next consider preclinical animal models and clinical evidence of reward-pathway dysfunction in a range of disorders, including psychiatric disorders (i.e., substance-use disorders, affective disorders, eating disorders, and obsessive compulsive disorders, neurodevelopmental disorders (i.e., schizophrenia, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorders, Tourette’s syndrome, conduct disorder/oppositional defiant disorder, and genetic syndromes (i.e., Fragile X syndrome, Prader–Willi syndrome, Williams syndrome, Angelman syndrome, and Rett syndrome. We also provide brief overviews of effective psychopharmacologic agents that have an effect on the dopamine system in these disorders. This review concludes with methodological considerations for future research designed to more clearly probe reward-circuitry dysfunction, with the ultimate goal of improved intervention strategies.

  10. Attachment, affective temperament, and personality disorders: a study of their relationships in psychiatric outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Kai; Berlow, Rustin; Thomas, Michael L

    2013-12-01

    As the result of extensive translational and cross-disciplinary research, attachment theory is now a construct with significant neuropsychiatric traction. The correlation of attachment with other influential conceptual models (i.e. temperament and personality) is therefore of interest. Consequently, we explored how two attachment dimensions (attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance) correlated with measures of temperament and personality in 357 psychiatric outpatients. We performed a retrospective review of four questionnaires (the Experiences in Close Relationship scale (ECR-R), Temperament and Character inventory (TCI), Temperament Evaluation of the Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego questionnaire (TEMPS-A), and Personality Self-Portrait Questionnaire (PSQ)). Frequency measures and correlations were examined, as was the predictive value of attachment security for a personality disorder (PD). Significant, robust correlations were found between attachment anxiety and (1) several negative affective temperaments (dysthymic and cyclothymic); (2) several indices of personality pathology (low self-directedness (TCI), DSM-IV paranoid, borderline, histrionic, avoidant and dependent personality traits). Attachment avoidance had fewer large correlations. In an exploratory model, the negative predictive value of attachment security for a PD was 86%. Subjects were a relatively homogeneous subset of ambulatory psychiatric outpatients. PD diagnoses were via self-report. Clinically, these findings highlight the significant overlap between attachment, affective temperament, and personality and support the value of attachment as a screen for PDs. More broadly, given our growing understanding of the neurobiology of attachment (i.e. links with the oxytocin system), these results raise interesting questions about underlying biological systems and psychiatric treatment. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Psychiatric Disorders in Young Adults Diagnosed with Juvenile Fibromyalgia in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Natoshia Raishevich; Tran, Susan T; Lynch-Jordan, Anne M; Ting, Tracy V; Sil, Soumitri; Strotman, Daniel; Noll, Jennie G; Powers, Sco